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Sample records for continental margin offshore

  1. French Extended Continental Shelf Mapping: example of new continental margin understanding offshore French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Walter; Loubrieu, Benoit; Loncke, Lies; Basile, Christophe; Graindorge, David; Shipboard Party, Guyaplac

    2017-04-01

    Under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Coastal States can extend sovereign rights over the natural resources of the Continental Shelf beyond 200 nautical miles (M) if they can demonstrate that their continental margin extends beyond this distance from the coast. Article 76 of the Convention defines the continental shelf and includes geomorphological and geological criteria to claim such a shelf beyond 200 M. Since 2006, France has filed 7 submissions for a total of 10 distinct geographic regions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf that was established by the Convention to examine those claims, and make recommendations with respect to the justification of the outer limits of the continental shelf. To support the French submissions, a significant effort was employed in acquiring new marine geophysical and geological data and compiling existing data along the deep water parts of the continental margins offshore all the French overseas territories. In this presentation, we will discuss the example of French Guiana, where the data collected for the purpose of fulfilling the obligation under the Convention to submit data and information to the Commission within a 10 year time frame have led to new understanding of the transform continental margin and the Demerara Plateau located to the north of French Guiana and Surinam. In addition, the data collected for this purpose have led to new scientific questions and have encouraged new and enhanced scientific collaboration between French government organizations and the academic community. Follow up research and scientific cruises that will be presented in separate communications have addressed sedimentary processes including contourites, giant comet tail like depressions probably associated with the strong bottom currents observed along the continental slope and potentially related to pockmarks, as well as giant submarine landslides. Most recently, multichannel reflection and wide angle

  2. H/V spectral ratios of the continental margin sediments offshore southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Yi; Cheng, Win-Bin; Chin, Shao-Jinn; Hsu, Shu-Kun

    2015-04-01

    For decades, it has been mentioned that submarine slope failures are spatially linked to the presence of gas hydrates/gas-charged sediments. When triggered by earthquakes, over steepen and instable sediments may prompt breakouts of the slopes containing gas hydrates and cause submarine landslides and tsunamis. Widely distributed BSRs have been observed in the area offshore of southwestern Taiwan where the active accretionary complex meets with the passive China continental margin. In the region, large or small scale landslides were also reported based on seismic interpretations. In order to clarify the link between earthquake, landslide and the presence of gas hydrate, we evaluate the response of seafloor sediments in regard to passive dynamic loads. Horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratios are used to characterize the local sediment response. Ambient noise as well as distant earthquake is used as generators of the passive dynamic loads. Based on this study, we aim to characterize the site in terms of its physical properties and the local site effect produced by shallow marine sediments. Estimating H/V spectral ratios of data recorded by the short period OBSs (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) deployed in the active and paqssive margin offshore southwestern Taiwan show similar spectral characteristics and provide a general understanding of the preferential vibration modes of sediment systems. The results show that the maximal H/V ratios appeared in the range of 5-10 Hz, where the horizontal amplitudes increased by an order of magnitude relative to the vertical amplitude. The stations located in the northwestern part of study area were characterized by another relatively small peak at proximately 2 Hz, which may indicates the presence of a discontinuity of sediments. For most stations, the H/V ratios estimated based on the earthquakes (i.e. strong input signal) and noise (background, micro-seismic noise) records were characterized by different pattern. No distinct peak

  3. Multiphased extension along continental margins: a case study of the Porcupine Basin, offshore Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulois, Cédric; Shannon, Patrick, M.; Manuel, Pubellier; Nicolas, Chamot-Rooke; Louise, Watremez; Jacques, Deverchère

    2017-04-01

    Mesozoic faulting has been recognised in several Irish sedimentary basins as part of the northward propagation of the Atlantic rift system. However, the contribution of older structural elements remains poorly constrained. The present study documents the succession of extensional phases in the northern part of the Porcupine Basin sensu largo, offshore west of Ireland, in which structural inheritance and fault reactivation is commonly observed. The correlation of 2D and 3D seismic lines with exploration wells enables the precise definition of four overprinted extensional systems that link to specific tectonic stages identified along the Irish margin. The Porcupine Basin opened through a thickened continental crust that evolved during the Palaeozoic with the Caledonian and Variscan orogenic cycles. Extension initiated during the Carboniferous by reactivation of old structures, resulting in the migration of depocentres bounded by E-W, NE-SW and N-S structural trends. Subsequent episodic rifting occurred during several discrete events. The first rift episode, of Late Triassic to Early Jurassic age, is restricted to the North Porcupine Basin and most likely reactivated E-W structures of Caledonian age. Synrift sediments were generally deposited in a littoral setting that progressively deepened through time. The second episode, much more pronounced, occurred during the Upper Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous (Neocomian). It resulted in shallow to deep marine deposition controlled by structural directions recognised in Caledonian and Variscan terranes. A third rift phase, evidenced by thick clastic deposition, locally occurred during the Aptian and finally died out with the opening of the Bay of Biscay located to the south of the region. A series of extensional megacycles are recognised from seismic unconformities and faulting geometries. Initial extension strongly followed the structural architecture of the continental crust (i.e. ancient folds, thrusts or orogenic fronts

  4. Authigenic carbonates in the sediments of Goa offshore basin, western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kocherla, M.

    Euhedral crystals (approx. 1 mm) of authigenic carbonates are identified in 5 m long sediment cores collected from the western continental margin of India in water depths between 2665 and 3070 m. Low-Mg calcite and aragonite are the dominant...

  5. Structure of the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary Onshore and Offshore the California Continental Margin from Three-Dimensional Seismic Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, C. D.; Escobar, L., Sr.; Rathnayaka, S.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Kohler, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    The California continental margin, a major transform plate boundary in continental North America, is the locus of complex tectonic stress fields that are important in interpreting both remnant and ongoing deformational strain. Ancient subduction of the East Pacific Rise spreading center, the rotation and translation of tectonic blocks and inception of the San Andreas fault all contribute to the dynamic stress fields located both onshore and offshore southern California. Data obtained by the ALBACORE (Asthenospheric and Lithospheric Broadband Architecture from the California Offshore Region Experiment) and the CISN (California Integrated Seismic Network) seismic array are analyzed for azimuthal anisotropy of Rayleigh waves from 80 teleseismic events at periods 16 - 78 s. Here we invert Rayleigh wave data for shear wave velocity structure and three-dimensional seismic anisotropy in the thee regions designated within the continental margin including the continent, seafloor and California Borderlands. Preliminary results show that seismic anisotropy is resolved in multiple layers and can be used to determine the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) in offshore and continental regions. The oldest seafloor in our study at age 25-35 Ma indicates that the anisotropic transition across the LAB occurs at 73 km +/- 25 km with the lithospheric fast direction oriented WNW-ESE, consistent with current Pacific plate motion direction. The continent region west of the San Andreas indicates similar WNW-ESE anisotropy and LAB depth. Regions east of the San Andreas fault indicate NW-SE anisotropy transitioning to a N-S alignment at 80 km depth north of the Garlock fault. The youngest seafloor (15 - 25 Ma) and outer Borderlands indicate a more complex three layer fabric where shallow lithospheric NE-SW fast directions are perpendicular with ancient Farallon subduction arc, a mid-layer with E-W fast directions are perpendicular to remnant fossil fabric, and the deepest layer

  6. Cenozoic sedimentation in the Mumbai Offshore Basin: Implications for tectonic evolution of the western continental margin of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Nisha; Pandey, Dhananjai K.

    2018-02-01

    Interpretation of multichannel seismic reflection data along the Mumbai Offshore Basin (MOB) revealed the tectonic processes that led to the development of sedimentary basins during Cenozoic evolution. Structural interpretation along three selected MCS profiles from MOB revealed seven major sedimentary sequences (∼3.0 s TWT, thick) and the associated complex fault patterns. These stratigraphic sequences are interpreted to host detritus of syn- to post rift events during rift-drift process. The acoustic basement appeared to be faulted with interspaced intrusive bodies. The sections also depicted the presence of slumping of sediments, subsidence, marginal basins, rollover anticlines, mud diapirs etc accompanied by normal to thrust faults related to recent tectonics. Presence of upthrusts in the slope region marks the locations of local compression during collision. Forward gravity modeling constrained with results from seismic and drill results, revealed that the crustal structure beneath the MOB has undergone an extensional type tectonics intruded with intrusive bodies. Results from the seismo-gravity modeling in association with litholog data from drilled wells from the western continental margin of India (WCMI) are presented here.

  7. Textures of water-rich mud sediments from the continental margin offshore Costa Rica (IODP expeditions 334 and 344)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Rebecca; Stipp, Michael; Leiss, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    During sedimentation and burial at continental margins, clay-rich sediments develop crystallographic preferred orientations (textures) depending on the ongoing compaction as well as size distribution and shape fabrics of the grains. Such textures can control the deformational properties of these sediments and hence the strain distribution in active continental margins and also the frictional behavior along and around the plate boundary. Strain-hardening and discontinuous deformation may lead to earthquake nucleation at or below the updip limit of the seismogenic zone. We want to investigate the active continental margin offshore Costa Rica where the oceanic Cocos plate is subducted below the Caribbean plate at a rate of approximately 9 cm per year. The Costa Rica trench is well-known for shallow seismogenesis and tsunami generation. As it is an erosive continental margin, both the incoming sediments from the Nazca plate as well as the slope sediments of the continental margin can be important for earthquake nucleation and faulting causing sea-floor breakage. To investigate texture and composition of the sediments and hence their deformational properties we collected samples from varying depth of 7 different drilling locations across the trench retrieved during IODP expeditions 334 and 344 as part of the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP). Texture analysis was carried out by means of synchrotron diffraction, as only this method is suitable for water-bearing samples. As knowledge on the sediment composition is required as input parameter for the texture data analysis, additional X-ray powder diffraction analysis on the sample material has been carried out. Samples for texture measurements were prepared from the original drill cores using an internally developed cutter which allows to produce cylindrical samples with a diameter of about 1.5 cm. The samples are oriented with respect to the drill core axis. Synchrotron texture measurements were conducted at the

  8. Origin of Volcanic Seamounts Offshore California Related to Interaction of Abandoned Spreading Centers with the Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A. S.; Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Cousens, B. L.; Huard, J.

    2007-12-01

    The numerous NE-SW trending volcanic seamounts at the continental margin offshore central to Southern California owe their existence to the complex tectonics that resulted when small spreading ridge segments intersected and partly subducted beneath the continental margin during the Miocene plate reorganization. A limited number of dredged samples had indicated multiple episodes of coeval, alkalic volcanism at geographically widely separated sites (Davis et al., 2002, GSA Bull. 114, 316-333). 450 new samples were collected from 8 seamounts from 37. 5°N to 32.3°N with MBARI's ROV Tiburon. Ar-Ar ages for 50 of these samples extend the ages of volcanism from 18 Ma to 2.8 Ma. The dominant whole rock compositions are differentiated alkalic basalt, hawaiite, and mugearite, but include minor benmoreite, trachyte, and rare tholeiitic basalt. This entire range of compositions is also present in glassy margins or in volcaniclastic breccias, except for the trachyte, which had no glassy margins. Trace element abundances and ratios (e.g. REE, Zr, Nb, Ta, Th, Ba, etc.) are typical for ocean island basalt, whether the seamount is located on the Pacific plate (e.g. Pioneer, Gumdrop, Guide, Davidson, San Juan, San Marcos) or on the continental slope (Rodriguez) or within the Southern Continental Borderland (Northeast Bank). Nine samples, predominantly from Rodriguez Seamount, show a calc-alkaline trend with lower Nb, Ta, and higher Th. These samples may be erratics (Paduan et al., 2007, Marine Geology, in press). Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions plot within the Pacific N-MORB field for the northern seamounts (Pioneer, Gumdrop, Guide) but suggest progressively more radiogenic sources southward. There is considerable scatter at each site, especially with regard to 87Sr/86Sr, despite severe acid-leaching of the samples. Isotopic and trace element compositions indicate sources that are heterogeneous at a small scale. Chondrite-normalized Ce/Yb suggest smaller degree of melting and

  9. Tectono-stratigraphic analysis of the Malvinas Basin, offshore the southernmost Argentinean continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baristeas, N.; Anka, Z.; di Primio, R.; Rodriguez, J. F.; Marchal, D.; Dominguez, F.

    2012-04-01

    A detailed tectono-stratigraphic analysis of the Malvinas Basin development, located offshore the Argentinean margin, was carried out. This was achieved through the interpretation of around 65,000 km of 2D seismic reflection profiles, spanning a dense grid on the shelf and the upper-slope of the basin. Five main seismo-stratigraphic units and their sub-units, informally named U1 to U5 a/b, bound by major unconformities were identified and correlated with the Mesozoic to Cenozoic main tectonic phases of the basin. U1 (Pre-168 Ma) represents the seismic basement and deepens gradually southwards. U2 (168-150.5 Ma, syn rift phase) fills regional depressions, onlapping the basement, and it thickens and deepens southwards. U1 and U2 are affected by several syn-rift normal faults, which have a main NE-SW strike direction in the south of the basin and a NW-SE strike direction in the centre of the basin. This suggests that the Malvinas Basin may have been developed initially as a rift basin with two different extensional directions. (1) a NW-SE directed extension probably linked with the opening of the Weddell Sea (Early Mid-Jurassic) and (2) a NE-SW directed extension most likely linked with the opening of the South Atlantic during Mid-Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. U3 (150.5-68 Ma, sag phase) is mainly an aggradational wedge-shaped unit. Some syn-rift faults continue into the Cretaceous. Sedimentation in this unit is mainly derived from the north and during Mid-Cretaceous also from the northeast, as documented by the presence of a southwestward prograding sedimentary fan located in the northeast of the basin. U4 (68-42.5 Ma, transtensional foredeep phase) overlies unconformly U3 and thickens to the south. Sediment input decreases dramatically during that time and only a thin sedimentary succession was deposited over the entire basin. Although a regional compressional regime is established from late Cretaceous to Cenozoic due to the Andean orogenesis, an extensional regime

  10. A potential phosphorite deposit on the continental margin off Chennai

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Rao, K.M.; Vora, K.H.; Almeida, F.; Subramaniam, M.M.; Souza, C.G.A.

    The geochemistry and mineralogy of the potential phospharite deposits recovered from the continental margin off Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India) and their comparison with other offshore phosphorites is given. The phosphorites recovered are classified...

  11. Elemental distributions in surficial sediments and potential offshore mineral resources from the western continental margin of India. Part 2. Potential offshore mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A; Mascarenhas, A; Rao, Ch.M.; PrakashBabu, C.; Murty, P.S.N.

    patterns of ten selected elements is surficial sediments. Part 2 projects the potential offshore mineral resources. Target areas for future exploration and indicated and exploration strategies are recommended. Appendix 1 is a compilation of the bibliography...

  12. Occurrence of gas hydrates along the continental margins of India, particularly the Krishna-Godavari offshore basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Desa, M.

    and Paull [56] expressed similar views about geohazards. With mankind’s increasing interest in the deeper offshore areas (search for oil and gas), the stabil- ity of the seafloor becomes increasingly important for any engineering structure. The gas saturated... stream_size 60911 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Int_J_Environ_Stud_64_675.pdf.txt stream_source_info Int_J_Environ_Stud_64_675.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Downloaded...

  13. Synthesis of deep multichannel seismic and high resolution sparker data: Implications for the geological environment of the Krishna–Godavari offshore, Eastern Continental Margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Goli, A.; Desa, M.; Ramprasad, T.; Dewangan, P.

    of gas hydrates in its offshore triggered detailed exploration measures adopting advanced seismic data acquisition techniques supported by deep drilling to understand its genesis. Interpretation of Multichannel Seismic (MCS) sections highlighted several...

  14. The basins on the Argentine continental margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urien, C.M. [Buenos Aires Technological Institute Petroleum School, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1996-08-01

    After the stabilization of the central Gondwana Craton, orogenic belts were accreted, as a result of convergence events and an extensive passive margin developed in southwestern Gondwana. Thermal subsidence in Parana, Karoo-Ventania basins and the Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic rifts, were modified by the Gondwana breakup and the South Atlantic opening. Early Paleozoic marine transgressions deposited the Table Mountain Group in Ventania. In southwestern Patagonia foreland clastics were deposited. Magmatic arcs and marine units indicate a tectonic trough was formed, alternating with continental sequences, over Late Paleozoic metamorphics and intrusives, resulting from plastered terrains along the Gondwana margin. In Patagonia, Permo-Carboniferous continental and glacio marine clastics infill the basins, while in Ventania, paralic sequences, grade from neritic to continental to the northeast, extending beneath the continental margin. The Triassic-Jurassic rift basins progressed onto regional widespread acid lavas and were infilled by lagoonal organic-rich sequences. Early drift phase built basins transverse to the margin, with fluvio-lacustrine sequences: Salado, Colorado, Valdes-Rawson, San Julian and North Malvinas intracratonic basins, which underwent transtensional faulting. Post-Oxfordian to Neocomian brackish sequences, onlapped the conjugate basins during the margin`s drift, with petroleum systems, as in Austral and Malvinas. In the Valanginian, basic extrusions commenced to form on the continental border, heralding the oceanic phase. Due to thermal subsidence, offlaping sediments prograded onto the remaining half-grabens. Several petroleum systems, proven and hypothetical, are identified in this region.

  15. Dynamics of the continental margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    On 18--20 June 1990, over 70 oceanographers conducting research in the ocean margins of North America attended a workshop in Virginia Beach, Virginia. The purpose of the workshop was to provide the Department of Energy with recommendations for future research on the exchange of energy-related materials between the coastal and interior ocean and the relationship between the ocean margins and global change. The workshop was designed to optimize the interaction of scientists from specific research disciplines (biology, chemistry, physics and geology) as they developed hypotheses, research questions and topics and implementation plans. The participants were given few restraints on the research they proposed other than realistic time and monetary limits. The interdisciplinary structure of the meeting promoted lively discussion and creative research plans. The meeting was divided into four working groups based on lateral, vertical, air/sea and sediment/water processes. Working papers were prepared and distributed before the meeting. During the meeting the groups revised the papers and added recommendations that appear in this report, which was reviewed by an Executive Committee.

  16. Digital data for sediment thickness in the deep-sea basins of the Pacific continental margin based on 1984 surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Contours of sediment thickness for the deep-sea basins of the Pacific continental margin offshore of Washington, Oregon, and California were were interpreted from...

  17. Paleogene continental margin truncation in southwestern Mexico: Geochronological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Peter; MoráN-Zenteno, Dante; HernáNdez-Bernal, Maria Del Sol; SolíS-Pichardo, Gabriela; Tolson, Gustavo; KöHler, Hermann

    1995-12-01

    The reasons for, and mechanisms of, continental margin truncation in SW Mexico where Mesozoic-Cenozoic plutons are situated directly on the Pacific coast, are not yet well understood. Large-scale dextral and/or sinistral displacements of the continental margin terranes, now forming parts of Baja California or the Chortis block, have been proposed. The well-defined along-coast NW-SE decreasing granitoid intrusion age trend (˜1.2 cm/yr in the 100 Ma-40 Ma time interval) between Puerto Vallarta and Zihuatanejo is interpreted by us to be a geometric artifact of oblique continental margin truncation rather than the consequence of a sinistral offset of the Chortis block from those latitudes toward the SE. Changes in the dip and velocity of the NNW-SSE trending Cretaceous-Tertiary subduction zone resulted in a landward migration of the magmatic arc. Taking into account certain stratigraphic affinities of Chortis and the Oaxaca and Mixteca terranes, together with the known displacement rates along the North America-Caribbean Plate boundary, the northwesternmost paleoposition of the Chortis block with respect to SW Mexico was near Zihuatanejo. In contrast, between Zihuatanejo and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, the cessation of the Tertiary magmatism decreased more rapidly (˜7.7 cm/yr), although the trend is not so obvious. Starting in the late Eocene, Chortis moved about 1100 km to the SE along a transform boundary associated with the opening of the Cayman Trough. Based on our geochronological data and structural relationships between mylonite zones and plutons in the Acapulco-Tehuantepec area, we propose an approximately 650 km SE movement of Chortis from about 40-25 Ma, with a velocity of 6.5-4.3 cm/yr. Since this is considerably slower than the decreasing age trend obtained by us using the geochronological data, we consider batholith formation in this segment to predate and postdate the offshore passage of the North America-Farallon-Caribbean triple junction. Geological

  18. Digital data for depth to basement in the deep-sea basins of the Pacific continental margin (cowbsm) based on data collected in 1984.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital vector data for the contours of depth to basement for the deep-sea basins of the Pacific continental margin offshore of Washington, Oregon, and California....

  19. Extensive Margins of Offshoring and Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    This paper derives new comparative statics within a two-country version of the recent offshoring model by Antràs, Fort, and Tintelnot (2014) with nonprohibitive costs of exporting final goods. One key finding is that an asymmetric trade liberalisation might very well imply that the fractions...... of offshorers and exporters increase in one country and decrease in the other country. This model outcome occurs when competition enhances in a country experiencing a decline in its costs of international trade. The fractions of offshorers and exporters certainly increase in a small open economy experiencing...

  20. Transform continental margins - part 1: Concepts and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Christophe

    2015-10-01

    This paper reviews the geodynamic concepts and models related to transform continental margins, and their implications on the structure of these margins. Simple kinematic models of transform faulting associated with continental rifting and oceanic accretion allow to define three successive stages of evolution, including intra-continental transform faulting, active transform margin, and passive transform margin. Each part of the transform margin experiences these three stages, but the evolution is diachronous along the margin. Both the duration of each stage and the cumulated strike-slip deformation increase from one extremity of the margin (inner corner) to the other (outer corner). Initiation of transform faulting is related to the obliquity between the trend of the lithospheric deformed zone and the relative displacement of the lithospheric plates involved in divergence. In this oblique setting, alternating transform and divergent plate boundaries correspond to spatial partitioning of the deformation. Both obliquity and the timing of partitioning influence the shape of transform margins. Oblique margin can be defined when oblique rifting is followed by oblique oceanic accretion. In this case, no transform margin should exist in the prolongation of the oceanic fracture zones. Vertical displacements along transform margins were mainly studied to explain the formation of marginal ridges. Numerous models were proposed, one of the most used is being based on thermal exchanges between the oceanic and the continental lithospheres across the transform fault. But this model is compatible neither with numerical computation including flexural behavior of the lithosphere nor with timing of vertical displacements and the lack of heating related to the passing of the oceanic accretion axis as recorded by the Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana marginal ridge. Enhanced models are still needed. They should better take into account the erosion on the continental slope, and the level of coupling

  1. Slumping on the western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.; Mohan, R.; Muralinath, A.S.

    A short gravity core from the Western Continental Margin of India has been examined to understand the nature and characteristics of slumping in the area. The present study and also the earlier studies revealed that the slumping on the western...

  2. Lithologic Descriptions from the Continental Margin Program (HATHLITH71 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains lithologic information on bottom sediments from the Continental Margin Program. The program was a joint collaboration between the U.S....

  3. Textural Data from the Continental Margin Program (HATHAWAY71 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains sediment grain size and textural information from the Continental Margin Program. The program was a joint collaboration between the U.S....

  4. U.S. East Coast Continental Margin (CONMAR) Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The USGS/WHOI Continental Margin (CONMAR) Data set was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution as a joint program of...

  5. Crustal growth at active continental margins: Numerical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Katharina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370618947; Gerya, Taras; Castro, Antonio

    The dynamics and melt sources for crustal growth at active continental margins are analyzed by using a 2D coupled petrological–thermomechanical numerical model of an oceanic-continental subduction zone. This model includes spontaneous slab retreat and bending, dehydration of subducted crust, aqueous

  6. Exploration of the continental margins of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Hashimi, N.H.; Vora, K.H.; Pathak, M.C.

    impetus from sponsored surveys of other organizations, chiefly the oil industry, ports and harbours as well as industries disposing of their effluents in the marine environment. By now the entire western continental shelf and a large part...

  7. Reactivation of Precambrian faults on the southwestern continental margin of India: Evidence from gravity anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Ramana, M. V.; Rao, D. Gopala

    1993-03-01

    Gravimetric and bathymetric studies on the southwestern continental margin of India confirm the extension of onshore NW-SE-, NNW-SSE-, N-S-, NE-SW-, ENE-WSW- and E-W-trending lineaments of Precambrian age over a considerable distance into the offshore region. The bight in the bathymetry off Coondapoor the offsets of Bessas de Pedro bank and the Cora Divh Island of the Laccadive group, the Prathap Ridge, and the inferred mid-shelf basement ridge suggest block movements on the southwestern continental margin. The physiographic expression on the Prathap Ridge (around 14° 20' N and 72° 50' E) is unaffected by some of the ENE-WSW lineaments, which probably indicates that these lineaments predate, the evolution of the topographic expression. As seafloor spreading advanced with respect to the Carlsberg Ridge, some of the ENE-WSW and NE-SW lineaments on the western continental margin appear to have been reactivated, and block movements took place. The presence of a basement ridge in the mid-shelf and the shelf margin basement high (Prathap Ridge) west of the slope resembles the structural style of a passive continental margin.

  8. Continental margin of Andhra Pradesh: Some new problems and perspectives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.

    The continental margin of Andhra Pradesh from Nellore (14°N) in the south to Baruva (around 19°N) in the north can be classified into two major parts, viz., the non-basinal, Baruva - Visakhapatnam - Kakinada margin and the basinal part comprising...

  9. Comparative biogeochemistry-ecosystem-human interactions on dynamic continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lisa A.; Liu, Kon-Kee; Emeis, Kay-Christian; Breitburg, Denise L.; Cloern, James; Deutsch, Curtis; Giani, Michele; Goffart, Anne; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Lachkar, Zouhair; Limburg, Karin; Liu, Su-Mei; Montes, Enrique; Naqvi, Wajih; Ragueneau, Olivier; Rabouille, Christophe; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Swaney, Dennis P.; Wassman, Paul; Wishner, Karen F.

    2014-01-01

    The ocean’s continental margins face strong and rapid change, forced by a combination of direct human activity, anthropogenic CO2-induced climate change, and natural variability. Stimulated by discussions in Goa, India at the IMBER IMBIZO III, we (1) provide an overview of the drivers of biogeochemical variation and change on margins, (2) compare temporal trends in hydrographic and biogeochemical data across different margins (3) review ecosystem responses to these changes, (4) highlight the importance of margin time series for detecting and attributing change and (5) examine societal responses to changing margin biogeochemistry and ecosystems. We synthesize information over a wide range of margin settings in order to identify the commonalities and distinctions among continental margin ecosystems. Key drivers of biogeochemical variation include long-term climate cycles, CO2-induced warming, acidification, and deoxygenation, as well as sea level rise, eutrophication, hydrologic and water cycle alteration, changing land use, fishing, and species invasion. Ecosystem responses are complex and impact major margin services including primary production, fisheries production, nutrient cycling, shoreline protection, chemical buffering, and biodiversity. Despite regional differences, the societal consequences of these changes are unarguably large and mandate coherent actions to reduce, mitigate and adapt to multiple stressors on continental margins.

  10. Comparative biogeochemistry-ecosystem-human interactions on dynamic continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lisa A.; Liu, Kon-Kee; Emeis, Kay-Christian; Breitburg, Denise L.; Cloern, James; Deutsch, Curtis; Giani, Michele; Goffart, Anne; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Lachkar, Zouhair; Limburg, Karin; Liu, Su-Mei; Montes, Enrique; Naqvi, Wajih; Ragueneau, Olivier; Rabouille, Christophe; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Swaney, Dennis P.; Wassman, Paul; Wishner, Karen F.

    2015-01-01

    The oceans' continental margins face strong and rapid change, forced by a combination of direct human activity, anthropogenic CO2-induced climate change, and natural variability. Stimulated by discussions in Goa, India at the IMBER IMBIZO III, we (1) provide an overview of the drivers of biogeochemical variation and change on margins, (2) compare temporal trends in hydrographic and biogeochemical data across different margins, (3) review ecosystem responses to these changes, (4) highlight the importance of margin time series for detecting and attributing change and (5) examine societal responses to changing margin biogeochemistry and ecosystems. We synthesize information over a wide range of margin settings in order to identify the commonalities and distinctions among continental margin ecosystems. Key drivers of biogeochemical variation include long-term climate cycles, CO2-induced warming, acidification, and deoxygenation, as well as sea level rise, eutrophication, hydrologic and water cycle alteration, changing land use, fishing, and species invasion. Ecosystem responses are complex and impact major margin services. These include primary production, fisheries production, nutrient cycling, shoreline protection, chemical buffering, and biodiversity. Despite regional differences, the societal consequences of these changes are unarguably large and mandate coherent actions to reduce, mitigate and adapt to multiple stressors on continental margins.

  11. Voltage margin control for offshore multi-use platform integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mier, V.; Casielles, P.G.; Koto, J.

    terminal VSC-MTDC which includes offshore generation, storage, loads and ac connection, was modeled and simulated in DigSILENT Power Factory software. Voltage margin method has been used for reliable operation of the MTDC system without the need of fast communication. Simulation results show...

  12. Subduction-driven recycling of continental margin lithosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A; Bezada, M J; Niu, F; Humphreys, E D; Palomeras, I; Thurner, S M; Masy, J; Schmitz, M; Gallart, J; Carbonell, R; Miller, M S

    2014-11-13

    Whereas subduction recycling of oceanic lithosphere is one of the central themes of plate tectonics, the recycling of continental lithosphere appears to be far more complicated and less well understood. Delamination and convective downwelling are two widely recognized processes invoked to explain the removal of lithospheric mantle under or adjacent to orogenic belts. Here we relate oceanic plate subduction to removal of adjacent continental lithosphere in certain plate tectonic settings. We have developed teleseismic body wave images from dense broadband seismic experiments that show higher than expected volumes of anomalously fast mantle associated with the subducted Atlantic slab under northeastern South America and the Alboran slab beneath the Gibraltar arc region; the anomalies are under, and are aligned with, the continental margins at depths greater than 200 kilometres. Rayleigh wave analysis finds that the lithospheric mantle under the continental margins is significantly thinner than expected, and that thin lithosphere extends from the orogens adjacent to the subduction zones inland to the edges of nearby cratonic cores. Taking these data together, here we describe a process that can lead to the loss of continental lithosphere adjacent to a subduction zone. Subducting oceanic plates can viscously entrain and remove the bottom of the continental thermal boundary layer lithosphere from adjacent continental margins. This drives surface tectonics and pre-conditions the margins for further deformation by creating topography along the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. This can lead to development of secondary downwellings under the continental interior, probably under both South America and the Gibraltar arc, and to delamination of the entire lithospheric mantle, as around the Gibraltar arc. This process reconciles numerous, sometimes mutually exclusive, geodynamic models proposed to explain the complex oceanic-continental tectonics of these subduction zones.

  13. Trophic state of benthic deep-sea ecosystems from two different continental margins off Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dell'Anno

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The bioavailability of organic matter in benthic deep-sea ecosystems, commonly used to define their trophic state, can greatly influence key ecological processes such as biomass production and nutrient cycling. Here, we assess the trophic state of deep-sea sediments from open slopes and canyons of the Catalan (NW Mediterranean and Portuguese (NE Atlantic continental margins, offshore east and west Iberia, respectively, by using a biomimetic approach based on enzymatic digestion of protein and carbohydrate pools. Patterns of sediment trophic state were analyzed in relation to increasing water depth, including repeated samplings over a 3 yr period in the Catalan margin. Two out of the three sampling periods occurred a few months after dense shelf water cascading events. The benthic deep-sea ecosystems investigated in this study were characterized by high amounts of bioavailable organic matter when compared to other deep-sea sediments. Bioavailable organic matter and its nutritional value were significantly higher in the Portuguese margin than in the Catalan margin, thus reflecting differences in primary productivity of surface waters reported for the two regions. Similarly, sediments of the Catalan margin were characterized by significantly higher food quantity and quality in spring, when the phytoplankton bloom occurs in surface waters, than in summer and autumn. Differences in the benthic trophic state of canyons against open slopes were more evident in the Portuguese than in the Catalan margin. In both continental margins, bioavailable organic C concentrations did not vary or increase with increasing water depth. Overall, our findings suggest that the intensity of primary production processes along with the lateral transfer of organic particles, even amplified by episodic events, can have a role in controlling the quantity and distribution of bioavailable organic detritus and its nutritional value along these continental margin ecosystems.

  14. Ooid turbidites from the Central Western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    Gravity displaced debris flows/turbidites have been observed in five box cores collected between water depths of 649 and 3,627 m from the Central Western continental margin of India. Studies on grain size, carbonate content, and coarse fraction...

  15. Early diagenesis of phosphorus in continental margin sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, C.P.

    1997-01-01

    Most of the organic material in the oceans that reaches the sea floor is deposited on continental margins and not in the deep sea. This organic matter is the principal carrier of phosphorus (P) to sediments. A part of the organic material is buried definitely. The other part decomposes,

  16. Deep sea sedimentation processes and geomorphology: Northwest Atlantic continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David; Campbell, Calvin; Gardner, Jim; Chaytor, Jason; Piper, David; Rebesco, Michele

    2017-04-01

    Deep-sea sedimentation processes impart a fundamental control on the morphology of the western North Atlantic continental margin from Blake Spur to Hudson Strait. This fact is illustrated by the variable patterns of cross-margin gradients that are based on extensive new multibeam echo-sounder data informed by subbottom profiler and seismic reflection data. Erosion by off-shelf sediment transport in turbidity currents creates gullies, canyons and channels and a steep upper slope. Amalgamation of these conduits produces singular channels and turbidite fan complexes on the lower slope, flattening slope-profile gradients. The effect is an exponentially decaying "graded" slope profile. Comparatively, sediment mass failure produces steeper upper slopes due to head scarp development and a wedging architecture to the lower slope as deposits thin in the downslope direction. This process results in either a "stepped" slope, and/or a significant downslope gradient change where MTDs pinch out. Large drift deposits created by geostrophic currents are developed all along the margin. Blake Ridge, Sackville Spur, and Hamilton Spur are large detached drifts on disparate parts of the margin. They form a linear "above grade" profile along their crests from the shelf to abyssal plain. Deeper portions of the US continental margin are dominated by the Chesapeake Drift and Hatteras Outer Ridge; both plastered elongate mounded drifts. Farther north, particularly on the Grand Banks margin, are plastered and separated drifts. These drifts form "stepped" slope profiles, where they onlap the margin. Trough-mouth fan complexes become more common along the margin with increasing latitude. Sediment deposition and retention, particularly those dominated by glacigenic debris flows, characterize these segments producing an "above grade" slope profile. Understanding these geomorphological consequences of deep sea sedimentation processes is important to extended continental shelf mapping in which

  17. Tectonic Evolution of Mozambique Ridge in East African continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    Tectonic Evolution of Mozambique Ridge in East African continental margin Yong Tang He Li ES.Mahanjane Second Institute of Oceanography,SOA,Hangzhou The East Africa passive continental margin is a depression area, with widely distributed sedimentary wedges from southern Mozambique to northern Somali (>6500km in length, and about 6km in thickness). It was resulted from the separation of East Gondwana, and was developed by three stages: (1) rifting in Early-Middle Jurassic; (2) spreading from Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous; (3) drifting since the Cretaceous period. Tectonic evolution of the Mozambique continental margin is distinguished by two main settings separated by a fossil transform, the Davie Fracture Zone; (i) rifting and transform setting in the northern margin related to opening of the Somali and Rovuma basins, and (ii) rifting and volcanism setting during the opening of the Mozambique basin in the southern margin. 2D reflection seismic investigation of the crustal structure in the Zambezi Delta Depression, provided key piece of evidence for two rifting phases between Africa and Antarctica. The magma-rich Rift I phase evolved from rift-rift-rift style with remarkable emplacement of dyke swarms (between 182 and 170 Ma). Related onshore outcrops are extensively studied, the Karoo volcanics in Mozambique, Zimbabwe and South Africa, all part of the Karoo "triple-junction". These igneous bodies flow and thicken eastwards and are now covered by up to 5 km of Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments and recorded by seismic and oil exploration wells. Geophysical and geological data recorded during oceanographic cruises provide very controversial results regarding the nature of the Mozambique Ridge. Two conflicting opinions remains open, since the early expeditions to the Indian Ocean, postulating that its character is either magmatic (oceanic) or continental origin. We have carried out an China-Mozambique Joint Cruise(CMJC) on southern Mozambique Basin on 1st June to

  18. Neotectonism along the Atlantic passive continental margin: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Thomas W.

    1989-09-01

    An extensive body of geologic data including the modern state of stress, historical seismicity, surface and subsurface stratigraphy, numerical models of crustal deformation, surficial geomorphic systems, and historical precise leveling and tidal gauge records constrain the style and rate of neotectonic deformation for the Appalachians and Atlantic passive continental margin. There are two major styles of neotectonism in the eastern United States. The northeastern United States is dominated by isostatic uplift and northward migration of peripheral bulge collapse in response to deglaciation. This locally rapid, but decreasing rate of deformation is superimposed upon slower, long-term deformation along the Atlantic margin. Most of the long-term, continental margin deformation is attributed to lithospheric flexuring in response to sediment loading in sedimentary basins (especially the Baltimore Canyon Trough and Carolina Trough), isostatic deformation in response to continental denudation and water loading of the shelf, and stress from far-field plate tectonic sources. Significant deformational features include an uplift anomaly near Cape Fear, N.C.; northward and southward tilting of the Coastal Plain into the Salisbury and Southeast Georgia Embayments respectively; seaward tilting of the Coastal Plain/Piedmont, and a complex pattern of postglacial uplift and later subsidence in the northeast. Estimates of vertical crustal velocities for similar locations vary over several orders of magnitude. Measurement interval bias and systematic leveling errors may account for some of the discrepancies. Evidence for periodic deformation in the eastern United States in substantial and it is possible that historic data indicate a period of accelerated deformation along the Atlantic continental margin.

  19. Geomorphic response of a continental margin to tectonic and eustatic variations, the Levant margin during the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Moshe, Liran; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Enzel, Yehouda; Uri, Schattner

    2017-04-01

    During the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.97±0.01-5.33 Ma) the Mediterranean Levant margin experienced major eustatic and sedimentary cycles as well as tectonic motion along the nearby Dead Sea fault plate boundary. New structures formed along this margin with morphology responding to these changes. Our study focuses on changes in this morphology across the margin. It is based on interpretation of three 3D seismic reflection volumes from offshore Israel. Multi-attribute analysis aided the extraction of key reflectors. Morphologic analysis of these data quantified interacting eustasy, sedimentation, and tectonics. Late Messinian morphologic domains include: (a) continental shelf; (b) 'Delta' anticline, forming a ridge diagonal to the strike of the margin; (c) southward dipping 'Hadera' valley, separating between (a) and (b); (d) 'Delta Gap' - a water gap crossing perpendicular to the anticline axis, exhibiting a sinuous thalweg; (e) continental slope. Drainage across the margin developed in several stages. Remains of turbidite flows crossing the margin down-slope were spotted across the 'Delta' anticline. These flows accumulated with the MSC evaporate sequence and prior to the anticline folding. Rising of the anticline, above the then bathymetry, either blocked or diverted the turbidites. That rising also defined the Hadera valley. In-situ evaporates, covering the valley floor, are, in turn covered by a fan-delta at the distal end of the valley. The fan-delta complex contains eroded evaporites and Lago-Mare fauna. Its top is truncated by dendritic fluvial channels that drained towards the Delta Gap. The Delta Gap was carved through the Delta ridge in a morphological and structural transition zone. We propose that during the first stages of the MSC (5.97±0.01-5.59 ma) destabilization of the continental slope due to oscillating sea level produced gravity currents that flowed through the pre-existing Delta anticline. Subsequent folding of the Delta anticline

  20. A transform continental margin rich in hydrocarbons, Gulf of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonsdale, P.

    1985-07-01

    Conventional and near-bottom geophysical surveys mapped shallow deformational structures and sediment accumulation patterns along part of the actively shearing continental margin of Sonora, including the intersection with a Guaymas Basin spreading center. The principal strike-slip faults occupy a zone 1-2 km (0.6-1.2 mi) wide along the lower slope, with a ridge of tightly folded sediments raised by uplift of sheared basement at the abrupt boundary between continental and oceanic crust. This transform ridge and a continental rise on its seaward slope grows as the fault zone ages away from the spreading-center intersection shoaling at a net rate of 500 m/m.y. (1,600 ft/ m.y.) despite erosion of its crest. A clathrate horizon in the upper 80 m (260 ft) of sediment is inferred from bottomsimulating reflectors in the rise and lower slope, hydrocarbon seeps occur at 1,600 m (1 mi) below sea level along the crest of the transform ridge, and patchy gas accumulation and seepage are recognized on a young marginal plateau.

  1. Continental margin radiography from a potential field and sediment thickness standpoint: the Iberian Atlantic Margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalan, M.; Martos, Y. M.; Martin-Davila, J.; Munoz-Martin, A.; Carbo, A.; Druet, M.

    2015-07-01

    This study reviews the state of knowledge in the Iberian Atlantic margin. In order to do this, the margin has been divided into three provinces: the Galicia margin, the southern Iberian abyssal plain, and the Tagus abyssal plain. We have used potential field and sediment thickness data. This has allowed us to study the crust, setting limits for the continental crust domain, and the amplitude of the so-called ocean-continent transition, whose end marks the beginning of the oceanic crust. The study shows the continental crust in the Galician margin to be the widest, about 210 km in length, whilst the ocean-continent transition varies slightly in this province: between 65 km wide in the south and 56 km wide in the north. This result shows up some differences with the hypothesis of other authors. The situation in the southern Iberian abyssal plain is nearly the opposite. Its continental crust extends approximately 60 km, whilst the ocean-continent transition zone is 185 km long. The Tagus abyssal plain study shows a faster morphological evolution than the others, according with the amount of crustal thinning β, the ocean-continent transition domain spanning 100 km. These results support a transitional intermediate character for almost the whole Tagus plain, in contrary to what other authors have stated. (Author)

  2. 77 FR 75656 - Research Lease for Renewable Energy on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Virginia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Research Lease for Renewable Energy on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS... Wind Power Development on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Virginia-- Call for Information.... The EA and FONSI can be found at: http://www.boem.gov/Renewable-Energy-Program/Smart-from-the-Start...

  3. 75 FR 82055 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Massachusetts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... and Enforcement [Docket No. BOEM-2010-0063] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental..., Regulation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: RFI in Commercial Wind Energy Leasing Offshore Massachusetts... more commercial leases for the construction of a wind energy project(s) on the Outer Continental Shelf...

  4. Giant Mass Transport Deposits of the Caribbean Margin and their Tsunamigenic Potential, Offshore Northern Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, S.; Mann, P.; Carvajal, L. C.

    2014-12-01

    Three large (170-290 m thick, >1000 km3) Mass Transport Deposits (MTDs) are recognized on seismic lines offshore northern Colombia covering a combined area of 27,000 km2, an area the size of the state of Massachusetts. These deposits record a number of massive slope failure events along the Northern Colombian Margin proximal to the actively prograding delta and fan of the Magdalena River, the 26th largest river in the world by discharge volume . The largest MTD covers an area >15,000 km2 outboard of the toe of the continental slope on the abyssal sea floor; the two smaller MTDs range from 5000 to 7000 km2 in area. The volume of the largest deposited measured from >160 km of seismic reflection data ranges from 2000 and 5000 km3, comparable in size to the giant Storegga Slide offshore Norway (3500 km3) and the Nuuanu slide offshore the island of Oahu, Hawai'i (~3000 km3). The timing of the MTDs can be constrained from sparse wells and seismic data to be mid to late Miocene (15-5.3 Ma) through the Plio-Pleistocene (2.6 Ma). Likely causative factors for the MTDs include: 1) elevated pore pressure due to generation of biogenic gas in the sediment column of the continental slopes as observed on seismic reflection data; 2) rapid sedimentation related to the Magdalena delta that has produced oversteepened slopes since the late Miocene (7-10 Ma); and 3) tectonic uplift and infrequent large earthquakes related to shallow, southeastward subduction beneath the nearby Southern Caribbean Fold Belt. Preliminary models of inferred tsunamis and their projected run-ups around the Caribbean Sea are presented.

  5. The role of deep-water sedimentary processes in shaping a continental margin: The Northwest Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Campbell, D.C.; Gardner, J.V.; Piper, D.J.W.; Chaytor, Jason; Rebesco, M.

    2017-01-01

    The tectonic history of a margin dictates its general shape; however, its geomorphology is generally transformed by deep-sea sedimentary processes. The objective of this study is to show the influences of turbidity currents, contour currents and sediment mass failures on the geomorphology of the deep-water northwestern Atlantic margin (NWAM) between Blake Ridge and Hudson Trough, spanning about 32° of latitude and the shelf edge to the abyssal plain. This assessment is based on new multibeam echosounder data, global bathymetric models and sub-surface geophysical information.The deep-water NWAM is divided into four broad geomorphologic classifications based on their bathymetric shape: graded, above-grade, stepped and out-of-grade. These shapes were created as a function of the balance between sediment accumulation and removal that in turn were related to sedimentary processes and slope-accommodation. This descriptive method of classifying continental margins, while being non-interpretative, is more informative than the conventional continental shelf, slope and rise classification, and better facilitates interpretation concerning dominant sedimentary processes.Areas of the margin dominated by turbidity currents and slope by-pass developed graded slopes. If sediments did not by-pass the slope due to accommodation then an above grade or stepped slope resulted. Geostrophic currents created sedimentary bodies of a variety of forms and positions along the NWAM. Detached drifts form linear, above-grade slopes along their crests from the shelf edge to the deep basin. Plastered drifts formed stepped slope profiles. Sediment mass failure has had a variety of consequences on the margin morphology; large mass-failures created out-of-grade profiles, whereas smaller mass failures tended to remain on the slope and formed above-grade profiles at trough-mouth fans, or nearly graded profiles, such as offshore Cape Fear.

  6. Structure of shumagin continental margin, Western Gulf of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, T.R.; Von Huene, R.; Lewis, S.D.; Ladd, J.W.

    1985-04-01

    The Shumagin margin is characterized by five major structural features or trends: (1) Shumagin basin, containing about 2.5 km of late Miocene and younger strata above acoustic basement; (2) Sanak basin, containing as much as 8 km of dominantly late Cenozoic strata in two subbasins separated by a basement high; (3) cenozoic shelf-edge and upper-slope sedimentary wedges that are 3-4 km thick and possibly as thick as 6 km; (4) a midslope structural trend, Unimak ridge, that is characterized by numerous surface and subsurface structural highs; and (5) a 30-km wide accretionary complex at the base of the slope. A thin (less than 1-2 km) sediment cover of Miocene and younger age covers the continental shelf areas outside of Shumagin and Sanak basins. The tectonic history of the margin includes: (1)j late Cretaceous or early Tertiary removal of the seaward part of the Cretaceous Alaska Peninsula margin along the Border Ranges fault and accretion of the Shumagin Formation against the truncated margin; (2) Miocene uplift and erosion of the shelf; (3) middle or late Miocene uplift of Unimak ridge; and (4) late Miocene and younger subsidence and infilling of Sanak and Shumagin basins, and subduction-accretion along the Aleutian Trench.

  7. Hydrates of nat­ural gas in continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Barnard, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    Natural gas hydrates in continental margin sediment can be inferred from the widespread occurrence of an anomalous seismic reflector which coincides with the predicted transition boundary at the base of the gas hydrate zone. Direct evidence of gas hydrates is provided by visual observations of sediments from the landward wall of the Mid-America Trench off Mexico and Guatemala, from the Blake Outer Ridge off the southeastern United States, and from the Black Sea in the U.S.S.R. Where solid gas hydrates have been sampled, the gas is composed mainly of methane accompanied by CO2 and low concentrations of ethane and hydrocarbons of higher molecular weight. The molecular and isotopic composition of hydrocarbons indicates that most of the methane is of biolog cal origin. The gas was probably produced by the bacterial alteration of organic matter buried in the sediment. Organic carbon contents of the sediment containing sampled gas hydrates are higher than the average organic carbon content of marine sediments. The main economic importance of gas hydrates may reside in their ability to serve as a cap under which free gas can collect. To be producible, however, such trapped gas must occur in porous and permeable reservoirs. Although gas hydrates are common along continental margins, the degree to which they are associated with significant reservoirs remains to be investigated.

  8. Anomalous heat flow belt along the continental margin of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Valiya M.; Vieira, Fabio P.; Silva, Raquel T. A.

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of thermal gradient and heat flow data was carried out for sedimentary basins situated in the continental margin of Brazil (CMB). The results point to the existence of a narrow belt within CMB, where temperature gradients are higher than 30 °C/km and the heat flow is in excess of 70 mW/m2. This anomalous geothermal belt is confined between zones of relatively low to normal heat flow in the adjacent continental and oceanic regions. The width of the belt is somewhat variable, but most of it falls within the range of 100-300 km. The spatial extent is relatively large in the southern (in the basins of Pelotas, Santos and Campos) and northern (in the basins of Potiguar and Ceará) parts, when compared with those in the central parts (in the basins of South Bahia, Sergipe and Alagoas). The characteristics of heat flow anomalies appear to be compatible with those produced by thermal sources at depths in the lower crust. Hence, magma emplacement at the transition zone between lower crust and upper mantle is considered the likely mechanism producing such anomalies. Seismicity within the belt is relatively weak, with focal depths less than 10 km for most of the events. Such observations imply that "tectonic bonding" between continental and oceanic segments, at the transition zone of CMB, is relatively weak. Hence, it is proposed that passive margins like CMB be considered as constituting a type of plate boundary that is aseismic at sub-crustal levels, but allows for escape of significant amounts of earth's internal heat at shallow depths.

  9. Crustal structure of the North Iberian continental margin from seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Díaz, J.; Pedreira, D.; Gallart, J.; Pulgar, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    The structure and geodynamics of the southern margin of the Bay of Biscay have been investigated from a set of 11 multichannel seismic reflection profiles, recorded also at wide angle offsets in an onshore-offshore network of 24 OBS/OBH and 46 land sites. This contribution focuses on the analysis of the wide-angle reflection/refraction data along representative profiles. The results document strong lateral variations of the crustal structure along the margin and provide an extensive test of the crustal models previously proposed for the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Offshore, the crust has a typical continental structure in the eastern tip of the bay, which disappears smoothly towards the NW to reach crustal thickness close to 10 km at the edge of the studied area ( 45°N, 6°W). The analysis of the velocity-depth profiles, altogether with additional information provided by the multichannel seismic data and magnetic surveys, led to the conclusion that the crust in this part of the bay should be interpreted as transitional from continental to oceanic. Typical oceanic crust has not been imaged in the investigated area. Onshore, the new results are in good agreement with previous results and document the indentation of the Bay of Biscay crust into the Iberian crust, forcing its subduction to the North. The interpreted profiles show that the extent of the southward indentation is not uniform, with an Alpine root less developed in the central and western sector of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin. N-S to NE-SW transfer structures seem to control those variations in the indentation degree.

  10. Comparative riftology: insights from crustal structure into the evolution of continental rifts and passive continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kley, Jonas; Stein, Carol; Stein, Seth; Keller, Randy; Wysession, Michael; Frederiksen, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Continental rifts evolve to seafloor spreading and are preserved in passive margins, or fail and remain as fossil features in continents. Rifts at different stages give insight into these different evolutionary paths. Of particular interest is how volcanic passive margins evolve. These features are characterized by sequences of volcanic rocks yielding magnetic anomalies landward of and sometimes larger than the oldest spreading anomalies. Seaward-dipping reflectors (SDR) occur in stretched continental crust landward of the oldest oceanic crust and are underplated by high-velocity lower crustal bodies. How and when these features form remains unclear. Insights are given by the Midcontinent Rift (MCR), formed by 1.1 Ga rifting of Amazonia from Laurentia, that failed once seafloor spreading was established elsewhere. MCR volcanics are much thicker than other continental flood basalts, due to deposition in a narrow rift rather than a broad region, giving a rift's geometry but a LIP's magma volume. The MCR provides a snapshot of the deposition of a thick highly magnetized volcanic section during rifting. Surface exposures and seismic-reflection data in and near Lake Superior show a rift basin filled by inward-dipping flood basalt layers. Had the rift evolved to seafloor spreading, the basin would have split into two sets of volcanics with opposite-facing SDRs, each with a strong magnetic anomaly. Because the rift formed as a series of alternating half-grabens, structural asymmetries between conjugate margins can naturally occur. Hence the MCR shows that many features form prior to breakup. Because the MCR was massively inverted by regional compression long after it failed and was uplifted, its structure is better known than failed rifts that incurred lesser degrees of inversion. It provides an end member for the evolution of actively extending rifts, characterized by upwelling mantle and negative gravity anomalies, in contrast to failed and inverted rifts without

  11. Interpretation and attribute analysis of the S-reflector from Galicia Margin, offshore Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuba, C. N.; Sawyer, D. S.; Gray, G. G.; Shillington, D. J.; Minshull, T. A.; Morgan, J.

    2016-12-01

    The majority of our understanding of rift evolution comes from passive continental margins and interpretations of their tectonic framework. The Galicia Margin, located in offshore western Spain, is an archetypical magma-poor rift margin that is part of the Newfoundland-Iberia rift system. Here we focus on the major low-angle detachment fault in the hyperextended Deep Galicia Margin, called the S-reflector. Interpretations, attribute and isopach maps are presented from a 3-D seismic reflection dataset that was acquired in 2013 and processed to prestack time migration by Repsol S.A. in 2015. The prestack time migrated volume has an azimuth direction of 87 degrees, and is 68 km wide (E-W) and 20 km long (N-S). The record length is 15 seconds, which penetrates well into the upper mantle.The S-reflector detachment fault is mapped as two distinct, non-parallel surfaces that define the top and bottom of a zone with a thickness range of 0-429 m. A new nomenclature for this zone, which we term the "S-interval" is presented, and this reflection package is interpreted as the top and base of a thick gouge zone. This area has morphological and tectonic similarities to both oceanic and continental core complexes, including highly rotated, 'domino-style' fault blocks in the hanging wall and corrugations in patches on the fault surface. The corrugations trend at 109, 103 and 128 degrees suggesting that there were local variations in the minimum stress directions during rifting. These angles are on average perpendicular to the M0 magnetic anomaly ( 121 Ma), which supports an interpretation that the corrugations formed +/- perpendicular to the rift axis. The S-interval splays into three branches towards the continent. These splays are interpreted as older remnants of the S detachment fault that were active between mid-crustal and translithospheric scales. Taken together, we interpret this area as a unique type of blended continental/oceanic core complex system.

  12. Lake Vostok: From a Continental Margin to a Subglacial Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studinger, M.; Bell, R. E.; KArner, G. D.; Tikku, A. A.; Levin, V.; Raymond, C. A.; Lerner-Lam, A.

    2002-05-01

    Subglacial ecosystems, in particular subglacial lakes, represent the most oligothrophic environments on Earth. The geologic origin of Lake Vostok is a critical boundary condition for both the stability of the lake and energy fluxes into the lake. Microbial life may use geothermal energy, similar to life discovered at deep sea hydrothermal vents. Significant geothermal anomalies are often associated with active faulting. The topographic depression which forms the craddle for Lake Vostok is part of a regional tectonic structure ranging from the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains to the Aurora Subglacial Basin. This geologic boundary was formed by emplacement of a thrust sheet from the east over a pre-existing passive continental margin beneath the present-day Lake Vostok. No data exist to directly date either the timing of passive margin formation or the subsequent crustal shortening. Minor extensional reactivation of the thrust sheet explains a simple mechanism to explain the formation of the Lake Vostok basin. The steep slopes bounding this depression are likley being fault-controlled. Our recent discovery of microseismic activity suggest that this faults might be active and could act as conduits for convecting fluids. The tectonic processes can have an important influence on the ecosystem within the lake.

  13. Particle flux across the mid-European continental margin

    CERN Document Server

    Antia, A N; Peinert, R

    1999-01-01

    Results are presented from particle flux studies using sediment trap and current meter moorings along a transect at the European continental margin at 49 degrees N within the Ocean Margin Exchange (OMEX) project. Two moorings were placed, at the mid- and outer slope in water depths of 1500 and 3660 m, with traps at 600 and 1050 m and at 580, 1440 and 3220 m, respectively. Residual currents at the mid- slope follow the slope contour, whereas seasonal off-slope flow was registered at the outer slope. At 600 m on the slope fluxes are similar to those in the abyssal North Atlantic. The flux of all components (bulk dry weight, particulate organic and inorganic carbon, lithogenic matter and opal) increased with water depth. Highest fluxes were recorded at 1440 m at the outer slope, where off- slope residual currents mediate particle export. The injection of biogenic and lithogenic particles below the depth of winter mixing results in the export of particles from shallower waters. Calculated lateral fluxes of partic...

  14. A newly discovered Pliocene volcanic field on the western Sardinia continental margin (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Alessandro; Budillon, Francesca; Tonielli, Renato; De Falco, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    A previously unknown submerged volcanic field offshore western Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea), has been identified based on swath bathymetric data collected in 2009, 2010 and 2013, and high-resolution seismic profiles collected in 2011 and 2013. About 40 conical-shaped volcanic edifices (maximum width of about 1600 m and maximum height of about 180 m) and several lava outcrops (up to 1,200 m wide) were recognized at 20 to 150 m water depth over an area of 800 km2. The volcanic edifices are mainly eruptive monogenic vents, mostly isolated with a rather distinct shape, or grouped to form a coalescent volcanic body in which single elements are often still recognizable. High-resolution seismics enabled identifying relationships between the volcanic bodies and continental margin successions. The edifices overlie a major erosional surface related to the margin exposure following the Messinian salinity crisis, and are overlain by or interbedded with an early Pliocene marine unit. This seismo-stratigraphic pattern dates the volcanic activity to the early Pliocene, in agreement with the radiometric age of the Catalano island lavas (4.7 Ma) reported in earlier studies. The morphometry of the volcanic bodies suggests that cone erosion was higher at shallow water depths. Indeed, most of the shallow edifices are strongly eroded and flattened at 125 to 130 m water depth, plausibly explained by recurrent sub-aerial exposure during Pleistocene sea-level lowstands, whereas cones in deeper water are much better preserved. Volcanic vents and lava deposits, hereafter named the Catalano volcanic field (CVF), are emplaced along lineaments corresponding to the main directions of the normal fault system, which lowered the Sinis Basin and the western Sardinia continental margin. The CVF represents a volumetrically relevant phase of the late Miocene - Quaternary anorogenic volcanic cycle of Sardinia, which is related to the first stage of the extensional tectonics affecting the island

  15. First amphibian magnetotelluric experiment at the passive continental margin in northern Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapinos, G.; Weckmann, U.; Ritter, O.; Jegen, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    An amphibian magnetotelluric (MT) study across the passive continental margin of northern Namibia was conducted in December/January 2010/2011 and October/November 2011 to image the subsurface electrical conductivity structure. The MT experiment is part of the interdisciplinary SAMPLE project (South Atlantic Margin Processes and Links with onshore Evolution) which focusses on imaging and understanding processes related to rifting and the breakup history of the supercontinent Gondwana, in particular the opening of the South Atlantic and the post breakup evolution of the continental passive margins of Africa and South America. The onshore MT data were acquired in the Kaoko Mobile Belt at 167 sites in a ~140 km wide and ~260 km long EW extending corridor, from the Atlantic Ocean onto the Congo Craton. The Kaoko Mobile Belt is a transpressional strike slip orogen with NNW striking sinistral shear zones, folds and thrusts, which was formed during the Pan-African orogeny and the amalgamation of West Gondwana. This onshore network is extended offshore with MT measurements along 2 transects parallel and perpendicular to the Walvis Ridge - an approximately 3400km long seamount volcanic chain, trending NE-SW, from Africa to the Middle Atlantic Ridge, thought to be formed by the volcanic activity of the Tristan da Cunha Plume since the early Cretaceous. The onshore impedances and vertical magnetic transfer functions are generally of excellent quality but indicate significant three-dimensional structures in the crust and upper mantle, particularly in the Western Kaoko Zone, in the vicinity of the prominent shear zones. 2-D inversion of a sub-section of the entire data set, where two-dimensional modeling is consistent with the MT data revealed spatial correlations of a resistive zone and the Archean Congo Craton as well as of conductive structures and surface expressions of prominent faults.

  16. Seaward dipping reflectors along the SW continental margin of India: Evidence for volcanic passive margin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ajay, K.K.; Chaubey, A.K.; Krishna, K.S.; Rao, D.G.; Sar, D.

    , Srinivas K, Sarma K V L N S, Subrahmanyam V and Krishna K S 1994 Evidence for seafloor spreading in the Laxmi Basin, northeastern Arabian Sea; Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 125 211–220. Bhattacharya G C and Chaubey A K 2001 Western Indian ocean – A glimpse...–1513. Chandrasekharam D 1985 Structure and evolution of the western continental margin of India deduced from gravity, seismic, geomagnetic and geochronological studies; Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 41 186–198. Chaubey A K, Bhattacharya G C, Murty G P S, Srinivas K...

  17. Geology and petroleum potential of Shumagin continental margin, western Gulf of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, T.R.; Von Huene, R.; Culotta, R.D.; Lewis, S.D.; Ladd, J.W.

    1986-07-01

    Interpretations of multichannel seismic reflection data indicate that the Shumagin continental margin seaward of the Border Ranges fault is underlain by two major seismic sequences, separated by an erosional unconformity beneath the shelf and by the time-correlative conformity seaward. Rocks above the unconformity are late Miocene and younger. Rocks below the unconformity can be as young as middle Miocene beneath the outer shelf and slope, seaward of a paleoshelf break. However, beneath the shelf they are primarily Late Cretaceous turbidites of the Shumagin Formation and Paleocene granodiorite. Late Miocene and younger structures of the Shumagin margin include Shumagin, Sanak, and Unimak basins and Unimak Ridge, a midslope structural high. Strata in Sanak and Unimak basins were deposited on a subsiding outer shelf and slope, and trapped behind Unimak Ridge and its now-buried structural continuation. Sanak and Unimak basins are in part bounded by northwest-trending extensional faults that parallel both the early Tertiary Beringian margin and a transverse tectonic boundary that segments the fore-arc. These faults may have developed during collapse and extension along the southeastward continuation of the old Beringian margin, analogous to the processes that created the Bering Shelf basins. The most promising areas of the Shumagin margin for petroleum potential are Sanak, and Unimak basins, which contain strata 8 and 4.5 km thick, respectively, and beneath the outer shelf and slope. Paleogene source rocks like those on the adjacent Alaska Peninsula may be preserved offshore, seaward of the inferred paleoshelf break. Reservoir rocks might have formed from granitic-rich erosional products derived during Oligocene and Miocene erosion of the shelf plutons.

  18. Preface: Biogeochemistry–ecosystem interaction on changing continental margins in the Anthropocene

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Liu, K-K.; Emeis, K.-C.; Levin, L.A.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Roman, M.

    of the margin to marginal seas, continental shelves and slopes on the seaward side of the margin. Most importantly many case studies illustrate how human activities on land can impact far reaches of the margin. On the other hand, climate change and oscillations...

  19. 75 FR 68824 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Maryland-Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... Enforcement [Docket No. BOEM-2010-0038] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS... Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: RFI in Commercial Wind Energy Leasing Offshore Maryland, and Invitation for... leases for the construction of a wind energy project(s) on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) offshore...

  20. Characteristics and features of the submarine landslides in passive and active margin southwestern offshore Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Y. C.

    2016-12-01

    In the past decade, numerous multi-channel seismic surveys as well as near seafloor high resolution geophysical investigations were conducted in order to explore and estimate the reserves of gas hydrate southwestern offshore Taiwan. The previous object was focused on searching substitute energy (i.e. gas hydrate) rather than geo-hazards. However, it is suggested that most of the gas hydrate is generally distributed at slope area southwestern offshore Taiwan, which indicates the slope may be failed when steady state was disturbed by some factors, such as sea level or climate change. In addition, once gas hydrate was dissociated, this may induce submarine landslide that further cause devastated tsunami. Thus, it is of great urgency to investigate potential landslide area, particularly, the hydrate-rich continental slope (active and passive margins) in adjacent to populous city like Kaohsiung. In this study, we collected several high resolution multi-channel seismic data with ten seconds shooting rate and 3.125 meters group interval streamer by using R/V ORI and R/V ORV. The seismic data were processed in conventional data processing strategy: bad trace clean, geometry settings, band-pass filter, de-convolution, surface-related multiple rejection, radon filter, stacking,kirchhoff migration and time to depth conversion. Combine the results obtained from the MCS data and subbottom profiles, two major results could be raised in the active margin as followed: (1) Most of the surface creeping and landslide was occurred shallower than 500 meters in water depth, which should be related to the inter-bedded fluid activities. (2) The landslide distribution is lagly affected by the presence of diaper, suggesting the subsequent mud diapirism may destruct slope stability; (3) The submarine landslide deeper than 800 meters in water depth distributes in the thrust fold area, that is probably referred to active thrusting. In the passive margin, large volume mass transportation

  1. Ocean-Continent Transition Structure of the Pelotas Magma-Rich Continental Margin, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Caroline; Kusznir, Nick; Roberts, Alan; Manatschal, Gianreto; McDermott, Ken

    2017-04-01

    Rifted continental margins in the southern South Atlantic are magma-rich showing well developed volcanic extrusives known as seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs). Here we examine the magma-rich continental rifted margin of the Pelotas Basin, offshore Brazil. Deep seismic reflection data displays a large package of seaward dipping reflectors with an approximate width of 200 km and a varying thickness of 10 km to 17 km that have previously been interpreted as volcanic SDRs. We examine these SDRs to explore if they are composed predominantly of basaltic or sedimentary-volcaniclastic material. We also study the thickness of the crustal basement beneath the SDRs. Additionally we investigate if these SDRs are underlain by thin 'hyper-extended' continental crust or if they have been deposited on new magmatic basement. The answers to these questions are important in understanding the structure and formation processes of magma-rich continental margins. We use gravity inversion to investigate SDR composition by varying the proportion of basalt to sediments-volcaniclastics (basalt fraction) which determines the SDR densities in the gravity inversion. By matching the Moho depth and two-way travel time from gravity inversion and deep seismic reflection data, we determine the lateral variation in basalt fraction of the SDRs. Our analysis suggests: 1) There is an overall pattern of SDR basalt fraction and bulk density decreasing oceanward. This could be due to increasing sediment content oceanward or it could result from the change in basalt flows to hyaloclastites as water depth increases. 2) The SDR package can be split into two distinct sub packages based on the basalt fraction results, where the proximal side of each package has a higher basalt fraction and density. 3) The inner SDR package contains reflectors that bear a resemblance to the SDRs described by Hinz (1981) corresponding to syn-tectonic volcanic eruptions into an extensional basin, while the outer SDR package has

  2. 77 FR 5545 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power Development on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Commercial Leasing for Wind Power Development on the Outer Continental... lessee to propose the construction of a wind energy project(s) on the OCS offshore Virginia. Although the... specific interest in the acquisition of commercial wind lease(s) in some or all of the area and to...

  3. Syn- and post-rift anomalous vertical movements in the eastern Central Atlantic passive margin: a transect across the Moroccan passive continental margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charton, Remi; Bertotti, Giovanni; Arantegui, Angel; Luber, Tim; Redfern, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    Traditional models of passive margin evolution suggesting generalised regional subsidence with rates decreasing after the break-up have been questioned in the last decade by a number of detailed studies. The occurrence of episodic km-scale exhumation well within the post-rift stage, possibly associated with significant erosion, have been documented along the Atlantic continental margins. Despite the wide-spread and increasing body of evidence supporting post-rift exhumation, there is still limited understanding of the mechanism or scale of these phenomena. Most of these enigmatic vertical movements have been discovered using low-temperature geochronology and time-temperature modelling along strike of passive margins. As proposed in previous work, anomalous upward movements in the exhuming domain are coeval with higher-than-normal downward movements in the subsiding domain. These observations call for an integrated analysis of the entire source-to-sink system as a pre-requisite for a full understanding of the involved tectonics. We reconstruct the geological evolution of a 50km long transect across the Moroccan passive margin from the Western Anti-Atlas (Ifni area) to the offshore passive margin basin. Extending the presently available low-temperature geochronology database and using a new stratigraphic control of the Mesozoic sediments, we present a reconstruction of vertical movements in the area. Further, we integrate this with the analysis of an offshore seismic line and the pattern of vertical movements in the Anti-Atlas as documented in Gouiza et al. (2016). The results based on sampled rocks indicate exhumation by circa 6km after the Variscan orogeny until the Middle Jurassic. During the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous the region was subsequently buried by 1-2km, and later exhumed by 1-2km from late Early/Late Cretaceous onwards. From the Permian to present day, the Ifni region is the link between the generally exhuming Anti Atlas and continually subsiding

  4. Thermal evolution of a sheared continental margin: Insights from the Ballenas transform in Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Christian; Gleadow, Andrew J. W.; Fletcher, John M.; Kohn, Barry P.

