WorldWideScience

Sample records for continental depositional systems

  1. Basement and climate controls on proximal depositional systems in continental settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ventra, D.

    2011-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation discusses the sedimentology and dynamics of selected, modern and ancient clastic depositional systems (alluvial fans and colluvial aprons) at continental basin margins. The focus on single depositional systems gave the opportunity to devote particular attention to

  2. Sulfur Cycling in an Iron Oxide-Dominated, Dynamic Marine Depositional System: The Argentine Continental Margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha Riedinger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between sediment deposition patterns, organic matter type and the quantity and quality of reactive mineral phases determines the accumulation, speciation, and isotope composition of pore water and solid phase sulfur constituents in marine sediments. Here, we present the sulfur geochemistry of siliciclastic sediments from two sites along the Argentine continental slope—a system characterized by dynamic deposition and reworking, which result in non-steady state conditions. The two investigated sites have different depositional histories but have in common that reactive iron phases are abundant and that organic matter is refractory—conditions that result in low organoclastic sulfate reduction rates (SRR. Deposition of reworked, isotopically light pyrite and sulfurized organic matter appear to be important contributors to the sulfur inventory, with only minor addition of pyrite from organoclastic sulfate reduction above the sulfate-methane transition (SMT. Pore-water sulfide is limited to a narrow zone at the SMT. The core of that zone is dominated by pyrite accumulation. Iron monosulfide and elemental sulfur accumulate above and below this zone. Iron monosulfide precipitation is driven by the reaction of low amounts of hydrogen sulfide with ferrous iron and is in competition with the oxidation of sulfide by iron (oxyhydroxides to form elemental sulfur. The intervals marked by precipitation of intermediate sulfur phases at the margin of the zone with free sulfide are bordered by two distinct peaks in total organic sulfur (TOS. Organic matter sulfurization appears to precede pyrite formation in the iron-dominated margins of the sulfide zone, potentially linked to the presence of polysulfides formed by reaction between dissolved sulfide and elemental sulfur. Thus, SMTs can be hotspots for organic matter sulfurization in sulfide-limited, reactive iron-rich marine sedimentary systems. Furthermore, existence of elemental sulfur and iron

  3. Application potential of sequence stratigraphy to prospecting for sandstone-type uranium deposit in continental depositional basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shengxiang; Chen Zhaobo; Chen Zuyi; Xiang Weidong; Cai Yuqi

    2001-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy has been widely used in hydrocarbon exploration and development, and great achievements have been achieved. However, its application to the prospecting for sandstone-type uranium deposits is just beginning. The metallogenic characteristics of sandstone-type uranium deposits and those of oil and gas are compared, and the relationship between sandstone-type uranium metallogenesis and the system tracts of sequence stratigraphy is studied. The authors propose that highest and system tracts are the main targets for prospecting interlayer oxidation zone type sandstone uranium deposits, and the incised valleys of low stand system tracts are favourable places for phreatic oxidation zone type sandstone uranium deposits, and transgressive system tracts are generally unfavorable to the formation of in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits. Finally, the authors look ahead the application potential of sequence stratigraphy to the prospecting for sandstone-type uranium deposits in continental depositional basins

  4. Glacial morphology and depositional sequences of the Antarctic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Schneider, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    Proposes a simple model for the unusual depositional sequences and morphology of the Antarctic continental shelf. It considers the regional stratal geometry and the reversed morphology to be principally the results of time-integrated effects of glacial erosion and sedimentation related to the location of the ice grounding line. The model offers several guidelines for stratigraphic interpretation of the Antarctic shelf and a Northern Hemisphere shelf, both of which were subject to many glacial advances and retreats. -Authors

  5. Wet Deposition of Perchlorate Over the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, S.; Jackson, A. W.; Anderson, T. A.

    2007-12-01

    Natural perchlorate (ClO4-) has been detected in soil, vegetation, food products, and ground and drinking water supplies at various concentrations across the world. For almost a century natural perchlorate has been known to exist in Chilean nitrate deposits that are up to 16 million years old, and recent isotopic evidence has confirmed its source to be predominantly atmospheric. Although the source of natural perchlorate has been attributed to atmospheric deposition, there is almost no data available concerning the deposition rate of perchlorate from precipitation. This research effort, supported by SERDP, was designed to investigate the range of concentrations, and temporal and spatial variations in perchlorate deposition. Sub-samples of precipitation collected through the National Atmospheric Deposition program over a two year period were analyzed for perchlorate. Sample locations included 14 continental states, and Puerto Rico. Perchlorate has been detected (DL= 5 ng/L) in over 65 % of all samples tested with a mean value of 12.60 ± 13.60 ng/L and ranged from 0.5) between ClO4- and other ions (Cl-, NO3-, SO4-2, Na+, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2, and NH4+). Results from this study will have important implications to the national perchlorate issue and may aid in explaining the occurrence of non-anthropogenic perchlorate being reported in arid and semi-arid areas.

  6. Metallogenic model for continental volcanic-type rich and large uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guihua

    1998-01-01

    A metallogenic model for continental volcanic-type rich and large/super large uranium deposits has been established on the basis of analysis of occurrence features and ore-forming mechanism of some continental volcanic-type rich and large/super large uranium deposits in the world. The model proposes that uranium-enriched granite or granitic basement is the foundation, premetallogenic polycyclic and multistage volcanic eruptions are prerequisites, intense tectonic-extensional environment is the key for the ore formation, and relatively enclosed geologic setting is the reliable protection condition of the deposit. By using the model the author explains the occurrence regularities of some rich and large/super large uranium deposits such as Strelichof uranium deposit in Russia, Dornot uranium deposit in Mongolia, Olympic Dam Cu-U-Au-REE deposit in Australia, uranium deposit No.460 and Zhoujiashan uranium deposit in China, and then compares the above deposits with a large poor uranium deposit No.661 as well

  7. Climatic controls on arid continental basin margin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Amy; Clarke, Stuart; Richards, Philip; Milodowski, Antoni

    2016-04-01

    Alluvial fans are both dominant and long-lived within continental basin margin systems. As a result, they commonly interact with a variety of depositional systems that exist at different times in the distal extent of the basin as the basin evolves. The deposits of the distal basin often cycle between those with the potential to act as good aquifers and those with the potential to act as good aquitards. The interactions between the distal deposits and the basin margin fans can have a significant impact upon basin-scale fluid flow. The fans themselves are commonly considered as relatively homogeneous, but their sedimentology is controlled by a variety of factors, including: 1) differing depositional mechanisms; 2) localised autocyclic controls; 3) geometrical and temporal interactions with deposits of the basin centre; and, 4) long-term allocyclic climatic variations. This work examines the basin margin systems of the Cutler Group sediments of the Paradox Basin, western U.S.A and presents generalised facies models for the Cutler Group alluvial fans as well as for the zone of interaction between these fans and the contemporaneous environments in the basin centre, at a variety of scales. Small-scale controls on deposition include climate, tectonics, base level and sediment supply. It has been ascertained that long-term climatic alterations were the main control on these depositional systems. Models have been constructed to highlight how both long-term and short-term alterations in the climatic regime can affect the sedimentation in the basin. These models can be applied to better understand similar, but poorly exposed, alluvial fan deposits. The alluvial fans of the Brockram Facies, northern England form part of a once-proposed site for low-level nuclear waste decommissioning. As such, it is important to understand the sedimentology, three-dimensional geometry, and the proposed connectivity of the deposits from the perspective of basin-scale fluid flow. The developed

  8. Depositional turbidity currents in diapiric minibasins on the continental slope: Formulation and theory

    OpenAIRE

    Toniolo, Horacio; Lamb, Michael; Parker, Gary

    2006-01-01

    The northern continental slope of the Gulf of Mexico is riddled with numerous subsiding diapiric minibasins bounded by ridges, many but not all of which are connected by channels created by turbidity currents. The region is economically relevant in that many of these diapiric minibasins constitute focal points for the deposition of sand. Some of these sandy deposits in turn serve as excellent reservoirs for hydrocarbons. A better understanding of the "fill and spill" process by which minibasi...

  9. Recent sediment transport and deposition in the Nazaré Canyon, Portuguese continental margin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Stigter, H.C.; Boer, W.; de Jesus Mendes, P.A.; Jesus, C.C.; Thomsen, L.; van den Bergh, G.D.; van Weering, T.C.E.

    2007-01-01

    Processes, pathways and fluxes of sediment transport and deposition in the Nazaré submarine canyon, Portuguese continental margin, were investigated by water column profiling of suspended particulate matter, recording of near-bottom currents and suspended particulate matter fluxes with benthic

  10. Quaternary continental deposits in north of Uruguay: stratigraphy and paleontology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso Aguilar, C.; Ubilla, M.

    2004-01-01

    Conglomeradic and sandstones lithofacies corresponding to fluvial and alluvial environments were recognized. These sediments partially belong to the quaternary Mataojos Formation. A discordant contact with the upper pelitic deposits identified with the Sopas Formation was detected. This paper deals with sedimentological and stratigraphical considerations in order to explain the sedimentary processes during the genesis of these stratigraphic sections as well as to begin a lithostratigraphical discussion about the operability of those units. In turn, chronologic and paleoenvironment comments are provided taken into account vertebrates fossils and tools to perform chronocorrelation with southern sedimentological units of Uruguay [es

  11. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  12. Study of southern CHAONAN sag lower continental slope basin deposition character in Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Northern South China Sea Margin locates in Eurasian plate,Indian-Australia plate,Pacific Plates.The South China Sea had underwent a complicated tectonic evolution in Cenozoic.During rifting,the continental shelf and slope forms a series of Cenozoic sedimentary basins,including Qiongdongnan basin,Pearl River Mouth basin,Taixinan basin.These basins fill in thick Cenozoic fluviolacustrine facies,transitional facies,marine facies,abyssal facies sediment,recording the evolution history of South China Sea Margin rifting and ocean basin extending.The studies of tectonics and deposition of depression in the Southern Chaonan Sag of lower continental slope in the Norther South China Sea were dealt with,based on the sequence stratigraphy and depositional facies interpretation of seismic profiles acquired by cruises of“China and Germany Joint Study on Marine Geosciences in the South China Sea”and“The formation,evolution and key issues of important resources in China marginal sea",and combining with ODP 1148 cole and LW33-1-1 well.The free-air gravity anomaly of the break up of the continental and ocean appears comparatively low negative anomaly traps which extended in EW,it is the reflection of passive margin gravitational effect.Bouguer gravity anomaly is comparatively low which is gradient zone extended NE-SW.Magnetic anomaly lies in Magnetic Quiet Zone at the Northern Continental Margin of the South China Sea.The Cenozoic sediments of lower continental slope in Southern Chaonan Sag can be divided into five stratum interface:SB5.5,SB10.5,SB16.5,SB23.8 and Hg,their ages are of Pliocene-Quaternary,late Miocene,middle Miocene,early Miocene,paleogene.The tectonic evolution of low continental slope depressions can be divided into rifting,rifting-depression transitional and depression stages,while their depositional environments change from river to shallow marine and abyssa1,which results in different topography in different stages.The topographic evolvement in the study

  13. Insights into Pleistocene palaeoenvironments and biostratigraphy in southern Buenos Aires province (Argentina) from continental deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilinson, E.; Gasparini, G. M.; Soibelzon, L. H.; Soibelzon, E.

    2015-07-01

    The coastal cliffs of the Buenos Aires province (Argentina) have been the subject of intense paleontological studies since the XIX century. Therefore, many of the type localities in which is based the late Cenozoic Pampean biostratigraphic/chronostratigraphic scheme are located in this area. In this context, the sedimentites that crop out near the mouth of the Chocorí Creek contain a set of palaeontological sites that, because of their richness and well-preserved fossil content, hold high national and international importance. The aims of the present contribution are: 1) to make a stratigraphic and sedimentological characterization of the study area; 2) to list the fauna outcropped at these palaeontological sites and establish a biostratigraphic framework; 3) to elaborate a palaeoenvironmental model for the area. The study interval was informally subdivided into a lower, middle and upper interval. Interpretation was based on the presence of a number of key features such as architectural elements; channel:overbank ratio and palaeosol occurrence. The first two intervals were interpreted as continental deposits of a fluvio-alluvial nature and are the focus of this paper. The upper interval was related to foreshore marine deposits and will be studied in a future contribution. The lower interval is characterized mainly by overbank architectural elements in which calcisols and argillic protosols were identified. Channel-fill deposits are isolated and surrounded by fine-grained overbank successions and sedimentary structures are suggestive of mixed-load transport. The contact between the lower and middle intervals is an irregular, highly erosive surface characterized by a significant vertical change in the facies. This surface defines the base of multistorey sandbodies which's internal arrangement alongside with the low participation of overbank deposits suggests deposition by a braided fluvial system. Palaeosols and vertebrate fossils were used as palaeoclimatic

  14. The effect of dry and wet deposition of condensable vapors on secondary organic aerosols concentrations over the continental US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Knote

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dry and wet deposition of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs in the gas phase on the concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA is reassessed using recently derived water solubility information. The water solubility of SVOCs was implemented as a function of their volatility distribution within the WRF-Chem regional chemistry transport model, and simulations were carried out over the continental United States for the year 2010. Results show that including dry and wet removal of gas-phase SVOCs reduces annual average surface concentrations of anthropogenic and biogenic SOA by 48 and 63% respectively over the continental US. Dry deposition of gas-phase SVOCs is found to be more effective than wet deposition in reducing SOA concentrations (−40 vs. −8% for anthropogenics, and −52 vs. −11% for biogenics. Reductions for biogenic SOA are found to be higher due to the higher water solubility of biogenic SVOCs. The majority of the total mass of SVOC + SOA is actually deposited via the gas phase (61% for anthropogenics and 76% for biogenics. Results are sensitive to assumptions made in the dry deposition scheme, but gas-phase deposition of SVOCs remains crucial even under conservative estimates. Considering reactivity of gas-phase SVOCs in the dry deposition scheme was found to be negligible. Further sensitivity studies where we reduce the volatility of organic matter show that consideration of gas-phase SVOC removal still reduces average SOA concentrations by 31% on average. We consider this a lower bound for the effect of gas-phase SVOC removal on SOA concentrations. A saturation effect is observed for Henry's law constants above 108 M atm−1, suggesting an upper bound of reductions in surface level SOA concentrations by 60% through removal of gas-phase SVOCs. Other models that do not consider dry and wet removal of gas-phase SVOCs would hence overestimate SOA concentrations by roughly 50%. Assumptions about the water

  15. HyFlux - Part I: Regional Modeling of Methane Flux From Near-Seafloor Gas Hydrate Deposits on Continental Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Asper, V.; Garcia, O. P.; Kastner, M.; Leifer, I.; Naehr, T.; Solomon, E.; Yvon-Lewis, S.; Zimmer, B.

    2008-12-01

    HyFlux - Part I: Regional modeling of methane flux from near-seafloor gas hydrate deposits on continental margins MacDonald, I.R., Asper, V., Garcia, O., Kastner, M., Leifer, I., Naehr, T.H., Solomon, E., Yvon-Lewis, S., and Zimmer, B. The Dept. of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) has recently awarded a project entitled HyFlux: "Remote sensing and sea-truth measurements of methane flux to the atmosphere." The project will address this problem with a combined effort of satellite remote sensing and data collection at proven sites in the Gulf of Mexico where gas hydrate releases gas to the water column. Submarine gas hydrate is a large pool of greenhouse gas that may interact with the atmosphere over geologic time to affect climate cycles. In the near term, the magnitude of methane reaching the atmosphere from gas hydrate on continental margins is poorly known because 1) gas hydrate is exposed to metastable oceanic conditions in shallow, dispersed deposits that are poorly imaged by standard geophysical techniques and 2) the consumption of methane in marine sediments and in the water column is subject to uncertainty. The northern GOM is a prolific hydrocarbon province where rapid migration of oil, gases, and brines from deep subsurface petroleum reservoirs occurs through faults generated by salt tectonics. Focused expulsion of hydrocarbons is manifested at the seafloor by gas vents, gas hydrates, oil seeps, chemosynthetic biological communities, and mud volcanoes. Where hydrocarbon seeps occur in depths below the hydrate stability zone (~500m), rapid flux of gas will feed shallow deposits of gas hydrate that potentially interact with water column temperature changes; oil released from seeps forms sea-surface features that can be detected in remote-sensing images. The regional phase of the project will quantify verifiable sources of methane (and oil) the Gulf of Mexico continental margin and selected margins (e.g. Pakistan Margin, South China Sea

  16. Chapter D: With or Without Salt-a Comparison of Marine and Continental-Lacustrine Diatomite Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Phillip R.; Dolley, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    Diatoms in sedimentary deposits of marine and continental, especially lacustrine, origin have similar nutrient (for example, phosphate, nitrate, and silica) and light requirements; however, their geologic ranges and physiographic environments vary. Marine diatoms range in age from Early Cretaceous to Holocene, and continental diatoms range in age from Eocene to Holocene; however, most commercial diatomites, both marine and lacustrine, were deposited during the Miocene. Marine deposits of commercial value generally accumulated along continental margins with submerged coastal basins and shelves where wind-driven boundary currents provided the nutrient-rich upwelling conditions capable of supporting a productive diatom habitat. Commercial freshwater diatomite deposits occur in volcanic terrains associated with events that formed sediment-starved drainage basins, such as the Basin and Range Province, particularly in Nevada. Marine habitats generally are characterized by stable conditions of temperature, salinity, pH, nutrients, and water currents, in contrast to lacustrine habitats, which are characterized by wide variations in these conditions. Marine deposits generally are of higher quality and contain larger resources, owing to their greater areal extent and thickness, whereas most of the world's known diatomites are of lacustrine origin. Both types of deposit are commonly mined by open-pit methods and subjected to processing designed to remove organic matter, CO2, pore water, and inorganic contaminants in order to produce purified products. The highest quality diatomites, predominantly from marine sources, are used in filtration, although both types of deposit produce filter grades, and additional end uses include fillers, additives, absorbents, and abrasives.

  17. Geochemistry of the triassic-Jurassic alpine continental deposits: origin and geodynamic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.; Goffe, B.; Toulhoat, P.

    1997-01-01

    Mid-Triassic to mid-Jurassic Alpine continental deposits are known all along the former Brianconnais peninsula. They constitutes small karstic pockets on the thick Triassic calcareous series and their chemistry evolves between bauxites s.s. and aluminous argilites. Most of them were deeply buried during the Alpine orogenesis as recorded by HP-LT metamorphism. Only the deposits of the Pre-Alps were submitted to lower PT conditions (diagenesis-anchizone boundary) during their incorporation in the thrust wedge of the 'Prealpes Medianes'. These formations are known for containing traces of light elements (Li, F) and heavy elements (Zn, REE...). In order to understand the possible origin of these elements, we studied the geochemistry (major and trace elements) of two representative deposits, one in Vanoise which underwent a HP-LT metamorphism, the other one in the Pre-Alps, which was only submitted to diagenesis. Trace elements patterns allow us to preclude an autochthonous origin for these formations as well as the intervention of metasomatism, and demonstrate a granitic origin. Moreover, discrimination diagrams for granites indicate an obvious alkaline granitic origin for these deposits. In the framework of the Alpine palaeogeography, we then discuss the possible granitic sources. Two main sources can be invoked: either a Brianconnais s.s. formation (crystalline or sediments), which supposes a more intense erosion as classically admitted, or more distant sources such as the Corso-Sardinian alkaline acid-rocks, which supposes a complex palaeo-hydrography. This confirms the sedimentary origin of the light elements in these rocks and precludes the intervention of light elements-rich hydrothermal fluids migrating through Alpine metamorphic units. (author)

  18. Seasonal and long-term change in lead deposition in central Japan: evidence for atmospheric transport from continental Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellis, David J.; Satake, Kenichi; Inagaki, Michiko; Zeng, Jiye; Oizumi, Tsuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    Long-range transport of air pollution from continental Asia is currently an important issue concerning the Japanese environment, especially in regions susceptible to acidification due to low buffering capacity, such as Murakami, Niigata prefecture, located on the west coast of central Japan. Evidence for long-range transport was obtained through lead and lead isotopic analysis of 84 archived precipitation filters, showing seasonal changes in lead deposition from May 1999 to May 2002. Lead deposition was highest in winter and spring (November through May) each year and lowest in summer. Computed 72-h back trajectories showed that in winter air masses were predominantly transported from the northwest, passing over northern China and eastern Russia, whilst in summer air masses predominantly originated from the southeast passing over Japan. Lead isotopic analysis showed higher 208 Pb/ 206 Pb during winter, indicating that lead originated from a different source. A plot of 207 Pb/ 206 Pb vs. 208 Pb/ 206 Pb identified a thorogenic component, which is excess 208 Pb compared to a standard lead growth curve, indicative of certain lead ores and coals in continental Asia. The data provided evidence of long-range transport of lead from continental Asia to Japan. Bark pockets included within the trunks of two Japanese cedar trees harvested near Murakami, dating between 1972 and 1982, exhibited lead isotope ratios indicative of Japanese-sourced lead. In contrast, current (2003) bark showed thorogenic ratios, consistent with a relative decline in Japanese-sourced and increase in continental-sourced lead

  19. Mesozoic Continental Sediment-dispersal Systems of Mexico Linked to Development of the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, T. F.; Molina-Garza, R. S.; Barboza-Gudiño, R.; Rogers, R. D.

    2013-05-01

    Major sediment dispersal systems on western Pangea evolved in concert with thermal uplift, rift and drift phases of the Gulf of Mexico Basin, and were influenced by development of a continental arc on Pangea's western margin. Existing literature and preliminary data from fieldwork, sandstone petrology and detrital zircon analysis reveal how major drainages in Mexico changed from Late Triassic through Late Jurassic time and offer predictions for the ultimate destinations of sand-rich detritus along the Gulf and paleo-Pacific margins. Late Triassic rivers drained away from and across the present site of the Gulf of Mexico, which was then the location of a major thermal dome, the Texas uplift of recent literature. These high-discharge rivers with relatively mature sediment composition fed a large-volume submarine fan system on the paleo-Pacific continental margin of Mexico. Predictably, detrital zircon age populations are diverse and record sources as far away as the Amazonian craton. This enormous fluvial system was cut off abruptly near the Triassic-Jurassic boundary by extensive reorganization of continental drainages. Early and Middle Jurassic drainage systems had local headwaters and deposited sediment in extensional basins associated with arc magmatism. Redbeds accumulated across northern and eastern Mexico and Chiapas in long, narrow basins whose locations and dimensions are recorded primarily by inverted antiformal massifs. The Jurassic continental successions overlie Upper Triassic strata and local subvolcanic plutons; they contain interbedded volcanic rocks and thus have been interpreted as part of the Nazas continental-margin arc. The detritus of these fluvial systems is volcanic-lithic; syndepositional grain ages are common in the detrital zircon populations, which are mixed with Oaxaquia-derived Permo-Triassic and Grenville age populations. By this time, interior Pangea no longer supplied sediment to the paleo-Pacific margin, possibly because the

  20. Aeolian deposition of Arabia and Somalia sediments on the southwestern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    Kaolinite, smectite, illite and chlorite as major clay minerals and palygorskite and gibbsite in minor quantities have been recorded from the slope of southwestern continental margin of India. Contribution of kaolinite, smectite and gibbsite is from...

  1. Long-term controls on continental-scale bedrock river terrace deposition from integrated clast and heavy mineral assemblage analysis: An example from the lower Orange River, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashole, Albertina N.; Hodgson, David M.; Chapman, Robert J.; Morgan, Dan J.; Jacob, Roger J.

    2018-02-01

    Establishing relationships between the long-term landscape evolution of drainage basins and the fill of sedimentary basins benefits from analysis of bedrock river terrace deposits. These fragmented detrital archives help to constrain changes in river system character and provenance during sediment transfer from continents (source) to oceans (sink). Thick diamondiferous gravel terrace deposits along the lower Orange River, southern Namibia, provide a rare opportunity to investigate controls on the incision history of a continental-scale bedrock river. Clast assemblage and heavy mineral data from seven localities permit detailed characterisation of the lower Orange River gravel terrace deposits. Two distinct fining-upward gravel terrace deposits are recognised, primarily based on mapped stratigraphic relationships (cross-cutting relationships) and strath and terrace top elevations, and secondarily on the proportion of exotic clasts, referred to as Proto Orange River deposits and Meso Orange River deposits. The older early to middle Miocene Proto Orange River gravels are thick (up to 50 m) and characterised by a dominance of Karoo Supergroup shale and sandstone clasts, whereas the younger Plio-Pleistocene Meso Orange River gravels (6-23 m thick) are characterised by more banded iron formation clasts. Mapping of the downstepping terraces indicates that the Proto gravels were deposited by a higher sinuosity river, and are strongly discordant to the modern Orange River course, whereas the Meso deposits were deposited by a lower sinuosity river. The heavy minerals present in both units comprise magnetite, garnet, amphibole, epidote and ilmenite, with rare titanite and zircon grains. The concentration of amphibole-epidote in the heavy minerals fraction increases from the Proto to the Meso deposits. The decrease in incision depths, recorded by deposit thicknesses above strath terraces, and the differences in clast character (size and roundness) and type between the two

  2. Mineralogical controls on the weathering characteristics of arid continental deposits of the Colorado Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Tunheim, Ragnhild Johanne

    2015-01-01

    The Permian to Jurassic stratigraphy of the Colorado Plateau includes a number of units that were deposited under arid depositional conditions. These units each show distinctive weathering characteristics which cannot solely be attributed to variation in depositional environment or burial history. The stratigraphic units are the Permian Cutler Formation, the Triassic Chinle Formation, the Jurassic Wingate Sandstone, the Kayenta Formation, the Navajo Sandstone, the Slickrock Member and the Moa...

  3. Deposition and Burial Efficiency of Terrestrial Organic Carbon Exported from Small Mountainous Rivers to the Continental Margin, Southwest of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, F.; Lin, S.; Wang, C.; Huh, C.

    2007-12-01

    Terrestrial organic carbon exported from small mountainous river to the continental margin may play an important role in global carbon cycle and it?|s biogeochemical process. A huge amount of suspended materials from small rivers in southwestern Taiwan (104 million tons per year) could serve as major carbon source to the adjacent ocean. However, little is know concerning fate of this terrigenous organic carbon. The purpose of this study is to calculate flux of terrigenous organic carbon deposited in the continental margin, offshore southwestern Taiwan through investigating spatial variation of organic carbon content, organic carbon isotopic compositions, organic carbon deposition rate and burial efficiency. Results show that organic carbon compositions in sediment are strongly influenced by terrestrial material exported from small rivers in the region, Kaoping River, Tseng-wen River and Er-jan Rver. In addition, a major part of the terrestrial materials exported from the Kaoping River may bypass shelf region and transport directly into the deep sea (South China Sea) through the Kaoping Canyon. Organic carbon isotopic compositions with lighter carbon isotopic values are found near the Kaoping River and Tseng-wen River mouth and rapidly change from heavier to lighter values through shelf to slope. Patches of lighter organic carbon isotopic compositions with high organic carbon content are also found in areas west of Kaoping River mouth, near the Kaoshiung city. Furthermore, terrigenous organic carbons with lighter isotopic values are found in the Kaoping canyon. A total of 0.028 Mt/yr of terrestrial organic carbon was found in the study area, which represented only about 10 percent of all terrestrial organic carbon deposited in the study area. Majority (~90 percent) of the organic carbon exported from the Kaoping River maybe directly transported into the deep sea (South China Sea) and become a major source of organic carbon in the deep sea.

  4. The influence of continental air masses on the aerosols and nutrients deposition over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiangping; Wang, Bo; Chen, Ying; Ma, Qingwei

    2018-01-01

    The air masses transported from East Asia have a strong impact on the aerosol properties and deposition in the marine boundary layer of the western North Pacific (WNP) during winter and spring. We joined a cruise between 17 Mar. and 22 Apr. 2014 and investigated the changes of aerosol composition and size distribution over the remote WNP and marginal seas. Although the secondary aerosol species (SO42-, NO3- and NH4+) in remote WNP were influenced significantly by the continental transport, NH4+ concentrations were lower than 2.7 μg m-3 in most sampling days and not correlated with non-sea-salt (nss)-SO42- suggesting that the ocean could be a primary source of NH4+. Moderate Cl- depletion (23%) was observed in remote WNP, and the inverse relationship between Cl- depletion percentages and nss-K+ in aerosols suggested that the transport of biomass burning smoke from East Asia might be a vital extra source of Cl-. Both Asian dust and haze events were encountered during the cruise. Asian dust carried large amounts of crustal elements such as Al and Ti to the WNP, and the dusty Fe deposition may double its background concentration in seawater. Differently, a dramatic increase of dry deposition flux of dissolved particulate inorganic nitrogen was observed during the haze event. Our study reveals that the transport of different continental air masses may have distinct biogeochemical impacts on the WNP by increasing the fluxes of different nutrient elements and potentially changing the nutrient stoichiometry.

  5. The Deposition and Accumulation of Microplastics in Marine Sediments and Bottom Water from the Irish Continental Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jake; Lusher, Amy; Thompson, Richard C; Morley, Audrey

    2017-09-07

    Microplastics are widely dispersed throughout the marine environment. An understanding of the distribution and accumulation of this form of pollution is crucial for gauging environmental risk. Presented here is the first record of plastic contamination, in the 5 mm-250 μm size range, of Irish continental shelf sediments. Sixty-two microplastics were recovered from 10 of 11 stations using box cores. 97% of recovered microplastics were found to reside shallower than 2.5 cm sediment depth, with the area of highest microplastic concentration being the water-sediment interface and top 0.5 cm of sediments (66%). Microplastics were not found deeper than 3.5 ± 0.5 cm. These findings demonstrate that microplastic contamination is ubiquitous within superficial sediments and bottom water along the western Irish continental shelf. Results highlight that cores need to be at least 4-5 cm deep to quantify the standing stock of microplastics within marine sediments. All recovered microplastics were classified as secondary microplastics as they appear to be remnants of larger items; fibres being the principal form of microplastic pollution (85%), followed by broken fragments (15%). The range of polymer types, colours and physical forms recovered suggests a variety of sources. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms influencing microplastic transport, deposition, resuspension and subsequent interactions with biota.

  6. Continental scale Antarctic deposition of sulphur and black carbon from anthropogenic and volcanic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-F. Graf

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available While Antarctica is often described as a pristine environment, there is an increasing awareness of the potential threats from local pollution sources including tourist ships and emissions associated with scientific activities. However, to date there has been no systematic attempt to model the impacts of such pollutants at the continental scale. Indeed, until very recently there was not even a sulphur emission budget available for Antarctica. Here we present the first comprehensive study of atmospheric pollution in Antarctica using a limited area chemistry climate model, and a monthly emissions inventory for sulphur from maintenance of research stations, ground and air traffic, shipping and the active Erebus volcano. We find that ship emissions, both sulphurous and black carbon, dominate anthropogenic pollution near the ground. Their prevalence is likely to rise dramatically if recent trends in tourism continue.

  7. Ore-controlling mechanism of carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium deposits with down-faulted red basins in the southeast continental margin of Yangtze plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zilong; Qi Fucheng; He Zhongbo; Li Zhixing; Wang Wenquan; Yu Jinshui

    2012-01-01

    One of the important ore-concentrated areas of carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium deposits is the Southeast continental margin of Yangtze plate. Sedimentary-exogenously transformed type and sedimentary- hydrothermal superimposed transformed type uranium deposits are always distributed at or near the edge of down-faulted red ba sins. In this paper, the distributions of the deposits are analyzed with the relation to down-faulted red basins. The connective effect and ore-controlling mechanism are proposed of carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium deposits with marginal fractures of red basins. (authors)

  8. Observations on the relation between lacustrine facies and uranium deposits in continental sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    A recent sedimentological concept and approach in the evaluation of lacustrine deposition environments for their geological uranium potential are described. The presence of certain types of limonite seems to be a key factor in the process of leaching, the formation of pyrite and the precipitation of uranium. (author)

  9. Geology and recognition criteria for roll-type uranium deposits in continental sandstones. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harshman, E.N.; Adams, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The study of roll-type deposits during the past 20 years, since the first description of a deposit in the United States, has developed general concepts of ore formation which are accepted widely and are compatible with available data. If this were not the case the concepts would not have endured and could not have been so successfully applied to exploration using the relations of altered-unaltered sandstone. The comparative simplicity of the model, and the ease with which it has been applied to exploration have, oddly enough, probably inhibited detailed studies of ore districts that would have provided data now needed for refinement of ore controls for exploration and resource assessment programs. The most thorough study of a roll-type district was that of the Shirley Basin which is drawn on heavily in this report. The general concept of roll-type formation provides a strong basis for the development of geological observations and guides, or recognition criteria, for resource studies and exploration. Indeed, industry has been developing and using them for 20 years. As the objective of this study was to identify the most useful recognition criteria and develop a method for their systematic use in resource studies and exploration, the study is best summarized by reference to the important geological observations about roll-type deposits

  10. Relationship between uranium-molybdenum, fluorite and gold deposits within provinces of continental volcanicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modnikov, I.S.; Skvortsova, K.V.; Chesnokov, L.V.

    1974-01-01

    The article gives a comparative description of and the age relationships between uranium-molybdenum, gold and fluorite mineralizations in the areas of development of adhesite-diorite and liparite-granite vulcanoplutonic formations, which are most fully and intensively manifest in the intra-anticlinal and median blocks of folded regions in the final stages of geosynclinal development or during the final stages of tectono-magmatic activation. These formations usually fill vulcano-tectonic depression structures - overlaid troughs and inherited delections. The geological and geochemical data are evidence of the close temporal link between the hydrothermal process of ore formation and the type and scale of manifestations of the vulcano-plutonic magmatism that is responsible for the general geochemical features of the ores of deposits of various types. The formation of gold, fluorite and uranium-molybdenum deposits occurred immediately after the completion of effusive and intrusive magmatism during a single metallogenic cycle. The spatial distribution of the ore fields and deposits depends chiefly on the peculiarities of the tectonic make-up of the depression structures, and also on the type and scale of the manifestations of vulcano-plutonic magmatism. (B.Ya.)

  11. Seismic evidence for the preservation of several stacked Pleistocene coastal barrier/lagoon systems on the Gulf of Valencia continental shelf (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Silvia; Alcántara-Carrió, Javier; Barranco, Andrés; Sánchez García, María José; Fontán Bouzas, Ángela; Rey Salgado, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    The focus of this study is the analysis of coastal sand barriers and associated coastal lagoons on the inner continental shelf of the Gulf of Valencia (western Mediterranean), based on two W-E seismic profiles recorded seaward of the Albufera de Valencia coastal lagoon. Seismic facies identified include a number of coastal sand barriers with landward lagoons draped by contemporary continental shelf deposits. The barrier systems have been grouped into two sedimentary systems tracts, the older one corresponding to a prograding/aggrading highstand systems tract involving at least four paleo-coastal sand barrier/lagoon systems, followed landward by a transgressive systems tract comprising three such systems. All the systems have been allocated a Tyrrhenian age, the formation of individual barrier systems having been associated with successive sea-level stillstands, and their present-day position being explained by the very high regional subsidence rate. In summary, this study demonstrates that the Quaternary stratigraphic record of the Gulf of Valencia inner continental shelf is composed of littoral sand facies, in particular coastal sand barrier and lagoon deposits. These findings are in agreement with corresponding observations on other continental shelves of the western Mediterranean, showing that the formation of coastal sand barriers was a characteristic feature of this region during the Quaternary.

  12. Submerged reef systems on the central western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Almeida, F.

    -262 255 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam -- Printed in the Netherlands Letter Section Submerged Reef Systems on the Central Western Continental Shelf of India K.H. VORA and F. ALMEIDA National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403... 004 (India) (Revision accepted October 26, 1989) Abstract Vora, K.H. and Almeida, F., 1990. Submerged reef systems on the central western continental shelf of India. Mar. Geol., 91: 255-262. Echosounding and sidescan sonar data from the western...

  13. A lithium deposition system for tokamak devices*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziul, Christopher; Majeski, Richard; Kaita, Robert; Hoffman, Daniel; Timberlake, John; Card, David

    2002-11-01

    The production of a lithium deposition system using commercially available components is discussed. This system is intended to provide a fresh lithium wall coating between discharges in a tokamak. For this purpose, a film 100-200 Å thick is sufficient to ensure that the plasma interacts solely with the lithium. A test system consisting of a lithium evaporator and a deposition monitor has been designed and constructed to investigate deposition rates and coverage. A Thermionics 3kW e-gun is used to rapidly evaporate small amounts of solid lithium. An Inficon XTM/2 quartz deposition monitor then measures deposition rate at varying distances, positions and angles relative to the e-gun crucible. Initial results from the test system will be presented. *Supported by US DOE contract #DE-AC02-76CH-03073

  14. Ore-forming environment and ore-forming system of carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium deposit in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Fucheng; Zhang Zilong; Li Zhixing; He Zhongbo; Wang Wenquan

    2012-01-01

    It is proposed that there are four types of ore-forming systems about carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium deposit in China based on systematic study on structural environment and distribution regularity of uraniferous construction of marine carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock in China: continental margin rift valley ore-forming systems, continental margin rifting deep fracture zone ore-forming systems, landmass boundary borderland basin ore-forming systems and epicontinental mobile belt downfaulted aulacogen ore-forming systems. It is propounded definitely that it is controlled by margin rift valley ore-forming systems and continental margin rifting deep fracture zone ore-forming systems for large-scale uranium mineralization of carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium deposit in China, which is also controlled by uraniferous marine carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock construction made up of silicalite, siliceous phosphorite and carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock, which settled down accompany with submarine backwash and sub marine volcanic eruption in margin rift valley and continental margin rifting mineralizing environment. Continental mar gin rift valley and continental margin rifting thermal sedimentation or exhalation sedimentation is the mechanism of forming large-scale uraniferous marine carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock construction Early Palaeozoic Era in China or large-scale uranium-polymetallic mineralization. (authors)

  15. High throughput semiconductor deposition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David L.; Ptak, Aaron Joseph; Kuech, Thomas F.; Schulte, Kevin; Simon, John D.

    2017-11-21

    A reactor for growing or depositing semiconductor films or devices. The reactor may be designed for inline production of III-V materials grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The operating principles of the HVPE reactor can be used to provide a completely or partially inline reactor for many different materials. An exemplary design of the reactor is shown in the attached drawings. In some instances, all or many of the pieces of the reactor formed of quartz, such as welded quartz tubing, while other reactors are made from metal with appropriate corrosion resistant coatings such as quartz or other materials, e.g., corrosion resistant material, or stainless steel tubing or pipes may be used with a corrosion resistant material useful with HVPE-type reactants and gases. Using HVPE in the reactor allows use of lower-cost precursors at higher deposition rates such as in the range of 1 to 5 .mu.m/minute.

  16. Tectonic and climatic controls on continental depositional facies in the Karoo Basin of northern Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brian R.

    1986-02-01

    The eastern Karoo Basin, South Africa, contains a thick sequence of terrigenous clastic sediments comprising a meanderbelt facies, braided channel facies divided into coarse and fine subfacies, fluviolacustrine facies and aeolian facies. Depositional trends and changes in fluvial style reflect a progressive increase in aridity of the climate under stable tectonic conditions, interrupted by two phases of source area tectonism and the development of fine and coarse clastic wedges of the braided channel subfacies; the latter signifying a short interlude of cool, wet conditions. The fine braided channel subfacies occurs in the upper part of the meanderbelt facies, which was deposited by ephemeral, meandering mixed-load streams of variable discharge and sinuosity, under dry, semi-arid climatic conditions. These deposited complex, internally discordant channel sands and well-developed levee deposits. Following deposition of the coarse braided channel subfacies semi-arid conditions returned and fluvial deposition was dominated by ephemeral, straight to slightly sinuous mixed load streams characterised by simple channel sand bodies. As the aridity of the climate increased, the streams became more localised and carried an increasing proportion of fines. Interbedded with and overlying the fluvial deposits is a mudstone-dominated lacustrine sequence grading up into aeolian sands suggesting a playa lake-type situation. The general absence of evaporites from these sediments is attributed to the fresh nature of the lake waters, as evidenced by the freshwater aquatic organisms and clay-mineral suite, the lack of adequate inflow for solute accumulation and the removal of dust impregnated by salts from the surface of the dry lake bed during the dry season by superheated, upward-spiralling columns of air. Broadly similar environments to the fluvio-lacustrine and aeolian facies sequence are to be found in the Lake Eyre Basin of central Australia and the Okavango "delta" of northern

  17. Magnetite deposition in PWR secondary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, V.; Riess, R.; Ruehle, W.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, local magnetite (Fe 3 04) deposition has been observed at various locations within the secondary systems of Siemens-designed PWRs. These deposits sometimes limited operational flexibility and affected routine operation checks. In addition, these deposits may affect the heat transfer characteristics of heat exchangers. Prior to replacement of components or piping or other extensive maintenance activities it should be investigated whether any modification in secondary-side water chemistry might counteract this corrosion phenomenon, which has proven very effective in maintaining steam generator performance. A VGB study will make an assessment of available field information, and countermeasures will be elaborated. This paper describes the current status of the project. (orig.) [de

  18. Information system of mineral deposits in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribernik, K.; Rokavec, D.; Šinigioj, J.; Šolar, S.

    2010-03-01

    At the Geologic Survey of Slovenia the need for complex overview and control of the deposits of available non-metallic mineral raw materials and of their exploitations became urgent. In the framework of the Geologic Information System we established the Database of non-metallic mineral deposits comprising all important data of deposits and concessionars. Relational database is built with program package MS Access, but in year 2008 we plan to transfer it on SQL server. In the evidence there is 272 deposits and 200 concessionars. The mineral resources information system of Slovenia, which was started back in 2002, consists of two integrated parts, mentioned relational database of mineral deposits, which relates information in tabular way so that rules of relational algebra can be applied, and geographic information system (GIS), which relates spatial information of deposits. . The complex relationships between objects and the concepts of normalized data structures, lead to the practical informative and useful data model, transparent to the user and to better decision-making by allowing future scenarios to be developed and inspected. Computerized storage, and display system is as already said, developed and managed under the support of Geological Survey of Slovenia, which conducts research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources in order to help the Nation make informed decisions using earth-science information. Information about deposit is stored in records in approximately hundred data fields. A numeric record number uniquely identifies each site. The data fields are grouped under principal categories. Each record comprise elementary data of deposit (name, type, location, prospect, rock), administrative data (concessionar, number of decree in official paper, object of decree, number of contract and its duration) and data of mineral resource produced amount and size of exploration area). The data can also be searched, sorted and

  19. Deposit control in process cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataramani, B.

    1981-01-01

    In order to achieve efficient heat transfer in cooling water systems, it is essential to control the fouling of heat exchanger surfaces. Solubilities of scale forming salts, their growth into crystals, and the nature of the surfaces play important roles in the deposition phenomenon. Condensed phosphates, organic polymers and compounds like phosphates are effective in controlling deposition of scale forming salts. The surface active agents inhibit crystal growth and modify the crystals of the scale forming salts, and thus prevent deposition of dense, uniformly structured crystalline mass on the heat transfer surface. Understanding the mechanism of biofouling is essential to control it by surface active agents. Certain measures taken in the plant, such as back flushing, to control scaling, sometimes may not be effective and can be detrimental to the system itself. (author)

  20. Tropical continental downdraft characteristics: mesoscale systems versus unorganized convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiro, Kathleen A.; Neelin, J. David

    2018-02-01

    Downdrafts and cold pool characteristics for strong mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) and isolated, unorganized deep precipitating convection are analyzed using multi-instrument data from the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) GoAmazon2014/5 campaign. Increases in column water vapor (CWV) are observed leading convection, with higher CWV preceding MCSs than for isolated cells. For both MCSs and isolated cells, increases in wind speed, decreases in surface moisture and temperature, and increases in relative humidity occur coincidentally with system passages. Composites of vertical velocity data and radar reflectivity from a radar wind profiler show that the downdrafts associated with the sharpest decreases in surface equivalent potential temperature (θe) have a probability of occurrence that increases with decreasing height below the freezing level. Both MCSs and unorganized convection show similar mean downdraft magnitudes and probabilities with height. Mixing computations suggest that, on average, air originating at heights greater than 3 km must undergo substantial mixing, particularly in the case of isolated cells, to match the observed cold pool θe, implying a low typical origin level. Precipitation conditionally averaged on decreases in surface equivalent potential temperature (Δθe) exhibits a strong relationship because the most negative Δθe values are associated with a high probability of precipitation. The more physically motivated conditional average of Δθe on precipitation shows that decreases in θe level off with increasing precipitation rate, bounded by the maximum difference between surface θe and its minimum in the profile aloft. Robustness of these statistics observed across scales and regions suggests their potential use as model diagnostic tools for the improvement of downdraft parameterizations in climate models.

  1. Rollback of an intraoceanic subduction system and termination against a continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S. M.; Simmons, N. A.; Moucha, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Southeast Indian Slab (SEIS) seismic anomaly has been suggested to represent a Tethyan intraoceanic subduction system which operated during the Jurassic until its termination at or near the margin of East Gondwana (Simmons et al., 2015). As plate reconstructions suggest the downgoing plate remained coupled to the continental margin, this long-lived system likely experienced a significant amount of slab rollback and trench migration (up to 6000 km). Using a 2D thermomechanical numerical code that includes the effects of phase transitions, we test this interpretation by modeling the long-term subduction, transition zone stagnation, and rollback of an intraoceanic subduction system in which the downgoing plate remains coupled to a continental margin. In addition, we also investigate the termination style of such a system, with a particular focus on the potential for some continental subduction beneath an overriding oceanic plate. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-735738

  2. Manganese deposition in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tammie L; Little, Brenda J; Barry Maynard, J

    2016-01-15

    This study provides a physicochemical assessment of manganese deposits on brass and lead components from two fully operational drinking water distributions systems. One of the systems was maintained with chlorine; the other, with secondary chloramine disinfection. Synchrotron-based in-situ micro X-ray adsorption near edge structure was used to assess the mineralogy. In-situ micro X-ray fluorescence mapping was used to demonstrate the spatial relationships between manganese and potentially toxic adsorbed metal ions. The Mn deposits ranged in thickness from 0.01 to 400 μm. They were composed primarily of Mn oxides/oxhydroxides, birnessite (Mn(3+) and Mn(4+)) and hollandite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), and a Mn silicate, braunite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), in varying proportions. Iron, chromium, and strontium, in addition to the alloying elements lead and copper, were co-located within manganese deposits. With the exception of iron, all are related to specific health issues and are of concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The specific properties of Mn deposits, i.e., adsorption of metals ions, oxidation of metal ions and resuspension are discussed with respect to their influence on drinking water quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lithology, monsoon and sea-surface current control on provenance, dispersal and deposition of sediments over the Andaman continental shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damodararao, K.; Singh, S.K.; Rai, V.K.; Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.

    , constrain their transport pathways and assess the factors influencing the erosion in the catchment and their dispersal and deposition over the Andaman Shelf region. Major elemental compositions of the shelf sediments suggest mafic lithology...

  4. Continental-scale assessment of long-term trends in wet deposition trajectories: Role of anthropogenic and hydro-climatic drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Gall, H. E.; Niyogi, D.; Rao, S.

    2012-12-01

    The global trend of increased urbanization, and associated increased intensity of energy and material consumption and waste emissions, has contributed to shifts in the trajectories of aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric environments. Here, we focus on continental-scale spatiotemporal patterns in two atmospheric constituents (nitrate and sulfate), whose global biogeochemical cycles have been dramatically altered by emissions from mobile and fixed sources in urbanized and industrialized regions. The observed patterns in wet deposition fluxes of nitrate and sulfate are controlled by (1) natural hydro-climatic forcing, and (2) anthropogenic forcing (emissions and regulatory control), both of which are characterized by stochasticity and non-stationarity. We examine long-term wet deposition records in the U.S., Europe, and East Asia to evaluate how anthropogenic and natural forcing factors jointly contributed to the shifting temporal patterns of wet deposition fluxes at continental scales. These data offer clear evidence for successful implementation of regulatory controls and widespread adoption of technologies contributed to improving water quality and mitigation of adverse ecological impacts. We developed a stochastic model to project the future trajectories of wet deposition fluxes in emerging countries with fast growing urban areas. The model generates ellipses within which projected wet deposition flux trajectories are inscribed, similar to the trends in observational data. The shape of the ellipses provides information regarding the relative dominance of anthropogenic (e.g., industrial and urban emissions) versus hydro-climatic drivers (e.g., rainfall patterns, aridity index). Our analysis facilitates projections of the trajectory shift as a result of urbanization and other land-use changes, climate change, and regulatory enforcement. We use these observed data and the model to project likely trajectories for rapidly developing countries (BRIC), with a

  5. Mastritherium (Artiodactyla, Anthracotheriidae) from Wadi Sabya, southwestern Saudi Arabia; an earliest Miocene age for continental rift-valley volcanic deposits of the Red Sea margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Gary T.; Schmidt, Dwight Lyman; Whitmore, Frank C.

    1983-01-01

    A lower jaw fragment with its last molar (M/3) from the Baid formation in Wadi Sabya, southwestern Saudi Arabia, represents the first recorded occurrence in the Arabian Peninsula of an anthracotheriid artiodactyl (hippo-like, even-toed ungulate). This fossil is identified as a primitive species of Masritherium, a North and East African genus restricted, previously to the later early Miocene. This identification indicates that the age of the Baid formation, long problematical, is early Miocene and, moreover, shows that the age of the fossil site is earliest Miocene (from 25 to 21Ma). The Wadi Sabya anthracothere is the first species of fossil mammal recorded from western Saudi Arabia, and more important, it indicates an early Miocene age for the volcanic deposits of a continental rift-valley that preceded the initial sea-floor spreading of the Red Sea.

  6. Paleomagnetism and rock magnetism from sediments along a continental shelf-to-slope transect in the NW Barents Sea: Implications for geomagnetic and depositional changes during the past 15 thousand years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricchi, C.; Lucchi, R. G.; Sagnotti, L.; Macrì, P.; Morigi, C.; Melis, R.; Caffau, M.; Rebesco, M.; Hanebuth, T. J. J.

    2018-01-01

    Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data were measured on glaciomarine silty-clay successions along an E-W sediment-core transect across the continental shelf and slope of the Kveithola paleo-ice stream system (south of Svalbard, north-western Barents Sea), representing a stratigraphic interval spanning the last deglaciation and the Holocene. The records indicate that magnetite is the main magnetic mineral and that magnetic minerals are distinctly less abundant on the shelf than at the continental slope. The paleomagnetic properties allow for the reconstruction of a well-defined characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) throughout the sedimentary successions. The stratigraphic trends of rock magnetic and paleomagnetic parameters are used for a shelf-slope core correlation and sediment facies analysis is applied for depositional processes reconstruction. The new paleomagnetic records compare to the PSV and RPI variation predicted for the core sites by a simulation using the global geomagnetic field variation models SHA.DIF.14k and CALS7K.2 and closest PSV and RPI regional stack curves. The elaborated dataset, corroborated by available 14C ages, provides a fundamental chronological framework to constrain the coupling of shelf-slope sedimentary processes and environmental changes in the NW Barents Sea region during and after deglaciation.

  7. 3-D thermal effect of late Cenozoic erosion and deposition within the Lofoten-Vesterålen segment of the Mid-Norwegian continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maystrenko, Yuriy Petrovich; Gernigon, Laurent; Olesen, Odleiv; Ottesen, Dag; Rise, Leif

    2018-05-01

    A 3-D subsurface temperature distribution within the Lofoten-Vesterålen segment of the Mid-Norwegian continental margin and adjacent areas has been studied to understand the thermal effect of late Cenozoic erosion of old sedimentary and crystalline rocks and subsequent deposition of glacial sediments during the Pleistocene. A lithosphere-scale 3-D structural model of the Lofoten-Vesterålen area has been used as a realistic approximation of the geometries of the sedimentary infill, underlying crystalline crust and lithospheric mantle during the 3-D thermal modelling. The influence of late Cenozoic erosion and sedimentation has been included during the 3-D thermal calculations. In addition, the 3-D thermal modelling has been carried out by taking also into account the influence of early Cenozoic continental breakup. The results of the 3-D thermal modelling demonstrate that the mainland is generally colder than the basin areas within the upper part of the 3-D model. The thermal influence of the early Cenozoic breakup is still clearly recognizable within the western and deep parts of the Lofoten-Vesterålen margin segment in terms of the increased temperatures. The thermal effects of the erosion and deposition within the study area also indicate that a positive thermal anomaly exists within the specific subareas where sedimentary and crystalline rocks were eroded. A negative thermal effect occurs in the subareas affected by subsidence and sedimentation. The erosion-related positive thermal anomaly reaches its maximum of more than +27 °C at depths of 17-22 km beneath the eastern part of the Vestfjorden Basin. The most pronounced deposition-related negative anomaly shows a minimum of around -70 °C at 17-20 km depth beneath the Lofoten Basin. The second negative anomaly is located within the northeastern part of the Vøring Basin and has minimal values of around -48 °C at 12-14 km depth. These prominent thermal anomalies are associated with the subareas where

  8. Detection of Abiotic Methane in Terrestrial Continental Hydrothermal Systems: Implications for Methane on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Romanek, Christopher S.; Zhang, Chuanlun L.; Bissada, Kadry K.

    2008-01-01

    The recent detection of methane in the Martian atmosphere and the possibility that its origin could be attributed to biological activity, have highlighted the importance of understanding the mechanisms of methane formation and its usefulness as a biomarker. Much debate has centered on the source of the methane in hydrothermal fluids, whether it is formed biologically by microorganisms, diagenetically through the decomposition of sedimentary organic matter, or inorganically via reduction of CO2 at high temperatures. Ongoing research has now shown that much of the methane present in sea-floor hydrothermal systems is probably formed through inorganic CO2 reduction processes at very high temperatures (greater than 400 C). Experimental results have indicated that methane might form inorganically at temperatures lower still, however these results remain controversial. Currently, methane in continental hydrothermal systems is thought to be formed mainly through the breakdown of sedimentary organic matter and carbon isotope equilibrium between CO2 and CH4 is thought to be rarely present if at all. Based on isotopic measurements of CO2 and CH4 in two continental hydrothermal systems, we suggest that carbon isotope equilibration exists at temperatures as low as 155 C. This would indicate that methane is forming through abiotic CO2 reduction at lower temperatures than previously thought and could bolster arguments for an abiotic origin of the methane detected in the martian atmosphere.

  9. The Impact of Iodide-Mediated Ozone Deposition and Halogen Chemistry on Surface Ozone Concentrations Across the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The air quality of many large coastal areas in the United States is affected by the confluence of polluted urban and relatively clean marine airmasses, each with distinct atmospheric chemistry. In this context, the role of iodide-mediated ozone (O3) deposition over seawater and m...

  10. Joint-patterns, mechanical properties and weathering characteristics of selected, arid, continental deposits of the Colorado Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Heienberg, Linn Therese

    2015-01-01

    The Colorado Plateau contains a stratigraphic sequence spanning from Precambrian to Tertiary in age, including a thick succession of Permian and Mesozoic strata that are well displayed in outcrops throughout southeastern Utah, USA. The appearances of these units, which are controlled by their weathering history, are all unique and pose the question: Why should units with similar depositional environment and burial history look so different?" The most pronounced ...

  11. Model Tests of Under Frequency Load Shedding (UFLS for Connected Systems of Continental Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Głaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The task force set up by working group System Protection and Dynamics within ENTSO-E model tests of Under Frequency Load Shedding (UFLS for connected systems of continental Europe were carried out. Over 360 simulation scenarios were performed including 16 strategies UFLS, 2 variants of load, 6 types of contingency, with and without considering the impact of dispersed generation. On the basis of calculation results conditions for improving the effectiveness of the UFLS were specified,, including recommended changes of UFLS settings, necessary to achieve this aim. The following report contains a summary description of the test method together with the presentation of selected results of summary calculations and conclusions of the study.

  12. Texture, mineralogy and geochemistry of the continental slope sediments in front of Los Tuxtlas, Gulf of Mexico, Mexico: implications on weathering, origin and depositional environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marca-Castillo, M. E.; Armstrong-Altrin, J.

    2017-12-01

    The textural analysis, mineralogy and geochemistry of two sediment cores recovered from the deep water zone of the southwestern part of the Gulf of Mexico ( 1666 and 1672 m water depth) were studied to infer the provenance and depositional behavior. The textural analysis revealed that both cores are dominated by silt, which occupy more than 50% in both samples and the clay occupy 40%. The petrographic analysis revealed remains of biogenic origin sediments and lithic fragments with an angular shape and low sphericity, indicating a low energy environment and therefore a low level of weathering in the sediment, which suggests that the sediments were not affected by transport and derived from a nearby source rock. In both cores quartz fragments were identified; also volcanic lithic and pyroxenes fragments, which are rocks of intermediate composition and are generally associated with the volcanic activity of the continental margins. SEM-EDS studies showed that the analysed samples have concentrations of minerals such as barite, gibbsite, kaolinite, grossular, magnetite, plagioclase and chlorite, which are probably derived from the mainland to the deep sea zone. In the trace element analysis it was observed a low Sc content, while Co, Ni, V and Cu are slightly enriched with respect to the upper continental crust; this enrichment is related to sediments from intermediate sources. The sediments are classified as shale in the log (SiO2 / Al2O3) - log (Fe2O / K2O) diagram. The fine particles of the shale indicate that a deposit occurred as a result of the gradual sedimentation due to relatively non-turbulent currents, which is consistent with the petrographic analysis. The geochemical features of major and trace elements suggest sediments were derived largely from the natural andesite erosion of coastal regions along the Gulf of Mexico. High values of Fe2O3 and MnO are observed in the upper intervals, reflecting the influence of volcanic sediments. The major element

  13. High resolution seismic stratigraphy and Mass Transport Deposits of the proximal continental margin, offshore Quarteira, South Portugal: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Débora; Santos, Joana; Terrinha, Pedro; Brito, Pedro; Noiva, João; Ribeiro, Carlos; Roque, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    More than 300 nautical miles of multichannel seismic reflection data were acquired in the scope of the ASTARTE project (Assessment Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), off Quarteira, Algarve, South Portugal. The main goal of this very high resolution multichannel seismic survey was to obtain high-resolution images of the sedimentary record to try to discern the existence of high energy events, possibly tsunami backwash deposits associated with large magnitude earthquakes generated at the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary This seismic dataset was processed at the Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera (IPMA), with the SeisSpace PROMAX Seismic Processing software. A tailor-made processing flow was applied, focusing in the removal of the seafloor multiple and in the enhancement of the superficial layers. A sparker source, using with 300 J of energy and a fire rate of 0,5 s was used onboard Xunauta, an 18 m long vessel. The preliminary seismostratigraphic interpretation of the Algarve ASTARTE seismic dataset allowed the identification of a complex sequence seismic units of progradational and agradational bodies as well as Mass Transported Deposits (MTD). The MTD package of sediments has a very complex internal structure, 20m of thickness, is apparently spatially controlled by an escarpment probably associated to past sea level low stands. The MTD covers across an area, approximately parallel to an ancient coastline, with >30 km (length) x 5 km (across). Acknowledgements: This work was developed as part of the project ASTARTE (603839 FP7) supported by the grant agreement No 603839 of the European Union's Seventh. The Instituto Portugues do Mar e da Atmosfera acknowledges support by Landmark Graphics (SeisWorks) via the Landmark University Grant Program.