    2009-07-01

    The Ballenas transform margin in central Baja California offers an unparalleled opportunity to study the thermal behaviour of a sheared continental margin during various stages of its evolution. Apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He results from two transects perpendicular to the coast reveal a pronounced latest Pliocene to Pleistocene (~ 1.8 Ma) heating event related to the Neogene opening of the Gulf of California. Proximity to a regional pre-rift unconformity indicates that samples remained at near-surface levels since Paleogene unroofing, despite having experienced reheating to maximum paleotemperatures within or above the fission track partial annealing zone. In general, maximum paleotemperatures during overprinting decrease from > 100-120 °C near the coast to below 60 °C ca. 5-8 km further inland, suggesting lateral heat flow from a source within the Gulf of California. Heat sources related to the structural development of the Ballenas transform fault, located approximately 1.5-4.5 km offshore from the two sample transects, most likely controlled the observed reheating. Overprinting patterns do not support conductive reheating due to reburial, magmatism or frictional shear. Instead, a pronounced thermal spike in between much less overprinted neighbouring samples strongly favours convective heating by hydrothermal fluids as the dominant overprinting process. Hydrothermal activity may be caused by either deep fluid circulation along newly formed shear zones of the transform fault or, more likely, magmatic leaking along the transform fault. Latest Pliocene to Pleistocene (~ 1.8 Ma) activity on the Ballenas transform fault is closely linked to extension in the Lower and Upper Delfín basins and provides a minimum age for the structural reorganisation and the relocation of extension in the northern Gulf of California. This study shows that hydrothermal activity can cause significant thermal events in a transform margin before the passage of the spreading centre

  5. Magnetite diagenesis in marine sediments from the Oregon continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Robert

    1990-04-01

    The magnetochemistry of sediments from the Oregon continental margin is examined to determine the effects of iron-sulfur diagenesis on the paleomagnetic record. Magnetic mineral dissolution and transformation into iron sulfides are a common feature in these suboxic to anoxic lutites. These processes are evidenced in rapid decreases in natural remanent magnetization intensities and stabilities, systematic changes in other rock magnetic properties, and increases in solid phase sulfur concentrations with depth. Hysteresis measurements are used to evaluate downcore changes in magnetite concentration and grain size. Magnetite abundances decrease downcore from initial values of about 0.1%, and nominal grain diameters lie within a narrow pseudosingle domain range of 0.08 to 0.6 μm. A first-order surface area reaction model, dA/dt = -kA, is proposed to explain the magnetite dissolution mechanism, where A is the total magnetite surface area and k is the rate constant. The solution of this equation predicts that the surface area and concentration decrease exponentially, and the concentration, in addition, depends on grain size. Application of this model in two cores where grain size varies with depth successfully explains the downcore profiles of both concentration and surface area. Despite extensive magnetite destruction, magnetic directions in such sediments appear to reliably record long-wavelength trends of the geomagnetic field.

  6. Paleogeographic constraints on continental-scale source-to-sink systems: Northern South America and its Atlantic margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajolet, Flora; Chardon, Dominique; Rouby, Delphine; Dall'Asta, Massimo; Roig, Jean-Yves; Loparev, Artiom; Coueffe, Renaud

    2017-04-01

    Our work aims at setting the evolving boundary conditions of erosion and sediments transfer, transit, and onshore-offshore accumulations on northern South America and along its Atlantic margins. Since the Early Mesozoic, the source-to-sink system evolved under the interplay of four main processes, which are (i) volcanism and arc building along the proto-Andes, (ii) long-term dynamics of the Amazon incratonic basin, (iii) rifting, relaxation and rejuvenation of the Atlantic margins and (iv) building of the Andes. We compiled information available from geological maps and the literature regarding tectonics, plate kinematics, magmatism, stratigraphy, sedimentology (including paleoenvironments and currents) and thermochronology to produce a series of paleogeographic maps showing the tectonic and kinematic framework of continental areas under erosion (sources), by-pass and accumulation (sinks) over the Amazonian craton, its adjacent regions and along its Atlantic margins. The maps also allow assessing the relative impact of (i) ongoing Pacific subduction, (ii) Atlantic rifting and its aftermath, and (iii) Atlantic slab retreat from under the Caribbean domain on the distribution and activity of onshore/offshore sedimentary basins. Stratigraphic and thermochronology data are also used to assess denudation / vertical motions due to sediment transfers and lithosphere-asthenosphere interactions. This study ultimately aims at linking the sediment routing system to long-wavelength deformation of northern South America under the influence of mountain building, intracratonic geodynamics, divergent margin systems and mantle dynamics.

  7. Convective Removal of Continental Margin Lithosphere at the Edges of Subducting Oceanic Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A.; Bezada, M. J.; Palomeras, I.; Masy, J.; Humphreys, E.; Niu, F.

    2013-12-01

    Although oceanic lithosphere is continuously recycled to the deeper mantle by subduction, the rates and manner in which different types of continental lithospheric mantle are recycled is unclear. Cratonic mantle can be chemically reworked and essentially decratonized, although the frequency of decratonization is unclear. Lithospheric mantle under or adjacent to orogenic belts can be lost to the deeper mantle by convective downwellings and delamination phenomena. Here we describe how subduction related processes at the edges of oceanic plates adjacent to passive continental margins removes the mantle lithosphere from beneath the margin and from the continental interior. This appears to be a widespread means of recycling non-cratonic continental mantle. Lithospheric removal requires the edge of a subducting oceanic plate to be at a relatively high angle to an adjacent passive continental margin. From Rayleigh wave and body wave tomography, and receiver function images from the BOLIVAR and PICASSO experiments, we infer large-scale removal of continental margin lithospheric mantle from beneath 1) the northern South American plate margin due to Atlantic subduction, and 2) the Iberian and North African margins due to Alboran plate subduction. In both cases lithospheric mantle appears to have been removed several hundred kilometers inland from the subduction zones. This type of ';plate-edge' tectonics either accompanies or pre-conditions continental margins for orogenic activity by thinning and weakening the lithosphere. These processes show the importance of relatively small convective structures, i.e. small subducting plates, in formation of orogenic belts.

  8. Upper triassic continental margin strata of the central alaska range: Implications for paleogeographic reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, A.B.; Harris, A.G.; Wardlaw, B.R.; Mullen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Remnants of a Late Triassic continental margin and ocean basin are scattered across central and southern Alaska. Little is known about the fundamental nature of the margin because most remnants have not been studied in detail and a protracted period of terrane accretion and margin-parallel translation has disrupted original stratigraphic and structural relationships.

  9. Long-term topographic feedbacks along glaciated continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egholm, David L.; Jansen, John; Knudsen, Mads F.; Pedersen, Vivi K.; Brædstrup, Christian F.; Ugelvig, Sofie V.; Andersen, Jane L.; Skov, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Deep troughs carved by glaciers during Quaternary cold intervals dominate high-latitude mountain ranges in Greenland, Norway, Canada, New Zealand, Chile and Antarctica (Sugden & John, 1976). In addition, areas of relatively low relief are typically found at high elevations between the troughs. These high areas are often draped by block-fields, indicating that slow weathering processes dominated their evolution, at least throughout the most recent series of interglacial periods (Ballantyne, 2010). Ice sheets must have repeatedly covered the high areas during glacial maxima, but the ice did not erode the underlying bedrock; most likely because the ice was predominantly frozen to its bed (Kleman & Stroeven, 1997). The geomorphic contrast between the troughs and the high-elevation, low-relief areas shows that factors controlling glacial erosion can fluctuate dramatically across short distances, and that landscapes in cold regions concurrently support some of the fastest and slowest surface-erosion processes on Earth (Sugden & John, 1976). However, the strong contrast in efficiency of subglacial erosion has likely evolved in response to landscape evolution. The gradual emergence of glacial troughs over time establishes a feedback between ice flux and subglacial erosion, leading to focused ice drainage and accelerating erosion in the troughs and stalling erosion in the high-elevation areas between the troughs (Kessler et al. 2008). This distinct pattern of selective erosion along cold-region continental margins during the Late Quaternary may therefore reflect the product of topographical feedbacks that focus glacial erosion over time. We used computational landscape evolution models to study these topographic feedbacks, with the objective to evaluate landscape evolution in the high areas prior to the development of deep glacial troughs. Our experiments suggest that early overriding ice-sheets most likely eroded the highs and smoothed the regional topography before

  10. Organic matter diagenesis and hydrocarbon generation on outer Continental Margin of northwestern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, P.A.; Snowdon, L.R.; Heggie, D.; Bent, A.

    1989-03-01

    Organic geochemical analyses of sediments and rocks obtained from drill sites on the Exmouth and Wombat Plateaus and the Argo Abyssal Plain on the northwestern margin of Australia were done onboard the JOIDES Resolution during Ocean Drilling Program Legs 122 and 123. These analyses provide information about the sources of organic matter to these offshore locations from Triassic to Holocene times and also indicate the degree of postdepositional diagenesis and maturation the organic matter has experienced. Because this margin has interest to petroleum explorationists, these data have practical as well as fundamental significance. Triassic claystones (equivalent to the onshore Mungeroo Formation) from the Wombat Plateau contain up to several percent of land-derived organic carbon. Neocomian siltstones and claystones (equivalent to the Barrow Group and Muderong Shale) from the Exmouth Plateau hold similar organic matter but at lower concentrations. Younger sediments are generally very lean in organic matter. Gas chromatographic analysis of extractable hydrocarbons shows a large and often dominant contribution of continental components, notably n-alkanes with a strong odd/even ratio and tricyclic diterpanes. Both Rock-Eval and hydrocarbon results agree in indicating low to moderate levels of thermal maturity. Locations on the Exmouth Plateau typically contain large amounts of thermogenic gaseous hydrocarbons dominated by methane. Concentrations peak in Senonian chalk sequences. In Neocomian siltstones and claystones, methane-ethane ratios diminish as concentrations decrease. The source of these hydrocarbons is likely to be the Triassic coals and coaly material below the Dingo claystone, which was not drilled during these legs but has been characterized from industry wells on this passive margin.

  11. Magma-Assisted Continental Break-up Encroached on Previously Stretched Continental Lithosphere - the NE Greenland Composite Passive Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, S.; Rippington, S.; Houghton, P.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic continental margins have a number of distinctive features that are different from those typical of magma-poor continental margins. However, in some places volcanic margins may develop parallel to older, highly extended rift systems. In such situations the resultant continental margin shows a complex structure that merges the characteristics of volcanic and non-volcanic margins. Furthermore, the evolution of this younger magma-rich margin is restricted by the pre-existing lithospheric architecture, causing it to diverge from the generally assumed formation model. We use the case of NE Greenland to demonstrate the structure of a composite margin firstly subjected to extensive extension and later overprinted by magma-assisted continental break-up. The NE Greenland continental margin is a highly extended margin, that is up to 250km wide, with crystalline crust attaining the maximum thickness near to the coast of Greenland and at the Danmarkshaven Ridge. The latter represents a major basement horst formed during an Early Cretaceous rifting event. To the east of the Danmarkshaven Ridge, crust is stretched and onlapped by the Early Cretaceous sedimentary basin. The effects of Tertiary break-up are observable in a relatively narrow zone 80 km wide that usually includes an extended edge of continental crust and an adjacent section of oceanic crust. A volcano-sedimentary succession produced during the break-up reaches the maximum thickness of c. 8000 m above a continent-ocean transition (COB). Oceanic crust overlain by mixed volcanic and sedimentary rocks is thicker than usual. No observable SDRs or igneous transitional crust are present near to the COB. Instead, a chain of high density bodies follow the COB at the base of crust. The features observed suggest relatively little extension associated with the Tertiary break-up. Instead localised mantle melting presumably led to rapid break-up with crustal dilatation promptly balanced by production of thick oceanic

  12. Verdine and glaucony facies from surficial sediments of the eastern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Thamban, M.; Lamboy, M.

    The present paper reports the first mineralogical description of green grains (verdine and glaucony) from sediments of the eastern continental margin of India. Only 24 of the 82 sediment samples studied, at depths between 18 and 247 m, contain green...

  13. Morphology and tectonics of Mahanadi Basin, northeastern continental margin of India from geophysical studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Murty, G.P.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    isobath off the Lambert Graben of East Antarctica. This inference appears to further support the theory that the eastern continental margin of India and East Antarctica are closely aligned in the pre-breakup tectonic setting of the eastern Gondwanaland....

  14. Distribution and sources of organic matter in surface sediments of the eastern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, M.S.; Naidu, S.A.; Subbaiah, Ch.V.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Reddy, N.P.C.

    The sources and distribution of organic matter (OM) in surface sediments of the eastern continental margin of India, including the region influenced by river discharge, were investigated using content, molar C:N ratios and stable isotopes of carbon...

  15. Sulphur enrichment in a sediment core from the central western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Rao, Ch.M.

    Anomalous sulphur values in relation to organic carbon have been found in the sediments of a core collected from the central western continental margin of India. The relationship between organic carbon and sulphur is similar to that of the sediments...

  16. Scenario of gas-charged sediments and gas hydrates in the western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.; SubbaRaju, L.V.

    Echosounding, high-resolution shallow seismic data were collected along track lines spaced at 20 km interval across the western continental margin of India. A detailed analysis of the underway data revealed the occurrence of methane-bearing gas...

  17. Upwelling along the western Indian continental margin and its geological record - a summary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Upwelling along the western Indian continental margin is recorded each year from Cape Comorin to Cochin and further north up to Goa from June to September during the southwest monsoon. During this upwelling heavy phytoplankton blooms develop which...

  18. Distribution patterns of Recent planktonic foraminifera in surface sediments of the western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.

    Study of Recent plankton foraminifera from the surface sediment samples of western continental margin of India reveals the ecological preferences of the different planktonic foraminifera species in the area. Higher absolute abundance of planktonic...

  19. Marine geophysical studies along a transect across the continental margin off Bombay coast, west of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.; Ramana, M.V.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; SubbaRaju, L.V.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Ramprasad, T.

    Study of underway geophysical data along a transect of 415 km across the continental margin off Bombay, (Maharashtra, India), between 800 and 3600 m water depths reveals seven seismic sequences consisting of parallel and continuous wavy reflections...

  20. Aeolian deposition of Arabia and Somalia sediments on the southwestern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    Kaolinite, smectite, illite and chlorite as major clay minerals and palygorskite and gibbsite in minor quantities have been recorded from the slope of southwestern continental margin of India. Contribution of kaolinite, smectite and gibbsite is from...

  1. Holocene sea level fluctuations on western Indian continental margin: An update

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Nigam, R.; Nair, R.R.; Rajagopalan, G.

    A new Holocene curve is generated for the western Indian continental margin. While constructing this curve careful selection of the dates were made by giving due considerations to the genetic characteristics of the dated material. This new curve...

  2. Basement configuration of Visakhapatnam - Paradip continental margin from inversion of magnetic anomalies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, M.M.M.; Rao, S.J.; Venkateswarlu, K.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Murthy, I.V.R.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.

    Inversion of magnetic data was carried out on 40 profiles collected across the continental margin of Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India at a spacing of about 10 km and magnetic basement map for this region is prepared. The map reveals complex...

  3. Geology of the continental margin beneath Santa Monica Bay, Southern California, from seismic-reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M.A.; Normark, W.R.; Bohannon, R.G.; Sliter, R.W.; Calvert, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    We interpret seismic-reflection data, which were collected in Santa Monica Bay using a 70-in3 generator-injector air gun, to show the geologic structure of the continental shelf and slope and of the deep-water, Santa Monica and San Pedro Basins. The goal of this research is to investigate the earthquake hazard posed to urban areas by offshore faults. These data reveal that northwest of the Palos Verdes Peninsula, the Palos Verdes Fault neither offsets the seafloor nor cuts through an undeformed sediment apron that postdates the last sea level rise. Other evidence indicates that this fault extends northwest beneath the shelf in the deep subsurface. However, other major faults in the study area, such as the Dume and San Pedro Basin Faults, were active recently, as indicated by an arched seafloor and offset shallow sediment. Rocks under the lower continental slope are deformed to differing degrees on opposite sides of Santa Monica Canyon. Northwest of this canyon, the continental slope is underlain by a little-deformed sediment apron; the main structures that deform this apron are two lower-slope anticlines that extend toward Point Dume and are cored by faults showing reverse or thrust separation. Southeast of Santa Monica Canyon, lower-slope rocks are deformed by a complex arrangement of strike-slip, normal, and reverse faults. The San Pedro Escarpment rises abruptly along the southeast side of Santa Monica Canyon. Reverse faults and folds underpinning this escarpment steepen progressively southeastward. Locally they form flower structures and cut downward into basement rocks. These faults merge downward with the San Pedro Basin fault zone, which is nearly vertical and strike slip. The escarpment and its attendant structures diverge from this strike-slip fault zone and extend for 60 km along the margin, separating the continental shelf from the deep-water basins. The deep-water Santa Monica Basin has large extent but is filled with only a thin (less than 1.5-km

  4. A model of the methane cycle, permafrost, and hydrology of the Siberian continental margin

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, D.

    2014-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of a passive continental margin was adapted to the simulation of the methane cycle on Siberian continental shelf and slope, attempting to account for the impacts of glacial/interglacial cycles in sea level, alternately exposing the continental shelf to freezing conditions with deep permafrost formation during glacial times, and immersion in the ocean in interglacial times. The model is used to gauge the impact of the glacial cycles, a...

  5. Sediment accumulation on the Southern California Bight continental margin during the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C.R.; Lee, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Sediment discharged into the portion of the Southern California Bight extending from Santa Barbara to Dana Point enters a complex system of semi-isolated coastal cells, narrow continental shelves, submarine canyons, and offshore basins. On both the Santa Monica and San Pedro margins, 210Pb accumulation rates decrease in an offshore direction (from ??0.5 g cm-2yr-1 to 0.02 g cm-2yr -1), in concert with a fining in sediment grain size (from 4.5?? to 8.5??), suggesting that offshore transport of wave-resuspended material occurs as relatively dilute nepheloid layers and that hemiplegic sedimentation dominates the supply of sediment to the outer shelf, slope, and basins. Together, these areas are effectively sequestering up to 100% of the annual fluvial input. In contrast to the Santa Monica margin, which does not display evidence of mass wasting as an important process of sediment delivery and redistribution, the San Pedro margin does provide numerous examples of failures and mass wasting, suggesting that intraslope sediment redistribution may play a more important role there. Basin deposits in both areas exhibit evidence of turbidites tentatively associated with both major floods and earthquakes, sourced from either the Redondo Canyon (San Pedro Basin) or Dume Canyon (Santa Monica Basin). On the Palos Verdes shelf, sediment-accumulation rates decrease along and across the shelf away from the White's Point outfall, which has been a major source of contaminants to the shelf deposits. Accumulation rates prior to the construction of the outfall were ??0.2 g cm-2yr-1 and increased 1.5-3.7 times during peak discharges from the outfall in 1971. The distal rate of accumulation has decreased by ??50%, from 0.63 g cm -2yr-1 during the period 1971-1992 to 0.29 g cm -2yr-1 during the period 1992-2003. The proximal rate of accumulation, however, has only decreased ??10%, from 0.83 g cm -2yr-1 during the period 1971-1992 to 0.73 g cm -2yr-1 during the period 1992-2003. Effluent

  6. 75 FR 21653 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Delaware-Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Delaware--Request for Interest (RFI... proposal. In June 2008, Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC announced that it signed a 25-year power purchase agreement with Delmarva Power to sell up to 200 megawatts (MW) of power to the utility from an offshore wind...

  7. 76 FR 22130 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore New Jersey-Call for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the... Nominations for Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore New Jersey. SUMMARY... the potential from offshore wind power to other electric power sources, including fossil, nuclear and...

  8. Hypoxia over the Continental Margin in the Northern California Current: The Role of Shelf-Deep Ocean Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, J. A.; Chan, F.; Pierce, S. D.; Adams, K.; Shearman, R. K.; Erofeev, A.

    2016-02-01

    Near-bottom waters over the continental shelf off Oregon in the northern California Current have become increasingly hypoxic over the last decade, including the appearance of anoxia in summer 2006. Observed ecosystem impacts include the absence of fish and invertebrate die-offs. Near-bottom, inner-shelf hypoxia is driven by upwelling of low-oxygen, nutrient-rich source water onto the continental shelf, followed by the decay of organic matter from surface phytoplankton blooms. We are using data from moorings, ship surveys, and from over 60,000 kilometers of autonomous underwater glider tracks to understand the temporal and spatial distribution of dissolved oxygen over the continental margin off Oregon. The inshore side of Heceta Bank, a submarine bank that deflects the coastal upwelling jet seaward creating a region of weaker velocities inshore, is particularly vulnerable to hypoxia. Near-bottom dissolved oxygen variability is driven by changes in both the dissolved oxygen concentrations in offshore upwelling source water and local wind forcing. "Source water" is defined as being seaward of the continental shelf break on density surfaces that upwell onto the continental shelf. The strength and depth of the onshore source water flux due to wind-driven upwelling can vary through the upwelling season, influencing near-bottom shelf hypoxia. Late in the upwelling season, upwelled source waters can become lower in oxygen due to off-shelf flux of continental shelf water that has undergone respiration and is, therefore, lower in oxygen than unmodified upwelling source water. For present day source water dissolved oxygen concentrations ( 2.3 ml/l), hypoxia over the inner shelf on the inshore side of Heceta Bank during the summer upwelling season is observed about 50% of the time. Given the recent declining trend in source water dissolved oxygen concentration, in 50 years the frequency of the hypoxia over the inner shelf on the inshore side of Heceta Bank is predicted to be

  9. Wilson cycle passive margins: Control of orogenic inheritance on continental breakup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kenni D.; Schiffer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rifts and passive margins often develop along old suture zones where colliding continents merged during earlier phases of the Wilson cycle. For example, the North Atlantic formed after continental break-up along sutures formed during the Caledonian and Variscan orogenies. Even though suc...... as igneous bodies. The latter is consistent with dipping sub-Moho reflectors often observed in passive margins....

  10. Gravity anomalies over a segment of Pratap ridge and adjoining shelf margin basin, western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Rao, D.G.; Ramprasad, T.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Rao, M.G.

    Bathymetric and gravity data totalling 2000 line km on the continental margin off Goa and Mulki, west of India have been studied. The free-air gravity anomalies vary between -60 to 25 mgals with prominent NNW-SSE trends in the outer shelf region...

  11. Influence of dynamic topography on landscape evolution and passive continental margin stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuesong; Salles, Tristan; Flament, Nicolas; Rey, Patrice

    2017-04-01

    Quantifying the interaction between surface processes and tectonics/deep Earth processes is one important aspect of landscape evolution modelling. Both observations and results from numerical modelling indicate that dynamic topography - a surface expression of time-varying mantle convection - plays a significant role in shaping landscape through geological time. Recent research suggests that dynamic topography also has non-negligible effects on stratigraphic architecture by modifying accommodation space available for sedimentation. In addition, dynamic topography influences the sediment supply to continental margins. We use Badlands to investigate the evolution of a continental-scale landscape in response to transient dynamic uplift or subsidence, and to model the stratigraphic development on passive continental margins in response to sea-level change, thermal subsidence and dynamic topography. We consider a circularly symmetric landscape consisting of a plateau surrounded by a gently sloping continental plain and a continental margin, and a linear wave of dynamic topography. We analyze the evolution of river catchments, of longitudinal river profiles and of the χ values to evaluate the dynamic response of drainage systems to dynamic topography. We calculate the amount of cumulative erosion and deposition, and sediment flux at shoreline position, as a function of precipitation rate and erodibility coefficient. We compute the stratal stacking pattern and Wheeler diagram on vertical cross-sections at the continental margin. Our results indicate that dynamic topography 1) has a considerable influence on drainage reorganization; 2) contributes to shoreline migration and the distribution of depositional packages by modifying the accommodation space; 3) affects sediment supply to the continental margin. Transient dynamic topography contributes to the migration of drainage divides and to the migration of the mainstream in a drainage basin. The dynamic uplift

  12. Evidence of slope failure in the Sines Contourite Drift area (SW Portuguese Continental Margin) - preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Manuel; Roque, Cristina; Terrinha, Pedro; Rodrigues, Sara; Ercilla, Gemma; Casas, David

    2017-04-01

    Slope instability, expressed by landslide activity, is an important natural hazard both onshore as well as offshore. Offshore processes create great concern on coastal areas constituting one of the major and most prominent hazards, directly by the damages they generate and indirectly by the possibility of generating tsunamis, which may affect the coast line. The Southwest Portuguese Continental Margin has been identified as an area where several mass movements occurred from Late Pleistocene to Present. Recently, an area of 52 km long by 34 km wide, affected by slope failure has been recognized in the Sines contourite drift located off the Alentejo. SWIM and CONDRIBER multibeam swath bathymetry has been used for the geomorphologic analysis and for recognition of mass movement scars on the seabed. Scars' areas and volumes were calculated by reconstructing paleo-bathymetry. The net gain and net loss were calculated using both paleo and present day bathymetry. Geomorphologically, the study area presents 4 morphologic domains with landslide scars: I) Shelf and upper slope display an irregular boundary with domain II with a sharp step ( 150m - 600m); II) Smooth area with gentle slope angles making the transition from smoother area to the continental slope (scarp), with large scars, suggesting slow rate and distributed mass wasting processes over this area ( 600 - 1200m); III) Scarp with high rates of retrograding instability, where faster processes are verified and a great number of gullies is feeding downslope area (1200m - 3200m); IV) Lebre Basin where mass movements deposits accumulate (> 3200m). A total of 51 landslide scars were identified with a total affected area of 137.67 km2, with 80.9 km2 being located in the continental slope with about 59% of the disrupted area, between 1200 and 3200m, and 41% (56.6 km2) lies in the continental shelf and upper slope, on a range of depths between 150 and 800m. The mean scar area is 2.7 km2 and the maximum area recorded on a

  13. 77 FR 5552 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Maryland-Call for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf...), Interior. ] ACTION: Call for Information and Nominations for Commercial Leases for Wind Power on the Outer... obtaining commercial wind leases in an area on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) offshore Maryland. Based on...

  14. Geophysical evidence for a transform margin offshore Western Algeria: a witness of a subduction-transform edge propagator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badji, Rabia; Charvis, Philippe; Bracene, Rabah; Galve, Audrey; Badsi, Madjid; Ribodetti, Alessandra; Benaissa, Zahia; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Medaouri, Mourad; Beslier, Marie-Odile

    2015-02-01

    For the first time, a deep seismic data set acquired in the frame of the Algerian-French SPIRAL program provides new insights regarding the origin of the westernmost Algerian margin and basin. We performed a tomographic inversion of traveltimes along a 100-km-long wide-angle seismic profile shot over 40 ocean bottom seismometers offshore Mostaganem (Northwestern Algeria). The resulting velocity model and multichannel seismic reflection profiles show a thin (3-4 km thick) oceanic crust. The narrow ocean-continent transition (less than 10 km wide) is bounded by vertical faults and surmounted by a narrow almost continuous basin filled with Miocene to Quaternary sediments. This fault system, as well as the faults organized in a negative-flower structure on the continent side, marks a major strike-slip fault system. The extremely sharp variation of the Moho depth (up to 45 ± 3°) beneath the continental border underscores the absence of continental extension in this area. All these features support the hypothesis that this part of the margin from Oran to Tenes, trending N65-N70°E, is a fossil subduction-transform edge propagator fault, vestige of the propagation of the edge of the Gibraltar subduction zone during the westward migration of the Alborán domain.

  15. Holistic Approach Offers Potential to Quantify Mass Fluxes Across Continental Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Steven; Carter, Lionel; Gomez, Basil; Trustrum, Noel

    Most humans live on and utilize the continental margin, the surface of which changes continually in response to environmental perturbations such as weather, climate change, tectonism, earthquakes, volcanism, sea level, and human settlement and land use. Part of the margin is above sea level and the rest is submarine, but these land and seascape components are contiguous, and material transport from source to sink occurs as a seamless cascade. The margin responds to environmental perturbations by changing the nature and magnitude of a variety of important functions, including the distribution of soil formation and erosion; biogeochemical functioning (especially the storage and release of water, limiting nutrients and contaminants); and the form and behavior of geomorphic components from hill slopes and floodplains through the coastal zone to the continental rise. While some areas of the margin are eroding-for example, hill slopes-others accumulate sediment, such as tectonic basins and continental slope and rise. These areas record the history of surface changes. A major goal of the Earth science community is to provide quantitative explanations and predictions of the effects of environmental perturbations on surface changes and preserved sedimentary strata of continental margins. In past decades, margins have been investigated piecemeal by researchers who have tended to focus on a particular segment from one disciplinary perspective while eschewing the broader perspective of the margin as an interconnected whole. Recognizing this shortcoming, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated the MARGINS Source-to-Sink (S2S) program, which, for the first time, will attempt to understand the functioning of entire margin systems through dedicated observational and community modeling studies. Following input from the Earth science community, the Waipaoa Sedimentary System (WSS) of the North Island, New Zealand, was chosen as one of the focus sites for possible

  16. Interpretation of free-air gravity anomaly data for determining the crustal structure across the continental margins and aseismic ridges: Some examples from Indian continental margins and deep-sea basins

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.

    on the continental slope or shelf. Some examples along the continental margins and adjacent abyssal plains and across a fracture zone off the united states, Canada, and south eastern Alaska are shown for better understanding of the gravity signatures. Dehlinger... (1978) described the nature and characteristics of gravity anomalies across the passive and active continental margins of America and Norway and explained the crustal structure beneath the margins. Isostatic anomalies at ocean-continent boundaries...

  17. Methane Migration and Its Influence on Sulfate Reduction in the Good Weather Ridge Region, South China Sea Continental Margin Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulwood Lin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria sulfate reduction is a major pathway for organic carbon oxidation in marine sediments. Upward diffusion of methane from gas hydrate deep in the sedimentary strata might be another important source of carbon for sulfate reducing bacteria and subsequently induce higher rates of sulfate reduction in sediments. Since abundant gas may migrate upward to the surface as a result of tectonic activity occurring in the accretionary wedge, this study investigates the effect of methane migration on the sulfate reduction process in continental margin sediments offshore southwestern Taiwan. Piston and gravity core samples were taken in order to evaluate vertical and spatial variations of sulfate and methane. Pore water sulfate, sulfide, methane, sediment pyrite, and organic carbon were extracted and analyzed.

  18. Onshore-offshore relationships along the Norwegian margin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gołędowski, Bartosz

    2011-01-01

    observations. It has revealed a close relationship between a coastlineoutbuilding event documented by steeply prograding clinoforms (seismics), coarsening-upwards sequences (well logs) and occurrence of the cold-water dinocyst Svalbardella(micropaleontology).This provides further evidence for a strong impact...... accounting for climate-related changes in erosion. To investigate this hypothesis further, the surface known as the ‘mid-Miocene unconformity’ (MMU) was examined (Paper 4). This term is used on the eastern Atlantic margin and in the North Sea Basin, but also in other distant geological locations. The origin...... of this surface is still discussed, as the appearance and its definition differs in the study area. In the North Sea basin it is defined as a seismic surface corresponding to a significant gamma peak on well log data, but on the eastern Atlantic margin it is related to compressional deformation. Furthermore...

  19. Geological features and geophysical signatures of continental margins of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.

    ). The lithospheric plates are bounded by one of the three main types of geological features: (1) mid-oceanic ridges (2) subduction zones (3) transform faults. They are also alternatively termed as divergent plate boundary, convergent plate boundary and transform... the crust along the transform faults (Fig. 2). Apart from normal process of construction and destruction at plate boundaries, plates do undergo break-ups and unifications. The lithospheric plates were reconfigured several times by continental rifting...

  20. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    KAUST Repository

    Laruelle, G. G.

    2013-05-29

    Past characterizations of the land-ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments) or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LMEs: large marine ecosystems). Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles by harmonizing previous segmentations and typologies in order to retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation) and 149 sub-units (COSCATs). Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and freshwater residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric profiles. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air-water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies. © 2013 Author(s).

  1. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    KAUST Repository

    Laruelle, G. G.

    2012-10-04

    Past characterizations of the land–ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments) or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LMEs: large marine ecosystems). Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles by harmonizing previous segmentations and typologies in order to retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation) and 149 sub-units (COSCATs). Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and freshwater residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric pro- files. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air–water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies.

  2. Identifying the "Foot of the Continental Slope" of high-latitude continental margins influenced by trough mouth fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverre Laberg, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The continental slope of high-latitude margins often include trough mouth fans, which are sediment fans situated in front of large troughs crossing the continental shelf. The troughs acted as corridors for paleo-ice streams, sectors of fast-flowing ice within the large ice sheets of the last glacial maximum as well as previous glacials. The paleo-ice streams were highly efficient erosional agents, eroding and transporting large volumes of sediments to the continental shelf edge. Here, these sediments were released to move downslope as large debris flows, the "building blocks" of these fans. Due to the very large sediment volume included within these fans, they represent prominent depocenters forming low-gradient sectors (axial gradient often being as low as 1 degree or less) with no clear morphological distinction of the continental slope including its lower limit. Under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, the criteria provided in Article 76 includes the lower limit or "foot" of the continental slope as one important parameter in the extended Continental Shelf delineation (i.e. beyond the 200 M exclusive economic zone). Because of this, the Norwegian submission regarding the outer limits of the continental shelf in the Norwegian Sea and the Arctic Ocean argued that the origin of the sub-sea floor sediments on the slope needed to be considered when identifying the location of the foot of the continental slope. This was done by mapping the outer limits of the large debris flow deposits of the trough mouth fans, deposits that without doubt have their origin from the continental shelf. Thus, in these cases, the foot of the continental slope coincide with the downslope termination of the large debris flow deposits and the outer limit of the continental shelf lies 60 M beyond this point. The data used for mapping includes swath bathymetry, sub-bottom profiles and short sediment samples (< 10 m), and we present and discuss examples from the Bear Island Trough Mouth

  3. Seaward dipping reflectors along the SW continental margin of India ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madagascar breakup in the Late Cretaceous, and (ii)continent –ocean transition lies at western margin of the Laccadive Ridge, west of feather edge of the SDRs. Occurrence of SDRs on western flank of the Laccadive Ridge and inferred zone ...

  4. Evidence of a dense water vein along the Libyan continental margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Gasparini

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available For the first time it was possible to investigate a still poorly known region of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, the Libyan continental margin. An oceanographic cruise, performed during summer 2006, revealed an important and novel feature: a dense vein flowing along the continental slope. The paper describes the vein evolution with some insights on its dynamic and furnishes an estimate of its transport, which results to be comparable with the Adriatic Deep Water production rate. The cascading into a steep canyon which incises the continental shelf suggests that the vein may play an important role in ventilating the deep layers of the Ionian Sea.

  5. Organic geochemistry of continental margin and deep ocean sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, J.K.; Hunt, J.M.; Eglinton, T.; Dickinson, P.; Johnson, C.; Buxton, L.; Tarafa, M.E.

    1990-08-01

    The objective of this research continues to be the understanding of the complex processes of fossil fuel formation and migration. DOE funded research to date has focused on case histories'' of down-hole well profiles of light hydrocarbons, pyrograms, pyrolysis-GC and -GCMS parameters, and biomarker data from wells in the Louisiana and Texas Gulf Coasts the Alaskan North Slope. In the case of the Alaskan North Slope, geological data and one-dimensional maturation modeling have been integrated in order to better constrain possible source rocks, timing, and migration routes for oil and gas generation and expulsion processes.This period, biomarker analyses and organic petrographic analyses were completed for the Ikpikpuk well. In the case of the Gulf Coast, we have obtained a one-dimensional maturation model of the Cost B-1 well in E. Cameron field of the Louisiana Gulf Coast. The completed E. Cameron data set adds to the enigma of the Gulf Coast oils found on the continental shelf of Louisiana. If significant quantities of the oil are coming from relatively organic lean Tertiary rocks, then non-conventional'' expulsion and migration mechanisms, such as gas dissolved in oil must be invoked to explain the Gulf Coast oils reservoired on the Louisiana continental shelf. We are designing and starting to assemble a hydrous pyrolysis apparatus to follow, the laboratory, rates of generation and expulsion of sediment gases. Initiation of some new research to examine {delta}{sup 13}C of individual compounds from pyrolysis is also described. We are beginning to examine both the laboratory and field data from the Gulf Coast in the context of a Global Basin Research Network (GBRN). The purpose is to better understand subsurface fluid flow processes over geologic time in sedimentary basins and their relation to resource accumulation (i.e., petroleum and metal ores). 58 refs.

  6. Multiproxy characterization and budgeting of terrigenous end-members at the NW African continental margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Just, J.; Heslop, D.; Dobeneck, T. von; Bickert, T.; Dekkers, M.J.; Frederichs, T.; Meyer, I.; Zabel, M.

    Grain-size, terrigenous element and rock magnetic remanence data of Quaternary marine sediments retrieved at the NW African continental margin off Gambia (gravity core GeoB 13602–1, 13°32.71′N, 17°50.96′W) were jointly analyzed by end-member (EM) unmixing methods to distinguish and budget past

  7. Geophysical studies over the continental margins of the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Rao, V.B.

    Results of six profiles of continuous echosounding, magnetic and gravity data collected across the continental margin of the east coast of India between 10 degrees and 20 degrees N in the Bay of Bengal aboard R.V. Chain in 1973 are presented...

  8. An occurrence of approx. 74 ka Youngest Toba tephra from the western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Shane, P.; Pearce, N.J.G.; Banakar, V.K.; Parthiban, G.

    attributed to diffe r- ent sources 1 ? 10 . During International Indian Ocean E x- pedition (1960 ? 1965), a number of sed i ment cores were retrieved along the We stern Continental Margin of India (WCMI). Some sediment cores contained dispersed vo l- canic...

  9. Gravity anomalies and crustal structure of the western continental margin off Goa and Mulki, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Rao, D.G.; Ramprasad, T.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Rao, M.G.

    Bathymetric and gravity data totalling 2000 line kilometres on the continental margin off Goa and Mulki, India, have been studied and prominent NNW-SSE and ENE-WSW trending free-air gravity anomalies varying between -60 + 25 mGal have been...

  10. Morphology of pockmarks along the western continental margin of India: Employing multibeam bathymetry and backscatter data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dandapath, S.; Chakraborty, B.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Menezes, A.A.A.; Ranade, G.; Fernandes, W.A.; Naik, D.K.; PrudhviRaju, K.N.

    ) for understanding the morphology of pockmarks from the western continental margin of India. The pockmarks observed in water depths of 145-330 m are circular, elliptical or elongated in plan-view, with an average length and width of 157 (+ or - 72) m and 83...

  11. Post-breakup burial and exhumation of passive continental margins: nine propositions to inform geodynamic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul F.; Duddy, Ian; Japsen, Peter; Chalmers, James; Bonow, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Despite many years of study, the processes involved in the post-breakup development of passive margins remain poorly understood. Integration of apatite fission track analysis (AFTA) and stratigraphic landscape analysis (SLA) at a number of margins has provided new insights into the development of elevated passive continental margins (EPCMs). In particular, these studies have highlighted the importance of integrating evidence from the preserved rock record with information on the deposition and erosional removal of rock units which are no longer present ("missing section"). From these studies we have formulated nine propositions regarding the formation of EPCMs and the nature of the controlling processes, viz: 1: EPCMs are not the inevitable consequence of rifting and breakup 2: Elevated topography at present-day EPCMs developed long after breakup 3: Similar EPCM landscapes at different margins suggest similar controlling processes 4: EPCMs undergo episodic burial and exhumation rather than slow monotonic denudation, both before rifting and after breakup 5: Post-breakup exhumation at continental margins is not restricted to elevated onshore regions 6: Post-breakup burial and exhumation have affected low lying margins as well as EPCMs 7: Episodic km-scale exhumation and re-burial also affects cratonic regions 8: Exhumation events show a broad level of synchroneity across continents and oceans and correlate with plate boundary events and changes in plate motions. 9: EPCMs are located where there is an abrupt, lateral change in crustal or lithospheric thickness These propositions imply that positive and negative vertical motions at passive margins are controlled by plate-scale processes. Many of these key aspects are absent from current geodynamic models of passive margin development. Understanding the processes that control vertical movements at passive continental margins requires development of realistic geodynamic models that honour these propositions.

  12. Survival Of Magnetic Paleoclimatic Signals From Shallow To Deep Water Marine Redoxomorphic Sediments Across The Northwest Iberian Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Falcon, K. J.; Rey, D.; Rubio, B.

    2013-05-01

    The magnetic properties of marine sediments on the North Atlantic Iberian continental Margin are strongly dependent on the organic matter input to the sediments and the onset of reductive diagenesis. An onshore-offshore gradient in the intensity of early diagenesis was recently described for the Ría de Vigo, matched by similar patterns in the adjacent rias of Pontevedra and Muros. In the ria environments of NW Iberia, early diagenetic dissolution of magnetic minerals can lead to magnetite half-lives of a few decades, and virtually obliterates any paleoenvironmental signal carried by magnetic minerals, rendering magnetic properties especially useful for the study of early diagenesis dynamics. Early diagenesis has also been identified in sediments of the adjacent continental shelf and deeper environments of the Galician Bank and Iberian Abyssal Plain. However, in these settings, slower dissolution of magnetic minerals allows the preservation of paleoclimatic signatures on different temporal scales. For instance, magnetic properties of continental shelf sediments reveal periods of enhanced rainfall and continental sediment input to the shelf, coincident with the Roman Warm Period and Medieval Climatic Optimum. On the contrary, cold periods are associated with less detrital input. Furthermore, levels of intensified diagenesis are also recorded during cold periods, which have been interpreted as periods of intensified coastal upwelling probably related to long-term North Atlantic Oscillation positive state. At the Galician Bank and Iberian Abyssal Plain sediments early diagenesis is also pervasive, although a paleoceanographic record of changes in the concentration of magnetic minerals transported by water masses flowing from the Portuguese Margin can still be identified. In addition to the progressive dissolution of magnetic minerals with depth, bulk magnetic properties in these deep marine settings show strong dependence on the pelagic carbonate sedimentation and low

  13. Anthropogenic impacts on continental margins: New frontiers and engagement arena for global sustainability research and action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K. K.; Glavovic, B.; Limburg, K.; Emeis, K. C.; Thomas, H.; Kremer, H.; Avril, B.; Zhang, J.; Mulholland, M. R.; Glaser, M.; Swaney, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    There is an urgent need to design and implement transformative governance strategies that safeguard Earth's life-support systems essential for long-term human well-being. From a series of meetings of the Continental Margins Working Group co-sponsored by IMBER and LOICZ of IGBP, we conclude that the greatest urgency exists at the ocean-land interface - the continental margins or the Margin - which extends from coastlands over continental shelves and slopes bordering the deep ocean. The Margin is enduring quadruple squeeze from (i) Population growth and rising demands for resources; (ii) Ecosystem degradation and loss; (iii) Rising CO2, climate change and alteration of marine biogeochemistry and ecosystems; and (iv) Rapid and irreversible changes in social-ecological systems. Some areas of the Margin that are subject to the greatest pressures (e.g. the Arctic) are also those for which knowledge of fundamental processes remains most limited. Aside from improving our basic understanding of the nature and variability of the Margin, priority issues include: (i) investment reform to prevent lethal but profitable activities; (ii) risk reduction; and (iii) jurisdiction, equity and fiscal responsibility. However, governance deficits or mismatches are particularly pronounced at the ocean-edge of the Margin and the prevailing Law of the Sea is incapable of resolving these challenges. The "gold rush" of accelerating demands for space and resources, and variability in how this domain is regulated, move the Margin to the forefront of global sustainability research and action. We outline a research strategy in 3 engagement arenas: (a) knowledge and understanding of dynamic Margin processes; (b) development, innovation and risk at the Margin; and (c) governance for sustainability on the Margin. The goals are (1) to better understand Margin social-ecological systems, including their physical and biogeochemical components; (2) to develop practical guidance for sustainable development

  14. Shallow gas in the Iberian continental margin; Gas somero en el margen continental Iberico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gil, S.; Cartelle, V.; Blas, E. de; Carlos, A. de; Diez, R.; Duran, R.; Ferrin, A.; Garcia-Moreiras, I.; Garcia-Garcia, A.; Iglesias, J.; Martinez-Carreno, N.; Munoz Sobrino, C.; Ramirez-Perez, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    The shallow gas reservoirs in marine sediments from the Iberian margin or their escapes can be detected by using direct methods: (1) the measurement of high concentrations of methane or other hydrocarbons in the water column or sediment cores, (2) the identification of chemosynthetic communities and/or authigenic car- bonates in the seafloor, and (3) identification (using underwater videos) of pockmarks or carbonate mounds and mud volcanoes associated with the fluid escapes; or by indirect technical characterization of anomalies in acoustic records such as: (1) the presence of acoustic plumes in echo-sounders records, (2) the identification of acoustic blanking and/or acoustic turbidity in the high resolution seismic records, (3) the interpretation of reflectivity and (4) morphologies of pockmarks or seamounts in sidescan sonar and multibeam echo sounder records. This article is a compilation of acoustic-seismic, sedimentologic and morphologic evidence associated to the presence of shallow gas (accumulations or escapes) that appear in the Iberian margin and hat have been published in various papers. The description is divided into geographical sectors, beginning in the north-eastern end of the Mediterranean margin and ending at the easternmost area of the Cantabrian margin, following a clockwise direction around the Iberian Peninsula. (Author)

  15. 78 FR 8190 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore North Carolina...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS... Information and Nominations for Commercial Leasing for Wind Power Offshore North Carolina (Call), published on... obtaining a commercial wind lease in one or more, or any portion of, the Call Areas, postmarked by March 7...

  16. 78 FR 59968 - Potential Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Oregon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Potential Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental... received an unsolicited request from Principle Power for a commercial wind lease on the OCS offshore Oregon. Principle ] Power's proposed project, the ``WindFloat Pacific Project,'' would consist of a floating wind...

  17. Evidences of late quaternary neotectonic activity and sea-level changes along the western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Veerayya, M.; Thamban, M.; Wagle, B.G.

    The offshore data on sea-level changes along the western margin of India have been reviewed and evidences of Late Quaternary neotectonic activity and subsidence are documented, based on the diagenetic textures of limestones from deeper submarine...

  18. Surficial sediment character of the New York-New Jersey offshore continental shelf region: a GIS compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Arsenault, Matthew A.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Reid, Jane A.; Reid, Jamey M.; Jenkins, Chris J.

    2007-01-01

    series of new geologic maps and reports of the sea floor that will provide scientific insights into the character and geologic development of U.S. continental margins and to use these maps and information to assess the potential availability of offshore sand and gravel resources. The mapping and aggregate resource assessments are being conducted on a national scale using the usSEABED data base as described in Williams and others (2003). Potential uses for these data include: (1) defining the geological variability of the sea floor in relation to benthic habitat diversity; (2) improving our understanding of the processes that control the distribution and transport of bottom sediments and benthic habitats; (3) locating aggregate resources for beach nourishment and industrial applications; and (4) providing a detailed geospatial framework for future marine science research, monitoring, and management activities. The initial assessments are in progress for the New York Bight and Louisiana offshore areas.

  19. First discovery of a cold seep on the continental margin of the central Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batang, Zenon B.; Papathanassiou, Evangelos; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz; Smith, Chris; Salomidi, Maria; Petihakis, George; Alikunhi, Nabeel M.; Smith, Lloyd; Mallon, Francis; Yapici, Tahir; Fayad, Nabil

    2012-06-01

    A new cold brine seep system with microbial mats and metazoan assemblages was discovered by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) on the Saudi continental margin of central Red Sea. Now named as Thuwal Seeps, it has a shallow brine pool between 840 and 850 m water depths that is formed by focused brine expulsions from two sites (Seep I: 22°17.3'N, 38°53.8'E; Seep II: 22°16.9'N, 38°53.9'E). The seep is located at the base of a steep wall rock closer to the shore (20 km) than to the axial trough (120 km). The brine pool does not exhibit a significant thermal anomaly (saline (74‰) among brine pools in the Red Sea. This discovery provides the first direct evidence of a cold seep with associated biota on the continental margin of the Red Sea.

  20. Pb isotope evidence for crust-mantle interactions at late Archean convergent continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halla, Jaana

    2017-04-01

    The global Pb isotope systematics and geochemical diversification of late Archean granitoids indicate a change in a tectonic regime towards the Archean - Proterozoic boundary. After a long-term episodic formation of sodic TTGs of oceanic origin, convergent continental margins with abundant batholiths of potassic granitoids emerged between 3.0-2.5 Ga. The Pb isotope compositions of granitoids reflect a presence of crustal segments of different ages and demonstrate, together with geochemical features, that the batholiths involve both mantle- and crust-derived material. It seems that the increase in crust-mantle interactions, probably as a consequence of frequent slab breakoffs or delamination at convergent continental margins, caused multisource magmatism by triggering melting, metasomatism and hydrothermal activity in the mantle and crust, possibly reflecting an assembling supercontinent towards the end of the Archean.

  1. Deep crustal structure and continent-ocean boundary along the Galicia continental margin (NW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druet, María; Muñoz-Martín, Alfonso; Carbó, Andrés; Acosta, Juan; Granja Bruña, José Luis; Llanes, Pilar; Vázquez, Juan-Tomás; Ercilla, Gemma

    2016-04-01

    The Galicia continental margin is a magma-poor rifted margin with an extremely complex structure. Its formation involves several rifting episodes during the Mesozoic in the vicinity of a ridge triple junction, which produces a change in the orientation of the main structures. In addition, there is an overimposed Cenozoic partial tectonic inversion along its northern border. Although this continental margin has been widely studied since the 70's, most studies have focused on its western part in the transition to the Iberia Abyssal Plain, and there is a significant lack of information on the north and northwestern flanks of this margin. This fact, along with its great structural complexity, has resulted in the absence of a previous comprehensive regional geodynamic model integrating all the processes observed. In the present study we integrate a large volume of new geophysical data (gravity, swath bathymetry and 2D multichannel reflection seismic). Data come from the systematic mapping of the Spanish EEZ project which provides a dense grid of gravity data and full seafloor coverage with swath bathymetry, and from the ERGAP project which provides serially-arranged 2D seismic reflection profiles across the NW Iberia margin. The combined interpretation and modelling of this new information has arisen significant constraints on the origin, the deep crustal structure and the physiographic complexity of the margin, as well as on the characterization of the along- and across-strike variation of the ocean-continent transition along NW Iberia margin. The analysis of this information leads us to propose a conceptual model for the initiation of the tectonic inversion of a magma-poor rifted margin. Finally, a framework for the geodynamic evolution of the Galicia margin has been constructed, involving three main stages: A) an early stage from the end of rifting and oceanic drift in the Bay of Biscay (Santonian); B) an intermediate stage with the beginning of tectonic inversion in

  2. Tectonic evolution and extension at the Møre Margin - Offshore mid-Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theissen-Krah, S.; Zastrozhnov, D.; Abdelmalak, M. M.; Schmid, D. W.; Faleide, J. I.; Gernigon, L.

    2017-11-01

    Lithospheric stretching is the key process in forming extensional sedimentary basins at passive rifted margins. This study explores the stretching factors, resulting extension, and structural evolution of the Møre segment on the Mid-Norwegian continental margin. Based on the interpretation of new and reprocessed high-quality seismic, we present updated structural maps of the Møre margin that show very thick post-rift sediments in the central Møre Basin and extensive sill intrusion into the Cretaceous sediments. A major shift in subsidence and deposition occurred during mid-Cretaceous. One transect across the Møre continental margin from the Slørebotn Subbasin to the continent-ocean boundary is reconstructed using the basin modelling software TecMod. We test different initial crustal configurations and rifting events and compare our structural reconstruction results to stretching factors derived both from crustal thinning and the classical backstripping/decompaction approach. Seismic interpretation in combination with structural reconstruction modelling does not support the lower crustal bodies as exhumed and serpentinised mantle. Our extension estimate along this transect is 188 ± 28 km for initial crustal thickness varying between 30 and 40 km.

  3. Geochemistry of the continental margin sediments of the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, Ch.M.; Murty, P.S.N.

    sediments accumulating on the western continental margin of India between 17 c and 13° latitude are composed predominantly of terrigenous material in the inner shelf with moderate organic carbon content (< 3%), carbonatesediments in the outer shelf with low... organic carbonI~ntent{< I%J and organic carbon rich (upto 12%) carbonate sediments in the slope regionl The b'ulk and partition geocfiemistry of the surface sediments renect the complex intermixture of several sedimentary components (lithogenic. authigenic...

  4. Deep Drilling Results in the Atlantic Ocean: Continental Margins and Paleoenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    beds depositional conditions include 1) eventual have been ertlsd. Second, most DSDP boreholes reduction and stabilization of thermohaline that have...that abnormally thick ocean crust may be discoveries . The present shelf edge is about 20Ian typical of initial rifting stages of sea floor landward...The discovery of gas associated with continental margin separating the major basins. diapirs over the magnetic basement high (along the The relationship

  5. Initiation of Extension in South China Continental Margin during the Active-Passive Margin Transition: Thermochronological and Kinematic Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, X.; Chan, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    The South China continental margin is characterized by a widespread magmatic belt, prominent NE-striking faults and numerous rifted basins filled by Cretaceous-Eocene sediments. The geology denotes a transition from active to passive margin, which led to rapid modifications of crustal stress configuration and reactivation of older faults in this area. Our zircon fission-track data in this region show two episodes of exhumation: The first episode, occurring during 170-120Ma, affected local parts of the Nanling Range. The second episode, a more regional exhumation event, occurred during 115-70Ma, including the Yunkai Terrane and the Nanling Range. Numerical geodynamic modeling was conducted to simulate the subduction between the paleo-Pacific plate and the South China Block. The modeling results could explain the fact that exhumation of the granite-dominant Nanling Range occurred earlier than that of the gneiss-dominant Yunkai Terrane. In addition to the difference in rock types, the heat from Jurassic-Early Cretaceous magmatism in Nanling may have softened the upper crust, causing the area to exhume more readily than Yunkai. Numerical modeling results also indicate that (1) high lithospheric geothermal gradient, high slab dip angle and low convergence velocity favor the reversal of crustal stress state from compression to extension in the upper continental plate; (2) late Mesozoic magmatism in South China was probably caused by a slab roll-back; and (3) crustal extension could have occurred prior to the cessation of plate subduction. The inversion of stress regime in the continental crust from compression to crustal extension imply that the Late Cretaceous-early Paleogene red-bed basins in South China could have formed during the late stage of the subduction, accounting for the occurrence of volcanic events in some sedimentary basins. We propose that the rifting started as early as Late Cretaceous, probably before the cessation of subduction process.

  6. Constraining lithosphere deformation modes during continental breakup for the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate rifted margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanniot, Ludovic; Kusznir, Nick; Mohn, Geoffroy; Manatschal, Gianreto; Cowie, Leanne

    2016-06-01

    A kinematic model of lithosphere and asthenosphere deformation has been used to investigate lithosphere stretching and thinning modes during continental rifting leading to breakup and seafloor spreading. The model has been applied to two conjugate profiles across the Iberia-Newfoundland rifted margins and quantitatively calibrated using observed present-day water loaded subsidence and crustal thickness, together with observed mantle exhumation, subsidence and melting generation histories. The kinematic model uses an evolving prescribed flow-field to deform the lithosphere and asthenosphere leading to lithospheric breakup from which continental crustal thinning, lithosphere thermal evolution, decompression melt initiation and subsidence are predicted. We explore the sensitivity of model predictions to extension rate history, deformation migration and buoyancy induced upwelling. The best fit calibrated models of lithosphere deformation evolution for the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margins require; (1) an initial broad region of lithosphere deformation with passive upwelling, (2) lateral migration of deformation, (3) an increase in extension rate with time, (4) focussing of the deformation and (5) buoyancy induced upwelling. The model prediction of exhumed mantle at the Iberia-Newfoundland margins, as observed, requires a critical threshold of melting to be exceeded before melt extraction. The preferred calibrated models predict faster extension rates and earlier continental crustal separation and mantle exhumation for the Iberia Abyssal Plain-Flemish Pass conjugate margin profile than for the Galicia Bank-Flemish Cap profile to the north. The predicted N-S differences in the deformation evolution give insights into the 3D evolution of Iberia-Newfoundland margin crustal separation.

  7. Great earthquakes along the Western United States continental margin: implications for hazards, stratigraphy and turbidite lithology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Nelson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We summarize the importance of great earthquakes (Mw ≳ 8 for hazards, stratigraphy of basin floors, and turbidite lithology along the active tectonic continental margins of the Cascadia subduction zone and the northern San Andreas Transform Fault by utilizing studies of swath bathymetry visual core descriptions, grain size analysis, X-ray radiographs and physical properties. Recurrence times of Holocene turbidites as proxies for earthquakes on the Cascadia and northern California margins are analyzed using two methods: (1 radiometric dating (14C method, and (2 relative dating, using hemipelagic sediment thickness and sedimentation rates (H method. The H method provides (1 the best estimate of minimum recurrence times, which are the most important for seismic hazards risk analysis, and (2 the most complete dataset of recurrence times, which shows a normal distribution pattern for paleoseismic turbidite frequencies. We observe that, on these tectonically active continental margins, during the sea-level highstand of Holocene time, triggering of turbidity currents is controlled dominantly by earthquakes, and paleoseismic turbidites have an average recurrence time of ~550 yr in northern Cascadia Basin and ~200 yr along northern California margin. The minimum recurrence times for great earthquakes are approximately 300 yr for the Cascadia subduction zone and 130 yr for the northern San Andreas Fault, which indicates both fault systems are in (Cascadia or very close (San Andreas to the early window for another great earthquake.

    On active tectonic margins with great earthquakes, the volumes of mass transport deposits (MTDs are limited on basin floors along the margins. The maximum run-out distances of MTD sheets across abyssal-basin floors along active margins are an order of magnitude less (~100 km than on passive margins (~1000 km. The great earthquakes along the Cascadia and northern California margins

  8. The onset of Walvis Ridge: Plume influence at the continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, T.; Jokat, W.; Ryberg, T.; Behrmann, J. H.; Haberland, C.; Weber, M.

    2017-10-01

    The opening of the South Atlantic is a classical example for a plume related continental breakup. Flood basalts are present on both conjugate margins as well as aseismic ridges connecting them with the current plume location at Tristan da Cunha. To determine the effect of the proposed plume head on the continental crust, we acquired wide-angle seismic data at the junction of the Walvis Ridge with the African continent and modelled the P-wave velocity structure in a forward approach. The profile extends 430 km along the ridge and continues onshore to a length of 720 km. Crustal velocities beneath the Walvis Ridge vary between 5.5 km/s and 7.0 km/s, a typical range for oceanic crust. The crustal thickness of 22 km, however, is approximately three times larger than of normal oceanic crust. The continent-ocean transition is characterized by 30 km thick crust with strong lateral velocity variations in the upper crust and a high-velocity lower crust (HVLC), where velocities reach up to 7.5 km/s. The HVLC is 100 to 130 km wider at the Walvis Ridge than it is farther south, and impinges onto the continental crust of the Kaoko fold belt. Such high seismic velocities indicate Mg-rich igneous material intruded into the continental crust during the initial rifting stage. However, the remaining continental crust seems unaffected by intrusions and the root of the 40 km-thick crust of the Kaoko belt is not thermally abraded. We conclude that the plume head did not modify the continental crust on a large scale, but caused rather local effects. Thus, it seems unlikely that a plume drove or initiated the breakup process. We further propose that the plume already existed underneath the continent prior to the breakup, and ponded melt erupted at emerging rift structures providing the magma for continental flood basalts.

  9. Scheme of 3 interfaces with local isostatic compensation on the Argentine continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza De Marchi, A. C.; Ghidella, M. E.; Tocho, C.

    2013-05-01

    The segment of Argentine continental margin located between 39°S and the Malvinas platform (~49°S) is of passive type and volcanic characteristics revealed by seaward-dipping seismic reflectors sequences (SDRs). The free air gravity edge-effect associated with passive continental margins is one of the most distinctive characteristics of gravity in marine regions. This effect is in large part due to the transition between continental and oceanic crusts, because of their different thicknesses. In this presentation we investigate the Airy type isostatic compensation scheme by using three interfaces in a forward calculation with different approximations of Parker's expression to obtain the isostatic anomaly. After that we perform the inversion of the anomaly thus obtained in order to find the Moho's deflection necessary to compensate it (or minimize it) by using the same scheme of interfaces and the iterative Parker-Oldenburg method (Oldenburg, D., 1974) with more terms in the inversion. The crust-mantle interface (Moho) thus calculated represents a more realistic surface than the one calculated using one term in the inversion and the surface estimated with topographic data and sediment thickness. Even considering that the experiment constitutes a schematic assumption just to test the numerical methods involved, we find that in the comparison with the only available digitized refraction profile, the inverted Moho interface reproduces fairly well the Moho that the seismic profile yields, for the case of the iterative method. This suggests that the inverse calculation with the iterative method is sensible to the presence of the SDRS, at least for this sole profile. Keywords: isostatic anomaly, Moho, passive continental margins Oldenburg, D., 1974. The inversion and interpretation of gravity anomalíes, Geophysics, vol. 39, no. 4, p. 526-536.

  10. Distribution and composition of verdine and glaucony facies from the sediments of the western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thamban, M.; Rao, V.P.

    Investigations on green grains from sediments of the western continental margin of India, between Ratnagiri and Cape Comorin, (water depth 37-330 m) indicate the presence of verdine and glaucony facies. Verdine facies occurs over an area of about...

  11. Changing sedimentary environments during Pleistocene-Holocene in a core from the eastern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Rao, Ch.M.; Mascarenhas, A.; Rao, K.M.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Das, H.C.

    Sedimentological and geochemical investigations of the sediments in a core from the eastern continental margin of India, at a water depth of 1200 m, revealed two distinct types. The Late Pleistocene sediments are greyish-black in colour and consist...

  12. Composition and origin of authigenic carbonates in the Krishna-Godavari and Mahanadi Basins, eastern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Teichert, B.M.A.; Johnson, J.E.; Solomon, E.A.; Giosan, L.; Rose, K.; Kocherla, M.; Connolly, E.C.; Torres, M.E.

    The mineralogical and stable isotopic composition of authigenic carbonates from the KrishnaeGodavari (KG) and Mahanadi Basin provide a deeper insight into the processes inducing carbonate formation in the sediments of the eastern continental margin...

  13. Kinematic evolution of the southwestern Arabian continental margin: implications for the origin of the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voggenreiter, W.; Hötzl, H.

    The tectonic and magnetic evolution of the Jizan coastal plain (Tihama Asir) in southwest Arabia was dominated by SW-NE lithospheric extension related to the development of the Red Sea Rift. A well-exposed, isotopically-dated succession of magmatic rocks (Jizan Group volcanics, Tihama Asir Magmatic Complex) allows a kinematic analysis for this part of the Arabian Red Sea margin. A mafic dyke swarm and several generations of roughly NW-trending normal faults characterized the continental rift stage from Oligocene to early Miocene time. Major uplift of the Arabian graben shoulder probably began about 14 Ma ago. By this time, extension and magmatism ceased in the Jizan area and were followed by an approximately 10 Ma interval of tectonic and magmatic quiescence. A second phase of extension began in the Pliocene and facilitated a vast outpouring of alkaliolivine basalts on the coastal plain. The geometry of faulting in the Jizan area supports a Wernicke-type simple-shear mechanism of continental rifting for the southern Arabian continental margin of the Red Sea.

  14. Continental margin atmospheric climatology and sea level (Historical setting 1974--1975)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrafesa, L.J.; D' Amato, R.; Gabriel, C.; Sawyer, R.J. Jr.

    1978-02-01

    From the many continental shelf dynamics studies which have been made in the past decade, it has become increasingly apparent that a detailed analysis of continental margin waters can only be accomplished with an appreciation of the coastal meteorology. Fortunately, coastal meteorological and, in addition, coastal sea level data have been archived and thus provide coastal oceanographers with inexpensive, priceless and complimentary data sets. Past coastal sea level studies have demonstrated that these data contain not only tidal data but also sub-inertial frequency information which measurably details shelf reesponse to atmospheric forcing. Additionally, a particular region, such as the South Atlantic Bight, can be characterized by the statistics of the temporal spectra of both data sets as well by the alonshore coherences which may exist between stations. In this study, atmospheric wind and pressure have been examined and correlated with coastal sea level changes at various coastal stations along the South Atlantic Bight.

  15. Gravity anomalies, crustal structure and rift tectonics at the Konkan and Kerala basins, western continental margin of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Sheena V.; Radhakrishna, M.; Chand, Shyam; Subrahmanyam, C.

    2012-06-01

    Litho-stratigraphic variation of sedimentary units constructed from seismic sections and gravity anomaly in the Konkan and Kerala basins of the western continental margin of India (WCMI) have been used to model processes such as lithospheric rifting mechanism, its strength, and evolution of flank uplift topography that led to the present-day Western Ghats escarpment. Based on the process-oriented approach, two lithospheric models (necking and magmatic underplating) of evolution of the margin were tested. Both, necking and underplating models suggest an effective elastic thickness (Te) of 5 km and 10 km along Konkan and Kerala basins, respectively and a deep level of necking at 20 km at both basins. Model study suggests that the necking model better explains the observed gravity anomalies in the southern part of the WCMI. A synthesis of these results along with the previously published elastic thickness estimates along the WCMI suggests that a low-to-intermediate strength lithosphere and a deeper level of necking explains the observed flank-uplift topography of the Western Ghats. Process-oriented gravity modelling further suggests that the lateral variations in the lithospheric strength, though not very significant, exist from north to south within a distance of 600 km in the Konkan and Kerala basins along the WCMI at the time of rifting. A comparison with previous Te estimates from coherence analysis along the WCMI indicates that the lithospheric strength did not change appreciably since the time of rifting and it is low both onshore and offshore having a range of 5-15 km.

  16. Kinematic and thermal evolution of the Moroccan rifted continental margin: Doukkala-High Atlas transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouiza, M.; Bertotti, G.; Hafid, M.; Cloetingh, S.

    2010-10-01

    The Atlantic passive margin of Morocco developed during Mesozoic times in association with the opening of the Central Atlantic and the Alpine Tethys. Extensional basins formed along the future continental margin and in the Atlas rift system. In Alpine times, this system was inverted to form the High and Middle Atlas fold-and-thrust belts. To provide a quantitative kinematic analysis of the evolution of the rifted margin, we present a crustal section crossing the Atlantic margin in the region of the Doukkala Basin, the Meseta and the Atlas system. We construct a post-rift upper crustal section compensating for Tertiary to present vertical movements and horizontal deformations, and we conduct numerical modeling to test quantitative relations between amounts and distribution of thinning and related vertical movements. Rifting along the transect began in the Late Triassic and ended with the appearance of oceanic crust at 175 Ma. Subsidence, possibly related to crustal thinning, continued in the Atlas rift in the Middle Jurassic. The numerical models confirm that the margin experienced a polyphase rifting history. The lithosphere along the transect preserved some strength throughout rifting with the Effective Elastic Thickness corresponding to an isotherm of 450°C. A mid-crustal level of necking of 15 km characterized the pre-rift lithosphere.

  17. Thermochronological constraints on the Cambrian to recent geological evolution of the Argentina passive continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollenz, Sebastian; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Rossello, Eduardo A.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Schad, Sabrina; Pereyra, Ricardo E.

    2017-10-01

    Passive continental margins are geo-archives that store information from the interplay of endogenous and exogenous forces related to continental rifting, post-breakup history, and climate changes. The recent South Atlantic passive continental margins (SAPCMs) in Brazil, Namibia, and South Africa are partly high-elevated margins ( 2000 m a.s.l.), and the recent N-S-trending SAPCM in Argentina and Uruguay is of low elevation. In Argentina, an exception in elevation is arising from the higher topography (> 1000 m a.s.l.) of the two NW-SE-trending mountain ranges Sierras Septentrionales and Sierras Australes. Precambrian metamorphic and intrusive rocks, and siliciclastic rocks of Ordovician to Permian age represent the geological evolution of both areas. The Sierras Australes have been deformed and metamorphosed (incipient - greenschist) during the Gondwanides Orogeny. The low-temperature thermochronological (LTT) data (Cenozoic South Atlantic geological evolution. Upper Carboniferous zircon (U-Th/He)-ages (ZHe) indicate the earliest cooling below 180 °C/1 Ma. Most of the ZHe-ages are of Upper Triassic to Jurassic age. The apatite fission-track ages (AFT) of Sierras Septentrionales and the eastern part of Sierras Australes indicate the South Atlantic rifting and, thereafter. AFT-ages of Middle to Upper Triassic on the western side of the Sierras Australes are in contrast, indicating a Triassic exhumation caused by the eastward thrusting along the Sauce Grande wrench. The corresponding t-T models report a complex subsidence and exhumation history with variable rates since the Ordovician. Based on the LTT-data and the numerical modelling we assume that the NW-SE-trending mountain ranges received their geographic NW-SE orientation during the syn- to post-orogenic history of the Gondwanides.

  18. Map showing bottom topography of the Pacific Continental Margin, Cape Mendocino to Point Conception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, T.E.; Wilde, Pat; Normark, W.R.; Evenden, G.I.; Miller, C.P.; Seekins, B.A.; Young, J. D.; Grim, M.S.; Lief, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    All contours, geographic outlines, and political boundaries shown on this map of the bottom topography, or bathymetry, of the Pacific continental margin between 34? and 41? N. latitudes were plotted from digital data bases in the library of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)-National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Joint Office for Mapping and Research (JOMAR). These digital data were obtained and compiled from many sources; consequently, data quality varies within particular data bases as well as from one data base to another.

  19. Structural interpretation of the Konkan basin, southwestern continental margin of India, based on magnetic and bathymetric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K. S.; Murthy, G. P. S.; Rao, D. Gopala; Ramana, M. V.; Rao, M. Gangadhara

    1994-03-01

    Magnetic and bathymetric studies on the Konkan basin of the southwestern continental margin of India reveal prominent NNW-SSE, NW-SE, ENE-WSW, and WNW-ESE structural trends. The crystalline basement occurs at about 5 6 km below the mean sea level. A mid-shelf basement ridge, a shelf margin basin, and the northern extension of the Prathap Ridge complex are also inferred. The forces created by the sea-floor spreading at Carlsberg Ridge since late Cretaceous appears to shape the present-day southwestern continental margin of India and caused the offsets in the structural features along the preexisting faults.

  20. Stratigraphic landscape analysis, thermochronology and the episodic development of elevated, passive continental margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green, Paul F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The continental margin of West Greenland is similar in many respects to other elevated, passive continental margins (EPCMs around the world. These margins are characterised by extensive regions of low relief at elevations of 1–2 kilometres above sea level sloping gently inland, with a much steeper, oceanward decline, often termed a 'Great Escarpment', terminating at a coastal plain. Recent studies, based on integration of geological, geomorphological and thermochronological evidence, have shown that the high topography of West Greenland was formed by differential uplift and dissection of an Oligo-Miocene peneplain since the late Miocene, many millions of years after continental break-up between Greenland and North America. In contrast, many studies of other EPCMs have proposed a different style of development in which the high plateaux and the steep, oceanward decline are regarded as a direct result of rifting and continental separation. Some studies assume that the elevated regions have remained high since break-up, with the high topography continuously renewed by isostasy. Others identify the elevated plains as remnants of pre-rift landscapes. Key to understanding the development of the West Greenland margin is a new approach to the study of landforms, stratigraphic landscape analysis, in which the low-relief, high-elevation plateaux at EPCMs are interpreted as uplifted peneplains: low-relief surfaces of large extent, cutting across bedrock of different age and resistance, and originally graded to sea level. Identification of different generations of peneplain (re-exposed and epigene from regional mapping, combined with geological constraints and thermochronology, allows definition of the evolution leading to the formation of the modern-day topography. This approach is founded particularly on results from the South Swedish Dome, which document former sea levels as base levels for the formation of peneplains. These results support the view

  1. Land-ocean tectonics (LOTs) and the associated seismic hazard over the Eastern Continental Margin of India (ECMI)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Murty, G.P.S.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.

    ) __________________________________________________________________________________ National Institute of Oceanography (C.S.I.R.), Regional Centre, 176, Lawson’s Bay, Visakhapatnam- 530017 India. e-mail: ksr@nio.org 1. Introduction Passive margins, also called as Atlantic type of margins, by definition are generally the sites..., Subrahmanyam AS, Murty GPS, Murthy KSR (2009) Tectonic significance of Gundlakamma river (Krishna Basin) over Eastern Continental Margin of India – A qualitative appraisal (Communicated to Current Science) Subrahmanya K (1996) Active Intraplate deformation...

  2. Sediment provenance and dispersal on tropical starved continental margins: Example of the Potiguar Basin margin, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, H.; Gomes, M. P.; Dantas, E. L.; Soares, C. H.

    2013-12-01

    Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks from the Potiguar Basin have been investigated to determine the provenance of terrigenous and carbonate sediments on the Brazilian Continental shelf offshore of the Acu River. Located in the northern coast of the Rio Grande do Norte State (NE Brazil), the Acu River is submitted to highly dynamic coastal processes, such as mesotidal regime (up to 2.6 m), waves, winds and currents. It is inserted in the geological context of Potiguar Basin and is the largest source of freshwater in this area, as the biggest hydrographic basin. Bottom sediments characterization, including heavy mineral and Nd isotopes studies, associated with an integrated shallow water geophysical investigation was carried out on this area, The integration between currents velocity, particles transported by the current of water and other physical parameters with bedforms characterization and different sedimentary textures in the study area allows a better knowledge of the active sedimentary processes, which are responsible for the formation of morphologic features of this area. The distribution patterns of the principal heavy minerals indicate the major point sources of sediment supply onto the shelf and reveal intensive mixing, sorting processes and that a westerly (E-W) longshore current plays an important role in the sediment dispersal. As a result, the mineral distribution E of the Acu River is rich in stable heavy minerals (mainly zircon and tourmaline) whilst of the Acu River is rich in unstable ones (mainly hornblende and epidote.). In addition to provenance-induced variability, mineralogical differences between E and W provinces could indicate that environmental processes have contributed to the total variability of the inner continental shelf sediments. The Sm-Nd isotopic signatures of the rocks yielded model ages (TDM) in the range of 2,19-2,88 Ga, indicating archean to paleoproterozoic sources from the basement. The terrigenous sediments yielded model ages (TDM

  3. First discovery of a cold seep on the continental margin of the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Batang, Zenon B.

    2012-06-01

    A new cold brine seep system with microbial mats and metazoan assemblages was discovered by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) on the Saudi continental margin of central Red Sea. Now named as Thuwal Seeps, it has a shallow brine pool between 840 and 850. m water depths that is formed by focused brine expulsions from two sites (Seep I: 22°17.3\\'N, 38°53.8\\'E; Seep II: 22°16.9\\'N, 38°53.9\\'E). The seep is located at the base of a steep wall rock closer to the shore (20. km) than to the axial trough (120. km). The brine pool does not exhibit a significant thermal anomaly (<. 0.3°C) and is so far the coldest (21.7°C) and least saline (74‰) among brine pools in the Red Sea. This discovery provides the first direct evidence of a cold seep with associated biota on the continental margin of the Red Sea. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  4. First evidence for the presence of iron oxidizing zetaproteobacteria at the Levantine continental margins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Rubin-Blum

    Full Text Available During the 2010-2011 E/V Nautilus exploration of the Levantine basin's sediments at the depth of 300-1300 m, densely patched orange-yellow flocculent mats were observed at various locations along the continental margin of Israel. Cores from the mat and the control locations were collected by remotely operated vehicle system (ROV operated by the E/V Nautilus team. Microscopic observation and phylogenetic analysis of microbial 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences indicated the presence of zetaproteobacterial stalk forming Mariprofundus spp.-like prokaryotes in the mats. Bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing determined that zetaproteobacterial populations were a dominant fraction of microbial community in the biofilm. We show for the first time that zetaproteobacterial may thrive at the continental margins, regardless of crustal iron supply, indicating significant fluxes of ferrous iron to the sediment-water interface. In light of this discovery, we discuss the potential bioavailability of sediment-water interface iron for organisms in the overlying water column.

  5. Coral forests diversity in the outer shelf of the south Sardinian continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau, Alessandro; Moccia, Davide; Follesa, Maria Cristina; Alvito, Andrea; Canese, Simonepietro; Angiolillo, Michela; Cuccu, Danila; Bo, Marzia; Cannas, Rita

    2017-04-01

    Ecological theory predicts that heterogeneous habitats allow more species to co-exist in a given area, but to date, knowledge on relationships between habitat heterogeneity and biodiversity of coral forests in the outer shelf and upper slope along continental margins is rather limited. We investigated biodiversity of coral forests from 8 sites spread over two different geomorphological settings (namely, pinnacles vs. canyons) in the outer shelf along Sardinian continental margin. Using a combination of multivariate statistical analyses, we show here that differences in the composition of coral assemblages among contrasting geomorphological settings were not statistically significant, whereas significant differences emerged among sites within similar geomorphologies (i.e. among pinnacles and among canyons). Our results reveal that environmental and bathymetric factors such as sediment coverage, slope of the substrate, terrain ruggedness, bathymetric positioning index and aspect were important drivers of the observed patterns of coral biodiversity, in both settings. Spatial variability of coral forests' biodiversity is affected by environmental factors that act at the scale of each geomorphological setting (i.e. within each pinnacle and canyon) rather than by the contrasting geomorphological settings themselves. This result allows us to suggest that simple categorization of benthic communities according topographically defined habitat is unlikely to be sufficient for addressing conservation purposes.

  6. Spatiotemporal relationships between earthquakes of the mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Atlantic continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolarinwa, Oluwaseyi J.

    The seismicity of the mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) was compared in space and time with the seismicity along the Atlantic continental margins of Europe, Africa, North America, the Carribean and South America in a bid to appraise the level of influence of the ridge push force at the MAR on the Atlantic coastal seismicity. By analyzing the spatial and temporal patterns of many earthquakes (along with the patterns in their stress directions) in diverse places with similar tectonic settings, it is hoped that patterns that might be found indicate some of the average properties of the forces that are causing the earthquakes. The spatial analysis of the dataset set used shows that areas with higher seismic moment release along the north MAR spatially correlate with areas with relatively lower seismic moment release along the north Atlantic continental margins (ACM) and vice versa. This inverse spatial correlation observed between MAR seismicity and ACM seismicity might be due to the time (likely a long time) it takes stress changes from segments of the MAR currently experiencing high seismic activity to propagate to the associated passive margin areas presently experiencing relatively low seismic activity. Furthermore, the number of Atlantic basin and Atlantic coast earthquakes occurring away from the MAR is observed to be independent of the proximity of earthquake's epicenters from the MAR axis. The effect of local stress as noted by Wysession et al. (1995) might have contributed to the independence of Atlantic basin and Atlantic coast earthquake proximity from the MAR. The Latchman (2011) observation of strong earthquakes on a specific section of the MAR being followed by earthquakes on Trinidad and Tobago was tested on other areas of the MAR and ACM. It was found that that the temporal delay observed by Latchman does not exist for the seismicity along other areas along the MAR and ACM. Within the time window used for this study, it appears that seismicity is occurring

  7. Magmatism evolution on the last Neoproterozoic development stage of the western Siberian active continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikovskaya, Antonina E.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Matushkin, Nikolay Yu.; Kadilnikov, Pavel I.; Romanova, Irina V.

    2017-04-01

    Rocks from active continental margin complexes are characterized by a wide variety of chemical compositions from depleted in alkali to alkali differentiates. When addressing issues of geodynamic settings in which such rocks form, it is important to understand the evolution of the host tectonic structure, as well as the chemical affiliation of the various rocks composing it. The Yenisey Ridge orogen located in the south-western framing of Siberia is one of the more studied regions with a long history of Neoproterozoic magmatic events. This orogen was formed during the collision of the Central Angara terrane with Siberia, which took place 761-718 Ma. Subsequent subduction-related events in the orogen have been recorded in the coeval magmatism (711-629 Ma) of two complexes: one is the active continental margin complex (Nb enriched igneous rocks - gabbroids, trachybasalts, A-type granites and carbonatites, including contact metasomatites zones with Nb mineralization), and the other one is an island arc complex (differentiated series volcanics, gabbroids and plagiogranites). The rocks of these complexes are respectively located in two suture zones: the Tatarka-Ishimba zone that formed due to the collision mentioned above, and the Yenisei suture marking the subduction zone [Vernikovsky et al., 2003; 2008]. The final Neoproterozoic stage in the evolution of the active margin of Siberia is manifested as adakite-gabbro-anorthosite magmatism in the 576-546 Ma interval. Our results indicate a genetic relationship between the adakites and their host NEB-type metabasites of the Zimovey massif. These Neoproterozoic adakites could have formed in a setting of transform-strike-slip drift of lithospheric plates after the subduction stopped, both from a crustal and mantle-crustal source, similarly to the Cenozoic magmatic complexes of the transform margin in the eastern framing of Eurasia [Khanchuk et al., 2016]. Vernikovsky V.A., Vernikovskaya A.E., Kotov A.B., Sal'nikova E

  8. Geology and tectonic development of the continental margin north of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, A.; Eittreim, S.; Dinter, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The continental margin north of Alaska, as interpreted from seismic reflection profiles, is of the Atlantic type and consists of three sectors of contrasting structure and stratigraphy. The Chukchi sector, on the west, is characterized by the deep late Mesozoic and Tertiary North Chukchi basin and the Chukchi Continental Borderland. The Barrow sector of central northern Alaska is characterized by the Barrow arch and a moderately thick continental terrace build of Albian to Tertiary clastic sediment. The terrace sedimentary prism is underlain by lower Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. The Barter Island sector of northeastern Alaska and Yukon Territory is inferred to contain a very thick prism of Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary marine and nonmarine clastic sediment. Its structure is dominated by a local deep Tertiary depocenter and two regional structural arches. We postulate that the distinguishing characteristics of the three sectors are inherited from the configuration of the rift that separated arctic Alaska from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago relative to old pre-rift highlands, which were clastic sediment sources. Where the rift lay relatively close to northern Alaska, in the Chukchi and Barter Island sectors, and locally separated Alaska from the old source terranes, thick late Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary prisms extend farther south beneath the continental shelf than in the intervening Barrow sector. The boundary between the Chukchi and Barrow sectors is relatively well defined by geophysical data, but the boundary between the Barrow and Barter Island sectors can only be inferred from the distribution and thickness of Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. These boundaries may be extensions of oceanic fracture zones related to the rifting that is postulated to have opened the Canada Basin, probably beginning during the Early Jurassic. ?? 1979.

  9. Gas Hydrates Accumulations on the South Shetland Continental Margin: New Detection Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Solovyov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations in 2006–2010 for hydrocarbon and gas hydrates on the Antarctic Peninsula continental margin are given. In 2004 and 2006, the marine geoelectric researches by methods of forming a short-pulsed electromagnetic field (FSPEF and vertical electric-resonance sounding (VERS had been conducted in this region. The “deposit” type anomaly was mapped by FSPEF survey, and anomalous polarized layers of “hydrocarbon deposit” type were chosen by VERS sounding within this anomaly on Antarctic margin in the region of UAS “Academician Vernadsky.” Anomalous zones of “gas hydrate deposit” type were detected on the South Shetland margin due to the special technology of satellite data processing and interpretation using. These results confirm the high gas hydrates potential of the West Antarctica region. Some practical results of the experimental approbation of these original technologies for the “direct” prospecting and exploration of hydrocarbon (HC and gas hydrates accumulations in different oil-and-gas bearing basins of Russia and Gulf of Mexico are proposed. The integration of satellite data processing and materials of FSPEF-VERS methods enable improving their efficiency for different geological and geophysical problems solving.

  10. Lithospheric thickness jumps at the S-Atlantic continental margins from satellite gravity data and modelled isostatic anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Meysam; Schmeling, Harro; Haas, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Isostatic equilibrium is a good approximation for passive continental margins. In these regions, geoid anomalies are proportional to the local dipole moment of density-depth distributions, which can be used to constrain the amount of oceanic to continental lithospheric thickening (lithospheric jumps). We consider a five- or three-layer 1D model for the oceanic and continental lithosphere, respectively, composed of water, a sediment layer (both for the oceanic case), the crust, the mantle lithosphere and the asthenosphere. The mantle lithosphere is defined by a mantle density, which is a function of temperature and composition, due to melt depletion. In addition, a depth-dependent sediment density associated with compaction and ocean floor variation is adopted. We analyzed satellite derived geoid data and, after filtering, extracted typical averaged profiles across the Western and Eastern passive margins of the South Atlantic. They show geoid jumps of 8.1 m and 7.0 m for the Argentinian and African sides, respectively. Together with topography data and an averaged crustal density at the conjugate margins these jumps are interpreted as isostatic geoid anomalies and yield best-fitting crustal and lithospheric thicknesses. In a grid search approach five parameters are systematically varied, namely the thicknesses of the sediment layer, the oceanic and continental crusts and the oceanic and the continental mantle lithosphere. The set of successful models reveals a clear asymmetry between the South Africa and Argentine lithospheres by 15 km. Preferred models predict a sediment layer at the Argentine margin of 3-6 km and at the South Africa margin of 1-2.5 km. Moreover, we derived a linear relationship between, oceanic lithosphere, sediment thickness and lithospheric jumps at the South Atlantic margins. It suggests that the continental lithospheres on the western and eastern South Atlantic are thicker by 45-70 and 60-80 km than the oceanic lithospheres, respectively.

  11. Pleistocene water cycle and eastern boundary current processes along the California continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Mitchell; Heusser, Linda; Ravelo, Christina; Andreasen, Dyke; Olivarez Lyle, Annette; Diffenbaugh, Noah

    2010-11-01

    Coastal marine sediments contain mixtures of terrestrial and marine paleoclimate proxies that record how the coastal water cycle has behaved over long time frames. We explore a 600 kyr marine record from ODP Site 1018, located due west of Santa Cruz, California, to identify coastal wet and dry periods and to associate them with oceanographic processes. Wet periods in central California, identified by increased tree pollen relative to pollen from grasslands and scrublands, are found on every major deglaciation in the last 600 kyr. Sea surface temperature (SST) data were collected for the last two deglaciations. Wet periods are associated with a rapid rise in SST off central California. SST gradients along the California margin and changes in biogenic deposition show that wet periods in central California are associated with a weakening of the California Current and weakened coastal upwelling. High carbonate production suggests that there was significant curl-of-wind stress upwelling offshore. We propose that wet periods in central California are associated with a meteorological connection to the tropical Pacific and weakened southward flow in the California Current that shunted temperate Pacific water northward into the Alaska gyre. We do not observe evidence for a south-shifted westerly storm track at the last glacial maximum but find that wet periods are diachronous along the California margin. The wettest period around the Santa Barbara Basin peaked at 16 ka, preceding the wet peak in central and northern California by 4 kyr.

  12. Crustal structure and development of the SW Barents Sea and the adjacent continental margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breivik, Asbjoern Johan

    1998-12-31

    Because of its expected petroleum potential, the western Barents Sea has been extensively mapped and investigated. The present thesis deals with many aspects of the geological development of this area. The emphasis is on Late Paleozoic structuring, Late Mesozoic basin formation, and early Tertiary margin formation including geodynamical response to the late Cenozoic sedimentation. The thesis begins with a review of the literature on the Late Palaeozoic structural development of the south-western Barents Sea, Svalbard and eastern Greenland. A structural map is developed for the Upper Carboniferous rift system in the southwestern Barents Sea that shows the interference of the northeasterly and the northerly structural grain. A discussion of the Ottar Basin uses a combination of seismic interpretation and gravity modelling to investigate this important structural element of the Upper Palaeozoic rift system. Previous work on Late Mesozoic basin formation in the southwestern Barents Sea is extended by incorporating new seismic reflection data and gravity modelling. Finally, the focus is shifted from the Barents Sea shelf to the continental-ocean transition and the oceanic basin. Gridded free-air gravity data from the ERS-1 enables the construction of a Bouguer gravity map of unprecedented resolution. The relationship between isostacy and gravity was resolved by modelling the thermal structure across the margin. Admittance analysis of the relationship between bathymetry and free-air gravity indicates an elastic thickness of the oceanic Lithosphere of 15-20 km, which is compatible with the depth to the 450{sup o}C isotherm obtained from thermal modelling. It is concluded that the southwestern Barents Sea margin does not deviate in any significant respects from passive rifted margins, except for a very straight and narrow continent-ocean transition zone. 332 refs., 55 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po as tracers of particle transport mechanisms on continental margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radakovitch, O.; Heussner, S. [Perpignan Univ., 66 (France). Lab. de Sedimentologie et Geochimie Marines; Biscaye, P.; Abassi, A. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory

    1997-12-31

    The natural radionuclides {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, members of the {sup 238}U decay chain, are particularly helpful to the understanding of particle transport processes in the ocean. These isotopes were analysed on sediment trap particles collected during 3 one-year experiments on continental margins. In the Bay of Biscay (Northeastern Atlantic) and in the Gulf of Lion (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea) both as part of the French ECOMARGE programme, and in the Middle Atlantic Bight (Northwestern Atlantic) as part of the SEEP programme. They yielded great insights into scenarios of particle transfer at each site, mainly based on the spatial and temporal distribution of {sup 210}Pb particulate concentrations and fluxes. (author) 11 refs.

  14. Isotope and fatty acid trends along continental shelf depth gradients: Inshore versus offshore hydrological influences on benthic trophic functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvelon, T.; Schaal, G.; Grall, J.; Pernet, F.; Perdriau, M.; A-Pernet, E. J.; Le Bris, H.

    2015-11-01

    Anthropogenic activities and land-based inputs into the sea may influence the trophic structure and functioning of coastal and continental shelf ecosystems, despite the numerous opportunities and services the latter offer to humans and wildlife. In addition, hydrological structures and physical dynamics potentially influence the sources of organic matter (e.g., terrestrial versus marine, or fresh material versus detrital material) entering marine food webs. Understanding the significance of the processes that influence marine food webs and ecosystems (e.g., terrestrial inputs, physical dynamics) is crucially important because trophic dynamics are a vital part of ecosystem integrity. This can be achieved by identifying organic matter sources that enter food webs along inshore-offshore transects. We hypothesised that regional hydrological structures over wide continental shelves directly control the benthic trophic functioning across the shelf. We investigated this issue along two transects in the northern ecosystem of the Bay of Biscay (north-eastern Atlantic). Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis (SIA) and fatty acid analysis (FAA) were conducted on different complementary ecosystem compartments that include suspended particulate organic matter (POM), sedimentary organic matter (SOM), and benthic consumers such as bivalves, large crustaceans and demersal fish. Samples were collected from inshore shallow waters (at ∼1 m in depth) to more than 200 m in depth on the offshore shelf break. Results indicated strong discrepancies in stable isotope (SI) and fatty acid (FA) compositions in the sampled compartments between inshore and offshore areas, although nitrogen SI (δ15N) and FA trends were similar along both transects. Offshore the influence of a permanently stratified area (described previously as a ;cold pool;) was evident in both transects. The influence of this hydrological structure on benthic trophic functioning (i.e., on the food sources available for

  15. 76 FR 14681 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Massachusetts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the...: Request for Interest (RFI) in Commercial Wind Energy Leasing Offshore Massachusetts and Invitation for... Commercial Wind Energy Leasing Offshore Massachusetts and Invitation for Comments from Interested and...

  16. 77 FR 30551 - Commercial Renewable Energy Transmission on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Rhode...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... received an application from Deepwater Wind for a ROW grant on the OCS offshore Rhode Island. Deepwater... that the BITS would serve two purposes: (1) Transmit electrical power from Deepwater Wind's proposed 30 megawatt (MW) offshore wind energy project located in Rhode Island State waters off Block Island to the...

  17. Earth-System Scales of Biodiversity Variability in Shallow Continental Margin Seafloor Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, S. E.; White, S. M.; Hill, T. M.; Kennett, J.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution paleoceanographic sedimentary sequences allow for the description of ecosystem sensitivity to earth-system scales of climate and oceanographic change. Such archives from Santa Barbara Basin, California record the ecological consequences to seafloor ecosystems of climate-forced shifts in the California Current Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ). Here we use core MV0508-20JPC dated to 735,000±5,000 years ago (Marine Isotope Stage 18) as a "floating window" of millennial-scale ecological variability. For this investigation, previously published archives of planktonic δ18O (Globigerina bulloides) record stadial and interstadial oscillations in surface ocean temperature. Core MV0508-20JPC is an intermittently laminated archive, strongly influenced by the California Current OMZ, with continuously preserved benthic foraminifera and discontinuously preserved micro-invertebrates, including ophiuroids, echinoderms, ostracods, gastropods, bivalves and scaphopods. Multivariate statistical approaches, such as ordinations and cluster analyses, describe climate-driven changes in both foraminiferal and micro-invertebrate assemblages. Statistical ordinations illustrate that the shallow continental margin seafloor underwent predictable phase-shifts in oxygenation and biodiversity across stadial and interstadial events. A narrow suite of severely hypoxic taxa characterized foraminiferal communities from laminated intervals, including Bolivina tumida, Globobulimina spp., and Nonionella stella. Foraminiferal communities from bioturbated intervals are diverse and >60% similar to each other, and they are associated with echinoderm, ostracod and mollusc fossils. As with climate shifts in the latest Quaternary, there is a sensitive benthic ecosystem response in mid-Pleistocene continental margins to climatically related changes in OMZ strength.

  18. The De Long Trough: a newly discovered glacial trough on the East Siberian continental margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O'Regan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ice sheets extending over parts of the East Siberian continental shelf have been proposed for the last glacial period and during the larger Pleistocene glaciations. The sparse data available over this sector of the Arctic Ocean have left the timing, extent and even existence of these ice sheets largely unresolved. Here we present new geophysical mapping and sediment coring data from the East Siberian shelf and slope collected during the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition (SWERUS-C3: Swedish – Russian – US Arctic Ocean Investigation of Climate-Cryosphere-Carbon Interactions. The multibeam bathymetry and chirp sub-bottom profiles reveal a set of glacial landforms that include grounding zone formations along the outer continental shelf, seaward of which lies a  >  65 m thick sequence of glacio-genic debris flows. The glacial landforms are interpreted to lie at the seaward end of a glacial trough – the first to be reported on the East Siberian margin, here referred to as the De Long Trough because of its location due north of the De Long Islands. Stratigraphy and dating of sediment cores show that a drape of acoustically laminated sediments covering the glacial deposits is older than ∼ 50 cal kyr BP. This provides direct evidence for extensive glacial activity on the Siberian shelf that predates the Last Glacial Maximum and most likely occurred during the Saalian (Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 6.

  19. Initiation of extension in South China continental margin during the active-passive margin transition: kinematic and thermochronological constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZUO, Xuran; CHAN, Lung

    2015-04-01

    The southern South China Block is characterized by a widespread magmatic belt, prominent NE-striking fault zones and numerous rifted basins filled by Cretaceous-Eocene sediments. The geology denotes a transition from an active to a passive margin, which led to rapid modifications of crustal stress configuration and reactivation of older faults in this area. In this study, we used zircon fission-track dating (ZFT) and numerical modeling to examine the timing and kinematics of the active-passive margin transition. Our ZFT results on granitic plutons in the SW Cathaysia Block show two episodes of exhumation of the granitic plutons. The first episode, occurring during 170 Ma - 120 Ma, affected local parts of the Nanling Range. The second episode, a more regional exhumation event, occurred during 115 Ma - 70 Ma. Numerical geodynamic modeling was conducted to simulate the subduction between the paleo-Pacific plate and the South China Block. The modeling results could explain the observation based on ZFT data that exhumation of the granite-dominant Nanling Range occurred at an earlier time than the gneiss-dominant Yunkai Terrane. In addition to the difference in geology between Yunkai and Nanling, the heating from Jurassic-Early Cretaceous magmatism in the Nanling Range may have softened the upper crust, causing the area to exhume more readily. Numerical modeling results also indicate that (1) high slab dip angle, high geothermal gradient of lithosphere and low convergence velocity favor the subduction process and the reversal of crustal stress state from compression to extension in the upper plate; (2) the late Mesozoic magmatism in South China was probably caused by a slab roll-back; and (3) crustal extension could have occurred prior to the cessation of plate subduction. The inversion of stress regime in the continental crust from compression to crustal extension has shed light on the geological condition producing the red bed basins during Late Cretaceous

  20. Crustal Structure of the Gulf of Aden Continental Margins, from Afar to Oman, by Ambient Noise Seismic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korostelev, F.; Weemstra, C.; Boschi, L.; Leroy, S. D.; Ren, Y.; Stuart, G. W.; Keir, D.; Rolandone, F.; Ahmed, A.; Al Ganad, I.; Khanbari, K. M.; Doubre, C.; Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendall, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Continental rupture processes under mantle plume influence are still poorly known although extensively studied. The Gulf of Aden presents volcanic margins to the west, where they are influenced by the Afar hotspot, and non volcanic margins east of longitude 46° E. We imaged the crustal structure of the Gulf of Aden continental margins from Afar to Oman to evaluate the role of the Afar plume on the evolution of the passive margin and its extent towards the East. We use Ambient Noise Seismic Tomography to better understand the architecture and processes along the Gulf of Aden. This recent method, developed in the last decade, allows us to study the seismic signal propagating between two seismic stations. Ambient Noise Seismic Tomography is thus free from artifacts related to the distribution of earthquakes. We collected continuous records from about 200 permanent or temporary stations since 1999 to compute Rayleigh phase velocity maps over the Gulf of Aden.

  1. Cretaceous source rock characterization of the Atlantic Continental margin of Morocco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabour, H. (ONAREP, Rabat (Morocco))

    1993-02-01

    Characterization of the petroleum potential for the Atlantic margin of Morocco has been based primarily on limited, antiently acquired organic geochemical data. These indicate the area of drilling behind the paleoshelf edge to be only fair in organic carbon and C15+ extract values with predominantly terrestrial kerogen types. Recently acquired geochemical data obtained from relatively recent drilling both behind and beyond the paleoshelf edge indicate 4 depositional facies containing hydrogen rich amorphous kerogen assemblages. These are: (1) Lower to Mid Jurassic inner shelf facies probably deposited in algal rich lagoon-like, (2) Lower Cretaceous non marine coaly facies probably deposited in algal rich swamplike environments, (3) Middle Cretaceous facies characterized by restrited anoxic environment with sediments rich in marine kerogen types deposited under sluggish wather circulation, (4) Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary outer-shelf to Upper slope facies probably deposited under algal-rich upwelling systems. Of these, the Cretaceous facies is the most widespread and represents the best source rock potential characteristics. Correlation of these facies to recently acquired good quality seismic packages allows for extrapolation of probable organic facies distribution throughout the continental margin. This should enhance the hydrocarbon potential of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments both landward and seaward of the paleoshelf edge and thus permits refinement of strategies for hydrocarbon exploration in the area.

  2. The ambient stress field in the continental margin around the Korean Peninsula and Japanese islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Hong, T. K.; Chang, C.

    2016-12-01

    The ambient stress field is mainly influenced by regional tectonics. The stress field composition is crucial information for seismic hazard assessment. The Korean Peninsula, Japanese Islands and East Sea comprise the eastern margin of the Eurasian plate. The regions are surrounded by the Okhotsk, Pacific, and Philippine Sea plates. We investigate the regional stress field around the Korean Peninsula and Japanese islands using the focal mechanism solutions of regional earthquakes. Complex lateral and vertical variations of regional crustal stress fields are observed around a continental margin. The dominant compression directions are ENE-WSW around the Korean Peninsula and eastern China, E-W in the central East Sea and northern and southern Japan, NW-SE in the central Japan, and N-S around the northern Nankai trough. The horizontal compression directions are observed to be different by fault type, suggesting structure-dependent stress field distortion. The regional stress field change by depth and location, suggesting that the compression and tension stress may alternate in local region. The stress field and structures affect mutually, causing stress field distortion and reactivation of paleo-structures. These observation may be useful for understanding of local stress-field perturbation for seismic hazard mitigation of the region.

  3. Post-rift unroofing of the NW Africa passive continental margin during the Central Atlantic opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbal, B.; Bertotti, G.; Andriessen, P. A. M.

    2009-04-01

    Many passive margins considered as being stable for long times, show however late uplift and exhumation at regional scale as assessed by low temperature geochronometry. A large amount of Lower Cretaceous terrigeneous sediments laid down in most of basins along the NW Africa continental margins indicate that a major episode of erosion occurred during early post-rift period in the Central Atlantic. AFT and (U-Th)/He dating performed, along a roughly >500 km N-S transect, on pre-Mesozoic basement rocks from Western Meseta to the Anti-Atlas (Morocco, NW Africa) document a fully unexpected widespread unroofing during the Middle-Late Jurassic to early Late Cretaceous, with AFT and (U-Th)/He ages ranging respectively between 120-170Ma and 115-165Ma. A well documented age cluster of 140±20Ma measured for the Moroccan Meseta, Atlas domains and Anti-Atlas belt designates those domains as potentially being the source areas of the detritic sediments considering the proximity of the depositional basins. Absence of major fault separating the Anti-Atlas from the rest of the Western African Craton during the Mesozoic suggests the unroofing region to extend further in Morocco, as far south as the Reguibat (Mauritania) or even New Guinea, documented by our investigation, and perhaps even further when confirmed by additional AFT and AHe data.

  4. Seamounts along the Iberian continental margins; Los montes submarinos en los margenes continentales de Iberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, J. T.; Alonso, B.; Fernandez-Puga, M. C.; Gomez-Ballesteros, M.; Iglesias, J.; Palomino, D.; Roque, C.; Ercilla, G.; Diaz-del-Rio, V.

    2015-07-01

    Seamounts are first-order morphological elements on continental margins and in oceanic domains, which have been extensively researched over recent decades in all branches of oceanography. These features favour the development of several geological processes, and their study gives us a better understanding of their geological and morphological domains. The seamounts around Iberia are numerous and provide excellent examples of the geo diversity of these morphological elements. Here we present a compilation of 15 seamounts around the Iberian Peninsula. These seamounts have different origins related to the geodynamic evolution (volcanism, extensional or compressive tectonics, and diapirism) of the domains where they are located. The current configuration of their relief has been influenced by Neogene-Quaternary tectonics. Their positioning controls the current morpho-sedimentary processes in the basins and on the margins, and high- lights the fact that downslope processes on seamount flanks (mass flows, turbidite flows, and landslides) and processes parallel to seamounts (contouritic currents) correspond to the major geological features they are associated with them. Biogenic structures commonly develop on the tops of seamounts where occasionally isolated shelves form that have carbonate-dominated sedimentation. (Author)

  5. Distribution, abundance and trail characteristics of acorn worms at Australian continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T. J.; Przeslawski, R.; Tran, M.

    2011-04-01

    Acorn worms (Enteropneusta), which were previously thought to be a missing link in understanding the evolution of chordates, are an unusual and potentially important component of many deep-sea benthic environments, particularly for nutrient cycling. Very little is known about their distribution, abundance, or behaviour in deep-sea environments around the world, and almost nothing is known about their distribution within Australian waters. In this study, we take advantage of two large-scale deep-sea mapping surveys along the eastern (northern Lord Howe Rise) and western continental margins of Australia to quantify the distribution, abundance and trail-forming behaviour of this highly unusual taxon. This is the first study to quantify the abundance and trail behaviour of acorn worms within Australian waters and provides the first evidence of strong depth-related distributions. Acorn worm densities and trail activity were concentrated between transect-averaged depths of 1600 and 3000 m in both eastern and western continental margins. The shallow limit of their depth distribution was 1600 m. The deeper limit was less well-defined, as individuals were found in small numbers below 3000 down to 4225 m. This distributional pattern may reflect a preference for these depths, possibly due to higher availability of nutrients, rather than a physiological constraint to greater depths. Sediment characteristics alone were poor predictors of acorn worm densities and trail activity. High densities of acorn worms and trails were associated with sandy-mud sediments, but similar sediment characteristics in either shallower or deeper areas did not support similar densities of acorn worms or trails. Trail shapes varied between eastern and western margins, with proportionally more meandering trails recorded in the east, while spiral and meandering trails were both common in the west. Trail shape varied by depth, with spiral-shaped trails dominant in areas of high acorn worm densities

  6. Bathymetric highs in the mid-slope region of the western continental margin of India - Structure and mode of origin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.; Paropkari, A.L.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.; Ajay, K.K.; Kodagali, V.N.

    Analysis of the multi- and single beam bathymetric, seismic, magnetic and free-air gravity (ship-borne and satellite derived) data from the western continental margin of India between 12 degrees 40 minutes N and 15 degrees N had revealed...

  7. Structural interpretation of the Konkan basin, southwestern continental margin of India, based on magnetic and bathymetric data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Murty, G.P.S.; Rao, D.G.; Ramana, M.V.; Rao, M.G.

    Magnetic and bathymetric studies on the Konkan basin of the southwestern continental margin of India reveal prominent NNW-SSE, NW-SE, ENE-WSW, and WNE-ESE structural trends. The crystalline basement occurs at about 5-6 km below the mean sea level. A...

  8. Late-Quaternary variations in clay minerals along the SW continental margin of India: Evidence of climatic variations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Sukhija, B.S.; Gujar, A; Nagabhushanam, P.; Paropkari, A

    Down-core variations in illite, chlorite, smectite and kaolinite (the major clays) in two sup(14)C-dated cores collected along the SW continental margin of India show that illite and chlorite have enhanced abundance during 20-17, 12.5, 11-9.5, and 5...

  9. Strike-Slip Deformation at the Ocean-Continent Boundary of the Algerian Continental Margin : Surface Expression of a STEP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badji, R.; Beslier, M. O.; Bracene, R.; Charvis, P.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Galve, A.; Badsi, M.; Graindorge, D.; Benaissa, Z.; Aidi, C.

    2014-12-01

    The complex geodynamic evolution of westernmost Mediterranean during Tertiary suggests the occurrence of STEPs (Subduction-Transform Edge Propagators) along the south-east Iberian-Balearic and the west Algerian margins, in relation to the westward roll-back of the Tethyan slab. Conceptual and numerical modelings of STEP predict strike-slip deformation above the deep tear of the slab, which has not been evidenced so far. We present here the first structural evidence of strike-slip deformation offshore Algeria likely associated to a STEP. New deep multichannel seismic lines of the Algerian-French SPIRAL cruise (September 2009, R/V Atalante) and complementary industrial lines from Sonatrach on the westernmost Algerian margin display a narrow and straight asymmetric basin, bounded by two steep conjugate faults parallel to the margin toe. This basin is divided in two main segments following the change in direction of the margin in the Tenes area. The downward offset of the base of the Messinian salt layer in the basin attests of a thick-skin tectonics. The overall geometry of this basin is in favor of a Miocene to Plio-Quaternary crustal strike-slip deformation, with a transtensional component in the eastern segment, and possibly a dextral shear sense. Wide-angle SPIRAL seismic data modeling indicates that the basin is located at the ocean-continent transition (OCT). Although less clearly expressed in the Khayr-al-Din segment, a comparable basin is also present eastward in the central part of the margin offshore Great Kabylia. Its geometry there is similar to the one observed offshore Tenes, or with a transpressional component at its easternmost end northward of Tigzirt. It is also located at the OCT that is further north in this area. We discuss the interpretation of this more than 400 km-long basin as the surface expression of a STEP offshore Algeria and the implications for the geodynamic evolution of Western Mediterranean.

  10. Cretaceous-Eocene provenance connections between the Palawan Continental Terrane and the northern South China Sea margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lei; Cao, Licheng; Qiao, Peijun; Zhang, Xiangtao; Li, Qianyu; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.

    2017-11-01

    The plate kinematic history of the South China Sea opening is key to reconstructing how the Mesozoic configuration of Panthalassa and Tethyan subduction systems evolved into today's complex Southeast Asian tectonic collage. The South China Sea is currently flanked by the Palawan Continental Terrane in the south and South China in the north and the two blocks have long been assumed to be conjugate margins. However, the paleogeographic history of the Palawan Continental Terrane remains an issue of uncertainty and controversy, especially regarding the questions of where and when it was separated from South China. Here we employ detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and heavy mineral analysis on Cretaceous and Eocene strata from the northern South China Sea and Palawan to constrain the Late Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic provenance and paleogeographic evolution of the region testing possible connection between the Palawan Continental Terrane and the northern South China Sea margin. In addition to a revision of the regional stratigraphic framework using the youngest zircon U-Pb ages, these analyses show that while the Upper Cretaceous strata from the Palawan Continental Terrane are characterized by a dominance of zircon with crystallization ages clustering around the Cretaceous, the Eocene strata feature a large range of zircon ages and a new mineral group of rutile, anatase, and monazite. On the one hand, this change of sediment compositions seems to exclude the possibility of a latest Cretaceous drift of the Palawan Continental Terrane in response to the Proto-South China Sea opening as previously inferred. On the other hand, the zircon age signatures of the Cretaceous-Eocene strata from the Palawan Continental Terrane are largely comparable to those of contemporary samples from the northeastern South China Sea region, suggesting a possible conjugate relationship between the Palawan Continental Terrane and the eastern Pearl River Mouth Basin. Thus, the Palawan Continental

  11. Gas emissions at the continental margin west off Svalbard: mapping, sampling, and quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahling, H.; Römer, M.; Pape, T.; Bergès, B.; dos Santos Fereirra, C.; Boelmann, J.; Geprägs, P.; Tomczyk, M.; Nowald, N.; Dimmler, W.; Schroedter, L.; Glockzin, M.; Bohrmann, G.

    2014-05-01

    We mapped, sampled, and quantified gas emissions at the continental margin west of Svalbard during R/V Heincke cruise He-387 in late summer 2012. Hydroacoustic mapping revealed that gas emissions were not limited to a zone just above 396 m below sea level (m b.s.l.). Flares from this depth gained significant attention in the scientific community in recent years because they may be caused by bottom water-warming induced hydrate dissolution in the course of global warming and/or by recurring seasonal hydrate formation and decay. We found that gas emissions occurred widespread between about 80 and 415 m b.s.l. which indicates that hydrate dissolution might only be one of several triggers for active hydrocarbon seepage in that area. Gas emissions were remarkably intensive at the main ridge of the forlandet moraine complex in 80 to 90 m water depths, and may be related to thawing permafrost. Focused seafloor investigations were performed with the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) "Cherokee". Geochemical analyses of gas bubbles sampled at about 240 m b.s.l. as well as at the 396 m gas emission sites revealed that the vent gas is primarily composed of methane (> 99.70%) of microbial origin (average δ13C = -55.7‰ V-PDB). Estimates of the regional gas bubble flux from the seafloor to the water column in the area of possible hydrate decomposition were achieved by combining flare mapping using multibeam and single beam echosounder data, bubble stream mapping using a ROV-mounted horizontally-looking sonar, and quantification of individual bubble streams using ROV imagery and bubble counting. We estimated that about 53 × 106 mol methane were annually emitted at the two areas and allow a large range of uncertainty due to our method (9 to 118 × 106 mol yr-1). These amounts, first, show that gas emissions at the continental margin west of Svalbard were in the same order of magnitude as bubble emissions at other geological settings, and second, may be used to calibrate models

  12. Gas emissions at the continental margin west of Svalbard: mapping, sampling, and quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahling, H.; Römer, M.; Pape, T.; Bergès, B.; dos Santos Fereirra, C.; Boelmann, J.; Geprägs, P.; Tomczyk, M.; Nowald, N.; Dimmler, W.; Schroedter, L.; Glockzin, M.; Bohrmann, G.

    2014-11-01

    We mapped, sampled, and quantified gas emissions at the continental margin west of Svalbard during R/V Heincke cruise He-387 in late summer 2012. Hydroacoustic mapping revealed that gas emissions were not limited to a zone just above 396 m water depth. Flares from this depth have gained significant attention in the scientific community in recent years because they may be caused by bottom-water warming-induced hydrate dissolution in the course of global warming and/or by recurring seasonal hydrate formation and decay. We found that gas emissions occurred widespread between about 80 and 415 m water depth, which indicates that hydrate dissolution might only be one of several triggers for active hydrocarbon seepage in that area. Gas emissions were remarkably intensive at the main ridge of the Forlandet moraine complex in 80 to 90 m water depths, and may be related to thawing permafrost. Focused seafloor investigations were performed with the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) "Cherokee". Geochemical analyses of gas bubbles sampled at about 240 m water depth as well as at the 396 m gas emission sites revealed that the vent gas is primarily composed of methane (> 99.70%) of microbial origin (average δ13C = -55.7‰ V-PDB). Estimates of the regional gas bubble flux from the seafloor to the water column in the area of possible hydrate decomposition were achieved by combining flare mapping using multibeam and single-beam echosounder data, bubble stream mapping using a ROV-mounted horizontally looking sonar, and quantification of individual bubble streams using ROV imagery and bubble counting. We estimated that about 53 × 106 mol methane were annually emitted at the two areas and allow for a large range of uncertainty due to our method (9 to 118 × 106 mol yr-1). First, these amounts show that gas emissions at the continental margin west of Svalbard were on the same order of magnitude as bubble emissions at other geological settings; second, they may be used to calibrate

  13. Formation of Fe-Mn crusts within a continental margin environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Tracey A.; Hein, James R.; Paytan, Adina; Clague, David A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines Fe-Mn crusts that form on seamounts along the California continental-margin (CCM), within the United States 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone. The study area extends from approximately 30° to 38° North latitudes and from 117° to 126° West longitudes. The area of study is a tectonically active northeast Pacific plate boundary region and is also part of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre with currents dominated by the California Current System. Upwelling of nutrient-rich water results in high primary productivity that produces a pronounced oxygen minimum zone. Hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts forming along the CCM show distinct chemical and mineral compositions compared to open-ocean crusts. On average, CCM crusts contain more Fe relative to Mn than open-ocean Pacific crusts. The continental shelf and slope release both Fe and Mn under low-oxygen conditions. Silica is also enriched relative to Al compared to open-ocean crusts. This is due to the North Pacific silica plume and enrichment of Si along the path of deep-water circulation, resulting in Si enrichment in bottom and intermediate waters of the eastern Pacific.The CCM Fe-Mn crusts have a higher percentage of birnessite than open-ocean crusts, reflecting lower dissolved seawater oxygen that results from the intense coastal upwelling and proximity to zones of continental slope pore-water anoxia. Carbonate fluorapatite (CFA) is not present and CCM crusts do not show evidence of phosphatization, even in the older sections. The mineralogy indicates a suboxic environment under which birnessite forms, but in which pH is not high enough to facilitate CFA deposition. Growth rates of CCM crusts generally increase with increasing water depth, likely due to deep-water Fe sources mobilized from reduced shelf and slope sediments.Many elements of economic interest including Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, W, and Te have slightly or significantly lower concentrations in CCM crusts relative to crusts from the Pacific

  14. The tectonic significance of the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain in the SE Brazilian margin: a Paleoproterozoic through Cretaceous saga of a reworked continental margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Silva Schmitt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain is composed of a Paleoproterozoic basement tectonically interleaved with Neoproterozoic supracrustal rocks (Buzios-Palmital successions. It is in contact with the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Ribeira Orogen along the SE Brazilian coast. The basement was part of at least three continental margins: (a 1.97 Ga; (b 0.59 - 0.53 Ga; (c 0.14 Ga to today. It consists of continental magmatic arc rocks of 1.99 to 1.94 Ga. Zircon cores show a 2.5 - 2.6 Ga inheritance from the ancient margin of the Congo Craton. During the Ediacaran, this domain was thinned and intruded by tholeiitic mafic dykes during the development of an oceanic basin at ca. 0.59 Ma. After the tectonic inversion, these basin deposits reached high P-T metamorphic conditions, by subduction of the oceanic lithosphere, and were later exhumed as nappes over the basement. The Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain collided with the arc domain of the Ribeira Orogen at ca. 0.54 Ga. It is not an exotic block, but the eastern transition between this orogen and the Congo Craton. Almost 400 m.y. later, the South Atlantic rift zone followed roughly this suture, not coincidently. It shows how the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain was reactivated as a continental margin in successive extensional and convergent events through geological time.

  15. Potential tsunamigenic hazard associated to submarine mass movement along the Ionian continental margin (Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceramicola, S.; Tinti, S.; Praeg, D.; Zaniboni, F.; Planinsek, P.

    2012-04-01

    Submarine mass movements are natural geomorphic processes that transport marine sediment down continental slopes into deep-marine environments. Type of mass wasting include creep, slides, slump, debris flows, each with its own features and taking place over timescale from seconds to years. Submarine landslides can be triggered by a number of different causes, either internal (such as changes in physical chemical sediment properties) or external (e.g. earthquakes, volcanic activity, salt movements, sea level changes etc.). Landslides may mobilize sediments in such a way as to form an impulsive vertical displacement of a body of water, originating a wave or series of waves with long wavelengths and long periods called tsunamis ('harbor waves'). Over 600 km of continental margin has been investigated by OGS in the Ionian sea using geophysical data - morpho-bathymetry (Reson 8111, 8150) and sub-bottom profiles (7-10 KHz) - collected aboard the research vessel OGS Explora in the framework of the MAGIC Project (Marine Geohazard along the Italian Coasts), funded by the Italian Civil Protection. The objective of this project is the definition of elements that may constitute geological risk for coastal areas. Geophysical data allowed the recognition of four main types of mass wasting phenomena along the slopes of the ICM: 1) mass transport complexes (MTCs) within intra-slope basins. Seabed imagery show the slopes of all the seabed ridges to be marked by headwall scarps recording widespread failure, multiple debris flows in several basins indicate one or more past episodes of failure that may be linked to activity on the faults bounding the structural highs. 2) submarine landslide - a multiple failure event have been identified (Assi landslide) at about 6 km away from the coastline nearby Riace Marina. Headwall scars up to 50 m high across water depths of 700 to 1400 m, while sub-bottom profiles indicate stacked slide deposits at and near seabed. 4) canyon headwalls - in the

  16. Meso-/Cenozoic long-term landscape evolution at the southern Moroccan passive continental margin, Tarfaya Basin, recorded by low-temperature thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehrt, Manuel; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Jabour, Haddou; Kluth, Oliver

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the first regional study of low-temperature thermochronology to be undertaken in the Tarfaya Basin at the southern Moroccan passive continental margin. The basin is characterised by vast subsidence since Mid-Triassic times, whereby up to 12 km of Meso- to Cenozoic sedimentary rocks accumulated. The study focused on the post-rift vertical movements along a typical ;passive; margin and besides dealt with the timing and maximum temperature reached by potential source rocks of the basin. To unravel the t-T development, thermochronological analyses were performed on 50 outcrop and well samples from Meso-Cenozoic rocks. Thermochronological data reveal a continuous subsidence phase in the offshore basin from Mid-Triassic to recent times. In contrast, apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and apatite fission-track data as well as thermal modelling point to an inversion of the northeastern onshore basin starting in the Palaeogene at 65-55 Ma. The rock uplift and exhumation period resulted in the erosion of a 1.0-1.4 km thick Cretaceous-Palaeogene sedimentary pile contemporaneously with peak Atlas surface uplift in the Cenozoic. The exhumation stage could be an explanation for the increasing periodic influx of detrital material into the offshore and southern onshore Tarfaya Basin since Palaeocene. Detrital apatite fission-track ages from 92 (± 16) to 237 (± 35) Ma of the Upper Cretaceous-Neogene succession indicate no heating above 60 °C confirming immature to early mature Cenomanian to Campanian and Eocene source rocks in the onshore Tarfaya Basin.

  17. Epi-benthic megafaunal zonation across an oxygen minimum zone at the Indian continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, William R.; Oguri, Kazumasa; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Ansari, Zakir A.; Witte, Ursula

    2011-06-01

    The Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) impinges upon the Indian continental margin at bathyal depths (150-1500 m) producing changes in ambient oxygen availability and sediment geochemistry across the seafloor. The influence of these environmental changes upon the epi-benthic megafaunal assemblage was investigated by video survey at six stations spanning the OMZ core (540 m), lower boundary (800-1100 m) and below the OMZ (2000 m), between September and November 2008. Structural changes in the megafaunal assemblage were observed across the six stations, through changes in both megafaunal abundance and lebensspuren (biogenic traces). Most megafauna were absent in the OMZ core (540 m), where the assemblage was characterised by low densities of fishes (0.02-0.03 m -2). In the lower OMZ boundary, megafaunal abundance peaked at 800 m, where higher densities of ophiuroids (0.20-0.44 m -2) and decapods (0.11-0.15 m -2) were present. Total abundance declined with depth between 800 and 2000 m, as the number of taxa increased. Changes in the megafaunal assemblage were predicted by changes in abundance of seven taxonomic groups, correlated to both oxygen availability and sediment organic matter quality. Lebensspuren densities were highest in the OMZ boundary (800-1100 m) but traces of large infauna (e.g., echiurans and enteropneusts) were only observed between 1100 and 2000 m station, where the influence of the OMZ was reduced. Thus, changes in the megafaunal assemblage across the Indian margin OMZ reflect the responses of specific taxa to food availability and oxygen limitation.

  18. Magnetic anomalies of offshore Krishna–Godavari basin, eastern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, K.V.; Murthy, I.V.R.; Krishna, K.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Rao, M.M.M.

    cases, the magnetic anomalies were caused dominantly by the magnetization contrast between the volcanic material and the surrounding oceanic crust, whereas the low gravity anomalies are by the flexures of the order of 3-4 km at Moho boundary beneath them...

  19. Geology, geophysics, and hydrocarbon potential of Antarctica continental margin of Weddell Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinz, K.; Kristoffersen, Y.

    1987-05-01

    A prominent escarpment, called the Explora-Andenes Escarpment, has been recognized between long. 40/sup 0/W, lat. 72/sup 0/40'S and long. 10/sup 0/W, lat. 69/sup 0/20'S. It separates the continental margin from the Weddell Sea basin. Their recent MCS data have revealed the presence of some remarkably symmetric structures beneath a thick pile of tectonically undisturbed sediments. For example, two extensive wedge-shaped basement units occur between 20/sup 0/W and 40/sup 0/W. These units are characterized by a pattern of divergent reflectors which surround an elongated depression in basement. The northern wedge terminates against the Explora-Andenes Escarpment between 25/sup 0/W and 30/sup 0/W. The southern wedge, known as the Explora Wedge, shows a northward-dipping reflection pattern. The seismic characteristics suggest that both wedges consist of volcanic rocks. The basement depression is interpreted as a failed rift basin. The initial fragmentation of Gondwana was accompanied by prolific volcanism, which led to the emplacement of the wedges of dipping reflectors. The tectonomagmatic/volcanic period was followed by transtensional movements between Africa and Antarctica. This phase was heralded by the formation of the Explora-Andenes Escarpment as a new plate boundary and the opening of the Weddell Sea by sea-floor spreading. The Explora-Andenes Escarpment cuts across the early rift structures.

  20. The Central Alborz Permian basaltic magmatism: an evidence of southern passive continental margin of Paleo- Tethys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Delavari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located in the Central Alborz (northeast of Baladeh. The Permianmagmatism in this area occurs as a basaltic unit between Ruteh-Nessen Formation.Petrographically, the rocks are plagioclase phyric and geochemically, display alkalinesodic nature. Chondrite- normalized rare earth element (REE patterns are extremely LREE- enriched similar to those of oceanic island basalts (OIB with (La/SmN,(Sm/YbN and (La/YbN in the ranges of 1.95- 4.62, 4.23- 5.45 and 8.30- 20.52,respectively. Furthermore, primitive mantle normalized multi element diagramsrepresent OIB characteristics. Modeling based on trace element values and the contentof some major elements reveal low degree partial melting (< 10% of a deep (~110 kmgarnet-bearing mantle source. In addition, variation of some trace element ratios such asNb/Rb, K/La, La/Nb, Ba/Nb, Th/Nb and K/Nb suggests a HIMU mantle origin. As thesamples geochemically show intra-plate tectonomagmatic setting without subductionzone signatures. Thus, during the Permian (and earlier times, Alborz has been as apassive continental margin in the southern border of Paleo-Tethys and its magmatism was more probably affected by extensional tectonism or mantle plume activity related toearlier stages of Neo-Tethys ocean development.

  1. Continental margin subsidence from shallow mantle convection: Example from West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhia, Bhavik Harish; Roberts, Gareth G.; Fraser, Alastair J.; Fishwick, Stewart; Goes, Saskia; Jarvis, Jerry

    2018-01-01

    Spatial and temporal evolution of the uppermost convecting mantle plays an important role in determining histories of magmatism, uplift, subsidence, erosion and deposition of sedimentary rock. Tomographic studies and mantle flow models suggest that changes in lithospheric thickness can focus convection and destabilize plates. Geologic observations that constrain the processes responsible for onset and evolution of shallow mantle convection are sparse. We integrate seismic, well, gravity, magmatic and tomographic information to determine the history of Neogene-Recent (water-loaded subsidence occurred in a ∼500 × 500 km region centered on the Mauritania basin during the last 23 Ma. Conversion of shear wave velocities into temperature and simple isostatic calculations indicate that asthenospheric temperatures determine bathymetry from Cape Verde to West Africa. Calculated average excess temperatures beneath Cape Verde are > + 100 °C providing ∼103 m of support. Beneath the Mauritania basin average excess temperatures are < - 100 °C drawing down the lithosphere by ∼102 to 103 m. Up- and downwelling mantle has generated a bathymetric gradient of ∼1/300 at a wavelength of ∼103 km during the last ∼23 Ma. Our results suggest that asthenospheric flow away from upwelling mantle can generate downwelling beneath continental margins.

  2. Rapid Sedimentation, Overpressure, and Focused Fluid Flow, Gulf of Mexico Continental Margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric M. John

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Expedition 308 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP was the fi rst phase of a two-component project dedicated to studying overpressure and fl uid fl ow on the continental slope of the Gulf of Mexico. We examined how sedimentation, overpressure, fl uid fl ow, and deformation are coupled in a passive margin setting and investigated how extremely rapid deposition of fi ne-grained mud might lead to a rapid build-up of pore pressure in excess of hydrostatic (overpressure, underconsolidation, and sedimentary masswasting. Our tests within the Ursa region, where sediment accumulated rapidly in the late Pleistocene, included the first-ever in situ measurements of how physical properties, pressure, temperature,and pore fluid compositions vary within low-permeability mudstones that overlie a permeable, overpressured aquifer, and we documented severe overpressure in the mudstones overlying the aquifer. We also drilled and logged three references sites in the Brazos-Trinity Basin IV and documented hydrostatic pressure conditions and normalconsolidation. Post-expedition studies will address how the generation and timing of overpressure control slope stability, seafl oor seeps, and large-scale crustal fluid fl ow. The operations ofExpedition 308 provide a foundation for future long-term in situ monitoring experiments in the aquifer and bounding mudstones.

  3. Acoustic wipeouts over the continental margins off Krishna, Godavari and Mahanadi river basins, East coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, T.C.S.

    GEOLOGICAL SOClEn' OF iNDIA Vol. 35, June 1990, pp. 559 10 568 Acoustic wipeouts over the Continental Margins off Krishna, Godavari and Mahanadi River Basins, East Coast of India K. S. R. MURTHY AND T. C. S. RAO National Institute of Oceanography, Regional... Centre, Plot No. 52, Kirlampudi LayouI, Vishakapatnam 530023, India Abstract. Loss of seismic reflections, termed as acoustic wipeouts, are observed in lhe high resolution sparker seismic records over the continental shelf and slope of Krishna, Godavari...

  4. 78 FR 45965 - Research Lease on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Virginia, Request for Competitive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... 585.238 for renewable energy research activities, including wind turbine installation and operational... design, develop, and demonstrate a grid-connected 12 megawatt (MW) offshore wind test facility on the OCS...) to acquire an OCS lease for wind energy research activities; (2) solicit indications of interest in a...

  5. Thermal history and evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin in northern Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menges, Daniel; Karl, Markus; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton

    2013-04-01

    From Permo-Carboniferous to Mid Jurassic northern Namibia was affected by deep erosion of the Damara Orogen, Permo-Triassic collisional processes along the southern margin of Gondwana and eastern margin of Africa (Coward and Daly 1984, Daly et al. 1991), and the deposition of the Nama Group sediments and the Karoo megasequence. The lithostratigraphic units consist of Proterozoic and Cambrian metamorphosed rocks with ages of 534 (7) Ma to 481 (25) Ma (Miller 1983, Haack 1983), as well as Mesozoic sedimentary and igneous rocks. The Early Jurassic Karoo flood basalt lavas erupted rapidly at 183 (1) Ma (Duncan et al. 1997). The Early Cretaceous Paraná-Etendeka flood basalts (132 (1) Ma) and mafic dike swarms mark the rift stage of the opening of the South Atlantic (Renne et al. 1992, Milner et al. 1995, Stewart et al. 1996, Turner et al. 1996). The "passive" continental margin in northern Namibia is a perfect location to quantify exhumation and uplift rates, model the long-term landscape evolution and provide information on the influence of mantle processes on a longer time scale. The poster will provide first information on the long-term landscape evolution and thermochronological data. References Coward, M. P. and Daly, M. C., 1984. Crustal lineaments and shear zones in Africa: Their relationships to plate movements, Precambrian Research 24: 27-45. Duncan, R., Hooper, P., Rehacek, J., March, J. and Duncan, A. (1997). The timing and duration of the Karoo igneous event, southern Gondwana, Journal of Geophysical Research 102: 18127-18138. Haack, U., 1983. Reconstruction of the cooling history of the Damara Orogen by correlation of radiometric ages with geography and altitude, in H. Martin and F. W. Eder (eds), Intracontinental fold belts, Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 837-884. Miller, R. M., 1983. Evolution of the Damara Orogen, Vol. 11, Geological Society, South Africa Spec. Pub.. Milner, S. C., le Roex, A. P. and O'Connor, J. M., 1995. Age of Mesozoic igneous rocks in

  6. The biogeochemistry of carbon in continental slope sediments: The North Carolina margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, N.; Levin, L.; DeMaster, D.; Plaia, G.; Martin, C.; Fornes, W.; Thomas, C.; Pope, R.

    1999-12-01

    The responses of the continental slope benthos to organic detritus deposition were studied with a multiple trace approach. Study sites were offshore of Cape Fear (I) and Cape Hatteras (III), N.C. (both 850 m water depth) and were characterized by different organic C deposition rates, macrofaunal densities (III>I in both cases) and taxa. Natural abundances of {sup 13}C and {sup 12}C in particulate organic carbon (POC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and macrofauna indicate that the reactive organic detritus is marine in origin. Natural abundance levels of {sup 14}C and uptake of {sup 13}C-labeled diatoms by benthic animals indicate that they incorporate a relatively young component of carbon into their biomass. {sup 13}C-labeled diatoms (Thalassiorsira pseudonana) tagged with {sup 210}Pb, slope sediment tagged with {sup 113}Sn and {sup 228}Th-labeled glass beads were emplaced in plots on the seafloor at both locations and the plots were sampled after 30 min., 1-1.5 d and 14 mo. At Site I, tracer diatom was intercepted at the surface primarily by protozoans and surface-feeding annelids. Little of the diatom C penetrated below 2 cm even after 14 months. Oxidation of organic carbon appeared to be largely aerobic. At Site III, annelids were primarily responsible for the initial uptake of tracer. On the time scale of days, diatom C was transported to a depth of 12 cm and was found in animals collected between 5-10 cm. The hoeing of tracer from the surface by the maldanid Praxillela sp. may have been responsible for some of the rapid nonlocal transport. Oxidation of the diatom organic carbon was evident to at least 10 cm depth. Anaerobic breakdown of organic matter is more important at Site III. Horizontal transport, which was probably biologically mediated, was an order of magnitude more rapid than vertical displacement over a year time scale. If the horizontal transport was associated with biochemical transformations of the organic matter, it may represent an

  7. Extensional tectonics and sedimentary response of the Early–Middle Cambrian passive continental margin, Tarim Basin, Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqian Gao; Tailiang Fan

    2012-01-01

    The fact that several half-grabens and normal faults developed in the Lower–Middle Cambrian of Tazhong (central Tarim Basin) and Bachu areas in Tarim Basin, northwest China, indicates that Tarim Basin was under extensional tectonic setting at this time. The half-grabens occur within a linear zone and the normal faults are arranged in en echelon patterns with gradually increasing displacement eastward. Extensional tectonics resulted in the formation of a passive continental margin in the south...

  8. Relationship between radionuclides and sedimentological variables in the South Atlantic Continental Margin; Relacoes entre radionuclideos e variaveis sedimentologicas na Margem Continental do Atlantico Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Paulo A.L.; Figueira, Rubens C.L., E-mail: paulo.alves.ferreira@usp.br, E-mail: rfigueira@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico

    2015-07-01

    There is a lack of information regarding marine radioactivity in sediments of the Continental Margin of the South Atlantic. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K radioactivity and sedimentological variables were determined in superficial sediment samples. It was demonstrated that {sup 40}K is a good indicator for sediment granulometry, whilst {sup 137}Cs presents a good correlation with its chemical composition. Moreover, it was identified through the radiometric data the occurrence of input of allochtonous matter to the Brazilian southernmost compartment from the Rio de La Plata estuary, as previously reported in the literature. (author)

  9. Sulfur cycling in an iron oxide-dominated, dynamic marine depositional system: The Argentine continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedinger, Natascha; Brunner, Benjamin; Krastel, Sebastian; Arnold, Gail L.; Wehrmann, Laura M.; Formolo, Michael J.; Beck, Antje; Bates, Steven M.; Henkel, Susann; Kasten, Sabine; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2017-05-01

    The interplay between sediment deposition patterns, organic matter type and the quantity and quality of reactive mineral phases determines the accumulation, speciation and isotope composition of pore water and solid phase sulfur constituents in marine sediments. Here, we present the sulfur geochemistry of siliciclastic sediments from two sites along the Argentine continental slope—a system characterized by dynamic deposition and reworking, which result in non-steady state conditions. The two investigated sites have different depositional histories but have in common that reactive iron phases are abundant and that organic matter is refractory—conditions that result in low organoclastic sulfate reduction rates. Deposition of reworked, isotopically light pyrite and sulfurized organic matter appear to be important contributors to the sulfur inventory, with only minor addition of pyrite from organoclastic sulfate reduction above the sulfate-methane transition (SMT). Pore-water sulfide is limited to a narrow zone at the SMT. The core of that zone is dominated by pyrite accumulation. Iron monosulfide and elemental sulfur accumulate above and below this zone. Iron monosulfide precipitation is driven by the reaction of low amounts of hydrogen sulfide with ferrous iron and is in competition with the oxidation of sulfide by iron (oxyhydr)oxides to form elemental sulfur. The intervals marked by precipitation of intermediate sulfur phases at the margin of the zone with free sulfide are bordered by two distinct peaks in total organic sulfur. Organic matter sulfurization appears to precede pyrite formation in the iron-dominated margins of the sulfide zone, potentially linked to the presence of polysulfides formed by reaction between dissolved sulfide and elemental sulfur. Thus, SMTs can be hotspots for organic matter sulfurization in sulfide-limited, reactive iron-rich marine sedimentary systems. Furthermore, existence of elemental sulfur and iron monosulfide phases meters

  10. Calcareous nannoplankton and benthic foraminiferal assemblages from the Nazare Canyon (Portuguese continental margin): Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, C; Oliveira, A; Rodrigues, A [Division of Marine Geology, Portuguese Hydrographic Institute (IH), Rua das Trinas 49, 1249-093 Lisboa (Portugal); Rosa, F [CIACOMAR, Algarve University, Av. 16 de Julho s/n 8700-311 Olhao (Portugal); Cachao, M; Fatela, F [Geology Center and Geology Department, FCUL, Bloco C6, 3o Piso, sala 6.3.57 Campo Grande 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: catarina.guerreiro@hidrografico.pt

    2009-01-01

    Submarine canyons are assumed to play an important role in oceanic/neritic circulation, marine productivity and sedimentary processes, acting as preferential conduits between the littoral and deep oceanic domain. Here we present first results of a comparative micropalaeontological study on calcareous nannoplankton and benthic foraminifera from surface sediments from the surroundings of the upper Nazare Canyon (Portuguese continental margin) and from the shelf north of the canyon. Regardless of the difficulty to distinguish taphonomical from (palaeo)ecological effects in such a complex and still poorly known marine system, the first results suggest that the canyon's hydro-sedimentary dynamic regime act as a prolongation of the shore/inner shelf hydrodynamic conditions towards west, preventing deposition and/or preservation of the smaller and fragile species of calcareous nannoplankton (e.g. E. huxleyi and G. ericsonii) and enhancing the record of the larger and more opportunistic ones (e.g. G. oceanica); and disturbing benthic foraminiferal productivity and/or diversity, or their preservation in the fossil record. Both calcareous nannoplankton and benthic foraminifera are more abundant off the canyon's domain, suggesting that its highly energetic thalweg conditions are probably filtering the fossil record in the sediment. Still, preliminary results suggest that the occurrence of persistent physical phenomena related with the canyon's morphology and proximity to the coast (e.g. solitary internal waves) may be locally promoting favourable conditions for calcareous nannoplankton, as shown by high values of nannoliths, chlorophyll a and 19' hexanoyloxyfucoxantine (unpublished data) north of the canyon's head. It is our goal to test this hypothesis in the near future by (a) studying multicore and surficial sediments from more recent surveys, and (b) calibrating the sediment results with water column data presently in process at the Institute of

  11. Evolution of the continental margin of southern Spain and the Alboran Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, William P.; Robb, James M.; Greene, H. Gary; Lucena, Juan Carlos

    1980-01-01

    Seismic reflection profiles and magnetic intensity measurements were collected across the southern continental margin of Spain and the Alboran basin between Spain and Africa. Correlation of the distinct seismic stratigraphy observed in the profiles to stratigraphic information obtained from cores at Deep Sea Drilling Project site 121 allows effective dating of tectonic events. The Alboran Sea basin occupies a zone of motion between the African and Iberian lithospheric plates that probably began to form by extension in late Miocene time (Tortonian). At the end of Miocene time (end of Messinian) profiles show that an angular unconformity was cut, and then the strata were block faulted before subsequent deposition. The erosion of the unconformity probably resulted from lowering of Mediterranean sea level by evaporation when the previous channel between the Mediterranean and Atlantic was closed. Continued extension probably caused the block faulting and, eventually the opening of the present channel to the Atlantic through the Strait of Gibraltar and the reflooding of the Mediterranean. Minor tectonic movements at the end of Calabrian time (early Pleistocene) apparently resulted in minor faulting, extensive transgression in southeastern Spain, and major changes in the sedimentary environment of the Alboran basin. Active faulting observed at five locations on seismic profiles seems to form a NNE zone of transcurrent movement across the Alboran Sea. This inferred fault trend is coincident with some bathymetric, magnetic and seismicity trends and colinear with active faults that have been mapped on-shore in Morocco and Spain. The faults were probably caused by stresses related to plate movements, and their direction was modified by inherited fractures in the lithosphere that floors the Alboran Sea.