  14. Continental Subduction: Mass Fluxes and Interactions with the Wider Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Substantial parts of ultra-high pressure (UHP) terrains probably represent subducted passive continental margins (PCM). This contribution reviews and synthesises research on processes operating in such systems and their implication for the wider Earth system. PCM sediments are large repositories of volatiles including hydrates, nitrogen species, carbonates and hydrocarbons. Sediments and upper/ mid-crustal basement are rich in incompatible elements and are fertile for melting. Lower crust may be more mafic and refractory. Juvenile rift-related mafic rocks also have the potential to generate substantial volumes of granitoid melts, especially if they have been hydrated. Exposed UHP terrains demonstrate the return of continental crust from mantle depths, show evidence for substantial fluxes of aqueous fluid, anatexis and, in entrained orogenic peridotites, metasomatism of mantle rocks by crust- derived C-O-H fluids. However, substantial bodies of continental material may never return to the surface as coherent masses of rock, but remain sequestered in the mantle where they melt or become entrained in the deeper mantle circulation. Hence during subduction, PCM's become partitioned by a range of mechanisms. Mechanical partitioning strips away weaker sediment and middle/upper crust, which circulate back up the subduction channel, while denser, stronger transitional pro-crust and lower crust may "stall" near the base of the lithosphere or be irreversibly subducted to join the global mantle circulation. Under certain conditions sediment and upper crustal basement may reach depths for UHPM. Further partitioning takes place by anatexis, which either aids stripping and exhumation of the more melt-prone rock-masses through mechanical softening, or separates melt from residuum so that melt escapes and is accreted to the upper plate leading to "undercrusting", late-orogenic magmatism and further refinement of the crust. Melt that traverses sections of mantle will interact with

  15. IMOS National Reference Stations: A Continental-Wide Physical, Chemical and Biological Coastal Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Tim P.; Morello, Elisabetta B.; Evans, Karen; Richardson, Anthony J.; Rochester, Wayne; Steinberg, Craig R.; Roughan, Moninya; Thompson, Peter; Middleton, John F.; Feng, Ming; Sherrington, Robert; Brando, Vittorio; Tilbrook, Bronte; Ridgway, Ken; Allen, Simon; Doherty, Peter; Hill, Katherine; Moltmann, Tim C.

    2014-01-01

    Sustained observations allow for the tracking of change in oceanography and ecosystems, however, these are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. To address this in part, the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) implemented a network of nine National Reference Stations (NRS). The network builds on one long-term location, where monthly water sampling has been sustained since the 1940s and two others that commenced in the 1950s. In-situ continuously moored sensors and an enhanced monthly water sampling regime now collect more than 50 data streams. Building on sampling for temperature, salinity and nutrients, the network now observes dissolved oxygen, carbon, turbidity, currents, chlorophyll a and both phytoplankton and zooplankton. Additional parameters for studies of ocean acidification and bio-optics are collected at a sub-set of sites and all data is made freely and publically available. Our preliminary results demonstrate increased utility to observe extreme events, such as marine heat waves and coastal flooding; rare events, such as plankton blooms; and have, for the first time, allowed for consistent continental scale sampling and analysis of coastal zooplankton and phytoplankton communities. Independent water sampling allows for cross validation of the deployed sensors for quality control of data that now continuously tracks daily, seasonal and annual variation. The NRS will provide multi-decadal time series, against which more spatially replicated short-term studies can be referenced, models and remote sensing products validated, and improvements made to our understanding of how large-scale, long-term change and variability in the global ocean are affecting Australia's coastal seas and ecosystems. The NRS network provides an example of how a continental scaled observing systems can be developed to collect observations that integrate across physics, chemistry and biology. PMID:25517905

  16. IMOS National Reference Stations: a continental-wide physical, chemical and biological coastal observing system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim P Lynch

    Full Text Available Sustained observations allow for the tracking of change in oceanography and ecosystems, however, these are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. To address this in part, the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS implemented a network of nine National Reference Stations (NRS. The network builds on one long-term location, where monthly water sampling has been sustained since the 1940s and two others that commenced in the 1950s. In-situ continuously moored sensors and an enhanced monthly water sampling regime now collect more than 50 data streams. Building on sampling for temperature, salinity and nutrients, the network now observes dissolved oxygen, carbon, turbidity, currents, chlorophyll a and both phytoplankton and zooplankton. Additional parameters for studies of ocean acidification and bio-optics are collected at a sub-set of sites and all data is made freely and publically available. Our preliminary results demonstrate increased utility to observe extreme events, such as marine heat waves and coastal flooding; rare events, such as plankton blooms; and have, for the first time, allowed for consistent continental scale sampling and analysis of coastal zooplankton and phytoplankton communities. Independent water sampling allows for cross validation of the deployed sensors for quality control of data that now continuously tracks daily, seasonal and annual variation. The NRS will provide multi-decadal time series, against which more spatially replicated short-term studies can be referenced, models and remote sensing products validated, and improvements made to our understanding of how large-scale, long-term change and variability in the global ocean are affecting Australia's coastal seas and ecosystems. The NRS network provides an example of how a continental scaled observing systems can be developed to collect observations that integrate across physics, chemistry and biology.

  17. Meso-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the SE Brazilian continental margin: Petrographic, kinematic and dynamic analysis of the onshore Araruama Lagoon Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Pricilla Camões Martins de; Schmitt, Renata da Silva; Stanton, Natasha

    2017-09-01

    The Ararauama Lagoon Fault System composes one of the most prominent set of lineaments of the SE Brazilian continental margin. It is located onshore in a key tectonic domain, where the basement inheritance rule is not followed. This fault system is characterized by ENE-WSW silicified tectonic breccias and cataclasites showing evidences of recurrent tectonic reactivations. Based on field work, microtectonic, kinematic and dynamic analysis, we reconstructed the paleostresses in the region and propose a sequence of three brittle deformational phases accountable for these reactivations: 1) NE-SW dextral transcurrence; 2) NNW-SSE dextral oblique extension that evolved to NNW-SSE "pure" extension; 3) ENE-WSW dextral oblique extension. These phases are reasonably correlated with the tectonic events responsible for the onset and evolution of the SE onshore rift basins, between the Neocretaceous and Holocene. However, based on petrographic studies and supported by regional geological correlations, we assume that the origin of this fault system is older, related to the Early Cretaceous South Atlantic rifting. This study provides significant information about one of the main structural trends of the SE Brazilian continental margin and the tectonic events that controlled its segmentation, since the Gondwana rifting, and compartmentalization of its onshore sedimentary deposits during the Cenozoic.

  18. Finite element simulation of earthquake cycle dynamics for continental listric fault system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, T.; Shen, Z. K.

    2017-12-01

    We simulate stress/strain evolution through earthquake cycles for a continental listric fault system using the finite element method. A 2-D lithosphere model is developed, with the upper crust composed of plasto-elastic materials and the lower crust/upper mantle composed of visco-elastic materials respectively. The media is sliced by a listric fault, which is soled into the visco-elastic lower crust at its downdip end. The system is driven laterally by constant tectonic loading. Slip on fault is controlled by rate-state friction. We start with a simple static/dynamic friction law, and drive the system through multiple earthquake cycles. Our preliminary results show that: (a) periodicity of the earthquake cycles is strongly modulated by the static/dynamic friction, with longer period correlated with higher static friction and lower dynamic friction; (b) periodicity of earthquake is a function of fault depth, with less frequent events of greater magnitudes occurring at shallower depth; and (c) rupture on fault cannot release all the tectonic stress in the system, residual stress is accumulated in the hanging wall block at shallow depth close to the fault, which has to be released either by conjugate faulting or inelastic folding. We are in a process of exploring different rheologic structure and friction laws and examining their effects on earthquake behavior and deformation pattern. The results will be applied to specific earthquakes and fault zones such as the 2008 great Wenchuan earthquake on the Longmen Shan fault system.

  19. Peat-accumulating depositional systems of Sarawak, East Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, James R.; Esterle, Joan S.

    1994-02-01

    Many coal deposits originate in deltaic, estuarine, and coastal plain settings and a knowledge of interrelationships between the tectonic and depositional elements active at the time of sediment deposition is necessary to formulate basin scale models. The prograding coastal depositional systems of Sarawak all contain domed peat-accumulating environments in which low-ash, low-sulfur peats are being deposited in areas of active clastic siliciclastic sedimentation. These depositional systems are as large as 11,400 km 2 and individual peat deposits within systems are in excess of 20 m thick and 1000 km 2 in area. The geographic positions and drainage basin areas of each depositional system are controlled by fault and fold systems. Although prograding into the same receiving basin, individual system geomorphology is variable and ranges from a wave-dominated microtidal delta, to a wave-dominated meso- to macro-tidal delta/coastal plain system, to a tide-dominated macrotidal estuarine embayment along a 450 km stretch of coastline. System variation is a function of sediment supply, shelf and embayment geometry, wave climate, and tidal range. These factors, which control depositional system geomorphology, also control the resulting long axis orientation of the thick, domed peat deposits. The surface vegetation and internal characteristics of most domed peat deposits, however, are similar. Internal characteristics consist of basal high-ash, high-sulfur, degraded peats overlain by low-ash, low-sulfur, well preserved peats in vertical profile. These systems demonstrate variable responses to late Pleistocene/Holocene sea-level rise and, in these instances, the variation is most attributable to local differences in siliciclastic sediment supply, which is a function of the drainage basin area.

  20. Neogene sedimentation on the outer continental margin, southern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallier, T.L.; Underwood, M.B.; Gardner, J.V.; Barron, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Neogene sedimentary rocks and sediments from sites on the outer continental margin in the southern Bering Sea and on the Alaska Peninsula are dominated by volcanic components that probably were eroded from an emergent Aleutian Ridge. A mainland continental source is subordinate. Most sediment in the marine environment was transported to the depositional sites by longshore currents, debris flows, and turbidity currents during times when sea level was near the outermost continental shelf. Fluctuations of sea level are ascribed both to worldwide glacio-eustatic effects and to regional vertical tectonics. Large drainage systems, such as the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers, had little direct influence on sedimentation along the continental slope and Unmak Plateau in the southern Bering Sea. Sediments from those drainage systems probably were transported to the floor of the Aleutian Basin, to the numerous shelf basins that underlie the outer continental shelf, and to the Arctic Ocean after passing through the Bering Strait. Environments of deposition at the sites along the outer continental margin have not changed significantly since the middle Miocene. The site on the Alaska Peninsula, however, is now emergent following shallow-marine and transitional sedimentation during the Neogene. ?? 1980.

  1. A Facies Model for Temperate Continental Glaciers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Gail Mowry

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the presence and dynamics of continental glaciers in the domination of the physical processes of erosion and deposition in the mid-latitudes during the Pleistocene period. Describes the use of a sedimentary facies model as a guide to recognizing ancient temperate continental glacial deposits. (TW)

  2. Protection against deposits and corrosion in water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmkuhl, J

    1978-11-01

    Industry generally, including mining and coal preparation, are in the habit of using large amounts of untreated service water. The service water can be softened or treated with hardness stabilisers in order to prevent deposit formation and corrosion. As often as not, deposits of dirt and attack by microorganisma also have to be eliminated. The article puts forward some suggestions for practical assistance in protecting water systems against the dangers of deposits and corrosion.

  3. Thermomechanical Controls on the Success and Failure of Continental Rift Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, S.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of long-term continental rift evolution are often biased towards rifts that succeed in breaking the continent like the North Atlantic, South China Sea, or South Atlantic rifts. However there are many prominent rift systems on Earth where activity stopped before the formation of a new ocean basin such as the North Sea, the West and Central African Rifts, or the West Antarctic Rift System. The factors controlling the success and failure of rifts can be divided in two groups: (1) Intrinsic processes - for instance frictional weakening, lithospheric thinning, shear heating or the strain-dependent growth of rift strength by replacing weak crust with strong mantle. (2) External processes - such as a change of plate divergence rate, the waning of a far-field driving force, or the arrival of a mantle plume. Here I use numerical and analytical modeling to investigate the role of these processes for the success and failure of rift systems. These models show that a change of plate divergence rate under constant force extension is controlled by the non-linearity of lithospheric materials. For successful rifts, a strong increase in divergence velocity can be expected to take place within few million years, a prediction that agrees with independent plate tectonic reconstructions of major Mesozoic and Cenozoic ocean-forming rift systems. Another model prediction is that oblique rifting is mechanically favored over orthogonal rifting, which means that simultaneous deformation within neighboring rift systems of different obliquity and otherwise identical properties will lead to success and failure of the more and less oblique rift, respectively. This can be exemplified by the Cretaceous activity within the Equatorial Atlantic and the West African Rifts that lead to the formation of a highly oblique oceanic spreading center and the failure of the West African Rift System. While in nature the circumstances of rift success or failure may be manifold, simplified numerical and

  4. Plasma distribution of cathodic ARC deposition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, S.; Raoux, S.; Krishnan, K.; MacGill, R.A.; Brown, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    The plasma distribution using a cathodic arc plasma source with and without magnetic macroparticle filter has been determined by depositing on a transparent plastic substrate and measuring the film absorption. It was found that the width of the distribution depends on the arc current, and it also depends on the cathode material which leads to a spatial separation of the elements when an alloy cathode is used. By applying a magnetic multicusp field near the exit of the magnetic filter, it was possible to modify the plasma distribution and obtain a flat plasma profile with a constant and homogeneous elemental distribution

  5. Deltaic Depositional Systems, Evolution Characteristics, and Petroleum Potential, Palaeogene Sub-Basin, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Guotao

    2015-04-01

    Deltaic depositional systems are detailed characterized by morphology and facies in a Palaeogene continental sub-basin of Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea. Based on examination of 435 m of conventional cores from 30 wells, three major types of deltaic facies have been recognized: delta, beach and shoreface. Morphology and facies asymmetry between the down-drift and the up-drift sides present a typical asymmetric delta system:1) the down-rift, sourced primarily by the feeding river, are influenced by mixed river and wave processes. Deposits on this side are muddy and consist of barrier, bar, bay-fill, and bayhead delta facies with variable bioturbation intensity; 2)the up-rift, in contrast, is sourced by a second sediment source and typically consists of laterally continuous sandy beach and shoreface facies. Finally, two fundamentally different depositional models are established and reflect a different style of sequence stratigraphic patterns: 1) Multiple-stage faults slopes developed in the down-rift side feed fine grained sediment into two stages channelized front deltaic system; 2) Flexure slope break of the up-rift side, combining with deeper gradual slopes, conversely, feed coarser grained sediment from larger drainages into sandy beach and shoreface systems. Such a distinction has well explained the differentiation of the proven hydrocarbon reserves because the up-rift consists of well-sorted, mature, and laterally continuous homogeneous beach-shoreface reservoirs, whereas the down-rift, in contrast, is muddier and consists of less continuous, less mature, heterolithic reservoirs. The Delta asymmetry concepts and models don't only challenge the traditional definition of deltas in Fushan sub-basin, but also provides strong theoretical support for the future exploration. This process-based model may be applicable to many deep-water settings and provides a framework within which to interpret the stratigraphic and spatial distribution of these complex deposits.

  6. Stabilising system frequency using HVDC between the Continental European, Nordic, and Great Britain systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, J.E.S.; Escudero Concha, C.; Gibescu, M.; van Putten, J.; Doorman, G.L.; Kling, W.L.

    2016-01-01

    For future efficiency improvement of the frequency containment process (primary control) within European power systems, cooperation between (multiple) synchronous areas using their controllable HVDC interconnections is optioned. However, the differences in system size, HVDC interconnection capacity,

  7. Continental tectonics and continental kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegre, C.J.; Jaupart, C.; Paris-7 Univ., 75

    1985-01-01

    We present a model of continental growth which combines the results of geochemical studies and tectonic ideas about the evolution of continents through geological time. The process of continental growth is mainly controlled by surface phenomena. Continental material is extracted from the mantle along subduction zones at the periphery of oceans, and is destroyed in collision zones where it is remobilized and made available for subduction. We derive an equation for S, the portion of the Earth's surface occupied by continents, which reads as follows: dS/dt=a . √(1-S)-b . S. Coefficients a and b depend on the geometry of plates, on their number and on their velocities. We assume that they decrease exponentially with time with the same time-scale α. This model satisfies both geochemical and tectonic constraints, and allows the integration of several current observations in a single framework. (orig.)

  8. The continental slope current system between Cape Verde and the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Peña-Izquierdo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We use hydrographic, velocity and drifter data from a cruise carried out in November 2008 to describe the continental slope current system in the upper thermocline (down to 600 m between Cape Verde and the Canary Islands. The major feature in the region is the Cape Verde Frontal Zone (CVFZ, separating waters from tropical (southern and subtropical (northern origin. The CVFZ is found to intersect the slope north of Cape Blanc, between 22°N and 23°N, but we find that southern waters are predominant over the slope as far north as 24°N. South of Cape Blanc (21.25°N the Poleward Undercurrent (PUC is a prominent northward jet (50 km wide, reaching down to 300 m and indistinguishable from the surface Mauritanian Current. North of Cape Blanc the upwelling front is found far offshore, opening a near-slope northward path to the PUC. Nevertheless, the northward PUC transport decreases from 2.8 Sv at 18°N to 1.7 Sv at 24°N, with about 1 Sv recirculating ofshore just south of Cape Blanc, in agreement with the trajectory of subsurface drifters. South of the CVFZ there is an abrupt thermohaline transition at σϴ=26.85 kg m–3, which indicates the lower limit of the relatively pure (low salt and high oxygen content South Atlantic Central Water (SACW variety that coexists with the dominant locally-diluted (salinity increases through mixing with North Atlantic Central Water but oxygen diminishes because of enhanced remineralization Cape Verde (SACWcv variety. At 16°N about 70% of the PUC transport corresponds to the SACW variety but but this is transformed into 40% SACWcv at 24°N. However, between Cape Verde and Cape Blanc and in the 26.85 < σϴ < 27.1 layer, we measure up to 0.8 Sv of SACWcv being transported south. The results strongly endorse the idea that the slope current system plays a major role in tropical-subtropical water-mass exchange.

  9. Paleomagnetic dating of tectonically influenced Plio-Quaternary fan-system deposits from the Apennines (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Saroli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Roveto Valley is a narrow, elongated, NW-trending depression filled with continental Plio-Quaternary deposits that outcrop at different topographic elevations. A morpho-lithostratigraphic succession of the continental deposits has been defined in order to reconstruct the geological Quaternary evolution of the area. These deposits do not contain materials suitable for biostratigraphic dating; therefore, in order to determine their chronology, three different units were sampled for magnetostratigraphic investigations. Paleomagnetic results demonstrated that standard demagnetization techniques are effective in removing secondary remanence components and in isolating the characteristic remanent magnetization, allowing us to determine, for each cycle, whether it was deposited before or after the Brunhes-Matuyama geomagnetic reversal at 781 ka. Preliminary rock magnetic analyses indicated that magnetite is the main magnetic carrier and that hematite, which gives the pink colour to the matrix, is in the superparamagnetic grain-size range and thus does not retain any paleomagnetic remanence.

  10. Electron beam deposition system causing little damage to organic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Minoru [Research Center for Solar Energy Chemistry, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Business Incubation Department, Hitachi Zosen Corporation, 2-11 Funamachi 2-Chome, Taisho-ku, Osaka 551-0022 (Japan); Matsumura, Michio, E-mail: matsu@chem.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Research Center for Solar Energy Chemistry, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Maeda, Yasuhiro [Business Incubation Department, Hitachi Zosen Corporation, 2-11 Funamachi 2-Chome, Taisho-ku, Osaka 551-0022 (Japan)

    2011-07-29

    Conditions for deposition of an aluminum (Al) layer on an organic light-emitting layer with an electron beam (EB) deposition system were optimized with respect to deposition rate and damage to organic layers. The damage to the organic layers was found to be mostly caused by X-rays emitted from a target bombarded with accelerated electrons. In order to decrease the X-ray intensity while maintaining a high deposition rate, we used an EB source which emits high-density EB at low acceleration voltage. In addition, we inserted a heat reflector and a sintered-carbon liner between the Al target and copper crucible to improve heat insulation. As a result, the voltage needed for the deposition of Al electrodes at a rate of about 8 nm/s was lowered from normal voltages of 2.0 kV or higher to as low as 1.5 kV. To reduce the number of electrons hitting the substrate, we set pole pieces near the target and an electron trap in the chamber. The devices on which Al electrodes were deposited with the EB system showed almost the same properties as those of devices on which the Al electrodes were deposited by a resistive-heating method.

  11. Mineral Resource Assessment of Marine Sand Resources in Cape- and Ridge-Associated Marine Sand Deposits in Three Tracts, New York and New Jersey, United States Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, James D.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Arsenault, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Demand is growing in the United States and worldwide for information about the geology of offshore continental shelf regions, the character of the seafloor, and sediments comprising the seafloor and subbottom. Interest in locating sand bodies or high quality deposits that have potential as sources for beach nourishment and ecosystem restoration is especially great in some regions of the country. The Atlantic coast, particularly New York and New Jersey, has been the focus of these studies for the past 40 years with widely varying results. This study is the first attempt at applying probability statistics to modeling Holocene-age cape-and ridge-associated sand deposits and thus focuses on distinct sand body morphology. This modeling technique may have application for other continental shelf regions that have similar geologic character and late Quaternary sea-level transgression history. An estimated volume of 3.9 billion m3 of marine sand resources is predicted in the cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposits in three representative regions or tracts on the continental shelf offshore of New York and New Jersey. These estimates are taken from probabilistic distributions of sand resources and are produced using deposit models and Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) techniques. The estimated sand resources presented here are for only three tracts as described below and for Holocene age sand resources contained in cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposit types within this area. Other areas may qualify as tracts for this deposit type and other deposit types and geologic ages (for example, paleo-stream channels, blanket and outwash deposits, ebb-tide shoals, and lower sea level-stand deltas), which are present on the New Jersey and New York continental shelf area but are not delineated and modeled in this initial evaluation. Admittedly, only a portion of these probable sand resources will ultimately be available and suitable for production, dependent largely on

  12. A robotic system to characterize soft tailings deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipsett, M.G.; Dwyer, S.C. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    A robotic system for characterizing soft tailings deposits was discussed in this presentation. The system was developed to reduce variability in feedstocks and process performance as well as to improve the trafficability of composite tailings (CT). The method was designed to reliably sample different locations of a soft deposit. Sensors were used to determine water content, clay content, organic matter, and strength. The system included an autonomous rover with a sensor package and teleoperation capability. The system was also designed to be used without automatic controls. The wheeled mobile robot was used to conduct ground contact and soil measurements. The gas-powered robot included on-board microcontrollers and a host computer. The system also featured traction control and fault recovery sub-systems. Wheel contact was used to estimate soil parameters. It was concluded that further research is needed to improve traction control and soil parameter estimation testing capabilities. Overall system block diagrams were included. tabs., figs.

  13. Ion beam deposition system for depositing low defect density extreme ultraviolet mask blanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, V.; Kearney, P.; Sohn, J.; Harris-Jones, J.; John, A.; Godwin, M.; Antohe, A.; Teki, R.; Ma, A.; Goodwin, F.; Weaver, A.; Teora, P.

    2012-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is the leading next-generation lithography (NGL) technology to succeed optical lithography at the 22 nm node and beyond. EUVL requires a low defect density reflective mask blank, which is considered to be one of the top two critical technology gaps for commercialization of the technology. At the SEMATECH Mask Blank Development Center (MBDC), research on defect reduction in EUV mask blanks is being pursued using the Veeco Nexus deposition tool. The defect performance of this tool is one of the factors limiting the availability of defect-free EUVL mask blanks. SEMATECH identified the key components in the ion beam deposition system that is currently impeding the reduction of defect density and the yield of EUV mask blanks. SEMATECH's current research is focused on in-house tool components to reduce their contributions to mask blank defects. SEMATECH is also working closely with the supplier to incorporate this learning into a next-generation deposition tool. This paper will describe requirements for the next-generation tool that are essential to realize low defect density EUV mask blanks. The goal of our work is to enable model-based predictions of defect performance and defect improvement for targeted process improvement and component learning to feed into the new deposition tool design. This paper will also highlight the defect reduction resulting from process improvements and the restrictions inherent in the current tool geometry and components that are an impediment to meeting HVM quality EUV mask blanks will be outlined.

  14. Sputter deposition system for controlled fabrication of multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Nardo, R.P.; Takacs, P.Z.; Majkrzak, C.F.; Stefan, P.M.

    1985-06-01

    A detailed description of a sputter deposition system constructed specifically for the fabrication of x-ray and neutron multilayer monochromators and supermirrors is given. One of the principal design criteria is to maintain precise control of film thickness and uniformity over large substrate areas. Regulation of critical system parameters is fully automated so that response to feedback control information is rapid and complicated layer thickness sequences can be deposited accurately and efficiently. The use of either dc or rf magnetron sources makes it possible to satisfy the diverse material requirements of both x-ray and neutron optics

  15. Paleogeographic changes across the Pennsylvanian-Permian boundary within the Mid-Continent (USA) inferred from detrital zircon geochronology of continental deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreghan, M. J.; Soreghan, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Permo-Pennsylvanian was characterized by intense orogenesis associated with Pangaean assembly, and profound climate shifts as earth transitioned from full icehouse conditions in the Pennsylvanian-early Permian to collapse into greenhouse conditions by latest Permian time. The modern U.S. Midcontinent was part of equatorial western Pangaea (North America) sandwiched between a continental-scale orogenic zone to the east and south (Appalachian-Ouachita-Marathon orogenic belt) and a series of basement-cored, intra-plate uplifts along western Pangaea (Ancestral Rocky Mountains). Here, we present a compilation of detrital zircon geochronology data from the Permo-Pennsylvanian of the Midcontinent as well as coeval strata of the east and west to explore sediment dispersal and potential tectonic and climatic influences on these provenance signatures. Zircon provenance data come from mostly eolian and fluvial silt- and sandstones of Early Pennsylvanian through Mid Permian age, although some data include marine sandstones. Our new data were acquired by LA-ICPMS at the University of Arizona Laserchron, and predominant age groups include >2500 Ma (Archean), 1600-1800 Ma (Yavapai-Matzatzal), 1300-900 Ma (Grenville), 790-570 Ma (Neoproterozoic), and 480-360 (E-M Paleozoic). However, the relative distributions of these populations exhibit distinctive temporal differences, especially across the Pennsylvanian-Permian boundary, but also spatially in comparison to published data from the Appalachian-Ouachita-Marathon basin, Ancestral Rocky Mountain basins, and the western Pangaean margin. Although the Central Pangaean Mountains, and in particular the Grenville-age basement rocks, were a dominant source of sediment to the Midcontinent, the data suggest an abrupt introduction of Neoproterozoic zircons in the early Permian. This signature also appears within the Ancestral Rocky Mountains region, but is rare along the western margin and the Appalachian basin in the early Permian. This

  16. The NSLS-II Multilayer Laue Lens Deposition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, R.; Bouet, N.; Biancarosa, J.; Shen, Q.; Boas, L.; Feraca, J.; Rosenbaum, L.

    2009-01-01

    The NSLS-II(1) program has a requirement for an unprecedented level of x-ray nanofocusing and has selected the wedged multilayer Laue lens(2,3) (MLL) as the optic of choice to meet this goal. In order to fabricate the MLL a deposition system is required that is capable of depositing depth-graded and laterally-graded multilayers with precise thickness control over many thousands of layers, with total film growth in one run up to 100 m thick or greater. This machine design expounds on the positive features of a rotary deposition system(4) constructed previously for MLLs and will contain multiple stationary, horizontally-oriented magnetron sources where a transport will move a substrate back and forth in a linear fashion over shaped apertures at well-defined velocities to affect a multilayer coating.

  17. Canister positioning. Influence of fracture system on deposition hole stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekmark, Harald

    2003-11-01

    The study concerns the mechanical behaviour of rock surrounding tunnels and deposition holes in a nuclear waste repository. The mechanical effects of tunnel excavation and deposition hole excavation are investigated by use of a tunnel scale numerical model representing a part of a KBS-3 type repository. The excavation geometry, the initial pre-mining state of stress, and the geometrical features of the fracture system are defined according to conditions that prevail in the TBM tunnel rock mass in Aespoe HRL. Comparisons are made between results obtained without consideration of fractures and results obtained with inclusion of the fracture system. The focus is on the region around the intersection of a tunnel and a deposition hole. A general conclusion is that a fracture system of the type found in the TBM rock mass does not have a decisive influence on the stability of the deposition holes. To estimate the expected extent of spalling, information about other conditions, e.g. the orientation of the initial stresses and the strength properties of the intact rock, is more important than detailed information about the fracture system

  18. Selective tungsten deposition in a batch cold wall CVD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, R.; Kang, S.; Harshbarger, W.R.; Susoeff, M.

    1987-01-01

    Selective deposition of tungsten offers many advantages for VLSI technology. The process can be used as a planarization technique for multilevel interconnect technology, it can be used to fill contacts and to provide a barrier layer between Al and Si materials, and the selective W process might be used as a self-aligned technology to provide low resistance layers on source/drain and gate conductors. Recent publications have indicate that cold wall CVD systems provide advantages for development of selective W process. Genus has investigated selective W deposition processing, and we have developed a selective W deposition process for the Genus 8402 multifilm deposition system. This paper describes the Genus 8402 system and the selective W process developed in this reactor. To further develop selective W technology, Genus has signed an agreement with General Electric establishing a joint development program. As a part of this program, the authors characterized the selective W process for encroachment, Si consumption and degrees of selectivity on various dielectrics. The status of this development activity and process characterization is reviewed in this paper

  19. Depositional and sea-level history from MIS 6 (Termination II) to MIS 3 on the southern continental shelf of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthra, H. C.; Jacobs, Z.; Compton, J. S.; Fisher, E. C.; Karkanas, P.; Marean, C. W.

    2018-02-01

    Pleistocene shoreline deposits comprised of calcified shallow marine (palaeobeach) and aeolian (palaeodune) facies found along mid-latitude coastlines can be useful indicators of past sea levels. Here, we describe a succession of such deposits that are presently exposed both above (subaerial) and below (submerged) mean sea level along the southern Cape coast of South Africa, 18 km east of the town of Mossel Bay. The submerged units provide a window on Late Pleistocene coastal processes, as palaeoshoreline deposits in this study extend to water depths of up to 55 m on the mid-shelf. Five sedimentary facies were identified in the strata and were compared to modern depositional environments of the local littoral zone, which include aeolian dune, upper shoreface, foreshore, intertidal swash and back-barrier settings. Twenty-two geological units were observed and mapped. Some of these units were directly dated with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. OSL ages were obtained for ten samples from the subaerial and twelve samples from the submerged deposits. Those geological units not directly dated were interpreted based on sedimentology and field/stratigraphic relationships to dated units. The stratigraphy and chronology of the succession indicates a record of initial deposition during Termination II (T-II) meltwater events, preceding and leading to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e. Indicators for multiple sea-level fluctuations between MIS 5d and MIS 4, and sediment deposition at the end of MIS 4 and start of MIS 3 are also found. Both regressive and transgressive depositional cycles are well-preserved in the succession. We propose that palaeodune and palaeobeach deposits along the South Coast of South Africa have no clear preference for deposition during sea-level transgressions or regressions. Sediment deposition more closely mirrors the rate of sea level change, with deposition and preservation either during times of rapid sea-level movement, or oscillation

  20. Continental Rifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, B. R.

    Continental Rifts, edited by A. M. Quennell, is a new member of the Benchmark Papers in Geology Series, edited in toto by R. W. Fairbridge. In this series the individual volume editors peruse the literature on a given topic, select a few dozen papers of ostensibly benchmark quality, and then reorder them in some sensible fashion. Some of the original papers are republished intact, but many are chopped into “McNuggets™” of information. Depending upon the volume editor, the chopping process can range from a butchering job to careful and prudent pruning. The collecting, sifting, and reorganizing tasks are, of course, equally editor-sensitive. The end product of this series is something akin to a set of Reader's Digest of Geology.

  1. Automatic Measuring System for Oil Stream Paraffin Deposits Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopteva, A. V.; Koptev, V. Yu

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes a new method for monitoring oil pipelines, as well as a highly efficient and automated paraffin deposit monitoring method. When operating oil pipelines, there is an issue of paraffin, resin and salt deposits on the pipeline walls that come with the oil stream. It ultimately results in frequent transportation suspension to clean or even replace pipes and other equipment, thus shortening operation periods between repairs, creating emergency situations and increasing production expenses, badly affecting environment, damaging ecology and spoil underground water, killing animals, birds etc. Oil spills contaminate rivers, lakes, and ground waters. Oil transportation monitoring issues are still subject for further studying. Thus, there is the need to invent a radically new automated process control and management system, together with measurement means intellectualization. The measurement principle is based on the Lambert-Beer law that describes the dependence between the gamma-radiation frequency and the density together with the linear attenuation coefficient for a substance. Using the measuring system with high accuracy (± 0,2%), one can measure the thickness of paraffin deposits with an absolute accuracy of ± 5 mm, which is sufficient to ensure reliable operation of the pipeline system. Safety is a key advantage, when using the proposed control system.

  2. Changes in the diet composition of transitory fishes in coastal systems, estuary and continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves Paulo T. C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits of five species of teleosts in the southern coast of Brazil were analyzed comparatively between estuary and continental shelf. The displacement between the two sites caused expressive qualitative alterations, the proportion of different items varying from 50% in the diet of Micropogonias furnieri to 89% in Isopisthus parvipinnis. In the group of species, 57% of the items were exclusive to one of the environments and, within the three most common items in the estuary - fish, Polychaeta and plants, only the former was also among the most common items in the shelf. In spite of these differences, the high spectrum of items in both environments and the nature of the item that was most consumed in each one, indicate that there was a certain similarity of patterns between estuary and shelf: Chloroscombrus chrysurus had a carnivorous diet, with a predominance of copepods; M. furnieri and Menticirrhus americanus showed a tendency towards an omnivorous diet; and Cynoscion leiarchus and I. parvipinnis showed a tendency towards ichthyophagy.

  3. Continental divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    The historical precedents to the idea of continent-wide diversion of water in North America are reviewed, starting from early perceptions of continental drainage and the era of canal building that reached its peak in the mid-1800s. The attitude that natural landscapes can be rearranged to suit human needs has persisted from that era with the proposal for continent-wide water diversion megaprojects, many involving the movement of water from Canada to the southwestern USA. Over 50 water diversions exist in Canada, with a total diverted flow of 4,400 m 3 /s. The density of interconnected and almost-connected lakes and rivers has favored such diversions. Of these diversions, 95% of their storage capacity and 96% of their flow is for hydroelectric power generation. The number of diversions in the USA is similar but water volumes are only a sixth of those in Canada, and the water is mainly used for irrigation or water supply. Experience in both countries shows that diversions are contained by political boundaries. No large-scale diversion of fresh water across the international boundary has received any government support, and no significant change in this policy is anticipated. In the water-short areas of the USA, conservation and reallocation of water resources are receiving priority. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Geochemical evidence for groundwater mixing in the western Great Artesian Basin and recognition of deep inputs in continental-scale flow systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossey, L. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Love, A.; Priestley, S.; Shand, P.

    2010-12-01

    Hot Springs record different degrees of fluid-rock interactions in granitic crust and small volume, but geochemically potent, crustal contributions to the endogenic fluids. U-Series dates indicate persistent deposition of travertine mound springs (conceptualized as “chemical volcanoes”) at discrete vent sites for millions of years. The geochemistry of the active travertine-depositing mound springs, coupled with geochemistry of the associated mound and platform travertine rock record, thus collectively provide a rich record that can be used to link the present hydrologic system to paleohydrology of the GAB over the last several million years at the continental scale. The overall goal is to test a model for interactions between mantle and deep crustal fluid inputs, neotectonic pathways, groundwater mixing, groundwater quantity and quality, and unique microbiology in the near-surface hydrologic systems.

  5. Spatially Resolving Ocean Color and Sediment Dispersion in River Plumes, Coastal Systems, and Continental Shelf Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurin, Dirk Alexander; Mannino, Antonio; Franz, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of ocean color in dynamic coastal, inland, and nearshorewaters is impeded by high variability in optical constituents, demands specialized atmospheric correction, and is limited by instrument sensitivity. To accurately detect dispersion of bio-optical properties, remote sensors require ample signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to sense small variations in ocean color without saturating over bright pixels, an atmospheric correction that can accommodate significantwater-leaving radiance in the near infrared (NIR), and spatial and temporal resolution that coincides with the scales of variability in the environment. Several current and historic space-borne sensors have met these requirements with success in the open ocean, but are not optimized for highly red-reflective and heterogeneous waters such as those found near river outflows or in the presence of sediment resuspension. Here we apply analytical approaches for determining optimal spatial resolution, dominant spatial scales of variability ("patches"), and proportions of patch variability that can be resolved from four river plumes around the world between 2008 and 2011. An offshore region in the Sargasso Sea is analyzed for comparison. A method is presented for processing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua and Terra imagery including cloud detection, stray lightmasking, faulty detector avoidance, and dynamic aerosol correction using short-wave- and near-infrared wavebands in extremely turbid regions which pose distinct optical and technical challenges. Results showthat a pixel size of approx. 520 mor smaller is generally required to resolve spatial heterogeneity in ocean color and total suspended materials in river plumes. Optimal pixel size increases with distance from shore to approx. 630 m in nearshore regions, approx 750 m on the continental shelf, and approx. 1350 m in the open ocean. Greater than 90% of the optical variability within plume regions is resolvable with

  6. Ore-Forming Systems In Volcanogenic-Sedimentary Sequences By The Example Of Base Metal Deposits Of The Caucasus And East Pontic Metallotect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergo KEKELIA

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available By the example of Alpine volcanogenic base metal deposits of the central part of the AlpineHimalayan fold belt (East Pontic Metallotect and Caucasus, it has been demonstrated that their hydrothermal systems naturally emerge at various stages of active interaction of microplates-continental fragments of Eurasia and Gondwanaland. During the divergence stage, at the microplates-boundary zones within the marginal sea, hydrothermal-sedimentary Cu and polymetallic deposits have been formed; at the early convergence stage, within the paleo-island-arc systems, epigenetic Cu and in lesser extent, barite-polymetallic (Lesser Caucasus, and later both combined (hydrothermal-sedimentary and stockwork and epigenetic (mainly Cu- and Zn-containing deposits have been originated (East Pontic Metallotect. At the beginning of the collisional stage, in connection with antidrome volcanism within the back-arc volcanic structures, polyformational deposits (barite, barite-polymetallic, Cu, Au have been formed. This tendency persists during the whole collisional stage - in the within-plate and transplate Eocene volcanic depressions - mainly polymetallic deposits have been originated in which the increasing contents of Ag take place in comparison to Au. The authors share the opinion that the primarily- anomalous environments for Cu-Zn deposits can have been "specialized" basic and medium-acidic volcanics whereas for baritic and barite polymetallic deposits grey coloured and evaporitic sequences in the volcano-structure pedestals with buried highly mineralized brines seem to be most favorable.

  7. Nanostructured Electrodes Via Electrostatic Spray Deposition for Energy Storage System

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, C.

    2014-10-02

    Energy storage systems such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors are extremely important in today’s society, and have been widely used as the energy and power sources for portable electronics, electrical vehicles and hybrid electrical vehicles. A lot of research has focused on improving their performance; however, many crucial challenges need to be addressed to obtain high performance electrode materials for further applications. Recently, the electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) technique has attracted great interest to satisfy the goals. Due to its many advantages, the ESD technique shows promising prospects compared to other conventional deposition techniques. In this paper, our recent research outcomes related to the ESD derived anodes for Li-ion batteries and other applications is summarized and discussed.

  8. Europa Kinetic Ice Penetrator System for Hyper Velocity Instrument Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tessa

    Landing of a payload on any celestial body has only used a soft landing system. These systems use retro rockets and atmospheric components to match velocity and then overcome local gravity in order to land on the surface. This is a proposed system for depositing instrumentation on an icy surface at hypervelocity using the properties of different projectiles and ejecta properties that would negate the need for a soft landing system. This system uses two projectiles, a cylinder with inner aerodynamic surfaces and a payload section with a conical nose and aerodynamic surfaces. The cylinder lands first, creates a region of fractured ice, and directs that fractured material into a collimated ejecta stream. The payload travels through the ejecta and lands in the fractured region. The combination of the ejecta stream and the softened target material reduces the impact acceleration to within survivable levels.

  9. The structure environment, rock-magma system, mineral-forming series and pattern of volcanic mineral-forming of uranium deposit in southeast of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dagan

    1992-01-01

    The Volcanic uranium deposit of rock-magma belt-the Mid-Cz Volcano in the Southeast of China mainly formed around 120 ∼ 130 Ma and 90 ∼ 100 Ma Which is in harmony with the two rock magma activities of k within the region. The rock-magma system of this period formed around the turning period from pressure to tension in the continent margin of southeast China, which is mainly characterized by the appearance of A-type granite and alkaline, sub-alkaline rocks (trachyte, trachyandensite, trachybasalt, basic rock alkaline basalt). The uranium deposit is controlled by the base rift of dissection to the mantle, the volcanic basin is of the double characteristics of transversal rift valley basin (early period) ad tension rift valley basin (laster period). The leading role of the deep source is stressed in terms of internal-forming series of volcanic uranium deposits is considered to exist; and also in terms of internal-forming series of volcanic uranium deposits is considered to exist; and also in terms of mineral-forming patterns, the multi-pattern led by the deep-source is stressed, including the mineral-forming pattern of uranium deposit of continental thermos, repeated periphery mineral-forming pattern of uranium deposit and the mineral-forming pattern of uranium deposit of rising pole-like thermos. Ten suggestions are put forward to the next mineral-search according to the above thoughts

  10. Uranium-polymetallic ore-forming system and mechanism of the black rock series in the southeast continental margin of Yangtze plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Fucheng; Zhang Zilong; He Zhongbo; Li Zhixing; Wang Wenquan; Su Xiangli; Zhang Chao

    2011-01-01

    It is the indisputable fact that the large scale uranium-polymetallic mineralization had happen in the southeast continental margin of Yangtze plate. The rations of Fe/Ti, (Fe+Mn)/Ti, Al/(Al+Fe+Mn), and Ni-Co-Zn diagrams show that the siliceous rocks and phosphorites are the products of hydrothermal sedimentation in these area. In La/Yb-REE diagrams the data of phosphorites are clustered in the area of basales. Obviously, the source of phophorite's ore-forming materials is closely related with the geological processes at depth. REE patterns are characterized by a low content in total and a gradually increasing with the increasing of REE atomic number, and the NASC-normalized value ranging between the upper and the lower limits of typical hydrothermal deposits. The large scale uranium-polymetallic mineralization was controlled by the environment of continental margin rifting. The authors propose that thermal sedimentation or exhalation-sedimentation is the mechanism of the large scale uranium-polymetallic mineralization in the southeast continental margin of the Yangtze plate. (authors)

  11. The relationship between depositional system and ore-formation of sandstone-type uranium deposits in Dongsheng area, Ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Honggang; Ou Guangxi

    2006-01-01

    The analysis on depositional system plays a very important role in studying sandstone-type uranium deposits. Based on depositional system analysis and sequence stratigraphy, and through the study of depositional system characteristics and the spatial distribution of sedimentary facies, the evolution of sedimentary environments as well as the sequence stratigraphy of Zhiluo Formation in Dongsheng area, Ordos basin, authors have come to the following conclusions, (1) the spatial distribution of sand bodies is controlled by the planar distribution of sedimentary facies, which, in turn, affects the spatial distribution of ore-hosting sand bodies; (2) the evolution of sedimentary facies and sedimentary environments creates good lithofacies and lithological conditions favorable for interlayer oxidation; (3) the spatial lithologic combination of 'three layer structure' is controlled by sedimentary sequence. (authors)

  12. Paleoenvironmental Evolution of Continental Carbonates in West-Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIANO C. OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper presents a sedimentological and stratigraphical study of Quaternary (Middle to Late Pleistocene/Holocene continental carbonates outcrops inside Pantanal Basin and its surroundings, especially in Serra da Bodoquena, Pantanal do Miranda and Corumbá/Ladário plateau, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, as well as in Serra das Araras, in the state of Mato Grosso. The aim is to understand the depositional paleoenvironments and analyse climate and tectonic influences in their genesis and evolution. The results show that the deposition of these continental carbonates started in the Middle to Late Pleistocene and have continued, with some interruptions, until the present days. Sedimentary successions were identified in the different areas, without complete correlation. Two sedimentary successions separated by an erosional surface were described in Serra da Bodoquena and Serra das Araras. In Corumbá and Pantanal do Miranda, only one succession was described. These successions were deposited in elongated lakes parallel to fault planes; small lakes, related plains and plateaus; springs related to cliffs produced by faulting; rivers conditioned by topographic variation. The climatic interpretation, without proper temporal resolution, obtained by the stable-isotope composition and stratigraphic interpretation, indicates alternation of dry and wet periods. The Neoproterozoic faults with their neotectonics and the subsidence of the Pantanal Basin, are the major control for carbonated water flow and development of depositional areas, gradually turning plateaus into slight tilted areas, allowing the evolution of depositional systems from lakes to rivers.

  13. Analysis on depositional system and prospect of sandstone-type uranium deposits of Bayanhua formation in Yilemen basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zexuan; Li Guoxin; He Fayang; Wei Yunjie

    2002-01-01

    Yilemen basin is a typical Mesozoic intra-mountain one. The author analyses characteristics of depositional system and the prospect of sandstone-type uranium deposit in the sedimentary cover of the Bayanhua Formation, Lower Cretaceous. Authors suggest that the conglomerate, sandstone-conglomerate and sandstone beds of braided stream and delta are favourable horizons for locating phreatic and interlayer oxidation zone sandstone-type uranium deposits, i.e. the northwestern side of Dalai uplifted zone, the Chagantaigebuqi narrow sag, and the southern area of Baolinbuqi

  14. Serpentinization and carbonation of pristine continental ultramafic rocks and applications to the oceanic crust; H2O-CO2 alteration of dunites and re-distribution of Ni-Cu-PGE in sulphide deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Thomas; McEnroe, Suzanne; Eske Sørensen, Bjørn; Larsen, Rune; Pastore, Zeudia; Rune Grannes, Kim; Nikolaisen, Even

    2017-04-01

    Here, we document carbonation and serpentinization within a suite of ultramafic rocks from a continental setting. These ultramafic rocks vary from pristine dunites to varying degrees of serpentinization which locally penetrates the ultramafic complex. Hence, it allows us to observe a number of delicate serpentinization and carbonation reactions, otherwise lost during more extensive alteration or tectonic events. We use a multi-disciplinary approach using petrographic, EPMA, thermodynamic modelling and geophysical data to reveal how the initial stages of serpentization and carbonation in dunites affects the distribution of economic to sub-economic deposits of Ni-Cu and PGE. The data can then be applied to oceanic crust. The samples are dunites and poikilitic wehrlites from the Reinfjord Ultramafic complex, Seiland Igneous Province Northern Norway. The complex formed through crystallization of picritic melts in the lower continental crust. The dunites contain small amounts of interstitial clinopyroxene, sulphides and spinel, with local enrichments in Ni, Cu and PGE. Late magmatic CO2-H2O-S fluids reacted with the dunite forming clots of amphibole + dolomite + sulphides + enstatite, reaction rims of enstatite + dolomite, and inclusions trails of dolomite + enstatite + magnetite + CO2 fluid. Thermodynamic modelling reveals that these textures formed at pressures of >12 kbar and temperatures 850-950 °C, which would be consistent with the late magmatic history of the Reinfjord complex. The clots and reactions have local association with enrichments in gold-rich PGMs. A second stage of alteration involved H2O-dominated fluids. These formed predominantly lizardite serpentinization, as is often concentrated within highly localized fracture zones. Thermodynamic modelling shows that these formed serpentinization interacted with the earlier formed carbonate bearing assemblages leading to the formation of serpentinite, native copper and symplectites of brucite + calcite. The

  15. Particle deposition due to turbulent diffusion in the upper respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, P.

    1979-01-01

    Aerosol deposition in the upper respiratory system (trachea to segmental bronchi) is considered and the importance of turbulent diffusion as a deposition mechanism is evaluated. It is demonstrated that for large particles (diameter greater than about 5 microns), turbulent diffusion is the dominant deposition mechanism in the trachea. Conditions under which turbulent diffusion may be important in successive generations of the pulmonary system are determined. The probability of particle deposition is compared with probabilities of deposition, as determined by the equations generally used in regional deposition models. The analysis is theoretical; no new experimental data is presented.

  16. Late Neogene foraminifera from the northern Namibian continental shelf and the transition to the Benguela Upwelling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Eugene W.; Compton, John S.; Frenzel, Peter

    2018-05-01

    Middle Miocene to Plio-Pleistocene foraminifera provide insights into the palaeoenvironment on the northern Namibian continental shelf located at the far northern end of the present-day Benguela Upwelling System (BUS). Biostratigraphy and Strontium Isotope Stratigraphy (SIS) of the recovered basal olive-green mud unit indicate an age of 16 to 14 Ma. A sharp, erosional contact separates the basal mud from the overlying Plio-Pleistocene gravelly pelletal phosphorite sands. Grain size data, P/B ratios and benthic diversity indices indicate a change between the middle Miocene and overlying Plio-Pleistocene palaeoenvironments linked to the timing and conditions associated with the initiation of the BUS. The different lithological units and microfossil assemblages in the olive-green mud unit and the overlying pelletal phosphorite units support the late Miocene initiation of the BUS and the northwards migration of the Angola-Benguela Front. Planktic foraminifera indicate a shift from warmer surface water conditions to cooler conditions during the initiation of the BUS. Benthic palaeobathymetric ranges and P/B ratios are consistent with outer shelf water depths suggesting a deeper palaeoenvironment during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO) than today. Benthic foraminifera in the middle Miocene are dominated by large (>1 mm) taxa and adapted to oligotrophic environments before the initiation of the BUS. The benthic assemblage composition indicates that bottom water conditions changed to eutrophic conditions during the Plio-Pleistocene under intensified upwelling conditions.

  17. Influence of dynamic topography on landscape evolution and passive continental margin stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuesong; Salles, Tristan; Flament, Nicolas; Rey, Patrice

    2017-04-01

    Quantifying the interaction between surface processes and tectonics/deep Earth processes is one important aspect of landscape evolution modelling. Both observations and results from numerical modelling indicate that dynamic topography - a surface expression of time-varying mantle convection - plays a significant role in shaping landscape through geological time. Recent research suggests that dynamic topography also has non-negligible effects on stratigraphic architecture by modifying accommodation space available for sedimentation. In addition, dynamic topography influences the sediment supply to continental margins. We use Badlands to investigate the evolution of a continental-scale landscape in response to transient dynamic uplift or subsidence, and to model the stratigraphic development on passive continental margins in response to sea-level change, thermal subsidence and dynamic topography. We consider a circularly symmetric landscape consisting of a plateau surrounded by a gently sloping continental plain and a continental margin, and a linear wave of dynamic topography. We analyze the evolution of river catchments, of longitudinal river profiles and of the χ values to evaluate the dynamic response of drainage systems to dynamic topography. We calculate the amount of cumulative erosion and deposition, and sediment flux at shoreline position, as a function of precipitation rate and erodibility coefficient. We compute the stratal stacking pattern and Wheeler diagram on vertical cross-sections at the continental margin. Our results indicate that dynamic topography 1) has a considerable influence on drainage reorganization; 2) contributes to shoreline migration and the distribution of depositional packages by modifying the accommodation space; 3) affects sediment supply to the continental margin. Transient dynamic topography contributes to the migration of drainage divides and to the migration of the mainstream in a drainage basin. The dynamic uplift

  18. Reconstructing Rodinia by Fitting Neoproterozoic Continental Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Reconstructions of Phanerozoic tectonic plates can be closely constrained by lithologic correlations across conjugate margins by paleontologic information, by correlation of orogenic belts, by paleomagnetic location of continents, and by ocean floor magmatic stripes. In contrast, Proterozoic reconstructions are hindered by the lack of some of these tools or the lack of their precision. To overcome some of these difficulties, this report focuses on a different method of reconstruction, namely the use of the shape of continents to assemble the supercontinent of Rodinia, much like a jigsaw puzzle. Compared to the vast amount of information available for Phanerozoic systems, such a limited approach for Proterozoic rocks, may seem suspect. However, using the assembly of the southern continents (South America, Africa, India, Arabia, Antarctica, and Australia) as an example, a very tight fit of the continents is apparent and illustrates the power of the jigsaw puzzle method. This report focuses on Neoproterozoic rocks, which are shown on two new detailed geologic maps that constitute the backbone of the study. The report also describes the Neoproterozoic, but younger or older rocks are not discussed or not discussed in detail. The Neoproterozoic continents and continental margins are identified based on the distribution of continental-margin sedimentary and magmatic rocks that define the break-up margins of Rodinia. These Neoproterozoic continental exposures, as well as critical Neo- and Meso-Neoproterozoic tectonic features shown on the two new map compilations, are used to reconstruct the Mesoproterozoic supercontinent of Rodinia. This approach differs from the common approach of using fold belts to define structural features deemed important in the Rodinian reconstruction. Fold belts are difficult to date, and many are significantly younger than the time frame considered here (1,200 to 850 Ma). Identifying Neoproterozoic continental margins, which are primarily

  19. Final Environmental Statement. Continental United States Over-the- Horizon Backscatter Radar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    ment normally found near population centers. Interference generators include railroads, main highways ( automotive ignition systems), power lines...factories, logging activities, welding and any heavy industries which handle switching of high voltage electrical currents. The terrain around the...responsibility to them. I also have a certain respon- sibility to you. I am coming to your community—I am in a way upsetting 128 your applecart. So, I

  20. Comparison of Four Precipitation Forcing Datasets in Land Information System Simulations over the Continental U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Kuligowski, Robert J.; Langston, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Short ]term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, AL is running a real ]time configuration of the NASA Land Information System (LIS) with the Noah land surface model (LSM). Output from the SPoRT ]LIS run is used to initialize land surface variables for local modeling applications at select National Weather Service (NWS) partner offices, and can be displayed in decision support systems for situational awareness and drought monitoring. The SPoRT ]LIS is run over a domain covering the southern and eastern United States, fully nested within the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Stage IV precipitation analysis grid, which provides precipitation forcing to the offline LIS ]Noah runs. The SPoRT Center seeks to expand the real ]time LIS domain to the entire Continental U.S. (CONUS); however, geographical limitations with the Stage IV analysis product have inhibited this expansion. Therefore, a goal of this study is to test alternative precipitation forcing datasets that can enable the LIS expansion by improving upon the current geographical limitations of the Stage IV product. The four precipitation forcing datasets that are inter ]compared on a 4 ]km resolution CONUS domain include the Stage IV, an experimental GOES quantitative precipitation estimate (QPE) from NESDIS/STAR, the National Mosaic and QPE (NMQ) product from the National Severe Storms Laboratory, and the North American Land Data Assimilation System phase 2 (NLDAS ]2) analyses. The NLDAS ]2 dataset is used as the control run, with each of the other three datasets considered experimental runs compared against the control. The regional strengths, weaknesses, and biases of each precipitation analysis are identified relative to the NLDAS ]2 control in terms of accumulated precipitation pattern and amount, and the impacts on the subsequent LSM spin ]up simulations. The ultimate goal is to identify an alternative precipitation forcing dataset that can best support an

  1. Continental Divide Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  2. Environmental Statement. Continental United States Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    kind of a bugaboo . Mrs Morehouse: How dangerous is this kind of radiation? Mr Raffa: That one has been determined by Doctor Polson and others. Since we...quality. From a broader perspective, the OTH-BS radar is for me a wise and cost-effective way to invest our defense dollar. An effective radar system...transportation scheduling and carrier quality. From a broader perspective, the OTH-BS radar is for me a wise and cost-effective way to invest our

  3. Late-stage development of the Bryant Canyon turbidite pathway on the Louisiana continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, David C.; Nelson, Hans; Damuth, John E.

    2000-01-01

    GLORIA sidescan imagery, multibeam bathymetry, seismic profiles, and piston cores (3–5 m penetration) reveal the near-surface geology of the Bryant Canyon turbidite pathway on the continental margin of Louisiana. This pathway extends from the continental shelf edge, across the continental slope, to a deep-sea fan on the continental rise. The pathway is narrow (thalweg no longer has a continuous down-slope gradient. Some mini-basin floors along the pathway are now more than 500 m deeper than their basin’s spill point. We propose a 6-stage conceptual model to explain our observations for the evolution of a mini-basin along this turbidite pathway. In this model, an active channel feeds sand to a mini-basin (Stabe B). Once the mini-basin is filled, the sand deposit is entrenched by a bypass channel (Stage C). When the turbidite system shuts off, salt migration oversteepens the mini-basin walls (Stage D) which collapse and create a layer of mass-transport deposits on the mini-basin floor (Stage E). The depositional succession is capped by a layer of highstand hemipelagic drape (Stage F). The Bryant Canyon turbidite pathway provides a recent example of a large turbidite pathway in the Gulf of Mexico that crosses an area of active salt tectonics thus providing a conceptual model for older systems in similar settings. In Bryant Canyon, thick turbidite sands presumably are found in mini-basins however, they are sealed by thick, fine-grained, mass-transport deposits which terminate mini-basin turbidite deposition cycles. The importance of mass-transport deposits in basins along this turbidite pathway is in startling contrast to the Trinity-Brazos pathway whose shallow subsurface expression is virtually free of mass-transport deposits and has undergone minimal deformation by salt movement.

  4. Fish and aquatic habitat conservation in South America: a continental overview with emphasis on neotropical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, M; Jaureguizar, A J; Baigun, C; Fontoura, N F; Agostinho, A A; Almeida-Val, V M F; Val, A L; Torres, R A; Jimenes-Segura, L F; Giarrizzo, T; Fabré, N N; Batista, V S; Lasso, C; Taphorn, D C; Costa, M F; Chaves, P T; Vieira, J P; Corrêa, M F M

    2010-06-01

    Fish conservation in South America is a pressing issue. The biodiversity of fishes, just as with all other groups of plants and animals, is far from fully known. Continuing habitat loss may result in biodiversity losses before full species diversity is known. In this review, the main river basins of South America (Magdalena, Orinoco, Amazon and Paraná-La Plata system), together with key aquatic habitats (mangrove-fringed estuaries of the tropical humid, tropical semi-arid and subtropical regions) are analysed in terms of their characteristics and main concerns. Habitat loss was the main concern identified for all South American ecosystems. It may be caused by damming of rivers, deforestation, water pollution, mining, poor agricultural practice or inadequate management practice. Habitat loss has a direct consequence, which is a decrease in the availability of living resources, a serious social and economic issue, especially for South American nations which are all developing countries. The introduction of exotic species and overfishing were also identified as widespread across the continent and its main freshwater, coastal and marine ecosystems. Finally, suggestions are made to find ways to overcome these problems. The main suggestion is a change of paradigm and a new design for conservation actions, starting with integrated research and aiming at the co-ordinated and harmonized management of the main transboundary waters of the continent. The actions would be focused on habitat conservation and social rescue of the less well-off populations of indigenous and non-indigenous peoples. Energy and freshwater demands will also have to be rescaled in order to control habitat loss.

  5. Transfer and mobility of trace metallic elements in the sedimentary column of continental hydro-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devallois, V.