  12. Crustal stress field perturbations in the continental margin around the Korean Peninsula and Japanese islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junhyung; Hong, Tae-Kyung; Chang, Chandong

    2017-10-01

    Seismic activity and focal mechanisms are governed by the effective stress field that is a combined result of regional tectonic processes and local stress perturbation. This study investigates the regional variation in the stress field in the eastern continental margin of the Eurasian plate around the Korean Peninsula and Japanese islands using a damped stress inversion technique based on the focal mechanism solutions of regional earthquakes. The dominant compressional stress is directed ENE-WSW around the Korean Peninsula and eastern China, E-W at the central East Sea and northern and southern Japan, NW-SE at central Japan, and N-S around the northern Nankai trough. The dominant compression direction changes rapidly in the East Sea and Japanese islands, which may be due to the combined effects of tectonic loading in the subduction zones off the Japanese islands and the India-Eurasia plate boundary. The crustal stress fields around the subduction zones off the Japanese islands present characteristic depth-dependent orientations. The orientations of the largest horizontal stress components, σH, in the subduction zones are subparallel with the plate convergence directions at shallow depths. The σH orientations are observed to rotate clockwise with the depth owing to slab subduction and lithospheric deformation. The regional stress field around the Japanese islands was perturbed temporally by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki megathrust earthquake. The regional stress field was recovered in a couple of years. The stress field and tectonic structures are mutually affected, causing stress field distortion and a localized mixture of earthquakes in different faulting types.

  13. Geomorphology and sediment processes on the continental shelf and the submarine Akhziv canyon offshore north Galilee, eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashqar, Lana; Bookman, Revital; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Ben-Avraham, Zvi

    2013-04-01

    The northern continental shelf of Israel is relatively steep and incised by submarine canyons. The Akhziv canyon is the largest and most developed and the southernmost in a series of canyons that formed off-shore Lebanon up to Beirut. The canyon is incised into the continental shelf 3 km from the northwestern Galilee coast to a depth of 1200 m. This study aims to understand processes responsible for the canyon morphology and the nature of sediment transport and accumulation mechanisms in the continental shelf and down the canyon to the deep sea. Moreover, the geological section in which the canyon is incised to, and the connection to the western Galilee fault system that transverse the continental shelf is explored for the regional perspective. Akhziv canyon consists of two main channels incised in cross-section V-shape at the upper part of the canyon that connect at 700m depth to produce a U-shaped main channel. The canyon's channels orientation implies a possible connection with the region's fault system. The high-resolution bathymetric map (the National Bathymetry Project) was used for the geomorphologic and morphometric analysis to define the connection between the canyon and the north- western Galilee streams that flow in a main east-west direction, parallel to the terrestrial fault system. Gaps in the submarine aeolian calcarenite ridge on the shallow shelf represent the continuation of terrestrial streams westward during low glacial sea level. Alluvial fans, mapped at 40m water depth, testify for sediment transport from land to the continental shelf toward the canyon head. Shallow high-resolution seismic lines (Sparker) were carried out along the continental shelf and canyon head to reveal the sub-surface structure. The seismic interpretation indicates the presence of channel incisions at depths of 10-15 m under the seafloor, with infill of young sediments which represents phases of deposition and erosion along the continental shelf. In addition, Piston

  14. Miocene to Present evolution of the Calabria Tyrrhenian continental margin (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, F.; Sulli, A.; Bertotti, G.; Cella, F.

    2009-04-01

    The Miocene to Present evolution of the Calabria Tyrrhenian Continental Margin (CTCM, Southern Tyrrhenian Sea) are reconstructed using two ENE-WSW oriented, near-vertical seismic profiles (CROP-M27 and SISTER 11 lines). The interpreted profiles were time-to-depth converted, merged and translated in a geological section, which was also extended to the Tyrrhenian bathial plain and the Calabrian arc using wide-angle seismic data [Scarascia et al., 1994], and tested with gravity modelling. Across the CTCM, top of KCU is laterally variable in depth forming basins filled by Oligo-Miocene clastic to terrigenous deposits up to 1500m thick. Basins are separated by major structures with contractional or transcurrent kinematics, where faults are arranged in a positive flower structure fashion, affecting the KCU as well as lower Oligocene to Miocene deposits. The Messinian evaporites display essentially a constant thickness of ~-400m with the exception of the Paola Basin where deep-water Messinian evaporites are up to 1000 m thick. Plio-Quaternary deposits display a remarkable variation in thickness from ~-4.5 km in the Paola Basin to less then 400m in the central sector of the margin. Plio-Quaternary sediments are internally sub-divisible into four sub-units separated by tectonics enhanced angular unconformities. W-ward vergent reverse faults with limited vertical displacement offset the top of KCU as well as the Oligo-Miocene sedimentary and evaporitic units in the eastern side of the Paola basin and in the distal part of the CTCM where a number of closely spaced, W-vergent thrust faults are also observed in the Plio-Pleistocene deposits. Along the CTCM, the only significant normal fault which was identified is located around its central sector, dips to the W and has a displacement of ~-580m. Across the margin, the Moho was inferred at ~-35 km beneath the Calabria Arc and shallows up to 24 km in correspondence with the coastline. Moho deepens again to a depth of ~-28 km in

  15. Extension of Gundlakamma River Fault over eastern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Murty, G.P.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    The bathymetry, magnetic and shallow seismic data were collected between the water depths of 13 to 26 meters north of Ongole to study the tectonic significance of Gundlakamma river towards offshore. The bathymetry in the region is characterized...

  16. Morphosedimentary expression of the Giant Pock Mark structure known as the "Gran Burato" (Transitional Zone, Galicia continental margin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Angel Enrique; Rubio, Belén; Rey, Daniel; Mohamed, Kais; Alvarez, Paula; Plaza-Morlote, Maider; Bernabeu, Ana; Druet, Maria; Martins, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the sedimentary environment and other sedimentological features of the Transitional Zone of the Galicia continental margin, in the vicinity of the giant pock -mark structure known as the Gran Burato. The area is characterized by marginal platforms and a horst-graben system controlled by NW-SE oriented normal faults. In this zone, three giant pockmark structures, one of them known as the Gran Burato, were reported as associated to large-scale fluid escapes. The study area is located on the Transitional Zone (TZ) of the Galicia passive continental margin, which extends from Cape Finisterre (43o N) in the North to around 40oN in the South. This margin shows a complex structural configuration, which is reflected in the seabed, owing to tectonic movements from Mesozoic rifting phases and Eocene compression (Pyrennean Orogeny). Sedimentological, geochemical and physical properties analysis and 14C AMS-dating of a 4 m piston core extracted in the vicinity of the Gran Burato complemented by multibeam and TOPAS surveys allowed characterizing of the sedimentary environment in the study area. The interpretation of these data showed that the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the area controlled by the activity of fluid dynamics.

  17. Quaternary development of resilient reefs on the subsiding kimberley continental margin, Northwest Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay B. Collins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kimberley region in remote northwest Australia has poorly known reef systems of two types; coastal fringing reefs and atoll-like shelf-edge reefs. As a major geomorphic feature (from 12ºS to 18ºS situated along a subsiding continental margin, the shelf edge reefs are in a tropical realm with warm temperatures, relatively low salinity, clear low nutrient waters lacking sediment input, and Indo-West Pacific corals of moderate diversity. Seismic architecture of the Rowley Shoals reveals that differential pre-Holocene subsidence and relative elevation of the pre-Holocene substrate have controlled lagoon sediment infill and reef morphology, forming an evolutionary series reflecting differential accommodation in three otherwise similar reef systems. The Holocene core described for North Scott Reef confirms previous seismic interpretations, and provides a rare ocean-facing reef record. It demonstrates that the Indo-Pacific reef growth phase (RG111 developed during moderate rates of sea level rise of 10 mm/year from 11 to about 7-6.5 ka BP until sea level stabilization, filling the available 27 m of pre-Holocene accommodation. Despite the medium to high hydrodynamic energy imposed by the 4m tides, swell waves and cyclones the reef-building communities represent relatively low-wave energy settings due to their southeast facing and protection afforded by the proximity of the South Reef platform. This study demonstrates the resilience of reefs on the subsiding margin whilst linking Holocene reef morphology to the relative amount of pre-Holocene subsidence.Kimberly é uma região remota e pouco conhecida, localizada no noroeste da Austrália, ali são encontrados dois sistemas recifais: recifes costeiros de franja e os tipo-atois localizados na margem da plataforma continental. Esses recifes formam a feição geomórfica mais importante entre 12ºS a 18ºS estando localizados ao longo de uma margem continental em subsidência. Esses recifes encontram

  18. Extensional tectonics and sedimentary response of the Early–Middle Cambrian passive continental margin, Tarim Basin, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqian Gao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The fact that several half-grabens and normal faults developed in the Lower–Middle Cambrian of Tazhong (central Tarim Basin and Bachu areas in Tarim Basin, northwest China, indicates that Tarim Basin was under extensional tectonic setting at this time. The half-grabens occur within a linear zone and the normal faults are arranged in en echelon patterns with gradually increasing displacement eastward. Extensional tectonics resulted in the formation of a passive continental margin in the southwest and a cratonic margin depression in the east, and most importantly, influenced the development of a three-pronged rift in the northeast margin of the Tarim Basin. The fault system controlled the development of platform – slope – bathyal facies sedimentation of mainly limestone-dolomite-gypsum rock-saline rock-red beds in the half-grabens. The NW-SE trending half-grabens reflect the distribution of buried basement faults.

  19. Lithospheric stretching and the long wavelength free-air gravity anomaly of the Eastern Continental margin of India and the 85 degree E Ridge, Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajesh, S.; Majumdar, T.J.; Krishna, K.S.

    overcompensation of the ridge due to overburden sediment load. In this work we attempted to know; whether, the present day oceanic lithosphere, juxtaposed to the Eastern Continental Margin of India (ECMI), holds the vestiges of lithospheric stretching due...

  20. Location of bottom photographs taken along the U.S. Atlantic East Coast as part of the Continental Margin Program (1963-1968, BPHOTOS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1962, Congress authorized the Continental Margin Program, a joint program between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution...

  1. Strong depth-related zonation of megabenthos on a rocky continental margin (∼700-4000 m) off southern Tasmania, Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thresher, Ronald; Althaus, Franziska; Adkins, Jess; Gowlett-Holmes, Karen; Alderslade, Phil; Dowdney, Jo; Cho, Walter; Gagnon, Alex; Staples, David; McEnnulty, Felicity; Williams, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Assemblages of megabenthos are structured in seven depth-related zones between ∼700 and 4000 m on the rocky and topographically complex continental margin south of Tasmania, southeastern Australia...

  2. Ecological Continuum from the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Watersheds to the East China Sea Continental Margin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    ...) and its adjacent marginal environment, the East China Sea. The studies in this volume bridges the watersheds of the river and the marginal sea through a combined approach of hydro-dynamics, geochemistry, sedimentary processes, ecology and fishery...

  3. Sequence stratigraphy and systems tract analysis of the Neogene-Quaternary continental margin off the Zambezi delta, Mozambique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolla, V. (Elf Exploration, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Macurda, D.B. Jr. (The Energists, Houston, TX (United States)); Nelson, H.R. Jr. (Landmark Graphics Corp., Houston, TX (United States))

    1991-03-01

    During the Neogene and Quaternary, the Zambezi River built a broad delta-platform from 75 to over 100 km into the Indian Ocean. A regional seismic grid shows numerous discontinuities in the delta platform, slope, and deeper basinal areas. Based on downward shifts of reflection terminations and onlaps at or below shelf edge, more than 25 sequences have been identified. Within the gross Neogene package, the basal section is characterized by aggradation, followed by rapid and significant (oblique) progradation, which is then followed by numerous aggradational-progradation and progradation packages in the upper, younger sections. From recognition of aggradation-progradation patterns and from well information, it appears that the first, significant, and rapid progradation occurred since mid-Miocene. The earliest of the Neogene sequence appears thicker towards south and thinner towards north, opposite of the younger sequences. The number of sequences, their modes of stacking, and thickness distributions reflect relative sea-level changes and the points of sediment input as the Zambezi River shifted in position from south to north in time. The Zambezi passive continental margin, located in the Indian Ocean basin, is a stable platform as opposed to the unstable continental margins off the Mississippi, McKenzie, and Niger deltas and is far from the stable margins that were the basis of the Haq et al. cycle-chart (1987). Thus the Zambezi continental margin provides an independent test case for verification of eustatic cycles and for the evaluation of allogenic (eustatic) versus autogenic (subsidence and delta switching) effects on depositional systems and systems tracts.

  4. Historical developments in marine geology and some aspects of fine-grained sediments along the continental margins of India and Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 29 Historical developments in Marine Geology and some aspects of fine- grained sediments along the continental margins of India and Bengal Fan V. Purnachandra Rao National Institute of Oceanography.... The Andhra University, Waltair made pioneering investigations on the eastern continental margin of India in the early 1950s. However, the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE: 1961-1965) is an important landmark in the history of development...

  5. Oligocene-Miocene paleoceanographic changes offshore the Wilkes Land Margin, Antarctica: dinoflagellate cyst and TEX86 analyses of DSDP Site 269

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, Peter; Boterblom, Wilrieke H.; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Hartman, Julian D.; Peterse, Francien

    2017-04-01

    Although a lot of research has been conducted to characterize the onset of Antarctic glaciation at the Eocene-Oligocene transition, little is known about the subsequent evolution and fluctuations of the size of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). The discrepancy between the conclusions of Foster and Rohling (2013) (insensitive global cryosphere between 400-650 ppmv CO2) and variations in benthic foraminiferal δ18O records (0.5-1 ‰) illustrate the uncertainty in particularly the East AIS variability during the Oligocene and Miocene. Increasing awareness of the importance of oceanographic conditions on ice sheet melt emphasize the need to directly infer ice sheet volume fluctuations from sedimentary archives close to the Antarctic margin. In this study, dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) assemblages, dinocyst-based biostratigraphy and TEX86 from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 269, offshore the Wilkes Land Margin (WLM), were used to reconstruct the paleoenvironment and paleoceanographic setting during the Oligocene and Miocene. Preliminary results are indicative of open ocean conditions, Southern Ocean fronts and high productivity waters. Furthermore, biomarker species were found, which are useful for stratigraphic dating. Research conducted at the continental rise of the WLM (Site U1356), by Bijl et al. (in prep.), has allowed for the calibration of dinocysts events of the Oligocene-Miocene Southern Ocean to the international time scale. Comparing the results of Site 269 to Site U1356 can thus provide an age constraint for this record. Correlating paleoceanographic changes between sites can provide insights into the variability of the EAIS during the Oligocene and Miocene, and will contribute to improving predictions of future changes in the Antarctic ice sheet.

  6. Thermal history and evolution of the Rio de Janeiro - Barbacena section of the southeastern Brazilian continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri Gezatt, Julia; Stephenson, Randell; Macdonald, David

    2015-04-01

    The transect between the Brazilian cities of Rio de Janeiro and Barbacena (22°54'S, 43°12'W and 21°13'S, 43°46'W, respectively) runs through a segment of a complex range of N-NE/S-SW trending basement units of the Ribeira Belt and southern Sao Francisco Craton, intensely reworked during the Brasiliano-Pan-African orogenic cycle. The ortho- and paragneisses in the area have metamorphic ages between 650 and 540 Ma and are intruded by pre-, syn- and post-tectonic granitic bodies. The transect, perpendicular to the strike direction of the continental margin, crosses the Serra do Mar escarpment, where the sample density is higher in order to better constrain occasional significant age changes. For logistical reasons, the 40 samples collected were processed in two separate batches for apatite fission track (AFT) analysis. The first batch comprised 19 samples, from which 15 produced fission track ages. Analyses were carried out at University College London (UCL), following standard procedures. Preliminary results for the study show AFT ages between 85.9±6.3 and 54.1±4.2 Ma, generally with younger ages close to the coast and progressively older ages towards the continental interior. The highest area sampled, around the city of Teresopolis, ranges from 740 to 1216 m above sea level and shows ages between 85.9±6.3 and 71.3±5.3 Ma. There is no evident lithological or structural distribution control. Medium track length values range from 12.57 to 13.89 µm and distributions are unimodal. Thermal history modelling was done using software QTQt. Individual sample model cooling curves can be divided into two groups: a dominant one, showing a single, slower cooling trend, and a second one with a rapid initial cooling curve, which becomes less steep around 65 Ma. In both groups the maximum paleotemperatures are around 110 Ma. The thermal history model for the first batch of samples is compatible with a single cooling event for the area following continental rifting and

  7. Sources, sinks and long-term cycling of iodine in the hyperarid Atacama continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Fernanda; Reich, Martin; Pérez-Fodich, Alida; Snyder, Glen; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Vargas, Gabriel; Fehn, Udo

    2015-07-01

    reservoirs. Geochemical mixing models reveal that the measured 129I/I ratios in Atacama are in agreement with multiple sources of iodine that include variable contributions from old organic iodine sources (i.e., marine sedimentary rocks) and younger fluids such as pore waters, geothermal fluids and meteoric waters. Our results show that the large variation observed in the iodine isotopic ratios of different reservoirs (129I/I from 150 to 1580 × 10-15) is indicative of significant mixing and circulation of fluids of meteoric, sedimentary and volcanic origin along the Chilean continental margin in the last 30 million years. We conclude that this protracted and large-scale fluid flow was driven by tectonic uplift and highly influenced by the climatic history of the Atacama Desert. The combination of such factors has played an unforeseen role in transporting and accumulating iodine and other soluble components in the Atacama region, and is evidence that elemental remobilization is a key process in the overall crustal cycle of iodine over scales of millions of years.

  8. Rapid pulses of uplift, subsidence, and subduction erosion offshore Central America: Implications for building the rock record of convergent margins

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vannucchi, P.; Sak, P.B.; Morgan, J.P.; Ohkushi, K.; Ujiie, K.; IODP Expedition 334 Shipboard Scientists; Yatheesh, V.

    at convergent margins. It currently occurs at roughly one-half of Earth’s subduction zones (von Huene and Scholl, 1991; Clift and Vannucchi, 2004), accounting for one-third of the ~5.25 km3 of continental crust consumed annually (Stern, 2011). It also plays...., Leandro, G., Schulze, A., and Dañobeitia, J.J., 1998, Seismic wideangle investigations in Costa Rica—A crustal velocity model from the Pacifi c to the Caribbean: Zentralblatt für Geologie und Paläontologie, v. 1, p. 393–408. Stern, C.R., 2011...

  9. From hyperextended rift to convergent margin types: mapping the outer limit of the extended Continental Shelf of Spain in the Galicia area according UNCLOS Art. 76

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, Luis; Medialdea, Teresa; Vázquez, Juan T.; González, Francisco J.; León, Ricardo; Palomino, Desiree; Fernández-Salas, Luis M.; Rengel, Juan

    2017-04-01

    Spain presented on 11 May 2009 a partial submission for delimiting the extended Continental Shelf in respect to the area of Galicia to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS). The Galicia margin represents an example of the transition between two different types of continental margins (CM): a western hyperpextended margin and a northern convergent margin in the Bay of Biscay. The western Galicia Margin (wGM 41° to 43° N) corresponds to a hyper-extended rifted margin as result of the poly-phase development of the Iberian-Newfoundland conjugate margin during the Mesozoic. Otherwise, the north Galicia Margin (nGM) is the western end of the Cenozoic subduction of the Bay of Biscay along the north Iberian Margin (NIM) linked to the Pyrenean-Mediterranean collisional belt Following the procedure established by the CLCS Scientific and Technical Guidelines (CLCS/11), the points of the Foot of Slope (FoS) has to be determined as the points of maximum change in gradient in the region defined as the Base of the continental Slope (BoS). Moreover, the CLCS guidelines specify that the BoS should be contained within the continental margin (CM). In this way, a full-coverage multibeam bathymetry and an extensive dataset of up 4,736 km of multichannel seismic profiles were expressly obtained during two oceanographic surveys (Breogham-2005 and Espor-2008), aboard the Spanish research vessel Hespérides, to map the outer limit of the CM.In order to follow the criteria of the CLCS guidelines, two types of models reported in the CLCS Guidelines were applied to the Galicia Margin. In passive margins, the Commission's guidelines establish that the natural prolongation is based on that "the natural process by which a continent breaks up prior to the separation by seafloor spreading involves thinning, extension and rifting of the continental crust…" (para. 7.3, CLCS/11). The seaward extension of the wGM should include crustal continental blocks and the so

  10. Southeast Offshore Storage Resource Assessment (SOSRA): Evaluation of CO2 Storage Potential on the Continental Shelf from North Carolina to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, J. H.; Knapp, C. C.; Brantley, D.; Lakshmi, V.; Howard, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Southeast Offshore Storage Resource Assessment (SOSRA) project is part of a major new program, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy for the next two and a half years, to evaluate the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico offshore margins of the United States for geologic storage capacity of CO2. Collaborating organizations include the Southern States Energy Board, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, University of South Carolina, Oklahoma State University, Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy, South Carolina Geological Survey, and Geological Survey of Alabama. Team members from South Carolina are focused on the Atlantic offshore, from North Carolina to Florida. Geologic sequestration of CO2 is a major research focus globally, and requires robust knowledge of the porosity and permeability distribution in upper crustal sediments. Using legacy seismic reflection, refraction, and well data from a previous phase of offshore petroleum exploration on the Atlantic margin, we are analyzing the rock physics characteristics of the offshore Mesozoic and Cenozoic stratigraphy on a regional scale from North Carolina to Florida. Major features of the margin include the Carolina Trough, the Southeast Georgia Embayment, the Blake Plateau basin, and the Blake Outer Ridge. Previous studies indicate sediment accumulations on this margin may be as thick as 12-15 km. The study will apply a diverse suite of data analysis techniques designed to meet the goal of predicting storage capacity to within ±30%. Synthetic seismograms and checkshot surveys will be used to tie well and seismic data. Seismic interpretation and geophysical log analysis will employ leading-edge software technology and state-of-the art techniques for stratigraphic and structural interpretation and the definition of storage units and their physical and chemical properties. This approach will result in a robust characterization of offshore CO2 storage opportunities, as well as a volumetric analysis that is

  11. Neogene to Quaternary stratigraphic evolution of the Antarctic Peninsula, Pacific Margin offshore of Adelaide Island: Transitions from a non-glacial, through glacially-influenced to a fully glacial state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Larter, Robert D.; Maldonado, Andrés

    2017-09-01

    A detailed morphologic and seismic stratigraphic analysis of the continental margin offshore of Adelaide Island on the Pacific Margin of the Antarctic Peninsula (PMAP) is described based on the study of a regular network of reflection multichannel seismic profiles and swath bathymetry. We present an integrated study of the margin spanning the shelf to the continental rise, establish novel chronologic constraints and offer new interpretations on tectonic evolution and environmental changes affecting the PMAP. The stratigraphic stacking patterns record major shifts in the depositional style of the margin that outline three intervals in its evolution. The first non-glacial interval (Early Cretaceous to middle Miocene) encompasses a transition from an active to a passive margin (early Miocene). The second glacially-influenced interval (middle to late Miocene) is marked by pronounced aggradational sedimentary stacking and subsidence. Ice sheets advanced over the middle shelf of the margin at the end of this second interval, while the outer shelf experienced rare progradational events. The third, fully glaciated interval shows clear evidence of glacially dominated conditions on the margin. This interval divides into three minor stages. During the first stage (late Miocene to the beginning of the Pliocene), frequent grounded ice advances to the shelf break began, depositing an initial progradational unit. A major truncation surface marked the end of this stage, which coincided with extensive mass transport deposits at the base of the slope. During the second progradational glacial margin stage (early Pliocene to middle Pleistocene), stacking patterns record clearly prograding glacial sequences. The beginning of the third aggradational glacial margin stage (middle Pleistocene to present) corresponded to an important shift in global climate during the Mid-Pleistocene Transition. Morphosedimentary characteristics observed along the margin today began to develop during the

  12. Peridotites and mafic igneous rocks at the foot of the Galicia Margin: an oceanic or continental lithosphere? A discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korprobst, J.; Chazot, G.

    2016-10-01

    An ultramafic/mafic complex is exposed on the sea floor at the foot of the Galicia Margin (Spain and Portugal). It comprises various types of peridotites and pyroxenites, as well as amphibole-diorites, gabbros, dolerites and basalts. For chronological and structural reasons (gabbros were emplaced within peridotites before the continental break-up) this unit cannot be assigned to the Atlantic oceanic crust. The compilation of all available petrological and geochemical data suggests that peridotites are derived from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, deeply transformed during Cretaceous rifting. Thus, websterite dykes extracted from the depleted MORB mantle reservoir (DMM), were emplaced early within the lithospheric harzburgites; subsequent boudinage and tectonic dispersion of these dykes in the peridotites, during deformation stages at the beginning of rifting, resulted in the formation of fertile but isotopically depleted lherzolites. Sterile but isotopically enriched websterites, would represent melting residues in the peridotites, after significant partial melting and melt extraction related to the thermal erosion of the lithosphere. The latter melts are probably the source of brown amphibole metasomatic crystallization in some peridotites, as well as of the emplacement of amphibole-diorite dykes. Melts directly extracted from the asthenosphere were emplaced as gabbro within the sub-continental mantle. Mixing these DMM melts together with the enriched melts extracted from the lithosphere, provided the intermediate isotopic melt-compositions - in between the DMM and Oceanic Islands Basalts reservoir - observed for the dolerites and basalts, none of which are characterized by a genuine N-MORB signature. An enriched lithospheric mantle, present prior to rifting of the Galicia margin, is in good agreement with data from the Messejana dyke (Portugal) and more generally, with those of all continental tholeiites of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP

  13. Resolving the fine-scale velocity structure of continental hyperextension at the Deep Galicia Margin using full-waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, R. G.; Morgan, J. V.; Minshull, T. A.; Bayrakci, G.; Bull, J. M.; Klaeschen, D.; Reston, T. J.; Sawyer, D. S.; Lymer, G.; Cresswell, D.

    2018-01-01

    Continental hyperextension during magma-poor rifting at the Deep Galicia Margin is characterized by a complex pattern of faulting, thin continental fault blocks and the serpentinization, with local exhumation, of mantle peridotites along the S-reflector, interpreted as a detachment surface. In order to understand fully the evolution of these features, it is important to image seismically the structure and to model the velocity structure to the greatest resolution possible. Traveltime tomography models have revealed the long-wavelength velocity structure of this hyperextended domain, but are often insufficient to match accurately the short-wavelength structure observed in reflection seismic imaging. Here, we demonstrate the application of 2-D time-domain acoustic full-waveform inversion (FWI) to deep-water seismic data collected at the Deep Galicia Margin, in order to attain a high-resolution velocity model of continental hyperextension. We have used several quality assurance procedures to assess the velocity model, including comparison of the observed and modeled waveforms, checkerboard tests, testing of parameter and inversion strategy and comparison with the migrated reflection image. Our final model exhibits an increase in the resolution of subsurface velocities, with particular improvement observed in the westernmost continental fault blocks, with a clear rotation of the velocity field to match steeply dipping reflectors. Across the S-reflector, there is a sharpening in the velocity contrast, with lower velocities beneath S indicative of preferential mantle serpentinization. This study supports the hypothesis that normal faulting acts to hydrate the upper-mantle peridotite, observed as a systematic decrease in seismic velocities, consistent with increased serpentinization. Our results confirm the feasibility of applying the FWI method to sparse, deep-water crustal data sets.

  14. 50-meter grid representing the Holocene transgressive surface (in meters) beneath the inner-continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, NY (FI_HTS, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84, Esri Binary Grid)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mapped approximately 336 square kilometers of the lower shoreface and inner-continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York in...

  15. 50-meter grid representing the Holocene sediment thickness (in meters) on the inner-continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, NY (FI_HISO, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84, Esri Binary Grid)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mapped approximately 336 square kilometers of the lower shoreface and inner-continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York in...

  16. 100-meter grid representing the coastal plain unconformity (in meters) beneath the inner-continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, NY (FI_CPUN, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84, Esri Binary Grid)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mapped approximately 336 square kilometers of the lower shoreface and inner-continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York in...

  17. Variability of interleaving structure of Atlantic Water during its propagation along the Eurasian basin (Arctic Ocean) continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhurbas, Nataliya; Kuzmina, Natalia; Lyzhkov, Dmitry; Ostapchuk, Alexey

    2017-04-01

    In order to give detailed description of the interleaving structure in the Eurasian basin results of observations carried out during NABOS 2008 and Polarstern cruise in 1996 were analyzed. The study was focused on interleaving parameters (structure and vertical scale of intrusions) variability in the upper (150-300 meters) and intermediate (300-700 meters) layers of the ocean. Based on θ,S/θ,σ-diagrams (θ, S and σ are the potential temperature, salinity and potential density, correspondingly) analysis two main results were obtained. First of all it was shown that intrusive layers carried by the mean current along the Eurasian Basin continental margin become deeper relatively isopycnals and thus stimulate ventilation of pycnocline. Second, the area in Eurasian Basin thermocline was found where intrusive layers of large and small scale were absent. This distinctive feature can be explained by intensive mixing between two branches of Atlantic Water, one of which propagates along Eurasian basin continental margin and the other spreads across the basin due to large scale interleaving processes. Among others, one of the possible methods of integral estimation of Atlantic water masses heat and salt contents variations during their expansion along basin continental margin was proposed. Thus it is reasonable to assess variation of square under the θ(S)-diagrams, which illustrate the data obtained from two CTD-stations located on diametrically opposite sides of Eurasian Basin, taking 0.5°C isotherm as a reference value. For verification of the introduced approach the estimates of heat and salt contents variations were made by different methods. Detailed discussion of the results is presented. Work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant No 15-05-01479-a).

  18. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer 2012 Field Season in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarke, A. D.; Lobecker, E.; Malik, M.; VerPlanck, N.

    2012-12-01

    The NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, jointly operated by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research and the NOAA Office of Marine and Aviation Operations, is America's only federally managed ship dedicated solely to ocean exploration. The 2012 field season was spent exploring the northern Gulf of Mexico and the U.S. Atlantic continental shelf break and slope. In the Gulf of Mexico, mapping and remotely operated vehicle operations focused on the salt domes and canyons offshore Mississippi and Louisiana, and characterized several of the hundreds of seeps that were detected in the water column backscatter data collected with the ship's Kongsberg EM 302 multibeam sonar (30 kHz) during the 2011 field season. A team of NOAA and non-NOAA partners identified priority frontier areas along the continental shelf and slope between North Carolina and Cape Cod, mapping numerous canyons selected for focused mapping exploration in partnership with the North East Fisheries Science Center, the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (a state level partnership between various states including NY, NJ, DE, MD, and VA), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) and Virginia Sea Grant. The 2012 mapping efforts built on data collected during the 2011 field season. Okeanos Explorer data were leveraged by NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow to conduct towed camera operations to ground truth multibeam backscatter data for deepwater coral habitat assessment. The Blake Ridge and Cape Fear Diapirs offshore North Carolina were a third focus of exploration operations. Seven 900 meter high cold seeps were discovered in the diapir province. Exploration incorporated WHOI's Sentry autonomous underwater vehicle and its full suite of mapping and oceanographic sensors were used to characterize six seep sites. All data collected by Okeanos Explorer are available via the NOAA public archives with metadata records within 60 to 90 days of the end of each cruise.

  19. Past sea level changes along the western continental margins of India: Evidences from morphology of the sea bed

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.

    Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 97 Past sea level changes along the western continental margins of India: evidences from morphology of the sea bed. K H Vora National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa-403 004 vora...@nio.org The Holocene transgression, considered to be one of the latest episodes of sea-level fluctuations, has evoked considerable interest in varied disciplines of earth sciences. The episodic nature of the transgression is by now widely accepted and it is agreed...

  20. Map showing bottom topography in the deep-sea basins of the Pacific continental margin, Point Conception to Point Loma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, T.E.; Pat, Wilde; Normark, W.R.; Evenden, G.I.; Miller, C.P.; Seekins, B.A.; Young, J. D.; Grim, M.S.; Lief, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    All contours, geographic outlines, and political boundaries shown on this map of the bottom topography, or bathymetry, of the Pacific continental margin between 34° and 41° N. latitudes were plotted from digital data bases in the library of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)-National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Joint Office for Mapping and Research (JOMAR). These digital data were obtained and compiled from many sources; consequently, data quality varies within particular data bases as well as from one data base to another.

  1. Map showing bottom topography of the Pacific Continental Margin, Strait of Juan de Fuca to Cape Mendocino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, M.S.; Chase, T.E.; Evenden, G.I.; Holmes, M.L.; Normark, W.R.; Wilde, Pat; Fox, C.J.; Lief, C.J.; Seekins, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    All contours, geographic outlines, and political boundaries shown on this map of the bottom topography, or bathymetry, of the Pacific continental margin between 34° and 41° N. latitudes were plotted from digital data bases in the library of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)-National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Joint Office for Mapping and Research (JOMAR). These digital data were obtained and compiled from many sources; consequently, data quality varies within particular data bases as well as from one data base to another.

  2. Geochemical zonation and characteristics of cold seeps along the Makran continental margin off Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D.; Bohrmann, G.; Zabel, M.; Kasten, S.

    2009-04-01

    Several highly dynamic and spatially extended cold seeps were found and analyzed on the Makran accretionary wedge off Pakistan during R/V Meteor cruise M74-3 in 2007. In water depths of 550m to 2870m along the continental slope nine different gas escape structures were examined some of which are situated within a stable oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) between 150m and 1100m water depth (von Rad et al., 1996, 2000). Echosounder data indicate several gas bubble streams in the water column. The gas seepage presumably originates from squeezing of massive sediment packages being compressed by subduction at the continental margin off Pakistan. Gas- and fluid venting and associated surface-near anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) feed several cold seepage systems in the seabed. The seep sites show strong inter- and intraspecific variability of benthic chemosynthetic microhabitats. Singular seeps are often colonized by different chemosynthetic organisms in a concentric fashion. The seep-center, where active bubble ebullition occurs, is often colonized by large hydrogen sulfide-oxidizing bacteria, which are surrounded by a rim inhabited by small chemosynthetic clams and tube worms. These different habitats and the associated sediments show distinct geochemical zonations and gradients. Geochemical analyses of pore water and sediment samples obtained via ROV (push corer) show that concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and alkalinity rapidly increase to >15 mmol/l and >35 mmol/l respectively several cm below the seafloor in the center of the cold seep. In places, sulfate is depleted to concentrations below detection limit at the same depth (ROV push core GeoB 12313-6). Ammonium concentrations in this core on the other hand show a different pattern: In the center of the cold seep, which is colonized by bacterial assemblages, ammonium concentrations fluctuate around 100 µmol/l and peak with 274.4 µmol/l just above the aforementioned sulfide maximum values at 5 cm followed by a rapid

  3. Barium as a productivity proxy in continental margin sediments: A study from the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrakashBabu, C; Brumsack, H.-J.; Schnetger, B.; Boettcher, M.E.

    sub(xs) at the SW Indian margin. At the NW Indian margin, where the productivity is moderate to high, suboxic diagenesis is in accord with relatively low Ba sub(as) values and high concentrations of Cd and U, two elements accumulating under oxygen...

  4. Regional Patterns in Invertebrate Assemblages on Offshore Oil Platforms Along the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, S.; Page, H. M.; Miller, R. J.; Doheny, B.; Dugan, J. E.; Schroeder, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    Twenty-seven oil and gas platforms are arrayed offshore California from north of Point Conception south to San Pedro Bay (a coastline distance of >300 km). To test the hypothesis that variability in the structure of sessile invertebrate communities on the platforms is associated with regional differences in sea surface temperature, we sampled space-holding invertebrate taxa photographically on 23 platforms and compared the composition and cover of invertebrates among and within regions using multivariate analyses. To explore temporal variability in invertebrate assemblages, we also compared the cover and composition of invertebrates on a subset of platforms in the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) where data were collected over ten years previously. The composition of invertebrate assemblages differed significantly among regions, and was driven by variation in the relative abundance of certain anemone, bryozoan, tubiferous annelid, sponge, and bivalve taxa. The presence of non-native bryozoan and anemone taxa on some platforms in the south (San Pedro Bay) and southeast SBC contributed to the distinction of these assemblages from the others. Comparison of survey data on the subset of platforms in the SBC surveyed over ten years apart revealed little change in the cover of major space-holding taxa (e.g., anemones Metridium, Corynactis) across platforms, although there was an increase in cover of the non-native bryozoan Watersipora subtorquata between surveys. The existence of geographical patterns in the composition of platform invertebrate assemblages suggests that these assemblages may be useful as barometers of short and longer-term environmental change. For biogeographic transition zones, such as the SBC, monitoring of platform invertebrate assemblages could permit an evaluation of the concept that these zones are particularly susceptible to shifts in the composition of marine species driven by ocean climate.

  5. Bottom current processes along the Iberian continental margin; Procesos sedimentarios por corrientes de fondo a lo largo del margen continental iberico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llave, E.; Hernandez-Molina, F. J.; Ercilla, G.; Roque, C.; Van Rooij, D.; Garcia, M.; Juan, C.; Mena, A.; Brackenridge, R.; Jane, G.; Stow, D.; Gomez-Ballesteros, M.

    2015-07-01

    The products of bottom current circulation around the Iberian continental margin are characterised by large erosional and depositional features formed under a variety of geological and oceanographic contexts. The Iberian margins are influenced by several water masses that mainly interact along the upper and middle con- tinental slopes, as well as along the lower slope with the abyssal plains being influenced to a lesser extent. The main depositional features occur along the Ceuta Contourite Depositional System (CDS) within the SW Alboran Sea, in the Gulf of Cadiz (the most studied so far), the western margins of the Portugal/Galician mar- gin, the Ortegal Spur and the Le Danois Bank or Cachucho. Moreover, erosional contourite features have also been recently indentified, most notably terraces, abraded surfaces, channels, furrows and moats. The majority of these features are formed under the influence of the Mediterranean water masses, especially by the interaction of the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) with the seafloor. The MOW is characterized as relatively warm (13 degree centigrade) and with a high salinity (∼36.5), giving it a high density relative to the surrounding water masses, hence constituting an important contribution to the global thermohaline circulation, making it one of the most studied water masses surrounding Iberia. The development of both depositional and ero- sional contourite features does not only depend on the bottom-current velocity but also on several other important controlling factors, including: 1) local margin morphology affected by recent tectonic activity; 2) multiple sources of sediment supply; 3) water-mass interphases interacting with the seafloor; and 4) glacioeustatic changes, especially during the Quaternary, when the increasing influence of the bottom cur- rent has been observed during the cold stages. The main objective of this special volume contribution is to provide a review and description of the regional along

  6. Early diagenesis of amino acids in NE Atlantic continental margin sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutters, M.M.C.H.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis concentrates on early diagenesis of amino acids in sediments across the NE Atlantic continental slope. Early diagenesis comprises the degradation and transformation processes that take place during transport of amino acids through the water column and the early stages of burial in the

  7. Deglacial changes in the strength of deep southern component water and sediment supply at the Argentine continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warratz, Grit; Henrich, Rüdiger; Voigt, Ines; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Kuhn, Gerhard; Lantzsch, Hendrik

    2017-08-01

    The deep southern component water (SCW), comprising Lower Circumpolar Deep Water (LCDW) and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), is a major component of the global oceanic circulation. It has been suggested that the deep Atlantic water mass structure changed significantly during the last glacial/interglacial cycle. However, deep SCW source-proximal records remain sparse. Here we present three coherent deep SCW paleocurrent records from the deep Argentine continental margin shedding light on deep water circulation and deep SCW flow strength in the Southwest Atlantic since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Based on increased sortable silt values, we propose enhanced deep SCW flow strength from 14 to 10 cal ka B.P. relative to the early deglacial/LGM and the Holocene. We propose a direct influence of deep northern component water (NCW) on deep SCW flow strength due to vertical narrowing of deep SCW spreading, concurrent with a migration of the high-energetic LCDW/AABW interface occupying our core sites. We suggest a shoaled NCW until 13 cal ka B.P., thereby providing space for deep SCW spreading that resulted in reduced carbonate preservation at our core sites. Increased carbonate content from 13 cal ka B.P. indicates that the NCW expanded changing deep water properties at our core sites in the deep Southwest Atlantic. However, southern sourced terrigenous sediments continued to be deposited at our core sites, suggesting that deep SCW flow was uninterrupted along the Argentine continental margin since the LGM.

  8. Alpine inversion of the North African margin and delamination of its continental lithosphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roure, Francois; Casero, Piero; Addoum, Belkacem

    2012-01-01

    [1] This paper aims at summarizing the current extent and architecture of the former Mesozoic passive margin of North Africa from North Algeria in the west up to the Ionian-Calabrian arc and adjacent...

  9. Quantitative restoration the Gulf of Mexico continental margins based on a newly-derived, basin-wide, crustal thickness map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L. C.; Mann, P.

    2016-12-01

    For decades, one of the main difficulties for understanding the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is quantifying the amount of crustal thinning of its deeply-buried and salt-covered continental margins formed during the Triassic-Jurassic rifting. In this study, we present a new crustal thickness map for the entire GOM and its surrounding areas based on integration of: 1) depth to basement compilation of previous seismic refraction and well data; and 2) regional estimation of Moho depths from 3D gravity inversion. Gravity modeling of salt thickness and Moho depth provide new constraints on crustal thickness in areas where refraction and well data are not available from both the US and Mexican GOM. Our derived crustal thickness map shows a zone of stretched continental crust with an average thickness of 20 km extending 700 km from the Ouachita foldbelt to the Sigsbee escarpment and in a 200-km-wide zone along the north and NW edge of the Yucatan block. To fully reconstruct the GOM to its pre-rift stage, we first close the late Jurassic oceanic part of the deep GOM using the traces of oceanic transform faults mapped from satellite gravity data. We then use our crustal thickness map to restore the thinned continental crust of the conjugate margins. Restoring the Yucatan block in a NW-SE direction produces the optimal, closed-fit model which supports a two-phase, GOM opening concept with early asymmetrical rifting across a broader, more extended, North American lower plate ( 250 km) in the northern, US GOM and a narrower, less extended, Yucatan upper plate ( 100 km) in the southern, Mexican GOM. Our full-fit reconstruction shows a single, post-rift Louann-Campeche salt-filled sag basin and re-aligned Paleozoic magnetic trends between the Yucatan block and Florida.

  10. Nutrient Distributions, Transports, and Budgets on the Inner Margin of a River-Dominated Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    2008), A retrospective analysis of nutrients and phytoplankton productivity in the Mississippi River plume, Cont. Shelf Res., 28, 1466–1475. Lopez...nutrients delivered by the Mississippi and Atchafalaya river basin (MARB) to the inner Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) were examined using a three...Atchafalaya river basin (MARB) [Dunn, 1996], with other, mainly unquantified, inputs from coastal bays, and upwelling of nutrients from waters below the

  11. A regional assessment of potential environmental hazards to and limitations on petroleum development of the Southeastern United States Atlantic continental shelf, slope, and rise, offshore North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popenoe, Peter; Coward, E.L.; Cashman, K.V.

    1982-01-01

    More than 11,000 km of high-resolution seismic-reflection data, 325 km of mid-range sidescan-sonar data, and 500 km of long-range sidescan-sonar data were examined and used to construct an environmental geology map of the Continental Shelf, Slope, and Rise for the area of the U.S. Atlantic margin between lats. 32?N. and 37?N. Hardgrounds and two faults described in previous literature also are shown on the map. On the Continental Shelf, at least two faults, the Helena Banks fault and the White Oak lineament, appear to be tectonic in origin. However, a lack of historical seismicity associated with these faults indicates that they are probably not active at the present time. Hardgrounds are widely scattered but are most abundant in Onslow Bay. Although paleostream channels are common nearshore, they do not appear to be common on the central and outer shelf except off Albemarle Sound where extensive Pleistocene, Pliocene, and late Miocene channels extend across the shelf. Mobile bottom sediments are confined mainly to the shoals off Cape Romain, Cape Fear, Cape Lookout, and Cape Hatteras. Elsewhere the sand cover is thin, and older more indurated rocks are present in subcrop. No slope-instability features were noted on the Florida-Hatteras slope off North Carolina. The lack of features indicates that this slope is relatively stable. Evidence for scour by strong currents is ubiquitous on the northern Blake Plateau although deep-water reefs are sparse. The outer edge of the plateau is dominated by a major growth fault and numerous splay and antithetic faults. These faults are the product of salt tectonism in the Carolina trough and thus are not associated with seismicity. Displacements observed near the sea floor and breached diapirs offshore indicate that the main fault is still moving. Associated with the faults are collapse features that are interpreted to be caused by karst solution and cavernous porosity in Eocene and Oligocene limestones at depth. Major slumps

  12. Methane Gas Hydrate Stability Models on Continental Shelves in Response to Glacio-Eustatic Sea Level Variations: Examples from Canadian Oceanic Margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Safanda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We model numerically regions of the Canadian continental shelves during successive glacio-eustatic cycles to illustrate past, current and future marine gas hydrate (GH stability and instability. These models indicated that the marine GH resource has dynamic features and the formation age and resource volumes depend on the dynamics of the ocean-atmosphere system as it responds to both natural (glacial-interglacial and anthropogenic (climate change forcing. Our models focus on the interval beginning three million years ago (i.e., Late Pliocene-Holocene. They continue through the current interglacial and they are projected to its anticipated natural end. During the current interglacial the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ thickness in each region responded uniquely as a function of changes in water depth and sea bottom temperature influenced by ocean currents. In general, the GHSZ in the deeper parts of the Pacific and Atlantic margins (≥1316 m thinned primarily due to increased water bottom temperatures. The GHSZ is highly variable in the shallower settings on the same margins (~400–500 m. On the Pacific Margin shallow GH dissociated completely prior to nine thousand years ago but the effects of subsequent sea level rise reestablished a persistent, thin GHSZ. On the Atlantic Margin Scotian Shelf the warm Gulf Stream caused GHSZ to disappear completely, whereas in shallow water depths offshore Labrador the combination of the cool Labrador Current and sea level rise increased the GHSZ. If future ocean bottom temperatures remain constant, these general characteristics will persist until the current interglacial ends. If the sea bottom warms, possibly in response to global climate change, there could be a significant reduction to complete loss of GH stability, especially on the shallow parts of the continental shelf. The interglacial GH thinning rates constrain rates at which carbon can be transferred between the GH reservoir and the atmosphere

  13. Characterization of Sedimentary Deposits Using usSEABED for Large-scale Mapping, Modeling and Research of U.S.Continental Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. J.; Reid, J. A.; Arsenault, M. A.; Jenkins, C.

    2006-12-01

    Geologic maps of offshore areas containing detailed morphologic features and sediment character can serve many scientific and operational purposes. Such maps have been lacking, but recent computer technology and software to capture diverse marine data are offering promise. Continental margins, products of complex geologic history and dynamic oceanographic processes, dominated by the Holocene marine transgression, contain landforms which provide a variety of important functions: critical habitats for fish, ship navigation, national defense, and engineering activities (i.e., oil and gas platforms, pipeline and cable routes, wind-energy sites) and contain important sedimentary records. Some shelf areas also contain sedimentary deposits such as sand and gravel, regarded as potential aggregate resources for mitigating coastal erosion, reducing vulnerability to hazards, and restoring ecosystems. Because coastal and offshore areas are increasingly important, knowledge of the framework geology and marine processes is useful to many. Especially valuable are comprehensive and integrated digital databases based on data from original sources in the marine community. Products of interest are GIS maps containing thematic information such as seafloor physiography, geology, sediment character and texture, seafloor roughness, and geotechnical engineering properties. These map products are useful to scientists modeling nearshore and shelf processes as well as planners and managers. The USGS with partners is leading a Nation-wide program to gather a wide variety of extant marine geologic data into the usSEABED system (http://walrus.wr.usgs/usseabed). This provides a centralized, fully integrated digital database of marine geologic data collected over the past 50 years by USGS, other federal and state agencies, universities and private companies. To date, approximately 325,000 data points from the U.S. EEZ reside in usSEABED. The usSEABED, which combines a broad array of physical data

  14. Regional marine geophysical studies of the south western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; SubbaRaju, L.V.; Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Ramprasad, T.; Chaubey, A.K.

    from east to west, the shelf edge, Kerala-Laccadive graben, the Laccadive ridge and the abyssal plains. A preliminary study of the data revealed that i) the acoustic basement in the shelf margin basin is in the form of ridge complex which widens...

  15. Epibenthic megacrustaceans from the continental margin and slope of the Southwestern Gulf of Mexico: factors responsible for variability in species composition and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaytan-Caballero, A.; Escobar, E.; Villalobos-Hiriart, J. L.

    2007-05-01

    Specimens collected from trawls on board UNAM's R/V Justo Sierra along 4 years has allowed us to describe the community structure of megacrustaceans collected on the continental margin (45 to 156 m) and upper slope (251 to 705m) in the Mexican Ridges and the Campeche Bank of the southern Gulf of Mexico. The species composition, species richness, density and diversity varied among geographic regions and in the depth gradient. A total of 76 species were identified and grouped in 2 orders, 5 infraorders, 37 families and 53 genera. This study extends the known geographic ranges of the species Homolodromia monstrosa and the proposal of Munida constricta and Munidopsis polita. The largest number of species was recorded in the Mexican Ridges (9+3.16) and on the upper continental shelf (10+3.5); lower values were found on the continental margin. The largest densities were recorded on the continental margin in the Mexican Ridges. Megacrustaceans show in general low frequencies and low abundances, characterizing them as rare components of benthic assemblages. In spite of the great similarity among continental shelf and upper continental slope, two subgroups were recognized reflecting specific habitat and time variation

  16. Change in morphology and modern sediment thickness on the inner continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York between 2011 and 2014: Analysis of hurricane impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, William C.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Warner, John C.; List, Jeffrey; Denny, Jane F.; Liste Munoz, Maria; Safak, Ilgar

    2017-01-01

    Seafloor mapping investigations conducted on the lower shoreface and inner continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York in 2011 and 2014, the period encompassing the impacts of Hurricanes Irene and Sandy, provide an unprecedented perspective regarding regional inner continental shelf sediment dynamics during large storm events. Analyses of these studies demonstrate that storm-induced erosion and sediment transport occurred throughout the study area in water depths up to 30 m. Acoustic backscatter patterns were observed to move from ~1 m to 450 m with a mean of 20 m and movement tended to decrease with increasing water depth. These patterns indicate that both of the primary inner continental shelf sedimentary features in the study area, linear sorted bedforms offshore of eastern Fire Island and shoreface-attached sand ridges offshore of central and western Fire island, migrated alongshore to the southwest. The migration of the sorted bedforms represents the modification of an active ravinement surface and is thought to have liberated a significant volume of sediment. Comparison of isopach maps of sediment thickness show that the volume of modern sediment composing the lower shoreface and shoreface-attached sand ridges decreased by ~2.8 × 106 m3 across the ~73 km2 of common seafloor mapped in both surveys. However, a similar analysis for the relatively calmer 15-yr period prior to 2011 revealed significant accretion. This allows speculation that the shoreface-attached sand ridges are maintained over decadal timescales via sediment supplied through erosion of Pleistocene outwash and lower Holocene transgressive channel-fill deposits exposed on the inner continental shelf, but that the sand ridges also periodically erode and move to the southwest during large storm events. Analyses show that significant storminduced erosion and sediment transport occurs far seaward of the 5 to 9 m depth of closure assumed for Fire Island, where it is thought that an onshore

  17. Crustal structure of the Southeast Georgia embayment-Carolina trough: Preliminary results of a composite seismic image of a continental suture ( ) and a volcanic passive margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, J.A. Jr.; Stoffa, P.L.; Phillips, J.D. (Univ. of Texas Institute for Geophysics, Austin (USA)); Oh, Jinyong (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA)); Sawyer, D.S. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA)); Purdy, G.M.; Reiter, E. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (USA)); Makris, J. (Universitaet Hamburg, Bundesstrasse, Hamburg (West Germany))

    1990-10-01

    New deep-penetration multichannel seismic reflection data, combined with refraction results and magnetics modeling, support a hypothesis that the Carolina trough is a Mesozoic volcanic passive margin exhibiting a seaward-dipping wedge and associated underplating. The structure of Carolina platform continental crust is consistent with the late Paleozoic continental collision that produced the Appalachians, but imbrication has had no obvious effect on shallower structures produced by Mesozoic extension and volcanism. The origin of prominent magnetic anomalies crossing the Southeast Georgia embayment can be explained by processes attending Mesozoic separation of Africa and North America, and is not related to a Paleozoic continental suture, as previously postulated.

  18. Zambezi continental margin: compartmentalized sediment transfer routes to the abyssal Mozambique Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, E.; Green, A. N.; Watkeys, M. K.; Jokat, W.

    2017-09-01

    Sediment delivery to the abyssal regions of the oceans is an integral process in the source to sink cycle of material derived from adjacent continents and islands. The Zambezi River, the largest in southern Africa, delivers vast amounts of material to the inner continental shelf of central Mozambique. The aim of this contribution is to better constrain sediment transport pathways to the abyssal plains using the latest, regional, high-resolution multibeam bathymetry data available, taking into account the effects of bottom water circulation, antecedent basin morphology and sea-level change. Results show that sediment transport and delivery to the abyssal plains is partitioned into three distinct domains; southern, central and northern. Sediment partitioning is primarily controlled by changes in continental shelf and shelf-break morphology under the influence of a clockwise rotating shelf circulation system. However, changes in sea-level have an overarching control on sediment delivery to particular domains. During highstand conditions, such as today, limited sediment delivery to the submarine Zambezi Valley and Channel is proposed, with increased sediment delivery to the deepwater basin being envisaged during regression and lowstand conditions. However, there is a pronounced along-strike variation in sediment transport during the sea-level cycle due to changes in the width, depth and orientation of the shelf. This combination of features outlines a sequence stratigraphic concept not generally considered in the strike-aligned shelf-slope-abyssal continuum.

  19. Evolution of the Red Sea Continental Margin from Integrated Analyses of Gravity, Magnetic, and Receiver Function Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, C. A.; Mohamed, A. A.; Gao, S. S.; Mickus, K. L.; Liu, K. H.; Yu, Y.; Elsheikh, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The development of evolutionary models and constraints for the extensional mechanisms which govern continental rifting is of fundamental significance toward understanding the breakup of continents and the role of volcanism in achieving successful rifting. To analyze the transitional nature of the Red Sea rift (RSR) passive margins and to quantify the mechanism through which extension has been accommodated, we examined a total of 3531 high-quality radial receiver functions from multiple temporary deployments in Saudi Arabia and the Levant as well as data recently acquired by the Egyptian National Seismic Network. Egypt is characterized by a relatively constant crustal thickness of approximately 37 km, while the southern Arabian Shield is roughly 35 km on average. The crust beneath the Eastern Desert of Egypt is significantly thinned with an average thickness of about 26 km. Observations of Vp/Vs across the Arabian-Nubian Shield indicate highly similar intermediate to mafic compositions, supporting well-accepted theories for juvenile arc accretion of relatively uniform makeup. Thinned crust as far as 130 km inland on the Egyptian margin indicates a highly asymmetric crustal structure across the Red Sea, supporting a model invoking simple shear extensional mechanisms. Joint modeling using satellite gravity and magnetic data with RF Moho depth constraints reveals the presence of high-density high-magnetic susceptibility mafic complexes which we interpret as volcanic margins in the northern RSR at ~25.5°N and the southern RSR at ~19.5°N. We believe the development of the northern RSR margin is accompanied by isolated volcanism associated with slow spreading rates since the Oligocene.

  20. Analysis of Submarine Landslides and Canyons along the U.S. Atlantic Margin Using Extended Continental Shelf Mapping Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaytor, J. D.; Brothers, D. S.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Hoy, S. K.; Baxter, C.; Andrews, B.

    2013-12-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies of the U.S. Atlantic continental slope and rise aim to understand the: 1) the role of submarine landslides in tsunami generation, and 2) the linkages between margin morphology and sedimentary processes, particularly in and around submarine canyon systems. Data from U.S. Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) and numerous subsequent mapping surveys have facilitated the identification and characterization of submarine landslides and related features in fine detail over an unprecedented spatial extent. Ongoing analysis of USGS collected piston cores, sub-bottom and multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection profiles, and an extensive suite of legacy MCS data from two landslides, the Southern New England landslide zone and the Currituck Landslide, suggest that the most recent major landslide events are pre-Holocene, but that failures were complex and most likely multi-phase, at times resulting in extensive overlapping debris deposits. Piston core records plus visual observations of the seafloor from recent TowCam deployments and NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer ROV dives reveal ongoing development of colluvial wedge-style debris aprons at the base of scarps within these landslides, showing that these regions continue to evolve long after the initial failure events. Multibeam bathymetry data and MCS profiles along the upper slope reveal evidence for vertical fluid migration and possible seabed gas expulsion. These observations underscore the need to reevaluate the sources of pore fluid overpressure in slope sediments and their role in landslide generation. ECS and more recent multibeam mapping have provided the opportunity to investigate the full extent of submarine canyon morphology and evolution from Cape Hatteras up to the US-Canadian EEZ, which has led to better understanding of the important role of antecedent margin physiography on their development. Six submarine canyon systems along the margin (Veatch, Hydrographer, Hudson, Wilmington

  1. Surficial clay mineral distribution on the southwestern continental margin of India: evidence of input from the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Onkar S.; Gujar, A. R.

    1996-03-01

    Analyses of spatial distribution of clay minerals, sediment texture, and > 63 μm fractions of the grab samples from the S W continental margin of India exhibit: (i) higher contents of illite and chlorite on the lower slope and (ii) a well-defined no-clay zone on the entire shelf. Kaolinite and smectite are also present in significant quantities on the slope with traces of gibbsite and palygorskite in some samples. The high contents of illite and chlorite (clay minerals which are not abundant in the soils and estuarine sediments of this region) in the southern region of the study area are evidence for sediment contribution from the Bay of Bengal waters (BBW), which enter this region after the SW monsoon. Distribution trends of kaolinite, smectite, gibbsite, and laterite granules on the slope are suggestive of contribution from chemically weathered soils of Peninsular India.

  2. Fine-scale analysis of shelf -slope physiography across the western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Mukhopadhyay, R.; Jauhari, P.; Mahale, V.; Shashikumar, K.; Rajesh, M.

    of western India and Deccan Large Igneous Province. Mar Geophy Res 20:273-291 Welch PD (1967) The use of fast Fourier transform for the estimation of power spectra: A method based on time averaging over short, modified periodograms. IEEE Trans Audio...) across the structural rises and floor of the shelf margin basin. Anisotropic characteristics of the seafloor were studied at ten locations having good two- dimensional data coverage (locations a to j, Fig. 1). For each of these locations, nine...

  3. The TEENA experiment: a pilot project to study the structure and dynamics of the eastern US continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, M. H.; Long, M. D.

    2009-12-01

    During the summer of 2009, a quasi-linear transect of 9 broadband seismic stations was deployed from Knotts Island, North Carolina across Virginia and West Virginia to Marietta, Ohio, comprising the TEENA (Test Experiment for Eastern North America) array. Very little is known about the detailed seismic structure of the crust and mantle beneath this region, and while several models for mantle dynamics beneath the eastern US passive continental margin have been proposed, the paucity of available seismic data has made it difficult to discriminate among them. The TEENA array traverses several physiographic provinces, including the Atlantic coastal plain, Appalachian Piedmont, Blue Ridge Mountains, Appalachian Valley and Ridge, and Appalachian Plateau. Data recorded from this array will be used to examine variations in crust and mantle structure across these different provinces and will help elucidate how the lithosphere of this region has evolved throughout its complex tectonic history. We also expect to obtain constraints on upper mantle seismic anisotropy beneath the region, which will place constraints on mantle dynamics beneath the passive continental margin. We present preliminary crustal thickness measurements from h-K stacking of receiver functions, SKS splitting measurements of anisotropic mantle structure, and Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements of ambient noise based on the first few months of data from TEENA. Constraints on the structure and dynamics of the crust and mantle gleaned from TEENA and similar pilot projects will be useful in guiding future seismic studies in the Appalachian geologic province of eastern North America, particularly as the Transportable Array and Flexible Array components of the Earthscope USArray move east. Station locations for the TEENA broadband seismic array.

  4. Seismic patterns of the Guerrero-Oaxaca, Mexico region, and its relationship to the continental margin structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Jaime; González-Moran, Tomas; Quintanar, Luis; Zavaleta, Ana B.; Zamora, Araceli; Espindola, Victor H.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to enhance awareness on the seismic evidences that suggest a possible segmentation of the continental margin at the Guerrero-Oaxaca, Mexico region. Data from a recent 7 months survey of microseismicity carried out from 2008 December to 2009 June at Ometepec, Guerrero area, using a portable broad-band digital seismographs network added with data of a previous survey and the aftershocks distribution of the 1982 and 1995 major earthquakes permit to infer the characteristics of the seismic patterns of the Acapulco-Pinotepa Nacional portion of the southern Mexico subduction region. Two different seismic regimens are apparent, one in the Acapulco-Marquelia and the other in the Marquelia-Pinotepa Nacional areas. In the Acapulco-Marquelia portion, the seismicity is broader and dispersed starting at the coast up to 160 km inland approximately. Seismicity in the Marquelia-Pinotepa portion, on the other hand, is narrower and concentrates near the coast. The two seismic regimens are separated by a narrow band or strip of low seismic activity, nearly perpendicular to the coast and trench axis. The apparent low seismicity strip that separates the seismic regimens may trace the position either of a seismically inactive fracture zone or a seismic gap. Moreover, careful observation of the epicentres distribution of the Marquelia-Pinotepa segment reveals two clusters of events separated by another low seismicity strip. Thus, the two observed low activity strips, located near the northern tip of the Ometepec submarine canyon and Punta Maldonado, respectively, are interpreted in this paper as corresponding to disruptions of the continental margin. Other low seismic activity strips probably exist but these two are the most conspicuous. Supplementary information on fault mechanisms available for this area seems to substantiate additionally this interpretation. The observations reported are important to understand the mechanics of the major earthquakes

  5. Thermal history and long-term evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin, Kaoko belt, NW Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menges, D. P.; Glasmacher, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    From Permo-Carboniferous to Mid Jurassic the Kaoko belt in northwestern Namibia was affected by deep erosion of the Damara Sequence, Permo-Triassic collisional processes along the southern margin of Gondwana (Coward & Daly 1984), and the deposition of the Karoo Supergroup. The lithostratigraphic units consist of Proterozoic and Cambrian metamorphosed rocks with ages of 534 (7) Ma to 481 (25) Ma (Miller 1983), as well as Mesozoic sedimentary and igneous rocks. The Early Jurassic Karoo flood basalt lavas erupted rapidly at 183 (1) Ma (Duncan et al. 1997). The Early Cretaceous Paraná-Etendeka flood basalts (132 (1) Ma) and mafic dike swarms mark the rift stage of the opening of the South Atlantic (Stewart et al. 1996). The 'passive' continental margin in northern Namibia is a perfect location to quantify exhumation and uplift rates, model the long-term landscape evolution and provide information about the major processes controlling the landscape evolution in this region. The poster will present thermochronological data, t-T-models and exhumation rates for the Kaoko belt, NW Namibia. References Coward, M. P. and Daly, M. C., 1984. Crustal lineaments and shear zones in Africa: Their relationships to plate movements, Precambrian Research 24: 27-45. Duncan, R., Hooper, P., Rehacek, J., March, J. and Duncan, A., 1997. The timing and duration of the Karoo igneous event, southern Gondwana, Journal of Geophysical Research 102: 18127-18138. Miller, R. M., 1983. Evolution of the Damara Orogen, Vol. 11, Geological Society, South Africa Spec. Pub.. Stewart, K. S., Turner, S., Kelly, S., Hawkesworth, C. J., Kirstein, L. and Mantovani, M. S. M., 1996. 3D 40Ar-39Ar geochronology in the Paraná continental flood basalt province, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 143: 95-110.

  6. Large particle flux of 239+240Pu on the continental margin of the East China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Aono, Tatsuo [Nakaminato Laboratory for Marine Radioecology, Environmental Radiation Protection Research Group, Research Center for Radiation Safety, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Isozaki 3609, Hitachinaka, 311-1202 Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-03-15

    Settling particles were collected from three locations in the East China Sea continental margin and analyzed for 239+240Pu. Two types of sediment traps were used, cylindrical traps and conical time-series traps. Surface sediment samples collected from five locations were also analyzed for 239+240Pu. Data from cylindrical traps showed there was a clear tendency for total mass fluxes to increase with depth at all three stations, and there was an especially large increase near the bottom. 239+240Pu concentrations in settling particles increased with depth from 1.76 mBq/g at 97-m depth to 3.00 mBq/g at 120-m depth and ranged from approximately 3 to 4 mBq/g at depths greater than 120 m. 239+240Pu concentrations collected in the near-bottom traps were approximately two times higher than those in the underlying surface sediments. Like total mass fluxes there was a clear tendency for 239+240Pu fluxes to increase with depth at every station, and the highest 239+240Pu fluxes were observed near the bottom. 239+240Pu concentrations in the time-series traps had little variation throughout the sampling period, though the total mass fluxes showed a large variation. A high variability of 239+240Pu fluxes occurred in very short period of time (1/2 day). The large fluxes of 239+240Pu might be attributed to episodic lateral transport of particles that flow down the continental slope with the nepheloid layer which was considered to be significant for 239+240Pu transport on the continental slope in the East China Sea.

  7. Submarine geo-hazards on the eastern Sardinia-Corsica continental margin based on preliminary pipeline route investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, S.; Taliana, D.; Giacomini, L.; Herisson, C.; Bonnemaire, B.

    2011-03-01

    The understanding of the morphology and the shallow geo-hazards of the seafloor is a major focus for both academic and private industry research. On November and December 2009 a geophysical pipeline survey was carried out by Fugro Oceansismica S.p.A. (FOSPA) and FUGRO France (FFSA) for DORIS Engineering on behalf of GRTgaz (Engineering centre, Transmission Pipe Department; http://www.grtgaz.com) which are currently investigating the possibility of laying a pipeline between Sardinia and Corsica as a spur line from the planned GALSI Project. The Project, "Alimentation de la Corse en gaz naturel", consists of a corridor 100 km long and 1.0 km wide along the Corsica-Sardinia shelf. The integration of the multibeam, sidescan sonar and sparker data provided a high resolution seafloor mapping for geo-hazard assessment. In this article the data acquired along a break of slope section (approximately 20 km × 1.5 km), in the eastern sector of the Strait of Bonifacio are described. The area was abandoned during the survey, because of its unsuitability. Indeed, in this area the continental shelf, approximately 100 m deep and deepening gently eastward, is characterized by an uneven morphology, with different seabed features such as Beach- rocks mainly NNW-SSE oriented. Also, the continuity of the continental margin, identified around -110/-115 m, is interrupted by four canyon heads which incise the slope and are associated with glide deposits.

  8. Gas hydrates in Krishna-Godavari offshore basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.; Mazumdar, A.; Dewangan, P.

    forms, i.e., in the fractured clay/shale formations, stratigraphically controlled clay/sand and volcanic ash etc. The KG offshore basin is one of the promising petroliferous basins of the eastern continental margin of India. This paper mainly...

  9. Shallow geological environment of Krishna–Godavari offshore ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2National Centre for Antarctica Research, Sada Headland, Vasco da Gama 403 804, India. 3Andhra Pradesh State Ground Water Department, Eluru 534 002, India. ∗. Corresponding author. e-mail: ramana@nio.org. Krishna–Godavari offshore basin, a part of the eastern continental margin of India is a proven petro-.

  10. Maps showing bathymetry and modern sediment thickness on the inner continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York, pre-Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, William C.; Denny, Jane F.; Baldwin, Wayne E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey mapped approximately 336 square kilometers of the lower shoreface and inner continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York, in 2011 by using interferometric sonar and high-resolution chirp seismic-reflection systems. This report presents maps of bathymetry, acoustic backscatter, the coastal plain unconformity, the Holocene marine transgressive surface, and modern sediment thickness. These spatial data support research on the Quaternary evolution of the Fire Island coastal system and provide baseline information for research on coastal processes along southern Long Island.