    2009-02-01

    In freshwater systems, trace metal pollutants are transferred into water and sedimentary columns under dissolved forms and/or fixed onto solid particles. Accumulated in the sedimentary areas, these latter ones can constitute important stocks of materials and associated pollutants and may impair water quality when environmental changes lead to increase their mobility. The mobility of the stocks of pollutants is mainly depending on the erosion, on the interstitial diffusion of the mobile phases (dissolved and colloidal) and on the bioturbation. In this context, this study involves the analysis of the mobility by interstitial diffusion. This topic consists in studying trace metal fractionation between their mobile (dissolved and colloidal) and non mobile (fixed onto the particles) forms. This point is governed by sorption/desorption processes at the particle surfaces. These processes are regulated by physico-chemical parameters (pH, redox potential, ionic strength...) and are influenced by biogeochemical reactions resulting from the oxidation of the organic matter by the microbial activity. These reactions generate vertical profiles of nutrients and metal concentrations along the sedimentary column. To understand these processes, this work is based on a mixed approach that combines in situ, analysis and modelling. In situ experimental part consists in sampling natural sediments cores collected at 4 different sites (1 site in Durance and 3 sites on the Rhone). These samples are analyzed according to an analytical protocol that provides the vertical distribution of physicochemical parameters (pH, redox potential, size distribution, porosity), nutrients and solid - liquid forms of trace metals (cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, zinc). The analysis and interpretation of these experimental results are based on a model that was developed during this study and that includes: 1) model of interstitial diffusion (Boudreau, 1997), 2) biogeochemical model (Wang and Van Cappellen

  6. An earth system model for evaluation of dry deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arritt, R.W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A coupled model of atmosphere, soil, and vegetation showed that interactions among the various components can have important effects on dry deposition of SO{sub 2}. In particular, dry soil (near or below the wilting point) leads to an increase of stomatal resistance and a decrease in deposition. Once the soil moisture is at least twice the wilting point, the model results indicate that additional moisture has little effect on the accumulated daytime dry deposition.

  7. Seismic risk control of nuclear power plants using seismic protection systems in stable continental regions: The UK case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medel-Vera, Carlos, E-mail: cbmedel@uc.cl; Ji, Tianjian, E-mail: tianjian.ji@manchester.ac.uk

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Strategies to reduce seismic risk for nuclear power stations in the UK are analysed. • Efficiency of devices to reduce risk: viscous-based higher than hysteretic-based. • Scenario-based incremental dynamic analysis is introduced for use in nuclear stations. • Surfaces of seismic unacceptable performance for nuclear stations are proposed. - Abstract: This article analyses three different strategies on the use of seismic protection systems (SPS) for nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the UK. Such strategies are based on the experience reported elsewhere of seismically protected nuclear reactor buildings in other stable continental regions. Analyses are conducted using an example of application based on a 1000 MW Pressurised Water Reactor building located in a representative UK nuclear site. The efficiency of the SPS is probabilistically assessed to achieve possible risk reduction for both rock and soil sites in comparison with conventionally constructed NPPs. Further analyses are conducted to study how the reduction of risk changes when all controlling scenarios of the site are included. This is done by introducing a scenario-based incremental dynamic analysis aimed at the generation of surfaces for unacceptable performance of NPPs as a function of earthquake magnitude (M{sub w}) and distance-to-site (R{sub epi}). General guidelines are proposed to potentially use SPS in future NPPs in the UK. Such recommendations can be used by the British nuclear industry in the future development of 12 new reactors to be built in the next two decades to generate 16 GWe of new nuclear capacity.

  8. Mercury Deposition Network Site Operator Training for the System Blank and Blind Audit Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operates the external quality assurance project for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/Mercury Deposition Network. The project includes the system blank and blind audit programs for assessment of total mercury concentration data quality for wet-deposition samples. This presentation was prepared to train new site operators and to refresh experienced site operators to successfully process and submit system blank and blind audit samples for chemical analysis. Analytical results are used to estimate chemical stability and contamination levels of National Atmospheric Deposition Program/Mercury Deposition Network samples and to evaluate laboratory variability and bias.

  9. Evaluation of the ISBA-TRIP continental hydrologic system over the Niger basin using in situ and satellite derived datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pedinotti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available During the 1970s and 1980s, West Africa has faced extreme climate variations with extended drought conditions. Of particular importance is the Niger basin, since it traverses a large part of the Sahel and is thus a critical source of water for an ever-increasing local population in this semi arid region. However, the understanding of the hydrological processes over this basin is currently limited by the lack of spatially distributed surface water and discharge measurements. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of the ISBA-TRIP continental hydrologic system to represent key processes related to the hydrological cycle of the Niger basin. ISBA-TRIP is currently used within a coupled global climate model, so that the scheme must represent the first order processes which are critical for representing the water cycle while retaining a limited number of parameters and a simple representation of the physics. To this end, the scheme uses first-order approximations to account explicitly for the surface river routing, the floodplain dynamics, and the water storage using a deep aquifer reservoir. In the current study, simulations are done at a 0.5 by 0.5° spatial resolution over the 2002–2007 period (in order to take advantage of the recent satellite record and data from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses project, AMMA. Four configurations of the model are compared to evaluate the separate impacts of the flooding scheme and the aquifer on the water cycle. Moreover, the model is forced by two different rainfall datasets to consider the sensitivity of the model to rainfall input uncertainties. The model is evaluated using in situ discharge measurements as well as satellite derived flood extent, total continental water storage changes and river height changes. The basic analysis of in situ discharges confirms the impact of the inner delta area, known as a significant flooded area, on the discharge, characterized by a strong

  10. Regional paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic settings of wetland/lacustrine depositional systems in the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic), Western Interior, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, S.P.; Turner, C.E.

    2004-01-01

    During deposition of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, water that originated as precipitation in uplands to the west of the Western Interior depositional basin infiltrated regional aquifers that underlay the basin. This regional groundwater system delivered water into the otherwise dry continental interior basin where it discharged to form two major wetland/lacustrine successions. A freshwater carbonate wetland/lacustrine succession formed in the distal reaches of the basin, where regional groundwater discharged into the Denver-Julesburg Basin, which was a smaller structural basin within the more extensive Western Interior depositional basin. An alkaline-saline wetland/lacustrine complex (Lake T'oo'dichi') formed farther upstream, where shallower aquifers discharged into the San Juan/Paradox Basin, which was another small structural basin in the Western Interior depositional basin. These were both wetlands in the sense that groundwater was the major source of water. Input from surface and meteoric water was limited. In both basins, lacustrine conditions developed during episodes of increased input of surface water. Inclusion of wetlands in our interpretation of what had previously been considered largely lacustrine systems has important implications for paleohydrology and paleoclimatology. The distal carbonate wetland/lacustrine deposits are well developed in the Morrison Formation of east-central Colorado, occupying a stratigraphic interval that is equivalent to the "lower" Morrison but extends into the "upper" Morrison Formation. Sedimentologic, paleontologic, and isotopic evidence indicate that regional groundwater discharge maintained shallow, hydrologically open, well oxygenated, perennial carbonate wetlands and lakes despite the semi-arid climate. Wetland deposits include charophyte-rich wackestone and green mudstone. Lacustrine episodes, in which surface water input was significant, were times of carbonate and siliciclastic deposition in scarce deltaic

  11. Caldera processes and magma-hydrothermal systems continental scientific drilling program: thermal regimes, Valles caldera research, scientific and management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.; Nielson, D.L. (eds.)

    1986-05-01

    Long-range core-drilling operations and initial scientific investigations are described for four sites in the Valles caldera, New Mexico. The plan concentrates on the period 1986 to 1993 and has six primary objectives: (1) study the origin, evolution, physical/chemical dynamics of the vapor-dominated portion of the Valles geothermal system; (2) investigate the characteristics of caldera fill and mechanisms of caldera collapse and resurgence; (3) determine the physical/chemical conditions in the heat transfer zone between crystallizing plutons and the hydrothermal system; (4) study the mechanism of ore deposition in the caldera environment; (5) develop and test high-temperature drilling techniques and logging tools; and (6) evaluate the geothermal resource within a large silicic caldera. Core holes VC-2a (500 m) and VC-2b (2000 m) are planned in the Sulphur Springs area; these core holes will probe the vapor-dominated zone, the underlying hot-water-dominated zone, the boiling interface and probable ore deposition between the two zones, and the deep structure and stratigraphy along the western part of the Valles caldera fracture zone and resurgent dome. Core hole VC-3 will involve reopening existing well Baca number12 and deepening it from 3.2 km (present total depth) to 5.5 km, this core hole will penetrate the deep-crystallized silicic pluton, investigate conductive heat transfer in that zone, and study the evolution of the central resurgent dome. Core hole VC-4 is designed to penetrate deep into the presumably thick caldera fill in eastern Valles caldera and examine the relationship between caldera formation, sedimentation, tectonics, and volcanism. Core hole VC-5 is to test structure, stratigraphy, and magmatic evolution of pre-Valles caldera rocks, their relations to Valles caldera, and the influences of regional structure on volcanism and caldera formation.

  12. INTERBANK DEPOSIT MARKET RELEVANCE FOR CROATIAN BANKING SYSTEM SUSTAINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ercegovac, Roberto; Kundid, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Existence, functionality and sustainability of the interbank deposit market signifi cantly determinate bank’s asset and liability management (ALM) potentials and thus an overall banking sector performance. Among other numerous factors in the banking business, key roles of the interbank deposit market like availability of short-term liquidity sources, ensuring investment and lending opportunities as well as allowing hedging potentials, considerably contribute to commercial bank’s risk – return...

  13. Experiment and equipment of depositing diamond films with CVD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Erqing; Song Chang'an

    2002-01-01

    CVD (chemical vapor deposition) emerged in recent years is a new technique for thin film deposition, which play a key role in development of modern physics. It is important to predominate the principle and technology of CVD for studying modern physics. In this paper, a suit of CVD experimental equipment for teaching in college physics is presented, which has simple design and low cost. The good result was gained in past teaching practices

  14. Deposition of titanium coating on SiC fiber by chemical vapor deposition with Ti-I{sub 2} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xian, E-mail: luo_shenfan@hotmail.com; Wu, Shuai; Yang, Yan-qing; Jin, Na; Liu, Shuai; Huang, Bin

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • The transformation paths of (Ti + I{sub 2}) powder to Ti coating is: Ti + I{sub 2} → (TiI{sub 2}, TiI{sub 3}) → Ti. • Uniform coating was obtained on SiC fiber, but it contained Si and C elements. • Deposition rate of the coating increased with the increase of temperature. • Deposition thickness increased with time and achieved the maximum at 90 min. - Abstract: Titanium coating was prepared on SiC fiber using titanium-iodine (Ti-I{sub 2}) mixture by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental observation were carried out in this work. The thermodynamic analysis of the reactions in the Ti-I{sub 2} system indicates that Ti and I{sub 2} raw powder materials transform to titanium coating as follows: Ti + I{sub 2} → (TiI{sub 2}, TiI{sub 3}), and (TiI{sub 2}, TiI{sub 3}) → Ti. In theory, the conversions of TiI{sub 3} and TiI{sub 2} reach the maximum when Ti:I{sub 2} is 1:1.5, while in actual experiment that reached the maximum when Ti:I{sub 2} was 1:2, as there existed the waste of I{sub 2} due to sublimation. Typical deposited coating is relatively flat and uniform. However, as SiC is prone to react with Ti at high temperatures, the obtained coating contained some Si and C elements except for Ti. So the coating was not a pure Ti coating but contained some carbides and silicides. Deposition rate of the coating increased with the increase of temperature. The deposited thickness increased with the increase of heat preservation time, and achieved the maximum thickness at 90 min.

  15. Deposition behavior of residual aluminum in drinking water distribution system: Effect of aluminum speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Shi, Baoyou; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yan, Mingquan; Lytle, Darren A; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-04-01

    Finished drinking water usually contains some residual aluminum. The deposition of residual aluminum in distribution systems and potential release back to the drinking water could significantly influence the water quality at consumer taps. A preliminary analysis of aluminum content in cast iron pipe corrosion scales and loose deposits demonstrated that aluminum deposition on distribution pipe surfaces could be excessive for water treated by aluminum coagulants including polyaluminum chloride (PACl). In this work, the deposition features of different aluminum species in PACl were investigated by simulated coil-pipe test, batch reactor test and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The deposition amount of non-polymeric aluminum species was the least, and its deposition layer was soft and hydrated, which indicated the possible formation of amorphous Al(OH)3. Al13 had the highest deposition tendency, and the deposition layer was rigid and much less hydrated, which indicated that the deposited aluminum might possess regular structure and self-aggregation of Al13 could be the main deposition mechanism. While for Al30, its deposition was relatively slower and deposited aluminum amount was relatively less compared with Al13. However, the total deposited mass of Al30 was much higher than that of Al13, which was attributed to the deposition of particulate aluminum matters with much higher hydration state. Compared with stationary condition, stirring could significantly enhance the deposition process, while the effect of pH on deposition was relatively weak in the near neutral range of 6.7 to 8.7. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Methods of mineral potential assessment of uranium deposits: A mineral systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaireth, S.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Choice of methods depends on the objective; • Basics: – Know your mineral system (deposit-type): SCIENCE; – Create useful datasets: A MUST; • Mineral system approach can be rewarding. For successful examples visit GA’s website; • Don’t overdo or oversell it (only detailed exploration such as drilling can find a deposit)

  17. Analysis on sequence stratigraphy and depositional systems of Mangbang formation, upper tertiary in Longchuanjiang basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zexuan; Yao Yifeng; Chen Yong; Li Guoxin

    2004-01-01

    Longchuanjiang basin is a small Cenozoic intramontane down-faulted basin. This paper, combining the Pliocene structure, the volcanic activities and the sedimentation of the basin, analyses the sequence stratigraphy and the depositional systems of Mangbang formation (the cover of the basin). Based on the analysis of depositional systems of Mangbang formation, the depositional pattern of Pliocene in Longchuanjiang basin is set up. It is suggested that because of the fast accumulation in early down-faulted zone during Pliocene time, the alluvial fan depositional system was dominated at that time. During the middle-late period, the alluvial fan entered the lake forming a combination of fan-fandelta-lacustrine depositional systems. Authors propose a view point that the formation of Mangbang formation sequence was constrained by multistage tectonic movement, and three structural sequences were established, and system tracts were divided. (authors)

  18. How Continental Bank outsourced its "crown jewels.".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, R L

    1993-01-01

    No industry relies more on information than banking does, yet Continental, one of America's largest banks, outsources its information technology. Why? Because that's the best way to service the customers that form the core of the bank's business, says vice chairman Dick Huber. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Continental participated heavily with Penn Square Bank in energy investments. When falling energy prices burst Penn Square's bubble in 1982, Continental was stuck with more than $1 billion in bad loans. Eight years later when Dick Huber came on board, Continental was working hard to restore its once solid reputation. Executives had made many tough decisions already, altering the bank's focus from retail to business banking and laying off thousands of employees. Yet management still needed to cut costs and improve services to stay afloat. Regulators, investors, and analysts were watching every step. Continental executives, eager to focus on the bank's core mission of serving business customers, decided to outsource one after another in-house service--from cafeteria services to information technology. While conventional wisdom holds that banks must retain complete internal control of IT, Continental bucked this argument when it entered into a ten-year, multimillion-dollar contract with Integrated Systems Solutions Corporation. Continental is already reaping benefits from outsourcing IT. Most important, Continental staffers today focus on their true core competencies: intimate knowledge of customers' needs and relationships with customers.

  19. Deep continental margin reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, J.; Heirtzler, J.; Purdy, M.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1985-01-01

    In contrast to the rarity of such observations a decade ago, seismic reflecting and refracting horizons are now being observed to Moho depths under continental shelves in a number of places. These observations provide knowledge of the entire crustal thickness from the shoreline to the oceanic crust on passive margins and supplement Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP)-type measurements on land.

  20. Surface Passivation of Silicon Using HfO2 Thin Films Deposited by Remote Plasma Atomic Layer Deposition System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Hsu, Chia-Hsun; Lien, Shui-Yang; Chen, Song-Yan; Huang, Wei; Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Kung, Chung-Yuan; Zhu, Wen-Zhang; Xiong, Fei-Bing; Meng, Xian-Guo

    2017-12-01

    Hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) thin films have attracted much attention owing to their usefulness in equivalent oxide thickness scaling in microelectronics, which arises from their high dielectric constant and thermodynamic stability with silicon. However, the surface passivation properties of such films, particularly on crystalline silicon (c-Si), have rarely been reported upon. In this study, the HfO 2 thin films were deposited on c-Si substrates with and without oxygen plasma pretreatments, using a remote plasma atomic layer deposition system. Post-annealing was performed using a rapid thermal processing system at different temperatures in N 2 ambient for 10 min. The effects of oxygen plasma pretreatment and post-annealing on the properties of the HfO 2 thin films were investigated. They indicate that the in situ remote plasma pretreatment of Si substrate can result in the formation of better SiO 2 , resulting in a better chemical passivation. The deposited HfO 2 thin films with oxygen plasma pretreatment and post-annealing at 500 °C for 10 min were effective in improving the lifetime of c-Si (original lifetime of 1 μs) to up to 67 μs.

  1. Monitoring Approach to Evaluate the Performances of a New Deposition Nozzle Solution for DED Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Mazzucato

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In order to improve the process efficiency of a direct energy deposition (DED system, closed loop control systems can be considered for monitoring the deposition and melting processes and adjusting the process parameters in real-time. In this paper, the monitoring of a new deposition nozzle solution for DED systems is approached through a simulation-experimental comparison. The shape of the powder flow at the exit of the nozzle outlet and the spread of the powder particles on the deposition plane are analyzed through 2D images of the powder flow obtained by monitoring the powder depositions with a high-speed camera. These experimental results are then compared with data obtained through a Computational Fluid Dynamics model. Preliminary tests are carried out by varying powder, carrier, and shielding mass flow, demonstrating that the last parameter has a significant influence on the powder distribution and powder flow geometry.

  2. Composition of Cu/Al system constructed by means of dynamic atomic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashlykov, I.S.; Tul'ev, V.V.

    2011-01-01

    Rutherford backscattering and RUMP simulation programme have been applied to investigate composition of Cu/Al system prepared using dynamic atomic deposition process when deposition of Cu thin film on Al substrate was assisted with 6 keV Ar + ions irradiation. It is estimated that thin ( ~15 nm) surface layer consists of ~50 at.% Cu, ~10 at.% Ar, ~4 at.% O and the remaining is Al. Dynamic deposition of Cu on Al substrate is accompanied with radiation enhanced diffusion of Cu, O, Ar atoms in substrate and out diffusion of Al atoms in deposited Cu coating. (authors)

  3. High-resolution sequence stratigraphy and continental environmental evolution: An example from east-central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilinson, Elisa; Veiga, Gonzalo D.; Spalletti, Luis A.

    2013-10-01

    The aims of this contribution is to establish a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic scheme for the continental deposits that constitute the Punta San Andrés Alloformation (Plio-Pleistocene) in east-central Argentina, to analyze the basin fill evolution and to identify and assess the role that extrinsic factors such as climate and sea-level oscillations played during evolution of the unit. For the high-resolution sequence stratigraphical study of the Punta San Andrés Alloformation, high- and low-accommodation system tracts were defined mainly on the basis of the architectural elements present in the succession, also taking into account the relative degree of channel and floodplain deposits. Discontinuities and the nature of depositional systems generated during variations in accommodation helped identify two fourth-order high-accommodation system tracts and two fourth-order low-accommodation system tracts. At a third-order scale, the Punta San Andrés Alloformation may be interpreted as the progradation of continental depositional systems, characterized by a braided system in the proximal areas, and a low-sinuosity, single-channel system in the distal areas, defined by a high rate of sediment supply and discharge peaks which periodically flooded the plains and generated high aggradation rates during the late Pliocene and lower Pleistocene.

  4. New system for vacuum deposition of refractory materials using an atmospheric-pressure inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, B.D.; Kniseley, R.N.; Schmidt, F.A.

    1987-01-01

    We have successfully developed a technique utilizing an atmospheric-pressure inductively coupled plasma combined with a low-pressure deposition chamber for deposition of thin films. The equipment and method of operation are discussed. Refractory powders (Nb and Y 2 O 3 ) were injected into the plasma and deposited as Nb and substoichiometric yttrium oxide, YO/sub 1.49/, onto Fe and Cu substrates. The substoichiometric yttrium oxide deposit adhered well to the Fe and Cu substrates, while the Nb deposit adhered well to the Fe only. The Nb deposit on the Cu substrate flaked and peeled probably because of stresses induced from the thermal expansion mismatch between the Nb and Cu. Further studies will be undertaken to better understand the processes occurring in this type of plasma-coating system in order to optimize the instrumental parameters for particular coating applications

  5. Low resistivity Pt interconnects developed by electron beam assisted deposition using novel gas injector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, R J; Romano-Rodriguez, A; O'Regan, C; Holmes, J D; Petkov, N; Thrompenaars, P; Mulder, J J L

    2012-01-01

    Electron beam-induced deposition (EBID) is a direct write process where an electron beam locally decomposes a precursor gas leaving behind non-volatile deposits. It is a fast and relatively in-expensive method designed to develop conductive (metal) or isolating (oxide) nanostructures. Unfortunately the EBID process results in deposition of metal nanostructures with relatively high resistivity because the gas precursors employed are hydrocarbon based. We have developed deposition protocols using novel gas-injector system (GIS) with a carbon free Pt precursor. Interconnect type structures were deposited on preformed metal architectures. The obtained structures were analysed by cross-sectional TEM and their electrical properties were analysed ex-situ using four point probe electrical tests. The results suggest that both the structural and electrical characteristics differ significantly from those of Pt interconnects deposited by conventional hydrocarbon based precursors, and show great promise for the development of low resistivity electrical contacts.

  6. Mining of phosphorite resources from the Indian continental shelf will help food production

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Qasim, S.Z.; Nair, R.R.

    of phosphorite deposits would depend on several technical and economic factors Phosphorites occur in water depths upto 200 meters of the western continental shelf of India These are the areas associated with upwelling The relationship between phosphorite deposits...

  7. Suspended matter and bottom deposits in the Mahury estuarine system (French Guiana): Environmental consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouanneau, J. M.; Pujos, M.

    As part of a study carried out on the major rivers in French Guiana to identify and estimate the respective share of local rivers in the sedimentation of estuaries and the inshore continental shelf, results are reported on the Mahury after 2 periods of fieldwork carried out during one dry and one rainy season. The specific characteristics of the whole Mahury fluvio-estuarine system can be summed up as follows: the sands have invariable annual characteristics; they show evidence of a long history, first marine, then continental and finally fluviatile. They play little part in sedimentation on the continental shelf, and what part they do play is limited to the beaches. The fine sediments too have invariable annual characteristics. They fall, if we consider their mineralogical and elemental composition, on either side of a limit separating the fluviatile and estuarine zones. Here, the sediment stocks are respectively authigenic and allothogenic, while the clay association and elemental composition in the latter zone are evidence of an Amazonian origin. The contribution of the Mahury (Comté-Orapu) to fine estuarine sedimentation thus appears at present to be a very limited one, the Amazon being predominant over vast coastal areas, including the French Guiana estuaries.

  8. Unconventional isotope systems applied to enhancing the petrogenesis of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voignot, A.; Chipley, D.; Kyser, K.; Uvarova, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Among the new techniques applied to the petrogenesis and evolution of uranium deposits from their formation to later alteration is isotope tracing. The isotope systems being used include Li, C, N, Fe, Mo, Tl, Pb and U, all of which reflect different, but overlapping, processes. Although Pb isotopes have been used to understand the temporal evolution and migration of radiogenic Pb from the deposits, Li, C, N, Mo, Tl and U isotope systems are new ways to analyze deposits and barren areas and to reveal their precise redox mechanisms. Geochemical technologies for exploration include "2"3"8U/"2"3"5U ratios of uranium minerals, which vary as a function of the type of uranium deposit and the efficiency of the redox processes. Lithium isotope ratios in muscovite and chlorite associated with mineralizing events are distinct from background ratios, with the lowest values reflecting the beginning of hydrothermal alteration systems and the highest values indicative of the terminal flow of hydrothermal fluids. Carbon and N reflect the influence of biospheric processes on the deposits and dispersion of elements that can be used for exploration. Iron, Mo and Tl are common elements in many uranium deposits and are among the most redox active elements. Their isotopes separate among phases having different oxidation potentials. They reflect the efficiency of the redox systems associated with fixing the uranium and the subsequent processes involved in mobilizing elements from the deposits. Isotopes add benefits to refining genetic models for uranium deposits, thereby enhancing our exploration models as well. An additional goal of applying isotope geochemistry to uranium deposits is to be able to use them to reflect a definitive process that occurs in the deposit and not in barren systems, and then to relate these to something that is easier to measure, namely elemental concentrations. (author)

  9. A geographical information system-based web model of arbovirus transmission risk in the continental United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Konrad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A degree-day (DD model of West Nile virus capable of forecasting real-time transmission risk in the continental United States of America up to one week in advance using a 50-km grid is available online at https://sites. google.com/site/arbovirusmap/. Daily averages of historical risk based on temperatures for 1994-2003 are available at 10- km resolution. Transmission risk maps can be downloaded from 2010 to the present. The model can be adapted to work with any arbovirus for which the temperature-related parameters are known, e.g. Rift Valley fever virus. To more effectively assess virus establishment and transmission, the model incorporates “compound risk” maps and forecasts, which includes livestock density as a parameter.

  10. Fair premium rate of the deposit insurance system based on banks' creditworthiness

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshino, Naoyuki; Taghizadeh-Hesary, Farhad; Nili, Farhad

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Deposit insurance is a key element in modern banking, as it guarantees the financial safety of deposits at depository financial institutions. It is necessary to have at least a dual fair premium rate system based on the creditworthiness of financial institutions, as considering a singular premium system for all banks will have a moral hazard. In this paper, we develop a theoretical as well as an empirical model for calculating dual fair premium rates. Design/methodology/approach: Our...

  11. An exploration systems approach to the Copper Mountain uranium deposits, Wyoming, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babcock, L.L.; Sayala, D.

    1982-01-01

    This study of Copper Mountain uranium deposits entailed the examination, interpretation, and synthesis of geological, geochemical, geophysical, and emanometric results. Regional, structural, and metallogenic syntheses yielded criteria concerning the occurrence of anomalously radioactive granites and associated uranium deposits. Geochemical surveys indicated various pathfinder elements for uranium deposits and defined the extent of the anomalous granites. Subsurface spectral radiometrics outlined high K-Th zones which contain secondary uranium deposits. Aerial spectral radiometric and magnetic surveys delineated the Copper Mountain uranium district. Ground water helium and U-234/U-238 activity ratios are the most effective emanometric and isotopic techniques. Based on the systems approach employed and logistical considerations, a five-phase exploration strategy is suggested for Copper Mountain-type deposits

  12. Erosion and deposition in a field/forest system estimated using cesium-137 activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrance, R.; McIntyre, S.; Lance, C.

    1988-01-01

    Soil erosion and deposition were estimated using Cs-137 activity within a 7.25-ha field/forest system in the southeastern coastal plain. Sol eroded from the field was deposited both in the riparian forest ecosystem and in downslope areas of the field. Total activity, depth to peak activity, and depth to zero activity increased downslope from field to stream. Erosion and deposition rates, estimated by changes in activity per unit area from a reference undisturbed forest site, showed that about twice as much total deposition had taken place as total erosion. Excess deposition was attributed to deposition from the upstream portions of the watershed. Erosion and deposition rates estimated with this method were about 63 and 256 Mg/ha/yr, respectively. Erosion and deposition rates estimated by two different calculation techniques were nearly identical. These rates were considerably higher than rates estimated in an earlier study. The rates may be overestimated because the differential rates of Cs-137 movement on clay particles were not considered. The riparian ecosystem acted as a very efficient sediment trap. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Development and sexual dimorphism of the sonic system in three deep-sea neobythitine fishes and comparisons between upper mid and lower continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Michael L.; Ali, Heba A.; Nguyen, Thanh Kim; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Parmentier, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Based on morphology, NB Marshall identified cusk-eels (family Ophidiidae) as one of the chief sound-producing groups on the continental slope. Due to food scarcity, we hypothesized that sonic systems will be reduced at great depths despite their potential importance in sexual reproduction. We examined this hypothesis in the cusk-eel subfamily Neobythitinae by comparing sonic morphology in Atlantic species from the upper-mid (Dicrolene intronigra) and deeper continental slope (Porogadus miles and Bathyonus pectoralis) with three Taiwanese species previously described from the upper slope (Hoplobrotula armatus, Neobythites longipes and N. unimaculatus). In all six species, medial muscles are heavier in males than in females. Dicrolene has four pairs of sonic muscles similar to the shallow Pacific species, suggesting neobythitine sonic anatomy is conservative and sufficient food exists to maintain a well-developed system at depths exceeding 1 km. The sonic system in Porogadus and Bathyonus was reduced to a single pair of ventral medial muscles that connects to a smaller and thinner swimbladder via a long tendon. Small muscle fiber diameters, a likely indicator of rapid contraction, were present in males of five of the species. However, in Bathyonus, the deepest species (pale coloration, reduced eye size, shorter sonic muscles and longer tendons), muscle fibers were larger suggesting an adaptation to facilitate rapid bladder movement for sound production while using slower contractions and less metabolic energy. The six species separate into three groups in length-weight regressions: the three upper slope species have the greatest weights per unit length, Dicrolene is lower, and the two deep species are further reduced consistent with the hypothesis that food limitation affects sonic anatomy at great depths.

  14. Geochemistry of the Congo and Amazon river systems. Boron isotopic geochemistry in corals. Continental erosion and ocean pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillardet, J.

    1995-01-01

    Two main geological processes control the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere at a geological time scale: CO 2 outgasing from the interior of the Earth and CO 2 consumption by continental weathering. In the thesis, we initiate two different directions that can be useful to constraint the past climate evolution models. The first one is the extensive study of the largest rivers of the world using the classical geochemical analyses (major and trace elements, Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes) and modelling approaches. The study case of this thesis are the Congo and Amazon Basin. In particular, the coupling between chemical and physical erosion is examined and related to the hydrologic and tectonic parameters. Relief, thus tectonics appear to best control CO 2 consumption by rock weathering. The second part of the work is devoted to the measurement of boron isotopic ratio in corals because it may be used as a proxy for paleo-ocean pH. It could thus bring important pieces of information on the global C cycle and climate evolution. The technical part is extensively described and the method applied to the corals from the last interglacial period. Our conclusion is that corals are likely to be influence by early diagenetic changes that modify the boron isotopic composition of corals. We thus propose a test to select the samples. (author)

  15. Development and sexual dimorphism of the sonic system in deep sea neobythitine fishes: The upper continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Heba A.; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Fine, Michael L.

    2016-09-01

    The anatomy of sound production in continental-slope fishes has been ignored since the work of NB Marshall in the 1960s. Due to food scarcity at great depths, we hypothesize that sonic muscles will be reduced in deep-water neobythitine cusk-eels (family Ophidiidae). Here we describe and quantify dimensions of the swimbladder and sonic muscles of three species from the upper slope. They have four pairs of well-developed sonic muscles (two medial and two lateral) with origins on the skull and insertions on the medial swimbladder (medial pair) or on modified epineural ribs that attach to the lateral swimbladder (lateral pair). Despite minor differences, relatively similar swimbladder dimensions, muscle length and external morphology suggest a conservative body plan. However, there are major differences in sonic muscle mass: medial muscles are heavier in males and made of relatively small fibers (ca 10 μm in diameter). Lateral muscles are generally larger in females and consist of larger fibers, as in epaxial trunk muscle. Muscle weight varies between species, and we suggest males produce advertisement calls that vary in amplitude and duration in different species. Due to differences in fiber size, we hypothesize that lateral muscles with larger fibers remain contracted during sound production, and medial muscles with smaller fibers will oscillate to drive swimbladder sound production.

  16. Operational Efficiency of Bank Loans and Deposits: A Case Study of Vietnamese Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tram Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether there is a causal relationship between bank loans and deposits in the Vietnamese banking system and the efficiency of the use of loans and deposits by the Vietnamese banks. In a country such as Vietnam, where inter-bank money markets are relatively underdeveloped, one would expect a reasonably strong relationship between deposits and loans. A pooled cross-sectional sample of financial ratios is collected from annual reports of 44 Vietnamese banks covering the period 2008–2015. The explanatory power of instrumental variables in relation to the endogenous variables is tested. A deterministic frontier model based on corrected ordinary least squares, estimated by three-stage least squares on a simultaneous equations model, is employed to derive the frontiers for the sampled banks as well as to estimate the causality between bank loans and deposits. Our findings suggest that, in an underdeveloped banking system such as Vietnam, bank deposits have a positive and significant impact on bank loans, but the reverse relationship is not significant. It is further suggested that in deposit-taking and loan-creating activities, Vietnamese banks performed moderately well over the period examined; however, in the near future, they should start to focus more on deposit-taking activities.

  17. Precambrian uranium deposits as a possible source of uranium for the European Variscan deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineeva, I.G.; Klochkov, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    The Precambrian uranium deposits have been studied on the territory of Baltic and Ukrainian shields. The primary Early Proterozoic complex Au-U deposits originated in granite-greenstone belts as a result of their evolution during continental earth crust formation by prolonged rift genesis. The greenstone belts are clues for revealing ancient protoriftogenic structures. The general regularities of uranium deposition on Precambrian shields are also traceable in Variscan uranium deposits from the Bohemian massif. The Variscan period of uranium ore formation is connected with a polychronous rejuvenation of ancient riftogenous systems and relatively younger processes of oil and gas formation leading to the repeated mobilization of U from destroyed Proterozoic and Riphean uranium deposits. (author)

  18. Gold deposits in the western sector of the Central Spanish System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrios, S.; Florido, P.; Reguilon, R.

    2010-01-01

    The gold deposits in the western sector of the Central Spanish System can be grouped in: (1) gold quartz veins type (El Chivote, La Pedrera), (2) paleoplacers: gold nuggets in tertiary alluvial deposits (Las Cavenes, Sierro de Coria), (3) quaternary placers (Rio Erjas), (4) gold nuggets in a regolith developed on the Schist and Graywacke Complex (CEG) (Casillas de Coria). The morphological study of gold nuggets will provide physical, chemical, bacteriological and climatic characteristics. Mining works are located on these deposits from roman time to the present day. (Author)

  19. A economic evaluation system software on in-situ leaching mining sandstone uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yixuan; Su Xuebin; Xie Weixing; Que Weimin

    2001-01-01

    The author presents the study results of applying computer technology to evaluate quantitatively the technical-economic feasibility of in-situ leaching mining sandstone uranium deposits. A computer system software have been developed. Under specifying deposit conditions and given production size per year, the application of the software will generate total capital and mine life operating costs as well as solve for the movable and static financial assessment targets through discounted cash flow analysis. According to the characters of two kinds of sandstone uranium deposits, a data bases of economic and technique parameters of in-situ leaching have been designed. Also the system software can be used to study the economic value of deposits and to optimize the key project parameters. Its features, data input method and demand, main functions, structure and operating environments are described

  20. Atmospheric residence times of continental aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkanski, Y.J.

    1991-01-01

    The global atmospheric distributions of Rn-222 are simulated with a three-dimensional model of atmospheric transport based on the meteorology of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model. The short-lived radioactive gas Rn-222 (half-life = 3.8d) is emitted almost exclusively from land, at a relatively uniform rate; hence it is an excellent tracer of continental influences. Lead-210 is produced by decay of Rn-222 and immediately condenses to preexisting aerosol surfaces. It provides an excellent measure of aerosol residence times in the atmosphere because its source is accurately defined by the Rn-222 distribution. Results from the three-dimensional model are compared to measurements of Rn-222 and Pb-210 atmospheric concentrations to evaluate model's long-range transport over oceanic regions and to study the deposition mechanisms of atmospheric aerosols. Model results for Rn-222 are used to examine the long-range transport of continental air over two selected oceanic regions, the subantarctic Indian Ocean and the North Pacific. It is shown that the fast transport of air from southern Africa causes substantial continental pollution at southern mid-latitudes, a region usually regarded as pristine. Air over the North Pacific is heavily impacted by continental influences year round, but the altitude at which the transport occurs varies seasonally. Observations of aerosols at island sites, which are commonly used as diagnostics of continental influences, may be misleading because they do not account for influences at high altitude and because aerosols are efficiently scavenged by deposition during transport. The study of Pb-210 focuses on defining the residence times of submicron aerosols in the troposphere. Scavenging in wet convective updrafts is found to provide the dominant sink on a global scale

  1. Factors that influence properties of FOG deposits and their formation in sewer collection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasmin, Mahbuba; Dean, Lisa O; Lappi, Simon E; Ducoste, Joel J

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the formation of Fat, Oil, and Grease (FOG) deposits in sewer systems is critical to the sustainability of sewer collection systems since they have been implicated in causing sewerage blockages that leads to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). Recently, FOG deposits in sewer systems displayed strong similarities with calcium-based fatty acid salts as a result of a saponification reaction. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors that may affect the formation of FOG deposits and their chemical and rheological properties. These factors included the types of fats used in FSEs, environmental conditions (i.e. pH and temperature), and the source of calcium in sewer systems. The results of this study showed that calcium content in the calcium based salts seemed to depend on the solubility limit of the calcium source and influenced by pH and temperature conditions. The fatty acid profile of the calcium-based fatty acid salts produced under alkali driven hydrolysis were identical to the profile of the fat source and did not match the profile of field FOG deposits, which displayed a high fraction of palmitic, a long chain saturated fatty acid. It is hypothesized that selective microbial metabolism of fats and/or biologically induced hydrogenation may contribute to the FOG deposit makeup in sewer system. Therefore, selective removal of palmitic in pretreatment processes may be necessary prior to the discharge of FSE wastes into the sewer collection system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fluxgate Magnetometer system mounted on UAS system: First field test at Dominga IOCG deposit, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez, G. A.; Banchero, L.; Marco, A.; Figueroa, R.

    2016-12-01

    With the support of Fundacion Chile (FCH) grant, we developed an airborne magnetic system (GeoMagDrone GFDAS) mounted on a UAS octodrone platform (DJI, S1000), based on a low cost/light-weight fluxgate magnetometer (FGM-301) and a robust/light-weight data logger for position, temperature, radar altimeter and 3 magnetic components at 16 Hz recording. Fluxgate magnetometer is hanging from the UAS platform at a distance of 2.5m where the EM noise is reduced to less than 2 nT. The whole geophysical system, including batteries, weights 650 gr., with an autonomy of 2 hours. Magnetometer calibration includes the 9 coefficients of amplitude, offset, and orthogonality, and temperature correction. We test the system over the IOCG deposit of Dominga-Chile, a magnetite ore (40%) (a block of 2x3 km with NS lines separated every 50m and a clearance of 40m, the mineral deposit buried 50-100m from the surface, where a ground magnetic survey was conducted previously. Ground conditions includes relatively rough topography with slopes of 10-20%, and some windy days. We use the digital terrain model SRTM30 to define the drape flight shape Average flight performance includes a mean speed of 35-40 km/hour, and an UAS battery consumption of 18-12 minutes depending on the wind conditions. A good correspondence was found between plan deployment and survey results in terms of line direction/separation/clearance. Line path were flown with errors less than 5 meters, whereas clearance of 40m was kept depending on the amount of control points used. The comparison between ground survey and GeoMagDrone results show a perfect match (anomaly amplitude/shape and noise envelope), validating in this way the system developed. Main concern for the productive application of this technology in unmanned geophysical platforms is the battery performance and the quality of digital terrain models to follow the topography.

  3. Atlantic continental margin of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, John A.; Sheridan, Robert E.; Palmer, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this Decade of North American Geology (D-NAG) volume will be to focus on the Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution of the U.S. Atlantic continental margin, including the onshore coastal plain, related onshore Triassic-Jurassic rift grabens, and the offshore basins and platforms. Following multiple compressional tectonic episodes between Africa and North America during the Paleozoic Era that formed the Appalachian Mountains, the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras were dominated by tensional tectonic processes that separated Africa and North America. Extensional rifting during Triassic and Early Jurassic times resulted in numerous tensional grabens both onshore and offshore, which filled with nonmarine continental red beds, lacustrine deposits, and volcanic flows and debris. The final stage of this breakup between Africa and North America occurred beneath the present outer continental shelf and continental slope during Early or Middle Jurassic time when sea-floor spreading began to form new oceanic crust and lithosophere between the two continents as they drifted apart. Postrift subsidence of the marginal basins continued in response to cooling of the lithosphere and sedimentary loading.Geophysical surveys and oil-exploration drilling along the U.S. Atlantic continental margin during the past 5 years are beginning to answer many questions concerning its deep structure and stratigraphy and how it evolved during the rifting and early sea-floor-spreading stages of the separation of this region from Africa. Earlier geophysical studies of the U.S. continental margin used marine refraction and submarine gravity measurements. Single-channel seismic-reflection, marine magnetic, aeromagnetic, and continuous gravity measurements became available during the 1960s.

  4. Mycobacteria in water and loose deposits of drinking water distribution systems in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torvinen, Eila; Suomalainen, Sini; Lehtola, Markku J; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Zacheus, Outi; Paulin, Lars; Katila, Marja-Leena; Martikainen, Pertti J

    2004-04-01

    Drinking water distribution systems were analyzed for viable counts of mycobacteria by sampling water from waterworks and in different parts of the systems. In addition, loose deposits collected during mechanical cleaning of the main pipelines were similarly analyzed. The study covered 16 systems at eight localities in Finland. In an experimental study, mycobacterial colonization of biofilms on polyvinyl chloride tubes in a system was studied. The isolation frequency of mycobacteria increased from 35% at the waterworks to 80% in the system, and the number of mycobacteria in the positive samples increased from 15 to 140 CFU/liter, respectively. Mycobacteria were isolated from all 11 deposits with an accumulation time of tens of years and from all 4 deposits which had accumulated during a 1-year follow-up time. The numbers of mycobacteria were high in both old and young deposits (medians, 1.8 x 10(5) and 3.9 x 10(5) CFU/g [dry weight], respectively). Both water and deposit samples yielded the highest numbers of mycobacteria in the systems using surface water and applying ozonation as an intermediate treatment or posttreatment. The number and growth of mycobacteria in system waters correlated strongly with the concentration of assimilable organic carbon in the water leaving the waterworks. The densities of mycobacteria in the developing biofilms were highest at the distal sites of the systems. Over 90% of the mycobacteria isolated from water and deposits belonged to Mycobacterium lentiflavum, M. tusciae, M. gordonae, and a previously unclassified group of mycobacteria. Our results indicate that drinking water systems may be a source for recently discovered new mycobacterial species.

  5. The Continental Market Seen from the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romieu, Michel

    1998-01-01

    In this presentation, the Chairman of a French gas company (Elf) comments on the evolution of the Continental gas market from a British point of view. He first discusses the differences between the US, British and Continental gas markets, recalls the provisions of the European Gas Directive and states why a fully competitive system is a long-term prospect in Continental Europe. Seen from the UK, the provisions of the EU directive may appear modest. Due to the long transportation, British gas companies may find it hard to compete on the gas market of Continental Europe. When Inter connector, the gas pipeline connecting the gas markets in UK and the Continent, begins operation, there will be a flow of gas from the UK to the Continent according to already signed contracts. But there may be contractual flows both ways. Gas prices will level off between the UK and Northern Europe, at least for the industry. The continental markets will change gradually, the Gas Directive and the Inter connector will help the move towards a more competitive gas industry, but the fundamentals will not change: low gas prices for the next few years, competition between the big three exporters to Continental Europe, and long-term contracts that will extend beyond 2005

  6. Low-energy ion-beam deposition apparatus equipped with surface analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Hideki; Aoki, Yasushi; Nagai, Siro.

    1994-10-01

    A sophisticated apparatus for low energy ion beam deposition (IBD) was installed at Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment of JAERI in March 1991. The apparatus is composed of an IBD system and a real time/in-situ surface analysis system for diagnosing deposited thin films. The IBD system provides various kinds of low energy ion down to 10 eV with current density of 10 μA/cm 2 and irradiation area of 15x15 mm 2 . The surface analysis system consists of RHEED, AES, ISS and SIMS. This report describes the characteristics and the operation procedure of the apparatus together with some experimental results on depositing thin carbon films. (author)

  7. Motion Planning for a Direct Metal Deposition Rapid Prototyping System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AMES,ARLO L.; HENSINGER,DAVID M.; KUHLMANN,JOEL L.

    1999-10-18

    A motion planning strategy was developed and implemented to generate motion control instructions from solid model data for controlling a robotically driven solid free-form fabrication process. The planning strategy was tested using a PUMA type robot arm integrated into a LENS{trademark} (Laser Engineered Net Shape) system. Previous systems relied on a series of x, y, and z stages, to provide a minimal coordinated motion control capability. This limited the complexity of geometries that could be constructed. With the coordinated motion provided by a robotic arm, the system can produce three dimensional parts by ''writing'' material onto any face of existing material. The motion planning strategy relied on solid model geometry evaluation and exploited robotic positioning flexibility to allow the construction of geometrically complex parts. The integration of the robotic manipulator into the LENS{trademark} system was tested by producing metal parts directly from CAD models.

  8. Nanostructured Electrodes Via Electrostatic Spray Deposition for Energy Storage System

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, C.; Agrawal, R.; Kim, T. K.; Li, X.; Chen, W.; Yu, Y.; Beidaghi, M.; Penmatsa, V.; Wang, C.

    2014-01-01

    Energy storage systems such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors are extremely important in today’s society, and have been widely used as the energy and power sources for portable electronics, electrical vehicles and hybrid electrical vehicles. A

  9. Young (gold deposits and active geothermal systems of the Great Basin: Enigmas, questions, and exploration potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolbaugh, Mark F.; Vikre, Peter G.; Faulds, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Young gold systems in the Great Basin (£ 7 Ma), though not as well studied as their older counterparts, comprise a rapidly growing and in some ways controversial group. The gold inventory for these systems has more than doubled in the last 5 years from roughly 370 tonnes (12 Moz) to 890 tonnes (29 Moz). Although these deposits are characterized by low grades, tonnages can be high and stripping ratios low, and they have been mined profitably, as exemplified by Florida Canyon and Hycroft. Active geothermal systems in the Great Basin also comprise a rapidly growing group, as evidenced by a number of recent discoveries of geothermal groundwater and a more than 50% increase in electricity production capacity from these systems in the last 5 years. Many young gold deposits are closely associated with active geothermal systems, suggesting that gold deposits may be forming today in the Great Basin. Measured or estimated geothermal reservoir temperatures commonly approach or exceed 200∞C, and other characteristics and processes (advanced argillic caps, hydrothermal eruption breccias) of these young deposits resemble those of nearby Tertiary precious metal deposits. Nonetheless, many young gold systems, especially in Nevada, are not associated with coeval igneous rocks. Similarly, almost all electricity-grade geothermal systems in Nevada are not associated with Quaternary silicic volcanic rocks, and have lower temperature gradients, lower 3He/4He ratios, and lower dissolved trace element concentrations than most magmatic-heated geothermal systems elsewhere in the world. The increasing economic significance of young gold deposits and active geothermal systems justifies more research to better understand their origins, particularly because in some aspects they remain enigmatic and controversial. Are young gold deposits in Nevada truly amagmatic, or have they received metal and fluid contributions from magmas deeper within the crust? Has gold in these deposits been

  10. Substrate Effect on Plasma Clean Efficiency in Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Ko JangJian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasma clean in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD system plays an important role to ensure the same chamber condition after numerous film depositions. The periodic and applicable plasma clean in deposition chamber also increases wafer yield due to less defect produced during the deposition process. In this study, the plasma clean rate (PCR of silicon oxide is investigated after the silicon nitride deposited on Cu and silicon oxide substrates by remote plasma system (RPS, respectively. The experimental results show that the PCR drastically decreases with Cu substrate compared to that with silicon oxide substrate after numerous silicon nitride depositions. To understand the substrate effect on PCR, the surface element analysis and bonding configuration are executed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS is used to analyze microelement of metal ions on the surface of shower head in the PECVD chamber. According to Cu substrate, the results show that micro Cu ion and the CuOx bonding can be detected on the surface of shower head. The Cu ion contamination might grab the fluorine radicals produced by NF3 ddissociation in the RPS and that induces the drastic decrease on PCR.

  11. Investigation of Amourphous Deposits and Potential Corrosion Mechanisms in Offshore Water Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eroini, Violette; Oehler, Mike Christian; Graver, Britt Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    Increasing incidence of amorphous deposits in both production and water injection systems has caused considerable problems for offshore oil fields. Amorphous deposits, which are a widely recognized, but often poorly explained phenomenon, are typically comprised of both organic (biological...... or hydrocarbons) and inorganic material, but with compositions that vary considerably. One recurrent form of deposits, found in offshore water injection flowlines and wells, consisting mainly of magnetite as the corrosion product, was further investigated with the objectives of explaining its formation......, composed of both organic and inorganic compounds, has caused concerns within operating assets due to the detrimental effect on production and injection, in addition to challenges with intervention and integrity. The variety of deposits and poor understanding of their nature has led to confusion...

  12. Contamination due to memory effects in filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, D R; Verdonck, P; Brown, I G

    2002-01-01

    Thin film synthesis by filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition is a widely used technique with a number of important emerging technological applications. A characteristic feature of the method is that during the deposition process not only is the substrate coated by the plasma, but the plasma gun itself and the magnetic field coil and/or vacuum vessel section constituting the macroparticle filter are also coated to some extent. If then the plasma gun cathode is changed to a new element, there can be a contamination of the subsequent film deposition by sputtering from various parts of the system of the previous coating species. We have experimentally explored this effect and compared our results with theoretical estimates of sputtering from the SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) code. We find film contamination of order 10-4 - 10-3, and the memory of the prior history of the deposition hardware can be relatively long-lasting.

  13. Evolution of depositional system and uraniferous characteristics of Damoguaihe formation in Kelulun sag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhijie; Yu Xinghe; Zhang Chuanheng; Chen Zhankun

    2005-01-01

    Damoguaihe Formation, which is mainly of alluvial fan, fan delta and lacustrine depositional systems, is the target horizon for the prospecting of sandstone-type uranium deposit in Kelulun sag, Hailaer basin. According to the depositional environment and sediment characteristics, alluvial fan facies is subdivided into upper fan, middle fan and lower fan subfacies; the fan delta facies is subadivided into upper fan delta plain, lower fan delta plain, fan delta front and fan prodelta subfacies. At the northern edge of the sag occurred one fan delta and one alluvial fan, which can mutually transform one into another. The terrigenous coarse-grained clastic deposits in the study area provide favorable condition for the concentration of uranium and especially the main channels and distributary channels on the fan delta and alluvial fan are the most favorable sites for uranium concentration. (authors)

  14. Contamination due to memory effects in filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, D.R.; Salvadori, M.C.; Verdonck, P.; Brown, I.G.

    2002-01-01

    Thin film synthesis by filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition is a widely used technique with a number of important emerging technological applications. A characteristic feature of the method is that during the deposition process not only is the substrate coated by the plasma, but the plasma gun itself and the magnetic field coil and/or vacuum vessel section constituting the macroparticle filter are also coated to some extent. If then the plasma gun cathode is changed to a new element, there can be a contamination of the subsequent film deposition by sputtering from various parts of the system of the previous coating species. We have experimentally explored this effect and compared our results with theoretical estimates of sputtering from the stopping and range of ions in matter code. We find film contamination of the order of 10 -4 -10 -3 , and the memory of the prior history of the deposition hardware can be relatively long lasting

  15. Contamination due to memory effects in filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, D.R.; Salvadori, M.C.; Verdonck, P.; Brown, I.G.

    2002-08-13

    Thin film synthesis by filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition is a widely used technique with a number of important emerging technological applications. A characteristic feature of the method is that during the deposition process not only is the substrate coated by the plasma, but the plasma gun itself and the magnetic field coil and/or vacuum vessel section constituting the macroparticle filter are also coated to some extent. If then the plasma gun cathode is changed to a new element, there can be a contamination of the subsequent film deposition by sputtering from various parts of the system of the previous coating species. We have experimentally explored this effect and compared our results with theoretical estimates of sputtering from the SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) code. We find film contamination of order 10-4 - 10-3, and the memory of the prior history of the deposition hardware can be relatively long-lasting.

  16. Continental Mathematics League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartararo, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the activities of the Continental Mathematics League, which offers a series of meets for children in grades 3 though 9. In addition, a Calculus League and a Computer Contest are offered. The league allows schools to participate by mail so that rural schools can participate. (CR)

  17. Automatic gas-levitation system for vacuum deposition of laser-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, C.W.; Cameron, G.R.; Krenik, R.M.; Crane, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    An improved simple system has been developed to gas-levitate microspheres during vacuum-deposition processes. The automatic operation relies on two effects: a lateral stabilizing force provided by a centering-ring; and an automatically incremented gas metering system to offset weight increases during coating

  18. Vacuum fused deposition modelling system to improve tensile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the printing process, the interlayer bonding is made too quick thus the layers are not fully fused together causing the reduced tensile strength. This paper presents a possible solution to this problem by incorporating vacuum technology in FDM system to improve tensile strength of 3D printed specimens. In this study, a ...

  19. Use of process indices for simplification of the description of vapor deposition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajikawa, Yuya; Noda, Suguru; Komiyama, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    Vapor deposition is a complex process, including gas-phase, surface, and solid-phase phenomena. Because of the complexity of chemical and physical processes occurring in vapor deposition processes, it is difficult to form a comprehensive, fundamental understanding of vapor deposition and to control such systems for obtaining desirable structures and performance. To overcome this difficulty, we present a method for simplifying the complex description of such systems. One simplification method is to separate complex systems into multiple elements, and determine which of these are important elements. We call this method abridgement. The abridgement method retains only the dominant processes in a description of the system, and discards the others. Abridgement can be achieved by using process indices to evaluate the relative importance of the elementary processes. We describe the formulation and use of these process indices through examples of the growth of continuous films, initial deposition processes, and the formation of the preferred orientation of polycrystalline films. In this paper, we propose a method for representing complex vapor deposition processes as a set of simpler processes

  20. Simulation of Deposition the Corrosion Waste in a Water Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peráčková Jana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In water distribution systems can be found particles of rust and other mechanical contaminants. The particles are deposited in locations where the low velocity of water flow. Where a can cause the pitting corrosion. Is a concern in the systems made of galvanized steel pipes. The contribution deals with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of water flow and particles deposition in water distribution system. CFD Simulations were compared with the corrosive deposits in real pipeline. Corrosion is a spontaneous process of destruction of metal material due to electrochemical reactions of metal with the aggressive surrounding. Electrochemical corrosion is caused by the thermodynamic instability of metal and therefore can not be completely suppress, it can only influence the speed of corrosion. The requirement is to keep metal properties during the whole its lifetime. Requested service lifetime the water pipe according to EN 806-2 is 50 years.

  1. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA or Act). The Act defines the United States outer continental shelf...

  2. Sedimentation on continental margins: An integrated program for innovative studies during the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrourer, Charles A.; Coleman, James M.; Rouge, Baton; Flood, Roger D.; Ginsburg, Robert N.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Hine, Albert C.; Sternberg, Richard W.; Swift, Donald J. P.; Wright, L. Donelson

    Continental margins are of great scientific interest, and they represent the focus of human interaction with the ocean. Their deep structure forms the transition from continental to oceanic crust, and their surface expression extends from coastal environments of estuaries and shorelines across the continental shelf and slope to either the base of a continental rise or a marginal trough. Modern continental margins represent natural laboratories for investigation of complex relationships between physical, chemical, and biological phenomena, which are sensitive to environmental conditions both on the land and in the ocean. The history of these conditions is preserved within the sedimentary deposits of continental margins. The deposits form repositories for much of the particulate material transported off the world's land masses and produced from dissolved components in the world ocean. Past deposits of continental margins have been uplifted to form many mountain ranges and sedimentary terrains of the world, which record details of Earth history and contain valuable natural resources, such as petroleum and natural gas. Modern deposits of continental margins record the more recent events that have influenced Earth and also contain natural resources (for instance, minerals, sand, and gravel), as well as anthropogenic pollutants (for example, heavy metals and pesticides). The fates of many materials beneficial and deleterious to humans are dependent on the pathways followed by sedimentary particles on continental margins.

  3. Gravity study of the Central African Rift system: a model of continental disruption 2. The Darfur domal uplift and associated Cainozoic volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, P. M.; Fairhead, J. D.; Stuart, G. W.

    1983-05-01

    Gravity studies of the Darfur uplift, Western Sudan, show it to be associated with a circular negative Bouguer anomaly, 50 mGal in amplitude and 700 km across. A three-dimensional model interpretation of the Darfur anomaly, using constraints deduced from geophysical studies of similar but more evolved Kenya and Ethiopia domes, suggests either a low-density laccolithic body at mid-lithospheric depth (~ 60 km) or a thinned lithosphere with emplacement at high level of low-density asthenospheric material. The regional setting of the Darfur uplift is described in terms of it being an integral part of the Central African Rift System which is shown to be broadly equivalent to the early to middle Miocene stage in the development of the Afro-Arabian Rift System. Comparisons between these rift systems suggest that extensional tectonics and passive rifting, resulting in the subsiding sedimentary rift basins associated with the Ngaoundere, Abu Gabra, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts, are more typical of the early stage development of passive continental margins than the active domal uplift and development of rifted features associated with the Darfur, Kenya and Ethiopia domes.

  4. Analysis on depositional system and discussion on ore-formation conditions of channel sandstone type uranium deposit. Taking Dongsheng area, Ordos meso-cenozoic basin as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Rengui; Yu Dagan; Zhu Minqiang; Zhou Wanpeng; Chen Anping

    2003-01-01

    Applying the theory of depositional system, the depositional facies and depositional systems of the Zhiluo Formation in Dongsheng area are systematically analysed, and the authors proposed that sediments of the Zhiluo Formation are of fluvial facies, and streams of the Zhiluo time experienced three evolution stages, namely: the early braided stream, the middle low sinuosity meandering stream and the late high sinuosity meandering stream. Based on features of paleoclimatic evolution, the Zhiluo Formation is divided into two lithological members. The lower lithological member consists of sediments of braided and low sinuosity meandering streams under humid-ward paleoclimatic conditions forming grey sedimentary formation. The upper member is composed of sediments of meandering streams under arid-hot paleoclimatic conditions representing complex-colored (mainly red) sedimentary formation. It is suggested that uranium mineralization in the study area is of channel sandstone type and controlled by braided channel sediments. Besides, the ore-formation conditions for channel sandstone type uranium deposit are preliminarily discussed

  5. Global off-line evaluation of the ISBA-TRIP continental hydrological system used in the CNRM-CM6 climate model for the next CMIP6 exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decharme, Bertrand; Vergnes, Jean-Pierre; Minvielle, Marie; Colin, Jeanne; Delire, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The land surface hydrology represents an active component of the climate system. It is likely to influence the water and energy exchanges at the land surface, the ocean salinity and temperature at the mouth of the largest rivers, and the climate at least at the regional scale. In climate models, the continental hydrology is simulated via Land Surface Models (LSM), which compute water and energy budgets at the surface, coupled to River Routing Model (RRM), which convert the runoff simulated by the LSMs into river discharge in order to transfer the continental fresh water into the oceans and then to close the global hydrological cycle. Validating these Continental Hydrological Systems (CHS) at the global scale is therefore a crucial task, which requires off-line simulations driven by realistic atmospheric fluxes to avoid the systematic biases commonly found in the atmospheric models. In the CNRM-CM6 climate model of Météo-France, that will be used for the next Coupled Climate Intercomparison Project phase 6 (CMIP6) exercise, the land surface hydrology is simulated using the ISBA-TRIP CHS coupled via the OASIS-MCT coupler. The ISBA LSM solves explicitly the one dimensional Fourier law for soil temperature and the mixed form of the Richards equation for soil moisture using a 14-layers discretization over 12m depths. For the snowpack, a discretization using 12 layers allows the explicit representation of some snow key processes as its viscosity, its compaction due to wind, its age and its albedo on the visible and near infrared spectra. The TRIP RRM uses a global river channel network at 0.5° resolution. It is based on a three prognostic equations for the surface stream water, the seasonal floodplains, and the groundwater. The streamflow velocity is computed using the Maning's formula. The floodplain reservoir fills when the river height exceeds the river bankfull height and vice-versa. The flood interacts with the ISBA soil hydrology through infiltration and with

  6. X-ray fluorescence system for thin film composition analysis during deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formica, Sarah P.; Lee, Susanne M.