  11. Provenance and fate of organic carbon in three submarine canyons from the Portuguese Margin: Implications for transport processes of material in continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriakoulakis, Kostas; Wolff, George; Blackbird, Sabena

    2010-05-01

    Submarine canyons are key environments on the continental margin that are affected by unique and dynamic but often episodic and complex processes, and are difficult to study. Canyons are considered hotspots of biodiversity and enhancement of primary productivity at canyon heads has often been postulated to support this, although the evidence is sparse. Additionally canyons are considered to be fast-track corridors for material transported from the land to the deep sea and they are considered major pathways for the transportation and burial of organic carbon, acting as buffers for sediment and carbon storage. Organic geochemical and isotopic markers are often used as reliable indicators for the supply, quality and fate of organic matter in marine systems. In this study they have been used to test the above hypotheses in three contrasting submarine canyons (Nazaré, Setubal/Lisbon and Cascais) of the Portuguese Margin. The elemental and lipid biomarker composition of suspended particulate organic matter of surface waters close to the studied canyon heads had a fresh phytoplankton signal, however there was no clear evidence for enhanced primary productivity by comparison to the neighbouring open slope. By contrast, mid-depth waters (700-1600 m), that are dominated by the northward flowing Mediterranean Outflow Water, had high lipid content and abundant mesozooplankton biomarkers, perhaps reflecting zooplankton activity focused at the boundaries of distinct water masses. In the waters close to the floor of the Nazaré Canyon the presence of elemental sulphur (a product of sediment diagenesis) and high molecular weight hydrocarbons (recalcitrant, terrestrial markers) indicated high levels of resuspended material, particularly at the Upper section (

  12. Epibenthic megacrustaceans from the continental margin, slope and abyssal plain of the Southwestern Gulf of Mexico: Factors responsible for variability in species composition and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Briones, Elva G.; Gaytán-Caballero, Adriana; Legendre, Pierre

    2008-12-01

    The community structure of megacrustaceans (orders Lophogastrida, Isopoda, and Decapoda) collected in trawls on the continental margin, upper slope and abyssal plain of the southern Gulf of Mexico was studied to determine to what extent broad-scale variation in community composition and diversity was influenced by geographic regions environmental variability and depth. Trawls were collected in the Mexican Ridges, the Campeche Bank, and the Sigsbee abyssal plain. There was variability in species composition, density and diversity among geographic regions and along the depth gradient. A total of 106 species were identified and grouped in three orders; five infraorders, 40 families, and 70 genera. This study extends the known geographic ranges of the species Homolodromia monstrosa and Ephyrina benedicti. The largest number of species was recorded in the Mexican Ridges and on the upper continental shelf; lower values were found on the continental margin and in the abyssal plain. The largest densities were recorded on the continental margin in the Mexican Ridges. Megacrustaceans show in general low frequencies and low abundances in trawls, characterizing them as rare components of benthic assemblages. Contrary to an accepted paradigm about deep-sea biodiversity, the highest H' diversity values were recorded in the Sigsbee abyssal plain, followed by values from the upper continental slope; diversity values were correlated with evenness. Canonical Redundancy analysis results showed a significant affinity to regions for 18 crustacean species; 33 species showed a significant affinity to both regions and depth zones within regions.

  13. Intense biological phosphate uptake onto particles in subeuphotic continental margin waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoll, S.; Ferdelman, T. G.; Holtappels, M.; Goldhammer, T.; Littmann, S.; Iversen, M. H.; Kuypers, M. M. M.

    2017-03-01

    Elucidating the processes that affect particulate phosphorus (P) export from the euphotic zone and burial in sediments is important for models of global phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon cycling. We investigated dissolved inorganic Pi incorporation into particles (>0.2 µm) in the subeuphotic zone and benthic boundary layer of high-productivity Mauritanian and Namibian shelf waters, using 33PO43- tracer experiments combined with a sequential chemical extraction analysis. Pi uptake (5.4 to 19.9 nmol P L-1 d-1) by particulate matter was biologically mediated ( 50% into the organic fraction) and similar to estimated rates of heterotrophic growth. Thus, a substantial fraction of Pi must be recycled through a particle-associated microbial pool. Rapid adsorption of 33P in the anoxic waters of Namibia indicated the additional existence of a large pool of surface exchangeable P. Particle-associated Pi recycling and adsorption may influence the export flux and ultimate fate of particle bound P in continental shelf waters.

  14. Submarine weathering of silicate minerals and the extent of pore water freshening at active continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Florian; Hensen, Christian; Schmidt, Mark; Geersen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate how submarine weathering processes may affect the water balance of sediments at convergent plate margins, six sediment cores were retrieved off Central Chile at water depth between ˜800 and 4000 m. The sediment solid phase was analyzed for its major element composition and the pore fluids were analyzed for dissolved sulfate, sulfide, total alkalinity, major cations, chloride, bromide, iodide, hydrocarbons as well as the carbon isotopic composition of methane. Because of negligible weathering on land, surface sediments off Central Chile are rich in reactive silicate minerals and have a bulk composition similar to volcanic rocks in the adjacent Andes. Deep-sourced fluxes of alkalinity, cations and chloride indicate that silicate minerals are subject to weathering in the forearc during burial. Comparison of deep-sourced signals with data from nearby Ocean Drilling Program Sites reveals two different types of weathering processes: In shallow (tens of meters), methanic sediments of slope basins with high organic carbon burial rates, reactive silicate minerals undergo incongruent dissolution through reaction with CO2 from methanogenesis. At greater burial depth (hundreds of meters), silicate weathering is dominated by authigenic smectite formation. This process is accompanied by uptake of water into the clay interlayers thus leading to elevated salinities in the surrounding pore water. Deep-seated smectite formation is more widespread than shallow silicate dissolution, as it is independent from the availability of CO2 from methanogenesis. Although solute transport is not focused enough to form cold seeps in the proper sense, tectonically induced, diffuse fluid flow transfers the deep-seated signal of smectite formation into the shallow sediments. The temperature-controlled conversion of smectite to illite is considered the most important dehydration process in marine forearc environments (depth of kilometers). However, in agreement with other

  15. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis to compare coral bank and seafloor seepage area-related characterization along the central Western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; VishnuVardhan, Y; Haris, K.; Menezes, A.A.A; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Fernandes, W.A; Kurian, J.

    exponent of a second-order moment. The two coral banks are located around the buried channels off Malpe, western continental margin of India (WCMI). The Gaveshani bank is lying on a submerged headland with high backscatter strength. The presence of greater...

  16. Long-term landscape evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin along the Kaoko- and Damara Belts, NW-Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menges, Daniel; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton; Hackspacher, Peter; Schneider, Gabriele; Salomon, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The Kaoko Belt in northwestern Namibia originates in the collision of the Rio de la Plata and Kongo Craton during the Pan-African Orogeny in the Neoproterozoic (1) and represents the northern arm of the Damara Orogen. NW-Namibias continental crust mainly consists of the NE-SW striking intracontinental branch of the Pan-African Damara mobile belt, which separates the Congo from the Kalahari craton. The Damara Orogen is divided into several tectonostratigraphic zones that are bounded by steeply dipping, ductile shear zones. These regional lineaments can be traced at least 150 km offshore (2). The lithostratigraphic units consist of Proterozoic and Cambrian metamorphosed rocks (534 (7) Ma - 481 (25) Ma (3) as well as Mesozoic sedimentary and igneous rocks. From Permo-Carboniferous to Mid Jurassic northern Namibia was affected by deep erosion of the Damara Orogen, Permo-Triassic collisional processes along the southern margin of Gondwana and eastern margin of Africa (4), and the deposition of the Nama Group sediments and the Karoo megasequence (5). Between the Otjihorongo and the Omaruru Lineament-Waterberg Thrust early Mesozoic tectonic activity is recorded by coarse clastic sediments deposited within NE trending half-graben structures. The Early Jurassic Karoo flood basalt lavas erupted rapidly at 183±1 Ma (6). The Early Cretaceous Paraná-Etendeka flood basalts (132±1 Ma) and mafic dike swarms mark the rift stage of the opening of the South Atlantic (7). Early Cretaceous alkaline intrusions (137-124 Ma) occur preferentially along Mesozoic half-graben structures and are called the Damaraland Igneous Province (8). Late Cretaceous alkaline intrusions and kimberlite pipes occur in northern Namibia. Post Early Paleocene siliciclastic sedimentation in Namibia was largely restricted to a 150 km wide zone (9) and is represented by the Tsondab Sandstone Formation (~ 300 m thickness). The oldest part has an age of early Paleocene and the upper part span from middle Miocene

  17. ROV study of a giant pockmark on the Gabon continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondréas, H.; Olu, K.; Fouquet, Y.; Charlou, J. L.; Gay, A.; Dennielou, B.; Donval, J. P.; Fifis, A.; Nadalig, T.; Cochonat, P.; Cauquil, E.; Bourillet, J. F.; Moigne, M. Le; Sibuet, M.

    2005-11-01

    A giant, 800-m wide pockmark, called Regab, was discovered along the Equatorial African margin at 3160-m water depth and was explored by remote operated vehicle (ROV) as part of the Zaiango (1998-2000) and Biozaire (2001-2003) projects carried out conjointly by TOTAL and a number of French research institutes. A microbathymetric map obtained using the ROV sensors shows that the pockmark actually consists of a cluster of smaller pockmarks aligned N70 along a 15-m deep depression. Methane was recorded all over the pockmark, the highest values along the axis of the depression where massive carbonate crusts and dense seep communities were also found. Several faunal species belong to the Vesicomyidae and Mytilidae bivalve families, as well as to Siboglinidae (Vestimentifera) tubeworms. Preliminary analyses confirm their association with symbiotic bacteria, thus documenting their dependence on fluid seeps. The pockmark appears to be related to an infilled channel, visible on the seismic data 300 m below the seafloor, which may act as a reservoir for biogenic fluids supplied to the trap from the surrounding sediments.

  18. Tracing Late Holocene Warm Periods in the Galician Continental Margin (NW Spain): Detrital Control vs. Early Diagenetic Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, K.; Rey, D.; Rubio, B.; Vilas, F.

    2007-12-01

    The sediments of the Galician continental margin (NW Spain) exhibit great but variable degrees of early diagenetic dissolution of magnetic minerals. This process completely erases any detrital magnetic signal at time-scales that range from about 1,000 years to less than 50 years in the highly productive estuarine-like environment of the Galician Rias Baixas. The more open marine conditions encountered in the adjoining continental shelf exhibit however a significantly different behavior. The singular balance between early diagenetic dissolution and lower sedimentation rates allows partial and variable preservation of the also variable detritally controlled magnetic inputs. In this context it is possible to reconstruct the recent environmental history of the area attending to the changes in the concentration of magnetically-interesting iron oxides. High-resolution magnetic and geochemical measurements carried out in 6 cores from the continental self evidenced the occurrence of correlatable peaks of magnetic mineral concentration that were interpreted as periods of enhanced detrital input. Magnetically depleted sediments were related to lower detrital input and/or to enhanced productivity that intensified the reductive conditions. The magnetic concentration peaks occurred within the Medieval (MWP) and Roman Warm Periods. Similar concentrations of hematite in the MWP and the RWP suggest that the lower concentration-dependent magnetic properties in the RWP are most likely caused by a greater degree of dissolution of magnetic detrital oxides due to a longer exposure to reducing conditions. These features could be traced over all the studied area, despite the great heterogeneity of the shelf sediments. This highlights the potential of magnetic properties as proxies of paleoenvironmental conditions in areas of similar complexity. This approach can be used as a rapid and cost-effective tool to screen large areas in the search for suitable settings for more precise, but time

  19. Benthic-pelagic coupling: effects on nematode communities along southern European continental margins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Pape

    Full Text Available Along a west-to-east axis spanning the Galicia Bank region (Iberian margin and the Mediterranean basin, a reduction in surface primary productivity and in seafloor flux of particulate organic carbon was mirrored in the in situ organic matter quantity and quality within the underlying deep-sea sediments at different water depths (1200, 1900 and 3000 m. Nematode standing stock (abundance and biomass and genus and trophic composition were investigated to evaluate downward benthic-pelagic coupling. The longitudinal decline in seafloor particulate organic carbon flux was reflected by a reduction in benthic phytopigment concentrations and nematode standing stock. An exception was the station sampled at the Galicia Bank seamount, where despite the maximal particulate organic carbon flux estimate, we observed reduced pigment levels and nematode standing stock. The strong hydrodynamic forcing at this station was believed to be the main cause of the local decoupling between pelagic and benthic processes. Besides a longitudinal cline in nematode standing stock, we noticed a west-to-east gradient in nematode genus and feeding type composition (owing to an increasing importance of predatory/scavenging nematodes with longitude governed by potential proxies for food availability (percentage of nitrogen, organic carbon, and total organic matter. Within-station variability in generic composition was elevated in sediments with lower phytopigment concentrations. Standing stock appeared to be regulated by sedimentation rates and benthic environmental variables, whereas genus composition covaried only with benthic environmental variables. The coupling between deep-sea nematode assemblages and surface water processes evidenced in the present study suggests that it is likely that climate change will affect the composition and function of deep-sea nematodes.

  20. Investigation of late Pleistocene and Holocene activity in the San Gregorio fault zone on the continental slope north of Monterey Canyon, offshore central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Katherine L.; Paull, Charles K.; Brothers, Daniel; Caress, David W.; McGann, Mary; Lundsten, Eve M.; Anderson, Krystle; Gwiazda, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    We provide an extensive high‐resolution geophysical, sediment core, and radiocarbon dataset to address late Pleistocene and Holocene fault activity of the San Gregorio fault zone (SGFZ), offshore central California. The SGFZ occurs primarily offshore in the San Andreas fault system and has been accommodating dextral strike‐slip motion between the Pacific and North American plates since the mid‐Miocene. Our study focuses on the SGFZ where it has been mapped through the continental slope north of Monterey Canyon. From 2009 to 2015, the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute collected high‐resolution multibeam bathymetry and chirp sub‐bottom profiles using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). Targeted samples were collected using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to provide radiocarbon age constraints. We integrate the high‐resolution geophysical data with radiocarbon dates to reveal Pleistocene seismic horizons vertically offset less than 5 m on nearly vertical faults. These faults are buried by continuous reflections deposited after ∼17.5  ka and likely following erosion during the last sea‐level lowstand ∼21  ka, bracketing the age of faulting to ∼32–21  ka. Clearly faulted horizons are only detected in a small area where mass wasting exhumed older strata to within ∼25  m of the seafloor. The lack of clearly faulted Holocene deposits and possible highly distributed faulting in the study area are consistent with previous interpretations that late Pleistocene and Holocene activity along the SGFZ may decrease to the south. This study illustrates the complexity of the SGFZ, offshore central California, and demonstrates the utility of very high‐resolution data from combined AUV (geophysical)–ROV (seabed sampling) surveys in offshore studies of fault activity.

  1. Phytoplankton community structure in relation to hydrographic features along a coast-to-offshore transect on the SW Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islabão, C. A.; Mendes, C. R. B.; Detoni, A. M. S.; Odebrecht, C.

    2017-12-01

    The continental shelf in Southern Brazil is characterized by high biological productivity associated with horizontal and vertical density gradients due to the mixing of distinct water masses. Phytoplankton biomass and composition were evaluated in summer 2013 along an on-offshore transect off the mouth of the Patos Lagoon (Lat. 32°12S). Photosynthetic active radiation, temperature, salinity and fluorescence vertical profiles were carried out and Brünt-Väisäla frequency was estimated. Three water bodies were identified: the Subtropical Shelf Water along the entire transect, the Plata Plume Water on the middle shelf surface and the Tropical Water farther offshore. The water was sampled (N = 40) for the analyses of dissolved inorganic nutrients, phytoplankton cell density and composition. Phytoplankton present in the water was identified and quantified by the classical microscope sedimentation technique, complemented with CHEMTAX analysis of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) pigment data. From the results obtained, chlorophyll a concentration was higher at both coastal stations (1.6-2.0 mg m-3) where the water column was homogeneous and diatoms dominated the stations. This group was replaced by dinoflagellates in stratified conditions on the shelf and farther offshore. Along the onshore-offshore gradient, two types of dinoflagellates were found: the peridinin-containing dinoflagellates Prorocentrum and Scrippsiella with a small contribution at the coastal stations, and the fucoxantin-containing small Gymnodiniales cells (phytoplankton communities and distribution on the shelf and in coastal waters off Southern Brazil in summer. Picoplankton cells (Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus), recorded for the first time in the region under study, were predominant in the nutrient-poor and well-lit surface layers along the transect, indicating the importance of their low sedimentation rates (small size) and photo-adaptive strategies to survive on the upper layers

  2. Linking Late Pleistocene alpine glacial erosion and continental margin sedimentation: Insights from 40Ar/39Ar dating of silt-sized sediment, Canterbury Basin, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor, Tania; Jaeger, John M.; Foster, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Quaternary climatic and eustatic cycles in mid-latitude regions have led to more extensive alpine glaciations and continental shelf progradation, respectively. However, the glacial influence on sediment fluxes to the ocean creating continental margin strata is poorly documented. This contribution analyzes the provenance of fine sediment accumulating on the continental shelf during the Late Pleistocene to evaluate the influence of glacial cycles on sediment erosion and routing to the continental shelf. Taking advantage of the contrasting bedrock ages exposed across the Southern Alps, New Zealand, we perform 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating on the bulk silt-size sediment from three drill sites of IODP Expedition 317, Canterbury Basin, New Zealand. The results suggest that a large proportion of sediment accumulating on the continental shelf results from erosion within the Main Divide fault zone of the Southern Alps. Sediment 40Ar/39Ar age fluctuations over this time period suggest that bedrock with various 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages has been differentially eroded in the upper Waitaki River catchment and mixed in the Waitaki-Canterbury sediment-routing system. Across-shelf variations in sediment 40Ar/39Ar age reflect changing modes of sediment dispersal on the continental shelf. Fluvial material, likely derived from the main drainage divide zone, preferentially accumulates in the middle continental shelf, whereas material representing erosion of older bedrock (Torlesse Terrane), located lower in the drainage basin, is dispersed uniformly across the shelf. The age signature of the muddy sediment accumulating on the continental shelf reflects Late Pleistocene landscape evolution of the Southern Alps and its influence on sediment dispersal to the continental shelf.

  3. Geoacoustic models of Coastal Bottom Strata at Jeongdongjin in the Korean continental margin of the East Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryang, Woo Hun; Han, Jooyoung

    2017-04-01

    Geoacoustic models provide submarine environmental data to predict sound transmission through submarine bottom layers of sedimentary strata and acoustic basement. This study reconstructed four geoacoustic models for sediments of 50 m thick at the Jeongdongjin area in the western continental margin of the East Sea. Bottom models were based on about 1100 line-km data of the high-resolution air-gun seismic and subbottom profiles (SBP) with sediment cores. The 4 piston cores were analyzed for reconstruction of the bottom and geoacoustic models in the study area, together with 2 long cores in the adjacent area. P-wave speed in the core sediment was measured by the pulse transmission technique, and the resonance frequency of piezoelectric transducers was maintained at 1 MHz. Measurements of 42 P-wave speeds and 41 attenuations were fulfilled in three core sediments. For actual modeling, the P-wave speeds of the models were compensated to in situ depth below the sea floor using the Hamilton method. These geoacoustic models of coastal bottom strata will be used for geoacoustic and underwater acoustic experiments reflecting vertical and lateral variability of geoacoustic properties in the Jeongdongjin area of the East Sea. Keywords: geoacosutic model, bottom model, P-wave speed, Jeongdongjin, East Sea Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the research grants from the Agency of Defense Development (UD140003DD and UE140033DD).

  4. 76 FR 51383 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Rhode Island and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the.... ACTION: Call for Information and Nominations for Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the OCS Offshore... commercial leases that would allow a lessee to propose the construction of a wind energy project(s) on the...

  5. A doubly vergent fan structure in the Peninsular Ranges batholith: Transpression or local complex flow around a continental margin buttress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Keegan L.; Paterson, Scott R.

    2002-10-01

    The Jura-Cretaceous Peninsular Ranges batholith (PRB) of southern and Baja California contains a remarkable example of a crustal transition between juxtaposed oceanic and continental floored arcs. Jura-Cretaceous deformation in the PRB is focused along this lithospheric discontinuity and defines a zone of contractional deformation that stretches at least 800 km along the batholith. The western edge of this zone is associated with a dramatic eastward increase in maximum recorded metamorphic pressures (from 2 to 6 kbar) and temperatures (from 650°C). Elsewhere in the North American Cordillera, similar lithospheric boundaries are thought to accommodate various amounts of orogen-parallel displacements of outboard tectonic fragments. To test this proposal in the PRB, we examined an unusually well-preserved part of the transition zone in the southern Sierra San Pedro Martir (SSPM). Here a spectacular ˜20 km wide, doubly vergent fan structure, which developed over a period >40 m.y. during both Jurassic and Cretaceous magmatism, occurs along the transition zone. This structure consists of moderately inward dipping, outward vergent, fold and thrust belts with widespread mylonitic fabrics that steepen toward the center where both mylonitic and magmatic fabrics occur in syntectonic, vertically sheeted plutons. Mineral lineations change from steeply pitching on the sides of the fan to moderately pitching in the center. A number of constraints on possible displacements, rotation of units, and duration of fabric formation limit the amount of orogen-parallel displacement to a few kilometers across the fan structure in the SSPM. Instead, we propose that the fan structure is a local feature that results from a combination of tectonic wedging caused by a cusp of rigid, pre-Mesozoic continental margin crust at this location and vise tectonics that arose from strong lateral rheological gradients resulting from extensive heating by the sheeted tonalite complex, focused deformation

  6. Determining OCT structure and COB Location of the Omani Gulf of Aden Continental Margin from Gravity Inversion, Residual Depth Anomaly and Subsidence Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Leanne; Kusznir, Nick; Leroy, Sylvie; Manatshal, Gianreto

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge and understanding of the ocean-continent transition (OCT) structure and continent-ocean boundary (COB) location, the distribution of thinned continental crust and lithosphere, its distal extent and the start of unequivocal oceanic crust are of critical importance in evaluating rifted continental margin formation and evolution. In order to determine the OCT structure and COB location for the eastern Gulf of Aden, along the Oman margin, we use a combination of gravity inversion, subsidence analysis and residual depth anomaly (RDA) analysis. Gravity inversion has been used to determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness and continental lithosphere thinning; subsidence analysis has been used to determine the distribution of continental lithosphere thinning; and RDAs have been used to investigate the OCT bathymetric anomalies with respect to expected oceanic bathymetries at rifted margins. The gravity inversion method, which is carried out in the 3D spectral domain, incorporates a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly and includes a correction for volcanic addition due to decompression melting. Reference Moho depths used in the gravity inversion have been calibrated against seismic refraction Moho depths. RDAs have been calculated by comparing observed and age predicted oceanic bathymetries, using the thermal plate model predictions from Crosby and McKenzie (2009). RDAs have been computed along profiles and have been corrected for sediment loading using flexural back-stripping and decompaction. In addition, gravity inversion crustal basement thicknesses together with Airy isostasy have been used to predict a synthetic RDA. The RDA results show a change in RDA signature and may be used to estimate the distal extent of thinned continental crust and where oceanic crust begins. Continental lithosphere thinning has been determined using flexural back-stripping and subsidence analysis assuming the classical rift model of McKenzie (1978) with a correction for

  7. Evidences of methane-derived authigenic carbonates from the sediments of the Krishna–Godavari Basin, eastern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kocherla, M.; Mazumdar, A.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Borole, D.V.; Rao, B.R.

    CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 91, NO. 3, 10 AUGUST 2006 *For correspondence. (e - mail: kocherla@nio.org) Evidences of methane - derived authigenic ca r bonates from the sediments of the Krishna ? Godavari Basin, eastern continental margin of India... and presence of framboidal pyrites are definite ev i- dences of anoxic diagenetic realm. Highly depleted carbon isotopic compositions of the handp icked ca r- bonate crystals are suggestive of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). In this work a biogenic...

  8. High resolution seismic stratigraphy and Mass Transport Deposits of the proximal continental margin, offshore Quarteira, South Portugal: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Débora; Santos, Joana; Terrinha, Pedro; Brito, Pedro; Noiva, João; Ribeiro, Carlos; Roque, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    More than 300 nautical miles of multichannel seismic reflection data were acquired in the scope of the ASTARTE project (Assessment Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), off Quarteira, Algarve, South Portugal. The main goal of this very high resolution multichannel seismic survey was to obtain high-resolution images of the sedimentary record to try to discern the existence of high energy events, possibly tsunami backwash deposits associated with large magnitude earthquakes generated at the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary This seismic dataset was processed at the Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera (IPMA), with the SeisSpace PROMAX Seismic Processing software. A tailor-made processing flow was applied, focusing in the removal of the seafloor multiple and in the enhancement of the superficial layers. A sparker source, using with 300 J of energy and a fire rate of 0,5 s was used onboard Xunauta, an 18 m long vessel. The preliminary seismostratigraphic interpretation of the Algarve ASTARTE seismic dataset allowed the identification of a complex sequence seismic units of progradational and agradational bodies as well as Mass Transported Deposits (MTD). The MTD package of sediments has a very complex internal structure, 20m of thickness, is apparently spatially controlled by an escarpment probably associated to past sea level low stands. The MTD covers across an area, approximately parallel to an ancient coastline, with >30 km (length) x 5 km (across). Acknowledgements: This work was developed as part of the project ASTARTE (603839 FP7) supported by the grant agreement No 603839 of the European Union's Seventh. The Instituto Portugues do Mar e da Atmosfera acknowledges support by Landmark Graphics (SeisWorks) via the Landmark University Grant Program.

  9. New insights into the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Malvinas Basin, offshore of the southernmost Argentinean continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baristeas, N.; Anka, Z.; di Primio, R.; Rodriguez, J. F.; Marchal, D.; Dominguez, F.

    2013-09-01

    A detailed tectono-stratigraphic analysis of the Malvinas Basin was achieved by the interpretation of around 65,000 km of 2D seismic reflection profiles. Five main seismo-stratigraphic units and their sub-units, informally named units U1 to U5 a/b, bound by major unconformities were identified and correlated with the Mesozoic to Cenozoic main tectonic phases of the basin. Unit U1 (Pre-168 Ma) represents the seismic basement. Unit U2 (168-150.5 Ma, syn rift phase) thickens and deepens southwards. Units U1 and U2 are affected by several syn-rift normal faults that exhibit a main NE-SW strike direction in the south of the basin and a NW-SE strike direction in the centre of the basin. This suggests that the Malvinas Basin may have developed initially as a rift basin with two different extensional directions: (1) a NW-SE directed extension probably linked with the opening of the Weddell Sea (Early Mid-Jurassic), and (2) a NE-SW directed extension most likely linked with the Jurassic back-arc extension of Gondwana and probably later with the onset of the opening of the South Atlantic during Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous time. Unit U3 (150.5-68 Ma, sag phase) is mainly an aggradational wedge-shaped unit. Unit U4 (68-42.5 Ma, transtensional foredeep phase) overlies unconformable unit U3. It deepens in the south because of an N-S/NW-SE directed extensional regime. Accumulation rates decrease during units U2, U3, and U4 from 4.84, to 1.23 to 0.8 km3/Ma × 103. Units U5a and U5b (42.5-5.5 and 5.5-0 Ma, transpressional foredeep phase) finally represent a change from aggradation to progradation sedimentary pattern and to a left-lateral transpressional regime in the south. The sediment supply was considerably higher than before and a thick sedimentary wedge has been deposited until today. Accumulations rates increased in units U5a and U5b from 2.28 to 8.91 km3/Ma × 103.

  10. Geomorphology and shallow structure of the direction bank off Bombay, western continental margin of India: Its implications for offshore exploration

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerayya, M.; Subrahmanyam, V.

    stream_size 10 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name INCHOE_Proc_1994_1_D53.pdf.txt stream_source_info INCHOE_Proc_1994_1_D53.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  11. Resolving the fine-scale deformation structure of continental hyperextension at the deep Galicia rift margin using seismic full waveform inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, R. G.; Morgan, J. V.; Minshull, T. A.; Bull, J. M.; Bayrakci, G.

    2016-12-01

    Hyperextension of the continental crust during ultra-slow, magma-poor rifting is accommodated by a series of complex fault geometries, preceding continental breakup. At such margins there exists a discrepancy between the extension observed along these fault systems and the total observed thinning of the continental lithosphere, with several competing hypotheses on the responsible mechanism. Despite this, it is agreed that a significant amount of the observed discrepancy is the result of unaccounted sub-seismic fault structure. In order to seismically image these fine scale structures it is imperative to develop accurate and well resolved velocity models of the subsurface, for the purpose of migrating reflection seismic images. Velocity models with the required resolution are unattainable using classic travel time tomography. However, seismic full waveform inversion could provide a suitable alternative to produce the required velocity models, with the method having the ability to resolve velocity structure up to an order of magnitude greater than that of travel time tomography. In this study we apply acoustic full waveform inversion to a 2D wide-angle seismic data set, collected at the hyperextended domain of the deep Galicia rift margin. Despite the challenging environment and dataset, our results show promising increases in the resolution of existing velocity models, particularly in correlation to the normal faulting associated with highly deformed continental fault blocks in the distal hyperextended domain.

  12. Exploration of the Canyon-Incised Continental Margin of the Northeastern United States Reveals Dynamic Habitats and Diverse Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Quattrini

    Full Text Available The continental margin off the northeastern United States (NEUS contains numerous, topographically complex features that increase habitat heterogeneity across the region. However, the majority of these rugged features have never been surveyed, particularly using direct observations. During summer 2013, 31 Remotely-Operated Vehicle (ROV dives were conducted from 494 to 3271 m depth across a variety of seafloor features to document communities and to infer geological processes that produced such features. The ROV surveyed six broad-scale habitat features, consisting of shelf-breaching canyons, slope-sourced canyons, inter-canyon areas, open-slope/landslide-scar areas, hydrocarbon seeps, and Mytilus Seamount. Four previously unknown chemosynthetic communities dominated by Bathymodiolus mussels were documented. Seafloor methane hydrate was observed at two seep sites. Multivariate analyses indicated that depth and broad-scale habitat significantly influenced megafaunal coral (58 taxa, demersal fish (69 taxa, and decapod crustacean (34 taxa assemblages. Species richness of fishes and crustaceans significantly declined with depth, while there was no relationship between coral richness and depth. Turnover in assemblage structure occurred on the middle to lower slope at the approximate boundaries of water masses found previously in the region. Coral species richness was also an important variable explaining variation in fish and crustacean assemblages. Coral diversity may serve as an indicator of habitat suitability and variation in available niche diversity for these taxonomic groups. Our surveys added 24 putative coral species and three fishes to the known regional fauna, including the black coral Telopathes magna, the octocoral Metallogorgia melanotrichos and the fishes Gaidropsarus argentatus, Guttigadus latifrons, and Lepidion guentheri. Marine litter was observed on 81% of the dives, with at least 12 coral colonies entangled in debris. While

  13. Exploration of the canyon-incised continental margin of the northeastern United States reveals dynamic habitats and diverse communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrini, Andrea; Nizinski, Martha S.; Chaytor, Jason; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Roark, E. Brendan; France, Scott; Moore, Jon A.; Heyl, Taylor P.; Auster, Peter J.; Ruppel, Carolyn D.; Elliott, Kelley P.; Kennedy, Brian R.C.; Lobecker, Elizabeth A.; Skarke, Adam; Shank, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    The continental margin off the northeastern United States (NEUS) contains numerous, topographically complex features that increase habitat heterogeneity across the region. However, the majority of these rugged features have never been surveyed, particularly using direct observations. During summer 2013, 31 Remotely-Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives were conducted from 494 to 3271 m depth across a variety of seafloor features to document communities and to infer geological processes that produced such features. The ROV surveyed six broad-scale habitat features, consisting of shelf-breaching canyons, slope-sourced canyons, inter-canyon areas, open-slope/landslide-scar areas, hydrocarbon seeps, and Mytilus Seamount. Four previously unknown chemosynthetic communities dominated by Bathymodiolus mussels were documented. Seafloor methane hydrate was observed at two seep sites. Multivariate analyses indicated that depth and broad-scale habitat significantly influenced megafaunal coral (58 taxa), demersal fish (69 taxa), and decapod crustacean (34 taxa) assemblages. Species richness of fishes and crustaceans significantly declined with depth, while there was no relationship between coral richness and depth. Turnover in assemblage structure occurred on the middle to lower slope at the approximate boundaries of water masses found previously in the region. Coral species richness was also an important variable explaining variation in fish and crustacean assemblages. Coral diversity may serve as an indicator of habitat suitability and variation in available niche diversity for these taxonomic groups. Our surveys added 24 putative coral species and three fishes to the known regional fauna, including the black coral Telopathes magna, the octocoral Metallogorgia melanotrichosand the fishes Gaidropsarus argentatus, Guttigadus latifrons, and Lepidion guentheri. Marine litter was observed on 81% of the dives, with at least 12 coral colonies entangled in debris. While initial

  14. Thermal history, exhumation and long-term landscape evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin, Kaoko Belt, NW Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menges, Daniel; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Hackspacher, Peter C.; Schneider, Gabriele; Zentner, Henning; Karl, Markus

    2014-05-01

    After the Damara Orogeny at the end of the Neoproterozoic the Kaoko Belt in northwestern Namibia was affected by deep erosion of the Damara Sequence, followed by the depositon of the Karoo Supergroup from Permo-Carboniferous to Early Cretaceous. The lithostratigraphic units consist of Late Proterozoic to Cambrian metamorphosed rocks and intrusive complexes of the Damara Group, with ages of 534 (7) Ma to 481 (25) Ma (Miller 1983), that are unconformably overlain by terrestrial deposits of the Karoo Supergroup (Stollhofen 1999), comprising two flood basalt events: the Karoo flood basalts, at 183 (1) Ma (Duncan et al. 1997), and the Early Cretaceous Paraná-Etendeka flood basalts, at 132 (1) Ma (Renne et al. 1996). The latter marking the rift stage of the opening of the South Atlantic. The "passive" continental margin along the Kaoko Belt in northern Namibia is a perfect location to quantify exhumation and uplift rates, model the long-term landscape evolution and provide information about the major processes controlling the landscape evolution in this region. The poster/talk will present thermochronological data, t-T-models and exhumation rates for the Kaoko belt, NW Namibia. References Miller, R. M., 1983. Evolution of the Damara Orogen, Vol. 11, Geol. Soc., South Africa Spec. Pub.. Renne, P.R., Glen, J.M., Milner, S.C., Duncan, A.R., 1996. Age of Etendeka flood volcanism and associated intrusions in southwestern Africa, Geology 24 (7): 659- 662. Duncan, R., Hooper, P., Rehacek, J., March, J. and Duncan, A., 1997. The timing and duration of the Karoo igneous event, southern Gondwana, J. Geophys. Res. 102: 18127-18138. Stollhofen, H., 1999. Karoo Synrift-Sedimentation und ihre tektonische Kontrolle am entstehenden Kontinentalrand Namibias, Z.dt.geol.Ges. 149: 519-632.

  15. Assessing the impact of Hurricanes Irene and Sandy on the morphology and modern sediment thickness on the inner continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, William C.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Denny, Jane F.

    2016-01-15

    This report documents the changes in seabed morphology and modern sediment thickness detected on the inner continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York, before and after Hurricanes Irene and Sandy made landfall. Comparison of acoustic backscatter imagery, seismic-reflection profiles, and bathymetry collected in 2011 and in 2014 show that sedimentary structures and depositional patterns moved alongshore to the southwest in water depths up to 30 meters during the 3-year period. The measured lateral offset distances range between about 1 and 450 meters with a mean of 20 meters. The mean distances computed indicate that change tended to decrease with increasing water depth. Comparison of isopach maps of modern sediment thickness show that a series of shoreface-attached sand ridges, which are the dominant sedimentary structures offshore of Fire Island, migrated toward the southwest because of erosion of the ridge crests and northeast-facing flanks as well as deposition on the southwest-facing flanks and in troughs between individual ridges. Statistics computed suggest that the modern sediment volume across the about 81 square kilometers of common sea floor mapped in both surveys decreased by 2.8 million cubic meters, which is a mean change of –0.03 meters, which is smaller than the resolution limit of the mapping systems used.

  16. 78 FR 760 - Potential Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Potential Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental... the proposal submitted to BOEM by the New York Power Authority (NYPA) to acquire an OCS wind lease; (2... wind power project of at least 350 MW nameplate capacity within the proposed lease area. Any request...

  17. 77 FR 47877 - Potential Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Maine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Potential Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental...), Interior. ACTION: Public Notice of an Unsolicited Request for a Commercial OCS Wind Lease, Request for... proposal submitted to BOEM by Statoil North America (Statoil NA) to acquire an OCS wind lease; (2) solicit...

  18. Water Column Methane Bubble Stream Data Analysis and Visualization from a Survey of the U.S. Cascadia Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, S. G.; Embley, R. W.; Raineault, N.; Johnson, H. P.; Sampaga, E.; Baumberger, T.; Lau, T. K. A.

    2016-12-01

    A major objective of cruise NA072 on the E/V Nautilus (operated by Ocean Exploration Trust Inc.), in June 2016, was to begin developing a baseline of methane bubble streams rising from the seafloor along the U. S. Cascadia continental margin (Washington, Oregon and northern California). The E/V Nautilus is equipped with a Kongsberg EM302 system (30 kHz) that collects seafloor bathymetry and backscatter data and concurrently insonifies the water column, allowing the detection and mapping of gas bubble streams rising from the seafloor. Preliminary analysis of the water column data detected more than 450 (presumptive) methane bubble streams, the large majority of which were not previously known. Newly-discovered methane bubble stream emission sites range in depth from 125 to 1640 meters. Water column data were analyzed using the QPS Fledermaus FMMidwater software using several modes. The FMMidwater method allowed for subjectively hand-picking ("geo-picking") bubble stream positions directly from the 2D display. The second method was the creation of geo-referenced 3D point cluster objects that could be loaded into the Fledermaus program and overlain on seafloor bathymetry or backscatter data. The point cluster objects were interactively created by threshold filtering based on acoustic amplitude values of the bubbles in the water column data. The third, a more automated method, used the FMMidwater Feature Detection plugin to create 3D point cluster objects that could be located in batch mode analysis. The three methods of data analysis are compared in this study. A small portion of the EM302 data collected on the E/V Nautilus will be compared to data collected in the same area with an EM710 (70 kHz) system on the NOAA ship Rainier in May 2016. That analysis examines the effect of the sonar frequency on bubble plume detection. Examples of the variety of methane bubble plumes discovered on the E/V Nautilus expedition will be presented in 2D and 3D visualizations.

  19. Recent reconstruction of deep-water macrofaunal communities recorded in Continental Margin sediments in the Balearic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartes, J. E.; Schirone, A.; Barsanti, M.; Delbono, I.; Martínez-Aliaga, A.; Lombarte, A.

    2017-07-01

    We present an initial reconstruction of recent (last few centuries) mud-bottom faunal communities on the upper slope (398-667 m) of the continental margin off Catalonia (western Mediterranean), including periods free of any trawling impact. Radiometric dating of marine sediments and identification of faunal remains (e.g., fish otoliths, pteropod shells, coral sclerites) were performed to obtain a sediment geochronology in a 56 cm sediment core (MC4) taken at 398 m off the Ebro Delta in 2011. Core MC4 was especially rich in faunal remains, including, for example, 247 identifiable otoliths. A fine-scale chronology of MC4 was not possible due to sediment mixing. However, the depth of 210Pbxs penetration (20-22 cm) identified sediments older (below 22 cm depth) and younger (from core top to 22 cm) than ca. 100 years. Mass Accumulation Rate (MAR) from the 210Pbxs profile was estimated as 0.23±0.02 g cm-2 y-1. A significant peak of sclerites of the bamboo coral Isidella elongata was found between 4 and 8 cm in MC4, with remains of the axes and bases of Isidella colonies exclusively found at core depths >8-10 cm, which would correspond (MAR results) to the period 1980-1985. Such structures were not found in the 0-8 cm layer, likely an effect of trawling that started in the area in the 1980s. Other changes both in benthos (corals and cirripedes) and zooplankton (pteropods) seemed to be related with Ebro river discharge, with changes coinciding with massive damming of the Ebro and tributary rivers in the 1950s and until 1965. Mesopelagic fish also showed temporal oscillations in MC4. Abundance of some myctophid remains (Lampanyctus croccodilus and Benthosema glaciale) was related with positive NAO periods and with rather high temperature in Levantine Intermediate Waters. By contrast, periods of higher dominance of Ceratoscopelus maderensis off Catalonian coasts could indicate lower salinity during the past and a progressive degree of eutrophication in intermediate waters

  20. Structure and function of nematode communities across the Indian western continental margin and its oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Ingole, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    We studied patterns of nematode distribution along the western Indian continental margin to determine the influence of habitat heterogeneity and low oxygen levels on the community's taxonomic and functional structure. A single transect, perpendicular to the coast at 14° N latitude was sampled from 34 to 2546 m depth for biological and environmental variables during August 2007. The oxygen minimum zone extended from 102 to 1001 m. Nematodes (described and undescribed) were identified to species and classified according to biological and functional traits. A total of 110 nematode species belonging to 24 families were found along the transect. Three depth zones were identified: the shelf (depth range: 34-102 m; highest nematode mean density: 176.6 ± 37 ind 10 cm-2), the slope (525-1524 m; 124.3 ± 16 ind 10 cm-2), and the basin (2001-2546 m; 62.9 ± 2 ind 10 cm-2). Across the entire study area, the dominant species were Terschellingia longicaudata, Desmodora sp. 1, Sphaerolaimus gracilis, and Theristus ensifer; their maximum density was at shelf stations. Nematode communities in different zones differed in species composition. Chromadorita sp. 2 (2.78 %) and Sphaerolaimus gracilis (2.21 %) were dominant on the shelf, whereas Terschellingia longicaudata (4.73 %) and Desmodora sp. 1 (4.42 %) were dominant on the slope, but in the basin, Halalaimus sp. 1(1.11 %) and Acantholaimus elegans (1.11 %) were dominant. The information in a particular functional group was not a simple reflection of the information in species abundance. Ecological information captured by adult length, adult shape, and life-history strategy was less site-specific and thus differed notably from information contained in other taxonomic groups. The functional composition of nematodes was strongly linked to the organic-carbon and dissolved-oxygen concentration. Seven species were found exclusively in the oxygen minimum zone: Pselionema sp. 1, Choanolaimus sp. 2, Halichoanolaimus sp. 1, Cobbia dentata

  1. Aeolian sands in continental red beds of the Middle Buntsandstein (Lower Triassic) at the western margin of the German Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Detlef

    1982-04-01

    Aeolian sands occur widespread in continental red beds of the Middle Buntsandstein (Lower Triassic) at the western margin of the German Basin (Middle Europe), in the Eifel area. Cross-bedded sands were mainly deposited by grainfall on lee-slopes of barchanoid-type dunes in unimodal wind regime in both low-energy and high-energy environments. Occasionally, sets are internally truncated by reactivation surfaces. Crest height of solitary-set dunes varies in the range of some meters. Locally, sequences of cosets, both of tabular-planar and wedge-planar type, capped by flat or gently windward dipping topset beds, represent larger dune complexes of about 10-20 m in height and at least 80-100 m in lateral extent. Horizontal-laminated deposits originated as sand sheets in interdune areas. The dune sands were deposited by trade winds of the northern hemisphere in low palaeolatitude, predominantly by southeasterly and southwesterly trade winds in summer when the intertropical convergence zone was shifted to the north. Aeolian sands built up an extensive dune belt in the Eifel, intersected by braided to anastomosing rivers. Fluviatile incursions or heavy ephemeral rainfall led to aquatic redeposition of aeolian sediments and origin of shallow lakes in interdune depressions. Distribution of aeolian and fluviatile sediments in Karlstal-Schichten is different in the Southern, Western and Northern Eifel. Middle Buntsandstein sequence in the Southern Eifel reflects an evolution of the fluviatile depositional environment also incorporating the occurrence and distribution of aeolian sands. Evolution is characterized by increasing spacing and sinuosity of channels, weakening supply of coarse detritus from the source areas and decreasing braiding of the river systems. Aeolian sands occur in the final phase of this evolution which led from local alluvial fans via cobbly and pebbly braided rivers to sandy braided streams and finally to an intertonguing of aeolian dunes and braided to

  2. Pre-existing oblique transfer zones and transfer/transform relationships in continental margins: New insights from the southeastern Gulf of Aden, Socotra Island, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahsen, N.; Leroy, S.; Autin, J.; Razin, P.; d'Acremont, E.; Sloan, H.; Pik, R.; Ahmed, A.; Khanbari, K.

    2013-11-01

    Transfer zones are ubiquitous features in continental rifts and margins, as are transform faults in oceanic lithosphere. Here, we present a structural study of the Hadibo Transfer Zone (HTZ), located in Socotra Island (Yemen) in the southeastern Gulf of Aden. There, we interpret this continental transfer fault zone to represent a reactivated pre-existing structure. Its trend is oblique to the direction of divergence and it has been active from the early up to the latest stages of rifting. One of the main oceanic fracture zones (FZ), the Hadibo-Sharbithat FZ, is aligned with and appears to be an extension of the HTZ and is probably genetically linked to it. Comparing this setting with observations from other Afro-Arabian rifts as well as with passive margins worldwide, it appears that many continental transfer zones are reactivated pre-existing structures, oblique to divergence. We therefore establish a classification system for oceanic FZ based upon their relationship with syn-rift structures. Type 1 FZ form at syn-rift structures and are late syn-rift to early syn-OCT. Type 2 FZ form during the OCT formation and Type 3 FZ form within the oceanic domain, after the oceanic spreading onset. The latter are controlled by far-field forces, magmatic processes, spreading rates, and oceanic crust rheology.

  3. Tectonic Inversion Along the Algerian and Ligurian Margins: On the Insight Provided By Latest Seismic Processing Techniques Applied to Recent and Vintage 2D Offshore Multichannel Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenini, L.; Beslier, M. O.; Sage, F.; Badji, R.; Galibert, P. Y.; Lepretre, A.; Dessa, J. X.; Aidi, C.; Watremez, L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies on the Algerian and the North-Ligurian margins in the Western Mediterranean have evidenced inversion-related superficial structures, such as folds and asymmetric sedimentary perched basins whose geometry hints at deep compressive structures dipping towards the continent. Deep seismic imaging of these margins is difficult due to steep slope and superficial multiples, and, in the Mediterranean context, to the highly diffractive Messinian evaporitic series in the basin. During the Algerian-French SPIRAL survey (2009, R/V Atalante), 2D marine multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection data were collected along the Algerian Margin using a 4.5 km, 360 channel digital streamer and a 3040 cu. in. air-gun array. An advanced processing workflow has been laid out using Geocluster CGG software, which includes noise attenuation, 2D SRME multiple attenuation, surface consistent deconvolution, Kirchhoff pre-stack time migration. This processing produces satisfactory seismic images of the whole sedimentary cover, and of southward dipping reflectors in the acoustic basement along the central part of the margin offshore Great Kabylia, that are interpreted as inversion-related blind thrusts as part of flat-ramp systems. We applied this successful processing workflow to old 2D marine MCS data acquired on the North-Ligurian Margin (Malis survey, 1995, R/V Le Nadir), using a 2.5 km, 96 channel streamer and a 1140 cu. in. air-gun array. Particular attention was paid to multiple attenuation in adapting our workflow. The resulting reprocessed seismic images, interpreted with a coincident velocity model obtained by wide-angle data tomography, provide (1) enhanced imaging of the sedimentary cover down to the top of the acoustic basement, including the base of the Messinian evaporites and the sub-salt Miocene series, which appear to be tectonized as far as in the mid-basin, and (2) new evidence of deep crustal structures in the margin which the initial processing had failed to

  4. EX1204: Northeastern Canyons and Continental Margins Exploration on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer between 20120529 and 20120613

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the Okeanos Explorer (EX) mission EX1204, the vessel will sail from Norfolk, VA, along the continental shelf break of the U.S. East Coast from Virginia to...

  5. Environmental controls on the distribution of organic matter in recent sediments of the western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.; Rao, Ch.M.; Murty, P.S.N.

    A large number of surficial sediment samples from the western continental shelf and slope regions were analysed for the organic carbon and total nitrogen content. The organic carbon and nitrogen contents of these sediments exhibit marked regional...

  6. EX1205L2: Northeast Canyons and Continental Margins Exploration on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer between 20120728 and 20120803

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — EX1205 Leg 2 is the final cruise of the 2012 season for Okeanos Explorer (EX). It will be primarily focused on supplementing Northeast canyon and continental shelf...

  7. Mineralogy and Origin of Sediments From Drill Holes on the Continental Margin Off Florida, 1965-1969 (NODC Accession 7100714)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drill cores obtained during the Joint Oceanographic Institutions' Deep Earth Sampling Program from the continental shelf, the Florida-Hatteras Slope, and the Blake...

  8. The influence of tectonic and volcanic processes on the morphology of the Iberian continental margins; Influencia de los procesos tectonicos y volcanicos en la morfologia de los margenes continentales ibericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maestro, A.; Bohoyo, F.; Lopez-Martinez, J.; Acosta, J.; Gomez-Ballesteros, M.; Llaave, E.; Munoz, A.; Terrinha, P. G.; Dominguez, M.; Fernandez-Saez, F.

    2015-07-01

    The Iberian continental margins are mainly passive margins. Nevertheless, the northern sector of the margin was active during some stages of its geological evolution. The southern sector is considered as a transformed margin, which defines the boundary between the Iberian and African plates. This margin was also an active margin in the past. The different types, origins and intensities of the endogenic processes that have affected he Iberian continental margins have led to the development of various tectonic and volcanic morphologies. The North Atlantic rifting allowed the development of large marginal platforms in the Cantabrian and Galician margins the North-Atlantic Ocean spreading. The reactivation of Variscan faults during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic controlled the strike of some of the largest canyons in the Iberian margins. The Gulf of Cadiz margin is characterized by the development of morphologies related to salt tectonic, fluid seepage, thrust fronts and strike-slip fault lineaments hundreds of kilometres long. The Alboran basin and the Betic margin show morphologies connected with the Miocene rift phase, which generated volcanic edifices and various structural reliefs, and with the subsequent compressive phase, when folds and strike-slip, reverse faults, diapirs and mud volcanoes were developed. Finally, the Catalan-Valencian margin and the Balearic promontory are characterized by the presence of horst and graben structures related to the development of the Valencia trough during the Paleogene. The morphological features of endogenic origin have largely controlled the location and extent of the sedimentary processes and morphological products along the Iberian margins. (Author)

  9. Surficial clay mineral distribution on the southwestern continental margin of India: Evidence of input from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Gujar, A.R.

    of the continental source area. A number of studies have shown that clay mineral distributions are particularly sensitive indicators of spatial and temporal changes of the geology and the weathering characteristics on the adjacent continental landmass (Biscaye..., and hydrography on the dispersal and Surficial clay mineral distribution in SW India 323 distribution of clay minerals, and to identify the sources of the sediments in this region, particularly the potential clay mineral contribution from the BBW. 2. STUDY...

  10. The influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycles on wave-driven sea-floor sediment mobility along the central California continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Reid, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    Ocean surface waves are the dominant temporally and spatially variable process influencing sea floor sediment resuspension along most continental shelves. Wave-induced sediment mobility on the continental shelf and upper continental slope off central California for different phases of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events was modeled using monthly statistics derived from more than 14 years of concurrent hourly oceanographic and meteorologic data as boundary input for the Delft SWAN wave model, gridded sea floor grain-size data from the usSEABED database, and regional bathymetry. Differences as small as 0.5 m in wave height, 1 s in wave period, and 10° in wave direction, in conjunction with the spatially heterogeneous unconsolidated sea-floor sedimentary cover, result in significant changes in the predicted mobility of continental shelf surficial sediment in the study area. El Niño events result in more frequent mobilization on the inner shelf in the summer and winter than during La Niña events and on the outer shelf and upper slope in the winter months, while La Niña events result in more frequent mobilization on the mid-shelf during spring and summer months than during El Niño events. The timing and patterns of seabed mobility are addressed in context of geologic and biologic processes. By understanding the spatial and temporal variability in the disturbance of the sea floor, scientists can better interpret sedimentary patterns and ecosystem structure, while providing managers and planners an understanding of natural impacts when considering the permitting of offshore activities that disturb the sea floor such as trawling, dredging, and the emplacement of sea-floor engineering structures.

  11. Cretaceous transformation from passive to active continental margin in the Western Carpathians as indicated by the sedimentary record in the Infratatric unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putiš, Marián; Gawlick, Hans-Jürgen; Frisch, Wolfgang; Sulák, Marián

    2008-07-01

    The Cretaceous orogen of the Western Carpathians comprises fragments of the destructed northern Centrocarpathian domain, which is defined as Infratatric unit and formed a continental margin facing the Penninic Ocean in Jurassic and Cretaceous times. The breakup event and opening of the Penninic Ocean occurred in the Early Jurassic (Pliensbachian), which is recorded by an abrupt deepening event from shallow-water sediments to deep-water nodular limestone in the Infratatric sediment succession. The transformation of the passive into an active continental margin by the onset of subduction of the Penninic oceanic crust occurred in Santonian times and is reflected by the beginning of flysch deposition in the Infratatric Belice domain, which took the position of a forearc basin in the convergent margin setting. The forearc basin was supplied by clastic material from the more internal part of the Infratatric unit, which experienced nappe stacking, metamorphism, and subsequent exhumation in Late Cretaceous times. In the frontal part of the forearc basin an accretionary wedge was built up, which formed an outer-arc ridge and delivered detrital material into the forearc basin in Maastrichtian time. Final collision between the European and the Adriatic plate occurred in the Eocene period and is responsible for weak metamorphism in the Infratatric unit.

  12. The role of tectonic inheritance in the morphostructural evolution of the Galicia continental margin and adjacent abyssal plains from digital bathymetric model (DBM) analysis (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestro, A.; Jané, G.; Llave, E.; López-Martínez, J.; Bohoyo, F.; Druet, M.

    2017-09-01

    The identification of recent major tectonic structures in the Galicia continental margin and adjacent abyssal plains was carried out by means of a quantitative analysis of the linear structures having bathymetric expression on the seabed. It was possible to identify about 5800 lineaments throughout the entire study area, of approximately 271,500 km2. Most lineaments are located in the Charcot and Coruña highs, in the western sector of the Galicia Bank, in the area of the Marginal Platforms and in the northern sector of the margin. Analysis of the lineament orientations shows a predominant NE-SW direction and three relative maximum directions: NW-SE, E-W and N-S. The total length of the lineaments identified is over 44,000 km, with a mode around 5000 m and an average length of about 7800 m. In light of different tectonic studies undertaken in the northwestern margin of the Iberian Peninsula, we establish that the lineaments obtained from analysis of the digital bathymetric model of the Galicia continental margin and adjacent abyssal plains would correspond to fracture systems. In general, the orientation of lineaments corresponds to main faults, tectonic structures following the directions of ancient faults that resulted from late stages of the Variscan orogeny and Mesozoic extension phases related to Triassic rifting and Upper Jurassic to Early Cretaceous opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. The N-S convergence between Eurasian and African plates since Palaeogene times until the Miocene, and NW-SE convergence from Neogene to present, reactivated the Variscan and Mesozoic fault systems and related physiography.

  13. The extent of ocean acidification on aragonite saturation state along the Washington-Oregon continental shelf margin in late summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feely, R. A.; Alin, S. R.; Hales, B. R.; Juranek, L.; Greeley, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Washington-Oregon continental shelf region is exposed to conditions of low aragonite saturation state during the late spring/early summer upwelling season. However, the extent of its evolution in late summer/early fall has been largely unknown. Along this continental margin, ocean acidification, upwelling, biological productivity, and respiration processes in subsurface waters are major contributors to the variability in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH and aragonite saturation state. The persistence of water with aragonite saturation state echinoderms, and pteropods. In the late summer of 2012 we studied the extent of acidification conditions employing shipboard cruises and profiling gliders. We conducted several large-scale chemical and hydrographic surveys of the region in order to better understand the interrelationships between these natural and human-induced processes and their effects on aragonite saturation. We will compare the results of these new surveys with our previous work in 2011 and 2007.

  14. {sup 137}Cs as tracer of the origin of allochthonous sediments in the Southeast Continental Margin of Brazil; {sup 137}Cs como tracador da origem de sedimentos aloctones na Margem Continental Sudeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Paulo A.L.; Mahiques, Michel M.; FIgueira, Rubens C.L., E-mail: paulo.alves.ferreira@usp.br, E-mail: mahiques@usp.br, E-mail: rfigueira@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico; Franca, Elvis J., E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The distribution of {sup 137}Cs, artificial radionuclide for which there is no current source, can inform on the origin and destination of sediments. This study analyzed about 60 samples of surface sediment to generate a model of spatial distribution of {sup 137}Cs in the Southeast Continental Margin of Brazil and surroundings for evaluating possible sediment sources for this region. The model showed that the levels of {sup 137}Cs in the southern compartment of the Southeast Brazilian Margin (south of Sao Sebastiao Island) are statistically similar to those of the Rio de la Plata river mouth region, indicating sediment entry due to the seasonal intrusion of the plume of Rio de la Plata, a phenomenon already studied by other authors.

  15. Long-term subsidence, cooling, and exhumation history along the South Atlantic passive continental margin in NW-Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menges, Daniel; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton; Salomon, Eric; Hackspacher, Peter Christian; Schneider, Gabi

    2017-04-01

    In northwestern Namibia the Kaoko Belt is one of the most important Precambrian crustal segments that have stored the subsidence, cooling, and exhumation history of Namibia since the Neoproterozoic. ZFT-ages, with ages between 292.7 (46.0) and 436.8 (45.9) Ma, are giving new insights on this early evolution. Paleozoic to Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Karoo Supergroup and the Lower Cretaceous volcanic rocks of the Etendeka sequence overlay the Proterozoic metamorphic and intrusive rocks (1). New apatite fission-track (AFT) ages range from 390.9 (17.9) Ma to 80.8 (6.0) Ma. Along the coast apatites of Proterozoic rock samples reveal the youngest ages. Further inland the ages increase significantly. In addition, rapid change of AFT-ages occurs on both sides of major thrust and shear zones. Using the oldest thermochronological data the revealed t-T paths indicate a long era of exhumation, starting at the end of the Pan-African Orogeny in the Neoproterozoic and continuing into the Permo-Carboniferous. The subsequent sedimentation of the Karoo Supergroup initiates a new era of subsidence until the end of Triassic (2).The subsequent period of denudation ends abruptly with the rapid deposition of the Etendeka basalts in the Early Cretaceous (3). The maximum thickness of the Etendeka volcanic suite has been estimated, using the apatite fission-track data, to about 3.2 (1.2) km. With the ongoing opening of the South Atlantic and the formation of the continental margin the Kaoko Belt went through a rapid cooling event starting 130 Ma and ending 80 Ma, at a mean rate of 0.034 km/Ma for the western, and 0.018 km/Ma for the northern and eastern Kaoko Belt. This cooling event was accompanied by a reactivation of major fault zones, like the Purros Mylonite Zone (4). Thereafter, stable conditions were established, with denudation rates generally lower than 0.010 km/Ma, until the Neogene, where a second cooling event led to increased exhumation rates around 0.042 km/Ma. The total

  16. Impact of organic matter source and quality on living benthic foraminiferal distribution on a river-dominated continental margin: A study of the Portuguese Margin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessandier, P.-A.; Bonnin, J.; Kim, J.-H.; Bichona, S.; Deflandre, B.; Grémare, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Living (rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera were investigated on surface sediments from 23 stations from the river-dominated north-western Portuguese margin. Samples were collected in March 2011, following the period of the maximum rainfall over the Iberian Peninsula, between 20 and 2000?m

  17. Records of continental slope sediment flow morphodynamic responses to gradient and active faulting from integrated AUV and ROV data, offshore Palos Verdes, southern California Borderland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Katherine L.; Brothers, Daniel; Paull, Charles K.; McGann, Mary; Caress, David W.; Conrad, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Variations in seabed gradient are widely acknowledged to influence deep-water deposition, but are often difficult to measure in sufficient detail from both modern and ancient examples. On the continental slope offshore Los Angeles, California, autonomous underwater vehicle, remotely operated vehicle, and shipboard methods were used to collect a dense grid of high-resolution multibeam bathymetry, chirp sub-bottom profiles, and targeted sediment core samples that demonstrate the influence of seafloor gradient on sediment accumulation, depositional environment, grain size of deposits, and seafloor morphology. In this setting, restraining and releasing bends along the active right-lateral Palos Verdes Fault create and maintain variations in seafloor gradient. Holocene down-slope flows appear to have been generated by slope failure, primarily on the uppermost slope (~ 100–200 m water depth). Turbidity currents created a low relief (sediment waves (λ = ~ 100 m, h ≤ 2 m), and a series of depocenters that have accumulated up to 4 m of Holocene sediment. Sediment waves increase in wavelength and decrease in wave height with decreasing gradient. Integrated analysis of high-resolution datasets provides quantification of morphodynamic sensitivity to seafloor gradients acting throughout deep-water depositional systems. These results help to bridge gaps in scale between existing deep-sea and experimental datasets and may provide constraints for future numerical modeling studies.

  18. Heat Flow and Gas Hydrates on the Continental Margin of India: Building on Results from NGHP Expedition 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anne Trehu; Peter Kannberg

    2011-06-30

    The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 presented the unique opportunity to constrain regional heat flow derived from seismic observations by using drilling data in three regions on the continental margin of India. The seismic bottom simulating reflection (BSR) is a well-documented feature in hydrate bearing sediments, and can serve as a proxy for apparent heat flow if data are available to estimate acoustic velocity and density in water and sediments, thermal conductivity, and seafloor temperature. Direct observations of temperature at depth and physical properties of the sediment obtained from drilling can be used to calibrate the seismic observations, decreasing the uncertainty of the seismically-derived estimates. Anomalies in apparent heat flow can result from a variety of sources, including sedimentation, erosion, topographic refraction and fluid flow. We constructed apparent heat flow maps for portions of the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin, the Mahanadi basin, and the Andaman basin and modeled anomalies using 1-D conductive thermal models. Apparent heat flow values in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin and Mahanadi basin are generally 0.035 to 0.055 watts per square meter (W/m{sup 2}). The borehole data show an increase in apparent heat flow as water depth increases from 900 to 1500 m. In the SW part of the seismic grid, 1D modeling of the effect of sedimentation on heat flow shows that {approx}50% of the observed increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth can be attributed to trapping of sediments behind a 'toe-thrust' ridge that is forming along the seaward edge of a thick, rapidly accumulating deltaic sediment pile. The remainder of the anomaly can be explained either by a decrease in thermal conductivity of the sediments filling the slope basin or by lateral advection of heat through fluid flow along stratigraphic horizons within the basin and through flexural faults in the crest of the anticline. Such flow

  19. Heat Flow and Gas Hydrates on the Continental Margin of India: Building on Results from NGHP Expedition 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trehu, Anne; Kannberg, Peter

    2011-06-30

    The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 presented the unique opportunity to constrain regional heat flow derived from seismic observations by using drilling data in three regions on the continental margin of India. The seismic bottom simulating reflection (BSR) is a well-documented feature in hydrate bearing sediments, and can serve as a proxy for apparent heat flow if data are available to estimate acoustic velocity and density in water and sediments, thermal conductivity, and seafloor temperature. Direct observations of temperature at depth and physical properties of the sediment obtained from drilling can be used to calibrate the seismic observations, decreasing the uncertainty of the seismically-derived estimates. Anomalies in apparent heat flow can result from a variety of sources, including sedimentation, erosion, topographic refraction and fluid flow. We constructed apparent heat flow maps for portions of the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin, the Mahanadi basin, and the Andaman basin and modeled anomalies using 1-D conductive thermal models. Apparent heat flow values in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin and Mahanadi basin are generally 0.035 to 0.055 watts per square meter (W/m2). The borehole data show an increase in apparent heat flow as water depth increases from 900 to 1500 m. In the SW part of the seismic grid, 1D modeling of the effect of sedimentation on heat flow shows that ~50% of the observed increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth can be attributed to trapping of sediments behind a "toe-thrust" ridge that is forming along the seaward edge of a thick, rapidly accumulating deltaic sediment pile. The remainder of the anomaly can be explained either by a decrease in thermal conductivity of the sediments filling the slope basin or by lateral advection of heat through fluid flow along stratigraphic horizons within the basin and through flexural faults in the crest of the anticline. Such flow probably plays a role in

  20. Final Scientific/Technical Report: Characterizing the Response of the Cascadia Margin Gas Hydrate Reservoir to Bottom Water Warming Along the Upper Continental Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, Evan A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Johnson, H. Paul [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Salmi, Marie [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Whorley, Theresa [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-11-10

    The objective of this project is to understand the response of the WA margin gas hydrate system to contemporary warming of bottom water along the upper continental slope. Through pre-cruise analysis and modeling of archive and recent geophysical and oceanographic data, we (1) inventoried bottom simulating reflectors along the WA margin and defined the upper limit of gas hydrate stability, (2) refined margin-wide estimates of heat flow and geothermal gradients, (3) characterized decadal scale temporal variations of bottom water temperatures at the upper continental slope of the Washington margin, and (4) used numerical simulations to provide quantitative estimates of how the shallow boundary of methane hydrate stability responds to modern environmental change. These pre-cruise results provided the context for a systematic geophysical and geochemical survey of methane seepage along the upper continental slope from 48° to 46°N during a 10-day field program on the R/V Thompson from October 10-19, 2014. This systematic inventory of methane emissions along this climate-sensitive margin corridor and comprehensive sediment and water column sampling program provided data and samples for Phase 3 of this project that focused on determining fluid and methane sources (deep-source vs. shallow; microbial, thermogenic, gas hydrate dissociation) within the sediment, and how they relate to contemporary intermediate water warming. During the 2014 research expedition, we sampled nine seep sites between ~470 and 520 m water depth, within the zone of predicted methane hydrate retreat over the past 40 years. We imaged 22 bubble plumes with heights commonly rising to ~300 meters below sea level with one reaching near the sea surface. We collected 22 gravity cores and 20 CTD/hydrocasts from the 9 seeps and at background locations (no acoustic evidence of seepage) within the depth interval of predicted downslope retreat of the methane hydrate stability zone. Approximately 300 pore water

  1. Submarine landslide and tsunami hazards offshore southern Alaska: Seismic strengthening versus rapid sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Derek E.; Reece, Robert S.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Lenz, Brandi L.

    2017-08-01

    The southern Alaskan offshore margin is prone to submarine landslides and tsunami hazards due to seismically active plate boundaries and extreme sedimentation rates from glacially enhanced mountain erosion. We examine the submarine landslide potential with new shear strength measurements acquired by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 341 on the continental slope and Surveyor Fan. These data reveal lower than expected sediment strength. Contrary to other active margins where seismic strengthening enhances slope stability, the high-sedimentation margin offshore southern Alaska behaves like a passive margin from a shear strength perspective. We interpret that seismic strengthening occurs but is offset by high sedimentation rates and overpressure. This conclusion is supported by shear strength outside of the fan that follow an active margin trend. More broadly, seismically active margins with wet-based glaciers are susceptible to submarine landslide hazards because of the combination of high sedimentation rates and earthquake shaking.

  2. Suspended matter in surface waters of the Atlantic continental margin from Cape Cod to the Florida keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, F. T.; Meade, R.H.; Bond, G.C.

    1970-01-01

    Appreciable amounts of suspended matter (> 1.0 milligram per liter) in surface waters are restricted to within a few kilometers of the Atlantic coast. Particles that escape estuaries or are discharged by rivers into the shelf region tend to travel longshoreward rather than seaward. Suspended matter farther offshore, chiefly amorphous organic particles, totals 0.1 milligram per liter or less. Soot, fly ash, processed cellulose, and other pollutants are widespread.

  3. Decadal changes in carbon fluxes at the East Siberian continental margin: interactions of ice cover, ocean productivity, particle sedimentation and benthic life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boetius, A.; Bienhold, C.; Felden, J.; Fernandez Mendez, M.; Gusky, M.; Rossel, P. E.; Vedenin, A.; Wenzhoefer, F.

    2015-12-01

    The observed and predicted Climate-Carbon-Cryosphere interactions in the Arctic Ocean are likely to alter productivity and carbon fluxes of the Siberian continental margin and adjacent basins. Here, we compare field observations and samples obtained in the nineties, and recently in 2012 during the sea ice minimum, to assess decadal changes in the productivity, export and recycling of organic matter at the outer East Siberian margin. In the 90s, the Laptev Sea margin was still largely ice-covered throughout the year, and the samples and measurements obtained represent an ecological baseline against which current and future ecosystem shifts can be assessed. The POLARSTERN expedition IceArc (ARK-XXVII/3) returned in September 2012 to resample the same transects between 60 and 3400 m water depth as well as stations in the adjacent deep basins. Our results suggest that environmental changes in the past two decades, foremost sea ice thinning and retreat, have led to a substantial increase in phytodetritus sedimentation to the seafloor, especially at the lower margin and adjacent basins. This is reflected in increased benthic microbial activities, leading to higher carbon remineralization rates, especially deeper than 3000 m. Besides a relative increase in typical particle degrading bacterial types in surface sediments, bacterial community composition showed little variation between the two years, suggesting that local microbial communities can cope with changing food input. First assessments of faunal abundances suggest an increase in polychaetes,holothurians and bivalves at depth, which fits the prediction of higher productivity and particle deposition rates upon sea ice retreat. The presentation also discusses the controversial issue whether there is evidence for an Arctic-wide increase in carbon flux, or whether we are looking at a spatial shift of the productive marginal ice zone as the main factor to enhance carbon flux to the deep Siberian margin.

  4. Structural lineaments from the magnetic anomaly maps of the eastern continental margin of India (ECMI) and NW Bengal Fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, T.C.S.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Rao, M.M.M.; Lakshminarayana, S.

    degrees E. Analysis of magnetic data associated with these trends suggests that (1) trend1, located at the foot of the continental slope (around 3000 m water depth) represents the ocean-continent boundary (OCB) of ECMI, (2) trend 2 represents the northern...

  5. Meso-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the SE Brazilian continental margin: Petrographic, kinematic and dynamic analysis of the onshore Araruama Lagoon Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Pricilla Camões Martins de; Schmitt, Renata da Silva; Stanton, Natasha

    2017-09-01

    The Ararauama Lagoon Fault System composes one of the most prominent set of lineaments of the SE Brazilian continental margin. It is located onshore in a key tectonic domain, where the basement inheritance rule is not followed. This fault system is characterized by ENE-WSW silicified tectonic breccias and cataclasites showing evidences of recurrent tectonic reactivations. Based on field work, microtectonic, kinematic and dynamic analysis, we reconstructed the paleostresses in the region and propose a sequence of three brittle deformational phases accountable for these reactivations: 1) NE-SW dextral transcurrence; 2) NNW-SSE dextral oblique extension that evolved to NNW-SSE ;pure; extension; 3) ENE-WSW dextral oblique extension. These phases are reasonably correlated with the tectonic events responsible for the onset and evolution of the SE onshore rift basins, between the Neocretaceous and Holocene. However, based on petrographic studies and supported by regional geological correlations, we assume that the origin of this fault system is older, related to the Early Cretaceous South Atlantic rifting. This study provides significant information about one of the main structural trends of the SE Brazilian continental margin and the tectonic events that controlled its segmentation, since the Gondwana rifting, and compartmentalization of its onshore sedimentary deposits during the Cenozoic.

  6. Subduction initiation close to the continental margin? Implications from U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Pιnarbaşι metamorphic sole, central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kalijn; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Corfu, Fernando; Gurer, Derya; Brouwer, Fraukje M.; van Roermund, Herman L. M.

    2017-04-01

    pointing to a derivation from Precambrian crust. These zircon cores are likely a detrital component in the Pιnarbaşι sole derived from the continental margin. The Central Anatolian ophiolites were underthrusted by continental rocks of the Anatolide-Taurides less than 10 m.y. after subduction initiation. From this we infer, that subduction initiation in Turkey occurred so close to the continental margin that clastic continent-derived sediments were incorporated in the sole upon subduction initiation. The Anatolide-Tauride passive margin is Middle Triassic in age, and it is quite unlikely that a mid-oceanic ridge existed in the Cretaceous so close to a Triassic continental margin. We therefore tentatively conclude that subduction initiation close to continental margins, within ancient oceanic crust is possible, and even leads to high-temperature conditions in the nascent subduction zones. How these high-temperature conditions were reached is open for debate, but may relate to the subduction initiation process.

  7. Continental Shelf Morphology and Stratigraphy Offshore San Onofre, CA: The Interplay Between Rates of Eustatic Change and Sediment Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotsko, Shannon; Driscoll, Neal W.; Kent, Graham; Brothers, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    New high-resolution CHIRP seismic data acquired offshore San Onofre, southern California reveal that shelf sediment distribution and thickness are primarily controlled by eustatic sea level rise and sediment supply. Throughout the majority of the study region, a prominent abrasion platform and associated shoreline cutoff are observed in the subsurface from ~ 72 to 53 m below present sea level. These erosional features appear to have formed between Melt Water Pulse 1A and Melt Water Pulse 1B, when the rate of sea-level rise was lower. There are three distinct sedimentary units mapped above a regional angular unconformity interpreted to be the Holocene transgressive surface in the seismic data. Unit I, the deepest unit, is interpreted as a lag deposit that infills a topographic low associated with an abrasion platform. Unit I thins seaward by downlap and pinches out landward against the shoreline cutoff. Unit II is a mid-shelf lag deposit formed from shallower eroded material and thins seaward by downlap and landward by onlap. The youngest, Unit III, is interpreted to represent modern sediment deposition. Faults in the study area do not appear to offset the transgressive surface. The Newport Inglewood/Rose Canyon fault system is active in other regions to the south (e.g., La Jolla) where it offsets the transgressive surface and creates seafloor relief. Several shoals observed along the transgressive surface could record minor deformation due to fault activity in the study area. Nevertheless, our preferred interpretation is that the shoals are regions more resistant to erosion during marine transgression. The Cristianitos fault zone also causes a shoaling of the transgressive surface. This may be from resistant antecedent topography due to an early phase of compression on the fault. The Cristianitos fault zone was previously defined as a down-to-the-north normal fault, but the folding and faulting architecture imaged in the CHIRP data are more consistent with a

  8. Modeling sulfate reduction in methane hydrate-bearing continental margin sediments: Does a sulfate-methane transition require anaerobic oxidation of methane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinverno, A.; Pohlman, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The sulfate-methane transition (SMT), a biogeochemical zone where sulfate and methane are metabolized, is commonly observed at shallow depths (1-30 mbsf) in methane-bearing marine sediments. Two processes consume sulfate at and above the SMT, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and organoclastic sulfate reduction (OSR). Differentiating the relative contribution of each process is critical to estimate methane flux into the SMT, which, in turn, is necessary to predict deeper occurrences of gas hydrates in continental margin sediments. To evaluate the relative importance of these two sulfate reduction pathways, we developed a diagenetic model to compute the pore water concentrations of sulfate, methane, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). By separately tracking DIC containing 12C and 13C, the model also computes ??13C-DIC values. The model reproduces common observations from methane-rich sediments: a well-defined SMT with no methane above and no sulfate below and a ??13C-DIC minimum at the SMT. The model also highlights the role of upward diffusing 13C-enriched DIC in contributing to the carbon isotope mass balance of DIC. A combination of OSR and AOM, each consuming similar amounts of sulfate, matches observations from Site U1325 (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 311, northern Cascadia margin). Without AOM, methane diffuses above the SMT, which contradicts existing field data. The modeling results are generalized with a dimensional analysis to the range of SMT depths and sedimentation rates typical of continental margins. The modeling shows that AOM must be active to establish an SMT wherein methane is quantitatively consumed and the ??13C-DIC minimum occurs. The presence of an SMT generally requires active AOM. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Variations in Organic Matter Burial and Composition in Sediments from the Indian Ocean Continental Margin Off SW Indonesia (Sumatra - Java - Flores) Since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennerjahn, T. C.; Gesierich, K.; Schefuß, E.; Mohtadi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Global climate change is a mosaic of regional changes to a large extent determined by region-specific feedbacks between climate and ecosystems. At present the ocean is forming a major sink in the global carbon cycle. Organic matter (OM) storage in sediments displays large regional variations and varied over time during the Quaternary. Upwelling regions are sites of high primary productivity and major depocenters of organic carbon (OC), the least understood of which is the Indian Ocean upwelling off Indonesia. In order to reconstruct the burial and composition of OM during the Late Quaternary, we analyzed five sediment cores from the Indian Ocean continental margin off the Indonesian islands Sumatra to Flores spanning the last 20,000 years (20 kyr). Sediments were analyzed for bulk composition, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of OM, amino acids and hexosamines and terrestrial plant wax n-alkanes and their stable carbon isotope composition. Sedimentation rates hardly varied over time in the western part of the transect. They were slightly lower in the East during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and deglaciation, but increased strongly during the Holocene. The amount and composition of OM was similar along the transect with maximum values during the deglaciation and the late Holocene. High biogenic opal covarying with OM content indicates upwelling-induced primary productivity dominated by diatoms to be a major control of OM burial in sediments in the East during the past 20 kyr. The content of labile OM was low throughout the transect during the LGM and increased during the late Holocene. The increase was stronger and the OM less degraded in the East than in the West indicating that continental margin sediments off Java and Flores were the major depocenter of OC burial along the Indian Ocean margin off SW Indonesia. Temporal variations probably resulted from changes in upwelling intensity and terrestrial inputs driven by variations in monsoon strength.

  10. Offshore and onshore stratigraphic constraints to rebuild the evolution of the two conjugate margins (Gulf of Lion and West Sardinia) over the last 30 Myr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Estelle; Gorini, Christian; Rubino, Jean-Loup; Rabineau, Marina; Aslanian, Daniel; Blanpied, Christian; Taillepierre, Rachel; Haq, Bilal

    2016-04-01

    Principles of seismic and sequential stratigraphy [Vail et al., 1977] are applied onto an extensive set of seismic reflection and drilling data in the Provençal Basin to correlate post-rift Miocene and Plio-Quaternary chronostratigraphic markers at the basin-wide scale. Stratigraphic, sedimentological and micropaleontological studies [Cravatte et al., 1974] for some of the boreholes provide additional information on the depositional environments and the chronostratigraphy of the drilled series. Synthesis of previous onshore studies on the both conjugate margins (Gulf of Lion and West Sardinia), and new fieldwork [Rueda, 2014] enable us to establish the stratigraphical link between onshore and offshore syn-rift and post-rift sequences. Miocene peri-Alpine foreland basin is particularly connected toward the south with the Gulf of Lion passive margin and is predominantly filled by marine shallow water siliciclastic deposits ranging from lower Miocene to Pliocene in age. Nine to ten depositional onshore sequences are identified [Besson et al., 2005, Rubino et al., 2015] and can be traced into the post rift part of the Gulf of Lion. The recognition of these sequences on the distal part of the shelf from the Burdigalian to the Messinian with a good well calibration is fully consistent and integrated in a chronostratigraphic history of the Provençal Basin over the last 30 Myr. We quantify, model and discuss the evolution of vertical movements and sediment budgets since the rifting. This study also allows us to construct a complete sea-level change curve for the western Mediterranean Neogene. Besson, D. (2005). Architecture du bassin rhodano-provençal miocène (Alpes, SE France). Relations entre déformation, physiographie et sédimentation dans un bassin molassique d'avant-pays (Doctoral dissertation, Paris, ENMP). Rueda, T. (2014). Analyse sédimentologique et stratigraphique du remplissage Oligo-Aquitanien du fossé du Campidano - Comparaison avec le remplissage

  11. New insights on the geological evolution of the continental margin of Southeastern Brazil derived from zircon and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission-track data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krob, Florian; Stippich, Christian; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Hackspacher, Peter

    2017-04-01

    New insights on the geological evolution of the continental margin of Southeastern Brazil derived from zircon and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission-track data Krob, F.C.1, Stippich, C. 1, Glasmacher, U.A.1, Hackspacher, P.C.2 (1) Institute of Earth Sciences, Research Group Thermochronology and Archaeometry, Heidelberg University, INF 234, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany (2) Instituto de Geociências e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24-A, 1515 Rio Claro, SP, 13506-900, Brazil Passive continental margins are important geoarchives related to mantle dynamics, the breakup of continents, lithospheric dynamics, and other processes. The main concern yields the quantifying long-term lithospheric evolution of the continental margin between São Paulo and Laguna in southeastern Brazil since the Neoproterozoic. We put special emphasis on the reactivation of old fracture zones running into the continent and their constrains on the landscape evolution. In this contribution, we represent already consisting thermochronological data attained by fission-track and (U-Th-Sm)/He analysis on apatites and zircons. The zircon fission-track ages range between 108.4 (15.0) and 539.9 (68.4) Ma, the zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He ages between 72.9 (5.8) and 427.6 (1.8) Ma whereas the apatite fission-track ages range between 40.0 (5.3) and 134.7 (8.0) Ma, and the apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages between 32.1 (1.52) and 92.0 (1.86) Ma. These thermochronological ages from metamorphic, sedimentary and intrusive rocks show six distinct blocks (Laguna, Florianópolis, Curitiba, Ilha Comprida, Peruibe and Santos) with different evolution cut by old fracture zones. Furthermore, models of time-temperature evolution illustrate the differences in Pre- to post-rift exhumation histories of these blocks. The presented data will provide an insight into the complex exhumation history of the continental margin based on the existing literature data on the evolution of the Paraná basin in Brazil and the latest

  12. Oceanic anoxic events of the Cretaceous period and their role in the formation of source rocks in the basins of continental margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Konyukhov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cretaceous period was marked not only by the dominance of warm climate, vast transgressions of the sea and widespread occurrence of carbonate deposits, but also by the formation of the richest petroleum formations, which are associated with the generation of a huge amount of hydrocarbons in the largest oil and gas basins of modern continental margins. Both early and late Cretaceous epochs were marked by several oceanic anoxic events (OAE of global and regional scale, accompanied by the accumulation of sediments enriched in organic matter, and by significant shifts in the ratios of stable isotopes C, O, and Sr. Various aspects of these events are considered in a huge number of articles published in recent years in major scientific publications. Unfortunately, their role in the formation of oil reservoirs has remained outside the scope of scientific analysis. Meanwhile Cretaceous OAE’s had led to the spreading of black shale and other sediments with high content of organic matter on the floor of Tethys ocean, central part of Atlantic and on the seamounts in the Pacific ocean. Among them only OAE 1a (Selli and OAE 2 (Bonarelli are known as more large anoxic events. The first occurred in the middle of Aptian time, the second near the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary (CTB. The analysis of the spreading of source rocks in the largest oil-and-gas bearing basins on the continental margins at that time – the Persian Gulf, Maracaibo, Middle and Upper Magdalena river, Putumayo and other basins – showed that episodes of OAE’s had not always found a reflection in the succession of major source rock’s formations. In the Persian Gulf a list of source rocks includes Hanifa, Garau, Gadvan, Kazhdumi, Ahmadi member and Gurpi formations of Cretaceous age. Thus it is certain that OAE’s were only separate parts of more complex history of accumulation of black shale and carbonate deposits with high content of total organic carbon on the continental margins

  13. Structural characteristics of pre-Cenozoic erathem on continental margins of the Southwest Sub-basin, South China Sea and its geological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rongwei; Liu, Hailing; Yan, Pin; Yao, Yongjian; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Yin; Li, Yuhan

    2017-04-01

    Pre-Cenozoic structural characteristics on the conjugated continental margins, Zhongsha- Xisha block (ZSXSB) in the northwest and Nansha block (NSB) in the southeast, of the Southwest Sub-basin is fundamental to understand their tectonic contact relationship before the formation of the South China Sea. Some unpublished and published multi-channel seismic profiles together with published drillings and dredge data were correlated for interpretation. The strata of the study region can be divided into the upper, middle and lower structural layers. The upper and middle structural layers with extensional tectonics are Cenozoic, while the lower structural layer suffering compression is Mesozoic-Paleozoic in ZSXSB and Mesozoic in NSB, respectively. These compressional structures were formed mainly in Late Mesozoic Era. Further structural restoration was done to remove the Cenozoic tectonic influence and to calculate the pre-Cenozoic tectonic compression ratios. It is shown that tectonic compression ratios of NNW or NWW orientations gradually increase from the south to the north in the ZSXSB and southern NSB. While tectonic compression ratios of SSE orientations southward gradually decrease in the northern NSB. The variations of the compression ratios may be related to a spreading of the proto-South China Sea in late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (then located in south of the NSB), which probably had pushed the NSB drifted northward and led to a soft collision suture between the ZSXSB and NSB. Thus the spreading of the Southwest Sub-basin may have started along suture zone pre-existed between the ZSXSB and NSB, which is tectonically weakness zone. Key words: Southwest Sub-basin of the South China Sea, conjugated continental margins, pre-Cenozoic compressive deformation structure, structural restoration, soft collision suture, proto-South China Sea Key words: Southwest Sub-basin of the South China Sea, Conjugated continental margins, Pre-Cenozoic structure, Structural

  14. Gravitational potential stresses and stress field of passive continental margins: Insights from the south-Norway shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascal, C.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.

    2009-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that the stress state at passive margins is mainly dominated by ridge push and that other stress sources have only a limited temporal and/or spatial influence. We show, by means of numerical modelling, that observed variations in lithosphere structure and elevation from a

  15. Biodiversity of the deep-sea continental margin bordering the Gulf of Maine (NW Atlantic: relationships among sub-regions and to shelf systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreen E Kelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In contrast to the well-studied continental shelf region of the Gulf of Maine, fundamental questions regarding the diversity, distribution, and abundance of species living in deep-sea habitats along the adjacent continental margin remain unanswered. Lack of such knowledge precludes a greater understanding of the Gulf of Maine ecosystem and limits development of alternatives for conservation and management. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use data from the published literature, unpublished studies, museum records and online sources, to: (1 assess the current state of knowledge of species diversity in the deep-sea habitats adjacent to the Gulf of Maine (39-43°N, 63-71°W, 150-3000 m depth; (2 compare patterns of taxonomic diversity and distribution of megafaunal and macrofaunal species among six distinct sub-regions and to the continental shelf; and (3 estimate the amount of unknown diversity in the region. Known diversity for the deep-sea region is 1,671 species; most are narrowly distributed and known to occur within only one sub-region. The number of species varies by sub-region and is directly related to sampling effort occurring within each. Fishes, corals, decapod crustaceans, molluscs, and echinoderms are relatively well known, while most other taxonomic groups are poorly known. Taxonomic diversity decreases with increasing distance from the continental shelf and with changes in benthic topography. Low similarity in faunal composition suggests the deep-sea region harbours faunal communities distinct from those of the continental shelf. Non-parametric estimators of species richness suggest a minimum of 50% of the deep-sea species inventory remains to be discovered. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current state of knowledge of biodiversity in this deep-sea region is rudimentary. Our ability to answer questions is hampered by a lack of sufficient data for many taxonomic groups, which is constrained by sampling biases, life

  16. Impact of organic matter source and quality on living benthic foraminiferal distribution on a river-dominated continental margin: A study of the Portuguese margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessandier, Pierre-Antoine; Bonnin, Jérôme; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Bichon, Sabrina; Deflandre, Bruno; Grémare, Antoine; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2016-06-01

    Living (rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera were investigated on surface sediments from 23 stations from the river-dominated northwestern Portuguese margin. Samples were collected in March 2011, following the period of the maximum rainfall over the Iberian Peninsula, between 20 and 2000 m water depth along five cross-margin transects. Four of them are located off the Douro, Mondego, Tagus, and Sado Rivers and one off the Estremadura coast. The major objectives of this study are (1) to assess the impact of organic matter of various origin and quality on the benthic foraminifera and (2) to investigate the spatial differences of faunal distribution from coastal waters to the deep sea under river influences. To do this, sedimentological and biogeochemical characteristics of the sediments were identified by measuring grain size, oxygen penetration depth, total organic carbon (TOC) content, stable carbon isotopic composition of TOC (δ13CTOC) and concentration of pigments and amino acids. Based on the principal component and cluster analyses of the environmental data, three major geographical groups are identified: (1) deep stations, (2) coastal and middle slope stations, and (3) shelf stations under river influence. At the deepest stations, species are associated with high organic matter (OM) quantity but low OM quality, where Uvigerina mediterranea, Hoeglundina elegans, and agglutinated species such as Reophax scorpiurus or Bigenerina nodosaria are dominant. All stations off the Sado River, which is the most affected area by the anthropogenic influence, are also characterized by high quantity but low quality of OM with the minimum faunal density and diversity within the study area. Middle slope stations are associated with low OM content and coarse sediments (Q50) with the predominance of N. scaphum. Shallow shelf stations close to the Douro and Tagus River mouths show a dominance of taxa (e.g., Ammonia beccarii, Bulimina aculeata, Eggerelloides scaber, Nonion

  17. Deep structure of the Lofoten-Vesterålen segment of the Mid-Norwegian continental margin and adjacent areas derived from 3-D density modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maystrenko, Y. P.; Olesen, O.; Gernigon, L.; Gradmann, S.

    2017-02-01

    To understand the major structural features of the sedimentary cover and crystalline crust of the Lofoten-Vesterålen margin and the northern part of the Vøring segment of the Mid-Norwegian continental margin, a lithosphere-scale 3-D structural model has been constructed. This model extends from the exposed crystalline rocks of the Fennoscandian Shield in the east to the Cenozoic oceanic domain of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea in the west, covering the Vestfjorden, Ribban, and Røst Basins and the northern parts of the Vøring Basin and Trøndelag Platform. All available published and/or released data have been used to set the initial 3-D model which has been validated by means of 3-D density forward modeling to obtain a gravity-consistent 3-D structural/density model. Results from the 3-D density modeling reveal that relatively thick sedimentary rocks are present in the distal Røst Basin below the lava flows. The presence of a low-density more than 20 km thick granitic body has been modeled within the middle-upper crystalline crust beneath the eastern part of the Vestfjorden Basin and the adjacent mainland. Moreover, the results of the 3-D density modeling indicate the presence of an atypical low-density lithospheric mantle beneath a large part of the Lofoten-Vesterålen margin which is required to fit the regional component of the modeled gravity with the observed one. The pronounced crustal feature within the model area is the Bivrost Lineament that appears to be the deeply seated lithosphere-scale boundary that delineates clearly the Lofoten-Vesterålen segment from the Vøring margin showing contrasting densities and crustal thicknesses.

  18. Sediment movement and dispersal patterns on the Grand Banks continental shelf and slope were tied to the dynamics of the Laurentide ice-sheet margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, H.; MacKillop, K.; Piper, D.; Vermooten, M.; Higgins, J.; Marche, B.; Langer, K.; Brockway, B.; Spicer, H. E.; Webb, M. D.; Fournier, E.

    2015-12-01

    The expansion and contraction of the late Pleistocene Laurentide ice-sheet (LIS) was the crucial determining factor for the geomorphic features and shelf and slope sediment mobility on the eastern Canadian continental margin, with abundant mass-transport deposits (MTDs) seaward of ice margins on the upper slope. Here, we report for the first time sediment failure and mass-transport deposits from the central Grand Banks slope in the Salar and Carson petroleum basins. High-resolution seismic profiles and multibeam bathymetry show numerous sediment failure scarps in 500-1600 m water depth. There is no evidence for an ice margin on the upper slope younger than MIS 6. Centimeter-scale X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), grain size, and oxygen isotope data from piston cores constrain sediment processes over the past 46 ka. Geotechnical measurements including Atterberg limit tests, vane shear measurements and triaxial and multi-stage isotropic consolidation tests allowed us to assess the instability on the continental margin. Cores with continuous undisturbed stratigraphy in contourite silty muds show normal downcore increase in bulk density and undrained peak shear strength. Heinrich (H) layers are identifiable by a marked increase in the bulk density, high Ca (ppm), increase in iceberg-rafted debris and lighter δ18O in the polar planktonic foram Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral): with a few C-14 dates they provide a robust chronology. There is no evidence for significant supply of sediment from the Grand Banks at the last-glacial maximum. Mass-transport deposits (MTD) are marked by variability in the bulk density, undrained shear strength and little variation in bulk density or Ca (ppm) values. The MTD are older than 46 ka on the central Grand Banks slope, whereas younger MTDs are present in southern Flemish Pass. Factor of safety calculations suggest the slope is statically stable up to gradients of 10°, but more intervals of silty mud may fail during earthquake

  19. Multichannel seismic reflection surveys over the Antarctic continental margin relevant to petroleum resource studies: Chapter 5 in Antarctica as an exploration-hydrocarbon potential, geology, and hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, John C.

    1990-01-01

    More than 100,000 km of marine multichannel seismic profiles have been acquired over the continental margin of Antarctica since 1976 by scientific research programs of Australia, Brazil, France, Italy, Japan, Norway, Poland, United Kingdom, United States, U.S.S.R. and West Germany. Although scientific results are reported for most of these data, they also are relevant to petroleum resource assessment. Because of the one or two orders of magnitude greater cost of standard land survey techniques in Antarctica compared with marine techniques in areas of open water, there will likely be no great amount of coverage on the interior of the Antarctic ice sheet. Despite this, several countries are experimenting in a research mode using land systems, and deep crustal reflection sur eys at carefully selected interior sites will probably be made soon.

  20. Record of Permian-Early Triassic continental arc magmatism in the western margin of the Jiamusi Block, NE China: petrogenesis and implications for Paleo-Pacific subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Ge, Wenchun; Dong, Yu; Bi, Junhui; Wang, Zhihui; Ji, Zheng; Yang, H.; Ge, W. C.; Dong, Y.; Bi, J. H.; Wang, Z. H.; Ji, Z.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we report zircon U-Pb ages, Hf isotopes and whole-rock geochemical data for the Permian to Early Triassic granitoids from the western margin of the Jiamusi Block (WJB), NE China. The intermediate to felsic (SiO2 = 59.67-74.04 wt%) granitoids belong to calc-alkaline series and are characterized by enrichments in light rare earth elements and large ion lithophile elements with pronounced negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies, revealing typical continental magmatic arc geochemical signatures. The zircon U-Pb determinations on the granodiorite, monzogranite, syenogranite and quartz diorite samples yielded ages between ca. 275-245 Ma, which, together with the published coeval intrusive rocks, indicates that Permian to Early Triassic continental arc magmatism occurred extensively in the WJB. The low and mainly negative zircon ɛ Hf( t) values between -7.6 and +1.6 and the zircon Hf model ages of 1.2-1.8 Ga, which are significantly older than their crystallization ages, suggest that they were mainly derived from reworking of ancient crustal materials with a limited input of juvenile components. The geochemical systematics and petrogenetic considerations indicate that the studied granitoids were generated from a zone of melting, assimilation, storage, and homogenization, i.e., a MASHed zone at the base of Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic continental crust, where large portions of igneous rocks and minor clay-poor sediments involved in the source region. In combination with regional geological data, we argue that the Jiamusi Block was unlikely the rifted segment of the Songliao Block and two possible geodynamical models were proposed to interpret the formation of the ca. 275-245 Ma granitoids in the WJB. In the context of Permian global plate reconstruction, we suggest that Paleo-Pacific plate subduction was initiated in the Permian to Early Triassic beneath the Jiamusi Block, and even whole eastern NE China.

  1. Widespread methane seepage along the continental margin off Svalbard - from Bjørnøya to Kongsfjorden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, S.; Römer, M.; Torres, M. E.; Bussmann, I.; Pape, T.; Damm, E.; Geprägs, P.; Wintersteller, P.; Hsu, C.-W.; Loher, M.; Bohrmann, G.

    2017-01-01

    Numerous articles have recently reported on gas seepage offshore Svalbard, because the gas emission from these Arctic sediments was thought to result from gas hydrate dissociation, possibly triggered by anthropogenic ocean warming. We report on findings of a much broader seepage area, extending from 74° to 79°, where more than a thousand gas discharge sites were imaged as acoustic flares. The gas discharge occurs in water depths at and shallower than the upper edge of the gas hydrate stability zone and generates a dissolved methane plume that is hundreds of kilometer in length. Data collected in the summer of 2015 revealed that 0.02–7.7% of the dissolved methane was aerobically oxidized by microbes and a minor fraction (0.07%) was transferred to the atmosphere during periods of low wind speeds. Most flares were detected in the vicinity of the Hornsund Fracture Zone, leading us to postulate that the gas ascends along this fracture zone. The methane discharges on bathymetric highs characterized by sonic hard grounds, whereas glaciomarine and Holocene sediments in the troughs apparently limit seepage. The large scale seepage reported here is not caused by anthropogenic warming. PMID:28230189

  2. Late Palaeozoic heavy mineral and clast modes from the Betic Cordillera (southern Spain): transition from a passive to an active continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, Hans-Georg; Stattegger, Karl

    1989-06-01

    Silurian to Late Carboniferous sediments constitute most of the uppermost nappe (Malaguides) in the internal zone of the Betic Cordillera. The sediments represent continuous deep-water environments dominated by flysch deposition. Repeated changes between acid plutonic/recycled cratonic and metamorphic sedimentary input are evidenced by heavy mineral spectra and psephitic clast modes of the Devonian-Carboniferous formations. Oscillations and amplitudes, especially of metamorphic detrital influx, become more frequent and larger, respectively, near the Variscan disconformity. Permo-Triassic redbeds are clearly post-orogenic sediments according to lithofacies and heavy mineral content. The joint development of lithofacies, clast modes and heavy mineral spectra demonstrates the transition from a passive to an active continental margin during the Palaeozoic: the Silurian-Devonian sediments of the Malaguide realm were deposited during a divergent cratonic stage north of the Betico-Rifean block, which is a detached sliver of the African plate. The Viséan-Upper Carboniferous formations record the collision orogenic stage between the Betico-Rifean block and the southern margin of the Southern Europe plate. The collision processes induced strong uplift and erosion of successively shallowing carbonate shelf realms and the connected crystalline, mostly metamorphic hinterland. The source area was the Betico-Rifean block south of the Malaguide basin. Palaeogeographic connections of the Malaguides, especially with Minorca (Baleares), are shortly discussed.

  3. Reassembling Gondwana: A new high quality constraint from vibroseis exploration of the sub-ice shelf geology of the East Antarctic continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Yngve; Hofstede, Coen; Diez, Anja; Blenkner, Richard; Lambrecht, Astrid; Mayer, Christoph; Eisen, Olaf

    2014-12-01

    The breakup of Gondwana is manifested by coeval early Jurassic Karoo magmatism in South Africa and East Antarctica. In South Africa, the large volumes of volcanic rocks of the adjoining Lebombo and Mwenetzi-Save monoclines represent a volcanic rift margin, and in East Antarctica, a corresponding feature, the Explora Wedge is buried below sediments and floating ice shelves on the continental margin of Dronning Maud Land. We use the seismic vibrator source to explore the sub-ice geology in Antarctica, and the new seismic reflection and available regional aeromagnetic data enable us to outline a dogleg landward extent of the Explora Wedge in Dronning Maud Land. The congruent inboard wedge geometries on the two continents define a high quality constraint, which facilitate for the first time, a geologically consistent and tight reconstruction of Africa relative to East Antarctica within Gondwana. The uncertainties in correlations of major geological features (mobile belts) from one continent to the other may now be of the order of ten's of kilometers rather than hundreds of kilometers.

  4. Downcore Contrasts in the Provenance of Cenozoic Pelagic and Hemipelagic Sediment, Central North Pacific: Deep Ocean vs. Near-Continental Margin Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, J. D.; Rea, D. K.; Hall, C. M.; Moore, T. C.; Owen, R. M.; Blum, J. D.; Hovan, S. A.

    2003-12-01

    , particularly a large shift that occurs at, or near, the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. By contrast, the downcore record from hemipelagic muds near the North and South American continental margins reveals distinctly different continental sources, demonstrating the unique source signature carried by the eolian component in Pacific pelagic clays. These findings will help us to correctly interpret changing source characteristics through time for the recently returned ODP Leg 199 cores. Combined, these data should provide us with the most detailed record yet of climatic transitions recorded in the central Pacific basin since the late Cretaceous.

  5. Geology and metallogeny of the Ar Rayn terrane, eastern Arabian shield: Evolution of a Neoproterozoic continental-margin arc during assembly of Gondwana within the East African orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebrich, J.L.; Al-Jehani, A. M.; Siddiqui, A.A.; Hayes, T.S.; Wooden, J.L.; Johnson, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    characteristics of the Ar Rayn terrane are analogous to the Andean continental margin of Chile, with opposite subduction polarity. The Ar Rayn terrane represents a continental margin arc that lay above a west-dipping subduction zone along a continental block represented by the Afif composite terrane. The concentration of epithermal, porphyry Cu and IOCG mineral systems, of central arc affiliation, along the AAF suggests that the AAF is not an ophiolitic suture zone, but originated as a major intra-arc fault that localized magmatism and mineralization. West-directed oblique subduction and ultimate collision with a land mass from the east (East Gondwana?) resulted in major transcurrent displacement along the AAF, bringing the eastern part of the arc terrane to its present exposed position, juxtaposed across the AAF against a back-arc basin assemblage represented by the Abt schist of the Ad Dawadimi terrane. Our findings indicate that arc formation and accretionary processes in the Arabian shield were still ongoing into the latest Neoproterozoic (Ediacaran), to about 620-600 Ma, and lead us to conclude that evolution of the Ar Rayn terrane (arc formation, accretion, syn- to postorogenic plutonism) defines a final stage of assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent along the northeastern margin of the East African orogen. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cooling history of the Upper Cretaceous Palgongsan Granite, Gyeongsang Basin, SE Korea and its tectonic implication for uplift on the active continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyoun Soo; Lee, Yong Il

    2005-07-01

    Apatite and zircon fission track analyses were carried out to reconstruct the cooling and inferred uplift history of the Cretaceous Palgongsan Granite, Gyeongsang Basin, Korea. The Palgongsan Granite is one of the Bulguksa intrusive rocks that formed by arc-related plutonism during Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary time. Fission track dating of the Palgongsan Granite yielded nearly concordant ages of 53 and 65 Ma for apatite and zircon, respectively. The Palgongsan Granite also shows a simple cooling pattern, which suggests that it has not been affected by any thermal event after emplacement. The cooling history derived from fission track data combined with other thermochronometric data indicates that the Palgongsan Granite experienced relatively rapid cooling in earlier stage (> 30 °C/Ma). The initial rapid cooling rate during the Late Cretaceous has been caused by the large thermal contrast between the granite body and the country rocks. After reaching thermal equilibrium with the surrounding country rocks, the cooling rate of the Palgongsan Granite was abruptly decreased in late stage. In this late stage, the decelerated cooling rate is interpreted to have been controlled by uplift and erosion processes, and the average exhumation rate is calculated to be ca. 50 m/my over the temperature range from 100 °C to the surface temperature. The cooling history of the Palgongsan Granite is in good agreement with that of the Ryoke Granitic Belt in Southwest Japan, as well as those of the Taebaeksan Range and other Bulguksa intrusive rocks in the Gyeongsang Basin. This suggests that such cooling was probably caused by regional uplift and exhumation processes on the East Asian active continental margin. Compared with the uplift rates of the Andes, the uplift rates on the eastern Pacific margin appear to be higher than those on the western Pacific margin.

  7. Long-term landscape evolution of the South Atlantic "passive" continental margin in Eastern Argentina using apatite fission-track thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Sabrina; Kollenz, Sebastian; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.

    2015-04-01

    To understand the evolution of the "passive" continental margin in Argentina low temperature thermochronology is an appropriate method, which might lead to new insights in this area. The Tandilia System, also called Sierras Septentrionales, is located south of the Río de la Plato Craton in eastern Argentina in the state of Buenos Aires. North of the hills the Salado basin is located whereas the Claromecó basin is situated south of the mountain range. In contrary to most basins along the South American "passive" continental margin, the Tandilia-System and the neighbouring basins trend perpendicular to the coast line. The topography is fairly flat with altitudes up to 350 m. The igneous-metamorphic basement is pre-Proterozoic in age and build up of mainly granitic-tonalitic gneisses, migmatites, amphibolites, some ultramafic rocks and granitoid plutons. It is overlain by a series of Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic sedimentary rocks (Cingolani 2011), like siliciclastic rocks, dolostones, shales and limestones (Demoulin 2005). The aim of the study is to quantify the long-term landscape evolution of the "passive" continental margin in eastern Argentina in terms of thermal, exhumation and tectonic evolution. For that purpose, samples were taken from the basement of the Sierra Septentrionales and analyzed with the apatite fission-track method. Further 2-D thermokinematic modeling was conducted with the computer code HeFTy (Ketcham 2005; Ketcham 2007; Ketcham et al. 2009). Because there are different hypotheses in literature regarding the geological evolution of this area two different models were generated, one after Demoulin et al. (2005) and another after Zalba et al.(2007). All samples were taken from the Neoproterozoic igneous-metamorphic basement. Apatite fission-track ages range from 101.6 (9.4) to 228.9 (22.3) Ma, and, therefore, are younger than their formation age, indicating all samples have been thermally reset. Six samples accomplished enough confined

  8. Late Pleistocene to Holocene sedimentation and hydrocarbon seeps on the continental shelf of a steep, tectonically active margin, southern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Lorenson, T.D.; Ryan, Holly F.; Wong, Florence L.; Sliter, Ray W.; Conrad, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Small, steep, uplifting coastal watersheds are prolific sediment producers that contribute significantly to the global marine sediment budget. This study illustrates how sedimentation evolves in one such system where the continental shelf is largely sediment-starved, with most terrestrial sediment bypassing the shelf in favor of deposition in deeper basins. The Santa Barbara-Ventura coast of southern California, USA, is considered a classic area for the study of active tectonics and of Tertiary and Quaternary climatic evolution, interpretations of which depend upon an understanding of sedimentation patterns. High-resolution seismic-reflection data over >570 km2 of this shelf show that sediment production is concentrated in a few drainage basins, with the Ventura and Santa Clara River deltas containing most of the upper Pleistocene to Holocene sediment on the shelf. Away from those deltas, the major factor controlling shelf sedimentation is the interaction of wave energy with coastline geometry. Depocenters containing sediment 5-20 m thick exist opposite broad coastal embayments, whereas relict material (bedrock below a regional unconformity) is exposed at the sea floor in areas of the shelf opposite coastal headlands. Locally, natural hydrocarbon seeps interact with sediment deposition either to produce elevated tar-and-sediment mounds or as gas plumes that hinder sediment settling. As much as 80% of fluvial sediment delivered by the Ventura and Santa Clara Rivers is transported off the shelf (some into the Santa Barbara Basin and some into the Santa Monica Basin via Hueneme Canyon), leaving a shelf with relatively little recent sediment accumulation. Understanding factors that control large-scale sediment dispersal along a rapidly uplifting coast that produces substantial quantities of sediment has implications for interpreting the ancient stratigraphic record of active and transform continental margins, and for inferring the distribution of hydrocarbon resources

  9. Imaging continental shelf shallow stratigraphy by using different high-resolution seismic sources: an example from the Calabro-Tyrrhenian margin (Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Martorelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution seismic reflection profiles of the Calabro-Tyrrhenian continental shelf were collected using different seismic sources (Sub-Bottom Profiler, Uniboom, Sparker 0.5-1-4.5 kJ. Noticeable differences and results were obtained both from a geophysical and geological-interpretative point of view. The availability of different sources permitted the definition of the most suitable seismostratigraphic characterization in terms of resolution, penetration and acoustic facies. Very high resolution stratigraphy was defined through profiles produced by different seismic systems used in parallel. This permitted the application of sequence-stratigraphy concepts with the reconstruction of a thick postglacial depositional sequence, formed by a transgressive and a high-stand systems tract. The thickness distribution of postglacial deposits reveals that the main depocenter (55-65 m is located offshore of the Coastal Range, along a stretch of coast supplied by several small and seasonal streams ("fiumare" and characterized by the lack of a coastal plain. This suggests the greater efficiency of sediment supply and bypass in this area relatively to sectors located offshore of the main rivers. The transgressive systems tract, usually thin or nearly absent, is particularly well developed (up to 33 m and is composed of up to three parasequences with a retrogradational stacking pattern. The high-stand systems tract, up to 30 m thick, is made up of two parasequences and has a quite regular geometry and acoustic facies.Perfis de reflexão sísmica de alta resolução da plataforma continental tirreniana de Calabro foram obtidos utilizando-se recursos sísmicos diversos (Perfilador de Sub-superfície, Uniboom, Sparker 0.5-1-4.5 kJ. Diferenças evidentes foram encontradas sob o ponto de vista geofísico e geológico-interpretativo. A disponibilidade de diferentes fontes permitiu a definição de uma caracterização sismo-estratigráfica mais acurada em termos

  10. Geophysical evidence and inferred triggering factors of submarine landslides on the western continental margin of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukur, Deniz; Kim, Seong-Pil; Kong, Gee-Soo; Bahk, Jang-Jun; Horozal, Senay; Um, In-Kwon; Lee, Gwang-Soo; Chang, Tae-Soo; Ha, Hun-Jun; Völker, David; Kim, Jung-Ki

    2016-12-01

    Submarine landslides form very complex depositional and erosional features on the seafloor, and their dynamics and triggering processes are yet to be understood completely. Numerous studies are being undertaken both because of the scientific significance but also for their potential harm to seafloor infrastructure and coastal areas. This study investigates the styles and causes of landsliding along the western margin of the Ulleung Basin in the East Sea, based on multiple sparker, subbottom profiler, multibeam echosounder and sediment core datasets collected in 2015. The bathymetric analyses indicate that the southern slope of the Ulleung Basin has experienced at least seven submarine failures. These failures left clear arcuate-shaped scarps that initiated at water depths of 600 m. The observed headwall scarps have heights that exceed 60 m and appear to be the result of retrogressive-type failures. Seismic reflection data clearly image the basal sliding surface that is characterized by a prominent high-amplitude reflector. Chaotic-to-transparent seismic facies occur immediately downslope of the headwall scarps; these represent 20 m thick landslide deposits. Gravity cores taken from areas adjacent to the scars suggest that these slides are older than ca. 97 ka. Interpretation of the present data shows that faults appear to cut recent sediments upslope of scarps, and that the slope may still be in an active phase of failure. Seismic data also image various overpressurized gases and/or gas fluids, as evidenced by the occurrence of pockmarks and seismic chimneys in upslope or adjacent areas of the scarps. Hence, earthquakes associated with tectonic activity and development of fluid overpressure may have acted as the main conditioning factor for destabilizing the slope sediments. Geotechnical stability analyses indicate that the sampled slope sediments are exceptionally stable under present-day conditions, even under seismic loading. This finding points to additional

  11. High-precision Dating of Metamorphism and Melt Segregation in a Convergent Margin Setting: the North Cascades Continental Magmatic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, S. M.; Bowring, S.; Whitney, D.; Miller, R.; McLean, N.

    2008-12-01

    Convergent plate margins represent areas where the crust has undergone intense physical and chemical changes that may be tracked through the use of accessory mineral chronometers. The Skagit Gneiss is located at the southernmost extent of the > 1500 km long Coast Plutonic-North Cascades arc system. The Skagit has experienced a protracted thermal and deformational history with the emplacement of plutons from ca. 96 to 45 Ma that overlaps a transition from transpression (ca. 73 to 58 Ma) to transtension (55-45 Ma). Migmatitic metapelites in the core of the Skagit record metamorphism during significant crustal thickening, heating, and possibly during decompression, with peak pressure-temperature conditions of 8-10 kbar and 650-725 °C. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was utilized to investigate the fabric of the leucosomes located throughout the Skagit core. The results show that the leucosomes were affected by an intense low-temperature deformation post-melt crystallization, with quartz results yielding basal-a and prism-a slip. In order to better understand the timescales of metamorphism, deformation and partial melting in the Skagit, both monazite and zircon were dated from leucosomes representing a variety of textures (stromatic/discordant; fine-grained/pegmatitic) and from the host metapelite. Zircons from the metapelite commonly yield Cretaceous dates, with a youngest date of ca. 60 Ma. Leucosomes yield zircon with concordant dates that range from 68 Ma to 47 Ma. In comparison, monazite from individual leucosomes yield a variety of dates, with one group clustering near 48 Ma and a second set of older dates from 69 to 65 Ma. The latter monazite dates are consistently older than the zircons from the same leucosome, consistent with the possibility that the older monazites record the timing of prograde to possibly peak metamorphism in the Skagit. Similar monazite dates have been revealed from the metapelite. The Cretaceous zircon results may either represent

  12. Macrobenthos in offshore wind farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jak, Robbert; Glorius, Sander

    2017-01-01

    Offshore wind farms potentially have an effect on the benthic ecosystem. Given the plans for large-scale development of offshore wind farms on the Dutch Continental Shelf (DCS), understanding these effects is relevant for policy and regulations regarding these developments. Because studying the

  13. Differences in meiofauna communities with sediment depth are greater than habitat effects on the New Zealand continental margin: implications for vulnerability to anthropogenic disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliana Rosli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of deep-sea benthic communities have largely focused on particular (macro habitats in isolation, with few studies considering multiple habitats simultaneously in a comparable manner. Compared to mega-epifauna and macrofauna, much less is known about habitat-related variation in meiofaunal community attributes (abundance, diversity and community structure. Here, we investigated meiofaunal community attributes in slope, canyon, seamount, and seep habitats in two regions on the continental slope of New Zealand (Hikurangi Margin and Bay of Plenty at four water depths (700, 1,000, 1,200 and 1,500 m. We found that patterns were not the same for each community attribute. Significant differences in abundance were consistent across regions, habitats, water and sediment depths, while diversity and community structure only differed between sediment depths. Abundance was higher in canyon and seep habitats compared with other habitats, while between sediment layer, abundance and diversity were higher at the sediment surface. Our findings suggest that meiofaunal community attributes are affected by environmental factors that operate on micro- (cm to meso- (0.1–10 km, and regional scales (> 100 km. We also found a weak, but significant, correlation between trawling intensity and surface sediment diversity. Overall, our results indicate that variability in meiofaunal communities was greater at small scale than at habitat or regional scale. These findings provide new insights into the factors controlling meiofauna in these deep-sea habitats and their potential vulnerability to anthropogenic activities.

  14. Assessment of Canyon Wall Failure Process and Disturbance Gradients from Multibeam Bathymetry and Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Observations, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaytor, J. D.; Demopoulos, A. W.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Quattrini, A.

    2016-02-01

    Over the last several years, canyons around Puerto Rico and along the U.S. Atlantic continental margin between Georges Bank and Cape Hatteras have been investigated using high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives utilizing the exploration vessels E/V Nautilus and NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer. The imaging capabilities of these ROVs have provided the opportunity to begin to investigate the size of canyon wall failures, the processes responsible for their occurrence and to develop a conceptual framework for determining their relative age. Bed and formation scale lithologies exposed in the canyons and localized structural features (bedding planes, fracture planes, etc.) appear to be the primary control on the style of failures observed. Near vertical walls, sedimented benches, talus slopes, and canyon floor debris aprons were present in most canyons visited. Evidence of brittle failure over different spatial and temporal scales, physical abrasion by downslope moving flows, and bio-erosion in the form of burrows and surficial scrape marks provide insight into the modification processes active in these canyons. The level of colonization by sessile species (e.g., corals, sponges) on the canyon walls and displaced material, especially on substrates affected by failure and sediment bioturbation, provide a critical, but as yet, poorly understood chronological record of geologic processes within these systems. Therefore, comparison of the processes among these geologically, oceanographically, and ecologically different regions provides the opportunity to critically assess the wide range of drivers that control recolonization of sessile fauna influenced by continuous or episodic disturbances.

  15. Diversity and distribution of methane-oxidizing microbial communities associated with different faunal assemblages in a giant pockmark of the Gabon continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambon-Bonavita, M. A.; Nadalig, T.; Roussel, E.; Delage, E.; Duperron, S.; Caprais, J. C.; Boetius, A.; Sibuet, M.

    2009-12-01

    A giant 800-m-diameter pockmark named REGAB was discovered on the Gabon continental margin actively emitting methane at a water depth of 3200 m. The microbial diversity in sediments from four different assemblages of chemosynthetic organisms, Mytilidae, Vesicomyidae, Siboglinidae and a bacterial mat, was investigated using comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Aggregates of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME-2) and bacteria of the Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus cluster were found in all four chemosynthetic habitats. Fluorescence in situ hybridization targeting the ANME-2/ Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus aggregates showed their presence few centimeters (3-5 cm) below the surface of sediment. 16S rRNA gene sequences from all known marine ANME groups were detected in the pockmark sediments, as well as from both known bacterial partners. The archaeal diversity was limited to the ANME cluster for all investigated samples. The bacterial diversity included members of the Proteobacteria, Bacilliales, Cytophaga/Flavobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, JS1 and Actinobacteria clusters. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences related to those of known sulphide-oxidizing symbionts were recovered from tissues of several invertebrates including vesicomyid clams and siboglinid tubeworms of REGAB.

  16. Onshore-offshore seismic reflection profiling across the southern margin of the Sea of Japan: back-arc opening, shortening and active strike-slip deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Kato, Naoko; Toda, Shigeru; Kawasaki, Shinji; Fujiwara, Akira; Tanaka, Yasuhisa; Abe, Susumu

    2017-04-01

    M7-class crustal earthquakes of overlying plate in subduction system have tendency to increase before megathrust earthquake events. Due to stress buildup by the upcoming Nankai Trough megathrust earthquake, SW Japan has being seismically active for last 20 years. In terms of the mitigation of earthquake and tsunami hazards, to construct seismogenic source fault models is first step for evaluating the strong ground motions and height of tsunamis. Since 2013, we performed intense seismic profiling in and around the southern part of the Sea of Japan. In 2016, a 180-km-long onshore -offshore seismic survey was carried out across the volcanic arc and back-arc basins (from Kurayoshi to the Yamato basin). Onshore section, CMP seismic reflection data were collected using four vibroseis trucks and fixed 1150 channel recorders. Offshore part we acquired the seismic reflection data using 1950 cu inch air-guns towing a 4-km-long streamer cable. We performed CMP reflection and refraction tomography analysis. Obtained seismic section portrays compressively deformed rifted continental crust and undeformed oceanic back-arc basin, reflecting the rheological features. These basic structures were formed during the opening of the Sea of Japan in early Miocene. The sub-horizontal Pliocene sediments unconformably cover the folded Miocene sediments. The opening and clock-wise rotation of SW Japan has been terminated at 15 Ma and contacted to the young Shikoku basin along the Nankai trough. Northward motion of Philippine Sea plate (PHS) and the high thermal regime in the Shikoku basin produced the strong resistance along the Nankai trough. The main shortening deformation observed in the seismic section has been formed this tectonic event. After the initiation of the subduction along the Nankai trough, the rate of shortening deformation was decreased and the folded strata were covered by sub-horizontal Pliocene sediments. The thrusting trending parallel to the arc has been continued from

  17. Growth and destruction of siliciclastic continental slopes: new insights from multi-resolution seismic reflection data along the US Atlantic passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, D. S.; Chaytor, J. D.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Hill, J. C.; Flores, C. H.

    2012-12-01

    Multi-channel seismic reflection data along the southern New England, Hudson Apron and mid-Atlantic continental margins provide new insights into the processes that control slope depositional systems, and specifically, some of the preconditioning factors that lead to widespread mass wasting. The data include 2,500 line-km of high-resolution multichannel seismic (MCS) data mostly collected by the USGS and more than 10,000 line-km of lower-resolution, but deeper penetrating industry MCS profiles in these regions. For the first time, sequence stratigraphic interpretations from Ocean ODP Site 1073 [e.g., 1] have been extended to the north of Hudson Canyon, providing first-order age constraints on Pleistocene shelf and slope strata. Several packages that can be continuously traced from the outer shelf to the upper rise of the Hudson Apron east of the Hudson Canyon. This is one of few places along the margin where prograding Pleistocene sequences are preserved across the shelf, slope and upper rise. Farther east, the Pleistocene section contains pervasive evidence for retrogressive failure and landsliding (see companion abstract by Chaytor et al.). In several places, Pleistocene layers are truncated and failure planes appear to coincide with major sequence boundaries, suggesting that elevated pore pressures in this region are closely tied to lithologic boundaries linked to paleo sea level fluctuations. The density and size of failures increases along the lower slope where the physiography of an underlying pre-Pleistocene surface dramatically steepens, probably because the yield strength is more frequently exceeded there. High-resolution MCS data collected during a recent pilot survey on and around the Currituck submarine slide (US mid-Atlantic margin) show similar relationships between slope failure and seismic facies along the middle and lower slopes. Modern day slopes containing thick and spatially continuous Pleistocene sequences are likely to higher potential large

  18. Constraints on the thermal evolution of the Adriatic margin during Jurassic continental break-up: U-Pb dating of rutile from the Ivrea-Verbano Zone, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Tanya A.; Rubatto, Daniela; Beltrando, Marco; Hermann, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    The Ivrea-Verbano Zone (IVZ), northern Italy, exposes an attenuated section through the Permian lower crust that records high-temperature metamorphism under lower crustal conditions and a protracted history of extension and exhumation associated partly with the Jurassic opening of the Alpine Tethys ocean. This study presents SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of rutile from seven granulite facies metapelites from the base of the IVZ, collected from locations spanning ~35 km along the strike of Paleozoic fabrics. Rutile crystallised during Permian high-temperature metamorphism and anatexis, yet all samples give Jurassic rutile U-Pb ages that record cooling through 650-550 °C. Rutile age distributions are dominated by a peak at ~160 Ma, with a subordinate peak at ~175 Ma. Both ~160 and ~175 Ma age populations show excellent agreement between samples, indicating that the two distinctive cooling stages they record were synchronous on a regional scale. The ~175 Ma population is interpreted to record cooling in the footwall of rift-related faults and shear zones, for which widespread activity in the Lower Jurassic has been documented along the western margin of the Adriatic plate. The ~160 Ma age population postdates the activity of all known rift-related structures within the Adriatic margin, but coincides with extensive gabbroic magmatism and exhumation of sub-continental mantle to the floor of the Alpine Tethys, west of the Ivrea Zone. We propose that this ~160 Ma early post-rift age population records regional cooling following episodic heating of the distal Adriatic margin, likely related to extreme lithospheric thinning and associated advection of the asthenosphere to shallow levels. The partial preservation of the ~175 Ma age cluster suggests that the post-rift (~160 Ma) heating pulse was of short duration. The regional consistency of the data presented here, which is in contrast to many other thermochronometers in the IVZ, demonstrates the value of the rutile U

  19. Constraints on the thermal evolution of the Adriatic margin during Jurassic continental break-up from U-Pb dating of rutile (Ivrea-Verbano Zone, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, T. A.; Rubatto, D.; Hermann, J.; Beltrando, M.

    2015-12-01

    U­-Pb dating of rutile is an ideal tool for exploring the cooling and exhumation history of the lower crust, given its moderate closure temperature and the occurrence of rutile in relevant lithologies. We present an example from the Ivrea-Verbano Zone (IVZ, Italy), a classic section through the Permian lower crust that records high-temperature metamorphism followed by extension and exhumation associated partly with the Jurassic opening of the Alpine Tethys ocean. Granulite facies metapelites collected across ~35 km have Zr-in-rutile temperatures that record crystallisation during Permian metamorphism and anatexis, but SHRIMP U-Pb dating of rutile records cooling through 650-550 °C in the Jurassic. Rutile age distributions are dominated by a peak at ~160 Ma, with a subordinate peak at ~175 Ma. Both age populations show excellent agreement between samples, indicating that the two distinctive cooling stages they record were synchronous on a regional scale. The ~175 Ma population is interpreted to record cooling in the footwall of rift-related faults and shear zones, for which widespread activity in the Lower Jurassic has been documented along the western margin of the Adriatic plate. The ~160 Ma age population postdates the activity of all known rift-related structures within the Adriatic margin, but coincides with extensive gabbroic magmatism and exhumation of sub-continental mantle to the floor of the Alpine Tethys, west of the IVZ. We propose that this ~160 Ma early post-rift age population records regional cooling following episodic heating of the distal Adriatic margin. The partial preservation of the ~175 Ma age cluster suggests that the post-rift (~160 Ma) heating pulse was of short duration. The regional consistency of the rutile U-Pb data is in contrast to many other thermochronometers in the IVZ, demonstrating the value of this technique for probing the thermal evolution of high-grade metamorphic terranes. The decoupling between Zr-in-rutile temperatures

  20. New interpretations based on seismic and modelled well data and their implications for the tectonic evolution of the west Greenland continental margin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcgregor, E.D.; Nielsen, S.B.; Stephenson, R.A.

    on and offshore. Subsidence and thermal history has been modelled in four offshore wells, constrained by borehole temperatures and vitrinite reflectance. Offshore reflection profiles have been newly interpreted and show the presence of unconformities at the base mid-Eocene (roughly) and base Quaternary....... The investigated offshore wells penetrate these two unconformities. It has been argued from published interpretations of fission track data and inferred episodes of cooling that onshore topography was created by Neogene uplift. However, all five wells can be satisfactorily modelled without invoking any Neogene...

  1. Atlantic Offshore Seabird Dataset Catalog, Atlantic Coast and Outer Continental Shelf, from 1938-01-01 to 2013-12-31 (NODC Accession 0115356)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several bureaus within the Department of Interior compiled available information from seabird observation datasets from the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf into a...

  2. The Two Subduction Zones of the Southern Caribbean: Lithosphere Tearing and Continental Margin Recycling in the East, Flat Slab Subduction and Laramide-Style Uplifts in the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A.; Bezada, M. J.; Niu, F.; Schmitz, M.

    2015-12-01

    The southern Caribbean plate boundary is a complex strike-slip fault system bounded by oppositely vergent subduction zones, the Antilles subduction zone in the east, and a currently locked Caribbean-South American subduction zone in the west (Bilham and Mencin, 2013). Finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography images both the Atlanic (ATL) and the Caribbean (CAR) plates subducting steeply in opposite directions to transition zone depths under northern South America. Ps receiver functions show a depressed 660 discontinuity and thickened transition zone associated with each subducting plate. In the east the oceanic (ATL) part of the South American (SA) plate subducts westward beneath the CAR, initiating the El Pilar-San Sebastian strike slip system, a subduction-transform edge propagator (STEP) fault (Govers and Wortel, 2005). The point at which the ATL tears away from SA as it descends into the mantle is evidenced by the Paria cluster seismicity at depths of 60-110 km (Russo et al, 1993). Body wave tomography and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) thickness determined from Sp and Ps receiver functions and Rayleigh waves suggest that the descending ATL also viscously removes the bottom third to half of the SA continental margin lithospheric mantle as it descends. This has left thinned continental lithosphere under northern SA in the wake of the eastward migrating Antilles subduction zone. The thinned lithosphere occupies ~70% of the length of the El Pilar-San Sebastian fault system, from ~64oW to ~69oW, and extends inland several hundred kilometers. In northwestern SA the CAR subducts east-southeast at low angle under northern Colombia and western Venezuela. The subducting CAR is at least 200 km wide, extending from northernmost Colombia as far south as the Bucaramanga nest seismicity. The CAR descends steeply under Lake Maracaibo and the Merida Andes. This flat slab is associated with three Neogene basement cored, Laramide-style uplifts: the Santa Marta

  3. Post-breakup Basin Evolution along the South-Atlantic Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic evolution of large offshore basins along the South American and African continental margins record strongly varying post-rift sedimentary successions. The northernmost segment of the South Atlantic rift and salt basins is characterized by a pronounced asymmetry, with the Brazilian margin comprising narrower and deeper rift basins with less salt in comparison to the Congo-Gabon conjugate margin. Another important observation is that multiple phases of uplift and subsidence are recorded after the break-up of the southern South Atlantic on both sides of the Florianopolis-Walvis Ridge volcanic complex, features that are regarded as atypical when compared to published examples of other post-breakup margin successions. A regional comparison based on tectonic-stratigraphic analysis of selected seismic transects between the large basins offshore southern Brazil (Espirito Santo Basin, Campos Basin, Santos Basin, Pelotas Basin) and southwest Africa (Lower Congo Basin, Kwanza Basin, Namibe Basin, Walvis Basin) provides a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of the key geological parameters controlling ocean and continental margin development. This comparison includes the margin configuration, subsidence development through time, sediment influx and storage patterns, type of basin fill (e.g. salt vs. non-salt systems; carbonate-rich vs. clastics-dominated systems) and finally major tectonic and magmatic events. Data from the salt basins indicate that salt-related tectonic deformation is amongst the prime controls for the non-uniform post-rift margin development. The diversity in the stratigraphic architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are (a) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, (b) the post break-up subsidence history of the respective margin segment

  4. An integrated approach for gas dispersion, gas explosion and structural impact analysis for an offshore production platform on the Dutch continental shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korndörffer, W.; Schaap, D.; Heijden, A.M.A. van der; Versloot, N.H.A.

    2004-01-01

    The design of an offshore gas production platform has been subjected to an extensive quantitative risk analysis in particular with regard to its resistance to gas explosions loads. It was demonstrated that integration of the physical and structural effects of a gas explosion in an early stage of the

  5. Real-Time PCR Quantification and Diversity Analysis of the Functional Genes aprA and dsrA of Sulfate-Reducing Prokaryotes in Marine Sediments of the Peru Continental Margin and the Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Blazejak, Anna; Schippers, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) are ubiquitous and quantitatively important members in many ecosystems, especially in marine sediments. However their abundance and diversity in subsurface marine sediments is poorly understood. In this study, the abundance and diversity of the functional genes for the enzymes adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase (aprA) and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) of SRP in marine sediments of the Peru continental margin and the Black Sea were analyzed, inclu...

  6. Sensitivity analysis of a variability in rock thermal conductivity concerning implications on the thermal evolution of the Brazilian South Atlantic passive continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stippich, Christian; Krob, Florian; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton; Hackspacher, Peter Christian

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the research is to quantify the long-term evolution of the western South Atlantic passive continental margin (SAPCM) in SE-Brazil. Excellent onshore outcrop conditions and extensive pre-rift to post-rift archives between São Paulo and Laguna allow a high precision quantification of exhumation, and rock uplift rates, influencing physical parameters, long-term acting forces, and process-response systems. The research integrates published (Karl et al., 2013) and partly published thermochronological data from Brazil, and test lately published new concepts on causes of long-term landscape and lithospheric evolution in southern Brazil. Six distinct lithospheric blocks (Laguna, Florianópolis, Curitiba, Ilha Comprida, Peruibe and Santos), which are separated by fracture zones (Karl et al., 2013) are characterized by individual thermochronological age spectra. Furthermore, the thermal evolution derived by numerical modeling indicates variable post-rift exhumation histories of these blocks. In this context, we will provide information on the causes for the complex exhumation history of the Florianópolis, and adjacent blocks. Following up on our latest publication (Braun et al., 2016) regarding the effect of variability in rock thermal conductivity on exhumation rate estimates we performed a sensitivity analysis to quantify the effect of a differentiated lithospheric crust on the thermal evolution of the Florianópolis block versus exhumation rates estimated from modelling a lithospheric uniform crustal block. The long-term landscape evolution models with process rates were computed with the software code PECUBE (Braun, 2003; Braun et al., 2012). Testing model solutions obtained for a multidimensional parameter space against the real thermochronological and geomorphological data set, the most likely combinations of parameters, values, and rates can be constrained. References Braun, J., 2003. Pecube: A new finite element code to solve the 3D heat transport

  7. Cretaceous high-pressure metamorphic belts of the Central Pontides (northern Turkey): pre-collisional Pacific-type accretionary continental growth of Laurasian Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygul, Mesut; Okay, Aral I.; Oberhaensli, Roland; Sudo, Masafumi

    2014-05-01

    Cretaceous blueschist-facies metamorphic rocks crop out widely in the central part of the Pontides, an east-west trending mountain belt in northern Turkey. They comprise an accretionary wedge along to the southern Laurasian active continental margin and predate the opening of Black Sea basin. From North to South, the wedge consists of a low grade metaflysch unit with marble, Na-amphibole-bearing metabasite and serpentinite blocks. An extensional shear zone separates the accreted distal terrigenous sediments from HP/LT micaschists and metabasites of oceanic origin, known as Domuzdaǧ Complex. The shear zone reaches up to one km in thickness and consists of tectonic slices of serpentinite, metabasite, marble, phyllite and micaschist with top to the NW sense of shear. The Domuzdaǧ Complex predominantly consists of carbonaceous micaschist and metabasite with serpentinite, and minor metachert, marble and metagabbro. Metabasites consist mainly of epidote-blueschists sometimes with garnet. Fresh lawsonite-blueschists are found as blocks within the shear zone. Peak metamorphic assemblages in the micaschists are chloritoid-glaucophane and garnet-chloritoid-glaucophane-lawsonite in addition to phengite, paragonite, quartz, chlorite and rutile (P: 17 ± 1 Kbar, T: 390-450 °C). To the south, lithologies change slightly, with metabasite and thick, pale marble with few metachert and metapelitic horizons. The degree of metamorphism also changes. The metabasites range from high-pressure upper-greenschist facies with growth of sodic-amphibole to lower greenschist without any HP index mineral, suggesting a general decrease in pressure toward south within the prism. While Domuzdaǧ Complex represents deep-seated underplated oceanic sediments and basalts, the carbonate-rich southern parts can be interpreted as seamounts integrated into the accretionary prism. Ar/Ar dating on phengite separates both from terrigenous and oceanic metasediments give consistent plateau ages of 100 ± 2

  8. Instability and deformation in the sedimentary cover on the upper slope of the southern Aquitaine continental margin, north of the Capbreton canyon (Bay of Biscay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gonthier

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic and core data have recently been collected on the shelf break and the upper part of the slope of the south Aquitaine continental margin. They reveal the major role played by mass-flow gravity processes in deposit erosion and redistribution, modelling of the sea-bed, and transfer of sediment toward the deep-sea. The study region is bounded in the south by the Capbreton canyon. The northern area, which shows a smooth morphology, is characterised by small-scale deformations due to sediment creep or low-amplitude slide processes. The deformations are associated with mini listric-like faults that bound packets of sediments in which the deposit geometry is typical of constructional sediment waves. These sediment waves result from the interaction of depositional and gravity deformation processes. In the southern area, closer to the canyon, wave-like structures are still present but mostly of smaller size. They only result from gravity deformation processes without any evidence of constructional processes. In the vicinity of the Capbreton canyon, the shelf break and upper slope have a much more uneven morphology with sedimentary reliefs, escarpments and depressions directed toward the canyon thalweg. The depressions look like slide scars, and could be the result of regressive slides initiated at the top of the canyon flank. The age of the sliding event responsible for the formation of the depression observed today could be middle to upper Quaternary. Since their formation, these depressions act as conduits that channel the transfer of shelf sediment into the canyon, as demonstrated by the occurrence of a meandering channel on the sea-floor of one depression.

  9. Coupled and decoupled responses of continental and marine organic-sedimentary systems through the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum, New Jersey margin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Mor, Aya; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2013-01-01

    The flux of sediment and organic carbon from continents to the coastal ocean is an important factor governing organic burial in coastal sediments, and these systems preserve important records of environmental and biogeochemical conditions during past global change events. Burial of organic materials in coastal systems can be promoted by chemical resilience or through protection by association with mineral surfaces, but the role and influence of these processes on organic records from ancient sediments is poorly known. We studied sediment and organic matter burial as particulate organic matter (POM) and mineral-bound organic matter (MOM) in near-shore marine sediments from the Wilson Lake core (New Jersey, USA) that span the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), a climatic perturbation 55.9 Myr ago. Our results show that distinct POM and MOM fractions can be isolated from sediments. Both fractions appear to be dominated by terrestrial material, but POM consisted primarily of recently synthesized material whereas MOM included a significant fraction of pre-aged organic matter from soils or ancient sediments. Variation in organic burial through the PETM is associated with changes in inorganic nitrogen burial, clay mineralogy, and clastic grain size that we associate with enhanced continental weathering, erosion and redeposition of ancient kaolinites, and eustatic sea level variation, respectively. These results provide a new perspective on factors governing carbon burial and carbon isotope records in ancient marine margin settings and offer information on rate and phasing of late Paleocene/early Eocene Earth system changes that may constrain interpretations of the cause of the PETM climate change event.

  10. Structural and functional study of the nematode community from the Indian western continental margin with reference to habitat heterogeneity and oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Ingole, B. S.

    2015-07-01

    We studied patterns of nematode distribution along the western Indian continental margin to determine the influence of habitat heterogeneity and oxygen minimum on the community's taxonomic and functional structure. A single transect, perpendicular to the coast at 14° N latitude was sampled from 34 to 2546 m depth for biological and environmental variables during August 2007. Nematodes were identified to species and classified according to biological/functional traits. A total of 110 nematode species belonging to 24 families were found along the transect. Mean nematode density was higher on the shelf (176 ind 10 cm-2, 34 m depth) than on the slope (124 ind 10 cm-2) or in the basin 62.9 ind 10 cm-2). Across the entire study area, the dominant species were Terschellingia longicaudata, (15.2 %), Desmodora sp 1, Sphaerolaimus gracilis, and Theristus ensifer; their maximum density was at shelf stations. Multidimensional scaling ordination (nMDS) of the nematode species abundance data indicated the effect of different zones (ANOSIM; Global R = 0.607; P = 0.028), but it was not the same in case of functional traits. Only seven species were found exclusively in the oxygen minimum zone: Pselionema sp 1, Choanolaimus sp 2, Halichoanolaimus sp 1, Cobbia dentata, Daptonema sp 1, Trissonchulus sp 1, and Minolaimus sp 1. Moreover, in our study, species diversity was higher on the shelf than on the slope or in the basin. The distinctive features of all three zones as based on nematofaunal abundance were also reflected in the functional traits (feeding types, body shape, tail shape, and life history strategy). Correlation with a number of environmental variables indicated that food quality (measured as the organic carbon content and chlorophyll content) and oxygen level were the major factors that influenced the nematode community (structural and functional).

  11. Quantification of microbial communities in near-surface and deeply buried marine sediments on the Peru continental margin using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippers, Axel; Neretin, Lev N

    2006-07-01

    Deeply buried marine sediments harbour a large fraction of all prokaryotes on Earth but it is still unknown which phylogenetic and physiological microbial groups dominate the deep biosphere. In this study real-time PCR allowed a comparative quantitative microbial community analysis in near-surface and deeply buried marine sediments from the Peru continental margin. The 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of prokaryotes and Bacteria were almost identical with a maximum of 10(8)-10(10) copies cm(-3) in the near-surface sediments. Archaea exhibited one to three orders of magnitude lower 16S rRNA gene copy numbers. The 18S rRNA gene of Eukarya was always at least three orders of magnitude less abundant than the 16S rRNA gene of prokaryotes. The 16S rRNA gene of the Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-reducing bacterial family Geobacteraceae and the dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes were abundant with 10(6)-10(8) copies cm(-3) in near-surface sediments but showed lower numbers and an irregular distribution in the deep sediments. The copy numbers of all genes decreased with sediment depth exponentially. The depth gradients were steeper for the gene copy numbers than for numbers of total prokaryotes (acridine orange direct counts), which reflects the ongoing degradation of the high-molecular-weight DNA with sediment age and depth. The occurrence of eukaryotic DNA also suggests DNA preservation in the deeply buried sediments.