    2005-01-01

    A fast-response-time X-ray fluorescence (XRF) system was designed with a monolithic polycapillary focusing optic for in situ composition profiling during materials deposition. The polycapillary optic produced 10 5 times more intensity at the sample than a pinhole, allowing the detector placement to be outside most deposition chambers. The resultant XRF signals were so strong that measurement times were comparable to monolayer growth times. XRF line scans from Ge 1-x Sn x thin films were used to map Sn concentration versus surface position with a 10 μm resolution. The extrapolated instrumental detection limit using a 20 W Cu source was 10 12 atoms (ng). XRF from a 100-nm ion-implanted Ge 0.72 Sn 0.28 sample demonstrated the system's ability to monitor initial growth stages during deposition

  7. Characteristics of uranium mineralization and depositional system of host sediments, Bayantala basin, Inner Mongolia autonomous region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Minqiang; Wu Rengui; Yu Dagan; Chen Anping; Shen Kefeng

    2003-01-01

    Based upon the research of basin fills at the Bayantala basin, the genetic facies of host sediments have been ascertained and the target beds and their range are delineated. The sand bodies of the Upper Member of Tengge'er Formation deposited in fan delta front is favorable to the formation of uranium mineralization of phreatic-interlayer oxidation. The Saihantala Fm deposited in fluvial system can be divided into Lower Member and Upper Member based on depositional microfacies and paleoclimate. The Lower Member of braided system is the most important target bed enriched in organic matter where basal-channel-type uranium mineralization occurs. Features of alteration and mineralization suggest that the early-stage and the late-stage uranium mineralization are related to phreatic oxidation and interlayer oxidation (roll-type) respectively. Meanwhile, the secondary reduction has superimposed over the earlier mineralization in the area caused by hydrocarbons raising along faults

  8. Subaqueous ice-contact fans: Depositional systems characterised by highly aggradational supercritical flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Joerg; Winsemann, Jutta

    2015-04-01

    Subaqueous ice-contact fans are deposited by high-energy plane-wall jets from subglacial conduits into standing water bodies. Highly aggradational conditions during flow expansion and deceleration allow for the preservation of bedforms related to supercritical flows, which are commonly considered rare in the depositional record. We present field examples from gravelly and sandy subaqueous ice-contact fan successions, which indicate that deposition by supercritical flows might be considered as a characteristic feature of these depositional systems. The studied successions were deposited in deep ice-dammed lakes, which formed along the margins of the Middle Pleistocene Scandinavian ice sheets across Northern Germany. The gravel-rich subaqueous fan deposits are dominated by large scour-fills (up to 25 m wide and 3 m) deep and deposits of turbulent hyperconcentrated flows, which are partly attributed to supercritical flow conditions (Winsemann et al., 2009). Scours (up to 4.5 m wide and 0.9 m deep) infilled by gravelly backsets are observed above laterally extensive erosional surfaces and are interpreted as deposits of cyclic steps. Laterally discontinuous beds of low-angle cross-stratified gravel are interpreted as antidune deposits. Downflow and up-section the gravel-rich deposits pass into sand-rich successions, which include deposits of chutes-and-pools, breaking antidunes, stationary antidunes and humpback dunes (Lang and Winsemann, 2013). Deposits of chutes-and-pools and breaking antidunes are characterised by scour-fills (up to 4 m wide and 1.2 m deep) comprising backsets or gently dipping sigmoidal foresets. Stationary antidune deposits consist of laterally extensive sinusoidal waveforms with long wavelengths (1-12 m) and low amplitudes (0.1-0.5 m), which formed under quasi-steady flows at the lower limit of the supercritical flow stage and high rates of sedimentation. Humpback dunes are characterised by divergent sigmoidal foresets and are interpreted as

  9. DEPOSIT INSURANCE SYSTEM: AN EXPOSITION FOR THE ISLAMIC BANKS IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Sharifah Adlina Syed; Ahmad, Rubi

    2012-01-01

    An important aspect of the new financial landscape is the increased focus on financial stability. A deposit insurance (DI) system accomplishes this purpose. While there are a great number of earlier studies that analyze the impact of DI on the conventional banking system, there is a lack of study that takes into account the moral hazard problem of DI on the Islamic banking system. Our paper aims to investigate the moral hazard implication by way of bank risk taking trailing the introduc...

  10. Simulating the impact of glaciations on continental groundwater flow systems: 2. Model application to the Wisconsinian glaciation over the Canadian landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, J.-M.; Sudicky, E. A.; Peltier, W. R.; Tarasov, L.

    2008-09-01

    A 3-D groundwater flow and brine transport numerical model of the entire Canadian landscape up to a depth of 10 km is constructed in order to capture the impacts of the Wisconsinian glaciation on the continental groundwater flow system. The numerical development of the model is presented in the companion paper of Lemieux et al. (2008b). Although the scale of the model prevents the use of a detailed geological model, commonly occurring geological materials that exhibit relatively consistent hydrogeological properties over the continent justify the simplifications while still allowing the capture of large-scale flow system trends. The model includes key processes pertaining to coupled groundwater flow and glaciation modeling, such a density-dependent (i.e., brine) flow, hydromechanical loading, subglacial infiltration, isostasy, and permafrost development. The surface boundary conditions are specified with the results of a glacial system model. The significant impact of the ice sheet on groundwater flow is evident by increases in the hydraulic head values below the ice sheet by as much as 3000 m down to a depth of 1.5 km into the subsurface. Results also indicate that the groundwater flow system after glaciation did not fully revert to its initial condition and that it is still recovering from the glaciation perturbation. This suggests that the current groundwater flow system cannot be interpreted solely on the basis of present-day boundary conditions and it is likely that several thousands of years of additional equilibration time will be necessary for the system to reach a new quasi-steady state. Finally, we find permafrost to have a large impact on the rate of dissipation of high hydraulic heads that build at depth and capturing its accurate distribution is important to explain the current hydraulic head distribution across the Canadian landscape.

  11. Sensing system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kychakoff, George [Maple Valley, WA; Afromowitz, Martin A [Mercer Island, WA; Hogle, Richard E [Olympia, WA

    2008-10-14

    A system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers includes one or more deposit monitoring sensors operating in infrared regions of about 4 or 8.7 microns and directly producing images of the interior of the boiler, or producing feeding signals to a data processing system for information to enable a distributed control system by which the boilers are operated to operate said boilers more efficiently. The data processing system includes an image pre-processing circuit in which a 2-D image formed by the video data input is captured, and includes a low pass filter for performing noise filtering of said video input. It also includes an image compensation system for array compensation to correct for pixel variation and dead cells, etc., and for correcting geometric distortion. An image segmentation module receives a cleaned image from the image pre-processing circuit for separating the image of the recovery boiler interior into background, pendant tubes, and deposition. It also accomplishes thresholding/clustering on gray scale/texture and makes morphological transforms to smooth regions, and identifies regions by connected components. An image-understanding unit receives a segmented image sent from the image segmentation module and matches derived regions to a 3-D model of said boiler. It derives a 3-D structure the deposition on pendant tubes in the boiler and provides the information about deposits to the plant distributed control system for more efficient operation of the plant pendant tube cleaning and operating systems.

  12. Two depositional models for Pliocene coastal plain fluvial systems, Goliad Formation, south Texas Gulf Coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, H.D.; Galloway, W.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Goliad Formation consists of four depositional systems-the Realitos and Mathis bed-load fluvial systems in the southwest and the Cuero and Eagle Lake mixed-load fluvial systems in the northeast. Five facies are recognized in the Realitos and Mathis bed-load fluvial systems: (1) primary channel-fill facies, (2) chaotic flood channel-fill facies, (3) complex splay facies, (4) flood plain facies, and (5) playa facies. A model for Realitos-Mathis depositional environments shows arid-climate braided stream complexes with extremely coarse sediment load, highly variable discharge, and marked channel instability. Broad, shallow, straight to slightly sinuous primary channels were flanked by wide flood channels. Flood channels passed laterally into broad, low-relief flood plains. Small playas occupied topographic lows near large channel axes. Three facies are recognized in the Cuero and Eagle Lake mixed-load fluvial systems: (1) channel-fill facies, (2) crevasse splay facies, and (3) flood plain facies. A model for Cuero-Eagle Lake depositional environments shows coarse-grained meander belts in a semi-arid climate. Slightly to moderately sinuous meandering streams were flanked by low, poorly developed natural levees. Crevasse splays were common, but tended to be broad and ill-defined. Extensive, low-relief flood plains occupied interaxial areas. The model proposed for the Realitos and Mathis fluvial systems may aid in recognition of analogous ancient depositional systems. In addition, since facies characteristics exercise broad controls on Goliad uranium mineralization, the proposed depositional models aid in defining target zones for Goliad uranium exploration

  13. 78 FR 55230 - Safety and Environmental Management System Requirements for Vessels on the U.S. Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ...\\ including the regulation of workplace safety and health.\\2\\ The Coast Guard's regulatory authority extends... 147 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0779] RIN 1625-AC05 Safety and Environmental Management System Requirements... a vessel-specific Safety and Environmental Management System (SEMS) that incorporates the management...

  14. The Myanmar continental shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.

    reveal a minimum of 18 m thick strata of modern muds (Fig. 2g). At the outer boundary of the Gulf of Myanmar Continental Shelf 8 Martaban (15oN Latitude), brown muds overlie coarse sands indicating that modern deltaic sediments... on the Myeik Bank (Rodolfo, 1969a). Modern sediments on the Ayeyarwady shelf General composition, Texture and Grain-size: The distribution and sediment texture on the Ayeyarwady shelf shows fine-grained sediments comprising silty-clay and clayey...

  15. A Magnetron Sputter Deposition System for the Development of X-Ray Multilayer Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, David

    2015-01-01

    The project objective is to establish the capability to deposit multilayer structures for x-ray, neutron, and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optic applications through the development of a magnetron sputtering deposition system. A specific goal of this endeavor is to combine multilayer deposition technology with the replication process in order to enhance NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) position as a world leader in the design of innovative x-ray instrumentation through the development of full shell replicated multilayer optics. The development of multilayer structures are absolutely necessary in order to advance the field of x-ray astronomy by pushing the limit for observing the universe to ever-increasing photon energies (i.e., up to 200 keV or higher), well beyond Chandra's (approx.10 keV) and NuStar's (approx.75 keV) capability. The addition of multilayer technology would significantly enhance the x-ray optics capability at MSFC and allow NASA to maintain its world leadership position in the development, fabrication, and design of innovative x-ray instrumentation, which would be the first of its kind by combining multilayer technology with the mirror replication process. This marriage of these technologies would allow astronomers to see the universe in a new light by pushing to higher energies that are out of reach with today's instruments. To this aim, a magnetron vacuum sputter deposition system for the deposition of novel multilayer thin film x-ray optics is proposed. A significant secondary use of the vacuum deposition system includes the capability to fabricate multilayers for applications in the field of EUV optics for solar physics, neutron optics, and x-ray optics for a broad range of applications including medical imaging.

  16. A Magnetron Sputter Deposition System for the Development of Multilayer X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, David; Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The proposal objective is to establish the capability to deposit multilayer structures for x-ray, neutron, and EUV optic applications through the development of a magnetron sputtering deposition system. A specific goal of this endeavor is to combine multilayer deposition technology with the replication process in order to enhance the MSFC's position as a world leader in the design of innovative X-ray instrumentation through the development of full shell replicated multilayer optics. The development of multilayer structures is absolutely necessary in order to advance the field of X-ray astronomy by pushing the limit for observing the universe to ever increasing photon energies (i. e. up to 200 keV or higher); well beyond Chandra (approx. 10 keV) and NuStar's (approx. 75 keV) capability. The addition of multilayer technology would significantly enhance the X-ray optics capability at MSFC and allow NASA to maintain its world leadership position in the development, fabrication and design of innovative X-ray instrumentation which would be the first of its kind by combining multilayer technology with the mirror replication process. This marriage of these technologies would allow astronomers to see the universe in a new light by pushing to higher energies that are out of reach with today's instruments.To this aim, a magnetron vacum sputter deposition system for the deposition of novel multilayer thin film X-ray optics is proposed. A significant secondary use of the vacuum deposition system includes the capability to fabricate multilayers for applications in the field of EUV optics for solar physics, neutron optics, and X-ray optics for a broad range of applications including medical imaging.

  17. The distribution of macrofauna on the inner continental shelf of southeastern Brazil: The major influence of an estuarine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalmon, I. R.; Macedo, I. M.; Rezende, C. E.; Falcão, A. P. C.; Almeida, T. C.

    2013-09-01

    The environmental heterogeneity of the Campos Basin on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State was assessed by the benthic macrofauna on the platform adjacent to the Paraíba do Sul River (PSR) on the dry and rainy seasons. The samples were collected in triplicate from 33 sites using a van Veen grab during March 2009 - a period of higher precipitation and flow rate - and July 2009 - a period of lower precipitation and flow rate. The grab depths ranged from 12 to 97 m and were grouped into three strata: 1: 50 m. The particle size, total carbonate and total organic carbon in each sample were analyzed. Subsamples for the macrofauna analysis were washed, sieved with a 500 μm mesh and identified. The sediment was predominantly composed of sand, with mud pockets near the mouth of the river. The macrofauna included annelids, crustaceans, mollusks, echinoderms, cnidarians, nemerteans, cephalochordates, sipunculids and bryozoans. The density and richness were directly related to the depth, with both descriptors being higher during the rainy season and at depths greater than 50 m. This result is probably due to the higher availability of food in the river during this period and is corroborated by the predominance of deposit feeders in the deepest stratum. The number of individuals of each species was higher in the shallowest stratum, probably due to the higher productivity of this stratum. The rate of organic particulate matter flow from the coastal regions to the deeper regions can also be influenced by the material export dynamics of the river, which are more intense during the rainy season. These dynamics explain why a significantly higher number of individuals were observed in the rainy period in comparison to the dry one. Multivariate analyses identified differences between the sampling sites in the deepest stratum during both periods and revealed a stronger similarity between the shallow and intermediate strata, especially during the rainy season, which has a

  18. TPR system: a powerful technique to monitor carbon nanotube formation during chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tristao, Juliana Cristina; Moura, Flavia Cristina Camilo; Lago, Rochel Montero; Sapag, Karim

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a TPR (Temperature Programmed Reduction) system is used as a powerful tool to monitor carbon nanotubes production during CVD (Chemical Vapour Deposition), The experiments were carried out using catalyst precursors based on Fe-Mo supported on Al 2 O 3 and methane as carbon source. As methane reacts on the Fe metal surface, carbon is deposited and H2 is produced. TPR is very sensitive to the presence of H2 and affords information on the temperature where catalyst is active to form different forms of carbon, the reaction kinetics, the catalyst deactivation and carbon yields. (author)

  19. Deposition of hybrid organic-inorganic composite coatings using an atmospheric plasma jet system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Amidou; Rahman, Mahfujur; Reid, Ian; Twomey, Barry; MacElroy, J M Don; Dowling, Denis P

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of alcohol addition on the incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles into nm thick siloxane coatings. Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles with diameters of 30-80 nm were incorporated into an atmospheric plasma deposited tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) siloxane coating. The TMOS/TiO2 coating was deposited using the atmospheric plasma jet system known as PlasmaStream. In this system the liquid precursor/nanoparticle mixture is nebulised into the plasma. It was observed that prior to being nebulised the TiO2 particles agglomerated and settled over time in the TMOS/TiO2 mixture. In order to obtain a more stable nanoparticle/TMOS suspension the addition of the alcohols methanol, octanol and pentanol to this mixture was investigated. The addition of each of these alcohols was found to stabilise the nanoparticle suspension. The effect of the alcohol was therefore assessed with respect to the properties of the deposited coatings. It was observed that coatings deposited from TMOS/TiO2, with and without the addition of methanol were broadly similar. In contrast the coatings deposited with octanol and pentanol addition to the TMOS/TiO2 mixture were significantly thicker, for a given set of deposition parameters and were also more homogeneous. This would indicate that the alcohol precursor was incorporated into the plasma polymerised siloxane. The incorporation of the organic functionality from the alcohols was confirmed from FTIR spectra of the coatings. The difference in behaviour with alcohol type is likely to be due to the lower boiling point of methanol (65 degrees C), which is lower than the maximum plasma temperature measured at the jet orifice (77 degrees C). This temperature is significantly lower than the 196 degrees C and 136 degrees C boiling points of octanol and pentanol respectively. The friction of the coatings was determined using the Pin-on-disc technique. The more organic coatings deposited with

  20. Formation of continental crust in a temporally linked arc magma system from 5 to 30 km depth: ~ 90 Ma plutonism in the Cascades Crystalline Core composite arc section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratschbacher, B. C.; Miller, J. S.; Kent, A. J.; Miller, R. B.; Anderson, J. L.; Paterson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Continental crust has an andesitic bulk composition with a mafic lower crust and a granodioritic upper crust. The formation of stratified continental crust in general and the vertical extent of processes active in arc crustal columns leading to the differentiation of primitive, mantle-derived melts entering the lower crust are highly debated. To investigate where in the crustal column magma mixing, fractionation, assimilation and crystal growth occur and to what extent, we study the ~ 90 Ma magmatic flare-up event of the Cascades arc, a magma plumbing system from ~ 5 to 30 km depth. We focus on three intrusive complexes, emplaced at different depths during major regional shortening in an exceptionally thick crust (≥ 55 km1) but which are temporally related: the upper crustal Black Peak intrusion (1-3 kbar at 3.7 to 11 km; ~ 86.8 to 91.7 Ma2), the mid-crustal Mt. Stuart intrusion (3.5-4.0 kbar at 13 to 15 km; 90.8 and 96.3 Ma3) and the deep crustal Tenpeak intrusion (7 to 10 kbar at 25 to 37 km; 89.7 to 92.3 Ma4). These intrusive complexes are well characterized by geochronology showing that they have been constructed incrementally by multiple magma batches over their lifespans and thus allow the monitoring and comparison of geochemical parameters over time at different depths. We use a combination of whole rock major and trace element data and isotopes combined with detailed investigation of amphibole, which has been recognized to be important in the generation of calc-alkaline rocks in arcs to test the following hypotheses: (a) compositional bimodality is produced in the lower crust, whereas upper crustal levels are dominated by mixing to form intermediate compositions, or (b) differentiation occurs throughout the crustal column with different crystallizing phases and their compositions controlling the bulk chemistry. 1. Miller et al. 2009: GSA Special Paper 456, p. 125-149 2. Shea 2014: PhD thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 3. Anderson et al. 2012

  1. Method and system for near-field spectroscopy using targeted deposition of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided in one embodiment of the invention a method for analyzing a sample material using surface enhanced spectroscopy. The method comprises the steps of imaging the sample material with an atomic force microscope (AFM) to select an area of interest for analysis, depositing nanoparticles onto the area of interest with an AFM tip, illuminating the deposited nanoparticles with a spectrometer excitation beam, and disengaging the AFM tip and acquiring a localized surface enhanced spectrum. The method may further comprise the step of using the AFM tip to modulate the spectrometer excitation beam above the deposited nanoparticles to obtain improved sensitivity data and higher spatial resolution data from the sample material. The invention further comprises in one embodiment a system for analyzing a sample material using surface enhanced spectroscopy.

  2. What is rational about killing a patient with an overdose?: enlightenment, continental philosophy and the role of the human subject in system failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Sidney W A

    2011-08-01

    This paper raises the issue of ergonomics' role in giving primacy to fully rational individual human actors in the creation of system failure, despite its commitment to see action as constrained by design and operational features of work. Reflecting on recent contributions to the journal, ergonomics' dilemma is considered against Enlightenment assumptions about individual human reason as the route to truth and goodness and its critics in continental philosophy. There is a pervasive, unstated pact here. What ergonomics chooses to call certain things (violations, errors, non-compliance, situation awareness) not only simultaneously affirms and denies full rationality on part of the people it studies, it also coincides with what the West sees as scientific, true and instrumental. Thus, ergonomics research legitimates its findings in terms it is expected to explain itself in. But by doing so, it reproduces the very social order it set out to repudiate. Statement of Relevance: Ergonomics' choice of words (violations, errors, non-compliance) at once affirms and denies full rationality on part of the people it studies, reproducing the very social order it is meant to question and change.

  3. Comparison of chemical solution deposition systems for the fabrication of lead zirconate titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, F.; Daglish, M.; Kemmitt, T.

    2001-01-01

    Ferroelectric thin films of lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr x Ti 1-x )O 3 (PZT) were prepared from five chemical solution deposition (CSD) systems, namely methoxyethanol, citrate, diol, acetic acid and triethanolamine. Physical characteristics of the solutions, processing parameters and physical and electrical properties of the films were used to assess the relative advantages and disadvantages of the different chemical systems. All the CSD systems decomposed to produce single phase perovskite PZT at temperatures above 650 deg C. Thin film deposition was influenced by the specific characteristics of each system such as wetting on the substrate and viscosity. Distinct precursor effects on the thin film crystallinity and electrical performance were revealed. The diol route yielded films with the highest crystallite size, highest permittivity and lowest loss tangent. The relative permittivity exhibited by films made by the other routes were 25% to 35% lower at equivalent thicknesses. Copyright (2001) The Australian Ceramic Society

  4. Conceptual design of a remote system for characterizing oilsands tailings deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipsett, M.G.; Rivard, B. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described the design of a remote system for characterizing oil sands tailings deposits. The wheeled mobile robot technology was developed in order to improve the trafficability of composite tailings (CT) and other engineering tailings deposits, as well as to identify differences in feedstocks and process performance, and to determine shear strength losses from dynamic loading. The technology was comprised of a spectroscopy component, and a mobile robot equipped with surface measurement sensors. The control system included navigation and traction control devices. A communication component was also included. Tools used in the system included a penetrometer, a viscosimeter, and an automatic sample collection device. Tests have been conducted to determine the system's driving ability. Further tests are being conducted to evaluate the performance of the robot sensors and controllers. tabs., figs.

  5. The ichthyofauna of limnic systems in Quaternary deposits of extreme southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Marques

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Quaternary in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, is geologically represented by the coastal plain and was originated by successive events of Pleistocene-Holocene marine transgressions and the occurrence of alluvial deposits. This paper aimed to characterize the fish assemblage occurring in a swampy Quaternary area adjacent to Lagoa Pequena, a lacustrine system connected to the west margin of the Laguna dos Patos estuary. A checklist is also provided of the ichthyofauna so far recorded in limnic systems of Quaternary deposits in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 42 species was recorded, distributed in nine orders, 18 families and 31 genera. Characidae and Cichlidae were the most representative families, comprising 15 and 4 species respectively. A bibliographic revision associated to our sample data revealed the occurrence of 156 species in limnic systems inserted in RS Quaternary deposits (114 limnic, 15 marine/estuarine/limnic, ten marine/estuarine, nine estuarine/limnic and eight marine. Characiformes and Siluriformes are the most diverse orders, corroborating the Neotropical pattern. Seven species can be considered endemic to RS Quaternary deposits.

  6. Narrative depositional systems on the area with Nalinggou the relationship between uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Rui

    2012-01-01

    For sandstone-type uranium deposits in China began to research the late 1950s, 1990s in-situ leachable sand stone-type uranium deposits has become China's industrial significance of the important uranium deposits type. The sedimentary system analysis in in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposit research plays a very important role. Based on the sedimentary system analysis and sequence stratigraphy as the basis, the area of Nalinggou on ridge middle Jurassic straight ROM group sedimentary system characteristics, middle Jurassic straight ROM group of sand body thickness, the area on ridge aspects of river channel exhibition cloth direction studied that: (1) river space distribution direction control the sand body cloth of the spatial distribution, then affects fu cloth of the spatial distribution of uranium sand body; (2) the evolution of the sedimentary environment created a good sand sequence distribution and enrichment conditions intercalation, be helpful for interlayer oxidation effect; (3) sequence of sedimentary control three layer structure lithology space combination. (authors)

  7. Neogene palaeochannel deposits in Sudan - Remnants of a trans-Saharan river system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussert, Robert; Eisawi, Ali A. M.; Hamed, Basher; Babikir, Ibrahim A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The start of Nile-type trans-Saharan drainage systems in NE Africa during the Cenozoic is disputed. Stratigraphical and sedimentological data in Egypt are partly in conflict with the uplift history of potential source areas of water and sediment in East Africa. Here, we investigate outcrops of the Wadi Awatib Conglomerate in Sudan that provide the first evidence of northerly flowing Neogene rivers in the region. Dimension and relief of basal erosion surfaces, overall geometry of deposits and palaeocurrent indicators demonstrate that the deposits represent the fill of northward-oriented incised valleys. The conglomerates were deposited in deep gravel-bed rivers, by hyperconcentrated flows, tractions carpets and gravel bars, primarily during heavily sediment-laden floods of probably monsoonal origin. Stratigraphical and geomorphological relationships show that the deposits are between Eocene and Pliocene in age. Considering the structural history of the region and periods in the Cenozoic with palaeoclimatic conditions suitable for the production and transport of gravels, we hypothesize that the dramatic base-level fall during the Late Miocene Messinian salinity crisis in combination with a favorable palaeoclimate caused the incision of valleys and their subsequent filling with conglomerates. Sea-level change in the Mediterranean Sea and headward erosion of streams that were connected to the Egyptian Nile might have been the primary cause of valley incision and deposition of conglomerates, despite a location far inland from the coastline. We suggest that the deposits document a relatively young Neogene (Messinian to early Pliocene) trans-Saharan river system unrelated to uplift of the Ethiopian Plateau.

  8. Mud deposit formation on the open coast of the larger Patos Lagoon-Cassino Beach system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinzon, S. B.; Winterwerp, J. C.; Nogueira, R.; de Boer, G. J.

    2009-03-01

    This paper proposes an explanation of the mud deposits on the inner Shelf of Cassino Beach, South Brazil, by using computational modeling. These mud deposits are mainly formed by sediments delivered from Patos Lagoon, a coastal lagoon connected to the Shelf, next to Cassino Beach. The deposits are characterized by (soft) mud layers of about 1 m thick and are found between the -5 and -20 isobaths. Two hydrodynamic models of the larger Patos Lagoon-Cassino Beach system were calibrated against water elevation measured for a 5 months period, and against currents and salinity measured for a week period. The circulation patterns and water exchange through the mouth were analyzed as a function of local and remote wind effects, and river discharges. The remote wind effect mainly governs the quantity of water exchange with the Lagoon through its effect on mean sea level as a result of Ekman dynamics, while river discharges are important for the salinity of the exchanged water masses. Local winds augment the export-import rates by set-up and set-down within the Lagoon, but their effects are much smaller than those of the remote wind. Currents patterns on the inner Shelf during water outflow revealed a recirculation zone south of the Lagoon, induced by the local geometry and bathymetry of the system. This recirculation zone coincides with observed locations of mud deposition. Water, hence suspended sediment export occurs when remote and local winds are from the N-E, which explains why fine sediment deposits are mainly found south of the Lagoon's breakwater. A sensitivity analysis with the numerical model quantified the contribution of the various mechanisms driving the transport and fate of the fine suspended sediments, i.e. the effects of remote and local wind, of the astronomical tide, of river discharge and fresh-salt water-induced density currents, and of earth rotation. It is concluded that gravitational circulation and earth rotation affects the further dispersion of

  9. Strategic system development toward biofuel, desertification, and crop production monitoring in continental scales using satellite-based photosynthesis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Daijiro

    2013-10-01

    The author regards fundamental root functions as underpinning photosynthesis activities by vegetation and as affecting environmental issues, grain production, and desertification. This paper describes the present development of monitoring and near real-time forecasting of environmental projects and crop production by approaching established operational monitoring step-by-step. The author has been developing a thematic monitoring structure (named RSEM system) which stands on satellite-based photosynthesis models over several continents for operational supports in environmental fields mentioned above. Validation methods stand not on FLUXNET but on carbon partitioning validation (CPV). The models demand continuing parameterization. The entire frame system has been built using Reanalysis meteorological data, but model accuracy remains insufficient except for that of paddy rice. The author shall accomplish the system that incorporates global environmental forces. Regarding crop production applications, industrialization in developing countries achieved through direct investment by economically developed nations raises their income, resulting in increased food demand. Last year, China began to import rice as it had in the past with grains of maize, wheat, and soybeans. Important agro-potential countries make efforts to cultivate new crop lands in South America, Africa, and Eastern Europe. Trends toward less food sustainability and stability are continuing, with exacerbation by rapid social and climate changes. Operational monitoring of carbon sequestration by herbaceous and bore plants converges with efforts at bio-energy, crop production monitoring, and socio-environmental projects such as CDM A/R, combating desertification, and bio-diversity.

  10. Holocene limestones of part of the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.; Guptha, M.V.S.

    , while those on te upper continental slope (130-180 m) are algal bryozoan limestones. The limestones have a radiocarbon age ranging between 9,000 and 11,000 years. Depositional environmental on the continental shelf during the Holocene appears...

  11. Methods of mineral potential assessment of uranium deposits: A mineral systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaireth, S.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral potential represents the likelihood (probability) that an economic mineral deposit could have formed in an area. Mineral potential assessment and prospectivity analysis use a probabilistic concepts to mineral deposits, where the probability of an event (formation of a mineral deposit) is conditional on two factors : i) geological processes occurring in the area, and ii) the presence of geological features indicative of those process. For instance, one of the geological processes critical for the formation of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits in an area is transport of uranium in groundwaters. Geological features indicative of this process in an area comprise, i) presence of leachable source rocks of uranium; ii) presence of highly permeable sandstone; and iii) suitable hydrogeological gradient driving flow groundwaters. Mineral deposits can also be conceptualised as mineral systems with more emphasis on mineralising processes. This concept has some clear parallels with the petroleum systems approach which has proven to be a useful in oil and gas exploration. Mineral systems are defined as ‘all geological factors that control the generation and preservation of mineral deposits’. Seven important geological factors are outlined to define the characteristics of a hydrothermal mineral system. These factors include: i) source of the mineralising fluids and transporting legends; ii) source of metals and other ore components; iii) migration pathways which may include inflow as well as outflow zones; iv) thermal gradients; v) source of energy to mobilised fluids; vi) mechanical and structural focusing mechanism at the trap site; and vii) chemical and/or physical cause for precipitation of ore minerals at the trap site. This approach, commonly known as the ‘source’, ‘transport’ and ‘trap’ paradigm has been redefined to introduce five questions as a basis to understand spatial and temporal evolution of a mineral system at all scales (regional to

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF DEPOSIT DETECTION SYSTEM IN PIPELINES OF THE STEELWORKS USING CS-137 GAMMA-RAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Won-Joon; Lee, Seung-Hee; Jeong, Hee-Dong

    2008-01-01

    The deposit is built up in the pipeline of the steelworks by the chemical reaction among COG (coke oven gas), BFG (blast furnace gas), moisture, and steel in the high temperature environment and obstructs the smooth gas flow. In this study a gamma-ray system is developed to detect the deposit accumulated in pipelines and calculate the accumulation rate with respect to the cross section area of pipes. Cs-137 is used as the gamma-ray source and the system is designed to apply to pipes of various diameters. This system also includes the DB for storage and display of the measurement results so that it can be used for the efficient management of the pipelines

  13. The continental waters pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the continental water pollution. The sewage affect considerably the quality of some rivers water and of some basins. Moreover, a slow and general damage of natural waters has been established. The direct effects on men and on the natural medium (climatic change, aquatic ecosystems, water cycle) are given as well as the protection means (waste processing, the water-bearing bed and underground water protection, the aquatic ecosystems protection and planning) used and future to abate the water pollution. (O.L.). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  14. Young Investigator Proposal, Research Area 7.4 Reactive Chemical Systems: Multifunctional, Bimetallic Nanomaterials Prepared by Atomic Layer Electroless Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-30

    Report: Young Investigator Proposal, Research Area 7.4 Reactive Chemical Systems: Multifunctional, Bimetallic Nanomaterials Prepared by Atomic Layer ...Chemical Systems: Multifunctional, Bimetallic Nanomaterials Prepared by Atomic Layer Electroless Deposition Report Term: 0-Other Email: pcappillino... Layer Electroless Deposition (ALED, Figure 1) is the ability to tune growth mechanism, hence growth morphology, by altering conditions. In this

  15. Early diagenesis of phosphorus in continental margin sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, C.P.

    1997-01-01

    Most of the organic material in the oceans that reaches the sea floor is deposited on continental margins and not in the deep sea. This organic matter is the principal carrier of phosphorus (P) to sediments. A part of the organic material is buried definitely. The other part decomposes,

  16. Tungsten chemical vapor deposition characteristics using SiH4 in a single wafer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosler, R.S.; Mendonca, J.; Rice, M.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Several workers have recently begun using silane as a high-rate, low-temperature alternative to hydrogen for the reduction of WF 6 in the chemical vapor deposition of W. The deposition and film characteristics of both selective and blanket W using this new chemistry are explored in a radiantly heated single wafer system using closed-loop temperature control with a thermocouple in direct contact with the backside of the wafer. Selective W deposition rates of up to 1.5 μm/min were measured over the temperature range 250--550 0 C with blanket W rates typically 2--5 x lower. Resistivity is in the 10--15 μΩcm range at 300 0 C for SiH 4 /WF 6 ratios of 0.2 to 1.0, while above 400 0 C the range is 7.5--8.5 μΩcm. Si content in the W films is quite low at 10 16 to 10 17 atoms/cm 3 . Adhesion to silicon is excellent at temperatures of 350 0 C and above. Selective W using SiH 4 reduction for doped silicon contact fill shows none of the consumption or encroachment problems common to H 2 reduction, although selectivity is more sensitive. Contact resistance for p + and n + silicon contacts are comparable to aluminum controls and to previously published data. Blanket deposition into narrow geometries gives ≥0% step coverage and without keyholes in the 250--450 0 C deposition temperature range. For low-SiH 4 flows, deposition at 500 0 C causes small keyholes, while at 550 0 C even larger keyholes result. At higher SiH 4 flows, keyholes are typically not seen from 250 to 550 0 C

  17. A predictive model for the chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon in a cold wall, rapid thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toprac, A.J.; Trachtenberg, I.; Edgar, T.F. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-06-01

    The chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon from thermally activated silane in a cold wall, single-wafer rapid thermal system was studied by experimentation at a variety of low pressure conditions, including very high temperatures. The effect of diluent gas on polysilicon deposition rates was examined using hydrogen, helium, and krypton. A mass-transfer model for the chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon in a cold wall, rapid thermal system was developed. This model was used to produce an empirical rate expression for silicon deposition from silane by regressing kinetic parameters to fit experimental data. The resulting model provided accurate predictions over widely varying conditions in the experimental data.

  18. Carbonate Channel-Levee Systems Influenced by Mass-Transport Deposition, Browse Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, D.; Janson, X.; Sanchez-Phelps, C.; Covault, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine channels are primary conduits for clastic sediment transport to deep-water basins, thereby controlling the location of marine depocenters and sediment bypass. The evolution and depositional character of submarine channels have broad implications to sediment dispersal, sediment quality, and hydrocarbon exploration potential. Siliciclastic channel systems have been extensively studied in modern environments, seismic and outcrop; however, carbonate channel-levee deposits have only recently been explored. Here we utilize newly released high-resolution (90 Hz) seismic-reflection data from the Australian Browse Basin to document the influence of mass-transport complex (MTC) deposition on the stratigraphic architecture of carbonate channel-levee systems. The 2014 vintage seismic survey is 2500 km2 and hosts numerous large Miocene-age carbonate channel-levee complexes basinward of the shelf edge. Regional horizons and individual channel forms were mapped. Channels range from 200-300 m wide and are bounded by high-relief levee-overbank wedges (>100 ms TWTT). These channels extend across the survey area >70 km. The leveed-channels were sourced from middle and late Miocene slope gullies linked to platform carbonates. Slope-attached and locally derived MTC's are evident throughout the Miocene section likely related to periods of basin inversion and shelf-edge gully incision. We interpret that regionally extensive (>1000 km2) slope-attached MTC's can shut down a channel-levee system and trigger the initiation of a new system, whereas more locally derived (wasting and turbidity currents, which informs depositional models of carbonate slope systems and calls for re-evaluation of the controls on stratigraphic patterns in mixed siliciclastic-carbonate deep-water basins.

  19. Electrochemical deposition mechanism of calcium phosphate coating in dilute Ca-P electrolyte system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Ren [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, CNRS Laboratoire International Associe XiamENS, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Department of Biology, College of Life Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Lin Changjian, E-mail: cjlin@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, CNRS Laboratoire International Associe XiamENS, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Shi Haiyan; Wang Hui [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, CNRS Laboratoire International Associe XiamENS, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2009-06-15

    In this work, the electrochemical deposition behavior of calcium phosphate coating from an aqueous electrolyte containing very dilute calcium and phosphorus species (Ca-P) was studied. The effects of three process parameters, i.e. temperature, current density and duration, were systematically investigated and the underlying mechanism was thoroughly analyzed. It was observed that the coating is mainly composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) in a wide range of temperature and current densities. The temperature had a significant effect on the deposition velocity. An apparent activation energy of 174.9 kJ mol{sup -1} was subsequently derived, indicating the mass-transfer control mechanism for the coating formation. The current density was identified to be an important parameter for structure controllability. The results of DR-FTIR/Raman spectroscopic studies of the initial deposition phase strongly suggested that the HA coating was instantaneously and directly precipitated on the substrate; neither induction period nor precursor was detected in this dilute Ca-P electrolyte system. Finally, a phase diagram of the Ca-P electrolyte system was constructed, which offered a thermodynamic reason for the direct single-phase HA precipitation observed only in this system, but not in conventional concentrated systems.

  20. Electrochemical deposition mechanism of calcium phosphate coating in dilute Ca-P electrolyte system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Ren; Lin Changjian; Shi Haiyan; Wang Hui

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the electrochemical deposition behavior of calcium phosphate coating from an aqueous electrolyte containing very dilute calcium and phosphorus species (Ca-P) was studied. The effects of three process parameters, i.e. temperature, current density and duration, were systematically investigated and the underlying mechanism was thoroughly analyzed. It was observed that the coating is mainly composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) in a wide range of temperature and current densities. The temperature had a significant effect on the deposition velocity. An apparent activation energy of 174.9 kJ mol -1 was subsequently derived, indicating the mass-transfer control mechanism for the coating formation. The current density was identified to be an important parameter for structure controllability. The results of DR-FTIR/Raman spectroscopic studies of the initial deposition phase strongly suggested that the HA coating was instantaneously and directly precipitated on the substrate; neither induction period nor precursor was detected in this dilute Ca-P electrolyte system. Finally, a phase diagram of the Ca-P electrolyte system was constructed, which offered a thermodynamic reason for the direct single-phase HA precipitation observed only in this system, but not in conventional concentrated systems.

  1. Evaluation of DUSTRAN Software System for Modeling Chloride Deposition on Steel Canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Tracy T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rutz, Frederick C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Devanathan, Ram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-29

    The degradation of steel by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) when exposed to atmospheric conditions for decades is a significant challenge in the fossil fuel and nuclear industries. SCC can occur when corrosive contaminants such as chlorides are deposited on a susceptible material in a tensile stress state. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has identified chloride-induced SCC as a potential cause for concern in stainless steel used nuclear fuel (UNF) canisters in dry storage. The modeling of contaminant deposition is the first step in predictive multiscale modeling of SCC that is essential to develop mitigation strategies, prioritize inspection, and ensure the integrity and performance of canisters, pipelines, and structural materials. A multiscale simulation approach can be developed to determine the likelihood that a canister would undergo SCC in a certain period of time. This study investigates the potential of DUSTRAN, a dust dispersion modeling system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, to model the deposition of chloride contaminants from sea salt aerosols on a steel canister. Results from DUSTRAN simulations run with historical meteorological data were compared against measured chloride data at a coastal site in Maine. DUSTRAN’s CALPUFF model tended to simulate concentrations higher than those measured; however, the closest estimations were within the same order of magnitude as the measured values. The decrease in discrepancies between measured and simulated values as the level of abstraction in wind speed decreased suggest that the model is very sensitive to wind speed. However, the influence of other parameters such as the distinction between open-ocean and surf-zone sources needs to be explored further. Deposition values predicted by the DUSTRAN system were not in agreement with concentration values and suggest that the deposition calculations may not fully represent physical processes. Overall, results indicate that with parameter

  2. Deep observation and sampling of the earth's continental crust (DOSECC): Continental scientific drilling workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Research summaries are presented of ongoing or proposed deep drilling programs to explore hydrothermal systems, buried astroblemes, continental crust, magma systems, mountain belt tectonics, subduction zones, and volcanoes. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  3. Development of a bolus injection system for regional deposition studies of nanoparticles in the human respiratory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koujalagi, V; Semple, S; Ayres, J G; Ramesh, S L; Gunarathne, G P P

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the work carried out in developing a precision bolus injection system in order to understand the regional deposition of nanoparticles (NP) in human lung. A real-time control system has been developed that is capable of storing graphite NP, assessing human breathing pattern and delivering a bolus of the stored NP at a pre-determined instance of the inhalation phase of breathing. This will form the basis for further development of a system to deliver radioactive nanoparticles to enable 3-dimensional lung imaging using techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET). The system may then be used to better understand the actual regional deposition in human lung, which could validate or challenge the current computational lung models such as that published by the International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP-1994). A dose related response to inhaled PM can possibly be shown, which can be used to review the current workplace exposure limits (WELs).

  4. Development of a bolus injection system for regional deposition studies of nanoparticles in the human respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koujalagi, V.; Ramesh, S. L.; Gunarathne, G. P. P.; Semple, S.; Ayres, J. G.

    2009-02-01

    This study presents the work carried out in developing a precision bolus injection system in order to understand the regional deposition of nanoparticles (NP) in human lung. A real-time control system has been developed that is capable of storing graphite NP, assessing human breathing pattern and delivering a bolus of the stored NP at a pre-determined instance of the inhalation phase of breathing. This will form the basis for further development of a system to deliver radioactive nanoparticles to enable 3-dimensional lung imaging using techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET). The system may then be used to better understand the actual regional deposition in human lung, which could validate or challenge the current computational lung models such as that published by the International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP-1994). A dose related response to inhaled PM can possibly be shown, which can be used to review the current workplace exposure limits (WELs).

  5. Atmospheric Residence Times of Continental Aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkanski, Yves Jacques

    The global atmospheric distributions of ^{222}Rn and ^{210 }Pb are simulated with a three-dimensional model of atmospheric transport based on the meteorology of the NASA GISS^1>=neral circulation model. The short-lived radioactive gas ^ {222}Rn (half-life = 3.8d) is emitted almost exclusively from land, at a relatively uniform rate; hence it is an excellent tracer of continental influences. Lead -210 is produced by decay of ^{222} Rn and immediately condenses to preexisting aerosol surfaces. It provides an excellent measure of aerosol residence times in the atmosphere because its source is accurately defined by the ^{222} Rn distribution. Results from the three-dimensional model are compared to measurements of ^ {222}Rn and ^{210 }Pb atmospheric concentrations to evaluate model's long-range transport over oceanic regions and to study the deposition mechanisms of atmospheric aerosols. Model results for ^{222} Rn are used to examine the long-range transport of continental air over two selected oceanic regions, the subantartic Indian Ocean and the North Pacific. It is shown that fast transport of air from southern Africa causes substantial continental pollution at southern mid-latitudes, a region usually regarded as pristine. Air over the North Pacific is heavily impacted by continental influences year round, but the altitude at which the transport occurs varies seasonally. Observations of aerosols at island sites, which are commonly used as diagnostics of continental influences, may be misleading because they do not account for influences at high altitude and because aerosols are efficiently scavenged by deposition during transport. The study of ^{210}Pb focuses on defining the residence times of submicron aerosols in the troposphere. Scavenging in wet convective updrafts is found to provide the dominant sink on a global scale. The globally averaged residence time for ^{210 }Pb-containing aerosols in the troposphere is 7 days. The average increase in residence time

  6. Deposition of Al/Cu Multilayer By Double Targets Cylindrical DC Magnetron Sputtering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Balashabadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A cylindrical direct current magnetron sputtering coater with two targets for deposition of multilayer thin films and cermet solar selective surfaces has been constructed. The substrate holder was able to rotate around the target for obtaining the uniform layer and separated multilayer phases. The Al/ Cu multilayer film was deposited on the glass substrate at the following conditions: Working gas = Pure argon, Working pressure = 1 Pa, Cathode current = 8 A and cathode voltage = -600 V .Microstructure of the film was investigated by X-Ray Diffraction and the scanning electron microscopy analyses. The elements profile was determined by glow discharge–optical emission spectroscopy analysis. During deposition, both targets with magnetron configuration were sputtered simultaneously by argon ions. A Plasma column on the targets surface was generated by a 290 G permanent magnet unit. Two DC power supply units with three phases input and maximum output of 12 A/1000V were used to deposit the multilayer thin films. A control phase system was used to adjust output voltage.

  7. Chemically evolving systems for oil recovery enhancement in heavy oil deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, I. V.; Kuvshinov, V. A.; Stasyeva, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents the results of laboratory studies and field tests of new physicochemical technologies for enhanced oil recovery of heavy oil fields under natural development conditions and with thermal-steam stimulation using oil-displacing "smart" systems. The systems are based on surfactants and buffer systems. Their rheological and acid-base properties can be regulated by their chemical evolution directly in the formation. Field tests of the technologies carried out on high-viscosity oil deposit in the Usinskoye oilfield have shown that the EOR technologies are environmentally friendly and technologically effective.

  8. Experimental Setup for Ultrasonic-Assisted Desktop Fused Deposition Modeling System

    OpenAIRE

    Maidin, S.; Muhamad, M. K.; Pei, Eujin

    2014-01-01

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) process that has been used in various manufacturing fields. However, the drawback of FDM is poor surface finish of part produced, leading to surface roughness and requires hand finishing. In this study, ultrasonic technology will be integrated into a desktop FDM system. Ultrasound has been applied in various conventional machining process and shows good machined surface finish. However, very little research regarding the applic...

  9. Atmospheric dry deposition in the vicinity of the Salton Sea, California - II: Measurement and effects of an enhanced evaporation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, R.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Yee, J.L.; Boarman, W.I.

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of salt spray drift from pilot technologies employed by the US Bureau of Reclamation on deposition rates of various air-born ions. An enhanced evaporation system (EES) was tested in the field at the Salton Sea, California. Dry deposition of NO3-, NH4+, SO42-, Cl-, Ca2+, Na+, K+ and Se was assessed by using nylon filters and branches of natural vegetation exposed for one-week long periods. The simultaneous exposure of both lyophilized branches and branches of live plants offered important information highlighting the dynamics of deposited ions on vegetation. The EES significantly increased the deposition rates of Cl-, SO42- and Na+ in an area of about 639-1062 m surrounding the sprayers. Similarly, higher deposition of Ca 2+ and K+ caused by the EES was detected only when deposition was assessed using nylon filters or lyophilized branches. Deposition fluxes of NO3-, NH4+ and Se were not affected by the spraying system. Techniques for measuring dry deposition and calculating landscape-level depositional loads in non-forested systems need further development. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The continental lithosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to extract non-thermal signal from seismic tomography models in order to distinguish compositional variations in the continental lithosphere and to examine if geochemical and petrologic constraints on global-scale compositional variations in the mantle...... are consistent with modern geophysical data. In the lithospheric mantle of the continents, seismic velocity variations of a non-thermal origin (calculated from global Vs seismic tomography data [Grand S.P., 2002. Mantle shear-wave tomography and the fate of subducted slabs. Philosophical Transactions...... and evolution of Precambrian lithosphere: A global study. Journal of Geophysical Research 106, 16387–16414.] show strong correlation with tectono-thermal ages and with regional variations in lithospheric thickness constrained by surface heat flow data and seismic velocities. In agreement with xenolith data...

  11. Modeling of gas-phase chemistry in the chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon in a cold wall system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toprac, A.J.; Edgar, T.F.; Trachtenberg, I. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-06-01

    The relative contribution of gas-phase chemistry to deposition processes is an important issue both from the standpoint of operation and modeling of these processes. In polysilicon deposition from thermally activated silane in a cold wall rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) system, the relative contribution of gas-phase chemistry to the overall deposition rate was examined by a mass-balance model. Evaluating the process at conditions examined experimentally, the model indicated that gas-phase reactions may be neglected to good accuracy in predicting polysilicon deposition rate. The model also provided estimates of the level of gas-phase generated SiH[sub 2] associated with deposition on the cold-process chamber walls.

  12. MONETARY POLICY SHOCKS AND ISLAMIC BANKS DEPOSITS IN INDONESIAN DUAL BANKING SYSTEM AFTER THE FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Affandi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of riba (usury in the economic system remained a key factor that led to financial crisis since theinception of modern economy in the late of 17th century. Implementation of interest based monetary policystipulated rampant speculation as common practices in the global financial sector. Although Islamic bankingwas governed by syariah (Divine Law, which was assumed to be resilient from distress, the volatility ofinterest movement would generally affect Islamic banks operations in a dual banking system. This paperwould look at this issue and would empirically explore the dynamic inter-relationships between deposits ofIslamic banks with monetary policy variables in Indonesia. In terms of market share, as of 2009, Islamicbanking asset in Indonesia was a meager 2%. The industry had been affected by few monetary policy shockson its deposits and financing. The study would employ vector auto regression model (VAR to explore thedynamics between the variables. The study would focus on data from 2004 to 2008 or performance after theAsian financial crisis. The results from these tests determined that shariah based deposits played significantrole in transmitting monetary policy effects to the economy. This study found that Islamic banking depositsin Indonesia were not sensitive to monetary policy changes. This study also concluded that IndonesianIslamic banks were resilient to financial crisis.

  13. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Spray Deposition Sensing System for Improving Pesticide Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesterson, Melissa A; Luck, Joe D; Sama, Michael P

    2015-12-17

    An electronic, resistance-based sensor array and data acquisition system was developed to measure spray deposition from hydraulic nozzles. The sensor surface consisted of several parallel tin plated copper traces of varying widths with varying gap widths. The system contained an embedded microprocessor to monitor output voltage corresponding to spray deposition every second. In addition, a wireless module was used to transmit the voltage values to a remote laptop. Tests were conducted in two stages to evaluate the performance of the sensor array in an attempt to quantify the spray deposition. Initial tests utilized manual droplet placement on the sensor surface to determine the effects of temperature and droplet size on voltage output. Secondary testing utilized a spray chamber to pass nozzles at different speeds above the sensor surface to determine if output varied based on different application rates or spray droplet classification. Results from this preliminary analysis indicated that manual droplets of 5 and 10 μL resulted in significantly different values from the sensors while temperature did not consistently affect output. Spray chamber test results indicated that different application rates and droplet sizes could be determined using the sensor array.

  14. Diamond-like carbon films deposited by a hybrid ECRCVD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, C.T.; Dittrich, K.-H.

    2007-01-01

    A novel hybrid technique for diamond-like carbon (DLC) film deposition has been developed. This technique combines the electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) of C 2 H 2 and metallic magnetron sputtering. Here we described how DLC film is used for a variety of applications such as stamper, PCB micro-tools, and threading form-tools by taking advantage of hybrid ECRCVD system. The structure of the DLC films is delineated by a function of bias voltages by Raman spectroscopy. This function includes parameters such as dependence of G peak positions and the intensity ratio (I D /I G ). Atomic force microscope (AFM) examines the root-mean-square (R.M.S.) roughness and the surface morphology. Excellent adhesion and lower friction coefficients of a DLC film were also assessed

  15. Controlled density of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes in a triode plasma chemical vapor deposition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sung Hoon; Park, Kyu Chang; Moon, Jong Hyun; Yoon, Hyun Sik; Pribat, Didier; Bonnassieux, Yvan; Jang, Jin

    2006-01-01

    We report on the growth mechanism and density control of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes using a triode plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. The deposition reactor was designed in order to allow the intermediate mesh electrode to be biased independently from the ground and power electrodes. The CNTs grown with a mesh bias of + 300 V show a density of ∼ 1.5 μm -2 and a height of ∼ 5 μm. However, CNTs do not grow when the mesh electrode is biased to - 300 V. The growth of CNTs can be controlled by the mesh electrode bias which in turn controls the plasma density and ion flux on the sample

  16. Microwave remote plasma enhanced-atomic layer deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechana, A; Thamboon, P; Boonyawan, D

    2014-10-01

    A microwave remote Plasma Enhanced-Atomic Layer Deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber is established at the Plasma and Beam Physics research facilities, Chiang Mai, Thailand. The system produces highly-reactive plasma species in order to enhance the deposition process of thin films. The addition of the multicusp magnetic fields further improves the plasma density and uniformity in the reaction chamber. Thus, the system is more favorable to temperature-sensitive substrates when heating becomes unwanted. Furthermore, the remote-plasma feature, which is generated via microwave power source, offers tunability of the plasma properties separately from the process. As a result, the system provides high flexibility in choice of materials and design experiments, particularly for low-temperature applications. Performance evaluations of the system were carried on coating experiments of Al2O3 layers onto a silicon wafer. The plasma characteristics in the chamber will be described. The resulted Al2O3 films-analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry in channeling mode and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy techniques-will be discussed.

  17. Microwave remote plasma enhanced-atomic layer deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechana, A. [Program of Physics and General Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Songkhla Rajabhat University, Songkhla 90000 (Thailand); Thamboon, P. [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Boonyawan, D., E-mail: dheerawan.b@cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2014-10-15

    A microwave remote Plasma Enhanced-Atomic Layer Deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber is established at the Plasma and Beam Physics research facilities, Chiang Mai, Thailand. The system produces highly-reactive plasma species in order to enhance the deposition process of thin films. The addition of the multicusp magnetic fields further improves the plasma density and uniformity in the reaction chamber. Thus, the system is more favorable to temperature-sensitive substrates when heating becomes unwanted. Furthermore, the remote-plasma feature, which is generated via microwave power source, offers tunability of the plasma properties separately from the process. As a result, the system provides high flexibility in choice of materials and design experiments, particularly for low-temperature applications. Performance evaluations of the system were carried on coating experiments of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers onto a silicon wafer. The plasma characteristics in the chamber will be described. The resulted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films—analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry in channeling mode and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy techniques—will be discussed.

  18. Microwave remote plasma enhanced-atomic layer deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechana, A.; Thamboon, P.; Boonyawan, D.

    2014-10-01

    A microwave remote Plasma Enhanced-Atomic Layer Deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber is established at the Plasma and Beam Physics research facilities, Chiang Mai, Thailand. The system produces highly-reactive plasma species in order to enhance the deposition process of thin films. The addition of the multicusp magnetic fields further improves the plasma density and uniformity in the reaction chamber. Thus, the system is more favorable to temperature-sensitive substrates when heating becomes unwanted. Furthermore, the remote-plasma feature, which is generated via microwave power source, offers tunability of the plasma properties separately from the process. As a result, the system provides high flexibility in choice of materials and design experiments, particularly for low-temperature applications. Performance evaluations of the system were carried on coating experiments of Al2O3 layers onto a silicon wafer. The plasma characteristics in the chamber will be described. The resulted Al2O3 films—analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry in channeling mode and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy techniques—will be discussed.

  19. Microwave remote plasma enhanced-atomic layer deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechana, A.; Thamboon, P.; Boonyawan, D.

    2014-01-01

    A microwave remote Plasma Enhanced-Atomic Layer Deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber is established at the Plasma and Beam Physics research facilities, Chiang Mai, Thailand. The system produces highly-reactive plasma species in order to enhance the deposition process of thin films. The addition of the multicusp magnetic fields further improves the plasma density and uniformity in the reaction chamber. Thus, the system is more favorable to temperature-sensitive substrates when heating becomes unwanted. Furthermore, the remote-plasma feature, which is generated via microwave power source, offers tunability of the plasma properties separately from the process. As a result, the system provides high flexibility in choice of materials and design experiments, particularly for low-temperature applications. Performance evaluations of the system were carried on coating experiments of Al 2 O 3 layers onto a silicon wafer. The plasma characteristics in the chamber will be described. The resulted Al 2 O 3 films—analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry in channeling mode and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy techniques—will be discussed

  20. Seabottom backscatter studies in the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Pathak, D.

    The study is initiated to observe the interaction effects of the sound signal with three different sediment bottoms in the shelf area between Cochin and Mangalore in the western continental shelf of India. An echo signal acquisition system has been...

  1. Economical Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Richard; Davis, Robert; Linford, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition is a self limiting deposition process that can produce films at a user specified height. At BYU we have designed a low cost and automated atomic layer deposition system. We have used the system to deposit silicon dioxide at room temperature using silicon tetrachloride and tetramethyl orthosilicate. Basics of atomic layer deposition, the system set up, automation techniques and our system's characterization are discussed.

  2. A study of U-Pb isotopic evolutionary system in Chanziping uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weichang; Huang Shijie; Xia Yuliang.

    1988-01-01

    Chanziping uranium deposit occurred in the black siliceous slate of Lower cambrian. The uranium mineralization was controlled by both interstratified fault belt and the ore-bearing beds. Based on the study of the U-Pb isotopic system of the various rocks, ores and minerals in the ore-bearing beds, the authors find out the obvious disequilibrium of U-Pb isotopic composition in most rock samples which indicates the loss of uranium form the ore-bearing beds and surrounding granite. Its counting loss ranges from 30 to 80%. The age of rich ores of the U-Pb concordance diagram and the U-Pb three stage model are t 1 = 523 ± 19M. Y. , t 2 = 22 ± 2 M.Y.. The isochronal ages for pitchblend are 75 ± 4 M.Y., 43 ± 7 M.Y., and for rock is 416 M.y.. These data shows that the uranium in ore-bearing beds was mainly derived from the ore-bearing beds itself and partly from the surrounding granite. The ore deposit can be considered to be of stratabound uranium deposit of sedimentation and late transformation type

  3. The Influence of Cultivation System on Distribution Profile Of 137cs and Erosion / Deposition Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Suhartini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available 137Cs radiogenic content in the soil can be used to estimate the rate of erosion and deposition in an area occurring since 1950’s, by comparing the content of the 137Cs in observed site with those in a stable reference site. This experiment aimed to investigate the influence of cultivation type on distribution profile of 137Cs and distribution of erosion and deposition rate in cultivated area. A study site was small cultivated area with slope steepness <10o and length 2 km located in Bojong – Ciawi. For this purpose, the top of a slope was chosen for reference site and three plot sites were selected namely Land Use I that using simple cultivation, Land Use II that using simple cultivation with ridge and furrow, and Land Use III using machine cultivation. The results showed that cultivation could make a movement of 137Cs to the deeper layer and ridges and furrows cultivation system could minimized an erosion process. The net erosion and deposition for land Use I, II and III were -25 t/ha/yr , 24 t/ha/yr and -58 t/ha/yr, respectively.

  4. Removal of soft deposits from the distribution system improves the drinking water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtola, Markku J; Nissinen, Tarja K; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Martikainen, Pertti J; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2004-02-01

    Deterioration in drinking water quality in distribution networks represents a problem in drinking water distribution. These can be an increase in microbial numbers, an elevated concentration of iron or increased turbidity, all of which affect taste, odor and color in the drinking water. We studied if pipe cleaning would improve the drinking water quality in pipelines. Cleaning was arranged by flushing the pipes with compressed air and water. The numbers of bacteria and the concentrations of iron and turbidity in drinking water were highest at 9 p.m., when the water consumption was highest. Soft deposits inside the pipeline were occasionally released to bulk water, increasing the concentrations of iron, bacteria, microbially available organic carbon and phosphorus in drinking water. The cleaning of the pipeline decreased the diurnal variation in drinking water quality. With respect to iron, only short-term positive effects were obtained. However, removing of the nutrient-rich soft deposits did decrease the microbial growth in the distribution system during summer when there were favorable warm temperatures for microbial growth. No Norwalk-like viruses or coliform bacteria were detected in the soft deposits, in contrast to the high numbers of heterotrophic bacteria.

  5. Corrosion products, activity transport and deposition in boiling water reactor recirculation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, H.P.; Buckley, D.; Grauer, R.; Wiedemann, K.H.