  12. Strong depth-related zonation of megabenthos on a rocky continental margin (∼700-4000 m) off southern Tasmania, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thresher, Ronald; Althaus, Franziska; Adkins, Jess; Gowlett-Holmes, Karen; Alderslade, Phil; Dowdney, Jo; Cho, Walter; Gagnon, Alex; Staples, David; McEnnulty, Felicity; Williams, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Assemblages of megabenthos are structured in seven depth-related zones between ∼700 and 4000 m on the rocky and topographically complex continental margin south of Tasmania, southeastern Australia. These patterns emerge from analysis of imagery and specimen collections taken from a suite of surveys using photographic and in situ sampling by epibenthic sleds, towed video cameras, an autonomous underwater vehicle and a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Seamount peaks in shallow zones had relatively low biomass and low diversity assemblages, which may be in part natural and in part due to effects of bottom trawl fishing. Species richness was highest at intermediate depths (1000-1300 m) as a result of an extensive coral reef community based on the bioherm-forming scleractinian Solenosmilia variabilis. However, megabenthos abundance peaked in a deeper, low diversity assemblage at 2000-2500 m. The S. variabilis reef and the deep biomass zone were separated by an extensive dead, sub-fossil S. variabilis reef and a relatively low biomass stratum on volcanic rock roughly coincident with the oxygen minimum layer. Below 2400 m, megabenthos was increasingly sparse, though punctuated by occasional small pockets of relatively high diversity and biomass. Nonetheless, megabenthic organisms were observed in the vast majority of photographs on all seabed habitats and to the maximum depths observed--a sandy plain below 3950 m. Taxonomic studies in progress suggest that the observed depth zonation is based in part on changing species mixes with depth, but also an underlying commonality to much of the seamount and rocky substrate biota across all depths. Although the mechanisms supporting the extraordinarily high biomass in 2000-2500 m depths remains obscure, plausible explanations include equatorwards lateral transport of polar production and/or a response to depth-stratified oxygen availability.

  13. Strong Depth-Related Zonation of Megabenthos on a Rocky Continental Margin (∼700–4000 m) off Southern Tasmania, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thresher, Ronald; Althaus, Franziska; Adkins, Jess; Gowlett-Holmes, Karen; Alderslade, Phil; Dowdney, Jo; Cho, Walter; Gagnon, Alex; Staples, David; McEnnulty, Felicity; Williams, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Assemblages of megabenthos are structured in seven depth-related zones between ∼700 and 4000 m on the rocky and topographically complex continental margin south of Tasmania, southeastern Australia. These patterns emerge from analysis of imagery and specimen collections taken from a suite of surveys using photographic and in situ sampling by epibenthic sleds, towed video cameras, an autonomous underwater vehicle and a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Seamount peaks in shallow zones had relatively low biomass and low diversity assemblages, which may be in part natural and in part due to effects of bottom trawl fishing. Species richness was highest at intermediate depths (1000–1300 m) as a result of an extensive coral reef community based on the bioherm-forming scleractinian Solenosmilia variabilis. However, megabenthos abundance peaked in a deeper, low diversity assemblage at 2000–2500 m. The S. variabilis reef and the deep biomass zone were separated by an extensive dead, sub-fossil S. variabilis reef and a relatively low biomass stratum on volcanic rock roughly coincident with the oxygen minimum layer. Below 2400 m, megabenthos was increasingly sparse, though punctuated by occasional small pockets of relatively high diversity and biomass. Nonetheless, megabenthic organisms were observed in the vast majority of photographs on all seabed habitats and to the maximum depths observed - a sandy plain below 3950 m. Taxonomic studies in progress suggest that the observed depth zonation is based in part on changing species mixes with depth, but also an underlying commonality to much of the seamount and rocky substrate biota across all depths. Although the mechanisms supporting the extraordinarily high biomass in 2000–2500 m depths remains obscure, plausible explanations include equatorwards lateral transport of polar production and/or a response to depth-stratified oxygen availability. PMID:24465758

  14. Strong depth-related zonation of megabenthos on a rocky continental margin (∼700-4000 m off southern Tasmania, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Thresher

    Full Text Available Assemblages of megabenthos are structured in seven depth-related zones between ∼700 and 4000 m on the rocky and topographically complex continental margin south of Tasmania, southeastern Australia. These patterns emerge from analysis of imagery and specimen collections taken from a suite of surveys using photographic and in situ sampling by epibenthic sleds, towed video cameras, an autonomous underwater vehicle and a remotely operated vehicle (ROV. Seamount peaks in shallow zones had relatively low biomass and low diversity assemblages, which may be in part natural and in part due to effects of bottom trawl fishing. Species richness was highest at intermediate depths (1000-1300 m as a result of an extensive coral reef community based on the bioherm-forming scleractinian Solenosmilia variabilis. However, megabenthos abundance peaked in a deeper, low diversity assemblage at 2000-2500 m. The S. variabilis reef and the deep biomass zone were separated by an extensive dead, sub-fossil S. variabilis reef and a relatively low biomass stratum on volcanic rock roughly coincident with the oxygen minimum layer. Below 2400 m, megabenthos was increasingly sparse, though punctuated by occasional small pockets of relatively high diversity and biomass. Nonetheless, megabenthic organisms were observed in the vast majority of photographs on all seabed habitats and to the maximum depths observed--a sandy plain below 3950 m. Taxonomic studies in progress suggest that the observed depth zonation is based in part on changing species mixes with depth, but also an underlying commonality to much of the seamount and rocky substrate biota across all depths. Although the mechanisms supporting the extraordinarily high biomass in 2000-2500 m depths remains obscure, plausible explanations include equatorwards lateral transport of polar production and/or a response to depth-stratified oxygen availability.

  15. Distribution and Characters of Gas Hydrate Offshore of Southwestern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Char-Shine Liu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottom simulating reflector (BSR is a key indicator for the presence of gas hydrate beneath the sea floor. Widely distributed BSRs have been observed in the area offshore of southwestern Taiwan where the active accretionary complex meets with the passive China continental margin. In order to better understand the distribution and characters of the gas hydrate in the region, closely spaced (1.86-km line spacing multichannel seismic reflection surveys have been conducted in recent years under the support of the Central Geological Survey, ROC. Over 10000 km of multichannel seismic reflection profiles have been collected that cover an area of about 10000 km2 offshore of southwestern Taiwan. BSRs can be identified along 50% of the seismic profiles that we collected. A newly compiled BSR distribution map suggests that gas hydrates are distributed both in the passive margin of the China continental slope as well as in the submarine Taiwan accretionary wedge, from water depths of 500 to over 3000 m. Gas hydrates are most concentrated underneath anticlinal ridges in the accretionary wedge, and underneath the slope ridges of the passive continental margin that were formed due to sedimentary processes. Active fluid activities are evident from various features observed on seismic reflection and chirp sonar profiles, such as mud volcanoes, gas plumes and gas charged shallow sedimentary layers. Fluid migration model has been established from a set of pseudo 3D seismic reflection data. The predicted locations of high fluid flux correlate well with those interpreted from geochemical analyses that show very high methane concentrations and very shallow sulfate-methane interfaces (SMI. This demonstrates the importance of structural control over gas hydrate emplacement. From the observed gas hydrate distribution and characters, the area offshore of southwestern Taiwan provides an ideal place to study and compare the formation and migration of gas hydrates under

  16. Regional comparison of syn- and post-rift sequences in salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The large South Atlantic basins offshore South America and Africa record a highly variable syn- to post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic development. The present-day diversity in the structural and sedimentary architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are i) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, ii) the post break-up geodynamic history including tectonics and magmatism, and iii) variations in the type, quantity and distribution of sediment input to the respective margin segment. Particularly the basins around the Rio Grande Rise - Walvis Ridge volcanic complex show a pronounced tectono-stratigraphic asymmetry both along the respective continental margin and across the Atlantic. Only a few attempts exist to establish a regional tectono-stratigraphic correlation framework across the South Atlantic Ocean, mainly because of the lack of data across entire margin segments and limited resolution of basin wide geophysics. Still unresolved issues particularly concern the explanation of the basin-specific geological evolution of respective margin segments along the same continental margin, as well as the correlation of conjugate basins and margin segments across the Atlantic Ocean. In our study we present interpretations and first-pass restorations of regional 2D seismic-reflectivity data from the large basins offshore Brazil (Pelotas Basin, Santos Basin, Campos Basin, Espirito Santo Basin), and offshore Namibia and Angola (Walvis Basin, Namibe Basin, Benguela Basin, Kwanza Basin), which represent four adjacent pairs of conjugate basins on both sides of the South Atlantic. Results are used to document and compare on a basin-scale the contrasting styles of rift and post-rift settings during and after the continental breakup.

  17. Mapping the extent of thinned continental crust across the Orphan Basin, offshore Newfoundland, Canada, using a combination of vintage and new seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welford, J. Kim; Dehler, Sonya; Funck, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The SIGNAL (Seismic Investigations off Greenland, Newfoundland and Labrador) 2009 cruise was undertaken by the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) and the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), with scientific contributions from Dalhousie University, to collect refraction/wide-angle reflection (RWAR) profiles as part of each country's continental shelf program under UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea) Article 76. Line 1 extended from the Bonavista Platform off Newfoundland, across the Orphan Basin, to Orphan Knoll and beyond into oceanic crust. The line followed the same track as an earlier seismic refraction line and ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) locations were chosen to complement and to extend the original station coverage. The final crustal velocity model across Orphan Basin shows thinned continental crust (15 to 20 km thick) beneath most of the basin with thinner crust (10 km thick) immediately outboard of the Bonavista Platform, interpreted as a failed rift zone. Seaward of the failed rift, the velocity structure of the thinned continental crust is generally uniform over 250 km toward Orphan Knoll. Immediately outboard of Orphan Knoll, the crust thins to 8 km and exhibits a velocity structure consistent with oceanic crust. The results from modelling of the combined refraction/wide-angle reflection dataset support an extension of Canada's continental shelf beyond the seaward limits of the Orphan Basin.

  18. Geophysical signatures over and around the northern segment of the 85 degrees E Ridge, Mahanadi offshore, Eastern Continental Margin of India: Tectonic implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, M.; Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.; Anuradha, M.; Lall, M.V.; Kumar, B

    composition, intrusive bodies and discrete nature of underlying crust. The ridge is associated with large amplitude negative magnetic and gravity anomalies. The negative gravity response across the ridge is probably due to emplacement of relatively low density...

  19. Shallow geological environment of Krishna–Godavari offshore, eastern continental margin of India as inferred from the interpretation of high resolution sparker data.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anitha, G.; Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.; Dewangan, P.; Anuradha, M.

    of subsidence of the sedimentary column and shoulder forma- tion on the seafloor. Stage-i represents normal slope sedi- ments and least affected by any tectonic activity during this stage. Stage-ii indicates the neotectonic activity and its influ- ence.... The enormous gas/fluid venting from the deeper horizons further pushed the entire overlying sedimen- tary strata, and the rapid pushing/gas-upthrust is respon- sible for the formation of well developed shoulders on the seabed as observed on the seismic section...

  20. Incorporating Cutting Edge Scientific Results from the Margins-Geoprisms Program into the Undergraduate Curriculum, Rupturing Continental Lithosphere Part II: Introducing Euler Poles Using Baja-North America Relative Plate Motion Across the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, J. P.; Bennett, S. E. K.; Cashman, S. M.; Dorsey, R. J.; Goodliffe, A. M.; Lamb, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The NSF-MARGINS Program funded a decade of research on continental margin processes. The NSF-GeoPRISMS Mini-lesson Project, funded by NSF-TUES, is designed to integrate the significant findings from the MARGINS program into open-source college-level curriculum. The Gulf of California (GOC) served as the focus site for the Rupturing Continental Lithosphere (RCL) initiative, which addressed several scientific questions: What forces drive rift initiation, localization, propagation and evolution? How does deformation vary in time and space, and why? How does crust evolve, physically and chemically, as rifting proceeds to sea-floor spreading? What is the role of sedimentation and magmatism in continental extension? We developed two weeks of curriculum, including lectures, labs, and in-class activities that can be used as a whole or individually. This component of the curriculum introduces students to the Euler pole description of relative plate motion (RPM) by examining the tectonic interactions of the Baja California microplate and North American plate. The plate boundary varies in rift obliquity along strike, from highly oblique and strike-slip dominated in the south to slightly less oblique and with a larger extensional component in the north. This Google Earth-based exercise provides students with a visualization of RPM using small circle contours of the local direction and magnitude of Baja-North America movement on a spherical Earth. Students use RPM to calculate the fault slip rates on transform, normal, and oblique-slip faults and examine how the varying faulting styles combine to accommodate RPM. MARGINS results are integrated via comparison of rift obliquity with the structural style of rift-related faults around the GOC. We find this exercise to fit naturally into courses about plate tectonics, geophysics, and especially structural geology, given the similarity between Euler pole rotations and stereonet-based rotations of structural data.

  1. Post-breakup Basin Evolution along the South-Atlantic Margins in Brazil and Angola/Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, P. A.; Strozyk, F.; Back, S.

    2013-12-01

    The post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic evolution of large offshore basins along the South American and African continental margins record strongly varying post-rift sedimentary successions. The northernmost segment of the South Atlantic rift and salt basins is characterized by a pronounced asymmetry, with the Brazilian margin comprising narrower and deeper rift basins with less salt in comparison to the Congo-Gabon conjugate margin. Another important observation is that multiple phases of uplift and subsidence are recorded after the break-up of the southern South Atlantic on both sides of the Florianopolis-Walvis Ridge volcanic complex, features that are regarded as atypical when compared to published examples of other post-breakup margin successions. A regional comparison based on tectonic-stratigraphic analysis of selected seismic transects between the large basins offshore southern Brazil (Espirito Santo Basin, Campos Basin, Santos Basin, Pelotas Basin) and southwest Africa (Lower Congo Basin, Kwanza Basin, Namibe Basin, Walvis Basin) provides a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of the key geological parameters controlling ocean and continental margin development. This comparison includes the margin configuration, subsidence development through time, sediment influx and storage patterns, type of basin fill (e.g. salt vs. non-salt systems; carbonate-rich vs. clastics-dominated systems) and finally major tectonic and magmatic events. Data from the salt basins indicate that salt-related tectonic deformation is amongst the prime controls for the non-uniform post-rift margin development. The diversity in the stratigraphic architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are (a) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, (b) the post break-up subsidence history of the respective margin segment

  2. Indian Ocean margins

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    The most important biogeochemical transformations and boundary exchanges in the Indian Ocean seem to occur in the northern region, where the processes originating at the land-ocean boundary extend far beyond the continental margins. Exchanges across...

  3. Incorporating Cutting Edge Scientific Results from the Margins-Geoprisms Program into the Undergraduate Curriculum, Rupturing Continental Lithosphere Part I: Introducing Seismic Interpretation and Isostasy Principles Using Gulf of California Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, M. A.; Cashman, S. M.; Dorsey, R. J.; Bennett, S. E. K.; Loveless, J. P.; Goodliffe, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The NSF-MARGINS Program funded a decade of research on continental margin processes. The NSF-GeoPRISMS Mini-lesson Project, funded by NSF-TUES, is designed to integrate the significant findings from the MARGINS program into open-source college-level curriculum. The Gulf of California (GOC) served as the focus site for the Rupturing Continental Lithosphere initiative, which addressed several scientific questions: What forces drive rift initiation, localization, propagation and evolution? How does deformation vary in time and space, and why? How does crust evolve, physically and chemically, as rifting proceeds to sea-floor spreading? What is the role of sedimentation and magmatism in continental extension? We developed two weeks of curriculum designed for an upper-division structural geology, tectonics or geophysics course. The curriculum includes lectures, labs, and in-class activities that can be used as a whole or individually. The first set of materials introduces the RCL initiative to students and has them analyze the bathymetry and oblique-rifting geometry of the GOC in an exercise using GeoMapApp. The second set of materials has two goals: (1) introduce students to fundamental concepts of interpreting seismic reflection data via lectures and in-class interpretation of strata, basement, and faults from recent GOC seismic data, and (2) encourage students to discover the structural geometry and rift evolution, including the east-to-west progression of faulting and transition from detachment to high-angle faulting in the northern GOC, and changes in deformation style from north to south. In the third set of materials, students investigate isostatic affects of sediment fill in GOC oblique rift basins. This activity consists of a problem set, introduced in a lecture, where students integrate their findings from the previous bathymetry- and seismic-interpretation exercises.

  4. 78 FR 33897 - Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 2 (ATLW2) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Rhode Island and Massachusetts-- Final Sale...) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Rhode Island and Massachusetts... for Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Rhode Island and...

  5. Sand ridge morphology and bedform migration patterns derived from bathymetry and backscatter on the inner-continental shelf offshore of Assateague Island, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Elizabeth; Brothers, Laura; Thieler, E. Robert; Sweeney, Edward

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration conducted geophysical and hydrographic surveys, respectively, along the inner-continental shelf of Fenwick and Assateague Islands, Maryland and Virginia over the last 40 years. High resolution bathymetry and backscatter data derived from surveys over the last decade are used to describe the morphology and presence of sand ridges on the inner-continental shelf and measure the change in the position of smaller-scale (10–100 s of meters) seafloor features. Bathymetric surveys from the last 30 years link decadal-scale sand ridge migration patterns to the high-resolution measurements of smaller-scale bedform features. Sand ridge morphology on the inner-shelf changes across-shore and alongshore. Areas of similar sand ridge morphology are separated alongshore by zones where ridges are less pronounced or completely transected by transverse dunes. Seafloor-change analyses derived from backscatter data over a 4–7 year period show that southerly dune migration increases in magnitude from north to south, and the east-west pattern of bedform migration changes ~ 10 km north of the Maryland-Virginia state line. Sand ridge morphology and occurrence and bedform migration changes may be connected to observed changes in geologic framework including topographic highs, deflated zones, and sand availability. Additionally, changes in sand ridge occurrence and morphology may help explain changes in the long-term shoreline trends along Fenwick and Assateague Islands. Although the data presented here cannot quantitatively link sand ridges to sediment transport and shoreline change, it does present a compelling relationship between inner-shelf sand availability and movement, sand ridge occurrence and morphology, geologic framework, and shoreline behavior.

  6. IODP workshop: developing scientific drilling proposals for the Argentina Passive Volcanic Continental Margin (APVCM) - basin evolution, deep biosphere, hydrates, sediment dynamics and ocean evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Roger D.; Violante, Roberto A.; Gorgas, Thomas; Schwarz, Ernesto; Grützner, Jens; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Biddle, Jennifer; St-Onge, Guillaume; Workshop Participants, Apvcm

    2017-05-01

    The Argentine margin contains important sedimentological, paleontological and chemical records of regional and local tectonic evolution, sea level, climate evolution and ocean circulation since the opening of the South Atlantic in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous as well as the present-day results of post-depositional chemical and biological alteration. Despite its important location, which underlies the exchange of southern- and northern-sourced water masses, the Argentine margin has not been investigated in detail using scientific drilling techniques, perhaps because the margin has the reputation of being erosional. However, a number of papers published since 2009 have reported new high-resolution and/or multichannel seismic surveys, often combined with multi-beam bathymetric data, which show the common occurrence of layered sediments and prominent sediment drifts on the Argentine and adjacent Uruguayan margins. There has also been significant progress in studying the climatic records in surficial and near-surface sediments recovered in sediment cores from the Argentine margin. Encouraged by these recent results, our 3.5-day IODP (International Ocean Discovery Program) workshop in Buenos Aires (8-11 September 2015) focused on opportunities for scientific drilling on the Atlantic margin of Argentina, which lies beneath a key portion of the global ocean conveyor belt of thermohaline circulation. Significant opportunities exist to study the tectonic evolution, paleoceanography and stratigraphy, sedimentology, and biosphere and geochemistry of this margin.

  7. Hydrocarbon prospectivity of the Argentine Continental Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Light, M.P.R.; Keeley M.L.; Maslanyj, M.P.; Urien, C.M.; Hoggs, S.L.

    1993-02-01

    A rift basin containing stratigraphic and structural closures is developed along the Argentine slope over a distance of some 1000 km and area of 50,000 km[sup 2] in potentially exploitable water depths of 200 to 1500 m. No wells exist on this part of the continental margin. Rifting began during the Late Triassic/Jurassic and ended in Early Cretaceous. The first marine seaways flooded the Rift alluvial plains and lake. In Hauterian-Barrenian time, low circulation marine conditions with oxygen deficiency prevailed up to Rio Grande/Walvis Ridge flooding in part the coastal pull-apart basins. A major marine transgression in the Maastrichtian formed a widespread seal over the entire shelf and slope area. Four play types were identified: (1) a major north-east trending elongate delta system sourced inland from the San Julien (N. Malvinas) Basin and deposited on the southern Patagonian shelf and rise, (2) reworked deltaic barrier sands accumulated along the crest of the Outer Basement Ridge, (3) The Outer Basement Ridge, a major structural closure 400 km long, and (4) a series of margin-parallel rift systems in the offshore region between the 200 m and 1500 m isobaths. Regional seismic data and geological correlations suggest that oil prone source rocks are likely in the Middle and Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous formations. Source rocks are probably mature east and west of the Outer Basement Ridge and in the easterndepocenter of the Colorado Basin. Eastward migration from Jurassic age lacustrine source rocks in the Colorado Basin may have charged traps along the crest of the Outer Basement Ridge. Westward directed migration from deeply buried Aptian age marine source rocks in the Atlantic basins has probably charged prospective stratigraphic and structural traps in a suite of coast-parallel grabens developed on the Argentine continental shelf and slope. The Argentine offshore region, therefore, offers significant encouragement as a productive hydrocarbon province.

  8. (Paleo)ecology of coccolithophores in the submarine canyons of the central portuguese continental margin:environmental, sedimentary and oceanographic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Guerreiro, Catarina Alexandra Vicente, 1978-

    2013-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Geologia (Paleontologia e Estatigrafia), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2013 This thesis aims to contribute to the knowledge of coccolithophores from coastal-neriticoceanic transitional settings, their distribution offshore central Portugal, and their potential as (paleo)ecological and (paleo)ceanographic proxy in the context of submarine canyons. In order to achieve a good understanding of the relationship of coccolithophores with the environ...

  9. Evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin and lithosphere dynamic movement in Southern Brazil derived from zircon and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission-track data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krob, Florian; Stippich, Christian; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Hackspacher, Peter C.

    2016-04-01

    Passive continental margins are important geoarchives related to mantle dynamics, the breakup of continents, lithospheric dynamics, and other processes. The main concern yields the quantifying long-term lithospheric evolution of the continental margin between São Paulo and Laguna in southeastern Brazil since the Neoproterozoic. We put special emphasis on the reactivation of old fracture zones running into the continent and their constrains on the landscape evolution. In this contribution, we represent already consisting thermochronological data attained by fission-track and (U-Th-Sm)/He analysis on apatites and zircons. The zircon fission-track ages range between 108.4 (15.0) and 539.9 (68.4) Ma, the zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He ages between 72.9 (5.8) and 427.6 (1.8) Ma whereas the apatite fission-track ages range between 40.0 (5.3) and 134.7 (8.0) Ma, and the apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages between 32.1 (1.52) and 92.0 (1.86) Ma. These thermochronological ages from metamorphic, sedimentary and intrusive rocks show six distinct blocks (Laguna, Florianópolis, Curitiba, Ilha Comprida, Peruibe and Santos) with different evolution cut by old fracture zones. Furthermore, models of time-temperature evolution illustrate the differences in Pre- to post-rift exhumation histories of these blocks. The presented data will provide an insight into the complex exhumation history of the continental margin based on the existing literature data on the evolution of the Paraná basin in Brazil and the latest thermochronological data. We used the geological model of the Paraná basin supersequences (Rio Ivaí, Paraná, Gondwana I-III and Bauru) to remodel the subsidence and exhumation history of our consisting thermochronological sample data. First indications include a fast exhumation during the early Paleozoic, a slow shallow (northern blocks) to fast and deep (Laguna block) subduction from middle Paleozoic to Mesozoic time and a extremely fast exhumation during the opening of the South Atlantic

  10. Preliminary Thermo-Chronometric and Paleo-Magnetic Results from the Western Margin of The Kırşehir Block: Implications for the Timing of Continental Collisions Occurred Along Neo-Tethyan Suture Zones (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülyüz, Erhan; Özkaptan, Murat; Langereis, Cor G.; Kaymakcı, Nuretdin

    2017-04-01

    -western margins of the Kırşehir Block where two suture zones coincided (IAESZ & ITSZ). Although, thermo-chronometric studies have not been completely conducted, initial results consistently indicate Oligocene-Early Miocene continental uplift along the western margin of the Kırşehir Block. In keeping with thermo-chronometric results, paleo-magnetic samples (400 cores) taken systematically from upper Cretaceous to Miocene sedimentary units exposed along the IAESZ and ITSZ suggest that concentration of vertical block rotations are accumulated in Oligocene-Early Miocene time interval indicating the timing of main deformation events. Based on the paleo-magnetic and low-temperature thermo-chronometric results, we propose that continental collisions along IAESZ and ITSZ in the Central Anatolia occurred during Oligocene - Early Miocene time interval which might also correspond to the commencement of continental deposition and the base of regional unconformities exposed in the region.

  11. Nannofossil age constraints for the northern KwaZulu-Natal shelf-edge wedge: Implications for continental margin dynamics, South Africa, SW Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A. N.; Ovechkina, M.; Uken, R.

    2008-10-01

    Samples collected from the shelf-edge wedge using surface grab samples and the Jago submersible constrain the KwaZulu-Natal shelf-edge wedge to a late Pliocene age on the basis of the absence of Gephyrocapsa oceanica s.l. and Discoaster brouweri, and the presence of Calcidiscus macintyrei. This correlates with proposed Tertiary sea-level curves for southern Africa and indicates relative sea-level fall during the late Pliocene coupled with hinterland uplift. Exposed failure scarps in the upper portions of submarine canyons yield sediment samples of early Pleistocene ages, indicating the uppermost age of deposition of clinoform topsets exposed in the scarp walls. Partially consolidated, interbedded silty and sandy deposits of similar age outcrop in the thalweg of Leven canyon at a depth of 150 m. These sediments provide an upper age limit of the shelf-edge wedge of early Pleistocene, giving a sedimentation rate of this wedge of 162-309 m/Ma. The distribution of widespread basal-most Pleistocene sediments on the upper slope indicates that these sediments escaped major reworking during sea-level falls associated with Pleistocene glaciations and remain as relict upper slope veneers. The absence of more recent sediments suggests that this area has been a zone of sediment bypass or starvation since the early Pleistocene. Areas where younger sediments mantle deposits of early Pleistocene ages represent areas of offshore bedload parting, re-distributing younger Holocene sediment offshore and downslope.

  12. Submarine mass movements around the Iberian Peninsula. The building of continental margins through hazardous processes; Inestabilidades sedimentarias submarinas alrededor de la Peninsula Iberica. Construccion de margenes a traves de procesos peligrosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casas, D.; Casalbore, D.; Yenes, M.; Urgeles, R.

    2015-07-01

    Submarine mass movements, such as those which occur in all environments in every ocean of the world, are widely distributed across the Iberian continental margins. A lack of consistent data from various areas around the Iberian Peninsula makes it difficult to precisely understand their role in the sedimentary record. However, all the studies carried out over the past two decades reveal that they are a recurrent and widespread sedi- mentary process that may represent a significant geohazard. The majority of submarine mass movements observed in both the Mediterranean and Atlantic margins of the Iberian Peninsula have been generically identified as Mass Transport Deposits, but debris flows, slides, slumps and turbidites are common. Only a few remarkable examples involve huge volumes of sediment covering large areas (such as ∼500 km{sup 3} and ∼6x10{sup 4} km{sup 2}), but more moderate deposits (<200 km{sup 2}) are frequently found on the seafloor or embedded in the sedi- mentary sequences, building margins and basins. (Author)

  13. Analyses of multichannel seismic reflection, gravity and magnetic data along a regional profile across the central-western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.; Rao, D.G.; Srinivas, K.; Ramprasad, T.; Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.

    of western India, eustatic sea-level changes, Indian and Eurasian plate collision and Himalayan orogeny. Tilted fault blocks (half-grabens) located almost equi-distance from the igneous construct of the 'Prathap Ridge' in the shelf margin basin suggest a...

  14. Hydration of marginal basins and compositional variations within the continental lithospheric mantle inferred from a new global model of shear and compressional velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesoniero, Andrea; Auer, Ludwig; Boschi, Lapo

    2015-01-01

    VP/VS and not extremely low VS at ∼150 km depth, consistently with presence of water. Most pronounced anomalies are located in the Sea of Japan, in the back-arc region of the Philippine Sea, and in the South China Sea. Our results indicate the effectiveness of slab-related processes to hydrate...... the mantle and suggest an important role of Pacific plate subduction also for the evolution of the South China Sea. We detect lateral variations in composition within the continental lithospheric mantle. Regions that have been subjected to rifting, collisions, and flood basalt events are underlain...

  15. Provenance And Tectonomagmatic Setting Of The Santa Marta Schists, Northern Colombia Caribbean Region: Insights On The Styles Of Growth And Approach Of Caribbean Intra- Oceanic Domains To The Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, A.; Jaramillo, C.; Ojeda, G.; Ruiz, J.; Valencia, V.; Weber, M.

    2007-12-01

    The life cycle of an intra-oceanic terranemincludes different phases and styles of magmatic growth, accretion with other terranes and translation before reaching a continental margin. In order to unveil the nature of these phases in crystalline rocks from northern Colombia, U/Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS detrital geochronology and whole rock geochemical data were obtained from stacks of intercalated metavolcanic-sedimentary rocks of the Santa Marta Schists in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Immobile elements whole rock geochemistry from greenschist to amphibolite facies units are characterized by low to moderate LREE/HREE, variable Th enrichment and weakly negative Nb and Ti anomalies, which are similar to island arc and MORB signatures. The intercalated metasedimentary rocks show a REE pattern similar to the PAAS and high Zr/Sc vs Th/Sc ratios, which suggest a felsic and highly diferentiated upper crust sources for the protoliths. Detrital zircons from three different units were obtained, The maximum depositional age for the northwestern unit is limited to the late Cretaceous, with a major peak of 83 Ma. Variable input of older crustal sources with Jurassic (153 Ma), Permo-Triassic (250-290 Ma), Cambrian to Late Neoproterozoic (520-560 Ma) and Middle Mesoproterozic (1000-1500 Ma) ages which are clearly recognized in older units of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta massif and the northern South American basement are also recorded. This type of volcano-sedimentary record within an intra-oceanic arc bears strong similarities with the modern Lesser-Antilles and the Tonga-Kermadec arcs, where continentally derived sediments can be transported houndred of kilometers to the fore-arc, back-arc or the accretionary prism of the active intra-oceanic arc. This record also suggests that this arc has an intra-Americas position, near to its final accretionary stop. Although the metamorphic overprint has obliterated the stratigraphic relations, apparent variations of the LREE/HREE in the

  16. Long-term evolution of the western South Atlantic passive continental margin in a key area of SE Brazil revealed by thermokinematic numerical modeling using the software code Pecube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stippich, Christian; Krob, Florian; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Hackspacher, Peter C.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the research is to quantify the long-term evolution of the western South Atlantic passive continental margin (SAPCM) in SE-Brazil. Excellent onshore outcrop conditions and extensive pre-rift to post-rift archives between São Paulo and Laguna allow a high precision quantification of exhumation, and rock uplift rates, influencing physical parameters, long-term acting forces, and process-response systems. Research will integrate published1 and partly published thermochronological data from Brazil, and test lately published new concepts on causes of long-term landscape and lithospheric evolution in southern Brazil. Six distinct lithospheric blocks (Laguna, Florianópolis, Curitiba, Ilha Comprida, Peruibe and Santos), which are separated by fracture zones1 are characterized by individual thermochronological age spectra. Furthermore, the thermal evolution derived by numerical modeling indicates variable post-rift exhumation histories of these blocks. In this context, we will provide information on the causes for the complex exhumation history of the Florianópolis, and adjacent blocks. The climate-continental margin-mantle coupled process-response system is caused by the interaction between endogenous and exogenous forces, which are related to the mantle-process driven rift - drift - passive continental margin evolution of the South Atlantic, and the climate change since the Early/Late Cretaceous climate maximum. Special emphasis will be given to the influence of long-living transform faults such as the Florianopolis Fracture Zone (FFZ) on the long-term topography evolution of the SAPCM's. A long-term landscape evolution model with process rates will be achieved by thermo-kinematic 3-D modeling (software code PECUBE2,3 and FastScape4). Testing model solutions obtained for a multidimensional parameter space against the real thermochronological and geomorphological data set, the most likely combinations of parameter rates, and values can be constrained. The

  17. Offshore Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Vannucci, P

    2008-01-01

    Master; This course on Offshore Engineering is a basic course serving as an introduction to the problems concerning design and construction of offshore platforms, normally used in oil industry. So, some topics will be considered in this course, namely the principal ones that concern the structural design of an offshore platform; some other topics, like for instance marine installation procedures, corrosion protection, facilities and plants engineering will not be considered here. The course i...

  18. Milankovitch cyclicity in modern continental margins: stratigraphic cycles in terrigenous shelf settings; El registro de la ciclicidad de Milankovitch en margenes continentales actuales: ciclos estratigraficos en plataformas terrigenas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, F. J.; Ridente, D.

    2013-06-01

    We present a synthesis of the sedimentary responses to Late Quaternary Milankovitch-type sea-level cycles (100 and 20 kyr periodicities) as a basis for our investigations into the patterns and concepts of composite sequences in shallow-shelf settings. We describe the record of both 100 and 20 kyr cycles as documented worldwide and discuss the pattern of composite cyclicity mainly on the basis of previously published data from the Adriatic Sea and Gulf of Cadiz margins. Cycles of 100 kyr are those most frequently documented in Quaternary margins; they occur in the form of unconformity-bounded depositional sequences dominated by fairly uniform pro gradational-regressive units and more variable, though less well developed, transgressive deposits. Sequence boundaries correspond to prominent polygenic (regressive-transgressive) erosional surfaces that bear witness to considerable transgressive reworking of the original sub-aerial unconformity. Although the progradational units making up the greater part of these sequences have usually been interpreted as a record of a falling sea-level stage, recent evidence is pointing towards a more complex stratigraphic picture, including a distinction between relative highstand and lowstand deposits. The 20-kyr stratigraphic motifs show greater variation compared to that displayed by the more common 100-kyr sequences, particularly in the basic structure of systems tracts and the nature of bounding surfaces. The two case studies described here, the Adriatic Sea and Gulf of Cadiz margins, highlight the fact that, concomitantly with an increase in frequencies of cycles and sequences, sediment supply and the dynamics of their dispersal significantly affected the stratigraphic response to the main controlling factor, which was sea-level, thus determining the variety of expression in the 20 kyr cycles. (Author)

  19. Deep Structures of The Angola Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, M.; Contrucci, I.; Olivet, J.-L.; Aslanian, D.; Géli, L.; Sibuet, J.-C.

    1 Ifremer Centre de Brest, DRO/Géosciences Marines, B.P. 70, 29280 Plouzané cedex (France) mmoulin@ifremer.fr/Fax : 33 2 98 22 45 49 2 Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Institut Universitaire Europeen de la Mer, Place Nicolas Copernic, 29280 Plouzane (France) 3 Total Fina Elf, DGEP/GSR/PN -GEOLOGIE, 2,place de la Coupole-La Defense 6, 92078 Paris la Defense Cedex Deep reflection and refraction seismic data were collected in April 2000 on the West African margin, offshore Angola, within the framework of the Zaiango Joint Project, conducted by Ifremer and Total Fina Elf Production. Vertical multichannel reflection seismic data generated by a « single-bubble » air gun array array (Avedik et al., 1993) were recorded on a 4.5 km long, digital streamer, while refraction and wide angle reflection seismic data were acquired on OBSs (Ocean Bottom Seismometers). Despite the complexity of the margin (5 s TWT of sediment, salt tectonics), the combination of seismic reflection and refraction methods results in an image and a velocity model of the ground structures below the Aptian salt layer. Three large seismic units appear in the reflection seismic section from the deep part on the margin under the base of salt. The upper seismic unit is layered with reflectors parallel to the base of the salt ; it represents unstructured sediments, filling a basin. The middle unit is seismically transparent. The lower unit is characterized by highly energetic reflectors. According to the OBS refraction data, these two units correspond to the continental crust and the base of the high energetic unit corresponds to the Moho. The margin appears to be divided in 3 domains, from east to west : i) a domain with an unthinned, 30 km thick, continental crust ; ii) a domain located between the hinge line and the foot of the continental slope, where the crust thins sharply, from 30 km to less than 7 km, this domain is underlain by an anormal layer with velocities comprising between 7,2 and 7

  20. Southernmost evidence of large European Ice Sheet-derived freshwater discharges during the Heinrich Stadials of the Last Glacial Period (Galician Interior Basin, Northwest Iberian Continental Margin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Morlote, M.; Rey, D.; Santos, J. F.; Ribeiro, S.; Heslop, D.; Bernabeu, A.; Mohamed, K. J.; Rubio, B.; Martíns, V.

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of circum-Atlantic ice-sheet motion and instabilities is crucial to understanding the mechanisms that triggered and/or enhanced abrupt climate changes. Using enviromagnetic and geochemical data, we provide a continuous and well-dated record of the evolution of glacial/interglacial sedimentation on the Northwest Iberian Margin during the last glacial period, covering the last six Heinrich Stadials. The record shows European sediments that were related to meltwater pre-events during the initial stages of HS1, HS2, and HS4 that corroborate the Channel River depositional history. The record also includes IRD from the Laurentide Ice Sheet and the European Ice Sheet during the final stages of these stadials, i.e., Heinrich Events. Therefore, this study provides insight into one of the potential forcing mechanisms for Heinrich Events and, by inference, for Heinrich Stadials.

  1. Preservación y abundancia de escamas de peces en sedimentos del margen continental de Chile (21-36° S Fish scale preservation and abundance in sediments from the continental margin off Chile (21-36° S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER A DÍAZ-OCHOA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la relación entre la preservación de escamas de peces y las variaciones en las condiciones redox en sedimentos del margen continental de Chile, este trabajo presenta recuentos de escamas de peces y concentraciones normalizadas de elementos redox sensibles (Mo/Al, S/Al, Fe/Al en ocho testigos de sedimento recolectados en la zona de minimo oxígeno frente a Chile (Iquique: 20°15' S, bahía de Mejillones: 23° S y Concepción: 36° S. En el norte de Chile (Iquique y Mejillones predominan las escamas de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y de peces de la familia Myctophidae (media = 90 y 120 escamas 1.000 cm-3, respectivamente mientras que en Chile centro-sur (Concepción son más abundantes las escamas de jurel (Trachurus murphy; media = 140 escamas 1.000 cm-3. La abundancia de escamas de merluza común (Merluccius gayi gayi y de sardina (Sardinops sagax es aproximadamente un orden de magnitud más baja que la de anchoveta o jurel. En general, los valores más altos y los rangos más amplios de variación en las razones Mo/Al, S/Al y Fe/Al se encuentran en Mejillones (Mo/Al ~0,8-12 mg g-1, S/Al 0,2-4,6 g g-1, Fe/Al 0,3-0,7 g g-1 seguidos por Iquique (Mo/Al -0,2-1,8; S/Al 0,2-0,7, Fe/Al 0,5-0,8, mientras que Concepción revela valores más bajos y poco variables (Mo/Al ~0,07, S/Al ~0,15 y Fe/Al ~0,5. La razón Mo/Al, utilizada como indicador de paleo-oxigenación, permite inferir condiciones reductoras relativamente más intensas en los sedimentos de la Bahía de Mejillones e Iquique que en Concepción. En las tres localidades de muestreo se evidencia una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la abundancia de escamas de anchoveta y el logaritmo de la razón Mo/Al (r²= 0,46; P 1 mg g-1.The relationship between fish scale preservation and variations in the sediment redox conditions on Chile's continental shelf are evaluated herein through fish scale counts and normalized concentrations of redox sensitive elements

  2. Techniques for the non-destructive and continuous analysis of sediment cores. Application in the Iberian continental margin; Tecnicas para el analisis no destructivo y en continuo de testigos de sedimento. Aplicacion en el Margen Continental de Iberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigola, J.; Canals, M.; Mata, P.

    2015-07-01

    Sediment sequences are the most valuable record of long-term environmental conditions at local, regional and/or global scales. Consequently, they are amongst the best archives of the climatic and oceanographic his- tory of the Earth. In the last few decades a strong effort has been made, both in terms of quantity and quality, to improve our knowledge regarding the evolution of our planet from marine and lake sediment records, and also from other records such as ice cores. Such an effort requires reinforcing the geographical coverage and achieving the highest possible robustness in the reconstruction of past environments. Such a target requires the optimization of the time resolution of the records and reconstructions so that fast, high frequency shifts, such as those occurring nowadays due to the on-going global warming, can be disentangled. Beyond paleoenvironmental research, other disciplines have also contributed significantly to the fast growing number of sediment cores already available worldwide. Knowing the physical state and the chemical composition of sedimentary deposits is essential for land management purposes and for many industrial applications. A number of key technological developments are now allowing the acquisition for the first time of massive amounts of multiple parameters from sediment cores in a non-destructive, fast, continuous, repetitive and high-resolution form. In this paper we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art continuous and non-destructive analytical techniques used by the geo scientific community for the study of sediment cores and we present some examples of the application of these methods in several studies carried out around the Iberian Margin. (Author)

  3. NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research'sOkeanos Explorer Program 2014 Discoveries - U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin and Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobecker, E.; McKenna, L.; Sowers, D.; Elliott, K.; Kennedy, B.

    2014-12-01

    NOAA ShipOkeanos Explorer, the only U.S. federal vessel dedicated to global ocean exploration, made several important discoveries in U.S. waters of the North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico during the 2014 field season. Based on input received from a broad group ofmarine scientists and resource managers, over 100,000 square kilometers of seafloor and associated water column were systematically explored using advanced mapping sonars. 39 ROV diveswere conducted, leading to new discoveries that will further ourunderstanding of biologic, geologic, and underwater-cultural heritage secrets hidden withinthe oceans. In the Atlantic, season highlights include completion of a multi-year submarine canyons mapping effort of the continental shelf break from North Carolina to the U.S.-Canada maritime border;new information on the ephemerality of recently discovered and geographically extensive cold water seeps; and continued exploration of the New England Seamount chain; and mapping of two potential historically significant World War II wreck sites. In the Gulf of Mexico, season highlights includecompletion of a multi-year mapping effort of the West Florida Escarpment providing new insight into submarine landslides and detachment zones;the discovery of at least two asphalt volcanoes, or 'tar lilies'; range extensions of deep-sea corals; discovery of two potential new species of crinoids; identification of at least 300 potential cold water seeps; and ROV exploration of three historically significant19th century shipwrecks. In both regions, high-resolution mapping led to new insight into the geological context in which deep sea corals develop,while ROV dives provided valuable observations of deep sea coral habitats and their associated organisms, and chemosynthetic habitats. All mapping and ROV data is freely available to the public in usable data formats and maintained in national geophysical and oceanographic data archives.

  4. Offshoring Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Katayama, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the knowledge on how production offshoring and international operations management vary across cultural contexts. The chapter attempts to shed light on how companies approach the process of offshoring in different cultural contexts. In order...... to achieve this objective, the authors employ a qualitative methodology and compare three Danish and three Japanese manufacturing companies. On the basis of this comparative investigation, the authors find that the parent companies from both contexts employ offshoring as a remedy for the challenges...

  5. Re-evaluation of the Mentelle Basin, a polyphase rifted margin basin, offshore southwest Australia: new insights from integrated regional seismic datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maloney

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Vintage 2-D (two-dimensional seismic reflection surveys from the sparsely explored Mentelle Basin (western Australian margin have been reprocessed and integrated with a recent high-quality 2-D seismic survey and stratigraphic borehole data. Interpretation of these data sets allows the internal geometry of the Mentelle Basin fill and depositional history to be reanalysed and new insights into its formation revealed. Basin stratigraphy can be subdivided into several seismically defined megasequences separated by major unconformities related to both breakup between India-Madagascar and Australia-Antarctica in the Valanginian-Late Hauterivian and tectonically-driven switches in deposition through the Albian.

    Resting on the Valanginian-Late Hauterivian breakup unconformity are several kilometre-scale mounded structures that formed during Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous extension. These have previously been interpreted as volcanic edifices although direct evidence of volcanic feeder systems is lacking. An alternative interpretation is that these features may be carbonate build-ups. The latter interpretation carries significant climatic ramifications since carbonate build-ups would have formed at high palaeolatitude, ~60° S.

    Soon after breakup, initial subsidence resulted in a shallow marine environment and deposition of Barremian-Aptian silty-sandy mudstones. As subsidence continued, thick successions of Albian ferruginous black clays were deposited. Internally, seismic megasequences composed of successions of black clays show previously unresolved unconformities, onlapping and downlapping packages, which reflect a complex depositional, rifting and subsidence history at odds with their previous interpretation as open marine sediments.

    Southwestwards migration of the Kerguelen hotspot led to thermal contraction and subsidence to the present day water depth (~3000 m. This was accompanied by Turonian-Santonian deposition of

  6. Asymmetric rifting, breakup and magmatism across conjugate margin pairs: insights from Newfoundland to Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, Alexander L.; Welford, J. Kim; Foulger, Gillian R.; McCaffrey, Ken J. W.

    2017-04-01

    Continental extension, subsequent rifting and eventual breakup result in the development of passive margins with transitional crust between extended continental crust and newly created oceanic crust. Globally, passive margins are typically classified as either magma-rich or magma-poor. Despite this simple classification, magma-poor margins like the West Orphan Basin, offshore Newfoundland, do exhibit some evidence of localized magmatism, as magmatism to some extent invariably accompanies all continental breakup. For example, on the Newfoundland margin, a small volcanic province has been interpreted near the termination of the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone, whereas on the conjugate Irish margin within the Rockall Basin, magmatism appears to be more widespread and has been documented both in the north and in the south. The broader region over which volcanism has been identified on the Irish margin is suggestive of magmatic asymmetry across this conjugate margin pair and this may have direct implications for the mechanisms governing the nature of rifting and breakup. Possible causes of the magmatic asymmetry include asymmetric rifting (simple shear), post-breakup thermal anomalies in the mantle, or pre-existing compositional zones in the crust that predispose one of the margins to more melting than its conjugate. A greater understanding of the mechanisms leading to conjugate margin asymmetry will enhance our fundamental understanding of rifting processes and will also reduce hydrocarbon exploration risk by better characterizing the structural and thermal evolution of hydrocarbon bearing basins on magma-poor margins where evidence of localized magmatism exists. Here, the latest results of a conjugate margin study of the Newfoundland-Ireland pair utilizing seismic interpretation integrated with other geological and geophysical datasets are presented. Our analysis has begun to reveal the nature and timing of rift-related magmatism and the degree to which magmatic asymmetry

  7. Inorganic and organic geochemical fingerprinting of sediment sources and ocean circulation on a complex continental margin (São Paulo Bight, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelovitch de Mahiques, Michel; Jörg Hanebuth, Till Jens; Hanae Nagai, Renata; Caruso Bícego, Marcia; Lopes Figueira, Rubens Cesar; Mello Sousa, Silvia Helena; Burone, Leticia; Franco-Fraguas, Paula; Taniguchi, Satie; Barbosa Salaroli, Alexandre; Pereira Dias, Gilberto; Menezes Prates, Denise; Fernandes Freitas, Maria Eugenia

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we use inorganic (metal) and organic (bulk and molecular) markers in sediment samples of the south-eastern Brazilian margin to investigate the response of geochemical fingerprints to the complex hydrodynamic processes present in the area. Results indicate the potential of export of terrigenous siliciclastic and organic constituents to the upper slope, even in an area with limited fluvial supply.Metal contents and especially the ln(Ti / Al) and ln(Fe / K) ratios make it possible to recognise the extension of shelf sediments toward the upper slope. Potassium, here expressed as ln(K / Sc) and ln(K / Al) ratios used as proxies of illite-kaolinite variations, proved to be an important parameter, especially because it allowed us to decipher the imprint of the northward flow of the Intermediate Western Boundary Current (IWBC) in comparison to the southward flows of the Brazil Current (BC) and Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC). Using organic matter analyses, we were able to evaluate the extent of terrestrial contributions to the outer shelf and slope, even without the presence of significant fluvial input. In addition, molecular markers signify a slight increase in the input of C4-derived plants to the slope sediments, transported from distant areas by the main alongshore boundary currents, indicating that the terrestrial fraction of the organic matter deposited on the slope has a distinct origin when compared to shelf sediments.

  8. Taxonomy and bathymetric distribution of the outer neritic/upper bathyal ostracodes (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from the southernmost Brazilian continental margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergue, Cristianini Trescastro; Coimbra, João Carlos; Ramos, Maria Inês Feijó

    2016-02-10

    Sixty-five ostracode species belonging to 41 genera and 17 families were recorded in the outer shelf and upper slope off Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina states, southernmost Brazil, between 100 and 586 m water depth interval. The ostracode occurrences are hypothesized to be influenced by both, the coastal waters and the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). The taxonomy of some species of Bradleya Hornibrook, 1952, Legitimocythere Coles & Whatley, 1989 and Henryhowella Puri, 1957 previously described in the same study area is revised. Bradleya gaucha sp. nov., Legitimocythere megapotamica sp. nov., Apatihowella acelos sp. nov., Apatihowella capitulum sp. nov., Apatihowella besnardi sp. nov., Apatihowella convexa sp. nov., and Aversovalva tomcronini sp. nov. are herein proposed. Trachyleberis aorata Bergue & Coimbra, 2008 is reassigned to the genus Legitimocythere and Bradleya pseudonormani Ramos et al., 2009 has its diagnosis emended. Bythocypris praerenis Brandão, 2008 is considered a junior synonym of Bythocypris kyamos Whatley et al., 1998a. Apatihowella Jellinek & Swanson, 2003 and Legitimocythere species have well-defined bathymetric distributions and are potential paleoceanographic markers for the Quaternary in the Southern Brazilian Margin.

  9. Polyphase Rifting and Breakup of the Central Mozambique Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkans, Andrew; Leroy, Sylvie; d'Acremont, Elia; Castilla, Raymi

    2017-04-01

    The breakup of the Gondwana supercontinent resulted in the formation of the Central Mozambique passive margin as Africa and Antarctica were separated during the mid-Jurassic period. The identification of magnetic anomalies in the Mozambique Basin and Riiser Larsen Sea means that post-oceanisation plate kinematics are well-constrained. Unresolved questions remain, however, regarding the initial fit, continental breakup process, and the first relative movements of Africa and Antarctica. This study uses high quality multi-channel seismic reflection profiles in an effort to identify the major crustal domains in the Angoche and Beira regions of the Central Mozambique margin. This work is part of the integrated pluri-disciplinary PAMELA project*. Our results show that the Central Mozambique passive margin is characterised by intense but localised magmatic activity, evidenced by the existence of seaward dipping reflectors (SDR) in the Angoche region, as well as magmatic sills and volcanoclastic material which mark the Beira High. The Angoche region is defined by a faulted upper-continental crust, with the possible exhumation of lower crustal material forming an extended ocean-continent transition (OCT). The profiles studied across the Beira high reveal an offshore continental fragment, which is overlain by a pre-rift sedimentary unit likely to belong to the Karoo Group. Faulting of the crust and overlying sedimentary unit reveals that the Beira High has recorded several phases of deformation. The combination of our seismic interpretation with existing geophysical and geological results have allowed us to propose a breakup model which supports the idea that the Central Mozambique margin was affected by polyphase rifting. The analysis of both along-dip and along-strike profiles shows that the Beira High initially experienced extension in a direction approximately parallel to the Mozambique coastline onshore of the Beira High. Our results suggest that the Beira High results

  10. Some characteristics of offshore operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Đorđe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Offshore operations are not on the margins of the world economy. They are an integral part of modern business practice. They have become one of the most important instruments in the contemporary globalized financial system. Offshore operations and tax havens are not only conduits for tax avoidance and evasion but belong more broadly to the world of finance, for the business of managing the monetary resources of an organization, country or individuals. Offshore business operating in tax havens is at the heart of a particular type of globalization that is characterized by a growing gap between the very rich and everyone else. Tax havens are financial conduits that, in exchange for a fee, use their one principal asset- their sovereignty to serve a nonresident constituency of accountants and lawyers, bankers and financiers, who bring a demand for offshore operations.

  11. Geophysical Features and Inferred Triggering Factors of Submarine Landslides in the Western Continental Margin of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukur, D.; Kim, S. P.; Kong, G. S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J. K.; Choi, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Submarine landslides form very complex features on the seafloor and the associated geological processes are yet to be known completely. Various researches are still undergoing not only for their profound academic significance but also for their hazardous impact potential to seafloor infrastructures and coastal areas. In order to investigate the morphology and cause of landslides along the western margin of the Ulleung Basin in the East Sea, we collected multiple geophysical datasets in the summer of 2015, including sparker, subbottom profiler, and multibeam echosounder. The preliminary analysis of the bathymetric data shows a number of U-shaped scarps that occur on a rather steep slope (up to 10°) in water depths of ~600 m. The scarps cover an area of ~100 km2 and have reliefs of up to 50 m. Seismic data clearly image erosional headwalls and the basal gliding plane which is characterized by a prominent high-amplitude reflector. Chaotic- to transparent-seismic facies, located immediately downslope of the headwall scarps, represent landslide deposits of about 20 m in thickness. At the base of slope, the slides form lens-shaped transparent bodies, resting on well-stratified turbidite deposits. Several V-shaped seafloor depressions near the head of these scarps are seen on the subbottom profiles. These depressions, which are ~5 m deep and ~150 m wide, are interpreted to be representing pockmarks, resulted from upward migration of gas in the sediment layers beneath. The presence of these pockmarks directly above the scars may suggest that the gases and/or gas fluids might be playing an important role for destabilizing slope sediments. Furthermore, subbottom profiles suggest the presence of numerous faults in close vicinity of headwall scarps; some are extending to the seafloor suggesting their recent activity. Earthquakes associated with tectonic activity are indicated to be the cause of these faults. Thus the fault-related earthquakes might be the final triggering

  12. Compressional tectonic inversion of the Algero-Balearic basin: Latemost Miocene to present oblique convergence at the Palomares margin (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaconia, Flavio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, César R.; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Bartolome, Rafael; Calahorrano, Alcinoe; Lo Iacono, Claudio; Vendrell, Montserrat G.; Cameselle, Alejandra L.; Costa, Sergio; Gómez de la Peña, Laura; Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Perea, Hector; Viñas, Marina

    2015-07-01

    Interpretation of new multichannel seismic reflection profiles indicates that the Palomares margin was formed by crustal-scale extension and coeval magmatic accretion during middle to late Miocene opening of the Algero-Balearic basin. The margin formed at the transition between thinned continental crust intruded by arc volcanism and back-arc oceanic crust. Deformation produced during the later positive inversion of the margin offshore and onshore is partitioned between N50°E striking reverse faults and associated folds like the Sierra Cabrera and Abubacer anticlines and N10-20°E sinistral strike-slip faults like Palomares and Terreros faults. Parametric subbottom profiles and multibeam bathymetry offshore, structural analysis, available GPS geodetic displacement data, and earthquake focal mechanisms jointly indicate that tectonic inversion of the Palomares margin is currently active. The Palomares margin shows a structural pattern comparable to the north Maghrebian margins where Africa-Eurasia plate convergence is accommodated by NE-SW reverse faults, NNW-SSE sinistral faults, and WNW-ESE dextral ones. Contractive structures at this margin contribute to the general inversion of the Western Mediterranean since 7 Ma, coeval to inversion at the Algerian margin. Shortening at the Alboran ridge and Al-Idrisi faults occurred later, since 5 Ma, indicating a westward propagation of the compressional inversion of the Western Mediterranean.

  13. Observations of seismicity and ground motion in the northeast U.S. Atlantic margin from ocean bottom seismometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Claudia; ten Brink, Uri S.; McGuire, Jeffrey J.; Collins, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Earthquake data from two short-period ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) networks deployed for over a year on the continental slope off New York and southern New England were used to evaluate seismicity and ground motions along the continental margin. Our OBS networks located only one earthquake of Mc∼1.5 near the shelf edge during six months of recording, suggesting that seismic activity (MLg>3.0) of the margin as far as 150–200 km offshore is probably successfully monitored by land stations without the need for OBS deployments. The spectral acceleration from two local earthquakes recorded by the OBS was found to be generally similar to the acceleration from these earthquakes recorded at several seismic stations on land and to hybrid empirical acceleration relationships for eastern North America. Therefore, the seismic attenuation used for eastern North America can be extended in this region at least to the continental slope. However, additional offshore studies are needed to verify these preliminary conclusions.

  14. Offshore Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Dovgan, Olesya

    While the extant literature on offshore outsourcing deals with this operation mode in isolation, and typically with a focus on cost effects, we address the broader question of how companies choose and use outsourcing as part of foreign operation mode development and as a contributor...... that outsourcing can be used proactively to promote expanded international operations....

  15. 77 FR 75187 - Notice of Determination of No Competitive Interest, Offshore Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Maine, Request for Interest (RFI... Competitive Interest (DNCI) for Proposed Commercial Wind Lease Offshore Maine. SUMMARY: This notice provides... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Notice of Determination of No Competitive Interest, Offshore Maine...

  16. Transfer/transform relationships in continental rifts and margins and their control on syn- and post-rift denudation: the case of the southeastern Gulf of Aden, Socotra Island, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pik, Raphael; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Leroy, Sylvie; Denele, Yoann; Razin, Philippe; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Khanbari, Khaled

    2013-04-01

    Transfer zones are ubiquist features in continental rifts and margins, as well as transform faults in oceanic lithosphere. Here, we present the structural study of such a structure (the Hadibo Transfer Zone, HTZ) from the southeastern Gulf of Aden, in Socotra Island, Yemen. There, from field data, the HTZ is interpreted as being reactivated, obliquely to divergence, since early rifting stages. Then, from a short review of transfer/transform fault zone geometries worldwide, we derive a classification in terms of relative importance (1st, 2nd, 3rd order), geometry, and location. We suggest that the HTZ is a 1st order transfer fault zone as it controls the initiation of a 1st order oceanic transform fault zone. We then investigate the denudation history of the region surrounding the HTZ in order to highlight the interplay of normal and transfer/transform tectonic structures in the course of rift evolution. Samples belong from two distinct East and West domains of the Socotra Island, separated by the (HTZ). Tectonic denudation started during the Priabonian-Rupelian along flat normal faults and removed all the overlying sedimentary formations, allowing basement exhumation up to the surface (~ 1.2 - 1.6 km of exhumation). Forward t-T modelling of the data requires a slightly earlier date and shorter period for development of rifting in the E-Socotra domain (38 - 34 Ma), compared to the W-Socotra domain (34 - 25 Ma), which suggests that the HTZ was already active at that time. A second major event of basement cooling and exhumation (additional ~ 0.7 - 1 km), starting at about ~ 20 Ma, has only been recorded on the E-Socotra domain. This second denudation phase significantly post-dates local rifting period but appears synchronous with Ocean Continent Transition (OCT: 20 - 17.6 Ma). This late syn-OCT uplift is maximum close to the HTZ, in the wedge of hangingwall delimited by this transfer system and the steep north-dipping normal faults that accommodated the vertical

  17. Real-Time PCR Quantification and Diversity Analysis of the Functional Genes aprA and dsrA of Sulfate-Reducing Prokaryotes in Marine Sediments of the Peru Continental Margin and the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazejak, Anna; Schippers, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) are ubiquitous and quantitatively important members in many ecosystems, especially in marine sediments. However their abundance and diversity in subsurface marine sediments is poorly understood. In this study, the abundance and diversity of the functional genes for the enzymes adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (aprA) and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) of SRP in marine sediments of the Peru continental margin and the Black Sea were analyzed, including samples from the deep biosphere (ODP site 1227). For aprA quantification a Q-PCR assay was designed and evaluated. Depth profiles of the aprA and dsrA copy numbers were almost equal for all sites. Gene copy numbers decreased concomitantly with depth from around 10(8)/g sediment close to the sediment surface to less than 10(5)/g sediment at 5 mbsf. The 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of total bacteria were much higher than those of the functional genes at all sediment depths and used to calculate the proportion of SRP to the total Bacteria. The aprA and dsrA copy numbers comprised in average 0.5-1% of the 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of total bacteria in the sediments up to a depth of ca. 40 mbsf. In the zone without detectable sulfate in the pore water from about 40-121 mbsf (Peru margin ODP site 1227), only dsrA (but not aprA) was detected with copy numbers of less than 10(4)/g sediment, comprising ca. 14% of the 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of total bacteria. In this zone, sulfate might be provided for SRP by anaerobic sulfide oxidation. Clone libraries of aprA showed that all isolated sequences originate from SRP showing a close relationship to aprA of characterized species or form a new cluster with only distant relation to aprA of isolated SRP. For dsrA a high diversity was detected, even up to 121 m sediment depth in the deep biosphere.

  18. Variation of depositional environment during the evolution of deepwater fold-and-thrust belt in the Frontal Ridge area offshore SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L. F.; Liu, C. S.; Lin, C. C.; Hsu, H. H.; Chang, J. H.; Chen, S. C.; Wang, Y.; Chung, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    The area offshore SW Taiwan is an active margin where the accretionary prism of the Luzon arc-trench system has obliquely overridden the continental margin of the South China Sea (SCS). Located by the Penghu Submarine Canyon, the Frontal Ridge is the westernmost structural relief of the orogenic wedge which is separated from the SCS continental margin by a deformation front. The Penghu submarine canyon, which starts from the China continental shelf and cuts across the fold-and-thrust belt, may plays an important role for transporting orogenic sediments from on shore Taiwan to the deep sea South China Sea basin. In this study, high-resolution seismic data collected in the Frontal Ridge area have been analyzed, a significant variation of stratigraphic architectures with time were identified by detailed analyzing both structural and depositional characteristics. Seismic facies analysis shows that the older parallel strata were eroded and superimposed by a series of lobe-channel-levee complex, interpreted as the fan deposits of the paleo Penghu Submarine Canyon. These deposits were later deformed by a multi-stage frontal thrusting. We propose a model to show how tectonic processes change the depositional environment. During the evolution of fold-and-thrust belt, the slope gradient and sedimentation rate changed. The Frontal Ridge area was at the abyssal plain, and then changed to the continental rise environment. Finally, convergent tectonics changed this area to be part of the orogenic wedge, and frontal fold developed.

  19. Authigenic minerals from the continental margins

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    settings the physico- chemical factors responsible for their genesis and sedimentary processes that govern each deposit were identified. Dolomites Dolomite is a magnesium-rich carbonate. It is found in far greater abundance in Earth’s early history... and distribution. Developments in sedimentology, 33, Elsevier, Amsterdam Burnett, WC., 1977. Geochemistry and origin of phosphorite deposits from off Peru and Chile. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 88, 813-823. Compton, JS., 1988. Degree of superasaturation...

  20. Distribution of Gassy Sediments and Mud Volcanoes Offshore Southwestern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Kun Chiu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results from recent intense marine geophysical surveys conducted offshore of southwestern Taiwan. Mud volcanoes and gassy sediments have been identified along chirp sonar and seismic reflection profile data. The distribution of gassy sediments and mud volcanoes has been compiled, showing these features extending from the accretionary wedge to the passive China continental margin. Submarine mud volcanoes could be grouped into four main clusters in the accretionary wedge province: offshore Kaohsiung, adjacent to the Kaoping Submarine Canyon, near the head of the Fangliao Submarine Canyon and along the Yung-An Lineament. Each cluster is composed of a few to more than 10 submarine mud volcanoes. Their origin could be related to gas hydrate dissociation with rising highpressure fluid along faults or mud diapir piercing the seafloor. These gassy sediments and mud volcanoes could be formed by fluids escaping from dewatering sedimentary layers of mud diapirs, or along faults and fractures where free gases or gases dissociating from hydrates migrate to the seafloor.

  1. The ESCIN-3-1 deep seismic profile in the northwestern Galicia margin revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, R.; Alvarez-Marron, J.; Ayarza, P.; Torne, M.

    2015-12-01

    The ESCIN-3.1 profile was acquired in 1993 offshore northwest Galicia (Spain), and recorded 20 s of near vertical reflection seismic data. This 140 km long profile was intended to provide an image of the crustal structure of this sector of the continental margin from near the coastline to the deep-sea area. The tectonic evolution of the northwest Galicia margin initiated by rifting during Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous times and progressed to sea floor spreading during Albian- Late Cretaceous times when the Bay of Biscay opened. Subsequently, the margin was active during the convergence of Eurasia and Iberia in the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene. Here we present a new interpretation of the mentioned profile based on a newly reprocessed depth migrated image and corresponding gravity model. In the deep-sea areas, a free-air gravity low reach up to - 120 mGal and the sea bottom is at more than 5000 m deep. The 7 km thick flat lying undisturbed sedimentary cover appears above a 10 km thick, ~120 Ma old oceanic basement. This flat sediments onlap toward the ocean-continent transition on a folded and disturbed 20 km long wedge shaped sedimentary body. A major landward dipping structure reaches from the foot of the slope to beneath the sub horizontal Moho of the continental slope. The slope has a gentle dip of about 2° in this section, and include large mass flow deposits. Fault bound sediments are imaged in the upper continental margin that could correspond to preserved syn-rift Mesozoic structures. The structure of what correspond to the continental basement in the thicker part of the margin is not well resolved. Only in the landward side of the profile a layered lower crust is seen where the Moho reaches depths of 29 km. The ocean-continent transition in this profile may be interpreted as that of an active compressional boundary with some accretion of deep-sea sediments that are underthrust by a thinned continental margin with large submarine landslides and mass flow

  2. Mapping hyper-extended rift systems offshore and onshore: insights from the Bay of Biscay- Western Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugend, Julie; Manatschal, Gianreto; Kusznir, Nicolas J.; Masini, Emmanuel; Thinon, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    Research conducted at present-day passive continental margins shows more varied crustal architectures than previously assumed. New seismic data together with drill-holes have revealed the occurrence of extremely thinned continental crust in the distal part of the margin as well as exhumed serpentinised sub-continental mantle oceanwards. In addition the understanding of the formation of hyper-extended rift systems has also greatly benefited from the study of onshore analogs preserved in mountain belts. The Bay of Biscay and Western Pyrenees correspond to a Lower Cretaceous rift system leading to the development of hyper-extended domains and ultimately oceanic crust in the Bay of Biscay. This domain represents one of the best natural laboratories to study the formation processes and evolution of hyper-extended domains. During late Cretaceous compression, these rifted domains were inverted resulting in the present-day Pyrenean mountain belt. In this contribution, we present a new paleogeographic map of the Bay of Biscay-Pyrenean rift system. We integrate results from previous works and new work using different mapping methods to distinguish distinctive crustal domains related to hyper-extended systems both offshore and onshore. We combine seismic interpretations with gravity anomaly inversion and residual depth anomaly analysis to distinguish the different crustal domains across the offshore margin. Onshore, we use an innovative approach based on observations from present-day rifted margin architecture associated with classical field work to map the former hyper-extended domains. Another outcome of this work is the creation of a crustal thickness map using gravity inversion linking offshore and onshore domains from the Bay of Biscay to that of the Western-Pyrenees. This multidisciplinary approach enables us to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of the Bay of Biscay rift system with the aim of better understanding the formation of hyper-extended domains

  3. Offshore oil prospects improve

    Science.gov (United States)

    The issues, prospects, and environmental concerns about drilling for offshore oil and gas are being seen in a different light than at any other time during the past decade. Exploration drilling on offshore locations is proceeding at a high rate, and environmental concerns, while recognized as real, appear to be a lot less worrisome than might have been predicted a decade ago. Part of the reason for the changes in levels of concern results from the close monitoring programs that have been in effect for the past few years. Paul R. Ryan of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution recently described exploration activities on Georges Bank: “We now have the results of the first year of monitoring, and, although eight wells are considered a minimal observational test, there were no biological changes in the benthic community that could be attributed to drilling activity.” (Oceanus, 26, 2, 1983). The U.S. Geological Survey studied the Georges Bank drilling activities as well. Barium from drilling muds was detected at the sites, but in decreasing concentrations at distances away from drilling rigs. There was no evidence that the discharges caused biological changes. According to Ryan: “Postdrilling concentrates of barium were found to be within the range of predilling concentrations measured at other locations on the Bank. Concentrations of other metals measured were low and characteristic of unpolluted, coarse-grained sediment in other Continental Shelf areas.”

  4. Smarter offshoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Diana

    2006-06-01

    During the past 15 years, companies have flocked to a handful of cities in India and Eastern Europe for offshore service functions. As a result, the most popular sites are now overheating: Demand for young professionals is outstripping supply, wages and turnover are soaring, and overburdened infrastructure systems are struggling to serve the explosive growth. The happy news is that the tight labor markets in the well-known hot spots are the exceptions, not the rule. Many attractive alternatives are emerging around the world. According to a McKinsey Global Institute study, more than 90% of the vast and rapidly growing pool of university-educated people suitable for work in multinationals are located outside the current hot spot cities. For instance, Morocco is now home to offshore centers for French and Spanish companies requiring fluent speakers of their home languages. Neighboring Tunisia has used its modern infrastructure, business-friendly regulations, and stable, low-cost workforce to attract companies such as Siemens and Wanadoo. Vietnam offers university graduates who have strong mathematics skills; speak French, English, German, or Russian; and do not demand high wages. The problems facing the hot spots, coupled with the emergence of many more countries able and willing to provide offshore services, mean that picking a site has become more complicated. In choosing a location, companies will have to focus less on low wages and much more on other ways that candidate cities can fulfill their business needs. They will have to be much more rigorous in articulating precisely what they require from an offshore location. That means evaluating their unique needs on a range of dimensions and understanding how alternative locations can meet those needs for the foreseeable future.

  5. Federal offshore statistics: 1992. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenues as of December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, D.K.

    1993-12-31

    The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, enacted in 1953 and amended several times, charges the Secretary of the Interior with the responsibility for administering and managing mineral exploration and development of the outer continental shelf, as well as for conserving its natural resources. This report documents the following: Federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; Federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from Federal offshore leases; disbursement of Federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. 11 figs., 83 tabs.

  6. Slope tectonics-comparisons and contrasts of structural styles of salt and shale tectonics of the northern Gulf of Mexico with shale tectonics of Offshore Nigeria in Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengyu; Bally, Albert W.

    Regional structural styles on the continental slope are revealed by well-imaged deep multi-channel seismic profiles from northern Gulf of Mexico and Offshore Nigeria in Gulf of Guinea. Both provinces are situated on passive continental margins developed during the breakup of Gondwana. The northern Gulf of Mexico as well as Offshore Nigeria are underlain by complex systems of thin skinned upslope extensional fault systems, downslope contractional fold and thrust systems along with large scale salt or shale structures. The interactions between the deformation of mid-Jurassic salt and various stages and patterns of sedimentation on the continental slope are responsible for both extensional growth faults and Tertiary contractional fold and thrust systems in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The slope tectonics style of the northern Gulf of Mexico passive margin is characterized by perennial upslope extension since mid-Jurassic, associated with multistage autochthonous and allochthonous salt deformations along with brief periods of late Tertiary shortening in the down-dip fold belts. Offshore Nigeria is a salt-free progradational margin characterized by upslope extension, various shale structures and downslope toe-thrust systems. Gravity spreading and gliding in response to rapidly prograding Tertiary sedimentation over under-compacted shales resulted in the structural styles of the slope of Offshore Nigeria. Large upslope extensional tectonics are linked to coeval and balanced downslope contractional deformations in the form of shale ridges, massifs and diapirs, and deep basin toe thrusts. Late Miocene-Early Pliocene contractional deformation is widespread across the entire foldbelt, and with later shortening, folding migrated in a landward direction.

  7. Sediments, structural framework, petroleum potential, environmental conditions, and operational considerations of the United States South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1975-01-01

    The area designated for possible oil and gas lease sale in Bureau of Land Management memorandum 3310 #43 (722) and referred to therein as part of the United States South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) contains about 98,000 square kilometres of the continental margin seaward of the 3 mile offshore limit and within the 600 metre isobath. The designated area, offshore of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, encompasses parts of three physiographic provinces: the Continental Shelf, the Florida-Hatteras Slope, and the Blake Plateau. The structural framework of the U.3. South Atlantic region is dominated by the Southeast Georgia Embayment --an east-plunging depression recessed into the Atlantic Coastal Plain and shelf between Cape Fear, North Carolina and Jacksonville, Florida. The embayment is bounded to the north by the Cape Fear Arch and to southeast by the Peninsular Arch. Refraction data indicate a minor basement(?) ridge beneath the outer shelf between 30? and 32?N at 80?W. Drill hole data also suggest a gentle fold or accretionary structure (reef?) off the east coast of Florida. Several other structural features have been identified by refraction and reflection techniques and drilling. These are the Yamacraw Uplift, Burton High, Stone Arch, and the Suwannee Channel. Gravity and magnetic anomalies within the area probably result from emplacement of magma bodies along linear features representing fundamental crustal boundaries. Of these anomalies, the most prominent, is a segment of the East Coast Magnetic Anomaly which crosses the coast at Brunswick, Georgia. This anomaly has been interpreted as representing an ancient continental boundary where two formerly separate continental plates collided and were welded together. There may be as much as 5,000 m of sedimentary rocks in the Southeast Georgia Embayment out to the 600 m isobath. Basement rocks beneath the Southeast Georgia Embayment are expected to be similar to those exposed in the

  8. Accessing offshoring advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mykhaylenko, Alona; Motika, Agnes; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    . Assuming that different levels of synergy may exist between particular offshoring strategic decisions (choosing offshore outsourcing or captive offshoring and the type of function) and different offshoring advantages, this work advocates that the actual fact of realization of certain offshoring advantages...

  9. Post Rift Evolution of the Indian Margin of Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, Guillaume; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Dall'asta, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to discuss the evolution of the South African Plateau along the Indian margin of Southern Africa. Since the classical works of A. du Toit and L.C. King and the improvement of thermochronological methods and numerical models, the question of the uplift of South African Plateau was highly debated with numerous scenarios: early Cretaceous at time of rifting (Van der Beek et al., J.Geophys.Res., 2002), late Cretaceous (Braun et al., Solid Earth, 2014), late Cenozoic (Burke & Gunnell, Geol.Soc.of America, 2008). Limited attention has been paid on the constraints provided by the offshore stratigraphic record of the surrounding margins. The objective of our study is to integrate onshore and offshore data (seismic profiles and industrial wells) to (1) analyse the infill of the whole margin (21°S to 31°S) from its hinterland to the distal deep water basin, (2) to constrain and quantify the vertical movements. We discuss the impact on accommodation and sediments partitioning, and their significance on South African Plateau uplift history. 1. Sedimentary basins of the Indian margin of Southern Africa are related to the break-up of Gondwana during late Jurassic, resulting in rifts and flexural basins. First marine incursions started during early Cretaceous times (oldest marine outcropping sediments are of Barremian age ~128 Ma). The region developed as a normal continental shelf at the Aptian-Albian transition (~113 Ma). 2. The Cretaceous geological history of the basins is characterized by differential uplift and subsidence of the basement, controlled by structures inherited from break up. As example, major early Cretaceous depocenters of the margin are located on the north of Save-Limpopo uplift (Forster, Paleogography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology, 1975) showing an eastward drainage pattern, maybe related to a proto Limpopo drainage. Those observations suggest that the escarpment bordering the Bushveld depression is an old relief inherited

  10. Offshore wind energy potential in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Lixuan; Möller, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates available offshore wind energy resources in China’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ) with the aid of a Geographical Information System (GIS), which allows the influence of technical, spatial and economic constraints on offshore wind resources being reflected in a continuous...... space. Geospatial supply curves and spatial distribution of levelised production cost (LPC) are developed, which provide information on the available potential of offshore wind energy at or below a given cost, and its corresponding geographical locations. The GIS-based models also reflect the impacts...... of each spatial constraint as well as various scenarios of spatial constraints on marginal production costs of offshore wind energy. Furthermore, the impacts of differing Feed-in-tariff (FIT) standards on the economic potential are calculated. It confirms that economic potential of offshore wind energy...

  11. Offshore oil in the Alaskan Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, W. F.; Weller, G.

    1984-01-01

    Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent natural gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occuur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

  12. Offshoring domestic jobs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Egger, Hartmut; Kreickemeier, Udo; Wrona, Jens

    2015-01-01

    .... In the presence of fixed costs for offshoring the most productive firms self-select into offshoring, which leads to a reallocation of domestic labor towards less productive uses if offshoring costs are high...

  13. Geologic framework of the offshore region adjacent to Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, R.N.; Roberts, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Several multichannel, common depth point (CDP) seismic reflection profiles concentrated in the area of the entrance to Delaware Bay provide a tie between the known onshore geology of the Coastal Plain of Delaware and the offshore geology of the Baltimore Canyon Trough. The data provide a basis for understanding the geologic framework and petroleum resource potential of the area immediately offshore Delaware. Our research has focused on buried early Mesozoic rift basins and their geologic history. Assuming that the buried basins are analogous to the exposed Newark Supergroup basins of Late Triassic-Early Jurassic age, the most likely possibility for occurrence of hydrocarbon source beds in the area of the landward margin of the Baltimore Canyon Trough is presumed to be lacustrine, organic-rich shales probably present in the basins. Although buried basins mapped offshore Delaware are within reach of drilling, no holes have been drilled to date; therefore, direct knowledge of source, reservoir, and sealing beds is absent. Buried rift basins offshore Delaware show axial trends ranging from NW-SE to NNE-SSW. Seismic reflection profiles are too widely spaced to delineate basin boundaries accurately. Isopleths of two-way travel time representing basin fill suggest that, structurally, the basins are grabens and half-grabens. As shown on seismic reflection profiles, bounding faults of the basins intersect or merge with low-angle fault surfaces that cut the pre-Mesozoic basement. The rift basins appear to have formed by Mesozoic extension that resulted in reverse motion on reactivated basement thrust faults that originated from compressional tectonics during the Paleozoic. Computer-plotted structure contour maps derived from analysis of seismic reflection profiles provide information on the burial history of the rift basins. The postrift unconformity bevels the rift basins and, in the offshore area mapped, ranges from 2000 to 12,000 m below present sea level. The oldest

  14. Spongicoloides sp. aff. a Spongicoloides galapagensis (Decapoda: Stenopodidea: Spongicolidae: una nueva especie para la carcinofauna chilena y primer registro de un estenopodido en aguas del margen continental de Chile Spongicoloides sp. aff. to Spongicoloides galapagensis (Decapoda: Stenopodidea: Spongicolidae: a new species for Chilean carcinofauna and the first record of aStenopodid for the Chilean margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo L Guzmán

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para el margen continental de Chile una especie de camarón Stenopodidae, asociado a una esponja hexactinelida. Los especímenes fueron recolectados en dos sitios de Chile central (31°12'S, 71°52'W y 36°00'S, 73°38'W; 922 a 1000 m de profundidad. Las esponjas estaban adheridas al sustrato con probable origen en emanaciones de metano. Spongicoloides sp. aff. a S. gala-pagensis, es el primer registro de la familia en aguas del margen continental del Pacífico suroriental. Los ejemplares coinciden con los rangos de la variación morfológica de S. galapagensis, no obstante difieren en el número de branquias descrito.This is the first record of a species of Stenopodid shrimp along the Chilean margin, associated with a hexactinellid sponge. The specimens were collected at two sites in central Chile (31°12'S, 71°52'W and 36°00'S, 73°38'W; 922 to 1000 m depth. The sponges were attached to the substrate with probable origins in methane seepage. Spongicoloides sp. aff. to S. galapagensis constitutes the first record of the family for the eastern south Pacific continental margin. The specimens coincide with the ranges of morphological variation of S. galapagensis, although they differ in the number of brachia described.

  15. Geodynamic models of continental subduction and obduction of overriding plate forearc oceanic lithosphere on top of continental crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwards, Sarah J.; Schellart, Wouter P.; Duarte, Joao C.

    2015-01-01

    Continental subduction takes place in the final stage of subduction when all oceanic lithosphere is consumed and continental passive margin is pulled into the mantle. When the overriding plate is oceanic, dense forearc oceanic lithosphere might be obducted onto light continental crust forming an

  16. Seismic structure of western Mediterranean back-arc basins and rifted margins - constraints from the Algerian-Balearic and Tyrrhenian Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grevemeyer, Ingo; Ranero, Cesar; Sallares, Valenti; Prada, Manel; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Gallart, Josep; Zitellini, Nevio

    2017-04-01

    The Western Mediterranean Sea is a natural laboratory to study the processes of continental extension, rifting and back-arc spreading in a convergent setting caused by rollback of fragmented subducting oceanic slabs during the latest phase of consumption of the Tethys ocean, leading to rapid extension in areas characterized by a constant convergence of the African and European Plates since Cretaceous time. Opening of the Algerian-Balearic Basin was governed by a southward and westward retreating slab 21 to 18 Myr and 18 to15 Myr ago, respectively. Opening of the Tyrrhenian Basin was controlled by the retreating Calabrian slab 6 to 2 Myr ago. Yet, little is known about the structure of the rifted margins, back-arc extension and spreading. Here we present results from three onshore/offshore seismic refraction and wide-angle lines and two offshore lines sampling passive continental margins of southeastern Spain and to the south of the Balearic promontory and the structure of the Tyrrhenian Basin to the north of Sicily. Seismic refraction and wide-angle data were acquired in the Algerian-Balearc Basin during a cruise of the German research vessel Meteor in September of 2006 and in the Tyrrhenian Sea aboard the Spanish research vessel Sarmiento de Gamboa in July of 2015. All profiles sampled both continental crust of the margins surrounding the basins and extend roughly 100 km into the Algerian-Balearic and the Tyrrhenian Basins, yielding constraints on the nature of the crust covering the seafloor in the basins and adjacent margins. Crust in the Algerian-Balearic basin is roughly 5-6 km thick and the seismic velocity structure mimics normal oceanic crust with the exception that lower crustal velocity is 24 km under SE Spain and the Balearic Islands, displaying typical features and structure of continental crust. Offshore Sicily, continental crust reaches 22 km. However, the Tyrrhenian Basin indicates a lithosphere with velocities increasing continuously from 3 km/s to

  17. Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. concentrations in produced water discharge plume / receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentration of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  18. Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. Concentrations in produced water discharge plume/receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  19. Offshore Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel; Dovgan, Olesya; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    Based on a case study of the Danish company SimCorp and the development of its operations in Kiev, Ukraine, we analyze offshore outsourcing in a broader, longitudinal foreign operation mode context, and how it may contribute to mode change in the host country over a certain span of time. Sim......Corp had outsourced part of its software development work to two Ukrainian companies. The case study approach allowed us to explore the dynamic processes in depth. The study shows that involvement in the foreign market generates learning in various forms that provide a foundation for eventual mode...... development or change—beyond outsourcing specific learning. At the same time, restrictions on 3rd parties’, that is, independent vendors’ access to confidential client data, as well as protection of specific investments in human assets, may eventually become a driver for mode change, as in the SimCorp case...

  20. Relation between denudation history and sediment supply from apatite fission track thermochronology in the northeast Brazilian Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, Andrea; Chemale, Farid; Bueno, Gilmar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a quantitative overview of Mesozoic-Cenozoic morphotectonic evolution and sediment supply to the northeast Brazilian margin. Landscape evolution and denudation histories for the northeastern Brazilian continental margin (Sergipe, Alagoas, Bahia, and Espírito Santo states) were detailed by apatite fission track thermochronology and thermal-history modeling and related with the sedimentological record of the offshore basins of the passive margin for a comparison with their denudational history. Approximately one hundred basement samples were analyzed from the coast to the inland of the Brazilian margin. The apparent fission track ages vary from 360 to 61 Ma and confined fission track lengths vary between 10 and 14.6 µm, indicating that not all of the samples recorded the same cooling events. The results of apatite fission track ages indicate that the area has been eroded regionally since the Mesozoic (Conquista and Borborema Plateaus, and Mantiqueira Range record a Cretaceous-Paleogene onset of exhumation. This timing is consistent with the offshore sedimentary record, wherein a large clastic wedge started forming in the northeastern Sergipe-Alagoas basin, which suggests Sergipe-Alagoas basin records drainage reorganization and extension of the São Francisco River catchment. Interestingly, the Camamu basin, adjacent to the section of the margin does not record syn/post-rift exhumation, does contain a 6-km thick sedimentary succession, which should thus have been derived from more distal sources. The Neogene final denudation is observed throughout the study area and show conspicuous recent exhumation. The post-rift (<40 Ma) offshore sedimentation rates are generally lower than during preceding phases. This final sedimentary succession is thinner in all basins, consistent with limited onshore erosion during this time.

  1. Reconstructing conjugate margins of the Canada-Amerasian basin: New tectonic constraints from deep seismic data and gravity profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, J.; Ady, B.; Kumar, N.; Granath, J. W.; Dinkelman, M. G.; Bird, D. E.; Emmet, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past 5 years, decreasing sea ice and increasing scientific and economic interest in the Arctic have prompted new geological and geophysical studies that advance knowledge of the northern continental margins of North America. We report here on ArcticSPAN™ 40-km deep, PSDM (Pre-Stack Depth Migrated) marine seismic reflection profiles and gravity data from the Beaufort Sea of Canada and the US Chukchi Sea that constrain the position of the continent-ocean boundary and the relict spreading center of the Canada Basin, displaying significant variations in the orientation, geometry and deep crustal structure of the passive margin facing the Arctic Ocean. In the Canadian Beaufort Sea three distinct segments of the margin correspond to contrasts of pre-rift foundations: 1. the rifted, rotated Arctic Alaska Terrane west of the Mackenzie Delta (Beaufort segment); 2. the transform-faulted Laurentian crust of the Tuktoyaktuk margin (Tuk segment); and, 3. the rifted Laurentian crust of the Banks Island segment. The thick late Mesozoic-Cenozoic clastic prism of the continental margin was centered in the Mackenzie delta area by Mesozoic rifting of the Canada Basin. The northerly Paleocene-Miocene sweep of Cordilleran deformation modified the passive margin, overprinting the offshore Mackenzie Delta. The interpreted tectonic architecture of the three segments of the Beaufort passive margin demonstrates their distinct roles in opening of the Canada Basin. Two conjugate rifted margin segments (Beaufort and Banks Island) and a linking transform fault margin (Tuk) formed during the separation of the Arctic Alaska Terrane from northwestern Laurentia, in accord with a Jurassic-Aptian rotational model of Canada Basin opening. But the orientation of the Tuk transform segment indicates that a single pole of rotation cannot describe the opening of the basin. Additional seismic profiles from investigations of the Chukchi Sea margin display passive margin structures and rift to pre

  2. Marginal Models

    CERN Document Server

    Bergsma, Wicher; Hagenaars, Jacques A

    2009-01-01

    Presents an overview of the basic principles of marginal modeling and offers a range of possible applications. This book includes many real world examples, explains the types of research questions for which marginal modeling is useful, and provides a description of how to apply marginal models for a great diversity of research questions.

  3. From continental to oceanic rifting in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Luca; Bonini, Marco; Martín, Arturo

    2017-11-01

    The continental margin of northwestern Mexico is the youngest example of the transition from a convergent plate boundary to an oblique divergent margin that formed the Gulf of California rift. Subduction of the Farallon oceanic plate during the Cenozoic progressively brought the East Pacific Rise (EPR) toward the North America trench. In this process increasingly younger and buoyant oceanic lithosphere entered the subduction zone until subduction ended just before most of the EPR could collide with the North America continental lithosphere. The EPR segments bounding the unsubducted parts of the Farallón plate remnants (Guadalupe and Magdalena microplates) also ceased spreading (Lonsdale, 1991) and a belt of the North American plate (California and Baja California Peninsula) became coupled with the Pacific Plate and started moving northwestward forming the modern Gulf of California oblique rift (Nicholson et al., 1994; Bohannon and Parsons, 1995). The timing of the change from plate convergence to oblique divergence off western Mexico has been constrained at the middle Miocene (15-12.5 Ma) by ocean floor morphology and magnetic anomalies as well as plate tectonic reconstructions (Atwater and Severinghaus, 1989; Stock and Hodges, 1989; Lonsdale, 1991), although the onset of transtensional deformation and the amount of right lateral displacement within the Gulf region are still being studied (Oskin et al., 2001; Fletcher et al., 2007; Bennett and Oskin, 2014). Other aspects of the formation of the Gulf of California remain not well understood. At present the Gulf of California straddles the transition from continental transtension in the north to oceanic spreading in the south. Seismic reflection-refraction data indicate asymmetric continent-ocean transition across conjugate margins of rift segments (González-Fernández et al., 2005; Lizarralde et al., 2007; Miller and Lizarralde, 2013; Martín-Barajas et al., 2013). The asymmetry may be related to crustal

  4. Deep crustal structure of the northeastern margin of the Arabian plate from seismic and gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilia, Simone; Ali, Mohammed; Watts, Anthony; Keats, Brook; Searle, Mike

    2017-04-01

    The United Arab Emirates-Oman mountains constitute a 700 km long, 50 km wide compressional orogenic belt that developed during the Cainozoic on an underlying extensional Tethyan rifted margin. It contains the world's largest and best-exposed thrust sheet of oceanic crust and upper mantle (Semail Ophiolite), which was obducted onto the Arabian rifted continental margin during the Late Cretaceous. Although the shallow structure of the UAE-Oman mountain belt is reasonably well known through the exploitation of a diverse range of techniques, information on deeper structure remains little. Moreover, the mechanisms by which dense oceanic crustal and mantle rocks are emplaced onto less dense and more buoyant continental crust are still controversial and remain poorly understood. The focus here is on an active-source seismic and gravity E-W transect extending from the UAE-mountain belt to the offshore. Seismic refraction data were acquired using the survey ship M/V Hawk Explorer, which was equipped with a large-volume airgun array (7060 cubic inches, 116 liters). About 400 air gun shots at 50-second time interval were recorded on land by eight broadband seismometers. In addition, reflection data were acquired at 20 seconds interval and recorded by a 5-km-long multichannel streamer. Results presented here include an approximately 85 km long (stretching about 35 km onshore and 50 km offshore) P-wave velocity crustal profile derived by a combination of forward modelling and inversion of both diving and reflected wave traveltimes using RAYINVR software. We employ a new robust algorithm based on a Monte Carlo approach (VMONTECARLO) to address the velocity model uncertainties. We find ophiolite seismic velocities of about 5.5 km/s and a thick sedimentary package in the offshore. Furthermore, the velocity model reveals a highly stretched crust with the Moho discontinuity lying at about 20 km. A prestack depth-migrated profile (about 50 km long) coincident with the offshore part

  5. Decommissioning of offshore installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeen, Sigrun; Iversen, Per Erik; Stokke, Reidunn; Nielsen, Frantz; Henriksen, Thor; Natvig, Henning; Dretvik, Oeystein; Martinsen, Finn; Bakke, Gunnstein

    2010-07-01

    expertise and overall assessments, and is best dealt with at central level. When new regulations have entered into force, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority will be responsible for regulating radioactive releases and waste from the same facilities under the Pollution Control Act. This will require close coordination between the two agencies and makes it more important to transfer authority to the Climate and Pollution Agency. In addition, decommissioning of offshore facilities involves the oil and gas industry and may involve the import and export of waste, both areas where the Climate and Pollution Agency is already the competent authority. The costs of decommissioning the roughly 500 installations on the Norwegian continental shelf are uncertain, but a preliminary estimate suggests that the overall cost will be about NOK 160 billion. This estimate does not include the removal of fixed concrete substructures, since the costs of this are very uncertain at present.

  6. Continental underplating after slab break-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, V.; Allen, M. B.; van Hunen, J.; Bouilhol, P.

    2017-09-01

    We present three-dimensional numerical models to investigate the dynamics of continental collision, and in particular what happens to the subducted continental lithosphere after oceanic slab break-off. We find that in some scenarios the subducting continental lithosphere underthrusts the overriding plate not immediately after it enters the trench, but after oceanic slab break-off. In this case, the continental plate first subducts with a steep angle and then, after the slab breaks off at depth, it rises back towards the surface and flattens below the overriding plate, forming a thick horizontal layer of continental crust that extends for about 200 km beyond the suture. This type of behaviour depends on the width of the oceanic plate marginal to the collision zone: wide oceanic margins promote continental underplating and marginal back-arc basins; narrow margins do not show such underplating unless a far field force is applied. Our models show that, as the subducted continental lithosphere rises, the mantle wedge progressively migrates away from the suture and the continental crust heats up, reaching temperatures >900 °C. This heating might lead to crustal melting, and resultant magmatism. We observe a sharp peak in the overriding plate rock uplift right after the occurrence of slab break-off. Afterwards, during underplating, the maximum rock uplift is smaller, but the affected area is much wider (up to 350 km). These results can be used to explain the dynamics that led to the present-day crustal configuration of the India-Eurasia collision zone and its consequences for the regional tectonic and magmatic evolution.

  7. Regional tectonic trends on the inner continental shelf off Konkan and central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.

    Satellite imagery and offshore magnetic data were analysed to correlate regional tectonic elements on the inner continental shelf off Konkan and the adjacent Deccan plateau. Three statistically important lineament trends N-S, WNW-ESE and ENE...

  8. 77 FR 39508 - Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and Site Assessment Activities on the Atlantic Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Rhode Island and Massachusetts AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... comments on the EA. The EA can be found online at http://www.boem.gov/Renewable-Energy-Program/Smart-from...

  9. 78 FR 33908 - Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and Site Assessment Activities on the Atlantic Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Rhode Island and Massachusetts AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy...-Program/Smart-from-the-Start/Index.aspx . Authority: This notice is published pursuant to 43 CFR 46.305...

  10. Shear-wave velocity of marine sediments offshore Taiwan using ambient seismic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Tse; Lin, Jing-Yi; Kuo-Chen, Hao; Yeh, Yi-Chin; Cheng, Win-Bin

    2017-04-01

    Seismic ambient noise technology has many advantages over the traditional two-station method. The most important one is that noise is happening all the time and it can be widely and evenly distributed. Thus, the Green's Function of any station pair can be obtained through the data cross-correlation process. Many related studies have been performed to estimate the velocity structures based on the inland area. Only a few studies were reported for the marine area due to the relatively shorter recording time of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) deployment and the high cost of the marine experiment. However, the understanding about the shear-wave velocity (Vs) of the marine sediments is very crucial for the hazard assessment related to submarine landslides, particularly with the growing of submarine resources exploration. In this study, we applied the ambient noise technique to four OBS seismic networks located offshore Taiwan in the aim of getting more information about the noise sources and having the preliminary estimation for the Vs of the marine sediments. Two of the seismic networks were deployed in the NE part of Taiwan, near the Ryukyu subduction system, whereas the others were in the SW area, on the continental margin rich in gas hydrate. Generally, ambient seismic noise could be associated with wind, ocean waves, rock fracturing and anthropogenic activity. In the southwestern Taiwan, the cross-correlation function obtained from two seismic networks indicate similar direction, suggestion that the source from the south part of the network could be the origin of the noise. However, the two networks in the northeastern Taiwan show various source direction, which could be caused by the abrupt change of bathymetry or the volcanic degassing effect frequently observed by the marine geophysical method in the area. The Vs determined from the dispersion curve shows a relatively higher value for the networks in the Okinawa Trough (OT) off NE Taiwan than that in the

  11. Modern analogs for the importance of seaward migration of the equilibrium point and Bayline and production of subareal accommodation space and widespread fluvial reservoirs and stratigraphic traps: Late highstand systems tracts on the broad continental margin of the East China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartek, L.R.; Wellner, R. (Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Geopulse seismic reflection (2,825 km) data collected during a survey of the East China Sea (ECS) in September of 1993 have been used to reconstruct the shallow stratigraphic architecture of the ECS continental margin. This area is characterized by a broad continental shelf and has extremely high sediment supply relative to other margins. On the inner to middle portions of the ECS margin we identified extensive areas outside of several incised valleys that contain channelized seismic facies that are interpreted as fluvial sequences deposited as sea level fell prior to the last low-stands. These deposits lie above highstand silts and clays and beneath a transgressive surface, above which sediments appear to have been extensively reworked. Historical records suggest that the tremendous sediment load of the Yellow River caused the river to avulse over an area of hundreds of kilometers during the Holocene and deposition of thick sheet of fluvial sands in [open quotes]interfluvial[close quotes] areas. We suggest that as sea level fall in this area, the equilibrium point and bayline synchronously migrated seaward, and subareal accommodation was created during the latter stages of highstands, in a manner similar to that proposed in published models. The high sediment supply of the area and increasing subareal accommodation space provided an opportunity for deposition of the laterally extensive fluvial facies we observe on the seismic data. The upper portions of these [open quotes]interfluvial[close quotes] fluvial deposits were reworked during the ensuing transgression and downlapped upon by muddy highstand deposits, but the lower fluvial sheet-sand facies, are preserved in place. This situation creates a laterally extensive, braided fluvial sand type reservoir with a potential for a stratigraphic seal that is within close proximity to hydrocarbon source rocks.

  12. Modern analogs for the importance of seaward migration of the equilibrium point and Bayline and production of subareal accommodation space and widespread fluvial reservoirs and stratigraphic traps: Late highstand systems tracts on the broad continental margin of the East China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartek, L.R.; Wellner, R. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Geopulse seismic reflection (2,825 km) data collected during a survey of the East China Sea (ECS) in September of 1993 have been used to reconstruct the shallow stratigraphic architecture of the ECS continental margin. This area is characterized by a broad continental shelf and has extremely high sediment supply relative to other margins. On the inner to middle portions of the ECS margin we identified extensive areas outside of several incised valleys that contain channelized seismic facies that are interpreted as fluvial sequences deposited as sea level fell prior to the last low-stands. These deposits lie above highstand silts and clays and beneath a transgressive surface, above which sediments appear to have been extensively reworked. Historical records suggest that the tremendous sediment load of the Yellow River caused the river to avulse over an area of hundreds of kilometers during the Holocene and deposition of thick sheet of fluvial sands in {open_quotes}interfluvial{close_quotes} areas. We suggest that as sea level fall in this area, the equilibrium point and bayline synchronously migrated seaward, and subareal accommodation was created during the latter stages of highstands, in a manner similar to that proposed in published models. The high sediment supply of the area and increasing subareal accommodation space provided an opportunity for deposition of the laterally extensive fluvial facies we observe on the seismic data. The upper portions of these {open_quotes}interfluvial{close_quotes} fluvial deposits were reworked during the ensuing transgression and downlapped upon by muddy highstand deposits, but the lower fluvial sheet-sand facies, are preserved in place. This situation creates a laterally extensive, braided fluvial sand type reservoir with a potential for a stratigraphic seal that is within close proximity to hydrocarbon source rocks.

  13. From Offshoring to Backshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Madsen, Erik Skov

    2015-01-01

    between these stages. The framework challenges the linear nature of offshoring and proposes the existence of ‘the pendulum effect’. The pendulum effect suggests that the modes of offshoring (i.e. captive and non-captive) and geographies of offshoring (i.e. home and abroad) are not static; rather...

  14. Offshore wind energy developments

    OpenAIRE

    Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kiil, Søren; Holbøll, Joachim; Piirainen, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services.

  15. Offshore wind energy developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services....

  16. 77 FR 5830 - Commercial Wind Leasing and Site Assessment Activities on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Massachusetts AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM..., and the public in the Department of the Interior's (DOI) ``Smart from the Start'' wind energy initiative offshore Massachusetts. The purpose of the ``Smart from the Start'' wind energy initiative is to...

  17. 77 FR 74218 - Commercial Wind Leasing and Site Assessment Activities on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore North Carolina AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM... Department of the Interior's (DOI) ``Smart from the Start'' wind energy initiative offshore North Carolina. The ``Smart from the Start'' wind energy initiative is designed to identify areas that appear to be...

  18. U.S. Geological Survey program of offshore resource and geoenvironmental studies, Atlantic-Gulf of Mexico region, from September 1, 1976, to December 31, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folger, David W.; Needell, Sally W.

    1983-01-01

    Mineral and energy resources of the continental margins of the United States arc important to the Nation's commodity independence and to its balance of payments. These resources are being studied along the continental margins of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico in keeping with the mission of the U.S. Geological Survey to survey the geologic structures, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.'(Organic Act of 1879). An essential corollary to these resource studies is the study of potential geologic hazards that may be associated with offshore resource exploration and exploitation. In cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, the Geological Survey, through its Atlantic-Gulf of Mexico Marine Geology Program, carries out extensive research to evaluate hazards from sediment mobility, shallow gas, and slumping and to acquire information on the distribution and concentration of trace metals and biogenic and petroleum-derived hydrocarbons in sea-floor sediments. All these studies arc providing needed background information, including information on pollutant dispersal, on the nearshore, estuarine, and lacustrine areas that may be near pipeline and nuclear powerplant sites. Users of these data include the Congress, many Federal agencies, the coastal States, private industry, academia, and the concerned public. The results of the regional structural, stratigraphic, and resource studies carried out under the Atlantic-Gulf of Mexico Marine Geology Program have been used by the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Land Management to select areas for future leasing and to aid in the evaluation of tracts nominated for leasing. Resource studies have concentrated mostly on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf frontier areas. Geologic detailing of five major basins along the U.S. Atlantic margin, where sediments are as much as 14 km thick, have been revealed by 25,000 km of 24-and 48-channel common-depth-point seismic data, 187,000 km of

  19. Investment Analysis of Offshore Concessions in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractDescribes the valuation of a complex capital project, the staged development of an oil field concession in the Netherlands. Stages of offshore petroleum development on the Dutch continental shelf; Asset valuation based on replication in financial markets; Major insights and conclusions.

  20. Continental crust beneath southeast Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsvik, Trond H.; Amundsen, Hans E. F.; Trønnes, Reidar G.; Doubrovine, Pavel V.; Gaina, Carmen; Kusznir, Nick J.; Steinberger, Bernhard; Corfu, Fernando; Ashwal, Lewis D.; Griffin, William L.; Werner, Stephanie C.; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    The magmatic activity (0–16 Ma) in Iceland is linked to a deep mantle plume that has been active for the past 62 My. Icelandic and northeast Atlantic basalts contain variable proportions of two enriched components, interpreted as recycled oceanic crust supplied by the plume, and subcontinental lithospheric mantle derived from the nearby continental margins. A restricted area in southeast Iceland—and especially the Öræfajökull volcano—is characterized by a unique enriched-mantle component (EM2-like) with elevated 87Sr/86Sr and 207Pb/204Pb. Here, we demonstrate through modeling of Sr–Nd–Pb abundances and isotope ratios that the primitive Öræfajökull melts could have assimilated 2–6% of underlying continental crust before differentiating to more evolved melts. From inversion of gravity anomaly data (crustal thickness), analysis of regional magnetic data, and plate reconstructions, we propose that continental crust beneath southeast Iceland is part of ∼350-km-long and 70-km-wide extension of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (JMM). The extended JMM was marginal to East Greenland but detached in the Early Eocene (between 52 and 47 Mya); by the Oligocene (27 Mya), all parts of the JMM permanently became part of the Eurasian plate following a westward ridge jump in the direction of the Iceland plume. PMID:25825769

  1. Volcanic Rocks Collected With ROV Tiburon From Rodriguez Seamount, Located at the Continental Slope of the California Borderland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A. S.; Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.

    2004-12-01

    Volcanic rocks were collected from Rodriguez Seamount at the outer margin off the Continental Borderland with MBARI's ROV Tiburon in October 2003 and April 2004. Six dives recovered lava and volcaniclastic samples from the deep flanks ( ˜2120 m) to the summit at 630 m. Whole rock compositions of plagioclase-olivine-clionpyroxene bearing lava samples are predominantly alkalic basalt (<8% MgO) and hawaiite with minor mugearite (MgO=1.5%). Glass compositions of pillow rims and of volcaniclastic fragments in breccia and bedded sandstone are predominantly hawaiite, mugearite and minor evolved alkalic basalt. The lava samples include one rhyolite and one basaltic andesite with subduction-related chemistry; they are probably erratics. Other clearly identifiable erratics include granite, quartzite, amphibolite, and bored, erosion-sculpted sandstone, resembling typical beach deposits. Most of these erratics are pebble- to small cobble-size and occur in conglomerate and crossbedded sandstone that surround the summit at a break in slope that most likely marks the shoreline when Rodriguez was an island. The lava outcrops on the gently domed platform of the summit are dense, oxidized àà-like flows without glassy rinds. Sulfur content of glass, collected from the flanks of the volcano, ranges from 1300 ppm of a glass inclusion in an olivine crystal to ˜160 ppm of volcaniclastic grains, indicating extensive degassing. Petrographically and chemically these lavas are virtually identical to those erupted on Miocene seamounts offshore central California (e.g. Davidson, Guide, Pioneer, Gumdrop seamounts, Davis et al, 2002) as well as Northeast Bank on the continental shelf south of Rodriguez and seamounts farther offshore from the Continental Borderland (e.g. Little Joe, San Marcos, San Juan seamounts, Clague et al, unpublished; Davis et al., 1995). Trace element abundances and ratios (e.g. LREE, Zr/Nb, Ta/Nb) also completely overlap with those from the other sites, suggesting

  2. Root zone of a continental rift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, Moritz; Svenningsen, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Mafic magmatic rocks formed between ca. 615 and 560 Ma along the Neoproterozoic margins of Baltica and Laurentia are classically attributed to continental rifting heralding the opening of the Iapetus Ocean. We report new data for the Kebnekaise Intrusive Complex (KIC) exposed in the Seve Nappes i...

  3. Multiple uplift phases inferred from the Southwest African Atlantic margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Cacace, Mauro; Dressel, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    The South Atlantic basins offshore Namibia and South Africa stored more than 10 km thick sedimentary successions that are separated by major unconformities into several sequences. These sedimentary units rest on a thinned continental crust of a magmatic passive margin. Using a 3D forward modelling approach considering flexural compensation of a rheologically differentiated lithosphere in response to sedimentary loading after stretching on one hand and the thermal feed-back between cooling of the stretched lithosphere and insulating sediments on the other hand we derive quantitative estimates on how vertical movements have influenced the margin after stretching. The approach combines the consideration of observations on sediment configuration as well as on crustal thickness (ß-factor) with the process of lithosphere thinning and subsequent thermal re-equilibration. These estimates are conservative estimates as they are based on the preserved sediments only whereas eroded sediments are not considered. Nevertheless, the approach considers thermo-mechanical coupling in 3D and both initial conditions as well as sedimentary history are constrained by observations. Specific effects include the delayed thermal re-equilibration of the thinned lithosphere due to deposition of insulating sediments and the related thermal feedback on lithosphere rheology and therefore on the flexural response to sediment loading. Our results indicate that in addition to predominantly continuous subsidence also phases of uplift have affected the southwestern African margin during the syn-rift and post-rift evolution. The spatio-temporal variation of vertical movements is controlled by the amount of initial thinning of the lithosphere, the variation of rheological characteristics (lithology and temperature) but also by the distribution of sediment supply (loading and thermal insulation).

  4. Marine magnetic anomalies off Ratnagiri, Western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.

    Total magnetic intensity and bathymetric surveys were carried out in the offshore area of Ratnagiri on the western continental shelf of India and an isomagnetic anomalies map at a contour interval of 50 nT was prepared which reveals N-S trends...

  5. Sediment-bound Metallic Contaminants in Sydney's Estuaries and Adjacent Offshore, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, G. F.

    1996-01-01

    Almost one-quarter of Australia's population of 17 million and a large proportion of its industry are concentrated in the restricted area of Greater Metropolitan Sydney. Heavy metal loadings of the surficial sediment which mantles the four deeply incised estuaries dissecting this region and the adjacent continental shelf are being investigated to determine potential sources, and to understand the processes of dispersion and accumulation. The Parramatta River/Port Jackson and Georges River/Botany Bay estuaries have been major repositories for urban/industrial waste and are heavily impacted by anthropogenic metalliferous (Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb) loadings. The majority of estuarine areas are greatly in excess of background values. The most elevated regions are the upper reaches of estuaries and bay ends. Generally, the central sections of these estuaries are less elevated, but still above background values, whereas for some metals, the lower reaches and mouth areas approach background values. In limited parts of the inner shelf, most of these metals are above background values, but for the majority of the continental shelf, values are close to background. The strong down-estuary decline in metals and lower metal levels in the marine environment is probably source-related, rather than due to a dilution by less enriched coarse sediment. The source of offshore metal enrichment is coastal sewage outfalls and/or dissolved and suspended material escaping the estuaries. Marginally elevated metal concentrations on the inner shelf in excess of that observed in the lower estuary, are probably indicative of some sourcing from sewage outfalls. In terms of public health, the majority of the Parramatta River/Port Jackson estuary is in excess of guidelines, and tributaries and bay ends of both estuaries are markedly in excess of these levels for all elements. Offshore surficial sediments are mostly within guideline levels.

  6. Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    with companies in the maritime sector. This report “Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics – Business strategies in the offshore supply industry” is the second report in mapping project D. It examines the markets and business strategies of various suppliers and furthermore presents an analysis of the challenges...... and opportunities for the companies engaged in the different parts of the sector. The report is developed from interviews with top management of key players in the Danish supply industry combined with studies on management literature. The macro- and meso levels of the offshore sector are examined in the CBS...... Maritime report “Offshore Supply Chain Dynamics – The main drivers in the energy sector and the value chain characteristics for offshore oil and gas and offshore wind”, which constitutes the first part of mapping project D. It offers insights into the main drivers in the energy sector (macro level...

  7. Offshoring R&D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2010-01-01

    Companies are increasingly offshoring R&D activities. Many firms, however, experience difficulties related to virtual teamwork across cultures and time zones. The research question is: How does increasing R&D offshoring impact transparency of communication structures and knowledge sharing? Using...... to the complexity of the R&D activity. This paper shows that management of offshored R&D activities touches upon many key management dilemmas like trust, control and knowledge sharing....

  8. Real-time PCR quantification and diversity analysis of the functional genes aprA and dsrA of sulfate-reducing bacteria in marine sediments of the Peru continental margin and the Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Axel eSchippers; Anna eBlazejak

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative, real-time PCR (Q-PCR) assay for the functional gene adenosine 5´-phosphosulfate reductase (aprA) of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was designed. This assay was applied together with described Q-PCR assays for dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) and the 16S rRNA gene of total Bacteria to marine sediments from the Peru margin (0 – 121 meters below seafloor (mbsf)) and the Black Sea (0 – 6 mbsf). Clone libraries of aprA show that all isolated sequences originate from SRB...

  9. Cruise report; RV Coastal Surveyor Cruise C1-99; multibeam mapping of the Long Beach, California continental shelf; April 12 through May 19, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James V.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.; Mayer, Larry A.

    1999-01-01

    The greater Los Angeles area of California is home to more than 10 million people. This large population puts increased pressure on the adjacent offshore continental shelf and margin with activities such as ocean disposal for dredged spoils, explosive disposal, waste-water outfall, and commercial fishing. The increased utilization of the shelf and margin in this area has generated accelerated multi-disciplinary research efforts in all aspects of the environment of the coastal zone. Prior to 1996 there were no highly accurate base maps of the continental shelf and slope upon which the research activities could be located and monitored. In 1996, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Seafloor Mapping Project began to address this problem by mapping the Santa Monica shelf and margin (Fig. 1) using a state-of-the-art, high-resolution multibeam sonar system (Gardner, et al., 1996; 1999). Additional seafloor mapping in 1998 provided coverage of the continental margin from south of Newport to the proximal San Pedro Basin northwest of Palos Verdes Peninsula (Gardner, et al., 1998) (Fig. 1). The mapping of the seafloor in the greater Los Angeles continental shelf and margin was completed with a 30-day mapping of the Long Beach shelf in April and May 1999, the subject of this report. The objective of Cruise C-1-99-SC was to completely map the broad continental shelf from the eastern end of the Palos Verdes Peninsula to the narrow shelf south of Newport Beach, from the break in slope at about 120-m isobath to the inner shelf at about the 10-m isobath. Mapping the Long Beach shelf was jointly funded by the U.S. Geological Survey and the County of Orange (CA) Sanitation District and was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement with the Ocean Mapping Group from the University of New Brunswick (OMG/UNB). The OMG/UNB contracted with C&C Technologies, Inc. of Lafayette, LA for use of the RV Coastal Surveyor and the latest evolution of high-resolution multibeam sonars, a

  10. Rapid sedimentation and overpressure in shallow sediments of the Bering Trough, offshore southern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Hugh; Worthington, Lindsay L.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Van Avendonk, Harm J. A.

    2017-04-01

    Pore pressures in sediments at convergent margins play an important role in driving chemical fluxes and controlling deformation styles and localization. In the Bering Trough offshore Southern Alaska, extreme sedimentation rates over the last 140 kyr as a result of glacial advance/retreats on the continental shelf have resulted in elevated pore fluid pressures in slope sediments overlying the Pamplona Zone fold and thrust belt, the accretionary wedge resulting from subduction of the Yakutat microplate beneath the North American Plate. Based on laboratory experiments and downhole logs acquired at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1421, we predict that the overpressure in the slope sediments may be as high as 92% of the lithostatic stress. Results of one-dimensional numerical modeling accounting for changes in sedimentation rate over the last 130 kyr predicted overpressures that are consistent with our estimates, suggesting that the overpressure is a direct result of the rapid sedimentation experienced on the Bering shelf and slope. Comparisons with other convergent margins indicate that such rapid sedimentation and high overpressure are anomalous in sediments overlying accretionary wedges. We hypothesize that the shallow overpressure on the Bering shelf/slope has fundamentally altered the deformation style within the Pamplona Zone by suppressing development of faults and may inhibit seismicity by focusing faulting elsewhere or causing deformation on existing faults to be aseismic. These consequences are probably long-lived as it may take several million years for the excess pressure to dissipate.

  11. Westward advance of the deformation front and evolution of submarine canyons offshore of southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei-Chung; Liu, Char-Shine; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Chen, Liwen; Lin, Che-Chuan; Chen, Song-Chuen

    2017-11-01

    This study analyzes both 2D and 3D seismic images around the Palm Ridge area offshore of southwestern Taiwan to understand how the deformation front shifted westward and how tectonic activities interact with submarine canyon paths in the transition area between the active and passive margins. Palm Ridge is a submarine ridge that developed on the passive China continental margin by down-dip erosion of several tributaries of Penghu Canyon; it extends eastward across the deformation front into the submarine Taiwan accretionary wedge. The presence of proto-thrusts that are located west of the frontal thrust implies that the compressional stress field has advanced westward due to the convergence of the Philippine Sea Plate and Eurasian Plate. Since the deformation front is defined as the location of the most frontal contractional structure, no significant contractional structure should appear west of it. We thus suggest moving the location of the previously mapped deformation front farther west to where the westernmost proto-thrust lies. High-resolution seismic and bathymetric data reveal that the directions of the paleo-submarine canyons run transverse to the present slope dip, while the present submarine canyons head down slope in the study area. We propose that this might be the result of the westward migration of the deformation front that changed the paleo-bathymetry and thus the canyon path directions. The interactions of down-slope processes and active tectonics control the canyon paths in our study area.

  12. Offshoring research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Hugo Velthuijsen

    2012-01-01

    Outsourcing and offshoring provide companies with ways to achieve their business objectives better or more cost effectively or despite a shortage of specific resources. From a research point of view, outsourcing and offshoring have mostly been studied as something that large companies do, not small

  13. Offshore Investment Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Jin Wei

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Offshore investment funds are alleged to have engaged in trading behavior that is different from their onshore counterparts because they may be subject to less supervision and regulation. In particular, they may trade more intensely. They could also pursue more aggressively certain trading strategies such as positive feedback trading or herding that could contribute to a greater volatility in the market. Using a unique data set, this chapter compares the trading behavior in the Korean stock market between offshore investment funds with their onshore counterparts registered in the US and UK. There are a number of interesting findings. First, there is indeed evidence suggesting that the offshore funds trade more intensely than their onshore counterparts. Second, however, there is no evidence that the offshore funds engage in positive feedback trading. In contrast, there is strong evidence that the funds from the U.S. and U.K. do. Third, while offshore funds do herd, they do so far less than onshore funds in the U.S. or UK. Fourth, offshore funds hold less glamour stocks (e.g. stocks with high P/E in their portfolio than funds in the U.S. or U.K. do. Moreover, flight to glamour stocks during the in-crisis period is less evident in the case of offshore funds. In sum, offshore funds are no especially worrisome monsters.

  14. Offshore wind development research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Offshore wind (OSW) development is a new undertaking in the US. This project is a response to : New Jerseys 2011 Energy Master Plan that envisions procuring 22.5% of the states power : originating from renewable sources by 2021. The Offshore Wi...

  15. Recent uplift of the Atlantic Atlas (offshore West Morocco): Tectonic arch and submarine terraces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabdellouahed, M.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Gutscher, M.-A.; Rabineau, M.; Biari, Y.; Hafid, M.; Duarte, J. C.; Schnabel, M.; Baltzer, A.; Pedoja, K.; Le Roy, P.; Reichert, C.; Sahabi, M.

    2017-06-01

    Re-examination of marine geophysical data from the continental margin of West Morocco reveals a broad zone characterized by deformation, active faults and updoming offshore the High Atlas (Morocco margin), situated next to the Tafelney Plateau. Both seismic reflection and swath-bathymetric data, acquired during Mirror marine geophysical survey in 2011, indicate recent uplift of the margin including uplift of the basement. This deformation, which we propose to name the Atlantic Atlas tectonic arch, is interpreted to result largely through uplift of the basement, which originated during the Central Atlantic rifting stage - or even during phases of Hercynian deformation. This has produced a large number of closely spaced normal and reverse faults, ;piano key faults;, originating from the basement and affecting the entire sedimentary sequence, as well as the seafloor. The presence of four terraces in the Essaouira canyon system at about 3500 meters water depth and ;piano key faults; and the fact that these also affect the seafloor, indicate that the Atlantic Atlas is still active north of Agadir canyon. We propose that recent uplift is causing morphogenesis of four terraces in the Essaouira canyon system. In this paper the role of both Canary plume migration and ongoing convergence between the African and Eurasian plates in the formation of the Atlantic Atlas are discussed as possibilities to explain the presence of a tectonic arch in the region. The process of reactivation of passive margins is still not well understood. The region north of Agadir canyon represents a key area to better understand this process.

  16. Continental Divide Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  17. Offshore risk assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Vinnem, Jan-Erik

    2014-01-01

      Offshore Risk Assessment was the first book to deal with quantified risk assessment (QRA) as applied specifically to offshore installations and operations. Risk assessment techniques have been used for more than three decades in the offshore oil and gas industry, and their use is set to expand increasingly as the industry moves into new areas and faces new challenges in older regions.   This updated and expanded third edition has been informed by a major R&D program on offshore risk assessment in Norway and summarizes research from 2006 to the present day. Rooted with a thorough discussion of risk metrics and risk analysis methodology,  subsequent chapters are devoted to analytical approaches to escalation, escape, evacuation and rescue analysis of safety and emergency systems.   Separate chapters analyze the main hazards of offshore structures: fire, explosion, collision, and falling objects as well as structural and marine hazards. Risk mitigation and control are discussed, as well as an illustrat...

  18. Import, Offshoring and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Maitra, Madhura

    Offshoring firms are found to pay higher average wages than purely domestic firms. We provide a unifying empirical approach by capturing the different channels through which offshoring may explain this wage difference: (i) due to change in the composition of workers (skill composition effect) (ii......) because all existing workers get higher pay (rent sharing effect). Using Danish worker-firm data we explain how much each channel contributes to higher wages. To estimate the causal effect of offshoring on wages we use China’s accession to the WTO in December 2001 - and the soon after boom in Chinese...... exports - as positive exogenous shocks to the incentive to offshore to China. Both skill composition and rent sharing effects are found to be important in explaining the resultant gain in wages. We also show that the firm’s timing in the offshoring process determines the relative importance of a channel...

  19. Organizational Adaptation in Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Offshoring offers managers the promise of substantial economic benefits, but also comes with the risk of increased complexity and coordination challenges. We argue that offshoring firms must accumulate architectural knowledge to keep the cost of coordination of the geographically separated...... that there are benefits of making changes to the configuration after the offshoring implementation (host-based learning). In contrast, when coordination costs and distance dominate, the strategy of gearing the organization for offshoring prior to separating them across country borders prevails (home-based learning). Thus......, by formalizing these two learning strategies for acquiring architectural knowledge in offshoring, we show that important contingencies can lead to significant performance trade-offs in the search for new organizational configurations that span international borders....

  20. Petroleum geology of Pacific margin of Central America and northern South America, from Guatemala to Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrutton, M.E.; Escalante, G.F.

    1986-07-01

    Exploration for hydrocarbons along the Pacific margin of Central America and northern South America has been limited and spasmodic. Less than 100 exploration wells have been drilled, with nearly 50 of these being in the Santa Elena, Progreso, and Guayas basins in Ecuador. Shows have been reported in some wells, and a few oil seeps are known. The only commercial production established to date has been from the Santa Elena Peninsula in Ecuador in the extreme south of the study area. Understanding of the geology in this part of the continental margin is incomplete at best. This paper reviews present-day knowledge in an attempt to define the sedimentary basins better, to characterize their structure and stratigraphy, and to assess their petroleum prospects. The area of continental margin reviewed is to the north, located northwest of the trench system where oceanic crust of the Cocos plate subducts under the Caribbean plate, and to the south, where the northern part of the Nazca plate collides with the South American plate. This plate tectonic setting forms the framework on which local structural and sedimentary events have created a series of relatively small trench-slope and forearc basins in what is now the coastal plain and adjacent offshore area of Central and South America, south or west of a line of mountain ranges with active volcanism. Sedimentary fill is generally of Tertiary age. The basins and subbasins recognized and described include: in Ecuador - Guayas, Santa Elena, Progreso, Valdivia, Bajo Grande, Manta, Muisne-Esmeraldas, and Borbon; in Colombia - Choco-Pacific; in Panama - Gulf of Panama basin complex (Santiago, Tonosi, Sambu), and Burica-Chiriqui; in Costa Rica - Terraba and Coronado/Tempisque; in Nicaragua - San Juan del Sur; and in the Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala - the Pacific coastal basin.

  1. Basins in ARC-continental collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Busby, Cathy; Azor, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Arc-continent collisions occur commonly in the plate-tectonic cycle and result in rapidly formed and rapidly collapsing orogens, often spanning just 5-15 My. Growth of continental masses through arc-continent collision is widely thought to be a major process governing the structural and geochemical evolution of the continental crust over geologic time. Collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with passive continental margins (a situation in which the arc, on the upper plate, faces the continent) involve a substantially different geometry than collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with active continental margins (a situation requiring more than one convergence zone and in which the arc, on the lower plate, backs into the continent), with variable preservation potential for basins in each case. Substantial differences also occur between trench and forearc evolution in tectonically erosive versus tectonically accreting margins, both before and after collision. We examine the evolution of trenches, trench-slope basins, forearc basins, intra-arc basins, and backarc basins during arc-continent collision. The preservation potential of trench-slope basins is low; in collision they are rapidly uplifted and eroded, and at erosive margins they are progressively destroyed by subduction erosion. Post-collisional preservation of trench sediment and trench-slope basins is biased toward margins that were tectonically accreting for a substantial length of time before collision. Forearc basins in erosive margins are usually floored by strong lithosphere and may survive collision with a passive margin, sometimes continuing sedimentation throughout collision and orogeny. The low flexural rigidity of intra-arc basins makes them deep and, if preserved, potentially long records of arc and collisional tectonism. Backarc basins, in contrast, are typically subducted and their sediment either lost or preserved only as fragments in melange sequences. A substantial proportion of the sediment derived from

  2. Offshore expansion of the Brazilian coastal upwelling zones during Marine Isotope Stage 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessa, Douglas V. O.; Santos, Thiago P.; Venancio, Igor M.; Albuquerque, Ana Luiza S.

    2017-11-01

    Paleoceanographic reconstructions in upwelling regions can provide relevant information about changes in primary productivity, ocean-atmosphere interactions and the carbon budget. Here, we assessed new data on planktonic foraminifera from a sediment core located near to coastal upwelling zones along the Brazilian coast. Our new data was combined with previous records to reveal the state of upwelling systems along the western South Atlantic margin throughout the last two deglacial and interglacial periods sensu lato. Despite the contemporary oligotrophic scenario of the Santos Basin, a remarkably high relative abundance of Globigerina bulloides and low temperatures at a depth of 100 m indicated upwelling conditions similar to current shelf upwelling zones from 130 to 90 kyr BP. Comparing these results with previous studies, we argue that Brazilian shelf upwelling zones expanded offshore between 20 and 28°S. We develop two conceptual scenarios to characterize the system: (1) during Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS 5), the system expanded along the continental margin between 20 and 28°S following the eccentricity maximum; and (2) after 20 kyr BP, the system retracted to current continental shelf zones. We propose a new mechanism whereby variation of the Earth's eccentricity, which drives seasonality, is the main factor controlling expansion or retraction of the Brazilian upwelling system. Absence of such conditions in more recent periods supports our model and indicates that current upwelling zones are the remnants of a larger upwelling system. However, more studies are required to better define the latitudinal boundaries of the Brazilian upwelling system in the past and its possible influences over the regional carbon budget.

  3. Real-time PCR quantification and diversity analysis of the functional genes aprA and dsrA of sulfate-reducing bacteria in marine sediments of the Peru continental margin and the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel eSchippers

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative, real-time PCR (Q-PCR assay for the functional gene adenosine 5´-phosphosulfate reductase (aprA of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB was designed. This assay was applied together with described Q-PCR assays for dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA and the 16S rRNA gene of total Bacteria to marine sediments from the Peru margin (0 – 121 meters below seafloor (mbsf and the Black Sea (0 – 6 mbsf. Clone libraries of aprA show that all isolated sequences originate from SRB showing a close relationship to aprA of characterised species or form a new cluster with only distant relation to aprA of isolated SRB. Below 40 mbsf no aprA genes could be amplified. This finding corresponds with results of the applied new Q-PCR assay for aprA. In contrast to the aprA the dsrA gene could be amplified up to sediment depths of 121 mbsf. Even in such an extreme environment a high diversity of this gene was detected. The 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of total Bacteria were much higher than those of the functional genes at all sediment depths and used to calculate the proportion of SRB to the total Bacteria. The aprA and dsrA copy numbers comprised in average 0.5 - 1 % of the 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of total Bacteria in the sediments up to a depth of ca. 40 mbsf. Depth profiles of the aprA and dsrA copy numbers were almost equal for all sites. Gene copy numbers decreased concomitantly with depth from around 108 / g sediment close to the sediment surface to less than 105 / g sediment at 5 mbsf. In the zone without detectable sulfate in the pore water from ca. 40 – 121 mbsf (Peru margin ODP site 1227, only dsrA (but not aprA was detected with copy numbers of less than 104 / g sediment, comprising ca. 14 % of the 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of total Bacteria. In this zone sulfate might be provided for SRB by anaerobic sulfide oxidation.

  4. Neotectonism - An offshore evidence from eastern continental shelf off Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Venkateswarlu, K.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, M.M.M.; Rao, K.M.; Raju, Y.S.N.

    18 degrees 42 degrees E. It is significant that the epicentre falls in the innershelf off Vizianagaram, where a suite of rocks (Santapalle Rocks) outcrop at a water depth of around 30 m. Bathymetry and magnetic data were collected over this region...

  5. Collaborative Taiwan-USA Seismic Onshore-Offshore Imaging of Arc-Continent Collision under Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaya, D. A.; Wang, C.; Kuo, Y. N.; Yen, H.; Huang, B.; Liang, W.; Shih, M.; Wen, S.; Wu, F. T.

    2009-12-01

    The Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates converge for over 2500 km along the east Asian continental margin. For nearly four-fifths of its northwestern boundary, the young Philippine Sea plate routinely subducts to the west under continental Eurasia as is marked by the Ryukyu island arc. However, the western Philippine Sea plate contains the Luzon island arc that is formed by eastward subduction of the South China Sea portion of the Eurasian plate. The island of Taiwan marks the location where (1) subduction reversal takes place and (2) impingement of the island arc with the continental Eurasian plate. The ongoing orogeny of Taiwan involves a complex interaction often considered the type example of arc-continent collision. Tectonic models to explain how this collision occurs and produces associated mountain building, of which Taiwan's is one of the fastest rising in the world, range from thin-skinned to lithospheric-scale end-members. In the thin skinned model, subduction of continental Eurasian mantle and lower crust is separated from a deforming crustal wedge by a plate boundary decollement. In the latter, deformation of crust and mantle occurs within a vertically contiguous system, with progressive thickening of continental mantle beneath the core of the mountain belt. The 3D geophysical signatures are fundamentally different between these models. The Taiwan Integrated Geodynamics Research (TAIGER) project is a joint USA-Taiwan program that has carried out several types of seismological studies in Taiwan. TAIGER carried out an onshore-offshore seismic experiment across and around Taiwan during March-June 2009. A 2D portable land array was deployed for 2+ months across Taiwan and contained 280 Taiwan and PASSCAL three-component recorders. Airgun sources were provided by the USA R/V Langseth which carried out 7000+ km MCS profiles (see McIntosh et al., this session). In addition, 3200 regional and local earthquakes occurred and were recorded during the land

  6. Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    The value chains for offshore oil and gas and offshore wind are both basically driven by the demand for energy. This is heavily dependent on a number of factors including the price of various energy sources and the policy making of the states which influence legislation, indirect subsidies...... and direct investments. At the center of both value chains are the energy companies. The energy companies have a number of suppliers and sub suppliers which provide a range of equipment and services to the offshore operations. The supply industry is characterized by horizontal cooperation (between suppliers...

  7. Offshoring and International Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Pedersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, offshoring has become an established business practice. Yet it is still more common to offshore less advanced tasks compared with offshoring more advanced tasks, i.e., tasks closer to the core activities of the firm. The latter is a new phenomenon which raises many new...... issues on the boundaries of the firm. More or less advanced tasks can be found within all activities, e.g., in sales and marketing where telesales is on the less advanced end of the scale while branding and identity building are on the advanced end of the scale. This article focuses on the antecedents...

  8. Whether and What to Offshore?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ørberg; Pedersen, Torben

    with offshoring, and this type of offshoring comes with an entirely different set of characteristics compared to traditional, cost-seeking offshoring. Based on a unique survey among the total population of firms in the eastern region of Denmark, we analyze some of the dynamics of this process through a model...... process of offshoring, as we analyze the determinants of the offshoring of advanced, highend technical, and service activities. The findings are consistent with the notion of offshoring as a dynamic process as they show how some (cost-related) determinants play a role when firms first engage in offshoring...

  9. What can we learn from lithosphere-scale models of passive margins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Maystrenko, Yuriy; Hirsch, Katja K.

    2010-05-01

    To understand the present day structure and the mechanisms of subsidence at passive margins we assess first-order heterogeneities in the sediments, crust and upper mantle. Thus, we explore how far a good knowledge of the sedimentary and upper crustal configuration can provide constraints for the deeper parts of the system and how far the preserved record of deposits holds the key to unravel margin history. The present-day geometry and distribution of physical properties within the upper and middle crust is integrated into data-based, 3D structural models, which, in turn, provide the base for the analysis of the deep crust and the lithospheric mantle. Different configurations of the deep lithosphere can be tested against two independent observables: gravity and temperature, using isostatic, 3D gravity and 3D thermal modelling. Results from the 55 mio year old Norwegian passive volcanic margin indicate that there, the oceanic lithospheric mantle is less dense than the continental lithospheric mantle (Maystrenko and Scheck-Wenderoth, 2009), that this is mainly due to thermal effects (Scheck-Wenderoth and Maystrenko, 2008) and that the transition between continental and oceanic lithosphere thickness is sharp (Maystrenko and Scheck-Wenderoth, 2009). Furthermore, the thickness of the young oceanic lithosphere in the North Atlantic is smaller than predicted by plate cooling models but consistent with seismologically derived estimates. We also find that the oceanic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary strongly influences the shallow thermal field of the margin and that surface heat flow increases from the continent to the ocean. In contrast, at the South Atlantic margin offshore South Africa, a thicker and older (~130 mio years) oceanic lithosphere is present. Based on previous studies of the crustal configuration (Hirsch et al., 2009), first lithosphere configurations have been tested. There the transition between continent and ocean appears equilibrated and surface heat

  10. Structural style and tectonic evolution of the easternmost Gulf of Aden conjugate margins (Socotra - Southern Oman)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonn, Chloe; Leroy, Sylvie; Castilla, Raymi; de Clarens, Philippe; Lescanne, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Observations from distal rifted margins in present day magma-poor rifted margins led to the discovery of hyperextended crust and exhumed sub-continental mantle. This finding allowed to better figure out how thinning process are accommodate by tectonic structures, forming various crustal domains, as the deformation localized towards the future area of breakup. However, some of the current challenges are about clarifying how factors as oblique kinematic, pre-existing structures and volcanism can control the 3D geometry and crustal architecture of the passive margins? A key to better understand the rifting evolution in its entirety is to study conjugate margins. The gulf of Aden is a young oceanic basin (with a global trend about N75°E) oblique to the divergence (about 30°N), separating Arabia from Somalia of less than 800 km. Thanks to its immerged margins and its thin post-rift sediment cover, the gulf of Aden basin is a natural laboratory to investigate conjugate margins and strain localisation throughout the rift history. In this contribution, we focus our interest on offshore Socotra Island (Yemen) and its conjugate in Southeastern Oman. This area extends from Socotra-Hadbeen (SHFZ) and the eastern Gulf of Aden fault zones (EGAFZ). In the easternmost part of the gulf of Aden, we provide new insights into crustal deformation and emplacement of the new oceanic crust thanks to bathymetric, magnetic, gravimetric data and single-, multi-channel, high speed seismic reflection data collected during Encens-Sheba (2000), Encens (2006) and the more recent Marges-Aden (2012) cruises respectively. The results obtained after compilation of these data, previous geological (field works) and geophysical (receiver functions, Pn-tomography, magnetic anomalies, heat flow) studies on the focused area, allowed us to provide new structural mapping and stratigraphic correlation between onshore and offshore parts of Socotra and Oman margins. We precisely defined and map crustal

  11. Session: Offshore wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaarde, Jette; Ram, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations. Due to time constraints, a discussion period was not possible. The session addressed the current state of offshore wind energy development. The first presentation ''Monitoring Program and Results: Horns Rev and Nysted'' by Jette Gaarde summarized selected environmental studies conducted to date at operating offshore wind turbine projects in Denmark and lessons from other offshore wind developments in Europe. Wildlife impacts studies from the Danish sites focused on birds, fish, and mammals. The second presentation ''What has the U.S. Wind Industry Learned from the European Example'' by Bonnie Ram provided an update on current permit applications for offshore wind developments in the U.S. as well as lessons that may be drawn from the European experience.

  12. Active Vibration Control of a Monopile Offshore Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    In the Danish part of the North Sea it has been found that marginal fields can be exploited using monopile offshore platforms which present significant advantages with respect to the costs involved in fabrication and installation and can therefore tip the economic balance favourably. Monopile pla...

  13. Seismic site response of submarine slope offshore southwestern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yi Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Widely distributed Bottom-Simulating Reflectors (BSRs have been observed in the area offshore of southwestern Taiwan where the active accretionary complex meets with the passive China continental margin. In order to clarify the link between seismic site response and sedimentary properties of submarine slope, we evaluate the response of seafloor sediments in regard to passive dynamic loads. The local site effect produced by shallow marine sediments was characterized by estimating the horizontal-to-vertical (H/V spectral ratios of data recorded by the short-period Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs. The results show that the maximal H/V ratios appeared in the range of 3.66 - 9.28 Hz, suggesting that the fundamental frequency is dominated by the effect related to the very shallow sediments. For most stations, the H/V ratios estimated based on the earthquakes and noise records were characterized by different patterns. Relatively broad H/V pattern was obtained when the signals were extracted from earthquakes. This phenomenon may be related to soil nonlinearity when a stronger motion applies. In comparison with the available geological structures and bulk density distribution obtained from coring experiments, we found a relatively higher fundamental frequency of about 8 - 9 Hz for the more rigid material, such as mud diapir and folding axes. For most of the area along the slope, the fundamental frequency shows a relatively low value, about 6 - 8 Hz. Finally, when a site is characterized by thick or lowest bulk density sedimentary layer, we observed a fundamental frequency lower than 5 Hz, which is the lowest in our assessment.

  14. Offshore Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strach-Sonsalla, Mareike; Stammler, Matthias; Wenske, Jan; Jonkman, Jason; Vorpahl, Fabian

    2016-07-27

    In 1991, the Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm, the first offshore wind farm in the world, started feeding electricity to the grid off the coast of Lolland, Denmark. Since then, offshore wind energy has developed from this early experiment to a multibillion dollar market and an important pillar of worldwide renewable energy production. Unit sizes grew from 450 kW at Vindeby to the 7.5 MW-class offshore wind turbines (OWT ) that are currently (by October 2014) in the prototyping phase. This chapter gives an overview of the state of the art in offshore wind turbine (OWT) technology and introduces the principles of modeling and simulating an OWT. The OWT components -- including the rotor, nacelle, support structure, control system, and power electronics -- are introduced, and current technological challenges are presented. The OWT system dynamics and the environment (wind and ocean waves) are described from the perspective of OWT modelers and designers. Finally, an outlook on future technology is provided. The descriptions in this chapter are focused on a single OWT -- more precisely, a horizontal-axis wind turbine -- as a dynamic system. Offshore wind farms and wind farm effects are not described in detail in this chapter, but an introduction and further references are given.

  15. Tectonics and sedimentology of post-rift anomalous vertical movements: the rifted margin of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Giovanni; Charton, Remi; Luber, Tim; Arantegui, Angel; Redfern, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Roughly 15 years ago it was discovered that substantial parts of the Morocco passive continental margin experienced km-scale, post-rift exhumation. It was predicted that the sands resulting from the associated erosion would be present in the offshore and potentially form hydrocarbon reservoirs. At the same time, anomalous post-rift vertical movements have been documented in various localities of the world and rifted continental margins are at present exciting objects of research. Following intense research efforts the knowledge of the kinematics of vertical movements and their implications for sedimentary systems is increasing. The low-T geochronology initially limited to the classical Meseta-Massif Ancien de Marrakech transect has been expanded reaching the Reguibate Massif to the S and covering, possibly more importantly, o