    1989-09-01

    The deposition of activated corrosion products in the recirculation loops of Boiling Water Reactors produces increased radiation levels which lead to a corresponding increase in personnel radiation dose during shut down and maintenance. The major part of this dose rate is due to cobalt-60. The following areas are discussed in detail: - the origins of the corrosion products and of cobalt-59 in the reactor feedwaters, - the consolidation of the cobalt in the fuel pin deposits (activation), - the release and transport of cobalt-60, - the build-up of cobalt-60 in the corrosion products in the recirculation loops. Existing models of the build-up of circuit radioactivity are discussed and the operating experiences from selected reactors are summarised. Corrosion chemistry aspects of the cobalt build-up in the primary circuit have already been studied on a broad basis and are continuing to be researched in a number of centers. The crystal chemistry of chromium-nickel steel corrosion products poses a number of yet unanswered questions. There are major loopholes associated with the understanding of activation processes of cobalt deposited on the fuel pins and in the mass transfer of cobalt-60. For these processes, the most important influence stems from factors associated with colloid chemistry. Accumulation of data from different BWRs contributes little to the understanding of the activity build-up. However, there are examples that the problem of activity build-up can be kept under control. Although many details for a quantitative understanding are still missing, the most important correlations are visible. The activity build-up in the BWR recirculation systems cannot be kept low by a single measure. Rather a whole series of measures is necessary, which influences not only cobalt-60 deposition but also plant and operation costs. (author) 26 figs., 13 tabs., 90 refs

  6. Assessment of heavy metals in loose deposits in drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanli; Han, Weiqiang; Han, Bingjun; Shu, Min; Shi, Baoyou

    2018-06-09

    Heavy metal accumulation and potential releases from loose deposits in drinking water distribution system (DWDS) can have critical impacts on drinking water safety, but the associated risks have not been sufficiently evaluated. In this work, the potential biological toxicity of heavy metals in loose deposits was calculated based on consensus-based sediment quality guidelines, and the effects of some of the main water quality parameters, such as the pH and bicarbonate and phosphate content, on the release behaviors of pre-accumulated heavy metals were investigated. The results showed that heavy metals (Cu, As, Cr, Pb, and Cd) significantly accumulated in all the samples, but the contents of the heavy metals were multiple magnitudes lower than the Fe and Mn contents. The potential biotoxicity of As and Cu was relatively high, but the biotoxicity of Cd was negligible. The water quality can significantly influence the release of heavy metals from loose deposits. As the pH increased from 7.0 to 9.0, the release of As and Cr obviously increased. The release of As, Cu, Pb, and Cr also accelerated with the addition of phosphate (from 1 to 5 mg/L). In contrast to the trends for the pH and phosphate, variations in the bicarbonate content did not have a significant influence on the release of As and Cr. The release ratios of heavy metals in the samples were very low, and there was not a correlation between the release rate of the heavy metals in the loose deposits and their potential biotoxicity.

  7. Stratigraphic implications of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langford, F.F.

    1980-01-01

    One of the most consistent characteristics of economic uranium deposits is their restricted stratigraphic distribution. Uraninite deposited with direct igneous affiliation contains thorium, whereas chemical precipitates in sedimentary rocks are characterized by thorium-free primary uranium minerals with vanadium and selenium. In marine sediments, these minerals form low-grade disseminations; but in terrestrial sediments, chiefly fluvial sandstones, the concentration of uranium varies widely, with the high-grade portions constituting ore. Pitchblende vein deposits not only exhibit the same chemical characteristics as the Colorado-type sandstone deposits, but they have a stratigraphically consistent position at unconformities covered by fluvial sandstones. If deposits in such diverse situations have critical features in common, they are likely to have had many features of their origin in common. Thus, vein deposits in Saskatchewan and Australia may have analogues in areas that contain Colorado-type sandstone deposits. In New Mexico, the presence of continental sandstones with peneconformable uranium deposits should also indicate good prospecting ground for unconformity-type vein deposits. All unconformities within the periods of continental deposition ranging from Permian to Cretaceous should have uranium potential. Some situations, such as the onlap of the Abo Formation onto Precambrian basement in the Zuni Mountains, may be directly comparable to Saskatchewan deposition. However, uranium occurrences in the upper part of the Entrada Sandstone suggest that unconformities underlain by sedimentary rocks may also be exploration targets

  8. Palaeomagnetism and the continental crust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, J.D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to palaeomagnetism offering treatment of theory and practice. It analyzes the palaeomagnetic record over the whole of geological time, from the Archaean to the Cenozoic, and goes on to examine the impact of past geometries and movements of the continental crust at each geological stage. Topics covered include theory of rock and mineral magnetism, field and laboratory methods, growth and consolidation of the continental crust in Archaean and Proterozoic times, Palaeozoic palaeomagnetism and the formation of Pangaea, the geomagnetic fields, continental movements, configurations and mantle convection.

  9. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System for Hydrothermal Deposit Survey (2) - Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Mikada, H.; Takekawa, J.; Shimura, T.

    2010-12-01

    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. . (1) VCS is an effective high-resolution 3D seismic survey within limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (air gun, water gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. (5) Autonomous recording system. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN. in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. The result gives clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Uncertainty of the source/receiver poisons in water causes the serious problem of the imaging. We used several transducer/transponder to estimate these positions. The VCS seismic records themselves can also provide sensor position using the first break of each trace and we calibrate the positions. We are currently developing the autonomous recording VCS system and planning the trial experiment in actual ocean to establish the way of deployment/recovery and the examine the position through the current flow in November, 2010. The second VCS survey will planned over the actual hydrothermal deposit with deep-towed source in February, 2011.

  10. Formation and hydraulic effects of deposits in high temperature sodium coolant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunker, W.

    1976-01-01

    Deposition of sodium impurities in the high temperature (600 0 C), high flow (Reynolds Number approximately equal to 8 x 10 4 ) regions of a sodium coolant circuit is being studied to determine its possible hydraulic effects. Increases in flow impedance (pressure drop/volume flow 2 ) of up to 30 percent have been detected in an annular flow sensor. The apparatus and preliminary results of these tests are presented. Continuing tests are to specifically identify the materials involved and the system conditions under which the formations occur

  11. Sequence stratigraphy in a mixed carbonate-silicilastic depositional system (Middle Miocene; Styrian Basin, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebe, J. Georg

    1993-07-01

    The mixed carbonate-siliciclastic Weißenegg (Allo-) Formation records three depositional sequences corresponding approximately to the TB 2.3, TB 2.4 and TB 2.5 global cycles. Sea-level fluctuations were of the order of at least 30 m. Siliciclastic lowstand systems tracts comprise lignite deposits, reworked basement and tidal siltstones (above a tectonically enhanced sequence boundary) as well as coastal sand bars. Coastal sands of the transgressive systems tract contain distinct layers of well cemented nodules. They are interpreted as the first stage in hardground formation and record superimposed minor sea-level fluctuations. Coral patch reefs and rhodolith platforms developed during transgressive phases and were subsequently drowned and/or suffocated by siliciclastics during early highstand. Shallowing upwards siliciclastic parasequences, each terminated by a bank of rhodolith limestone, form the (late) highstand systems tract. The limestone beds record superimposed fourth-order transgressive pulses. Occasionally a carbonate highstand wedge developed. Lowstand carbonate shedding occurred where the top of a platform which suffered incipient drowning during highstand was near sealevel again during the following lowstand. Late highstand delta progradation is common.

  12. Morrowan stratigraphy, depositional systems, and hydrocarbon accumulation, Sorrento field, Cheyenne County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orchard, D.M.; Kidwell, M.R.

    1983-08-01

    The Sorrento field, located on the western flank of the present-day Las Animas arch in western Cheyenne County, Colorado, has approximately 29 million bbl of oil and 12 bcf of gas in place in sandstones of the Lower Pennsylvanian Morrow units. The sandstones were deposited in a fluvially dominated deltaic system, and the trap for the hydrocarbon accumulation is formed by pinch-out of this deltaic system onto regional dip. The primary reservoirs are point-bar deposits. At the Sorrento field, the basal Keyes limestone member of the Morrow formation rests unconformably on the Mississippian St. Louis Formation. Above the Keyes limestone, the Morrow shale is 180 to 214 ft (55 to 65 m) thick, and locally contains reservoir sands. Gas/oil and oil/water contacts are not uniform through the field owing to discontinuities between separate point bars. One such discontinuity is formed by an apparent mud plug of an abandoned channel separating two point bars on the southeastern end of the field. In a well 7000 ft (2100 m) from the edge of the meander belt, the regressive sequence is represented by a shoreline siltstone unit 8 ft (2 m) thick with flaser bedding, graded bedding, load structures, and rare wave-ripple cross-bedding overlain by 3 ft (1 m) of flood-plain mudstone and coal with no indication of proximity to a nearby sand system.

  13. Geometry of the proximal part of the modern turbidite depositional system of the Carapebus Formation, Campos Basin: a model for reservoir heterogeneities; Geometria da porcao proximal do sistema deposicional turbiditico moderno da Formacao Carapebus, Bacia de Campos; modelo para heterogeneidades de reservatorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Luis Claudio Ribeiro; Kowsmann, Renato Oscar; Almeida Junior, Waldemar de; Murakami, Celso Yoshihito; Schreiner, Simone; Miller, Dennis James; Piauilino, Pedro Orlando Vasconcelos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao. Unidade de Servico Submarino]. E-mail: machadolc@petrobras.com.br

    2004-11-01

    The deep-water marine sedimentary environment of the Cenozoic of the Campos Basin is examined at the modern sea floor, where it can be better understood. This environment is responsible for the genesis of the turbidite systems of the Carapebus Formation, the reservoirs that hold more than 90% of Brazil's petroleum reserves. The study was developed with the records of regional side-scan sonar, swath bathymetry, sub-bottom profiler data, standard multichannel 3D seismic surveys and piston cores covering almost the entire basin. After leaving the Almirante Camara Canyon, the turbiditic flows erode the muddy debris apron surrounding the continental slope and begin to deposit thick layers of clean sand into a big trough in water depths of 1800 m to 3000 m. The trough is 3.5 km wide, 150 m deep, 150 km long, and is formed by a chain of salt withdrawal mini-basins. In some places the sea floor is flat enough to develop today a depositional lobe, in all aspects analogous to the best, geologically ancient petroleum reservoirs in the basin. Aspects of the system: 1) the arcosean sands are brought by the river, cross the shelf, the incised valley, the canyon, and deposit as turbidites - they do not originate from a collapse of the continental slope; 2) a wide muddy debris apron surrounds the continental slope (slope apron), and represents a huge volume of sediment in the Campos Basin ; 3) the turbidites do not develop a submarine fan, but are deposited in an elongated trough formed by salt tectonics; 4) the turbidite beds, both in the lobe or in the trough, are not deposited during a single episode, but in multiple events over significant geologic time in which small channels which brought the turbidites avulse and meander along the entire depositional area, building a single amalgamated bed; 5) classic channel-levees are not present because this system comprises a sandy braid plain and the levees are as sandy as the channel; 6) a hierarchical depositional model for bulb

  14. Research on metallogenetic system and palaeo-hydrodynamic analysis on exogenic uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Liang; Wang Ping

    2008-01-01

    The research and current development trends of sandstone-type uranium deposit at home and abroad are analyzed. A new study idea is put forward in the view of evolution of metallogenetic system i.e. taking the dynamics of matter transportation as main clue to restore the regional palaeo- topography at pre-ore stage, ore forming stage and post-ore stage under the principle of system theory in the way of background evolution of regional geology, especially tectonic dynamic evolution and lithofacies and palaeogeography. Palaeo-flowing field at different geological periods in the processing of regional evolution is reestablished by the usage of palaeohydrogeological analysis combined with the theory of groundwater flowing system. Dynamical process of source-transportation-accumulation- reservation of metallogenetic matter is focused on region scale. (authors)

  15. Processes in Environmental Depositional Systems and Deformation in Sedimentary Basins: Goals for Exoloration in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Ochoa, J.

    2005-05-01

    Among the recent needs to establish new goals in the mexican energy industry to increase the petroleum reserves, has been necessary to recapitulate on some academic an operative concepts and definitions applied to the Petroliferous Basins Exploration; first of all, in order to understand the Petroleum System in given tectonophysical framework. The tectonophysical environment experienced by the petroliferous basin in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, merely in the Campeche Sound and adjacent terrestrial regions (Figure 1); has been the result of interaction among the tectonic plates, the Coco's Plate with impingement and subduction beneath the Northamerican Plate and the Yucatán Microplate and even in very deep connection with the oceanic crust of southwesternmost portion of the Gulf of Mexico and the one of the Caribbean sea beneath the gulf of Belize-Honduras. The tectonosedimentary effects in the Campeche Bay starting with the skeleton formed for the Cenozoic Era, kept simultaneous conditions in depositions and deformations because of strain, stress and collapse fields, acted through this Era up to the present day, as observed in the surface Aguayo et al, 1999 and Sandoval, 2000. The involved portions of the crust and its boundaries have also been performing the relative sinking of the mere southwestern centre of the Gulf of Mexico, and the rising of the southeastern lands of Mexico. In the middle contiguity are found the productive Tertiary basins of: Comalcalco, Macuspana, Salina del Itsmo, Campeche-Champoton and other in deep waters; all of them, in an arrangement of basins among distensive faulted blocks in echelon, falling down to the deep centre of the Gulf Sandoval, op cit. With this scenario and that ones of other basins, a recapitulation on concepts and definitions, has been made on the regional natural processes of the environmental depositional systems and on the basins analysis in the tectonophysical framework, in order to reflect on the

  16. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  17. Influence of biofilms on iron and manganese deposition in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginige, Maneesha P; Wylie, Jason; Plumb, Jason

    2011-02-01

    Although health risk due to discoloured water is minimal, such water continues to be the source of one of the major complaints received by most water utilities in Australia. Elevated levels of iron (Fe) and/or manganese (Mn) in bulk water are associated with discoloured water incidents. The accumulation of these two elements in distribution systems is believed to be one of the main causes for such elevated levels. An investigation into the contribution of pipe wall biofilms towards Fe and Mn deposition, and discoloured water events is reported in this study. Eight laboratory-scale reactors were operated to test four different conditions in duplicate. Four reactors were exposed to low Fe (0.05 mg l(-1)) and Mn (0.02 mg l(-1)) concentrations and the remaining four were exposed to a higher (0.3 and 0.4 mg l(-1) for Fe and Mn, respectively) concentration. Two of the four reactors which received low and high Fe and Mn concentrations were chlorinated (3.0 mg l(-1) of chlorine). The biological activity (measured in terms of ATP) on the glass rings in these reactors was very low (∼1.5 ng cm(-2) ring). Higher concentrations of Fe and Mn in bulk water and active biofilms resulted in increased deposition of Fe and Mn on the glass rings. Moreover, with an increase in biological activity, an increase in Fe and Mn deposition was observed. The observations in the laboratory-scale experiments were in line with the results of field observations that were carried out using biofilm monitors. The field data additionally demonstrated the effect of seasons, where increased biofilm activities observed on pipe wall biofilms during late summer and early autumn were found to be associated with increased deposition of Fe and Mn. In contrast, during the cooler months, biofilm activities were a magnitude lower and the deposited metal concentrations were also significantly less (ie a drop of 68% for Fe and 86% for Mn). Based on the laboratory-scale investigations, detachment of pipe wall

  18. Protective coatings of hafnium dioxide by atomic layer deposition for microelectromechanical systems applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdova, Maria, E-mail: maria.berdova@aalto.fi [Aalto University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 02150, Espoo (Finland); Wiemer, Claudia; Lamperti, Alessio; Tallarida, Grazia; Cianci, Elena [Laboratorio MDM, IMM CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864, Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Lamagna, Luca; Losa, Stefano; Rossini, Silvia; Somaschini, Roberto; Gioveni, Salvatore [STMicroelectronics, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864, Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Fanciulli, Marco [Laboratorio MDM, IMM CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864, Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Università degli studi di Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, 20126, Milano (Italy); Franssila, Sami, E-mail: sami.franssila@aalto.fi [Aalto University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 02150, Espoo (Finland)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} from (CpMe){sub 2}Hf(OMe)Me or Hf(NMeEt){sub 4} and ozone for potential applications in microelectromechanical systems. • ALD HfO{sub 2} protects aluminum substrates from degradation in moist environment and at the same time retains good reflectance properties of the underlying material. • The resistance of hafnium dioxide to moist environment is independent of chosen precursors. - Abstract: This work presents the investigation of HfO{sub 2} deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from either HfD-CO4 or TEMAHf and ozone for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications, in particular, for environmental protection of aluminum micromirrors. This work shows that HfO{sub 2} films successfully protect aluminum in moist environment and at the same time retain good reflectance properties of underlying material. In our experimental work, the chemical composition, crystal structure, electronic density and roughness of HfO{sub 2} films remained the same after one week of humidity treatment (relative humidity of 85%, 85 °C). The reflectance properties underwent only minor changes. The observed shift in reflectance was only from 80–90% to 76–85% in 400–800 nm spectral range when coated with ALD HfO{sub 2} films grown with Hf(NMeEt){sub 4} and no shift (remained in the range of 68–83%) for films grown from (CpMe){sub 2}Hf(OMe)Me.

  19. Phanerozoic continental growth and gold metallogeny of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Collins, Gregory S.; Goryachev, Nicolay A.; Orlandini, Omero Felipe

    2014-01-01

    The Asian continent formed during the past 800 m.y. during late Neoproterozoic through Jurassic closure of the Tethyan ocean basins, followed by late Mesozoic circum-Pacific and Cenozoic Himalayan orogenies. The oldest gold deposits in Asia reflect accretionary events along the margins of the Siberia, Kazakhstan, North China, Tarim–Karakum, South China, and Indochina Precambrian blocks while they were isolated within the Paleotethys and surrounding Panthalassa Oceans. Orogenic gold deposits are associated with large-scale, terrane-bounding fault systems and broad areas of deformation that existed along many of the active margins of the Precambrian blocks. Deposits typically formed during regional transpressional to transtensional events immediately after to as much as 100 m.y. subsequent to the onset of accretion or collision. Major orogenic gold provinces associated with this growth of the Asian continental mass include: (1) the ca. 750 Ma Yenisei Ridge, ca. 500 Ma East Sayan, and ca. 450–350 Ma Patom provinces along the southern margins of the Siberia craton; (2) the 450 Ma Charsk belt of north-central Kazakhstan; (3) the 310–280 Ma Kalba belt of NE Kazakhstan, extending into adjacent NW Xinjiang, along the Siberia–Kazakhstan suture; (4) the ca. 300–280 Ma deposits within the Central Asian southern and middle Tien Shan (e.g., Kumtor, Zarmitan, Muruntau), marking the closure of the Turkestan Ocean between Kazakhstan and the Tarim–Karakum block; (5) the ca. 190–125 Ma Transbaikal deposits along the site of Permian to Late Jurassic diachronous closure of the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean between Siberia and Mongolia/North China; (6) the probable Late Silurian–Early Devonian Jiagnan belt formed along the margin of Gondwana at the site of collision between the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks; (7) Triassic deposits of the Paleozoic Qilian Shan and West Qinling orogens along the SW margin of the North China block developed during collision of South China

  20. Hybrid radio-frequency/direct-current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system for deposition on inner surfaces of polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Tian, Xiubo; Gong, Chunzhi; Yang, Shiqin; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-12-01

    A hybrid radio-frequency (rf)/direct-current (dc) system has been developed to control the biasing effects during deposition of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films onto the inner wall of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. An additional dc bias is coupled to the rf electrode to produce the effect of equivalent rf self-biasing. This allows more flexible control of the deposition of the DLC films which are intended to improve the gas barrier characteristics. The experimental results demonstrate that the additional dc bias improves the adhesion strength between the DLC film and PET, although the enhancement in the gas barrier properties is not significantly larger compared to the one without dc bias. The apparatus and methodology have practical importance in the food and beverage industry.

  1. Hybrid radio-frequency/direct-current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system for deposition on inner surfaces of polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Gong Chunzhi; Yang Shiqin; Tian Xiubo; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid radio-frequency (rf)/direct-current (dc) system has been developed to control the biasing effects during deposition of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films onto the inner wall of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. An additional dc bias is coupled to the rf electrode to produce the effect of equivalent rf self-biasing. This allows more flexible control of the deposition of the DLC films which are intended to improve the gas barrier characteristics. The experimental results demonstrate that the additional dc bias improves the adhesion strength between the DLC film and PET, although the enhancement in the gas barrier properties is not significantly larger compared to the one without dc bias. The apparatus and methodology have practical importance in the food and beverage industry.

  2. Hybrid radio-frequency/direct-current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system for deposition on inner surfaces of polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jing; Gong Chunzhi; Yang Shiqin [Institute of Plasma Surface Engineering and Equipment, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production and Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Tian Xiubo [Institute of Plasma Surface Engineering and Equipment, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production and Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2009-12-15

    A hybrid radio-frequency (rf)/direct-current (dc) system has been developed to control the biasing effects during deposition of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films onto the inner wall of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. An additional dc bias is coupled to the rf electrode to produce the effect of equivalent rf self-biasing. This allows more flexible control of the deposition of the DLC films which are intended to improve the gas barrier characteristics. The experimental results demonstrate that the additional dc bias improves the adhesion strength between the DLC film and PET, although the enhancement in the gas barrier properties is not significantly larger compared to the one without dc bias. The apparatus and methodology have practical importance in the food and beverage industry.

  3. Note: Influence of rinsing and drying routines on growth of multilayer thin films using automated deposition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Daniel; Priolo, Morgan A; Ham, Aaron; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2010-03-01

    A versatile, high speed robot for layer-by-layer deposition of multifunctional thin films, which integrates concepts from previous dipping systems, has been designed with dramatic improvements in software, positioning, rinsing, drying, and waste removal. This system exploits the electrostatic interaction of oppositely charged species to deposit nanolayers (1-10 nm thick) from water onto the surface of a substrate. Dip times and number of deposited layers are adjustable through a graphical user interface. In between dips the system spray rinses and dries the substrate by positioning it in the two-tiered rinse-dry station. This feature significantly reduces processing time and provides the flexibility to choose from four different procedures for rinsing and drying. Assemblies of natural montmorillonite clay and polyethylenimine are deposited onto 175 microm poly(ethylene terephthalate) film to demonstrate the utility of this automated deposition system. By altering the type of rinse-dry procedure, these clay-based assemblies are shown to exhibit variations in film thickness and oxygen transmission rate. This type of system reproducibly deposits films containing 20 or more layers and may also be useful for other types of coatings that make use of dipping.

  4. Sulfur and carbon geochemistry of the Santa Elena peridotites: Comparing oceanic and continental processes during peridotite alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenbach, Esther M.; Gill, Benjamin C.; Gazel, Esteban; Madrigal, Pilar

    2016-05-01

    Ultramafic rocks exposed on the continent serve as a window into oceanic and continental processes of water-peridotite interaction, so called serpentinization. In both environments there are active carbon and sulfur cycles that contain abiogenic and biogenic processes, which are eventually imprinted in the geochemical signatures of the basement rocks and the calcite and magnesite deposits associated with fluids that issue from these systems. Here, we present the carbon and sulfur geochemistry of ultramafic rocks and carbonate deposits from the Santa Elena ophiolite in Costa Rica. The aim of this study is to leverage the geochemistry of the ultramafic sequence and associated deposits to distinguish between processes that were dominant during ocean floor alteration and those dominant during low-temperature, continental water-peridotite interaction. The peridotites are variably serpentinized with total sulfur concentrations up to 877 ppm that is typically dominated by sulfide over sulfate. With the exception of one sample the ultramafic rocks are characterized by positive δ34Ssulfide (up to + 23.1‰) and δ34Ssulfate values (up to + 35.0‰). Carbon contents in the peridotites are low and are isotopically distinct from typical oceanic serpentinites. In particular, δ13C of the inorganic carbon suggests that the carbon is not derived from seawater, but rather the product of the interaction of meteoric water with the ultramafic rocks. In contrast, the sulfur isotope data from sulfide minerals in the peridotites preserve evidence for interaction with a hydrothermal fluid. Specifically, they indicate closed system abiogenic sulfate reduction suggesting that oceanic serpentinization occurred with limited input of seawater. Overall, the geochemical signatures preserve evidence for both oceanic and continental water-rock interaction with the majority of carbon (and possibly sulfate) being incorporated during continental water-rock interaction. Furthermore, there is

  5. Macro controlling of copper oxide deposition processes and spray mode by using home-made fully computerized spray pyrolysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Mohammed Sh.; Chiad, Bahaa T.; Shafeeq, Omer Sh.

    2017-09-01

    Thin Films of Copper Oxide (CuO) absorption layer have been deposited using home-made Fully Computerized Spray Pyrolysis Deposition system FCSPD on glass substrates, at the nozzle to substrate distance equal to 20,35 cm, and computerized spray mode (continues spray, macro-control spray). The substrate temperature has been kept at 450 °c with the optional user can enter temperature tolerance values ± 5 °C. Also that fixed molar concentration of 0.1 M, and 2D platform speed or deposition platform speed of 4mm/s. more than 1000 instruction program code, and specific design of graphical user interface GUI to fully control the deposition process and real-time monitoring and controlling the deposition temperature at every 200 ms. The changing in the temperature has been recorded during deposition processes, in addition to all deposition parameters. The films have been characterized to evaluate the thermal distribution over the X, Y movable hot plate, the structure and optical energy gap, thermal and temperature distribution exhibited a good and uniform distribution over 20 cm2 hot plate area, X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement revealed that the films are polycrystalline in nature and can be assigned to monoclinic CuO structure. Optical band gap varies from 1.5-1.66 eV depending on deposition parameter.

  6. Initiation of continental accretion: metamorphic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Conand; Frederic, Mouthereau; Gianreto, Manatschal; Adbeltif, Lahfid

    2017-04-01

    The physical processes involved at the beginning of the continental collision are largely unknown because they are transient and therefore hardly identifiable from the rock record. Despite the importance of key parameters for understanding mountain building processes, especially the formation of deep mountain roots and their impacts on earthquakes nucleation, rock/fluid transfers and oil/gas resources in the continental crust, observations from the earliest collision stages remain fragmentary. Here, we focus on the example of Taiwan, a young and active mountain belt where the transition from oceanic subduction, accretion of the first continental margin to mature collision can be followed in space and time. We present preliminary results and provide key questions regarding the reconstruction of time-pressure-temperature paths of rocks & fluids to allow discriminating between rift-related thermal/rheological inheritance and burial/heating phases during convergence. Previous studies have focused on peak temperatures analyzed by Raman Spectrometry of Carbonaceous Matter from the deeper structural layers exposed in the Central Range of Taiwan. In the pre-rift sediments, these studies reported a positive gradient from West to Est, and values from geothermal gradients (up to 60°C/km) known in the region, and higher temperature closer to the pre-rift units. Cross sections and maps with high resolution peak temperatures are in process as well as pressure estimations to determine how the sediments were metamorphosed. In addition to this work, we report a few inherited temperatures in the 390-570 °C range, indicating recycling of organic matter from metasediments that recorded HT events, likely originated from higher grade metamorphic units of mainland China, which have been eroded and deposited in the post-rift sediments.

  7. Development of Deposition and Characterization Systems for Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimaroli, Alexander J.

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices are becoming more important due to a number of economic and environmental factors. PV research relies on the ability to quickly fabricate and characterize these devices. While there are a number of deposition methods that are available in a laboratory setting, they are not necessarily able to be scaled to provide high throughput in a commercial setting. A close-space sublimation (CSS) system was developed to provide a means of depositing thin films in a very controlled and scalable manner. Its viability was explored by using it to deposit the absorber layer in Zn3P2 and CdTe solar cell devices. Excellent control over morphology and growth conditions and a high level of repeatability was demonstrated in the study of textured Zn3P2 thin films. However, some limitations imposed by the structure of Zn3P 2-based PV devices showed that CSS may not be the best approach for depositing Zn3P2 thin films. Despite the inability to make Zn3P2 solar cell devices, high efficiency CdTe solar cells were fabricated using CSS. With the introduction of Perovskite-based solar cell devices, the viability of data collected from conventional J-V measurements was questioned due to the J-V hysteresis that Perovskite devices exhibited. New methods of solar cell characterization were developed in order to accurately and quickly assess the performance of hysteretic PV devices. Both J-V measurements and steady-state efficiency measurements are prone to errors due to hysteresis and maximum power point drift. To resolve both of these issues, a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system was developed with two algorithms: a simple algorithm and a predictive algorithm. The predictive algorithm showed increased resistance to the effects of hysteresis because of its ability to predict the steady-state current after a bias step with a double exponential decay model fit. Some publications have attempted to quantify the degree of J-V hysteresis present in fabricated Perovskite

  8. Distributed emergency response system to model dispersion and deposition of atmospheric releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.S.

    1985-04-01

    Aging hardware and software and increasing commitments by the Departments of Energy and Defense have led us to develop a new, expanded system to replace the existing Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) system. This distributed, computer-based, emergency response system is used by state and federal agencies to assess the environmental health hazards resulting from an accidental release of radioactive material into the atmosphere. Like its predecessor, the expanded system uses local meteorology (e.g., wind speed and wind direction), as well as terrain information, to simulate the transport and dispersion of the airborne material. The system also calculates deposition and dose and displays them graphically over base maps of the local geography for use by on-site authorities. This paper discusses the limitations of the existing ARAC system. It also discusses the components and functionality of the new system, the technical difficulties encountered and resolved in its design and implementation, and the software methodologies and tools employed in its development

  9. {sup 210}Pb-Excess and Sediment Accumulation Rates at the Iberian Continental Margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F. P.; Oliveira, J. M.; Soares, A. M. [Nuclear and Technological Institute, Sacavem (Portugal)

    2013-07-15

    Sediments from the continental shelf, slope, and rise at the continental margin of northern Portugal and the adjacent Iberian abyssal basin were analysed for 210Pb, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 14}C. Pb-210 derived sedimentation rates at the continental shelf off the Portuguese coast were 0.2-0.6 cm/a. In some cores from fine sediment deposits at the outer shelf, the {sup 210}Pb excess continuum was interrupted and sediment layers were missing, suggesting that events such as sediment slides could have occurred. Higher sedimentation rates were determined in locations at the rise of the continental slope, confirming enhanced deposition by sediment slides. In the deeper Iberian Abyssal Basin, using the {sup 14}C age of sediment layers the sedimentation rate was determined at 3.2 cm/ka, thus four orders of magnitude lower than at the continental shelf. The spatial distribution of sedimentation rates determined by radionuclide based chronologies, suggested that fine sediments from river discharges are deposited mainly at the outer continental shelf. These deposits may became unstable with time and, occasionally, originate sediment slides that are drained by the canyons and reach the deep sea. The Iberian abyssal basin receives some advective contribution of these sediment slides and the sedimentation rate is one order of magnitude higher than in other abyssal basins of the NE Atlantic Ocean. (author)

  10. Low temperature deposition: Properties of SiO{sub 2} films from TEOS and ozone by APCVD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, H; Diaz, T; Rosendo, E; Garcia, G; Mora, F; Escalante, G [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 14 Sur and Av. San Claudio, San Manuel 72000, Puebla (Mexico); Pacio, M; GarcIa, A, E-mail: hjuarez@cs.buap.m [Ingenieria Electrica, Secciaan Electranica del Estado Salido, Centro de Investigacian y de Estudios Avanzados del I. P. N., Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    An Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (APCVD) system was implemented for SiO{sub 2} nanometric films deposition on silicon substrates. Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and ozone (O{sub 3}) were used and they were mixed into the APCVD system. The deposition temperatures were very low, from 125 to 250 {sup 0}C and the deposition time ranged from 1 to 15 minutes. The measured thicknesses from the deposited SiO{sub 2} films were between 5 and 300 nm. From the by Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra the typical absorption bands of the Si-O bond were observed and it was also observed a dependence on the vibrational modes corresponding to hydroxyl groups with the deposition temperature where the intensity of these vibrations can be related with the grade porosity grade of the films. Furthermore an analytical model has been evoked to determine the activation energy of the reactions in the surface and the gas phase in the deposit films process.

  11. Root zone of a continental rift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, Moritz; Svenningsen, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    melt are considered to account for the compositional range exhibited by the KIC igneous rocks. U/Pb SIMS geochronological data from zircon rims yield an emplacement age of 578 ± 9 Ma. The KIC is thus younger and more depleted than coeval mafic rocks found in the Seve Nappe, and is interpreted...... to represent a high-level magma plumbing system in a late-stage continental rift. The composition and volume of rift-related igneous rocks in the Seve Nappes are inconsistent with a mantle plume origin, but are thought to record progressive lithospheric thinning and increasing involvement of an asthenospheric......Mafic magmatic rocks formed between ca. 615 and 560 Ma along the Neoproterozoic margins of Baltica and Laurentia are classically attributed to continental rifting heralding the opening of the Iapetus Ocean. We report new data for the Kebnekaise Intrusive Complex (KIC) exposed in the Seve Nappes...

  12. S/Se ratio of pyrite from eastern Australian VHMS deposits: implication of magmatic input into volcanogenic hydrothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huston, D L [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Sie, S H; Suter, G F [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience; Cooke, D R [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    The proton microprobe was used to determine the concentrations of over twenty trace elements in pyrite grains from four volcanic-hosted massive sulphide (VHMS) deposits in eastern Australia. Of the elements determined, Se has the most potential in resolving important problems in the genesis of this class of ore deposits. This paper summarises analytical conditions, describes the distribution of Se in pyrite in VHMS deposits as determined in this and other studies, discusses the speciation of Se in hydrothermal fluids, and presents a genetic model on the relative contribution of magmatic versus sea water Se (and S) in VHMS systems. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  13. S/Se ratio of pyrite from eastern Australian VHMS deposits: implication of magmatic input into volcanogenic hydrothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huston, D.L. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience; Cooke, D.R. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    The proton microprobe was used to determine the concentrations of over twenty trace elements in pyrite grains from four volcanic-hosted massive sulphide (VHMS) deposits in eastern Australia. Of the elements determined, Se has the most potential in resolving important problems in the genesis of this class of ore deposits. This paper summarises analytical conditions, describes the distribution of Se in pyrite in VHMS deposits as determined in this and other studies, discusses the speciation of Se in hydrothermal fluids, and presents a genetic model on the relative contribution of magmatic versus sea water Se (and S) in VHMS systems. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Short-term changes in the northwest African Upwelling System induced by Saharan dust deposition events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, A G; Coca, J; Redondo, A [SeaSnet Canarias. Dpto. de Biologia (University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria), Canary Islands (Spain); Cuevas, E; Alonso-Perez, S; Bustos, J J [Izana Atmospheric Research Center, Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia, Tenerife (Spain); Perez, C; Baldasano, J M [Earth Sciences Department. Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona (Spain); Nickovic, S [Atmospheric Research and Environment Branch, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail: aramos@pesca.gi.ulpgc.es

    2009-03-01

    During the last 7-year period (2000-2006) atmosphere circulation changes show strong influences on the dust storm deposition dynamics and, as a result, on the primary production dynamics of the northwest African Upwelling System. From 2000 to 2006, the annual mean sea level pressure became higher ranging from 1014 to 1015 mb. Mean annual zonal wind intensity became higher (from 1.1 to 1.8 m s{sup -1}), while the mean annual meridional was reduced from 6.2 to 5.3 m s{sup -1} at the north of the Canary Islands. Mean annual satellite-derived AVHRR/NOAA SST recorded in the northwest African Upwelling became warmer in both locations, from 18.3 deg. C to 18.8 deg. C in Cape Ghir and from 19.5 deg. C to 20.3 deg. C north Canary Islands waters. CHL records from the SeaWiFS/OV-2 showed a different pattern trend. Mean annual CHL levels increased at Cape Ghir from 0.65 mg m-3 to 0.9 mg m-3 and significantly reduced from 0.59 mg m{sup -3} to 0.31 mg m{sup -3} at the north of the Canary Islands. Changes observed in the role of CHL during the last 7-years period could be associated to intensive dust deposition and exceptional weather warming observed in this area since 2000. However, this study focused on a 7-year period and conclusions on possible links between dust deposition and marine biochemistry activity cannot be generalized.

  15. Deposition and early hydrologic evolution of Westwater Canyon wet alluvial-fan system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Westwater Canyon Member is one of several large, low-gradient alluvial fans that compose the Morrison Formation in the Four Corners area. Morrison fans were deposited by major laterally migrating streams entering a broad basin bounded by highlands to the west and south. The Westwater Canyon sand framework consists of a downfan succession of 1) proximal braided channel, 2) straight bed-load channel, 3) sinuous mixed-load channel, and 4) distributary mixed-load-channel sand bodies. Regional sand distribution and facies patterns are highly digitate and radiate from a point source located northwest of Gallup, New Mexico. Early ground-water flow evolution within the Westwater Canyon fan aquifer system can be inferred by analogy with Quaternary wet-fan deposits and by the interpreted paragenetic sequence of diagenetic features present. Syndepositional flow was controlled by the downfan hydrodynamic gradient and the high horizontal and vertical transmissivity of the sand-rich fan aquifer. Dissolution and transport of soluble humate would be likely in earliest ground water, which was abundant, fresh, and slightly alkaline. With increasing confinement of the aquifer below less permeable tuffaceous Brushy Basin deposits and release of soluble constituents from volcanic ash, flow patterns stabilized, and relatively more saline, uranium-rich ground water permeated the aquifer. Uranium mineralization occurred during this early postdepositional, semiconfined flow phase. Development of overlying Dakota swamps suggests a shallow water table indicative of regional dischare or stagnation. In either event, only limited downward flux of acidic water is recorded by local, bleached, kaolinized zones where the Westwater Canyon directly underlies the Dakota swamps. Subsequent ground-water flow phases have further obscured primary alteration patterns and caused local oxidation and redistribution of uranium

  16. Short-term changes in the northwest African Upwelling System induced by Saharan dust deposition events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, A G; Coca, J; Redondo, A; Cuevas, E; Alonso-Perez, S; Bustos, J J; Perez, C; Baldasano, J M; Nickovic, S

    2009-01-01

    During the last 7-year period (2000-2006) atmosphere circulation changes show strong influences on the dust storm deposition dynamics and, as a result, on the primary production dynamics of the northwest African Upwelling System. From 2000 to 2006, the annual mean sea level pressure became higher ranging from 1014 to 1015 mb. Mean annual zonal wind intensity became higher (from 1.1 to 1.8 m s -1 ), while the mean annual meridional was reduced from 6.2 to 5.3 m s -1 at the north of the Canary Islands. Mean annual satellite-derived AVHRR/NOAA SST recorded in the northwest African Upwelling became warmer in both locations, from 18.3 deg. C to 18.8 deg. C in Cape Ghir and from 19.5 deg. C to 20.3 deg. C north Canary Islands waters. CHL records from the SeaWiFS/OV-2 showed a different pattern trend. Mean annual CHL levels increased at Cape Ghir from 0.65 mg m-3 to 0.9 mg m-3 and significantly reduced from 0.59 mg m -3 to 0.31 mg m -3 at the north of the Canary Islands. Changes observed in the role of CHL during the last 7-years period could be associated to intensive dust deposition and exceptional weather warming observed in this area since 2000. However, this study focused on a 7-year period and conclusions on possible links between dust deposition and marine biochemistry activity cannot be generalized.

  17. Over 10 million seawater temperature records for the United Kingdom Continental Shelf between 1880 and 2014 from 17 Cefas (United Kingdom government) marine data systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David J.; Pinnegar, John K.; Maxwell, David L.; Dye, Stephen R.; Fernand, Liam J.; Flatman, Stephen; Williams, Oliver J.; Rogers, Stuart I.

    2018-01-01

    The datasets described here bring together quality-controlled seawater temperature measurements from over 130 years of departmental government-funded marine science investigations in the UK (United Kingdom). Since before the foundation of a Marine Biological Association fisheries laboratory in 1902 and through subsequent evolutions as the Directorate of Fisheries Research and the current Centre for Environment Fisheries & Aquaculture Science, UK government marine scientists and observers have been collecting seawater temperature data as part of oceanographic, chemical, biological, radiological, and other policy-driven research and observation programmes in UK waters. These datasets start with a few tens of records per year, rise to hundreds from the early 1900s, thousands by 1959, and hundreds of thousands by the 1980s, peaking with > 1 million for some years from 2000 onwards. The data source systems vary from time series at coastal monitoring stations or offshore platforms (buoys), through repeated research cruises or opportunistic sampling from ferry routes, to temperature extracts from CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth) profiles, oceanographic, fishery and plankton tows, and data collected from recreational scuba divers or electronic devices attached to marine animals. The datasets described have not been included in previous seawater temperature collation exercises (e.g. International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set, Met Office Hadley Centre sea surface temperature data set, the centennial in situ observation-based estimates of sea surface temperatures), although some summary data reside in the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) archive, the Marine Environment Monitoring and Assessment National (MERMAN) database and the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) data centre. We envisage the data primarily providing a biologically and ecosystem-relevant context for regional assessments of changing hydrological conditions

  18. Over 10 million seawater temperature records for the United Kingdom Continental Shelf between 1880 and 2014 from 17 Cefas (United Kingdom government marine data systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Morris

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The datasets described here bring together quality-controlled seawater temperature measurements from over 130 years of departmental government-funded marine science investigations in the UK (United Kingdom. Since before the foundation of a Marine Biological Association fisheries laboratory in 1902 and through subsequent evolutions as the Directorate of Fisheries Research and the current Centre for Environment Fisheries & Aquaculture Science, UK government marine scientists and observers have been collecting seawater temperature data as part of oceanographic, chemical, biological, radiological, and other policy-driven research and observation programmes in UK waters. These datasets start with a few tens of records per year, rise to hundreds from the early 1900s, thousands by 1959, and hundreds of thousands by the 1980s, peaking with  >  1 million for some years from 2000 onwards. The data source systems vary from time series at coastal monitoring stations or offshore platforms (buoys, through repeated research cruises or opportunistic sampling from ferry routes, to temperature extracts from CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth profiles, oceanographic, fishery and plankton tows, and data collected from recreational scuba divers or electronic devices attached to marine animals. The datasets described have not been included in previous seawater temperature collation exercises (e.g. International Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set, Met Office Hadley Centre sea surface temperature data set, the centennial in situ observation-based estimates of sea surface temperatures, although some summary data reside in the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC archive, the Marine Environment Monitoring and Assessment National (MERMAN database and the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES data centre. We envisage the data primarily providing a biologically and ecosystem-relevant context for regional assessments of changing

  19. Thallium isotope variations in an ore-bearing continental igneous setting: Collahuasi Formation, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R. G. A.; Rehkämper, M.; Ihlenfeld, C.; Oates, C. J.; Coggon, R.

    2010-08-01

    Thallium is a highly incompatible element and a large fraction of the bulk silicate Earth Tl budget is, therefore, expected to reside in the continental crust. Nonetheless, the Tl isotope systematics of continental rocks are essentially unexplored at present. Here, we present new Tl isotope composition and concentration data for a suite of 36 intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks from the vicinity of porphyry Cu deposits in the Collahuasi Formation of the Central Andes in northern Chile. The igneous lithologies of the rocks are variably affected by the hydrothermal alteration that accompanied the formation of the Cu deposits. The samples display Tl concentrations that vary by more than an order of magnitude, from 0.1 to 3.2 μg/g, whilst ɛ 205Tl ranges between -5.1 and +0.1 (ɛ 205Tl is the deviation of the 205Tl/ 203Tl isotope ratio of a sample from a standard in parts per 10 4). These variations are primarily thought to be a consequence of hydrothermal alteration processes, including metasomatic transport of Tl, and formation/breakdown of Tl-bearing minerals, which are associated with small but significant Tl isotope effects. The Tl abundances show excellent correlations with both K and Rb concentrations but no co-variation with Cu. This demonstrates that Tl displays only limited chalcophile affinity in the continental crust of the Collahuasi Formation, but behaves as a lithophile element with a distribution that is primarily governed by partitioning of Tl + into K +-bearing phases. Collahuasi samples with propylitic alteration features, which are derived from the marginal parts of the hydrothermal systems, have, on average, slightly lighter Tl isotope compositions than rocks from the more central sericitic and argillic alteration zones. This small but statistically significant difference most likely reflects preferential retention of isotopically heavy Tl in alteration phases, such as white micas and clays, which formed during sericitic and argillic alteration.

  20. Dry-spray deposition of TiO2 for a flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using a nanoparticle deposition system (NPDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Saeng; Chun, Doo-Man; Choi, Jung-Oh; Lee, Jong-Cheon; Kim, Yang Hee; Kim, Kwang-Su; Lee, Caroline Sunyong; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2012-04-01

    TiO2 powders were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates for application to the photoelectrode of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). In the conventional DSSC manufacturing process, a semiconductor oxide such as TiO2 powder requires a sintering process at higher temperature than the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of polymers, and thus utilization of flexible polymer substrates in DSSC research has been constrained. To overcome this restriction related to sintering, we used a nanoparticle deposition system (NPDS) that could produce a thin coating layer through a dry-spray method under atmospheric pressure at room temperature. The powder was sprayed through a slit-type nozzle having a 0.4 x 10 mm2 rectangular outlet. In order to determine the deposited TiO2 thickness, five kinds of TiO2 layered specimens were prepared, where the specimens have single and double layer structures. Deposited powders on the ITO coated PET substrates were observed using FE-SEM and a scan profiler The thicker TiO2 photoelectrode with a DSSC having a double layer structure showed higher energy efficiency than the single layer case. The highest fabricated flexible DSSC displayed a short circuit current density J(sc) = 1.99 mA cm(-2), open circuit voltage V(oc) = 0.71 V, and energy efficiency eta = 0.94%. These results demonstrate the possibility of utilizing the dry-spray method to fabricate a TiO2 layer on flexible polymer substrates at room temperature under atmospheric pressure.

  1. Tectonics and sedimentary process in the continental talud in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Santa Ana, H.; Soto, M.; Morales, E.; Tomasini, J.; Hernandez-Molina, F.; Veroslavsky, G.

    2012-01-01

    The morphology and evolution of the continental margin of Uruguay is due to the interaction of an important set of sedimentary processes. The contourite and turbiditic are the most significant processes which are associated with the development of submarine canyons as well as the gravitational mass respect to major landslides. These processes generate erosional and depositional features with a direct impact on different areas of application, which have potential environmental risks (gravitational landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis) and potential economic resources

  2. Production of thin carbon stripper foils using heated-substrates in a cathodic arc deposition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, A.R.; Lobanov, N.; Elliman, R.G.; Ophel, T.R.; Rode, A.; Weisser, D.C.; Turkentine, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The lifetime of carbon stripper foil can have a marked impact on the successful running of a beam line. Standard techniques for production of carbon stripper foils include evaporation of carbon (ec) and laser-pulsed ablation (Ipa). Recent work by a using Ipa has been successful in substantially increasing the lifetime of a very thin foil. The suspected mechanism for the increased lifetime of the foil is that the amorphous carbon foil is density-matched to that of graphite (around 2.26g/cc). In this work, we attempt to reproduce this result by producing carbon stripper foils with a mass-density similar to graphite using a cathodic arc deposition system. The cathodic arc is well known for the production of tetrahedral amorphous carbon: a high density, high stress form of carbon with over 90% sp 3 -like bonds; to reduce the density of the carbon and promote more graphitic structure, a high bias was initially attempted but this proved unsuccessful. Another method is to use a heated-substrate holder to reduce compressive stress within the deposited film. The performance of the density-matched carbon stripper foils and the implications for future production of high-quality carbon stripper foils in our laboratory will be discussed. (authors)

  3. Corrosion Behavior of Pipeline Carbon Steel under Different Iron Oxide Deposits in the District Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Sang Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of pipeline steel covered by iron oxides (α-FeOOH; Fe3O4 and Fe2O3 was investigated in simulated district heating water. In potentiodynamic polarization tests; the corrosion rate of pipeline steel is increased under the iron oxide but the increaseing rate is different due to the differnet chemical reactions of the covered iron oxides. Pitting corrosion was only observed on the α-FeOOH-covered specimen; which is caused by the crevice corrosion under the α-FeOOH. From Mott-Schottky and X-ray diffraction results; the surface reaction and oxide layer were dependent on the kind of iron oxides. The iron oxides deposit increases the failure risk of the pipeline and localized corrosion can be occurred under the α-FeOOH-covered region of the pipeline. Thus, prevention methods for the iron oxide deposit in the district pipeline system such as filtering or periodic chemical cleaning are needed.

  4. Iron deposits in the chronically inflamed central nervous system and contributes to neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Hjalte Holm; Johnsen, Kasper Bendix; Moos, Torben

    2014-05-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by the presence of inflammation in areas with neuronal cell death and a regional increase in iron that exceeds what occurs during normal aging. The inflammatory process accompanying the neuronal degeneration involves glial cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and monocytes of the circulation that migrate into the CNS while transforming into phagocytic macrophages. This review outlines the possible mechanisms responsible for deposition of iron in neurodegenerative disorders with a main emphasis on how iron-containing monocytes may migrate into the CNS, transform into macrophages, and die out subsequently to their phagocytosis of damaged and dying neuronal cells. The dying macrophages may in turn release their iron, which enters the pool of labile iron to catalytically promote formation of free-radical-mediated stress and oxidative damage to adjacent cells, including neurons. Healthy neurons may also chronically acquire iron from the extracellular space as another principle mechanism for oxidative stress-mediated damage. Pharmacological handling of monocyte migration into the CNS combined with chelators that neutralize the effects of extracellular iron occurring due to the release from dying macrophages as well as intraneuronal chelation may denote good possibilities for reducing the deleterious consequences of iron deposition in the CNS.

  5. Full-scale measurements of smoke transport and deposition in ventilation system ductwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.A.; Fenton, D.L.

    1985-07-01

    This study is part of an effort to obtain experimental data in support of the fire accident analysis computer code FIRAC, which was developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. FIRAC can predict the transient movement of aerosolized or gaseous material throughout the complex ventilation systems of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. We conducted a preliminary set of full-scale material depletion/modification experiments to help assess the accuracy of the code's aerosol depletion model. Such tests were performed under realistic conditions using real combustion products in full-sized ducts at typical airflow rates. To produce a combustion aerosol, we burned both polystyrene and polymethyl methacrylate, the most and least smoky fuels typically found in fuel cycle plants, under varied ventilation (oxygen-lean and oxygen-rich) conditions. Aerosol mass deposition, size, and concentration measurements were performed. We found that as much as approx.25% of polystyrene smoke mass and as little as 2% of the polymethyl methacrylate generated at the entrance to a 15.2-m duct is deposited on the duct walls. We also compared our experimental results with theoretical equations currently used in FIRAC. 28 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Development of vapor deposited silica sol-gel particles for use as a bioactive materials system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Katherine L; Holmes, Hallie R; VanWagner, Michael J; Hartman, Natalie J; Rajachar, Rupak M

    2013-06-01

    Silica-based sol-gel and bioglass materials are used in a variety of biomedical applications including the surface modification of orthopedic implants and tissue engineering scaffolds. In this work, a simple system for vapor depositing silica sol-gel nano- and micro-particles onto substrates using nebulizer technology has been developed and characterized. Particle morphology, size distribution, and degradation can easily be controlled through key formulation and manufacturing parameters including water:alkoxide molar ratio, pH, deposition time, and substrate character. These particles can be used as a means to rapidly modify substrate surface properties, including surface hydrophobicity (contact angle changes >15°) and roughness (RMS roughness changes of up to 300 nm), creating unique surface topography. Ions (calcium and phosphate) were successfully incorporated into particles, and induced apatitie-like mineral formation upon exposure to simulated body fluid Preosteoblasts (MC3T3) cultured with these particles showed up to twice the adhesivity within 48 h when compared to controls, potentially indicating an increase in cell proliferation, with the effect likely due to both the modified substrate properties as well as the release of silica ions. This novel method has the potential to be used with implants and tissue engineering materials to influence cell behavior including attachment, proliferation, and differentiation via cell-material interactions to promote osteogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Microbial Activity and Depositional System Dynamics: Linking Scales With The Aid of New Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defew, E. C.; Hagerthey, S. E.; Honeywill, C.; Perkins, R. G.; Black, K. S.; Paterson, D. M.

    The dynamics of estuarine depositional systems are influenced by sediment-dwelling microphytobenthic assemblages. These assemblages produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which are known to be important in the process of sediment biosta- bilisation. However, these communities are generally studied on very small spatial scales making the prediction of primary productivity and their importance in terms of sediment stability over large areas uncertain. Recent advances in our knowledge of the biostabilisation process have allowed the establishment of links between EPS produc- tion, spatial distribution of algal biomass and their primary productivity over much larger spatial scales. For example, during the multidisciplinary BIOPTIS project, re- mote sensing (RS) was combined with ground-truthing measurements of physical and biological parameters to produce synoptic maps leading to a better understanding of system dynamics and the potential effects of environmental perturbations such as cli- mate change. Recent work using low-temperature scanning electron microscopy (LT- SEM) and in-line laser holography has measured the influence of EPS on the erosional behaviour of sediment flocs and particles and has shown that an increase in the con- centration of EPS determines the nature of the eroded floc material and the critical threshold for sediment erosion. This provides the mechanistic link required between EPS concentration and sediment stability. Whilst it is not yet possible to discern EPS concentration directly by RS studies, we know that EPS concentrations in sediments co-vary with chlorophyll a content, and are closely related to algal productivity. There- fore, RS studies which provide large-scale spatial information of chlorophyll a distri- bution may be used to model the stability and productivity of intertidal depositional systems. This paper introduces the basis of these linkages from the cellular level (in situ chlorophyll fluorescence), the ground

  8. Modern sedimentary processes along the Doce river adjacent continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Silva Quaresma

    Full Text Available In areas of the continental shelf where sediment supply is greater than the sediment dispersion capacity, an extensive terrigenous deposits and consequently submerged deltas can be formed. The Eastern Brazilian shelf is characterized by the occurrence of river feed deltas in between starving coasts. Herein, modern sedimentary processes acting along the Doce river adjacent continental shelf are investigated. The main objective was to understand the shelf sediment distribution, recognizing distinct sedimentary patterns and the major influence of river sediment discharge in the formation of shelf deposits. The study used 98 surficial samples that were analyzed for grain size, composition and bulk density. Results revealed 3 distinct sectors: south - dominated by mud fraction with a recent deposition from riverine input until 30 m deep and from this depth bioclastic sands dominate; central north - sand mud dominated, been recognized as a bypass zone of resuspended sediment during high energy events; and north - relict sands with high carbonate content. The modern sedimentation processes along the Doce river continental shelf is dominated by distinct sedimentary regimes, showing a strong fluvial influence associated with wave/wind induced sediment dispersion and a carbonate regime along the outer shelf. These regimes seem to be controlled by the distance from the river mouth and bathymetric gradients.

  9. Depositional system of the Bayangobi formation, lower cretaceous and its control over in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits in Chagandelesu area, Inner Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wanliang

    2002-01-01

    Chagandelesu area is situated in the eastern part of Bayangobi basin, Inner Mongolia. In the Early Cretaceous, a detrital rock series (Bayangobi Formation) with a thickness of about 1000 m was formed within a down-faulted basin under the extensional tectonic regime. The Bayangobi Formation is the prospecting target for interlayer oxidation zone sandstone-type uranium deposits, and is divided into three lithologic members: the lower member-- proluvial (alluvial), subaqueous fan or fan-delta facies sediments; the middle member-shallow lacustrine-semi-deep lacustrine-deep lacustrine facies sediments; the upper member-littoral shallow lacustrine or delta facies sediments. The facies order of Bayangobi Formation represents the evolution process of basin water from the shallow (early period) to the deep (middle period) then again to the shallow (late period) level. The Bayangobi Formation composed of a third sequence order reflects respectively a lowstand system tract (LST), a transgressive system tract (TST) and a highstand system tract (HST). The author also makes an analysis on physical properties of psammites of Bayangobi Formation, and proposes that psammites of delta and littoral shallow lacustrine facies are favourable for the formation of interlayer oxidation zone sandstone-type uranium deposits

  10. Depositional Architecture of Late Pleistocene-Holocene Coastal Alluvial-fan System in the Coastal Range, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. T.; Chen, W. S.

    2016-12-01

    Since late Pleistocene, the Coastal Range (Philippine Sea plate) collided and overridden on the Central Range (Eurasian Plate) along the Longitudinal Valley Fault. Therefore, the Coastal Range is exposed widely the late Pleistocene-Holocene marine and fluvial terraces caused by the tectonic uplift. Based on the estimation of paleosea-level elevations (Δh), depositional paleodepth, altitude distribution of Holocene deposits (D), altitude of outcrops (H), and 14C dating of marine deposits (t), the uplift rate (=(Δh+H +d-D)/t) is about 5-10 mm/yr in the southern Coastal Range. In this study, we suggest through field logging that the deposits can be divided into alluvial, foreshore (intertidal), shoreface, and offshore environments. In Dulan area in the southern Coastal Range, the uplift rate was 6-7 mm/yr during 16,380-10,000 cal yr BP and 3-4 mm/yr after 7,000 cal yr BP. Results from the Dulan Coastal alluvial-fan system can be divided into five depositional stages: (1) 16,380-14,300 cal yr BP: The rate of global sea level rise (SLR) has averaged about 6-7 mm/yr, similar to the tectonic uplift rate. In this stage, the bedrock was eroded and formed a wide wave-cut platform. (2) 14,300-10,000 cal yr BP: SLR of about 14 mm/yr that was faster than tectonic uplift rate of 6-7 mm/yr. As a result of transgression, the beach-lagoon deposits about 5 m thick were unconformably overlain on the wave-cut platform. (3) 10,000-8,200 cal yr BP: The ongoing sea level rise (SLR: 11 mm/yr), the lagoon deposits were overlain by an offshore slump deposits representing a gradual deepening of the depositional environment. (4) 8,200-7,930 cal yr BP (SLR: 6-7 mm/yr): The tectonic uplift rate may occur at similar SLR. The alluvial-fan deposits have prograded over the shallow marine deposits. (5) After 7,000 cal yr BP (SLR: 1-0 mm/yr): SLR was much slower than tectonic uplift rate of 3-4 mm/yr. Thus, Holocene marine terraces are extensively developed in the coastal region, showing that the

  11. Development of the aerosol generation system for simulating the dry deposition behavior of radioaerosol emitted by the accident of FDNPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.

    2015-12-01

    A large amount of radioactivity was discharged by the accident of FDNPP. The long half-life radionuclide, 137Cs was transported through the atmosphere mainly as the aerosol form and deposited to the forests in Fukushima prefecture. After the dry deposition of the 137Cs, the foliar uptake process would occur. To evaluate environmental transfer of radionuclides, the dry deposition and following foliar uptake is very important. There are some pioneering studies for radionuclide foliar uptake with attaching the solution containing stable target element on the leaf, however, cesium oxide aerosols were used for these deposition study [1]. In the FDNPP case, 137Cs was transported in sulfate aerosol form [2], so the oxide aerosol behaviors could not represent the actual deposition behavior in this accident. For evaluation of whole behavior of 137Cs in vegetation system, fundamental data for deposition and uptake process of sulfate aerosol was desired. In this study, we developed aerosol generation system for simulating the dry deposition and the foliar uptake behaviors of aerosol in the different chemical constitutions. In this system, the method of aerosol generation based on the spray drying. Solution contained 137Cs was send to a nozzle by a syringe pump and spraying with a high speed air flow. The sprayed mist was generated in a chamber in the relatively high temperature. The solution in the mist was dried quickly, and micro size solid aerosols consisting 137Cs were generated. The aerosols were suctioned by an ejector and transported inside a tube by the dry air flow, then were directly blown onto the leaves. The experimental condition, such as the size of chamber, chamber temperature, solution flow rate, air flow rate and so on, were optimized. In the deposition experiment, the aerosols on leaves were observed by a SEM/EDX system and the deposition amount was evaluated by measuring the stable Cs remaining on leaf. In the presentation, we will discuss the detail

  12. Indium-tin-oxide thin film deposited by a dual ion beam assisted e-beam evaporation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, J.W.; Kim, J.S.; Yeom, G.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on polycarbonate (PC) substrates at low temperatures (<90 deg. C) by a dual ion beam assisted e-beam evaporation system, where one gun (gun 1) is facing ITO flux and the other gun (gun 2) is facing the substrate. In this experiment, effects of rf power and oxygen flow rate of ion gun 2 on the electrical and optical properties of depositing ITO thin films were investigated. At optimal deposition conditions, ITO thin films deposited on the PC substrates larger than 20 cmx20 cm showed the sheet resistance of less than 40 Ω/sq., the optical transmittance of above 90%, and the uniformity of about 5%

  13. Preface: Biogeochemistry–ecosystem interaction on changing continental margins in the Anthropocene

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Liu, K-K.; Emeis, K.-C.; Levin, L.A.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Roman, M.

    and hypercapnia in upwelling systems • Interactions between natural and social sciences for better steward- ship of continental margins. It has long been acknowledged (e.g., Doney, 2010; Liu et al., 2010) that marine ecosystems on continental margins, including... and possibly manage margin ecosystems in a changing world. Effective governance of social–ecological systems on continental margins is key to reducing the pervasive over- exploitation, depletion and destruction of marine resources and http://dx.doi.org/10...

  14. Development of an ion-beam sputtering system for depositing thin films and multilayers of alloys and compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Mukul; Gupta, Ajay; Phase, D.M.; Chaudhari, S.M.; Dasannacharya, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    An ion-beam sputtering (IBS) system has been designed and developed for preparing thin films and multilayers of various elements, alloys and compounds. The ion source used is a 3 cm diameter, hot-cathode Kaufman type 1.5 kV ion source. The system has been successfully tested with the deposition of various materials, and the deposition parameters were optimised for achieving good quality of thin films and multilayers. A systematic illustration of the versatility of the system to produce a variety of structures is done by depositing thin film of pure iron, an alloy film of Fe-Zr, a compound thin film of FeN, a multilayer of Fe-Ag and an isotopic multilayer of 57 FeZr/FeZr. Microstructural measurements on these films using X-ray and neutron reflectivity, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction are presented and discussed to reveal the quality of the microstructures obtained with the system. It is found that in general, the surface roughnesses of the film deposited by IBS are significantly smaller as compared to those for films deposited by e-beam evaporation. Further, the grain size of the IBS crystalline films is significantly refined as compared to the films deposited by e-beam evaporation. Grain refinement may be one of the reasons for reduced surface roughness. In the case of amorphous films, the roughness of the films does not increase appreciably beyond that of the substrate even after depositing thicknesses of several hundred angstroms

  15. Depth Profiling Analysis of Aluminum Oxidation During Film Deposition in a Conventional High Vacuum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongmin; Weimer, Jeffrey J.; Zukic, Muamer; Torr, Douglas G.

    1994-01-01

    The oxidation of aluminum thin films deposited in a conventional high vacuum chamber has been investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and depth profiling. The state of the Al layer was preserved by coating it with a protective MgF2 layer in the deposition chamber. Oxygen concentrations in the film layers were determined as a function of sputter time (depth into the film). The results show that an oxidized layer is formed at the start of Al deposition and that a less extensively oxidized Al layer is deposited if the deposition rate is fast. The top surface of the Al layer oxidizes very quickly. This top oxidized layer may be thicker than has been previously reported by optical methods. Maximum oxygen concentrations measured by XPS at each Al interface are related to pressure to rate ratios determined during the Al layer deposition.

  16. Terrigenous clastic depositional systems. Applications to petroleum, coal and uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, W.E.; Hobday, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    Two experts in fundamental and applied sedimentology and sedimentary economic geology provide a state-of-the-art summary of clastic depositional environments and their associated mineral fuel deposits. Utilizing a multidisciplinary approach, the authors focus on the recognition, mapping, and three-dimensional reconstruction of clastic deposits, primarily from subsurface data, examine the hydrology of sedimentary basins, and discuss applications of genetic facies analysis to mineral fuel resource appraisal, exploration, and development

  17. Informed Design to Robotic Production Systems; Developing Robotic 3D Printing System for Informed Material Deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostafavi, S.; Bier, H.; Bodea, S.; Anton, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an informed Design-to-Robotic-Production (D2RP) system for additive manufacturing to achieve performative porosity in architecture at various scales. An extended series of experiments on materiality, fabrication and robotics were designed and carried out

  18. Distribution and composition of gold in porphyry gold systems: example from the Biely Vrch deposit, Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koděra, Peter; Kozák, Jaroslav; Brčeková, Jana; Chovan, Martin; Lexa, Jaroslav; Jánošík, Michal; Biroň, Adrián; Uhlík, Peter; Bakos, František

    2018-03-01

    The Biely Vrch deposit in the Western Carpathians is assigned to the shallow, sulfide-poor porphyry gold deposit type and has an exceptionally low Cu/Au ratio. According to 3-D geochemical models, there is a limited spatial correlation between Au and Cu due to the primary introduction of gold by a salt melt and Cu by low-density vapor. Despite a rough spatial correlation of gold grades with quartz stockwork intensity, gold is hosted mostly by altered rock, exclusively in native form. Three main gold mineral assemblages were recognized here. In the deepest parts of the system, the K- and Ca-Na silicate gold assemblage is associated with minerals of high-temperature alteration (plagioclase, K-feldspar, actinolite), with gold grades and fineness depending on depth and potassium content of the host rock: K-silicate alteration hosts the lowest fineness gold ( 914), whereas Ca-Na silicate alteration has the highest ( 983). The intermediate argillic gold assemblage is the most widespread, with gold hosted mainly by chlorite, illite, smectite, and interstratified illite-chlorite-smectite minerals. The gold fineness is mostly variable (875-990) and inherited from the former gold mineral assemblages. The latest advanced argillic gold assemblage has its gold mostly in kaolinite. The extremely high fineness ( 994) results from gold remobilization by late-stage aqueous magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. Uncommon bonanza-grade appears where the earlier gold mineral assemblages were further enriched by this remobilized gold. Primary precipitation of gold occurred during ascent and cooling of salt melts at 450 to 309 °C, mostly during retrograde quartz solubility.

  19. Markov chains and entropy tests in genetic-based lithofacies analysis of deep-water clastic depositional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borka Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between structural elements and the so-called genetic lithofacies in a clastic deep-water depositional system. Process-sedimentology has recently been gaining importance in the characterization of these systems. This way the recognized facies attributes can be associated with the depositional processes establishing the genetic lithofacies. In this paper this approach was presented through a case study of a Tertiary deep-water sequence of the Pannonian-basin.

  20. A special kind of sandstone-type uranium deposit related to Jurassic palaeochannel systems in the northeastern Ordos Basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ziying; Fang Xiheng; Xia Yuliang; Sun Ye; Jiao Yangquan; Chen Anping; Zhang Ke

    2010-01-01

    Dongsheng sandstone-type uranium deposit is a large one discovered in recent years in the northeastern Ordos Basin, China. It is a special kind of sandstone-type uranium deposit,different from other ordinary sandstone-type deposits because of its unique signatures. It is generally controlled by a transitional zone between greenish and grayish sandstones, both of those two kinds of sandstones now indicate reduced geochemical environments. The greenish color of the palaeo-oxidized sandstones mainly results from chloritization and epidotization related to oil and gas secondary reduction processes. The deposit genetically is different from ordinary sandstone uranium deposits,which is of more complex origin,undergoing not only palaeo-oxidization mineralization process, but also oil-gas fluid and hydrothermal reworking processes. It is spatially related to Jurassic Zhiluo Formation with braided palaeo channel systems. The uranium mineralization zone with higher grade usually exists in the branching area of the distributary channels of main braided streams, whose sandstone heterogeneity shows a transfer sedimentary facies from the braided stream sedimentary system to the braided delta sedimentary system. Statistical results show that medium and fine-grained sandstones are the most favorable rock types for uranium mineralization. (authors)

  1. Radiocarbon and seismic evidence of ice-sheet extent and the last deglaciation on the mid-Norwegian continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokoengen, Kaare; Frengstad, Bjoern

    1999-01-01

    Reconstruction of the ice extent and glacier chronology on the continental shelf off mid-Norway has been severely hampered by the lack of dates from the glacial deposits. Seismic interpretation and new accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon dates show that the ice sheet extended to the edge of the continental shelf at the last glacial maximum. The two youngest till units near the shelf edge were deposited about 15000 and 13500 BP. The results indicate that the ice sheet partly reached the shelf break as late as 11000 BP followed by a deglaciation of most of the continental shelf in less than 1000 years

  2. Radial transport processes as a precursor to particle deposition in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Thienen, P; Vreeburg, J H G; Blokker, E J M

    2011-02-01

    Various particle transport mechanisms play a role in the build-up of discoloration potential in drinking water distribution networks. In order to enhance our understanding of and ability to predict this build-up, it is essential to recognize and understand their role. Gravitational settling with drag has primarily been considered in this context. However, since flow in water distribution pipes is nearly always in the turbulent regime, turbulent processes should be considered also. In addition to these, single particle effects and forces may affect radial particle transport. In this work, we present an application of a previously published turbulent particle deposition theory to conditions relevant for drinking water distribution systems. We predict quantitatively under which conditions turbophoresis, including the virtual mass effect, the Saffman lift force, and the Magnus force may contribute significantly to sediment transport in radial direction and compare these results to experimental observations. The contribution of turbophoresis is mostly limited to large particles (>50 μm) in transport mains, and not expected to play a major role in distribution mains. The Saffman lift force may enhance this process to some degree. The Magnus force is not expected to play any significant role in drinking water distribution systems. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimization of FPM system in Barsukovskoye deposit with hydrodynamic modeling and analysis of inter-well interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almukhametova, E. M.; Gizetdinov, I. A.

    2018-05-01

    Development of most deposits in Russia is accompanied with a high level of crude water cut. More than 70% of the operating well count of Barsukovskoye deposit operates with water; about 12% of the wells are characterized by a saturated water cut; many wells with high water cut are idling. To optimize the current FPM system of the Barsukovskoye deposit, a calculation method over a hydrodynamic model was applied with further analysis of hydrodynamic connectivity between the wells. A plot was selected, containing several wells with water cut going ahead of reserve recovery rate; injection wells, exerting the most influence onto the selected producer wells, were determined. Then, several variants were considered for transformation of the FPM system of this plot. The possible cases were analyzed with the hydrodynamic model with further determination of economic effect of each of them.

  4. Reacquisition of E-cadherin expression in metastatic deposits of signet-ring cell carcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal system: a potential anchor for metastatic deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yihong R; Siegal, Gene P; Wei, Shi

    2017-06-01

    To examine the expression of E-cadherin in paired primary and metastatic signet-ring cell carcinomas (SRCC) of various organ systems in order to explore the potential role of the molecule in metastatic dissemination of this unique tumour type. Thirty-seven consecutive cases of SRCC from various organs with paired primary and metastatic tumorous tissue available were retrieved. The intensity of membranous E-cadherin expression was semiquantitatively scored on a scale of 0-3+. Reduced E-cadherin expression was a distinct feature of primary SRCC and was observed in 78% of primary tumours. Interestingly, the E-cadherin reduction was less frequently seen in metastatic SRCC when compared with their primary counterparts, and was only found in 57% of tumours in lymph node metastases or at distant sites of relapse. Furthermore, the mean score of E-cadherin expression of primary SRCC was significantly lower than that of their metastatic counterparts (2.3 vs 1.8; p=0.008). When divided by organ systems, the reacquisition of E-cadherin expression in the metastatic deposits was most remarkable in the SRCC of upper gastrointestinal tract origin (2.3 vs 1.4; p=0.003), whereas no significant difference was observed in other organ systems. While the reduction of E-cadherin in primary SRCC supports its pivotal role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a process crucial in tumour progression and metastatic dissemination, the re-expression of this molecule in metastatic SRCC cells implies a reversal to their epithelial phenotype (thus mesenchymal-epithelial transition) which, in turn, theoretically helps tumour cells to anchor and form cohesive metastatic deposits. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Understanding the spatial formation and accumulation of fats, oils and grease deposits in the sewer collection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominic, Christopher Cyril Sandeep; Szakasits, Megan; Dean, Lisa O; Ducoste, Joel J

    2013-01-01

    Sanitary sewer overflows are caused by the accumulation of insoluble calcium salts of fatty acids, which are formed by the reaction between fats, oils and grease (FOG) and calcium found in wastewaters. Different sewer structural configurations (i.e., manholes, pipes, wet wells), which vary spatially, along with other obstructions (roots intrusion) and pipe deformations (pipe sags), may influence the detrimental buildup of FOG deposits. The purpose of this study was to quantify the spatial variation in FOG deposit formation and accumulation in a pilot-scale sewer collection system. The pilot system contained straight pipes, manholes, roots intrusion, and a pipe sag. Calcium and oil were injected into the system and operated at alkaline (pH = 10) and neutral (pH = 7) pH conditions. Results showed that solid accumulations were slightly higher at neutral pH. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis on the solids samples confirmed that the solids were indeed calcium-based fatty acid salts. However, the fatty acid profiles of the solids deviated from the profile found from FOG deposits in sewer systems, which were primarily saturated fatty acids. These results confirm the work done previously by researchers and suggest an alternative fate of unsaturated fatty acids that does not lead to their incorporation in FOG deposits in full-scale sewer systems.

  6. A potential phosphorite deposit on the continental margin off Chennai

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P; Rao, K.M.; Vora, K.H.; Almeida, F.; Subramaniam, M.M.; Souza, C.G.A.

    into four types as (1) light brown friable phosphorites (2) grey dense phosphorites (3) phosphorite sands and (4) phosphatized algal nodules/limestones. Major element composition of phosphorites indicate that the P@d2@@ O@d5@@ content is highest (31...

  7. A Palaeoproterozoic multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bell, Robin-Marie; Kolb, Jochen; Waight, Tod Earle

    2017-01-01

    Nalunaq is an orogenic, high gold grade deposit situated on the Nanortalik Peninsula, South Greenland. Mineralisation is hosted in shear zone-controlled quartz veins, located in fine- and medium-grained amphibolite. The deposit was the site of Greenland’s only operating metalliferous mine until i...

  8. Evaluation of Uranium depositional system in sedimentary rocks of Sibolga formation, Tapanuli Tengah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I Gde Sukadana; Heri Syaeful

    2016-01-01

    Uranium in nature formed in various deposit type, depends on its sources, process, and depositional environments. Uranium occurrence in Sibolga, hosted in sedimentary rocks of Sibolga Formation, is properly potential to develop; nevertheless, the depositional pattern and uranium mineralization process so far had not been recognized. The research aim is to determine the rock distribution patterns and the existence of uranium grade anomalies based on surface geology and borehole log data. Mineralization occurrences from borehole log data distributed from basalt conglomerate unit (Kgl 1), sandstone 1 unit (Bp 1), conglomerate 2 unit (Kgl 2), and sandstone 2 unit (Bp 2) with their distribution and thickness are thinning to the top. Mineralization distribution in the eastern area, mainly on Kgl 1 unit, dominated by detritus materials from epi-genetic depositional in the form of monazite which is formed along with the formation of granite as its source rock. Meanwhile, mineralization on the upper rocks units formed a channel pattern trending northeast-southwest, which formed in syn-genetic process consist of uraninite, carnotite, and coffinite. Sibolga Formation deposition originated from east to west and uranium deposit formed because of the differences of depositional environment from oxidation in the east to the more reductive in the southwest. The increasing of organic materials in southwest basin caused the reduction condition of depositional environment. (author)

  9. Carbonate deposition, Pyramid Lake subbasin, Nevada: 3. The use of87Sr values in carbonate deposits (tufas) to determine the hydrologic state of paleolake systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, L.; Peterman, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Sierran rivers that discharge to the Lahontan basin have much lower (???4.5%o) ??87Sr values than the Humboldt River which drains northeastern Nevada. The ??87Sr values of tufas deposited during the last lake cycle were used to determine when Humboldt derived Sr entered the Pyramid Lake subbasin. Prior to ~ 15,000 yr B.P., the Humboldt River flowed to the Smoke Creek-Black Rock Desert subbasin. During the recession of Lake Lahontan, the Humboldt River diverted to the Carson Desert subbasin. This study has demonstrated that 87Sr can be used to determine drainage histories of multi-basin lake systems if the ??87Sr values of rivers that discharge to the basins are sufficiently different. ?? 1995 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bio-Optical Properties of the Inner Continental Shelf off Santos Estuarine System, Southeastern Brazil, and their Implications for Ocean Color Algorithm Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Carvalho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical characterizations of coastal water masses are important tools for a better understanding of physical and biochemical processes and aid the optimization of ocean color algorithms. In this study we present three optical classes of water observed during October/2005 and March/2006 on the inner continental shelf adjacent to Santos Bay (Brazil, based on remote sensing reflectance. ANOVA indicated a crescent estuarine influence in classes 1 to 3. Class 3 presented the highest chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentration and highest light absorption coefficients. Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM dominated the light absorption in all classes and was strongly correlated to salinity in October/2005 due to the influence of the La Plata plume. The results indicated that CDOM dynamics in the Santos inner shelf are very complex. The performance of global chlorophyll algorithms was significantly smaller for October/2005 than for March/2006. As inconsistent changes in light absorption spectra by phytoplankton were detected between samplings, the results show that future bio-optical algorithms for this region must be optimized preferentially considering CDOM optical parameters.

  11. Uranium deposits in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpolt, R.H.; Simov, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Africa is not only known for its spectacular diamond, gold, copper, chromium, platinum and phosphorus deposits but also for its uranium deposits. At least two uranium provinces can be distinguished - the southern, with the equatorial sub-province; and the south Saharan province. Uranium deposits are distributed either in cratons or in mobile belts, the first of sandstone and quartz-pebble conglomerate type, while those located in mobile belts are predominantly of vein and similar (disseminated) type. Uranium deposits occur within Precambrian rocks or in younger platform sediments, but close to the exposed Precambrian basement. The Proterozoic host rocks consist of sediments, metamorphics or granitoids. In contrast to Phanerozoic continental uranium-bearing sediments, those in the Precambrian are in marginal marine facies but they do contain organic material. The geology of Africa is briefly reviewed with the emphasis on those features which might control the distribution of uranium. The evolution of the African Platform is considered as a progressive reduction of its craton area which has been affected by three major Precambrian tectonic events. A short survey on the geology of known uranium deposits is made. However, some deposits and occurrences for which little published material is available are treated in more detail. (author)

  12. Non-deposit system option for waste management on small islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilms, Monica; Voronova, Viktoria

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyses waste management on small islands (on a global scale these are micro-islands). In the context of the paper, small islands are islands that have an area less than 50 km(2) The study presents an overview of the problems connected with waste transport from islands to the mainland. Waste generation on islands is very much related to tourists. If tourists do not handle waste properly, it will cause problems. Four small Estonian islands in the range of 3-19 km(2) are studied in detail. For these and other small islands, the main problem is the waste produced by tourists, or related to tourists and waste transport to the mainland. Currently, the local municipality has to arrange and finance waste transport. In fact, and based on the polluter-pays principle, the tourists should bear the cost of waste management. There are different tax options available in order to collect the money from tourists - waste tax, harbour tax, tourist tax, donations, environmental tax and others. The study results revealed that the best possible solution for Estonian islands may be a non-deposit system - including an additional charge on ferry ticket prices. The extra money should cover the costs of waste management and waste shipping. The tourists arriving in their own boats should pay a harbour tax, which includes a waste tax to compensate for the cost of waste management. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. A Visual Detection System for Determining Tritium Surface Deposition Employing Phosphor Coated Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, C.A.; Skinner, C.H.; Young, K.M.; Zweben, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    A method for visually observing tritium deposition on the surface of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) deuterium-tritium (D-T) tiles is being investigated at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. A green phosphor (P31, zinc sulfide: copper) similar to that used in oscilloscope screens with a wavelength peak of 530 nm was positioned on the surface of a TFTR D-T tile. The approximately 600 gram tile, which contains approximately 1.5 Ci of tritium located on the top approximately 1-50 microns of the surface, was placed in a two liter lexan chamber at Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP). The phosphor plates and phosphor powder were placed on the surface of the tile which resulted in visible light being observed, the consequence of tritium betas interacting with the phosphor. This technique provides a method of visually observing varying concentrations of tritium on the surface of D-T carbon tiles, and may be employed (in a calibrated system) to obtain quantitative data

  14. Electrical and structural characterisation of nanostructured titania coatings deposited on interdigitated electrode system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanovic, Marija; Stojanovic, Goran; Nikolic, Ljubica M.; Radovanovic, Milan; Skoric, Branko; Miletic, Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → La/TiO 2 and Nb/TiO 2 nanocrystalline coatings as interdigitated electrode system for sensors. → A method for the computation of conductivity and relative permittivity was proposed. → Nb causes an increase of electrical properties, while La has the opposite effect. - Abstract: This paper presents the electrical properties of La- and Nb-doped nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin coatings deposited on the alumina substrate with gold electrodes in the interdigitated form to obtain appropriate devices for sensor application. Electrical parameters such as conductivity σ and permittivity ε were calculated using measured values of phase angle θ m , capacitance C m and resistance R m . These values were measured using an HP-4194A Impedance/Gain-Phase Analyzer with a Z-probe in the frequency range from 10 3 Hz to 10 8 Hz. The measured results showed that with addition of 2, 4 or 6 at% of lanthanum, conductivity and permittivity of analysed samples are decreasing, whereas the addition of niobium in the same percentage follows the opposite trend.

  15. A Magnetron Sputter Deposition System for the Development of Multilayer X-Ray Optics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposal objective is to establish the capability to deposit multilayer structures for X-ray, neutron, and EUV optic applications through the development of a...

  16. Component Analysis of Deposits in Selective Catalytic Reduction System for Automotive Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Neng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, deposits in exhaust pipes for automotive diesel engines were studied by various chemical analysis methods and a kind of analysis process to determine the compositions of organic matter was proposed. Firstly, the elements of the deposits were determined through the element analysis method. Then using characteristic absorption properties of organic functional groups to the infrared spectrum, the functional groups in the deposits were determined. Finally, by GC-MS (gas chromatography - mass spectrometry test, the content of each main component was determined quantitatively. Element analysis results indicated that the deposits adsorbed metal impurities from fuel oil, lubricating oil, mechanical wear and urea water solution. The result of GC-MS test showed that the area percentage of cyanuric acid was the biggest (about 85%, the second was urea (about 4%, and the content of biuret and biurea was scarce.

  17. Scalable control program for multiprecursor flow-type atomic layer deposition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvaraj, Sathees Kannan [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Takoudis, Christos G., E-mail: takoudis@uic.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 and Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the development and implementation of a scalable control program to control flow type atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor with multiple precursor delivery lines. The program logic is written and tested in LABVIEW environment to control ALD reactor with four precursor delivery lines to deposit up to four layers of different materials in cyclic manner. The programming logic is conceived such that to facilitate scale up for depositing more layers with multiple precursors and scale down for using single layer with any one precursor in the ALD reactor. The program takes precursor and oxidizer exposure and purging times as input and controls the sequential opening and closing of the valves to facilitate the complex ALD process in cyclic manner. The program could be used to deposit materials from any single line or in tandem with other lines in any combination and in any sequence.

  18. Deep-water turbidity systems: a review of their elements, sedimentary processes and depositional models. Their characteristics on the Iberian margins; Sistemas turbiditicos de aguas profundas: revision de sus elementos, procesos sedimentarios y modelos deposicionales. Sus caracteristicas en los margenes Ibericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.; Ercilla, G.; Alonso, B.; Estrada, F.; Jane, G.; Mena, A.; Alves, T.; Juan, C.

    2015-07-01

    Turbidity systems or submarine fans are considered the most important clastic accumulations in the deep sea and represent the sediment-transfer system between the hinterland source area and the deep-sea depositional sink. Their deposits contain information about global factors and local factors. Different scales and varying observational methods have contributed to the lack of a unifying terminology. In order to solve this problem several authors have proposed an elemental approach. The main architectural elements defining a turbidity sys- tem are: large-scale erosive features (mass-movements and canyons), channels and channel-fill deposits, over- bank deposits and lobes. The sediment making up these elements is principally from gravity flow deposits, the most widely recognised being the turbidity, and other submarine mass movements. The genesis and character of these elements, as well as the overall geometry of the systems, indicate they are formed by a complex inter- action between global and local factors. Various turbidity-system classifications are found in the literature, the most widely-used being based on grain size and feeder systems. Besides the scientific importance of turbiditic systems, they are predominantly studied because of the economic interest in them, as turbidite sandstones con- stitute important gas and oil reservoirs. Turbidite systems shape the sea floor of the Iberian continental margins and contribute in a large part to their outbuilding and basin in filling. They are hugely variable in size, location within the physiographic domains, style and overall geometry of the architectural elements, as well as sediment composition. The most studied Iberian turbidity fans are in the Mediterranean Sea whereas those of the Atlantic Ocean remain poorly known. (Author)

  19. Magmatism and deformation during continental breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keir, Derek

    2013-04-01

    The rifting of continents and the transition to seafloor spreading is characterised by extensional faulting and thinning of the lithosphere, and is sometimes accompanied by voluminous intrusive and extrusive magmatism. In order to understand how these processes develop over time to break continents apart, we have traditionally relied on interpreting the geological record at the numerous fully developed, ancient rifted margins around the world. In these settings, however, it is difficult to discriminate between different mechanisms of extension and magmatism because the continent-ocean transition is typically buried beneath thick layers of volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and the tectonic and volcanic activity that characterised breakup has long-since ceased. Ongoing continental breakup in the African and Arabian rift systems offers a unique opportunity to address these problems because it exposes several sectors of tectonically active rift sector development spanning the transition from embryonic continental rifting in the south to incipient seafloor spreading in the north. Here I synthesise exciting, multidisciplinary observational and modelling studies using geophysical, geodetic, petrological and numerical techniques that uniquely constrain the distribution, time-scales, and interactions between extension and magmatism during the progressive breakup of the African Plate. This new research has identified the previously unrecognised role of rapid and episodic dike emplacement in accommodating a large proportion of extension during continental rifting. We are now beginning to realise that changes in the dominant mechanism for strain over time (faulting, stretching and magma intrusion) impact dramatically on magmatism and rift morphology. The challenge now is to take what we're learned from East Africa and apply it to the rifted margins whose geological record documents breakup during entire Wilson Cycles.

  20. CO2-rich and CO2-poor ore-forming fluids of porphyry molybdenum systems in two contrasting geologic setting: evidence from Shapinggou and Zhilingtou Mo deposits, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, P.

    2017-12-01

    Porphyry deposits are the world most important source of Mo, accounting for more than 95% of world Mo production. Porphyry Mo deposits have been classified into Climax type and Endako type. The Climax type was generally formed in an intra-continental setting, and contain high contents of Mo (0.15-0.45 wt.%) and F (0.5-5 wt.%). In contrast, the Endako type was generated in a continental arc setting and featured by low concentrations of Mo (0.05-0.15 wt.%) and F (0.05-0.15 wt.%). The systematic comparison of ore fluids in two contrasting tectonic environments is still poorly constrained. In this study, the Shapinggou and Zhilingtou Mo deposits in South China were selected to present the contrasting ore-forming fluid features. The fluid inclusion study of Shapinggou Mo deposit suggest: Early barren quartz veins contain fluid inclusions with salinities of 7.9-16.9 wt% NaCl equiv . CO2 contents are high enough to be detected by Raman. Later molybdenite-quartz veins contain vapor-type fluid inclusions with lower salinities (0.1-7.4 wt% NaCl equiv) but higher CO2-contents, coexisting with brine inclusions with 32.9-50.9 wt% NaCl equiv. The fluid inclusion study on Zhilintou Mo deposit suggest : Early barren quartz veins contain mostly intermediate density fluid inclusions with salinities of 5.3-14.1 wt% NaCl equiv, whereas main-stage quartz-molybdenite veins contain vapor-rich fluid inclusions of 0.5-6.2 wt% NaClequiv coexisting with brine inclusions of 38.6-44.8 wt% NaCl equiv. In contrast to the Shapinggou Mo deposit, the fluid inclusions at Shizitou contain only minor amounts of CO2. This study suggests the two porphyry molybdenum deposits experienced a similar fluid evolution trend, from single-phase fluids at the premineralization stage to two-phase fluids at the mineralization stage. Fluid boiling occurred during the ore stage and probably promoted a rapid precipitation of molybdenite. Intensive phyllic alteration, CO2-poor ore-forming fluids, and continental arc

  1. Overpressure, Flow Focusing, Compaction and Slope Stability on the continental slope: Insights from IODP Expedition 308

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemings, P. B.

    2010-12-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expepedition 308 used direct measurements of pore pressure, analysis of hydromechanical properties, and geological analysis to illuminate how sedimentation, flow focusing, overpressure, and slope stability couple beneath the seafloor on the deepwater continental slope in the Gulf of Mexico. We used pore pressure penetrometers to measure severe overpressures (60% of the difference between lithostatic stress and hydrostatic pressure) that extend from the seafloor for 100’s of meters. We ran uniaxial consolidation experiments on whole core and found that although permeability is relatively high near the seafloor, the sediments are highly compressible. As a result, the coefficient of consolidation (the hydraulic diffusivity) is remarkably constant over a large range of effective stresses. This behavior accounts for the high overpressure that begins near the seafloor and extends to depth. Forward modeling suggests that flow is driven laterally along a permeable unit called the Blue Unit. Calculations suggest that soon after deposition, lateral flow lowered the effective stress and triggered the submarine landslides that we observe. Later in the evolution of this system, overpressure may have pre-conditioned the slope to failure by earthquakes. Results from IODP Expedition 308 illustrate how pore pressure and sedimentation control the large-scale form of continental margins, how submarine landslides form, and provide strategies for designing stable drilling programs.

  2. Basement tectonics and flexural subsidence along western continental margin of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Pandey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Paleocene-recent post-rift subsidence history recorded in the Mumbai Offshore Basin off western continental margin of India is examined. Results obtained through 2-D flexural backstripping modelling of new seismic data reveal considerable thermo-tectonic subsidence over last ca. 56 Myr. Reverse post-rift subsidence modelling with variable β stretching factor predicts residual topography of ca. 2000 m to the west of Shelf Margin Basin and fails to restore late Paleocene horizon and the underlying igneous basement to the sea level. This potentially implies that: (1 either the igneous basement formed during the late Cretaceous was emplaced under open marine environs; or (2 a laterally varying cumulative subsidence occurred within Mumbai Offshore Basin (MOB during ca. 68 to ca. 56 Ma. Pre-depositional topographic variations at ca. 56 Ma across the basin could be attributed to the extensional processes such as varied lower crustal underplating along Western Continental Margin of India (WCMI. Investigations about basement tectonics after unroofing of sediments since late Paleocene from this region support a transitional and heavily stretched nature of crust with high to very high β factors. Computations of past sediment accumulation rates show that the basin sedimentation peaked during late Miocene concurrently with uplift of Himalayan–Tibetan Plateau and intensification of Indian monsoon system. Results from basin subsidence modelling presented here may have significant implications for further studies attempting to explore tectono–climatic interactions in Asia.

  3. Quaternary nanofossils on the Brazilian continental shelf; Nanofosseis calcarios do quaternario da margem continental brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Rogerio Loureiro [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Bioestratigrafia e Paleoecologia], E-mail: rlantunes@petrobras.com.br

    2007-07-01

    The study of calcareous nanofossils occurring in the deposits on the Brazilian continental margin began in the late 1960s, undertaken solely by PETROBRAS. Instead of presenting an academic outlook, the purpose of these investigations is first to formulate a biostratigraphic framework to apply to oil well samples. The initial result was the first zoning for the Brazilian continental margin, which considered the deposits formed between the Aptian and Miocene series. Since the 1960s to date, many papers have been written either with details of that original zoning or applying nanofossil biostratigraphy to solve stratigraphic problems. Regardless of all the papers and studies undertaken, little attention has been paid to the Quaternary, since these deposits are normally of no interest to petroleum geology stricto sensu, especially in a large part of the Brazilian margin. On the other hand, there are a few articles and some Master's dissertations and PhD theses that were written and/or are in progress in Brazilian universities. On the other hand, elsewhere in the world, Quaternary nanofossils have been thoroughly investigated in terms of biostratigraphy and paleoceanography. It is, therefore, very clear that there is a gap between what is being done elsewhere in the world and what has been done in Brazil. In fact, this gap is not larger simply because of a few researchers in Brazilian universities who are studying this topic. The intention of this paper is to contribute toward a richer study of Quaternary nanofossils. It, therefore, contains illustrations and taxonomic descriptions of many species observed in the younger strata of the Brazilian margin basins. This article not only aspires to portray and disseminate the potential of nanofossils for the marine Quaternary study but is also an invitation to students (under and post-graduates) and university researchers - an invitation to learn a little more about the subject and spend some time studying these real gems

  4. Quaternary nanofossils on the Brazilian continental shelf; Nanofosseis calcarios do quaternario da margem continental brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Rogerio Loureiro [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Bioestratigrafia e Paleoecologia], E-mail: rlantunes@petrobras.com.br

    2007-07-01

    The study of calcareous nanofossils occurring in the deposits on the Brazilian continental margin began in the late 1960s, undertaken solely by PETROBRAS. Instead of presenting an academic outlook, the purpose of these investigations is first to formulate a biostratigraphic framework to apply to oil well samples. The initial result was the first zoning for the Brazilian continental margin, which considered the deposits formed between the Aptian and Miocene series. Since the 1960s to date, many papers have been written either with details of that original zoning or applying nanofossil biostratigraphy to solve stratigraphic problems. Regardless of all the papers and studies undertaken, little attention has been paid to the Quaternary, since these deposits are normally of no interest to petroleum geology stricto sensu, especially in a large part of the Brazilian margin. On the other hand, there are a few articles and some Master's dissertations and PhD theses that were written and/or are in progress in Brazilian universities. On the other hand, elsewhere in the world, Quaternary nanofossils have been thoroughly investigated in terms of biostratigraphy and paleoceanography. It is, therefore, very clear that there is a gap between what is being done elsewhere in the world and what has been done in Brazil. In fact, this gap is not larger simply because of a few researchers in Brazilian universities who are studying this topic. The intention of this paper is to contribute toward a richer study of Quaternary nanofossils. It, therefore, contains illustrations and taxonomic descriptions of many species observed in the younger strata of the Brazilian margin basins. This article not only aspires to portray and disseminate the potential of nanofossils for the marine Quaternary study but is also an invitation to students (under and post-graduates) and university researchers - an invitation to learn a little more about the subject and spend some time studying these real gems of

  5. Bayesian fuzzy logic-based estimation of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) power deposition in MHD control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davoudi, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdi.davoudi@polimi.it [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Buein Zahra Technical University, Buein Zahra, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davoudi, Mohsen, E-mail: davoudi@eng.ikiu.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, 34148-96818 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • A couple of algorithms to diagnose if Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) power is deposited properly on the expected deposition minor radius are proposed. • The algorithms are based on Bayesian theory and Fuzzy logic. • The algorithms are tested on the off-line experimental data acquired from Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU), Frascati, Italy. • Uncertainties and evidences derived from the combination of online information formed by the measured diagnostic data and the prior information are also estimated. - Abstract: In the thermonuclear fusion systems, the new plasma control systems use some measured on-line information acquired from different sensors and prior information obtained by predictive plasma models in order to stabilize magnetic hydro dynamics (MHD) activity in a tokamak. Suppression of plasma instabilities is a key issue to improve the confinement time of controlled thermonuclear fusion with tokamaks. This paper proposes a couple of algorithms based on Bayesian theory and Fuzzy logic to diagnose if Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) power is deposited properly on the expected deposition minor radius (r{sub DEP}). Both algorithms also estimate uncertainties and evidences derived from the combination of the online information formed by the measured diagnostic data and the prior information. The algorithms have been employed on a set of off-line ECE channels data which have been acquired from the experimental shot number 21364 at Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU), Frascati, Italy.

  6. Potential of radioactive and other waste disposals on the continental margin by natural dispersal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, W.B.F.; Farre, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Mass wasting, an erosional process, has recently been active at deepwater waste disposal sites on the mid-Atlantic margin of the United States. On the continental slope there is a subsea drainage network consisting of canyons, gullies, and chutes, and there are meandering channels, erosional scars, and debris aprons present on the continental rise. Fresh-looking blocks of 40 to 45 million-year-old marl and chalk (from cobble to boulder size) are strewn among canisters of low-level radioactive wastes. Some of the blocks have traveled from their original place of deposition for distances in excess of 170 km. Waste containers on the continental slope and rise cannot be considered to be disposed of permanently. The drainage network of the slope provides a natural process for collecting wastes over a catchment area, and for concentrating it with interim storage in canyons. Erosion by slumping, sliding, and debris flows ultimately will transport the wastes from the continental slope and disperse it over potentially large areas on the continental rise and abyssal plain. If it is desirable that the wastes be buried in the seafloor and isolated from the environment, then the continental slope and rise are not attractive repositories. If, however, it is deemed beneficial that the wastes ultimately be dispersed over a wide area, then the continental slope could be used as a disposal site

  7. Immunoglobulin derived depositions in the nervous system: novel mass spectrometry application for protein characterization in formalin-fixed tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Fausto J; Gamez, Jeffrey D; Vrana, Julie A; Theis, Jason D; Giannini, Caterina; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Parisi, Joseph E; Lucchinetti, Claudia F; Pendlebury, William W; Bergen, H Robert; Dogan, Ahmet

    2008-10-01

    Proteinaceous deposits are occasionally encountered in surgically obtained biopsies of the nervous system. Some of these are amyloidomas, although the precise nature of other cases remains uncertain. We studied 13 cases of proteinaceous aggregates in clinical specimens of the nervous system. Proteins contained within laser microdissected areas of interest were identified from tryptic peptide sequences by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Immunohistochemical studies for immunoglobulin heavy and light chains and amyloidogenic proteins were performed in all cases. Histologically, the cases were classified into three groups: 'proteinaceous deposit not otherwise specified' (PDNOS) (n=6), amyloidoma (n=5), or 'intracellular crystals' (n=2). LC-MS/MS demonstrated the presence of lambda, but not kappa, light chain as well as serum amyloid P in all amyloidomas. lambda-Light-chain immunostaining was noted in amyloid (n=5), although demonstrable monotypic lymphoplasmacytic cells were seen in only one case. Conversely, in PDNOS kappa, but not lambda, was evident in five cases, both light chains being present in a single case. In three cases of PDNOS, a low-grade B-cell lymphoma consistent with marginal zone lymphoma was present in the brain specimen (n=2) or spleen (n=1). Lastly, in the 'intracellular crystals' group, the crystals were present within CD68+ macrophages in one case wherein kappa-light chain was found by LC-MS/MS only; the pathology was consistent with crystal-storing histiocytosis. In the second case, the crystals contained immunoglobulin G within CD138+ plasma cells. Our results show that proteinaceous deposits in the nervous system contain immunoglobulin components and LC-MS/MS accurately identifies the content of these deposits in clinical biopsy specimens. LC-MS/MS represents a novel application for characterization of these deposits and is of diagnostic utility in addition to standard immunohistochemical analyses.

  8. Geochemistry of sediments of the western Canadian continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R. W.; Pedersen, T. F.

    1991-08-01

    Few chemical data exist for the sedimentary environment off the Canadian west coast. Here we define the chemical nature of the shelf sediments by examining the important sources of material (natural and anthropogenic) to the region and processes relevant to diagenesis. Slightly more data exist for the continental shelf to the south (Washington) and north (Alaska), however it is clear that the sedimentary environment of these neighbouring shelves differs importantly from the Canadian portion. The British Columbia shelf receives little modern terrigenous detritus due mainly to isolation from terrestrial sediment sources by fiords, inland seas, or bypassing by shelf canyons. The chemical state of the sediments depends on the rate of supply of material, the energy of the depositional or erosional environment and the organic and inorganic composition of the material. These features in concert with bottom water characteristics control the redox state. Although no basins hosting continuous depositional records for the Holocene on the open British Columbia shelf have been identified or studied in a manner described by BUCKLEY ( Continental Shelf Research, 11, 1099-1122), some coastal embayments and fiords provide valuable historical records of post-glacial sedimentation. Such environments will prove to be increasingly useful in future studies of changes in regional climate and in establishing the chronology of natural disasters and anthropogenic impacts. Recommendations are given for a variety of research projects that would help us to understand better both chemical interactions at the seabed and Late Quaternary depositional history.

  9. Plant speciation in continental island floras as exemplified by Nigella in the Aegean Archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Comes, Hans Peter; Tribsch, Andreas; Bittkau, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Continental shelf island systems, created by rising sea levels, provide a premier setting for studying the effects of geographical isolation on non-adaptive radiation and allopatric speciation brought about by genetic drift. The Aegean Archipelago forms a highly fragmented complex of mostly continental shelf islands that have become disconnected from each other and the mainland in relatively recent geological times (ca

  10. Deposition of zinc on deposits on tubes in combustion systems - a thermodynamic study; Deponering av zink i belaeggningar paa panntuber - en termodynamisk studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolaeng, Bengt; Sjoeblom, Rolf

    2011-02-15

    The use of recovered wood based fuels sometimes leads to a substantial increase in the rate of corrosion with outages and increase in maintenance costs as a consequence. Therefore, Vaermeforsk has financed two framework programmes on recovered wood based fuels. All results, except those from thermodynamical calculations, support the conclusion that enhanced levels of zinc and chlorine is one of the most important reasons for the development of harmful deposits. The system zinc chloride - potassium chloride contains several intermediate phases, out of which K{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4} has a considerably higher melting point compared to pure zinc chloride. This provides ground for the suspicion that there may be synergetic effects between potassium and zinc and that condensation from the gas phase therefore might take place at a temperature which is higher than that which has been reported earlier. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the correctness of this hypothesis by means of thermodynamical calculations. As a first step, the energy of the intermediate phase K{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4} was modelled utilizing results from electrochemical measurements in salt melt. The thermodynamical calculations were conducted using software which had been developed by BeN Systems including a dedicated database. Thus, all calculations have been carried out independently of those performed previously. In order to ensure full comparability, some calculations were carried out using the same input parameters as used previously and the results were essentially identical. After this, thermodynamical calculations were carried out using a database which included the intermediate phase K{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4}. The results show that the influence of this phase corresponds to an increase in condensation temperature for zinc chloride with more than 200 deg C. A prerequisite for the formation of this phase is that the amount of available chlorine exceeds that of potassium. Similar effects can be

  11. Seaweed culture and continental shelf protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przhemenetskaya, V F

    1985-07-01

    The initial impression that the resources of the oceans were limitless has been replaced by a more rational appreciation that everything has its limits, including the seemingly infinite resources of marine plant life. In addition, experience in California, Australia, China, Japan and Korea has demonstrated that depletion of seaweed resources for commercial utilization has a deleterious effect on the biocenotic status of the continental shelf. In view of this, many countries, such as Japan, China, Korea, the Philippines and the USSR, have embarked on aquaculture programs, in which seaweeds are cultivated on marine plantations. Successful developments in this direction should go a long way to preserving the natural ecologic balance on the continental shelf, and yet provide mankind with the resources of the deep. Many difficulties remain to be resolved before aquaculture programs become fully cost effective, one of which deals with the susceptibility of a monoculture to a given predator or disease. To that end, such programs necessitate the creation of well balanced systems that would support a variety of marine plant and animal life without an adverse effect on the desired crop. 4 references, 6 figures.

  12. A Mathematical Model for Non-monotonic Deposition Profiles in Deep Bed Filtration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model for suspension/colloid flow in porous media and non-monotonic deposition is proposed. It accounts for the migration of particles associated with the pore walls via the second energy minimum (surface associated phase). The surface associated phase migration is characterized...... by advection and diffusion/dispersion. The proposed model is able to produce a nonmonotonic deposition profile. A set of methods for estimating the modeling parameters is provided in the case of minimal particle release. The estimation can be easily performed with available experimental information....... The numerical modeling results highly agree with the experimental observations, which proves the ability of the model to catch a non-monotonic deposition profile in practice. An additional equation describing a mobile population behaving differently from the injected population seems to be a sufficient...

  13. Effect of electron degeneracy on fast-particles energy deposition in dense plasma systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johzaki, T.; Nakao, Y.; Nakashima, H.; Kudo, K.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of electron degeneracy on fast-particles energy deposition in dense plasmas are investigated by making transport calculations for the fast particles. It is found that the degeneracy substantially affects the profiles of energy deposition of 3.52-MeV α-particles. On the other hand, the effect on the energy deposition of 14.1-MeV neutrons is negligibly small because the recoil ions, which transfer the neutron energy to the plasma constituents, are produced in a whole plasma volume due to the long mean-free-path of neutrons. The coupled transport-hydrodynamic calculations show that these effects of degeneracy are negligible in the ignition and burn characteristics of central ignition D-T targets. (author)

  14. Mobilization and distribution of lead originating from roof dust and wet deposition in a roof runoff system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianghua; Yu, Haixia; Huang, Xiaogu

    2015-12-01

    In this research, the mobilization and distribution of lead originating in roof dust and wet deposition were investigated within a roof dust-rooftop-runoff system. The results indicated that lead from roof dust and wet deposition showed different transport dynamics in runoff system and that this process was significantly influenced by the rainfall intensity. Lead present in the roof dust could be easily washed off into the runoff, and nearly 60 % of the total lead content was present in particulate form. Most of the lead from the roof dust was transported during the late period of rainfall; however, the lead concentration was higher for several minutes at the rainfall beginning. Even though some of the lead from wet deposition, simulated with a standard isotope substance, was adsorbed onto adhered roof dust and/or retained on rooftop in runoff system, most of it (50-82 %) remained as dissolved lead in the runoff for rainfall events of varying intensity. Regarding the distribution of lead in the runoff system, the results indicated that it could be carried in the runoff in dissolved and particulate form, be adsorbed to adhered roof dust, or remain on the rooftop because of adsorption to the roof material. Lead from the different sources showed different distribution patterns that were also related to the rainfall intensity. Higher rainfall intensity resulted in a higher proportion of lead in the runoff and a lower proportion of lead remaining on the rooftop.

  15. System of the creation of a model for the coal deposit, and the subsequent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staněk František

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, methodics of creating a model for different type of the coal deposit is described, including the processing of reserves text and graphic outputs. It is also useful in cases of the deposit with a great number of seams of various thicknesses that is heavily tectonically disturbed and divided into tectonic blocks. The development of seams is variable in both the thickness and quality. Splitting of the seams occurs, separate benches are formed and, on the contrary, connected into one seam.

  16. Evidence for submarine landslides and continental slope erosion related to fault reactivation during the last glaciation offshore eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Ange, F.; Campbell, C.; MacKillop, K.; Mosher, D. C.; Piper, D. J.; Roger, J.

    2012-12-01

    Many studies have proposed that reactivation of dormant faults during deglaciation is a source of neotectonic activity in glaciated regions, but few have demonstrated the relationship to submarine landslides. In this study, seabed morphology and shallow geology of the outer continental margin adjacent to the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone off Newfoundland, Canada was investigated for evidence of this relationship. The glacial history and morphology of the margin suggest that the entire continental shelf in the area, coincident with major continental crustal lineaments, was ice-covered during the Last glacial cycle, and transverse troughs delineate the paleo-icestream drainage patterns. A recent investigation of Notre Dame Trough revealed the existence of large sediment failures on the shelf. The current study investigates complex seafloor erosion and widespread mass transport deposition (MTD) on the continental slope seaward of Notre Dame Trough, using recently-acquired high resolution seismic reflection data and piston cores. The new data reveal that a trough mouth fan (TMF) is present on the slope seaward of Notre Dame Trough. The Notre Dame TMF is characterized by a succession of stacked debris flows, but does not show a lobate shape in plan view like other classic TMFs. Instead, the Notre Dame TMF has abruptly-truncated margins suggesting post-depositional failure and erosion of the fan deposits. Seismic reflection data show that the locations of the failures along the TMF margin are coincident with a set of shallow faults; however the current dataset does not image the deeper portion of the faults. On the upper slope immediately south of the TMF, a narrow and deeply incised canyon is located along-trend with the Notre Dame Trough. The location of this canyon appears to be controlled by a fault. Downslope from this canyon, along the southern margin of the TMF, a 25 km wide, flat-floored, U-shaped valley was eroded into a succession of stacked MTD-filled channels

  17. Thin films of copper oxide and copper grown by atomic layer deposition for applications in metallization systems of microelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waechtler, Thomas

    2010-05-25

    Copper-based multi-level metallization systems in today's ultralarge-scale integrated electronic circuits require the fabrication of diffusion barriers and conductive seed layers for the electrochemical metal deposition. Such films of only several nanometers in thickness have to be deposited void-free and conformal in patterned dielectrics. The envisaged further reduction of the geometric dimensions of the interconnect system calls for coating techniques that circumvent the drawbacks of the well-established physical vapor deposition. The atomic layer deposition method (ALD) allows depositing films on the nanometer scale conformally both on three-dimensional objects as well as on large-area substrates. The present work therefore is concerned with the development of an ALD process to grow copper oxide films based on the metal-organic precursor bis(trin- butylphosphane)copper(I)acetylacetonate [({sup n}Bu{sub 3}P){sub 2}Cu(acac)]. This liquid, non-fluorinated {beta}-diketonate is brought to react with a mixture of water vapor and oxygen at temperatures from 100 to 160 C. Typical ALD-like growth behavior arises between 100 and 130 C, depending on the respective substrate used. On tantalum nitride and silicon dioxide substrates, smooth films and selfsaturating film growth, typical for ALD, are obtained. On ruthenium substrates, positive deposition results are obtained as well. However, a considerable intermixing of the ALD copper oxide with the underlying films takes place. Tantalum substrates lead to a fast self-decomposition of the copper precursor. As a consequence, isolated nuclei or larger particles are always obtained together with continuous films. The copper oxide films grown by ALD can be reduced to copper by vapor-phase processes. If formic acid is used as the reducing agent, these processes can already be carried out at similar temperatures as the ALD, so that agglomeration of the films is largely avoided. Also for an integration with subsequent

  18. Thin films of copper oxide and copper grown by atomic layer deposition for applications in metallization systems of microelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waechtler, Thomas

    2010-05-25

    Copper-based multi-level metallization systems in today's ultralarge-scale integrated electronic circuits require the fabrication of diffusion barriers and conductive seed layers for the electrochemical metal deposition. Such films of only several nanometers in thickness have to be deposited void-free and conformal in patterned dielectrics. The envisaged further reduction of the geometric dimensions of the interconnect system calls for coating techniques that circumvent the drawbacks of the well-established physical vapor deposition. The atomic layer deposition method (ALD) allows depositing films on the nanometer scale conformally both on three-dimensional objects as well as on large-area substrates. The present work therefore is concerned with the development of an ALD process to grow copper oxide films based on the metal-organic precursor bis(trin- butylphosphane)copper(I)acetylacetonate [({sup n}Bu{sub 3}P){sub 2}Cu(acac)]. This liquid, non-fluorinated {beta}-diketonate is brought to react with a mixture of water vapor and oxygen at temperatures from 100 to 160 C. Typical ALD-like growth behavior arises between 100 and 130 C, depending on the respective substrate used. On tantalum nitride and silicon dioxide substrates, smooth films and selfsaturating film growth, typical for ALD, are obtained. On ruthenium substrates, positive deposition results are obtained as well. However, a considerable intermixing of the ALD copper oxide with the underlying films takes place. Tantalum substrates lead to a fast self-decomposition of the copper precursor. As a consequence, isolated nuclei or larger particles are always obtained together with continuous films. The copper oxide films grown by ALD can be reduced to copper by vapor-phase processes. If formic acid is used as the reducing agent, these processes can already be carried out at similar temperatures as the ALD, so that agglomeration of the films is largely avoided. Also for an integration with subsequent

  19. In-flight monitoring of particle deposition in the environmental control systems of commercial airliners in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Xu, Qiuyu; Liu, Wei; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Wei, Daniel; Baughcum, Steven; Norris, Sharon; Chen, Qingyan

    2017-04-01

    Severe air pollution and low on-time performance of commercial flights in China could increase particle deposition in the environmental control systems (ECSs) of commercial airliners. The particles deposited in the ECSs could negatively affect the performance of the airplanes. In addition, particles that penetrate into the aircraft cabin could adversely impact the health of passengers and crew members. This investigation conducted simultaneous measurements of particle mass concentration and size distribution inside and outside the cabin during 64 commercial flights of Boeing 737 and Airbus 320 aircraft departing from or arriving at Tianjin Airport in China. The results showed that the PM2.5 mass concentration deposition in the ECSs of these airplanes ranged from 50% to 90%, which was much higher than that measured in an airplane with a ground air-conditioning unit. The average deposition rates of particles with diameters of 0.5-1 μm, 1-2 μm, 2-5 μm, 5-10 μm, and >10 μm were 89 ± 8%, 85 ± 13%, 80 ± 13%, 73 ± 15%, and 80 ± 14%, respectively. The in-flight measurement results indicated that the particle concentration in the breathing zone was higher than that in the air-supply zone, which implies a significant contribution by particles in the interior of the cabin. Such particles come from human emissions or particle resuspension from interior surfaces.

  20. Whither the UK Continental Shelf?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the oil and gas fields on the United Kingdom continental shelf has been carried out with remarkable success. However, low oil prices now threaten fresh investment and make it likely that both oil and gas output will start to fall in about 2001. The impact of a number of different price scenarios on further development is assessed. It is concluded that continuing technological improvements and the provision of adequate incentives by government should ensure a long productive future for the province. (UK)

  1. Review of available data on the release, transport and deposition of corrosion products in PWR, BWR and SGHWR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, N.K.

    1976-03-01

    A survey has been carried out of data which are relevant to the theoretical and experimental aspects of corrosion product release, transport, activation and deposition and which were available from operational experience of water reactors and associated experiments. The data have been assessed in connection with commercial SGHWR systems with regard to construction, commissioning and operational procedures. A few areas of work where the existing evidence is inconclusive or incomplete are listed. (author)

  2. Lung deposition and systemic availability of fluticasone Diskus and budesonide Turbuhaler in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agertoft, Lone; Pedersen, Soren

    2003-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic studies can be used to measure lung dose of inhaled drugs. The aim of this study was to compare the lung deposition of budesonide (BUD) inhaled from Turbuhaler (AstraZeneca, Lund, Sweden) and fluticasone propionate (FP) inhaled from Diskus (GlaxoSmithKline, London, UK) and to assess...

  3. Quantitative biomonitoring of nitrogen deposition with TONIS (Total N Input Biomonitoring System)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Karsten; Suda, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring of air pollutants is an important instrument to detect threats and to observe temporal trends of emissions. Determining the spatial distribution of oxidized and reduced N species via modelling requires sufficient knowledge about innumerous small sources from traffic, settlements and agriculture. Empirical studies are required to validate the model data but measurements of the total N deposition (e.g. micrometeorological measurements) are very expensive. Against this background, the TONIS, a new suitable technique which combines a biomonitoring with plants and technical measurements was developed. During 6 exposures between 2012 and 2016 at different polluted sites in Northwest Germany, TONIS accumulated between 17 and 25 kg N ha-1 yr −1 t. The results are feasible compared to simultaneously measured NH 3 and NO 2 concentration and bulk N deposition. At one site within a peat bog the accumulated N in TONIS was found to be in the range of total N deposition derived from a micrometeorological approach. - Highlights: • A new suitable biomonitoring technique is presented to determine N deposition rates relating to low-growing vegetation on nutrient-poor sites. • TONIS combines the advantages of biomonitoring and technical measurements. • The results of 6 exposures between 2012 and 2016 are feasible compared to technical measurements and modelled data.

  4. Optical Emission Spectroscopy of Plasma in Hybrid Pulsed Laser Deposition System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Michal; Jelínek, Miroslav; Bulíř, Jiří; Lančok, Ján; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Zelinger, Zdeněk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, Suppl. D (2002), s. 292-298 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010110 Keywords : optical emission spectroscopy * pulsed laser deposition * RF discharge Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002

  5. Thermal models pertaining to continental growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, P.; Ashwal, L.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal models are important to understanding continental growth as the genesis, stabilization, and possible recycling of continental crust are closely related to the tectonic processes of the earth which are driven primarily by heat. The thermal energy budget of the earth was slowly decreasing since core formation, and thus the energy driving the terrestrial tectonic engine was decreasing. This fundamental observation was used to develop a logic tree defining the options for continental growth throughout earth history

  6. Seismic Characterization of the Terrebonne Mini-basin, a Hydrate Rich Depositional System in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafov, L. N.; Eze, P. C.; Haines, S. S.; Graham, S. A.; McHargue, T.; Hosford Scheirer, A.

    2017-12-01

    Natural gas bearing hydrates are a focus of research as a potential source of energy and carbon storage because they occur globally in permafrost regions and marine sediment along every continent. This study focuses on the structural and stratigraphic architecture of the Terrebonne mini-basin, northwest Walker Ridge, Gulf of Mexico, to characterize the depositional architecture and to describe possible migration pathways for petroleum. Questions addressed include: a) continuity of sand layers b) effects of faulting and c) ponding versus fill and spill. To address these questions, seven of forty-two high resolution USGS 2D seismic lines were interpreted and then verified with WesternGeco 3D seismic data, yielding three qualitative models for the depositional environment of hydrate-bearing sand intervals. Deeper hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs were deposited as sheet-like turbidite lobes. Two shallower hydrate-bearing intervals display two possible depositional systems which form reservoirs- 1) sandy to muddy channel sealed laterally by muddy levees with associated sandy crevasse splays, and 2) ponded sandy lobes cut by channels filled with sand lags and mud. Additional observations in the 2D seismic include mass transport deposits and possible contourites. Salt movement facilitated mini-basin formation which was then ponded by sediment and followed by episodes of fill-and-spill and erosion. These seismic interpretations indicate periodic salt uplift. Overturn of salt along the northwestern edge of the basin resulted in thrust faults. The faults and erosional surfaces act as seals to reservoirs. The greatest volume of sandy reservoir potential occurs in sheet-like turbidite lobes with high lateral continuity, which facilitates updip migration of deep-sourced thermogenic gas along bedding surfaces. Channel levees serve as lateral seals to gas hydrate reservoirs, whereas faults, erosional surfaces, and shales provide vertical seals. Characterization of the Terrebonne

  7. Modeling of air pollutant removal by dry deposition to urban trees using a WRF/CMAQ/i-Tree Eco coupled system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Theresa I. Cabaraban; Charles N. Kroll; Satoshi Hirabayashi; David J. Nowak

    2013-01-01

    A distributed adaptation of i-Tree Eco was used to simulate dry deposition in an urban area. This investigation focused on the effects of varying temperature, LAI, and NO2 concentration inputs on estimated NO2 dry deposition to trees in Baltimore, MD. A coupled modeling system is described, wherein WRF provided temperature...

  8. Hexanoic Acid Treatment Prevents Systemic MNSV Movement in Cucumis melo Plants by Priming Callose Deposition Correlating SA and OPDA Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Fernández-Crespo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Unlike fungal and bacterial diseases, no direct method is available to control viral diseases. The use of resistance-inducing compounds can be an alternative strategy for plant viruses. Here we studied the basal response of melon to Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV and demonstrated the efficacy of hexanoic acid (Hx priming, which prevents the virus from systemically spreading. We analysed callose deposition and the hormonal profile and gene expression at the whole plant level. This allowed us to determine hormonal homeostasis in the melon roots, cotyledons, hypocotyls, stems and leaves involved in basal and hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR to MNSV. Our data indicate important roles of salicylic acid (SA, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA, jasmonic-isoleucine, and ferulic acid in both responses to MNSV. The hormonal and metabolites balance, depending on the time and location associated with basal and Hx-IR, demonstrated the reprogramming of plant metabolism in MNSV-inoculated plants. The treatment with both SA and OPDA prior to virus infection significantly reduced MNSV systemic movement by inducing callose deposition. This demonstrates their relevance in Hx-IR against MNSV and a high correlation with callose deposition. Our data also provide valuable evidence to unravel priming mechanisms by natural compounds.

  9. Corrosion products, activity transport and deposition in boiling water reactor recirculation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, H.P.; Buckley, D.; Grauer, R.; Wiedemann, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    The deposition of activated corrosion products in the recirculation loops of Boiling Water Reactors produces increased radiation levels which lead to a corresponding increase in personnel radiation dose during shut down and maintenance. The major part of this dose rate is due to cobalt-60. Based on a comprehensive literature study concerning this theme, it has been attempted to identify the individual stages of the activity build-up and to classify their importance. The following areas are discussed in detail: The origins of the corrosion products and of cobalt-59 in the reactor feedwaters; the consolidation of the cobalt in the fuel pins deposits (activation); the release and transport of cobalt-60; the build-up of cobalt-60 in the corrosion products in the recirculation loops. Existing models of the build-up of circuit radioactivity are discussed and the operating experiences from selected reactors are summarized. 90 refs, figs and tabs

  10. Quantitative TEM analysis of Al/Cu multilayer systems prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Haihua; Pryds, Nini; Schou, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Thin films composed of alternating Al/Cu/Al layers were deposited on a (111) Si substrate using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The thicknesses of the film and the individual layers, and the detailed internal structure within the layers were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy...... for the formation of the first layer of nano-sized Al grains. The results demonstrate that the PLD technique is a powerful tool to produce nano-scale multilayered metal films with controllable thickness and grain sizes....... (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM). Each Al or Cu layer consists of a single layer of nano-sized grains of different orientations. EFTEM results revealed a layer of oxide about 2 nm thick on the surface of the Si substrate, which is considered to be the reason...

  11. Comparisons between in vivo estimates of systemic Pu deposition and autopsy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schofield, G.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the UK the radiochemical analyses of autopsy specimens have been undertaken following the death of 30 employees during the period 1964 - 1980 whose work has at some time brought them into contact with plutonium. These workers were routinely monitored during their lifetime and estimates made of their total body content of plutonium. Past experience has shown that the urinary plutonium content bears a marked relationship to the bone and liver deposition levels of plutonium but not to the quantities found in the lungs (1). In this paper therefore the comparisons are made between in vivo estimates of bone and liver plutonium deposition and estimates derived from both the wet and ash weights of autopsy specimens. (author)

  12. Deconvolution effect of near-fault earthquake ground motions on stochastic dynamic response of tunnel-soil deposit interaction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hacıefendioğlu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The deconvolution effect of the near-fault earthquake ground motions on the stochastic dynamic response of tunnel-soil deposit interaction systems are investigated by using the finite element method. Two different earthquake input mechanisms are used to consider the deconvolution effects in the analyses: the standard rigid-base input and the deconvolved-base-rock input model. The Bolu tunnel in Turkey is chosen as a numerical example. As near-fault ground motions, 1999 Kocaeli earthquake ground motion is selected. The interface finite elements are used between tunnel and soil deposit. The mean of maximum values of quasi-static, dynamic and total responses obtained from the two input models are compared with each other.

  13. Assessing atmospheric nitrogen deposition to natural and semi-natural ecosystems – experience from Danish studies using the DAMOS system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Geels, Camilla; Frohn, Lise

    2013-01-01

    and ammonium (reaction products of nitrogen oxides and ammonia), but also dry deposition of other reactive nitrogen compounds (mainly nitrogen oxides in the form of gas phase nitric acid and nitrogen dioxide). In Denmark's environmental management of the sensitive terrestrial ecosystems modelling tools...... are required that account for both the local and the long-range transported contributions. This motivated development of the Danish Ammonia MOdelling System (DAMOS) that has been successfully applied to the assessment of atmospheric nitrogen loadings to sensitive Danish ecosystems. We present here three...... different examples of such assessments. Our results show that ecosystems located in Western Denmark (Case 1) receive the highest loads of atmospheric nitrogen depositions which generally exceed the critical load. This part of the country has the highest livestock density. In the Eastern part of the country...

  14. Membranous nephropathy (bubbling appearance and spike formation) without immunoglobulin deposition in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Naoto; Mori, Yuki; Yoshino, Masabumi; Suga, Norihiro; Kitagawa, Wataru; Yamada, Harutaka; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Imai, Hirokazu

    2008-12-01

    A 53-year-old Japanese man with systemic lupus erythematosus developed proteinuria and hematuria after a urinary stone episode. A light microscopic study of a kidney biopsy specimen demonstrated a bubbling appearance and spike formation of the basement membrane. Immunofluorescent studies revealed that there were no significant depositions of immunoglobulins, such as IgG (-), IgA (-), IgM (+/-), kappa light chain (+/-), lambda light chain (+/-), or C3 (-) in the glomerular capillary wall, though C1q was present as one-plus positive staining in mesangial areas. Electron microscopic studies showed that the thickness of the basement membrane varied from thin to thick without electron dense deposits, and that the cellular components of the podocyte were irregularly present in the basement membrane. Urinary protein decreased after the usage of prednisolone and mizoribine; however, proteinuria aggravated after an episode of urinary stone during the same treatment.

  15. Results of the studies on energy deposition in IR6 superconducting magnets from continuous beam loss on the TCDQ system

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Presland, A; Redaelli, S; Sarchiapone, L; Weiler, T

    2007-01-01

    A single sided mobile graphite diluter block TCDQ, in combination with a two-sided secondary collimator TCS and an iron shield TCDQM, will be installed in front of the superconducting quadrupole Q4 magnets in IR6, in order to protect it and other downstream LHC machine elements from destruction in the event of a beam dump that is not synchronised with the abort gap. The TCDQ will be positioned close to the beam, and will intercept the particles from the secondary halo during low beam lifetime. Previous studies (1-4) have shown that the energy deposited in the Q4 magnet coils can be close to or above the quench limit. In this note the results of the latest FLUKA energy deposition simulations for Beam 2 are described, including an upgrade possibility for the TCDQ system with an additional shielding device. The results are discussed in the context of the expected performance levels for the different phases of LHC operation.

  16. Revision of deposition and weathering parameters for the ingestion dose module (ECOSYS) of the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Thørring, Håvard

    2011-01-01

    The ECOSYS model is the ingestion dose model integrated in the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems for nuclear emergency management. The parameters used in this model have however not been updated in recent years, where the level of knowledge on various environmental processes has increased...... considerably. A Nordic work group has carried out a series of evaluations of the general validity of current ECOSYS default parameters. This paper specifically discusses the parameter revisions required with respect to the modelling of deposition and natural weathering of contaminants on agricultural crops......, to enable the trustworthy prognostic modelling that is essential to ensure justification and optimisation of countermeasure strategies. New modelling approaches are outlined, since it was found that current ECOSYS approaches for deposition and natural weathering could lead to large prognostic errors....

  17. Floating harmonic probe measurements in the low-temperature plasma jet deposition system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zanáška, M.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Čada, Martin; Kudrna, Pavel; Tichý, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2018), s. 1-8, č. článku 025205. ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-00863S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : plasma diagnostic * floating harmonic probe * Langmuir probe * hollow cathode * non-conducting film deposition Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics ) Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016

  18. Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial communities in unchlorinated drinking water distribution system: an integral study of bulk water, suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Bakker, G L; Li, S; Vreeburg, J H G; Verberk, J Q J C; Medema, G J; Liu, W T; Van Dijk, J C

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  19. Pyrosequencing Reveals Bacterial Communities in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System: An Integral Study of Bulk Water, Suspended Solids, Loose Deposits, and Pipe Wall Biofilm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, G.

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  20. Phanerozoic Rifting Phases And Mineral Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassaan, Mahmoud

    2016-04-01

    connected with NW,WNW and N-S faults genetically related to volcano-hydrothermal activity associated the Red Sea rifting. At Sherm EL-Sheikh hydrothermal manganese deposit occurs in Oligocene clastics within fault zone. Four iron-manganese-barite mineralization in Esh-Elmellaha plateau are controlled by faults trending NW,NE and nearly E-W intersecting Miocene carbonate rocks. Barite exists disseminated in the ores and as a vein in NW fault. In Shalatee - Halaib district 24 manganese deposits and barite veins with sulphide patches occur within Miocene carbonates distributed along two NW fault planes,trending 240°and 310° and occur in granite and basalt . Uranium -lead-zinc sulfide mineralization occur in Late Proterozoic granite, Late Cretaceous sandstones, and chiefly in Miocene clastic-carbonate-evaporate rocks. The occurrences of uranium- lead-zinc and iron-manganese-barite mineralization have the characteristic features of hypogene cavity filling and replacement deposits correlated with Miocene- Recent Aden volcanic rocks rifting. In western Saudi Arabia barite-lead-zinc mineralization occurs at Lat. 25° 45' and 25° 50'N hosted by Tertiary sediments in limestone nearby basaltic flows and NE-SW fault system. The mineralized hot brines in the Red Sea deeps considered by the author a part of this province. The author considers the constant rifting phases of Pangea and then progressive fragmentation of Western Gondwana during the Late Carboniferous-Lias, Late Jurassic-Early Aptian, Late Aptian - Albian and Late Eocene-Early Miocene and Oligocene-Miocene, responsible for formation of the mineral deposits constituting the M provinces. During these events, rifting, magmatism and hydrothermal activities took place in different peri-continental margins.

  1. Development of integrated evaluation information system for sandstone-hosted uranium deposits based on ComGIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Dan; Han Shaoyang; Hou Huiqun; Hu Shuiqing

    2006-01-01

    Component GIS owns many merits such as flexible function and easy to be used, which makes it very suitable for the development of professional GIS application system in geoscience field. During the process of exploration and evaluation for uranium resources, computer application system has been a powerful tool owning to the following functions: professional processing, management and storage of data, spatial analysis, visualization and mapping, etc. In this paper technological routine is presented for the development of integrated evaluation information system for sandstone-hosted uranium deposits based on ArcGIS Engine. General GIS functions can be realized with ArcGIS Engine easily and quickly, the developers could concentrate their attentions on developing professional functions, which will shorten the developing period and make the system more efficient. It is showed that the system developed on ArcGIS Engine platform is stable in operation, flexible in functions and professional in application. (authors)

  2. Spatial Extent of Wave-Supported Fluid Mud on the Waipaoa Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. P.; Ogston, A. S.; Walsh, J. P.; Orpin, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Data from acoustic and optical sensors provide a powerful tool to connect near-bed water-column processes with the deposits they generate. Ideally, the product of water-column and seabed interactions can then be applied more broadly to understand systems as a whole, in both space and time. Recent observational research has allowed for an improved understanding of shelf sediment-transport dynamics in many coastal systems, including the dynamic Waipaoa Sedimentary System (WSS), on the east coast of the north island of New Zealand. This narrow shelf (~20 km) on an active continental margin is subject to strong environmental forcings in the form of high waves (>5 m), strong currents (>50 cm/s), and frequent floods of the Waipaoa River, which delivers an average of 15 MT of sediment to Poverty Bay and the coastal environment each year. A year-long study of the WSS during 2010-2011 combined observational data from instrumented tripods at three locations on the continental shelf, with repeat sediment cores collected in four-month intervals, to identify and assess the mechanisms of cross- and off-shelf sediment transport. Observational data identified that cross-shelf sediment transport is stochastic, typically driven by high-wave events, with 40% of the net annual cross-shelf flux for one tripod location occurring during a single wave-supported fluid mud (WSFM) in July 2010. Fortunately, this event was recorded in the instrument data, and the resulting deposit was plainly visible in x-radiograph images. This particular WSFM was observed in x-radiographs collected as deep as ~50 m, and as far as ~28 km from the mouth of the Waipaoa River, and is more prevalent on the northern portion of the shelf. A critical water depth is not the only criteria for WSFM deposition, as some shallower areas on the southern shelf, which were subject to high bed stress, show no evidence of WSFM in this event, while cores collected in deeper areas (e.g. lower bed stress) on the northern shelf

  3. An ultrahigh vacuum, low-energy ion-assisted deposition system for III-V semiconductor film growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, S.; Barnett, S. A.; Choi, C.-H.

    1989-06-01

    A novel ion-assisted deposition system is described in which the substrate and growing film can be bombarded with high current densities (greater than 1 mA/sq cm) of very low energy (10-200 eV) ions. The system design philosophy is similar to that used in III-V semiconductor molecular-beam epitaxy systems: the chamber is an all-metal ultrahigh vacuum system with liquid-nitrogen-cooled shrouds, Knudsen-cell evaporation sources, a sample insertion load-lock, and a 30-kV reflection high-energy electron diffraction system. III-V semiconductor film growth is achieved using evaporated group-V fluxes and group-III elemental fluxes sputtered from high-purity targets using ions extracted from a triode glow discharge. Using an In target and an As effusion cell, InAs deposition rates R of 2 microns/h have been obtained. Epitaxial growth of InAs was observed on both GaSb(100) and Si(100) substrates.

  4. The George V Land Continental Margin (East Antarctica): new Insights Into Bottom Water Production and Quaternary Glacial Processes from the WEGA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caburlotto, A.; de Santis, L.; Lucchi, R. G.; Giorgetti, G.; Damiani, D.; Macri', P.; Tolotti, R.; Presti, M.; Armand, L.; Harris, P.

    2004-12-01

    The George Vth Land represents the ending of one of the largest subglacial basin (Wilkes Basin) of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Furthermore, its coastal areas are zone of significant production of High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW). Piston and gravity cores and high resolution echo-sounding (3.5 kHz) and Chirp profiles collected in the frame of the joint Australian and Italian WEGA (WilkEs Basin GlAcial History) project provide new insights into the Quaternary history of the EAIS and the HSSW across this margin: from the sediment record filling and draping valleys and banks along the continental shelf, to the continuous sedimentary section of the mound-channel system on the continental rise. The discovery of a current-lain sediment drift (Mertz Drift, MD) provides clues to understanding the age of the last glacial erosive events, as well as to infer flow-pathways of bottom-water masses changes. The MD shows disrupted, fluted reflectors due to glacial advance during the LGM (Last Glacial Maximum) in shallow water, while undisturbed sediment drift deposited at greater water depth, indicates that during the LGM the ice shelf was floating over the deep sector of the basin. The main sedimentary environment characterising the modern conditions of the continental rise is dominated by the turbiditic processes with a minor contribution of contour currents action. Nevertheless, some areas (WEGA Channel) are currently characterised by transport and settling of sediment through HSSW, originating in the shelf area. This particular environment likely persisted since pre-LGM times. It could indicate a continuous supply of sedimentary material from HSSW during the most recent both glacial and interglacial cycles. This would be consistent with the results obtained in the continental shelf suggesting that the Ice Sheet was not grounding over some parts of the continental shelf. Furthermore, the comparison of the studied area with other Antarctic margins indicate that, contrary

  5. Printing and Curing of Conductive Ink Track on Fabric using Syringe Deposition System with DLP Projector and Hot Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khirotdin Rd. Khairilhijra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Printing is a technique to transfer ink onto substrates to create pattern and syringe deposition system has shown some great potential in printing due to its ability to produce filamentary bead tracks which is important concerning conductivity and easily adopted on conformal surfaces which could not be realized by conventional technique. Fabrics with integrated electrical features able to create intelligent articles and may potentially open up new perspective areas of application in textile printing. However, the applicability of this technique on fabrics remains unknown which the ink used has to meet certain requirements including high electrical conductivity, resistance to oxidation, dry out without clogging, good adhesion with suitable viscosity and surface tension. Thus, there is a need to do this study which is to determine the feasibility of syringe deposition system to print a conductive ink tracks using silver epoxy-based conductive ink on fabric substrate via lycra material. This study is also aim to investigate the feasibility of using DLP projector with hot plate as another source of heat to be used in curing the ink tracks on fabric. The effect of printing and curing parameters to the characteristics and conductivity of the ink track is investigated. Several mechanical and electrical tests were also administered to determine the cure, hardness, adhesion and resistance level of the ink tracks. The results obtained were as expected which higher printing speed and lower deposition height used, a narrower and thinner ink tracks were produced. Sample with 4 mm/s of printing speed and deposition height of 1 mm resulted in dimension closer to the targeted dimension. The longer curing time and higher temperature used, a lower resistance is produced. The lowest resistance achieved is 0.9 Ω cured at 150°C for 60 minutes. The conductivity of the ink track was affected by curing process and cross-sectional area of the ink track. It is proven

  6. Contribution to the tritium continental effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.R.; Froehlich, K.; Hebert, D.

    1987-01-01

    The results of tritium measurements of atmospheric water vapour and precipitation samples for 1982 and 1983 are presented. The data were used to establish a simple model describing the tritium continental effect taking into account re-evaporation of tritium from the continental land surfaces and man-made tritium. (author)

  7. Contribution to the tritium continental effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.R.; Froehlich, K.; Hebert, D.

    1987-01-01

    The results of tritium measurements of atmospheric water vapour and precipitation samples for 1982 and 1983 are presented. The data were used to establish a simple model describing the tritium continental effect taking into account re-evaporation of tritium from the continental land surfaces. Some comments on man made tritium are given. (author)

  8. NURE uranium deposit model studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crew, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    The National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program has sponsored uranium deposit model studies by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (Bendix), the US Geological Survey (USGS), and numerous subcontractors. This paper deals only with models from the following six reports prepared by Samuel S. Adams and Associates: GJBX-1(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Roll-Type Uranium Deposits in Continental Sandstones; GJBX-2(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Uraniferous Humate Deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico; GJBX-3(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Uranium Deposits of the Quartz-Pebble Conglomerate Type; GJBX-4(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Sandstone Uranium Deposits in Mixed Fluvial-Shallow Marine Sedimentary Sequences, South Texas; GJBX-5(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Veinlike Uranium Deposits of the Lower to Middle Proterozoic Unconformity and Strata-Related Types; GJBX-6(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Sandstone Uranium Deposits of the Salt Wash Type, Colorado Plateau Province. A unique feature of these models is the development of recognition criteria in a systematic fashion, with a method for quantifying the various items. The recognition-criteria networks are used in this paper to illustrate the various types of deposits

  9. Low-fluorine Stockwork Molybdenite Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane; Piatak, Nadine M.

    2009-01-01

    Low-fluorine stockwork molybdenite deposits are closely related to porphyry copper deposits, being similar in their tectonic setting (continental volcanic arc) and the petrology (calc-alkaline) of associated igneous rock types. They are mainly restricted to the Cordillera of western Canada and the northwest United States, and their distribution elsewhere in the world may be limited. The deposits consist of stockwork bodies of molybdenite-bearing quartz veinlets that are present in and around the upper parts of intermediate to felsic intrusions. The deposits are relatively low grade (0.05 to 0.2 percent Mo), but relatively large, commonly >50 million tons. The source plutons for these deposits range from granodiorite to granite in composition; the deposits primarily form in continental margin subduction-related magmatic arcs, often concurrent with formation of nearby porphyry copper deposits. Oxidation of pyrite in unmined deposits or in tailings and waste rock during weathering can lead to development of acid-rock drainage and limonite-rich gossans. Waters associated with low-fluorine stockwork molybdenite deposits tend to be nearly neutral in pH; variable in concentrations of molybdenum (10,000 ug/L); below regulatory guidelines for copper, iron, lead, zinc, and mercury; and locally may exceed guidelines for arsenic, cadmium, and selenium.

  10. A mechanism for corrosion product deposition on the carbon steel piping in the residual heat removal system of BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Motohiro; Chiba, Yoshinori; Hosokawa, Hideyuki; Ohsumi, Katsumi; Uchida, Shunsuke; Ishizawa, Noboru

    2002-01-01

    The dose rate of the residual heat removal (RHR) piping has been considered to be caused by accumulation of insoluble (crud) radioactive corrosion products on carbon steel surfaces. Soft shutdown procedures (i.e., plant shutdown with moderate coolant temperature reduction rate) used to be applied to reduce crud radioactivity release from the fuel surface, but these are no longer used because of the need for shorter plant shutdown times. In order to apply other suitable countermeasures to reduce RHR dose rate, assessment of plant data, experiments on deposition of crud and ion species on carbon steel, and mass balance evaluation of radioactive corrosion products based on plant and laboratory data were carried out and the following findings were made. (1) Deposits of ion species on carbon steel surfaces of the RHR piping was much more numerous than for crud. (2) Ion species accumulation behavior on RHR piping, which is temperature dependent, can be evaluated with the calculation model used for the dehydration reaction of corrosion products generated during the wet lay-up period. (3) Deposition amounts could be reduced to 1/2.5 when the starting RHR system operation temperature was lowered from 155degC to 120degC. (author)

  11. Methods of three-dimensional electrophoretic deposition for ceramic and cermet applications and systems thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Klint Aaron; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Worsley, Marcus

    2016-09-27

    A ceramic, metal, or cermet according to one embodiment includes a first layer having a gradient in composition, microstructure and/or density in an x-y plane oriented parallel to a plane of deposition of the first layer. A ceramic according to another embodiment includes a plurality of layers comprising particles of a non-cubic material, wherein each layer is characterized by the particles of the non-cubic material being aligned in a common direction. Additional products and methods are also disclosed.

  12. Carbon nanosheets by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition in CH4-Ar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhipeng; Shoji, Mao; Ogata, Hironori

    2011-01-01

    We employ a new gas mixture of CH 4 -Ar to fabricate carbon nanosheets by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at the growth temperature of less than 500 deg. C. The catalyst-free nanosheets possess flower-like structures with a large amount of sharp edges, which consist of a few layers of graphene sheets according to the observation by transmission electron microscopy. These high-quality carbon nanosheets demonstrated a faster electron transfer between the electrolyte and the nanosheet surface, due to their edge defects and graphene structures.

  13. Analysis of Cigarette Smoke Deposition Within an In Vitro Exposure System for Simulating Exposure in the Human Respiratory Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa Shinkichi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the risk assessment of airborne chemicals, a variety of in vitro direct exposure systems have been developed to replicate airborne chemical exposure in vivo. Since cells at the air-liquid interface are exposed to cigarette smoke as an aerosol in direct exposure systems, it is possible to reproduce the situation of cigarette smoke exposure in the human respiratory system using this device. However it is difficult to know whether the exposed cigarette smoke in this system is consistent with the smoke retained in the human respiratory tract. The purpose of this study is to clarify this point using the CULTEX® RFS module which is a recently developed direct exposure system. For this purpose, solanesol and acetaldehyde were respectively chosen as the particulate and gas/vapor phase representatives of smoke constituents, and their deposition and balance per unit area of cell culture surface of the RFS module were measured (dosimetry. We also conducted human retention studies to compare with the dosimetry data. By comparing inhaled smoke and exhaled smoke under three inhalation conditions, we estimated the regional retention and balance of each representative per unit surface area of the respiratory tract (mouth, bronchi, and alveoli separately. The deposition of solanesol and acetaldehyde per unit area of cell culture surface in the RFS module decreased dependent on the dilution flow rate and ranged from 0.26-0.0076%/cm2 in our experimental conditions. The ratio of deposited acetaldehyde to deposited solanesol ranged from 0.96-1.96 in the RFS module. The retention of solanesol and acetaldehyde per unit surface area in the mouth and the bronchi ranged from 0.095-0.0083%/cm2 in this study. The retention per unit surface area of alveoli was far lower than in the other two regions (0.0000063%/cm2. The ratio of retained acetaldehyde to retained solanesol ranged from 0.54-1.97. From these results, we concluded that the CULTEX® RFS module can simulate

  14. The Colorado River and its deposits downstream from Grand Canyon in Arizona, California, and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Ryan S.; Block, Debra L.; Felger, Tracey J.; House, P. Kyle; Pearthree, Philip A.; Gootee, Brian F.; Youberg, Ann M.; Howard, Keith A.; Beard, L. Sue

    2018-02-05

    Understanding the evolution of the Colorado River system has direct implications for (1) the processes and timing of continental-scale river system integration, (2) the formation of iconic landscapes like those in and around Grand Canyon, and (3) the availability of groundwater resources. Spatial patterns in the position and type of Colorado River deposits, only discernible through geologic mapping, can be used to test models related to Colorado River evolution. This is particularly true downstream from Grand Canyon where ancestral Colorado River deposits are well-exposed. We are principally interested in (1) regional patterns in the minimum and maximum elevation of each depositional unit, which are affected by depositional mechanism and postdepositional deformation; and (2) the volume of each unit, which reflects regional changes in erosion, transport efficiency, and accommodation space. The volume of Colorado River deposits below Grand Canyon has implications for groundwater resources, as the primary regional aquifer there is composed of those deposits. To this end, we are presently mapping Colorado River deposits and compiling and updating older mapping. This preliminary data release shows the current status of our mapping and compilation efforts. We plan to update it at regular intervals in conjunction with ongoing mapping.

  15. Diminished ability of erythrocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus to limit opsonized immune complex deposition on leukocytes and activation of granulocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C H; Rasmussen, J M; Voss, A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the ability of normal erythrocytes and erythrocytes from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients to bind immune complexes (IC), thereby inhibiting IC deposition on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and the consequent induction of a PMN respiratory burst (RB). METHODS...

  16. Pyrosequencing Reveals Bacterial Communities in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System: An Integral Study of Bulk Water, Suspended Solids, Loose Deposits, and Pipe Wall Biofilm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, G.; Bakker, G. L.; Li, S.; Vreeburg, J. H G; Verberk, J. Q J C; Medema, G. J.; Liu, W. T.; Van Dijk, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected

  17. A review of silver-rich mineral deposits and their metallogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybeal, Frederick T.; Vikre, Peter

    2010-01-01

    . Gold is absent at economic levels. The magmatic-hydrothermal silver-rich deposits are epigenetic and related to cordilleran igneous and volcanic suites. Six magmatic-hydrothermal districts each contain more than 31,000 t Ag (1,000 Moz) with grades of veins >600 g/t Ag. Mineralization occurs as veins, massive sulfides in carbonate rocks, and disseminated deposits including porphyry silver deposits, a proposed exploration model. Most deposits are epithermal with low-sulfidation alteration assemblages. Deposits are often telescoped and well-zoned. All large and high-grade magmatic-hydrothermal deposits appear confined to regions of relatively thick continental crust above Cenozoic consuming plate margins on the eastern side of the Pacific Rim. Silver in these deposits may be partly derived by hydrothermal leaching of rocks under or adjacent to the deposits.Specific metal associations in SEDEX and lithogene deposits may reflect confinement of fluid flow to and derivation of metals from specific source rock types. Variable metal associations in VMS and magmatichydrothermal deposits may reflect derivation of metals from a more diverse suite of rocks by convecting hydrothermal systems and processes related to the generation of magma. The discovery rate for silver-rich deposits has accelerated during the past decade, with new deposit types, metal associations, and exploration models being identified that provide numerous exploration and research opportunities.

  18. How are macroinvertebrates of slow flowing lotic systems directly affected by suspended and deposited sediments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J., E-mail: ben.kefford@rmit.edu.a [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Zalizniak, Liliana [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Dunlop, Jason E. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Smart Water Research Facility, Griffith University, Queensland (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Choy, Satish C. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The effects of suspended and deposited sediments on the macroinvertebrates are well documented in upland streams but not in slower flowing lowland rivers. Using species found in lowland lotic environments, we experimentally evaluate mechanisms for sediments to affect macroinvertebrates, and in one experiment whether salinity alters the effect of suspended sediments. Suspended kaolin clay reduced feeding of Ischnura heterosticta (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) at high turbidity (1000-1500 NTU) but had no effects on feeding of Hemianax papuensis (Odonata: Aeshnidae) and Micronecta australiensis (Hemiptera: Corixidae). In freshwater (0.1 mS/cm), survival of Ischnura aurora was poor in clear water, but improved with suspended kaolin. Growth and feeding of I. aurora were unaffected by suspended sediments and salinity. Burial (1-5 mm) of eggs with kaolin or sand reduced hatching in Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Physidae), Gyraulus tasmanica (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) and Chironomus cloacalis (Diptera: Chironomidae). Settling sediments may pose greater risk to lowland lotic invertebrates than suspended sediments. - Sediment deposition may be more directly detrimental to macroinvertebrates of lowland rivers than suspended sediments.

  19. Sputter deposition of wear-resistant coatings within the system Zr-B-N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitterer, C; Uebleis, A; Ebner, R [Inst. fuer Metallkunde und Werkstoffpruefung, Montanuniv., Leoben (Austria)

    1991-07-07

    Wear-resistant coatings of zirconium boride and zirconium boron nitride were deposited on steel and molybdenum substrates employing non-reactive as well as reactive d.c. magnetron sputtering using zirconium diboride targets. The characterization of the coatings was done by means of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results are discussed in connection with measured mechanical coating properties such as microhardness and adhesion. The optical properties of the coatings were determined using a CIE-L{sup *}a{sup *}b{sup *} colorimeter and specialized corrosion and abrasion tests. Non-reactive sputtering using ZrB{sub 2} targets results in the formation of coatings with a columnar structure and predominantly (001)-orientated ZrB{sub 2} crystals. Coatings deposited at low nitrogen flow rates exhibit very fine-grained or even fracture amorphous structures with a hexagonal Zr-B-N phase derived from the ZrB{sub 2} lattice. A further increase of the nitrogen flow leads to an amorphous film growth. The maximum Vickers microhardness of the coatings was found to be approximately 2300 HV 0.02. Zr-B and Zr-B-N coatings offer a wide range of interesting colours as well as good corrosion and wear resistance. (orig.).

  20. Silver deposition in the central nervous system and the hematoencephalic barrier studied with the electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN BREEMEN, V L; CLEMENTE, C D

    1955-03-01

    For the purpose of studying the hematoencephalic barrier as it is concerned with silver circulating in the blood stream, silver nitrate was vitally administered to rats in their drinking water over periods of 6 to 8 months. The cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla, area postrema, and choroid plexus were prepared for light and electron microscopy. Silver deposition was found in the perivascular spaces in the choroid plexus, area postrema, in the medulla surrounding the area postrema, and in minute quantities in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and most of the medulla. Two levels of the hematoencephalic barrier were apparently demonstrated in our investigations. The endothelial linings of the vessels in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and medulla constitute the first threshold of the hematoencephalic barrier (specifically here, blood-brain barrier). The cell membranes adjacent to the perivascular spaces form the second threshold, as follows:-the neuroglial cell membranes in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and medulla (blood-brain barrier); the membranes of the neuroglial cells in the area postrema (blood-brain barrier); and the membranes of the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus (blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier). This study deals with silver deposition and does not infer that the penetration of ionic silver, if present in the blood stream, would necessarily be limited to the regions described. Bleb-like structures were observed to cover the epithelial cell surfaces in the choroid plexus. They may be cellular projections increasing the cell surface area or they may be secretory droplets.

  1. Mapping Soil Age at Continental Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slessarev, E.; Feng, X.

    2017-12-01

    Soil age controls the balance between weathered and unweathered minerals in soil, and thus strongly influences many of the biological, geochemical, and hydrological functions of the critical zone. However, most quantitative models of soil development do not represent soil age. Instead, they rely on a steady-state assumption: physical erosion controls the residence time of unweathered minerals in soil, and thus fixes the chemical weathering rate. This assumption may hold true in mountainous landscapes, where physical erosion rates are high. However, the steady-state assumption may fail in low-relief landscapes, where physical erosion rates have been insufficient to remove unweathered minerals left by glaciation and dust deposition since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). To test the applicability of the steady-state assumption at continental scales, we developed an empirical predictor for physical erosion, and then simulated soil development since LGM with a numerical model. We calibrated the physical erosion predictor using a compilation of watershed-scale sediment yield data, and in-situ 10Be denudation measurements corrected for weathering by Zr/Ti mass-balance. Physical erosion rates can be predicted using a power-law function of local relief and peak ground acceleration, a proxy for tectonic activity. Coupling physical erosion rates with the numerical model reveals that extensive low-relief areas of North America may depart from steady-state because they were glaciated, or received high dust fluxes during LGM. These LGM legacy effects are reflected in topsoil Ca:Al and Quartz:Feldspar ratios derived from United States Geological Survey data, and in a global compilation of soil pH measurements. Our results quantitatively support the classic idea that soils in the mid-high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere are "young", in the sense that they are undergoing transient response to LGM conditions. Where they occur, such departures from steady-state likely increase

  2. Gravity flow deposits of the Maceio Formation - Alagoas Basin, NE of Brazil; Depositos de fluxos gravitacionais da Formacao Maceio - Bacia de Alagoas, NE do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arienti, Luci Maria [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Sedimentologia e Petrologia]. E-mail: arienti@petrobras.com.br

    2006-05-15

    This work deals with the Aptian rift section of Maceio Formation (Albian), Alagoas Basin, Northeast of Brazil, using data from outcrops and wells (Tabuleiro dos Martins Field). Studies of facies, process, depositional systems, facies tract and sequences were performed to characterize hyperpicnal turbidities; of which sediments were directly input by catastrophic river floods. Sequence stratigraphy concepts can be used for rift-section analysis, considering the concept of - climate systems tracts - and the result is an excellent correlation between deposit types and climate conditions. Transgressive system tracts (TTS) related to humid periods represent phases of high siliciclastic input into the basin, resulting on sandstone turbidity sequences, typically enriched by continental organic matter. In contrast, later high stand system tracts (LHST), corresponding to arid conditions, are dominated by muddy lacustrine deposits, enriched by algalic organic matter and showing mud cracks. Locally, low stand system tracts (LST) dominated by evaporites are found in restricted areas. Climate and tectonics were the main controlling factors of the architecture and frequency of the sequences. This study showed that an integrated approach, using outcrops and subsurface data, is a powerful tool to understand facies and depositional process, sequences and their stacking pattern on continental- rift deposits. (author)

  3. Effects of cold-water corals on fish diversity and density (European continental margin: Arctic, NE Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea): Data from three baited lander systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, T. D.; Lavaleye, M.; Maiorano, P.; Bergman, M.; Capezzuto, F.; Cousins, N. J.; D'Onghia, G.; Duineveld, G.; Shields, M. A.; Sion, L.; Tursi, A.; Priede, I. G.

    2017-11-01

    Autonomous photographic landers are a low-impact survey method for the assessment of mobile fauna in situations where methods such as trawling are not feasible or ethical. Three institutions collaborated through the CoralFISH project, each using differing lander systems, to assess the effects of cold-water corals on fish diversity and density. The Biogenic Reef Ichthyofauna Lander (BRIL, Oceanlab), Autonomous Lander for Biological Experiments (ALBEX, NIOZ) and the Marine Environment MOnitoring system (MEMO, CoNISMa) were deployed in four CoralFISH European study regions covering the Arctic, NE Atlantic and Mediterranean, namely Northern Norway (275-310 m depth), Belgica Mound Province (686-1025 m depth), the Bay of Biscay (623-936 m depth), and Santa Maria di Leuca (547-670 m depth). A total of 33 deployments were carried out in the different regions. Both the time of first arrival (Tarr) and the maximum observed number of fish (MaxN) were standardised between the different lander systems and compared between coral and reference stations as indicators of local fish density. Fish reached significantly higher MaxN at the coral stations than at the reference stations. Fish were also found to have significantly lower Tarr in the coral areas in data obtained from the BRIL and MEMO landers. All data indicated that fish abundance is higher within the coral areas. Fish species diversity was higher within the coral areas of Atlantic Ocean while in Northern Norway and Santa Maria di Leuca coral areas, diversity was similar at coral and reference stations but a single dominant species (Brosme brosme and Conger conger respectively) showed much higher density within the coral areas. Indicating that, while cold-water coral reefs have a positive effect on fish diversity and/or abundance, this effect varies across Europe's reefs.

  4. A geochemical view into continental palaeotemperatures of the end-Permian using oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of secondary silica in chert rubble breccia: Kaibab Formation, Grand Canyon (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Ray

    2018-01-16

    The upper carbonate member of the Kaibab Formation in northern Arizona (USA) was subaerially exposed during the end Permian and contains fractured and zoned chert rubble lag deposits typical of karst topography. The karst chert rubble has secondary (authigenic) silica precipitates suitable for estimating continental weathering temperatures during the end Permian karst event. New oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios of secondary silica precipitates in the residual rubble breccia: (1) yield continental palaeotemperature estimates between 17 and 22 °C; and, (2) indicate that meteoric water played a role in the crystallization history of the secondary silica. The continental palaeotemperatures presented herein are broadly consistent with a global mean temperature estimate of 18.2 °C for the latest Permian derived from published climate system models. Few data sets are presently available that allow even approximate quantitative estimates of regional continental palaeotemperatures. These data provide a basis for better understanding the end Permian palaeoclimate at a seasonally-tropical latitude along the western shoreline of Pangaea.

  5. The distribution of heavy metals content in the bottom deposits of the trans-border Uzh river system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Bilkey

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics and peculiarities of the heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, As, V, Cr, Ni migration were established in the system of the river Uzh bottom deposits. An excess in maximum permissible concentration among such elements as Zn, V, As, and Cu was detected in surface waters. We may connect the elevated level of Cu and Zn with natural (metals appearing in ground water run-off, ablation from iron ore, the reaction of interstitial water, anthropogenic (sewage disposals from communal households and manufacturing plants, agricultural run-offs, and hydrochemical (pH of water medium, methylation of non-organic metal compounds, metals release from the organic compounds composition, ingress from bottom deposits factors. The high concentrations of vanadium in water as well as in bottom deposits are most probably induced by the leaching of elements from the regional volcanic rocks. The plumbum content did not exceed the higher-than-normal rates; however, significant element accumulation was detected in bottom deposits outside the city of Uzhgorod which may be the result of ecotoxicant ingress along with land runoff from the riverside highways laid parallel to the water course. In comparison with background measures, the highest chromium and nickel concentrations were detected near the streamlet Domoradzh and, therefore, it is assumed that the industrial wastewaters serve here as a source of heavy metals. The reservoir in the lowland is above all enriched by arsenic. Areas under agricultural use are significantly concentrated in lowlands. Runoffs from these areas are the main source of the ore supply. However, the impact of municipal domestic waste water which contains arsenic-containing detergents should not be excluded. Moreover, we found a relationship between the relief heterogeneity of the study area and distribution of heavy metals in the hydro-ecosystem. The accomplished comparative analysis of the territories under study indicates the significant

  6. Disrupting the balance of natural fluid systems during the working of gas condensate deposits. Narushenie ravnovesiya prirodnykh flyuidal'nykh sistem pri razrabotke gazovykh i gazokondensatnykh mestorozhdenii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortsenshtein, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    Natural processes that occur in the ground as a result of almost complete or partial depletion of large gas and gas-condensate deposits are analyzed. Problems concerned with the disruption of the fluid systems equilibrium are examined as represented by interstitial water and industrial gaseous and gas-condensate accumulations. Observations over a period of 20-25 years were made of the depleted deposits of North-Stavropol', Gazlin, and Shebel, whose initial hydrogeological background that serves as the basis of the reference system, has been studied in detail. Information is also presented on recently exploited water-vapor systems, such as the large Vuktyl', Orenburg, Medvezh', and Shatlyk deposits. The book is intended for a broad spectrum of geologists, hydrogeologists, and engineers interested in geology and the working of gas and gas condensate deposits. 36 references, 27 figures, 35 tables.

  7. Erosion, Transportation, and Deposition on Outer Solar System Satellites: Landform Evolution Modeling Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey Morgan; Howard, Alan D.; Schenk, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Mass movement and landform degradation reduces topographic relief by moving surface materials to a lower gravitational potential. In addition to the obvious role of gravity, abrasive mechanical erosion plays a role, often in combination with the lowering of cohesion, which allows disaggregation of the relief-forming material. The identification of specific landform types associated with mass movement and landform degradation provides information about local sediment particle size and abundance and transportation processes. Generally, mass movements can be classified in terms of the particle sizes of the transported material and the speed the material moved during transport. Most degradation on outer planet satellites appears consistent with sliding or slumping, impact erosion, and regolith evolution. Some satellites, such as Callisto and perhaps Hyperion and Iapetus, have an appearance that implies that some additional process is at work, most likely sublimation-driven landform modification and mass wasting. A variant on this process is thermally driven frost segregation as seen on all three icy Galilean satellites and perhaps elsewhere. Titan is unique among outer planet satellites in that Aeolian and fluvial processes also operate to erode, transport, and deposit material. We will evaluate the sequence and extent of various landform-modifying erosional and volatile redistribution processes that have shaped these icy satellites using a 3-D model that simulates the following surface and subsurface processes: 1) sublimation and re-condensation of volatiles; 2) development of refractory lag deposits; 3) disaggregation and downward sloughing of surficial material; 4) radiative heating/cooling of the surface (including reflection, emission, and shadowing by other surface elements); 5) thermal diffusion; and 6) vapor diffusion. The model will provide explicit simulations of landform development and thusly predicts the topographic and volatile evolution of the surface

  8. Benthic oxygen consumption on continental shelves off eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jonathan; Emerson, Craig W.; Hargrave, Barry T.; Shortle, Jeannette L.

    1991-08-01

    The consumption of phytoplankton production by the benthos is an important component of organic carbon budgets for continental shelves. Sediment texture is a major factor regulating benthic processes because fine sediment areas are sites of enhanced deposition from the water column, resulting in increased organic content, bacterial biomass and community metabolism. Although continental shelves at mid- to high latitudes consist primarily of coarse relict sediments ( PIPER, Continental Shelf Research, 11, 1013-1035), shelf regions of boreal and subarctic eastern Canada contain large areas of silt and clay sediments ( FADER, Continental Shelf Research, 11, 1123-1153). We collated estimates of benthic oxygen consumption in coarse (<20% silt-clay, <0.5% organic matter) and fine sediments (20% silt-clay, 0.5% organic matter) for northwest Atlantic continental shelves including new data for Georges Bank, the Scotian Shelf, the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and Labrador Shelf. Estimates were applied to the areal distribution of sediment type on these shelves to obtain a general relationship between sediment texture and benthic carbon consumption. Mean benthic oxygen demand was 2.7 times greater in fine sediment than in coarse sediment, when normalized to mean annual temperature. In terms of carbon equivalents, shelf regions with minimal fine sediment (Georges Bank, the Grand Banks of Newfoundland-northeast Newfoundland) consumed only 5-8% of annual primary production. Benthos of the Gulf of Maine (100% fine sediment) and the Scotian Shelf (35% fine sediment) utilized 16-19% of primary production. Although 32% of the Labrador Shelf area contained fine sediments, benthic consumption of pelagic production (8%) was apparently limited by low mean annual temperature (2°C). These results indicate that incorporation of sediment-specific oxygen uptake into shelf carbon budgets may increase estimates of benthic consumption by 50%. Furthermore, respiration and production by large

  9. Sulphur and lead isotopes in strata-bound deposits, ch. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangster, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    The use of sulphur and lead isotopes as isotopic tracers in the study of ore deposits containing these elements is reviewed. A discussion of the general theory, including abundance and fractionation of sulphur isotopes, single-stage leads, and anomalous leads (two-stage) is given. Attention is paid to sulphur isotopes enclosed in deposits which are located in marine host rocks and in rocks of continental or near-continental origin, as well as in deposits of the conglomerate-U(-Au) type. The lead isotope content of volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits and carbonate-hosted lead-zinc deposits is discussed

  10. Video Tutorial of Continental Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurani, A. S.; Juwaedah, A.; Mahmudatussa'adah, A.

    2018-02-01

    This research is motivated by the belief in the importance of media in a learning process. Media as an intermediary serves to focus on the attention of learners. Selection of appropriate learning media is very influential on the success of the delivery of information itself both in terms of cognitive, affective and skills. Continental food is a course that studies food that comes from Europe and is very complex. To reduce verbalism and provide more real learning, then the tutorial media is needed. Media tutorials that are audio visual can provide a more concrete learning experience. The purpose of this research is to develop tutorial media in the form of video. The method used is the development method with the stages of analyzing the learning objectives, creating a story board, validating the story board, revising the story board and making video tutorial media. The results show that the making of storyboards should be very thorough, and detailed in accordance with the learning objectives to reduce errors in video capture so as to save time, cost and effort. In video capturing, lighting, shooting angles, and soundproofing make an excellent contribution to the quality of tutorial video produced. In shooting should focus more on tools, materials, and processing. Video tutorials should be interactive and two-way.

  11. Continental energy plan. Canadian perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The 'continental energy plan' was first mentioned by US President George Bush during his election campaign, and relates to the adjustment of energy resources development in Canada and Mexico. The US energy policy aims to reduce US dependence on middle east oil supplies, increase US energy production, increase regional integration of energy supplies throughout North America, increase US refining capacity, reduce regulatory barriers, increase use of alternative energies, and to increase support for research and development. Under the Canada/US FTA (Free Trade Agreement) and NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), not less than 50% of Canadian crude oil and natural gas are imported to the US market. As for Mexico, it exempted most portions of its energy sector from the agreement during the NAFTA negotiations. Now that Mexico itself is facing energy shortage, however, it is anticipated that under President Vincente Fox it will adopt a policy like that of Canada and start development by introducing foreign money into the fields of oil, gas, and electricity. (NEDO)

  12. Annual methane budgets of sheep grazing systems were regulated by grazing intensities in the temperate continental steppe: A two-year case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Zhong, Mengying; Zhu, Yuhao; Yang, Helong; Johnson, Douglas A.; Rong, Yuping

    2018-02-01

    Methane (CH4) emission from animal husbandry accounts for a large percentage of anthropogenic contributions to CH4 emissions. Fully understanding of grazing management effects on the CH4 budget is essential for mitigating CH4 emissions in the temperate grazing steppe systems. Annual CH4 budgets for the sheep grazed steppes at various grazing intensities, un-grazing (UG, 0 sheep ha-1year-1), defer grazing (DG, 1.0 sheep ha-1 year-1), moderate grazing (MG, 1.43 sheep ha-1year-1), and heavy grazing (HG, 2.43 sheep ha-1year-1) were assessed across 2012-2014 in the agro-pastoral region of northern China. Annual soil CH4 uptake averaged across 2012-2014 were 1.1 ± 0.1, 2.4 ± 0.2, 2.2 ± 0.2, and 1.3 ± 0.1 kg CH4-C ha-1 for UG, DG (only 2013-2014), MG and HG sites. Non-growing season CH4 uptake comprised 50.0 ± 4.3% of annual CH4 uptake in 2012-2013 and 37.7 ± 2.0% in 2013-2014. DG and MG significantly promoted annual soil CH4 uptake (P 0.05). Bell-shaped relationship was presented between stocking rates and soil CH4 uptake (r2 = 0.59, P budgets for the grazed grasslands were -1.1 ± 0.1, 5.7 ± 0.6, 11.5 ± 1.5 and 15.5 ± 1.3 kg CH4-C ha-1 year-1 in UG, DG (only 2013-2014), MG and HG across 2012-2014. Soil CH4 uptake could offset 29.7 ± 5.6, 15.9 ± 4.3 and 6.8 ± 1.0% of total annual CH4 emissions from sheep, sheepfold and faeces in DG, MG, and HG. All grazed steppes are sources for atmospheric CH4 and the magnitude is regulated by grazing intensities. Sheep CH4 emissions for 1-g liveweight gain were 0.21, 0.32 and 0.37 g CH4-C in DG, MG and HG, respectively. DG is the recommended grazing management in this region to achieve greater herbage mass, higher sheep performance and lower CH4 emissions simultaneously.

  13. Corrosion and deposition behaviour of 60Co and 54Mn in the SNR mockup loop for the primary sodium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menken, G.; Reichel, H.

    1976-01-01

    The SNR corrosion mockup loop, simulating the SNR primary system is described. The influence of hydraulic conditions and temperature on the deposition behaviour is studied. γ-spectroscopy measurements at the pipe-work and removable samples allowed to determine the distribution of radioactive corrosion products in the loop and by-pass system. The release rate of Mn 54 could be reduced by a factor of 3 by decreasing the cold trap temperature from 165 0 C to 105 0 C while the Co 60 release rate could be reduced by a factor of 14, respectively. High temperature loop sections (873K) representing 13% of the loop surface absorbed 50-60% of the released Co 60 and only 8 - 18% of the Mn 54. The cold trap absorbed not more than 1% of the Co 60 and 10% of the Mn 54 inventory. (author)

  14. Improvement of the inlet system for the spray-jet technique for use in spectroscopic studies and molecular deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Toshiki; Shinohara, Hidenori; Mashiko, Shinro

    2006-01-01

    We previously developed a molecular beam apparatus with a spray-jet technique in order to produce a molecular beam of non-volatile molecules in vacuum from the sprayed mist of a sample solution. The apparatus is for use in spectroscopic studies or a means of molecular deposition. The spray-jet inlet system consisted of an ultrasonic nebulizer, an inlet chamber and a pulsed nozzle. In the present paper, further improvements to the spray-jet inlet system are reported. The main improvement is the introduction of a pneumatic nebulizer to replace the previous ultrasonic nebulizer. The efficiency of molecular beam generation was evaluated on the basis of the signal intensity of the resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass (REMPI-TOFMS) spectra for a Rhodamine B/methanol solution and the amount of sample consumed. The introduction of the pneumatic nebulizer increased the efficiency by a factor of 20

  15. Characterization of DNA antigens from immune complexes deposited in the skin of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾凡钦; 尹若菲; 谭国珍; 郭庆; 许德清

    2004-01-01

    Background Skin lesions are common manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is still unknown what the definite pathogenesis of skin involvement was and whether DNA participated in it. Our study was designed to explore the pathogenetic role and nature of nuclear antigen (DNA) deposited in the skin lesions of patients with SLE.Methods Thirty skin samples from patients with SLE and 2 normal skin samples were studied. Extracellular DNA was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence methods. The deposited immune complexes were extracted by cryoprecipitation, and DNA was then isolated with phenol and chloroform. DNA fragment sizes were detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Finally, 8 different probes were used to analyze the origin of these DNA molecules using Dot hybridization.Results Extracellular DNA staining was found only in skin lesions, mainly those located in the basement membrane zone, vascular wall, and hair follicle wall. Normal skin and non-lesion SLE skin showed no fluorescence at locations outside the nuclei. There were no differences in the rate and intensity of extracellular DNA staining when comparing active phase to remission phase patients. No relationship was found between extracellular DNA and circulating anti-dsDNA antibodies. Deposited DNA fragments clustered into four bands of somewhat discrete sizes: 20 000 bp, 1300 bp, 800-900 bp, 100-200 bp. Small sized fragments (100-200 bp) were positively correlated with disease activity (P<0.05, r=0.407). Dot hybridization showed significant homology of the various extracellular DNA fragments examined with human genomic DNA, but not with DNA from the microorganisms and viruses we examined. There were also homologies between DNA samples from different individuals.Conclusions DNA and its immune complexes may contribute to the pathogenesis of skin lesions in SLE. These DNA molecules range in size from 100 bp to 20 kb and may be endogenous in origin.

  16. Deposits formed by ascending vein water (3 type)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarova, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    Deposits formed by ascending vein waters (3 type), are considered using uranium-bitumen deposit in red-coloured continental sediments of Permo-Triassic as an example. Geological-structural and hydrogeological conditions of mineralization localization and conditions of deposit formation are discussed. Mineralogic-geochemical features and morphology of ore bodies are characterized. Attention is paid to the problem of epigenetic zone in ore-containing rocks and stages of its formation [ru

  17. System principles and evaluation criteria of reliability for optimization of technological parameters of coal deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.О. Khorolskiy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with solving the scientific problem of select mining equipment for selection longwall faces of mining venture. The main goal of the paper is to study technology of coal extraction of mining venture. The paper proposes a new approach to solve a problem of mining equipment selection for longwall faces of mining venture. The article describes new method for selection of mining equipment based on theory graph. Special attention is given to technological aspects; they are lenght of longwall faces, depth of coal stratum. Predictions obtained for daily production of mining equipment are compared with design outputs. Conclusions regarding the main reason of instability of longwall faces workings are made. It is found that to be able to use standard algorithms find the shortest path between vertices, you must perform matrix description of the constructed graphs that illustrate the structure of the interaction of different types of control equipment. Using classical optimization of method of discrete mathematics and algorithms for finding the shortest path between two vertices of network models obtained from the formalization of graphs with maximum results of specific types of equipment production chains, solved the problem of rational choice cleaning equipment for the new site with the cost parameters of the mining equipment and cost of mining coal. The authors developed effective and appropriate variants for the mine development for different coal deposits of mining venture.

  18. Volatile components and continental material of planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florenskiy, K.P.; Nikolayeva, O.V.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the continental material of the terrestrial planets varies in composition from planet to planet according to the abundances and composition of true volatiles (H 2 0, CO 2 , etc.) in the outer shells of the planets. The formation of these shells occurs very early in a planet's evolution when the role of endogenous processes is indistinct and continental materials are subject to melting and vaporizing in the absence of an atmosphere. As a result, the chemical properties of continental materials are related not only to fractionation processes but also to meltability and volatility. For planets retaining a certain quantity of true volatile components, the chemical transformation of continental material is characterized by a close interaction between impact melting vaporization and endogeneous geological processes

  19. Exploration of the continental margins of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Hashimi, N.H.; Vora, K.H.; Pathak, M.C.

    impetus from sponsored surveys of other organizations, chiefly the oil industry, ports and harbours as well as industries disposing of their effluents in the marine environment. By now the entire western continental shelf and a large part...

  20. Tsunami deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  1. Tsunami deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  2. Indian continental margin gas hydrate prospects : results of the Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) expedition 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, T [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Riedel, M. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Cochran, J.R. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory; Boswell, R. [United States Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). National Energy Technology Lab; Kumar, P. [Pushpendra Kumar Oil and Natural Gas Corp. Ltd., Mumbai (India). Inst. of Engineering and Ocean Technology; Sathe, A.V. [Oil and Natural Gas Corp. Ltd., Uttaranchal (India). KDM Inst. of Petroleum Exploration

    2008-07-01

    The geologic occurrence of gas hydrate deposits along the continental margins of India were investigated in the first expedition of the Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP). The objective was to determine the regional context and characteristics of the gas hydrate deposits through scientific ocean drilling, logging, and analytical activities. A research drill ship was the platform for the drilling operation. The geological and geophysical studies revealed 2 geologically distinct areas with inferred gas hydrate occurrences, notably the passive continental margins of the Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin. The NGHP Expedition 01 focused on understanding the geologic and geochemical controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate in these 2 diverse settings. The study established the presence of gas hydrates in Krishna-Godavari, Mahanadi and Andaman basins. Site 10 in the Krishna-Godavari Basin was discovered to be the one of the richest gas hydrate accumulations yet documented, while site 17 in the Andaman Sea had the thickest and deepest gas hydrate stability zone yet known. The existence of a fully-developed gas hydrate system in the Mahanadi Basin was also discovered. Most of the gas hydrate occurrences discovered during this expedition appeared to contain mostly methane which was generated by microbial processes. However, there was also evidence of a thermal origin for a portion of the gas within the hydrates of the Mahanadi Basin and the Andaman offshore area. Gas hydrate in the Krishna-Godavari Basin appeared to be closely associated with large scale structural features, in which the flux of gas through local fracture systems, generated by the regional stress regime, controlled the occurrence of gas hydrate. 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  3. Continental Contributions to Philosophy of Science

    OpenAIRE

    REGINE KATHER

    2006-01-01

    The author reviews the book Continental Philosophy of Science, edited by Gary Gutting. Introductory remarks about the historical relationship between philosophy and science are followed by a presentation and discussion of different philosophies of science and commentaries on the eleven German and French authors whose texts are found in this volume. In addition to her assessment of Guttings’s collection, the author’s overall conclusion is that one characteristic trait of the Continental philos...

  4. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    The objectives are to identify important physical, chemical and biological processes which affect the transfer of materials on the southeast continental shelf, determine important parameters which govern observed temporal and spatial varibility on the continental shelf, determine the extent and modes of coupling between events at the shelf break and nearshore, and determine physical, chemical and biological exchange rates on the inner shelf. Progress in meeting these research objectives is presented. (ACR)

  5. Calcite veining and feeding conduits in a hydrothermal system: Insights from a natural section across the Pleistocene Gölemezli travertine depositional system (western Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capezzuoli, Enrico; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Rimondi, Valentina; Brogi, Andrea; Liotta, Domenico; Alçiçek, Mehmet Cihat; Alçiçek, Hülya; Bülbül, Ali; Gandin, Anna; Meccheri, Marco; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Baykara, Mehmet Oruç

    2018-02-01

    Linking the architecture of structural conduits with the hydrothermal fluids migrating from the reservoir up to the surface is a key-factor in geothermal research. A contribution to this achievement derives from the study of spring-related travertine deposits, but although travertine depositional systems occur widely, their feeding conduits are only rarely exposed. The integrated study carried out in the geothermal Gölemezli area, nearby the well-known Pamukkale area (Denizli Basin, western Anatolia, Turkey), focused on onyx-like calcite veins (banded travertine) and bedded travertine well exposed in a natural cross-section allowing the reconstruction of the shallower part of a geothermal system. The onyx-like veins represent the thickest vein network (> 150 m) so far known. New field mapping and structural/kinematic analyses allowed to document a partially dismantled travertine complex (bedded travertine) formed by proximal fissure ridges and distal terraced/pools depositional systems. The banded calcite veins, WNW-trending and up to 12 m thick, developed within a > 200 m thick damaged rock volume produced by parallel fault zones. Th/U dating indicates a long lasting (middle-late Pleistocene) fluids circulation in a palaeo-geothermal system that, due to its location and chemical characteristics, can be considered the analogue of the nearby, still active, Pamukkale system. The isotopic characteristics of the calcite veins together with data from fluid inclusions analyses, allow the reconstruction of some properties (i.e. temperature, salinity and isotopic composition) and processes (i.e. temperature variation and intensity of degassing) that characterized the parent fluids and the relation between degassing intensity and specific microfabric of calcite crystals (elongated/microsparite-micrite bands), controlled by changes/fluctuations of the physico-chemical fluid characteristics.

  6. Uranium deposits of the Asian sector of Pacific ocean ore belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanskij, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    Brief description of three basic types of uranium ore deposits in the Asian sector of the Pacific Ocean ore belt, namely uranium-molybdenum vein deposits in the continental volcanic depressions, proper uranium-molybdenum vein deposits in the mesozoic granites and gold-brannerite deposits of the rejuvenated early-proterosoic fractures is given. Schemes of various deposits are presented, petrological and isotope data (K-Ar method) are considered and petro- and oregenesis are analyzed. refs., 9 figs

  7. Great earthquakes along the Western United States continental margin: implications for hazards, stratigraphy and turbidite lithology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C. H.; Gutiérrez Pastor, J.; Goldfinger, C.; Escutia, C.

    2012-11-01

    We summarize the importance of great earthquakes (Mw ≳ 8) for hazards, stratigraphy of basin floors, and turbidite lithology along the active tectonic continental margins of the Cascadia subduction zone and the northern San Andreas Transform Fault by utilizing studies of swath bathymetry visual core descriptions, grain size analysis, X-ray radiographs and physical properties. Recurrence times of Holocene turbidites as proxies for earthquakes on the Cascadia and northern California margins are analyzed using two methods: (1) radiometric dating (14C method), and (2) relative dating, using hemipelagic sediment thickness and sedimentation rates (H method). The H method provides (1) the best estimate of minimum recurrence times, which are the most important for seismic hazards risk analysis, and (2) the most complete dataset of recurrence times, which shows a normal distribution pattern for paleoseismic turbidite frequencies. We observe that, on these tectonically active continental margins, during the sea-level highstand of Holocene time, triggering of turbidity currents is controlled dominantly by earthquakes, and paleoseismic turbidites have an average recurrence time of ~550 yr in northern Cascadia Basin and ~200 yr along northern California margin. The minimum recurrence times for great earthquakes are approximately 300 yr for the Cascadia subduction zone and 130 yr for the northern San Andreas Fault, which indicates both fault systems are in (Cascadia) or very close (San Andreas) to the early window for another great earthquake. On active tectonic margins with great earthquakes, the volumes of mass transport deposits (MTDs) are limited on basin floors along the margins. The maximum run-out distances of MTD sheets across abyssal-basin floors along active margins are an order of magnitude less (~100 km) than on passive margins (~1000 km). The great earthquakes along the Cascadia and northern California margins cause seismic strengthening of the sediment, which

  8. Great earthquakes along the Western United States continental margin: implications for hazards, stratigraphy and turbidite lithology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Nelson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We summarize the importance of great earthquakes (Mw ≳ 8 for hazards, stratigraphy of basin floors, and turbidite lithology along the active tectonic continental margins of the Cascadia subduction zone and the northern San Andreas Transform Fault by utilizing studies of swath bathymetry visual core descriptions, grain size analysis, X-ray radiographs and physical properties. Recurrence times of Holocene turbidites as proxies for earthquakes on the Cascadia and northern California margins are analyzed using two methods: (1 radiometric dating (14C method, and (2 relative dating, using hemipelagic sediment thickness and sedimentation rates (H method. The H method provides (1 the best estimate of minimum recurrence times, which are the most important for seismic hazards risk analysis, and (2 the most complete dataset of recurrence times, which shows a normal distribution pattern for paleoseismic turbidite frequencies. We observe that, on these tectonically active continental margins, during the sea-level highstand of Holocene time, triggering of turbidity currents is controlled dominantly by earthquakes, and paleoseismic turbidites have an average recurrence time of ~550 yr in northern Cascadia Basin and ~200 yr along northern California margin. The minimum recurrence times for great earthquakes are approximately 300 yr for the Cascadia subduction zone and 130 yr for the northern San Andreas Fault, which indicates both fault systems are in (Cascadia or very close (San Andreas to the early window for another great earthquake.

    On active tectonic margins with great earthquakes, the volumes of mass transport deposits (MTDs are limited on basin floors along the margins. The maximum run-out distances of MTD sheets across abyssal-basin floors along active margins are an order of magnitude less (~100 km than on passive margins (~1000 km. The great earthquakes along the Cascadia and northern California margins

  9. Effect of plasma composition on nanocrystalline diamond layers deposited by a microwave linear antenna plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taylor, Andrew; Ashcheulov, Petr; Čada, Martin; Fekete, Ladislav; Hubík, Pavel; Klimša, Ladislav; Olejníček, Jiří; Remeš, Zdeněk; Jirka, Ivan; Janíček, P.; Bedel-Pereira, E.; Kopeček, Jaromír; Mistrík, J.; Mortet, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 212, č. 11 (2015), s. 2418-2423 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S; GA MŠk LO1409 Grant - others:FUNBIO(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21568 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : diamond * electrical conductivity * nanocrystalline materials * optical emission spectroscopy * plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition * SiC Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2015

  10. Magmatic systems of large continental igneous provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sharkov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Large igneous provinces (LIPs formed by mantle superplume events have irreversibly changed their composition in the geological evolution of the Earth from high-Mg melts (during Archean and early Paleoproterozoic to Phanerozoic-type geochemically enriched Fe-Ti basalts and picrites at 2.3 Ga. We propose that this upheaval could be related to the change in the source and nature of the mantle superplumes of different generations. The first generation plumes were derived from the depleted mantle, whereas the second generation (thermochemical originated from the core-mantle boundary (CMB. This study mainly focuses on the second (Phanerozoic type of LIPs, as exemplified by the mid-Paleoproterozoic Jatulian–Ludicovian LIP in the Fennoscandian Shield, the Permian–Triassic Siberian LIP, and the late Cenozoic flood basalts of Syria. The latter LIP contains mantle xenoliths represented by green and black series. These xenoliths are fragments of cooled upper margins of the mantle plume heads, above zones of adiabatic melting, and provide information about composition of the plume material and processes in the plume head. Based on the previous studies on the composition of the mantle xenoliths in within-plate basalts around the world, it is inferred that the heads of the mantle (thermochemical plumes are made up of moderately depleted spinel peridotites (mainly lherzolites and geochemically-enriched intergranular fluid/melt. Further, it is presumed that the plume heads intrude the mafic lower crust and reach up to the bottom of the upper crust at depths ∼20 km. The generation of two major types of mantle-derived magmas (alkali and tholeiitic basalts was previously attributed to the processes related to different PT-parameters in the adiabatic melting zone whereas this study relates to the fluid regime in the plume heads. It is also suggested that a newly-formed melt can occur on different sides of a critical plane of silica undersaturation and can acquire either alkalic or tholeiitic composition depending on the concentration and composition of the fluids. The presence of melt-pockets in the peridotite matrix indicates fluid migration to the rocks of cooled upper margin of the plume head from the lower portion. This process causes secondary melting in this zone and the generation of melts of the black series and differentiated trachytic magmas.

  11. Continental and global scale flood forecasting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emerton, Rebecca E.; Stephens, Elisabeth M.; Pappenberger, Florian; Pagano, Thomas P.; Weerts, A.H.; Wood, A.; Salamon, Peter; Brown, James D.; Hjerdt, Niclas; Donnelly, Chantal; Baugh, Calum A.; Cloke, Hannah L.

    2016-01-01

    Floods are the most frequent of natural disasters, affecting millions of people across the globe every year. The anticipation and forecasting of floods at the global scale is crucial to preparing for severe events and providing early awareness where local flood models and warning services may not

  12. Lipid-based oral delivery systems for skin deposition of a potential chemopreventive DIM derivative: characterization and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Cedar H A; Patel, Ketan; Patel, Apurva R; Faria, Henrique A M; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Safe, Stephen; Singh, Mandip

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the oral route as a viable potential for the skin deposition of a novel diindolylmethane derivative (DIM-D) for chemoprevention activity. Various lipid-based oral delivery systems were optimized and compared for enhancing DIM-D's oral bioavailability and skin deposition. Preformulation studies were performed to evaluate the log P and solubility of DIM-D. Microsomal metabolism, P-glycoprotein efflux, and caco-2 monolayer permeability of DIM-D were determined. Comparative evaluation of the oral absorption and skin deposition of DIM-D-loaded various lipid-based formulations was performed in rats. DIM-D showed pH-dependent solubility and a high log P value. It was not a strong substrate of microsomal degradation and P-glycoprotein. SMEDDs comprised of medium chain triglycerides, monoglycerides, and kolliphor-HS15 (36.70 ± 0.42 nm). SNEDDs comprised of long chain triglycerides, cremophor RH40, labrasol, and TPGS (84.00 ± 14.14 nm). Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) consisted of compritol, miglyol, and surfactants (116.50 ± 2.12 nm). The blank formulations all showed >70 % cell viability in caco-2 cells. Differential Scanning Calorimetry confirmed the amorphization of DIM-D within the lipid matrices while Atomic Force Microscopy showed particle size distribution similar to the dynamic light scattering data. DIM-D also showed reduced permeation across caco-2 monolayer that was enhanced (p < 0.05) by SNEDDs in comparison to SMEDDs and NLC. Fabsolute for DIM-D SNEDDs, SMEDDs, and NLC was 0.14, 0.04, and 0.007, respectively. SNEDDs caused 53.90, 11.32, and 15.08-fold more skin deposition of DIM-D than the free drug, SMEDDs, and NLC, respectively, at 2 h following oral administration and shows a viable potential for use in skin cancer chemoprevention. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  13. The Role of Siliceous Hydrothermal Breccias in the Genesis of Volcanic Massive Sulphide Deposits - Ancient and Recent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, I. A.; Barriga, F. J.; Fouquet, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Siliceous hydrothermal breccias were sampled in two Mid-Atlantic Ridge active sites: Lucky Strike and Menez Gwen. These hydrothermal fields are located in the border of the Azorean plateau, southwest of the Azores islands where the alteration processes affecting basaltic rocks are prominent (Costa et al., 2003). The hydrothermal breccias are genetically related with the circulation of low temperature hydrothermal fluids in diffuse vents. The groundmass of these breccias precipitates from the fluid and consolidates the clastic fragments mostly composed of basalt. The main sources are the surrounding volcanic hills. Breccias are found near hydrothermal vents and may play an important role in the protection of subseafloor hydrothermal deposits forming an impermeable cap due to the high content in siliceous material. The amorphous silica tends to precipitate when the fluid is conductively cooled as proposed by Fouquet et al. (1998) after Fournier (1983). The process evolves gradually from an initial stage where we have just the fragments and circulating seawater. The ascending hydrothermal fluid mixes with seawater, which favours the precipitation of the sulphide components. Sealing of the initially loose fragments begins, the temperature rises below this crust, and the processes of mixing fluid circulation and conductive cooling are simultaneous. At this stage the fluid becomes oversaturated with respect to amorphous silica. This form of silica can precipitate in the open spaces of the porous sulphides and seal the system. Normally this can happen at low temperatures. At this stage the hydrothermal breccia is formed creating a progressively less permeable, eventually impermeable cap rock at the surface. Once the fluid is trapped under this impermeable layer, conductive cooling is enhanced and mixing with seawater is restricted, making the precipitation of amorphous silica more efficient. Since the first discovery and description of recent mineralized submarine

  14. Interdiffusion within model TiN/Cu and TiTaN/Cu systems synthesized by combinatorial thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mühlbacher, M.

    2015-01-01

    Continued device miniaturization in microelectronics calls for a fundamental understanding of diffusion processes and damage mechanisms in the Cu metallization/TiN barrier layer system. Thus, the starting point of the present study is a combined experimental and theoretical examination of lattice diffusion in ideal single-crystal TiN/Cu stacks grown on MgO(001) by unbalanced DC magnetron sputter deposition. After a 12 h annealing treatment at 1000 °C, a uniform Cu diffusion layer of 7-12 nm is observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography (APT). Density-functional theory calculations predict a stoichiometry-dependent atomic diffusion mechanism of Cu in bulk TiN, with Cu diffusing on the N sublattice for the experimental N/Ti ratio of 0.92. These findings are extended to a comparison of grain boundary diffusion of Cu in dense polycrystalline TiN sputter-deposited on Si at 700 °C and underdense polycrystalline TiN grown on Si without external substrate heating. While the Cu diffusion path along dense TiN grain boundaries can be restricted to approximately 30 nm after a 1 h annealing treatment at 900 °C as visualized by 3D APT reconstructions, it already exceeds 500 nm after annealing at 700 °C in the underdense low-temperature TiN barrier. In this case, the formation of the Cu3Si phase, which characteristically grows along the close-packed directions in Si, is identified as the main damage mechanism leading to complete barrier failure. To meet the low-temperature processing needs of semiconductor industry and at the same time exploit the improved performance of dense polycrystalline barrier layers, deposition of TiTaN barriers on Si is demonstrated by a reactive hybrid high-power impulse/DC magnetron sputtering process, where barrier densification is achieved by pulsed irradiation of the growth surface with only a few at.% of energetic Ta ions without external substrate heating. These barrier layers delay the onset of Cu grain

  15. Mimicking Martian dust: An in-vacuum dust deposition system for testing the ultraviolet sensors on the Curiosity rover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrado, J. M.; Martín-Soler, J.; Martín-Gago, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and developed an in-vacuum dust deposition system specifically conceived to simulate and study the effect of accumulation of Martian dust on the electronic instruments of scientific planetary exploration missions. We have used this device to characterize the dust effect on the UV sensor of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station in the Mars science Laboratory mission of NASA in similar conditions to those found on Mars surface. The UV sensor includes six photodiodes for measuring the radiation in all UV wavelengths (direct incidence and reflected); it is placed on the body of Curiosity rover and it is severely affected by the dust deposited on it. Our experimental setup can help to estimate the duration of reliable reading of this instrument during operation. We have used an analogous of the Martian dust in chemical composition (magnetic species), color, and density, which has been characterized by X-ray spectroscopy. To ensure a Brownian motion of the dust during its fall and a homogeneous coverage on the instrumentation, the operating conditions of the vacuum vessel, determined by partial pressures and temperature, have to be modified to account for the different gravities of Mars with respect to Earth. We propose that our designed device and operational protocol can be of interest to test optoelectronic instrumentation affected by the opacity of dust, as can be the degradation of UV photodiodes in planetary exploration

  16. Mimicking Martian dust: An in-vacuum dust deposition system for testing the ultraviolet sensors on the Curiosity rover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrado, J. M., E-mail: sobradovj@inta.es; Martín-Soler, J. [Centro de Astrobiología (CAB), INTA-CSIC, Torrejón de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Martín-Gago, J. A. [Centro de Astrobiología (CAB), INTA-CSIC, Torrejón de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM–CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    We have designed and developed an in-vacuum dust deposition system specifically conceived to simulate and study the effect of accumulation of Martian dust on the electronic instruments of scientific planetary exploration missions. We have used this device to characterize the dust effect on the UV sensor of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station in the Mars science Laboratory mission of NASA in similar conditions to those found on Mars surface. The UV sensor includes six photodiodes for measuring the radiation in all UV wavelengths (direct incidence and reflected); it is placed on the body of Curiosity rover and it is severely affected by the dust deposited on it. Our experimental setup can help to estimate the duration of reliable reading of this instrument during operation. We have used an analogous of the Martian dust in chemical composition (magnetic species), color, and density, which has been characterized by X-ray spectroscopy. To ensure a Brownian motion of the dust during its fall and a homogeneous coverage on the instrumentation, the operating conditions of the vacuum vessel, determined by partial pressures and temperature, have to be modified to account for the different gravities of Mars with respect to Earth. We propose that our designed device and operational protocol can be of interest to test optoelectronic instrumentation affected by the opacity of dust, as can be the degradation of UV photodiodes in planetary exploration.

  17. Stratigraphy and sedimentology of a dry to wet eolian depositional system, Burns formation, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzinger, J. P.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F.; Calvin, W.; Clark, B. C.; Fike, D. A.; Golombek, M.; Greeley, R.; Haldemann, A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Knoll, A. H.; Malin, M.; McLennan, S. M.; Parker, T.; Soderblom, L.; Sohl-Dickstein, J. N.; Squyres, S. W.; Tosca, N. J.; Watters, W. A.

    2005-11-01

    Outcrop exposures of sedimentary rocks at the Opportunity landing site (Meridiani Planum) form a set of genetically related strata defined here informally as the Burns formation. This formation can be subdivided into lower, middle, and upper units which, respectively, represent eolian dune, eolian sand sheet, and mixed eolian sand sheet and interdune facies associations. Collectively, these three units are at least 7 m thick and define a "wetting-upward" succession which records a progressive increase in the influence of groundwater and, ultimately, surface water in controlling primary depositional processes. The Burns lower unit is interpreted as a dry dune field (though grain composition indicates an evaporitic source), whose preserved record of large-scale cross-bedded sandstones indicates either superimposed bedforms of variable size or reactivation of lee-side slip faces by episodic (possibly seasonal) changes in wind direction. The boundary between the lower and middle units is a significant eolian deflation surface. This surface is interpreted to record eolian erosion down to the capillary fringe of the water table, where increased resistance to wind-induced erosion was promoted by increased sediment cohesiveness in the capillary fringe. The overlying Burns middle unit is characterized by fine-scale planar-laminated to low-angle-stratified sandstones. These sandstones accumulated during lateral migration of eolian impact ripples over the flat to gently undulating sand sheet surface. In terrestrial settings, sand sheets may form an intermediate environment between dune fields and interdune or playa surfaces. The contact between the middle and upper units of the Burns formation is interpreted as a diagenetic front, where recrystallization in the phreatic or capillary zones may have occurred. The upper unit of the Burns formation contains a mixture of sand sheet facies and interdune facies. Interdune facies include wavy bedding, irregular lamination with

  18. Deep repository - engineered barrier systems. Assessment of backfill materials and methods for deposition tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnarsson, D.; Moren, L.; Sellin, P; Keto, P.

    2007-09-01

    The main objectives of this report are to: (1) present density criteria considering deposition tunnels for the investigated backfill materials, (2) evaluate what densities can be achieved with the suggested backfill methods, (3) compare the density criteria to achievable densities, (4) based on this comparison evaluate the safety margin for the combinations of backfill materials and methods and, (5) make recommendations for further investigations and development work. The backfilling methods considered in this report are compaction of backfill material in situ in the tunnel and placement of pre-compacted blocks and pellets. The materials investigated in the second phase of the SKB-Posiva backfilling programme can be divided into three main categories: (1) Bentonite clays: two high-grade Na-bentonites from Wyoming (MX-80 and SPV200), one low-grade bentonite from Kutch (India Asha 2 0), and one high- and one low-grade Ca-bentonite from Milos (Deponite CA-N and Milos backfill). The highgrade bentonites are used in different bentonite-ballast mixtures. (2) Smectite-rich mixed-layer clays: one from Dnesice-Plzensko Jih (DPJ) located in the Czech Republic and one from Northern Germany (Friedland clay). (3) Mixtures of bentonite and ballast: Mixtures consisting of high-grade bentonite (30, 40 and 50 w-%) and crushed rock with different type of grain size distribution or sand. The general conclusion from the comparison between estimated achievable densities and the density criteria is that placing pre-compacted blocks of swelling clay or 50/50 mixture and pellets in the tunnel results in the highest safety margin. (orig.)

  19. Advanced fuels for gas turbines: Fuel system corrosion, hot path deposit formation and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seljak, Tine; Širok, Brane; Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Technical feasibility analysis of alternative fuels requires a holistic approach. • Fuel, combustion, corrosion and component functionality are strongly related. • Used approach defines design constraints for microturbines using alternative fuels. - Abstract: To further expand the knowledge base on the use of innovative fuels in the micro gas turbines, this paper provides insight into interrelation between specific fuel properties and their impact on combustion and emission formation phenomena in micro gas turbines for stationary power generation as well as their impact on material corrosion and deposit formation. The objective of this study is to identify potential issues that can be related to specific fuel properties and to propose counter measures for achieving stable, durable, efficient and low emission operation of the micro gas turbine while utilizing advanced/innovative fuels. This is done by coupling combustion and emission formation analyses to analyses of material degradation and degradation of component functionality while interpreting them through fuel-specific properties. To ensure sufficiently broad range of fuel properties to demonstrate the applicability of the method, two different fuels with significantly different properties are analysed, i.e. tire pyrolysis oil and liquefied wood. It is shown that extent of required micro gas turbine adaptations strongly correlates with deviations of the fuel properties from those of the baseline fuel. Through the study, these adaptations are supported by in-depth analyses of impacts of fuel properties on different components, parameters and subsystems and their quantification. This holistic approach is further used to propose methodologies and innovative approaches for constraining a design space of micro gas turbine to successfully utilize wide spectra of alternative/innovative fuels.

  20. Quality of Metal Deposited Flux Cored Wire With the System Fe-C-Si-Mn-Cr-Mo-Ni-V-Co

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Aleksander I.; Kozyrev, Nikolay A.; Osetkovskiy, Ivan V.; Kryukov, Roman E.; Kozyreva, Olga A.

    2017-10-01

    Studied the effect of the introduction of vanadium and cobalt into the charge powder fused wire system Fe-C-Si-Mn-Cr-Ni-Mo-V, used in cladding assemblies and equipment parts and mechanisms operating under abrasive and abrasive shock loads. the cored wires samples were manufactured in the laboratory conditions and using appropriate powder materials and as a carbonfluoride contained material were used the dust from gas purification of aluminum production, with the following components composition, %: Al2O3 = 21-46.23; F = 18-27; Na2O = 8-15; K2O = 0.4-6; CaO = 0.7-2.3; Si2O = 0.5-2.48; Fe2O3 = 2.1-3.27; C = 12.5-30.2; MnO = 0.07-0.9; MgO = 0.06-0.9; S = 0.09-0.19; P = 0.1-0.18. Surfacing was produced on the St3 metal plates in 6 layers under the AN-26C flux by welding truck ASAW-1250. Cutting and preparation of samples for research had been implemented. The chemical composition and the hydrogen content of the weld metal were determined by modern methods. The hardness and abrasion rate of weld metal had been measured. Conducted metallographic studies of weld metal: estimated microstructure, grain size, contamination of oxide non-metallic inclusions. Metallographic studies showed that the microstructure of the surfaced layer by cored wire system Fe-C-Si-Mn-Cr-Mo-Ni-V-Co is uniform, thin dendrite branches are observed. The microstructure consists of martensite, which is formed inside the borders of the former austenite grain retained austenite present in small amounts in the form of separate islands, and thin layers of δ-ferrite, which is located on the borders of the former austenite grains. Carried out an assessment the effect of the chemical composition of the deposited metal on the hardness and wear and hydrogen content. In consequence of multivariate correlation analysis, it was determined dependence to the hardness of the deposited layer and the wear resistance of the mass fraction of the elements included in the flux-cored wires of the system Fe

  1. Change in morphology and modern sediment thickness on the inner continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York between 2011 and 2014: Analysis of hurricane impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, William C.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Warner, John C.; List, Jeffrey; Denny, Jane F.; Liste Munoz, Maria; Safak, Ilgar

    2017-01-01

    Seafloor mapping investigations conducted on the lower shoreface and inner continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York in 2011 and 2014, the period encompassing the impacts of Hurricanes Irene and Sandy, provide an unprecedented perspective regarding regional inner continental shelf sediment dynamics during large storm events. Analyses of these studies demonstrate that storm-induced erosion and sediment transport occurred throughout the study area in water depths up to 30 m. Acoustic backscatter patterns were observed to move from ~1 m to 450 m with a mean of 20 m and movement tended to decrease with increasing water depth. These patterns indicate that both of the primary inner continental shelf sedimentary features in the study area, linear sorted bedforms offshore of eastern Fire Island and shoreface-attached sand ridges offshore of central and western Fire island, migrated alongshore to the southwest. The migration of the sorted bedforms represents the modification of an active ravinement surface and is thought to have liberated a significant volume of sediment. Comparison of isopach maps of sediment thickness show that the volume of modern sediment composing the lower shoreface and shoreface-attached sand ridges decreased by ~2.8 × 106 m3 across the ~73 km2 of common seafloor mapped in both surveys. However, a similar analysis for the relatively calmer 15-yr period prior to 2011 revealed significant accretion. This allows speculation that the shoreface-attached sand ridges are maintained over decadal timescales via sediment supplied through erosion of Pleistocene outwash and lower Holocene transgressive channel-fill deposits exposed on the inner continental shelf, but that the sand ridges also periodically erode and move to the southwest during large storm events. Analyses show that significant storminduced erosion and sediment transport occurs far seaward of the 5 to 9 m depth of closure assumed for Fire Island, where it is thought that an onshore

  2. AUTOPARK and DOSISPARK. Two modules of the software system for assessment and mitigation of radionuclide deposition and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregor, J.; Bleher, M.; Stapel, R.; Jakob, P.; Eklund, J.; Luczak-Ulrik, D.

    1994-09-01

    The PARK software system as a part of the IMIS system performs the processing of the measured ambient radioactivity data so as to allow full-scale analyses to be made of the topical radiological situation across Germany, or prospective analyses. The PARK data are intended to serve as the database for large-area ambient radioactivity assessment in the event of a radiological emergency, and as a basis for decisions to be taken for remedial action and recommended protective provisions. The software system relies essentially on the dynamic food chain model called ECOSYS-87, and comprises the sub-systems AUTOPARK, DIAPARK, and DOSISPARK. The core system is the largely automated sub-system AUTOPARK which at highest performance level of the entire IMIS system, as provided for in section 2 of the Preventive Radiation Protection Act, (StrVG), processes the measured data of the federal monitoring stations, and the results of the atmospheric dispersion computations contributed by the German Weather Service. In the event of a radiological emergency, AUTOPARK delivers the data for fast assessment of the given and prospective contamination of essential agricultural produce and of the radiation dose to the population, as well as data for assessment of the effects achieved by remedial action. DOSISPARK is the module applied in routine operation of the IMIS system for assessment of radiation doses to the population. The report explains the procedure for routine dose calculations and the permanent data base (as e.g. dose coefficients) maintained for this purpose, which also is available for emergency data processing with the AUTOPARK module. DIAPARK is a dialog-controlled software system. It allows analysis of specific problems in the wake of an emergency, as for example changes in the composition of animal feed, on the basis of data delivered by AUTOPARK, indicating the nuclide deposition and accumulation in soil and vegetation. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Gadolinium-based Contrast Media, Cerebrospinal Fluid and the Glymphatic System: Possible Mechanisms for the Deposition of Gadolinium in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoka, Toshiaki; Naganawa, Shinji

    2018-04-10

    After Kanda's first report in 2014 on gadolinium (Gd) deposition in brain tissue, a considerable number of studies have investigated the explanation for the observation. Gd deposition in brain tissue after repeated administration of gadolinium-based contrast medium (GBCM) has been histologically proven, and chelate stability has been shown to affect the deposition. However, the mechanism for this deposition has not been fully elucidated. Recently, a hypothesis was introduced that involves the 'glymphatic system', which is a coined word that combines 'gl' for glia cell and 'lymphatic' system. According to this hypothesis, the perivascular space functions as a conduit for cerebrospinal fluid to flow into the brain parenchyma. The perivascular space around the arteries allows cerebrospinal fluid to enter the interstitial space of the brain tissue through water channels controlled by aquaporin 4. The cerebrospinal fluid entering the interstitial space clears waste proteins from the tissue. It then flows into the perivascular space around the vein and is discharged outside the brain. In addition to the hypothesis regarding the glymphatic system, some reports have described that after GBCM administration, some of the GBCM distributes through systemic blood circulation and remains in other compartments including the cerebrospinal fluid. It is thought that the GBCM distributed into the cerebrospinal fluid cavity via the glymphatic system may remain in brain tissue for a longer duration compared to the GBCM in systemic circulation. Glymphatic system may of course act as a clearance system for GBCM from brain tissue. Based on these findings, the mechanism for Gd deposition in the brain will be discussed in this review. The authors speculate that the glymphatic system may be the major contributory factor to the deposition and clearance of gadolinium in brain tissue.

  4. The rf-power dependences of the deposition rate, the hardness and the corrosion-resistance of the chromium nitride film deposited by using a dual ion beam sputtering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jongmin; Lee, Chongmu

    2006-01-01

    The hexavalent chromium used in chromium plating is so toxic that it is very hazardous to human body and possibly causes cancer in humans. Therefore, it is indispensable to develop an alternative deposition technique. Dependences of the deposition rate, the phases, the hardness, the surface roughness and the corrosion-resistance of CrN x deposited on the high speed steel substrate by using a dual ion beam sputtering system on the rf-power were investigated to see the feasibility of sputtering as an alternative technique for chromium plating. The dual ion beam sputtering system used in this study was designed in such a way as the primary argon ion beam and the secondary nitrogen ion beam are injected toward the target and the substrate, respectively so that the chromium atoms at the chromium target surface may not nearly react with nitrogen atoms. The hardness and the surface roughness were measured by a micro-Vicker's hardness tester and an atomic force microscope (AFM), respectively. X-ray diffraction analyses were performed to identify phases in the films. The deposition rate of CrN x depends more strongly upon the rf-power for argon ion beam than that for nitrogen ion beam. The hardness of the CrN x film is highest when the volume percent of the Cr 2 N phase in the film is highest. Amorphous films are obtained when the rf-power for nitrogen ion beam is much higher than that for argon ion beam. The CrN x film deposited by using the sputtering technique under the optimal condition provides corrosion-resistance comparable to that of the electroplated chromium

  5. COBBOOM: The Continental Breakup and Birth of Oceans Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joann M. Stock

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The rupture of continents and creation of new oceans is a fundamental yet primitively understood aspect of the plate tectonic cycle. Building upon past achievements by ocean drilling and geophysical and geologic studies, we propose “The Continental Breakup and Birth of Oceans Mission (COBBOOM” as the next major phase of discovery, for which sampling by drilling will be essential.In September 2006, fifty-one scientists from six continents gathered in Pontresina, Switzerland to discuss current knowledge of continental breakup and sedimentary basin formation and how the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP can deepen that knowledge Coffin et al., 2006. Workshop participants discussed a global array of rifted margins (Fig. 1, formulated the critical problems to beaddressed by future drilling and related investigations, and identified key rift systems poised for IODP investigations. 

  6. Integrative taxonomy for continental-scale terrestrial insect observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara M Gibson

    Full Text Available Although 21(st century ecology uses unprecedented technology at the largest spatio-temporal scales in history, the data remain reliant on sound taxonomic practices that derive from 18(th century science. The importance of accurate species identifications has been assessed repeatedly and in instances where inappropriate assignments have been made there have been costly consequences. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON will use a standardized system based upon an integrative taxonomic foundation to conduct observations of the focal terrestrial insect taxa, ground beetles and mosquitoes, at the continental scale for a 30 year monitoring program. The use of molecular data for continental-scale, multi-decadal research conducted by a geographically widely distributed set of researchers has not been evaluated until this point. The current paper addresses the development of a reference library for verifying species identifications at NEON and the key ways in which this resource will enhance a variety of user communities.

  7. Integrative Taxonomy for Continental-Scale Terrestrial Insect Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Cara M.; Kao, Rebecca H.; Blevins, Kali K.; Travers, Patrick D.

    2012-01-01

    Although 21st century ecology uses unprecedented technology at the largest spatio-temporal scales in history, the data remain reliant on sound taxonomic practices that derive from 18th century science. The importance of accurate species identifications has been assessed repeatedly and in instances where inappropriate assignments have been made there have been costly consequences. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will use a standardized system based upon an integrative taxonomic foundation to conduct observations of the focal terrestrial insect taxa, ground beetles and mosquitoes, at the continental scale for a 30 year monitoring program. The use of molecular data for continental-scale, multi-decadal research conducted by a geographically widely distributed set of researchers has not been evaluated until this point. The current paper addresses the development of a reference library for verifying species identifications at NEON and the key ways in which this resource will enhance a variety of user communities. PMID:22666362

  8. Bottom current processes along the Iberian continental margin; Procesos sedimentarios por corrientes de fondo a lo largo del margen continental iberico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llave, E.; Hernandez-Molina, F. J.; Ercilla, G.; Roque, C.; Van Rooij, D.; Garcia, M.; Juan, C.; Mena, A.; Brackenridge, R.; Jane, G.; Stow, D.; Gomez-Ballesteros, M.

    2015-07-01

    The products of bottom current circulation around the Iberian continental margin are characterised by large erosional and depositional features formed under a variety of geological and oceanographic contexts. The Iberian margins are influenced by several water masses that mainly interact along the upper and middle con- tinental slopes, as well as along the lower slope with the abyssal plains being influenced to a lesser extent. The main depositional features occur along the Ceuta Contourite Depositional System (CDS) within the SW Alboran Sea, in the Gulf of Cadiz (the most studied so far), the western margins of the Portugal/Galician mar- gin, the Ortegal Spur and the Le Danois Bank or Cachucho. Moreover, erosional contourite features have also been recently indentified, most notably terraces, abraded surfaces, channels, furrows and moats. The majority of these features are formed under the influence of the Mediterranean water masses, especially by the interaction of the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) with the seafloor. The MOW is characterized as relatively warm (13 degree centigrade) and with a high salinity (∼36.5), giving it a high density relative to the surrounding water masses, hence constituting an important contribution to the global thermohaline circulation, making it one of the most studied water masses surrounding Iberia. The development of both depositional and ero- sional contourite features does not only depend on the bottom-current velocity but also on several other important controlling factors, including: 1) local margin morphology affected by recent tectonic activity; 2) multiple sources of sediment supply; 3) water-mass interphases interacting with the seafloor; and 4) glacioeustatic changes, especially during the Quaternary, when the increasing influence of the bottom cur- rent has been observed during the cold stages. The main objective of this special volume contribution is to provide a review and description of the regional along

  9. Hydrothermal Petroleum in Active Continental Rift: Lake Chapala, Western Mexico, Initial Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate-del Valle, P. F.; Simoneit, B. R.; Ramirez-Sanchez, H. U.

    2003-12-01

    Lake Chapala in western Mexico is located partially in the Citala Rift, which belongs to the well-known neotectonic Jalisco continental triple junction. The region is characterized by active volcanism (Ceboruco, Volcan de Fuego), tectonic (1995 earthquake, M=8, 40-50 mm to SW) and hydrothermal (San Juan Cosala & Villa Corona spas and La Calera sinter deposit) activities. Hydrothermal petroleum has been described in active continental rift (East African Rift) and marine spreading zones (Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California). In 1868 the Mexican local press reported that manifestations of bitumen were appearing in front of the Columba Cap on the mid south shore of Lake Chapala. This bitumen is linked to the lake bottom and when the water level decreases sufficiently it is possible to access these tar bodies as islands. Because of these manifestations the Mexican oil company (PEMEX) drilled an exploration well (2,348m) at Tizapan El Alto without success. Hydrothermal activity is evident in the tar island zone as three in-shore thermal springs (26.8 m depth, 48.5° C, pH 7.8 and oriented N-S). The preliminary analyses by GC-MS of the tar from these islands indicate hydrothermal petroleum derived from lake sedimentary organic matter, generated at low temperatures (150° -200° C). The tars contain no n-alkanes, no PAH or other aromatics, but a major UCM of branched and cyclic hydrocarbons and mature biomarkers derived from lacustrine biota. The biomarkers consist of mainly 17α (H),21β (H)-hopanes ranging from C27 to C34 (no C28), gammacerane, tricyclic terpanes (C20-C26), carotane and its cracking products, and drimanes (C14-C16). The biomarker composition indicates an organic matter source from bacteria and algae, typical of lacustrine ecosystems. 14C dating of samples from two tar islands yielded ages exceeding 40 kyrs, i.e., old carbon from hydrothermal/tectonic remobilization of bitumen from deeper horizons to the surface. The occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum in

  10. Geomorphic Thresholds of Submarine Canyons Along the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, D. S.; ten Brink, U. S.; Andrews, B. D.; Chaytor, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Vast networks of submarine canyons and associated channels are incised into the U.S. Atlantic continental slope and rise. Submarine canyons form by differential erosion and deposition, primarily from sedimentary turbidity flows. Theoretical and laboratory studies have investigated the initiation of turbidity flows and their capacity to erode and entrain sedimentary material at distances far from the shelf edge. The results have helped understand the nature of turbidite deposits on the continental slope and rise. Nevertheless, few studies have examined the linkages between down-canyon sediment transport and the morphology of canyon/channel networks using mesoscale analyses of swath bathymetry data. We present quantitative analysis of 100-m resolution multibeam bathymetry data spanning ~616,000 km2 of the slope and rise between Georges Banks and the Blake Plateau (New England to North Carolina). Canyons are categorized as shelf-indenting or slope-confined based on spatial scale, vertical relief and connection with terrestrial river systems during sea level low stands. Shelf-indenting canyons usually represent the trunk-canyon of submerged channel networks. On the rise, shelf-indenting canyons have relatively well-developed channel-levees and sharp inner-thalwag incision suggesting much higher frequency and volume of turbidity flows. Because of the similarities between submarine canyon networks and terrestrial river systems, we apply methods originally developed to study fluvial morphology. Along-canyon profiles are extracted from the bathymetry data and the power-law relationship between thalwag gradient and drainage area is examined for more than 180 canyons along an ~1200 km stretch of the US Atlantic margin. We observe distinct thresholds in the power-law relationship between drainage area and gradient. Almost all canyons with heads on the upper slope contain at least two linear segments when plotted in log-log form. The first segment along the upper slope is flat

  11. Development Status of a CVD System to Deposit Tungsten onto UO2 Powder via the WCI6 Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, O. R.; Kimberlin, A.; Broadway, J.; Hickman, R.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is under development for deep space exploration. NTP's high specific impulse (> 850 second) enables a large range of destinations, shorter trip durations, and improved reliability. W-60vol%UO2 CERMET fuel development efforts emphasize fabrication, performance testing and process optimization to meet service life requirements. Fuel elements must be able to survive operation in excess of 2850 K, exposure to flowing hydrogen (H2), vibration, acoustic, and radiation conditions. CTE mismatch between W and UO2 result in high thermal stresses and lead to mechanical failure as a result UO2 reduction by hot hydrogen (H2) [1]. Improved powder metallurgy fabrication process control and mitigated fuel loss can be attained by coating UO2 starting powders within a layer of high density tungsten [2]. This paper discusses the advances of a fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system that utilizes the H2-WCl6 reduction process.

  12. Revamping of stack monitoring system at CORAL facility and estimation of aerosol penetration using 'DEPOSITION2001' code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajoy, K.C.; Dhanasekaran, A.; Santhanam, R.; Rajagopal, V.; Jose, M.T.

    2018-01-01

    Monitoring of effluent discharge from stack forms an integral part of health physics surveillance programme and a mandatory requirement to ensure regulatory compliance. A unique challenge in stack monitoring is to obtain a representative sample from the flow stream and then transport the same to the monitoring devices with minimum losses. This paper describes the modification of the latter part of the transport line where distribution of sample begins to individual monitors. This work was initiated to address the issues of ageing, ease of use and to provide additional tapping points for future requirements. After revamping the sampling line, it was also validated using the computational code Deposition 2001a to ensure that the system meets even the ISO criteria

  13. Parametric optimization in virtual prototyping environment of the control device for a robotic system used in thin layers deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enescu (Balaş, M. L.; Alexandru, C.

    2016-08-01

    The paper deals with the optimal design of the control system for a 6-DOF robot used in thin layers deposition. The optimization is based on parametric technique, by modelling the design objective as a numerical function, and then establishing the optimal values of the design variables so that to minimize the objective function. The robotic system is a mechatronic product, which integrates the mechanical device and the controlled operating device.The mechanical device of the robot was designed in the CAD (Computer Aided Design) software CATIA, the 3D-model being then transferred to the MBS (Multi-Body Systems) environment ADAMS/View. The control system was developed in the concurrent engineering concept, through the integration with the MBS mechanical model, by using the DFC (Design for Control) software solution EASY5. The necessary angular motions in the six joints of the robot, in order to obtain the imposed trajectory of the end-effector, have been established by performing the inverse kinematic analysis. The positioning error in each joint of the robot is used as design objective, the optimization goal being to minimize the root mean square during simulation, which is a measure of the magnitude of the positioning error varying quantity.

  14. Geomorphology and Sediment Stability of a Segment of the U.S. Continental Slope off New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, J M; Hampson, J C; Twichell, D C

    1981-02-27

    The morphology of complex deposits of Pleistocene sediments covering the upper continental slope between Lindenkohl Canyon and South Toms Canyon results from both depositional and erosional processes. Small slump or slide features were detected primarily on the flanks of canyons or valleys and were observed to occur only within Pleistocene-aged sediments. Eocene to Miocene sediments are exposed over much of the mid- and lower slope in this area.

  15. Constraining Depositional Slope From Sedimentary Structures in Sandy Braided Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynds, R. M.; Mohrig, D.; Heller, P. L.

    2003-12-01

    Determination of paleoslopes in ancient fluvial systems has potentially broad application to quantitatively constraining the history of tectonics and paleoclimate in continental sequences. Our method for calculating paleoslopes for sandy braided streams is based upon a simple physical model that establishes depositional skin-frictional shear stresses from assemblages of sedimentary structures and their associated grain size distributions. The addition of a skin-frictional shear stress, with a geometrically determined form-drag shear stress results in a total boundary shear stress which is directly related to water-surface slope averaged over an appropriate spatial scale. In order to apply this model to ancient fluvial systems, it is necessary to measure the following: coarsest suspended sediment size, finest grain size carried in bed load, flow depth, dune height, and dune length. In the rock record, suspended load and bed load can be accurately assessed by well-preserved suspended load deposits ("low-energy" ripples) and bed load deposits (dune foresets). This model predicts an average slope for the North Loup River near Taylor, Nebraska (modern case study) of 2.7 x 10-3. The measured reach-averaged water surface slope for the same reach of the river is 1.37 x 10-3. We suggest that it is possible to calculate the depositional slope of a sandy fluvial system by a factor of approximately two. Additionally, preliminary application of this model to the Lower Jurassic Kayenta Formation throughout the Colorado Plateau provides a promising and consistent evaluation of paleoslope in an ancient and well-preserved, sandy braided stream deposit.

  16. A system to deposit boron films (boronization) in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodapp, T.R.; Jackson, G.L.; Phillips, J.; Holtrop, K.L.; Peterson, P.L.; Winters, J.

    1992-01-01

    A system has been added to the DIII-D tokamak to coat its plasma facing surfaces with a film of boron using diborane gas. The system includes special health and safety equipment for handling the diborane gas which is toxic and inflammable. The purpose f the boron film is to reduce the levels of impurity atoms in the DIII-D plasmas. Experiments following the application of the boron film in DIII-D have led to significant reductions in plasma impurity levels and the observation of a new, very high confinement regime

  17. A system to deposit boron films (boronization) in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodapp, T.R.; Jackson, G.L.; Phillips, J.; Holtrop, K.L.; Petersen, P.I.; Winter, J.

    1991-09-01

    A system has been added to the D3-D tokamak to coat its plasma facing surfaces with a film of boron using diborane gas. The system includes special health and safety equipment for handling the diborane gas which is toxic and inflammable. The purpose of the boron film is to reduce the levels of impurity atoms in the D3-D plasmas. Experiments following the application of the boron film in D3-D have led to significant reductions in plasma impurity levels and the observation of a new, very high confinement regime. 9 refs., 1 fig

  18. Design and fabrication of microwave flat lenses using a novel dry powder dot deposition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good, Brandon L; Roper, David A Jr; Simmons, Shaun; Mirotznik, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new methodology for creating flat lenses operating in the microwave spectrum using a custom designed additive manufacturing system. This method utilizes a novel dry powder 3D printing system to achieve graded index lenses integrated within a structural composite. We also describe a new iterative dot patterning algorithm to achieve a desired graded dielectric distribution, and we compare the iterative dot patterning algorithm to other dot patterning techniques. Computational and experimental results are provided validating the design and fabrication process. (paper)

  19. Modification of glomerular immune complex deposition in mice by activation of the reticuloendothelial system.

    OpenAIRE

    Barcelli, U; Rademacher, R; Ooi, Y M; Ooi, B S

    1981-01-01

    To determine the effect of activation of the reticuloendothelial system on the localization of immune complexes in the kidney, a model of passive serum sickness nephritis in the mouse was used, with activation of the reticuloendothelial system with Corynebacterium parvum. Groups of mice, control and C. parvum-treated animals, were injected with BSA-125I-anti-BSA complexes containing 3 mg 125I-anti-BSA. Blood was obtained at 5 min, at 3 h, and at 12 h, when the animals were killed. Blood conce...

  20. Exogenous deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Exogenous deposits forming as a result of complex exogenous processes, passed under the influence of outside forces on the Earth surface. To them relate physical and chemical weathering, decomposition and decay of mineral masses, redistribution and transportation of material, forming and deposit of new minerals and ores steady on the earth surface conditions

  1. 78 FR 56583 - Deposit Insurance Regulations; Definition of Insured Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... as a potential global deposit insurer, preserve confidence in the FDIC deposit insurance system, and... the United States.\\2\\ The FDIC generally pays out deposit insurance on the next business day after a... since 2001 and total approximately $1 trillion today. In many cases, these branches do not engage in...

  2. Robofurnace: A semi-automated laboratory chemical vapor deposition system for high-throughput nanomaterial synthesis and process discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, C. Ryan; Westrick, William; Koehler, Jeremy; Brieland-Shoultz, Anna; Anagnostopoulos-Politis, Ilias; Cruz-Gonzalez, Tizoc; Hart, A. John

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory research and development on new materials, such as nanostructured thin films, often utilizes manual equipment such as tube furnaces due to its relatively low cost and ease of setup. However, these systems can be prone to inconsistent outcomes due to variations in standard operating procedures and limitations in performance such as heating and cooling rates restrict the parameter space that can be explored. Perhaps more importantly, maximization of research throughput and the successful and efficient translation of materials processing knowledge to production-scale systems, relies on the attainment of consistent outcomes. In response to this need, we present a semi-automated lab-scale chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace system, called “Robofurnace.” Robofurnace is an automated CVD system built around a standard tube furnace, which automates sample insertion and removal and uses motion of the furnace to achieve rapid heating and cooling. The system has a 10-sample magazine and motorized transfer arm, which isolates the samples from the lab atmosphere and enables highly repeatable placement of the sample within the tube. The system is designed to enable continuous operation of the CVD reactor, with asynchronous loading/unloading of samples. To demonstrate its performance, Robofurnace is used to develop a rapid CVD recipe for carbon nanotube (CNT) forest growth, achieving a 10-fold improvement in CNT forest mass density compared to a benchmark recipe using a manual tube furnace. In the long run, multiple systems like Robofurnace may be linked to share data among laboratories by methods such as Twitter. Our hope is Robofurnace and like automation will enable machine learning to optimize and discover relationships in complex material synthesis processes

  3. Process-property relationships of SiC chemical vapor deposition in the Si/H/C/O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, C.; Takoudis, C.G.

    1999-01-01

    The thermal, chemical, and physical properties of SiC make it an attractive material for a wide range of applications from wear resistant coatings on tools to high temperature microelectronics operations. A comprehensive thermodynamic analysis has been performed for the Si/H/C/O system from which a priori process-property relationships of the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of silicon carbide (SiC) are obtained. The parameter space for pure silicon carbide growth is reported for five orders of magnitude of the system water vapor level (1 ppb--100 ppm), four orders of magnitude of system pressure (0.1--760 Torr), and two orders of magnitude of C/Si feed ratio (0.25--20) and H 2 /Si feed ratio (50--10,000). Lower growth temperatures for pure SiC are predicted in clean systems with low system water vapor levels, at stoichiometric to near carbon excess conditions (C/Si ≅ 1 to C/Si > 1), at high carrier gas flow rates (large H 2 /Si feed ratios), and at low operating pressures. Because relative C/Si and H 2 /Si feed ratios have been considered, the predictions in this study are applicable to both multiple and single precursor systems. Further, these results are valid for the CVD of α-SiC as well as β-SiC. Experimental data reported on the growth of α-SiC and β-SiC are found to be in satisfactory agreement with the theoretical predictions, for numerous systems that include multiple and single source, silicon and carbon, species

  4. Robofurnace: A semi-automated laboratory chemical vapor deposition system for high-throughput nanomaterial synthesis and process discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, C. Ryan; Westrick, William; Koehler, Jeremy; Brieland-Shoultz, Anna; Anagnostopoulos-Politis, Ilias; Cruz-Gonzalez, Tizoc [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Hart, A. John, E-mail: ajhart@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Laboratory research and development on new materials, such as nanostructured thin films, often utilizes manual equipment such as tube furnaces due to its relatively low cost and ease of setup. However, these systems can be prone to inconsistent outcomes due to variations in standard operating procedures and limitations in performance such as heating and cooling rates restrict the parameter space that can be explored. Perhaps more importantly, maximization of research throughput and the successful and efficient translation of materials processing knowledge to production-scale systems, relies on the attainment of consistent outcomes. In response to this need, we present a semi-automated lab-scale chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace system, called “Robofurnace.” Robofurnace is an automated CVD system built around a standard tube furnace, which automates sample insertion and removal and uses motion of the furnace to achieve rapid heating and cooling. The system has a 10-sample magazine and motorized transfer arm, which isolates the samples from the lab atmosphere and enables highly repeatable placement of the sample within the tube. The system is designed to enable continuous operation of the CVD reactor, with asynchronous loading/unloading of samples. To demonstrate its performance, Robofurnace is used to develop a rapid CVD recipe for carbon nanotube (CNT) forest growth, achieving a 10-fold improvement in CNT forest mass density compared to a benchmark recipe using a manual tube furnace. In the long run, multiple systems like Robofurnace may be linked to share data among laboratories by methods such as Twitter. Our hope is Robofurnace and like automation will enable machine learning to optimize and discover relationships in complex material synthesis processes.

  5. Sediment Transport on Continental Shelves: Storm Bed Formation and Preservation in Heterogeneous Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    occurred during the Cretaceous period. The simulated storm bed for such an extratropical cyclone that lasts 4 days was deposited as deep as 75 m and had...Int. Assoc. Sedimentol. Spec. Publ. (2012) 44, 295-310 Sediment transport on continental shelves: storm bed formation and preservation in...xDept. of Earth Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. Johns, Newfoundland, Canada ABSTRACT Many storm beds are constructed of silt/sand

  6. Deep repository - engineered barrier systems. Assessment of backfill materials and methods for deposition tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnarsson, David; Moren, Lena; Sellin, Patrik; Keto, Paula

    2006-09-01

    The main objectives of this report are to: 1) present density criteria considering deposition tunnels for the investigated backfill materials, 2) evaluate what densities can be achieved with the suggested backfill methods, 3) compare the density criteria to achievable densities, 4) based on this comparison evaluate the safety margin for the combinations of backfill materials and methods and, 5) make recommendations for further investigations and development work. The backfilling methods considered in this report are compaction of backfill material in situ in the tunnel and placement of pre-compacted blocks and pellets. The materials investigated in the second phase of the SKB-Posiva backfilling project can be divided into three main categories: 1. Bentonite clays: two high-grade Na-bentonites from Wyoming (MX-80 and SPV200), one low-grade bentonite from Kutch (India Asha 230), and one high and one low-grade Ca-bentonite from Milos (Deponite CA-N and Milos backfill). The high-grade bentonites are used in different bentonite-ballast mixtures. 2. Smectite-rich mixed-layer clays: one from Dnesice-Plzensko Jih (DPJ) located in the Czech Republic and one from Northern Germany (Friedland clay). Mixtures of bentonite and ballast: Mixtures consisting of high-grade bentonite (0, 40 and 50 w-%) and crushed rock with different type of grain size distribution or sand. The relationships between dry densities and hydraulic conductivity, swelling pressure and compressibility in saturated state for these materials were investigated. Most of the tests were performed with a groundwater salinity of 3.5%. This salinity is comparable to sea water and can be expected to be at the high end of salinities occurring during the assessment period. The purpose of the investigations was to determine the dry densities required to meet the function indicator criteria. These densities are referred to as the density criteria. However throughout the assessment period a loss of material and thus

  7. Deep repository - engineered barrier systems. Assessment of backfill materials and methods for deposition tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, David; Moren, Lena; Sellin, Patrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Keto, Paula [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-09-15

    The main objectives of this report are to: 1) present density criteria considering deposition tunnels for the investigated backfill materials, 2) evaluate what densities can be achieved with the suggested backfill methods, 3) compare the density criteria to achievable densities, 4) based on this comparison evaluate the safety margin for the combinations of backfill materials and methods and, 5) make recommendations for further investigations and development work. The backfilling methods considered in this report are compaction of backfill material in situ in the tunnel and placement of pre-compacted blocks and pellets. The materials investigated in the second phase of the SKB-Posiva backfilling project can be divided into three main categories: 1. Bentonite clays: two high-grade Na-bentonites from Wyoming (MX-80 and SPV200), one low-grade bentonite from Kutch (India Asha 230), and one high and one low-grade Ca-bentonite from Milos (Deponite CA-N and Milos backfill). The high-grade bentonites are used in different bentonite-ballast mixtures. 2. Smectite-rich mixed-layer clays: one from Dnesice-Plzensko Jih (DPJ) located in the Czech Republic and one from Northern Germany (Friedland clay). Mixtures of bentonite and ballast: Mixtures consisting of high-grade bentonite (0, 40 and 50 w-%) and crushed rock with different type of grain size distribution or sand. The relationships between dry densities and hydraulic conductivity, swelling pressure and compressibility in saturated state for these materials were investigated. Most of the tests were performed with a groundwater salinity of 3.5%. This salinity is comparable to sea water and can be expected to be at the high end of salinities occurring during the assessment period. The purpose of the investigations was to determine the dry densities required to meet the function indicator criteria. These densities are referred to as the density criteria. However throughout the assessment period a loss of material and thus

  8. Synchronizing early Eocene deep-sea and continental records - cyclostratigraphic age models for the Bighorn Basin Coring Project drill cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhold, Thomas; Röhl, Ursula; Wilkens, Roy H.; Gingerich, Philip D.; Clyde, William C.; Wing, Scott L.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Kraus, Mary J.

    2018-03-01

    A consistent chronostratigraphic framework is required to understand the effect of major paleoclimate perturbations on both marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Transient global warming events in the early Eocene, at 56-54 Ma, show the impact of large-scale carbon input into the ocean-atmosphere system. Here we provide the first timescale synchronization of continental and marine deposits spanning the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and the interval just prior to the Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM-2). Cyclic variations in geochemical data come from continental drill cores of the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP, Wyoming, USA) and from marine deep-sea drilling deposits retrieved by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). Both are dominated by eccentricity-modulated precession cycles used to construct a common cyclostratigraphic framework. Integration of age models results in a revised astrochronology for the PETM in deep-sea records that is now generally consistent with independent 3He age models. The duration of the PETM is estimated at ˜ 200 kyr for the carbon isotope excursion and ˜ 120 kyr for the associated pelagic clay layer. A common terrestrial and marine age model shows a concurrent major change in marine and terrestrial biota ˜ 200 kyr before ETM-2. In the Bighorn Basin, the change is referred to as Biohorizon B and represents a period of significant mammalian turnover and immigration, separating the upper Haplomylus-Ectocion Range Zone from the Bunophorus Interval Zone and approximating the Wa-4-Wa-5 land mammal zone boundary. In sediments from ODP Site 1262 (Walvis Ridge), major changes in the biota at this time are documented by the radiation of a second generation of apical spine-bearing sphenolith species (e.g., S. radians and S. editus), the emergence of T. orthostylus, and the marked decline of D. multiradiatus.

  9. Chemically deposited TiO2/CdS bilayer system for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FTO/TiO2/CdS bilayers system showed improved performance of PEC properties over individual ... form distribution of nanocrystalline CdS on TiO2 and this is unfavourable for the ... (TEA), the pH of the solution maintained at 12·0 by drop.

  10. Action mechanism of hydrogen gas on deposition of HfC coating using HfCl{sub 4}-CH{sub 4}-H{sub 2}-Ar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yalei, E-mail: yaleipm@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Li, Zehao [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Xiong, Xiang, E-mail: xiongx@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Li, Xiaobin [School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Chen, Zhaoke; Sun, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • HfC coatings were deposited on C/C composites by LPCVD using HfCl4-CH4-H2-Ar system. • Action mechanism of H2 on structure and growth behavior of HfC coating was studied. • Increased H2 concentration leads to transformation in growth mechanism of coating. - Abstract: Hafnium carbide coatings were deposited on carbon/carbon composites by low pressure chemical vapor deposition using HfCl{sub 4}-CH{sub 4}-H{sub 2}-Ar system. The microstructure, mechanical and ablation resistance performance of HfC coatings deposited with various H{sub 2} concentrations were investigated. The effect of hydrogen gas on the deposition of HfC coating was also discussed. Results show that all of the deposited coatings are composed of single cubic HfC phase, the hydrogen gas acted as a crucial role in determining the preferred orientation, microstructure and growth behavior of HfC coatings. During the deposition process, the gas phase supersaturation of the reaction species can be controlled by adjusting the hydrogen gas concentration. When deposited with low hydrogen gas concentration, the coating growth was dominated by the nucleation of HfC, which results in the particle-stacked structure of HfC coating. Otherwise, the coating growth was dominated by the crystal growth at high hydrogen gas concentration, which leads to the column-arranged structure of HfC coating. Under the ablation environment, the coating C2 exhibits better configurational stability and ablation resistance. The coating structure has a significant influence on the mechanical and ablation resistance properties of HfC coating.

  11. Contributions to knowledge of the continental margin of Uruguay. Uruguayan continental margin: Physiographic and seismic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F

    2014-01-01

    This work is about the kind of continental margins such as a )Atlantic type passive margins which can be hard or soft b) An active or Pacific margins that because of the very frequent earthquakes develop a morphology dominated by tectonic processes. The Uruguayan continental margin belongs to a soft Atlantic margin

  12. Reliability estimation system: its application to the nuclear geophysical sampling of ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaykovich, I.M.; Savosin, S.I.

    1992-01-01

    The reliability estimation system accepted in the Soviet Union for sampling data in nuclear geophysics is based on unique requirements in metrology and methodology. It involves estimating characteristic errors in calibration, as well as errors in measurement and interpretation. This paper describes the methods of estimating the levels of systematic and random errors at each stage of the problem. The data of nuclear geophysics sampling are considered to be reliable if there are no statistically significant, systematic differences between ore intervals determined by this method and by geological control, or by other methods of sampling; the reliability of the latter having been verified. The difference between the random errors is statistically insignificant. The system allows one to obtain information on the parameters of ore intervals with a guaranteed random error and without systematic errors. (Author)

  13. Hybrid plasma system for magnetron deposition of coatings with ion assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavilin, K V; Kralkina, E A; Nekludova, P A; Petrov, A. K; Nikonov, A M; Pavlov, V B; Airapetov, A A; Odinokov, V V; Pavlov, G Ya; Sologub, V A

    2016-01-01

    The results of the study of the plasma hybrid system based on the combined magnetron discharge and high-frequency inductive discharge located in the external magnetic field is presented. Magnetron discharge provides the generation of atoms and ions of the target materials while the flow of accelerated ions used for the ion assistance is provided by the RF inductive discharge. An external magnetic field is used to optimize the power input to the discharge, to increase the ion current density in the realm of substrate and to enhance the area of uniform plasma. The joint operation of magnetron and RF inductive discharge leads to a substantial increase (not equal to the sum of the parameters obtained under separate operation of two hybrid system channels) of the ion current density and intensity of sputtered material spectral lines radiation. Optimal mode of the hybrid plasma system operation provides uniform ion current density on the diameter of at least 150mm at 0.7PA argon pressure. The optimal values of the magnetic fields in the region of the substrate location lie in the range 2-8 mTl, while in the region of the RF input power unit lie in the range 0.5-25 mTl. (paper)

  14. Market Discipline and Deposit Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Peresetsky, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines Russian banks’ household deposit interest rates for the transition period of setting up the deposit insurance system. Monthly observations of Russian banks’ interest rates and balance sheets are used in a fixed effects panel data model. It is shown market discipline has been significantly diminished after switching to the deposit insurance.

  15. Seabed geology of the Canadian eastern continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, David J. W.

    1991-08-01

    The physiography of the continental shelf off eastern Canada is irregular, developed by glacial erosion of a previously fluvially-dominated landscape. Northern shelves are deeper than southern shelves. Most surficial sediments on the shelf are relict or palimpsest. The principal modern source of sediment to the northern shelves is ice rafting and iceberg scour reworking of Quaternary sediments. Southern shelves receive sediment through erosion of Quaternary sediments; only small amounts of fine-grained sediment derived from coastal erosion and rivers escape from the coastal zone. Regional maps of sediment texture, carbonate content and heavy mineralogy consequently show differences between the northern and southern shelves. Large areas of the shelf show little net deposition. On the northern shelves, there is a surface veneer up to 0.5 m thick derived from ice rafting and iceberg turbation of underlying Quaternary sediment, modified by south-flowing currents [ WOODWORTH-LYNASet al. (this issue) Continental Shelf Research, 11, 939-961]. The overall effects of former iceberg turbation may extend to a depth of 10 m sub-bottom. On the southern shelves, bioturbation and perhaps storm-related currents rework exposed Quaternary sediments more slowly. Muds accumulate in deep basins on the shelves at rates of about 0.5 m per 1000 years; this accumulation is probably episodic and related to major storms reworking sediment from the surface sediment veneer in shallower areas of little net deposition. In water depths less than 110 m sand and gravel have formed as a result of reworking in the coastal zone during the post-glacial transgression. Over large areas of Georges Bank, the eastern Scotian Shelf and the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, such sands are mobilized during storms to form a wide suite of bedforms [ AMOS and JUDGE (this issue) Continental Shelf Research, 11, 1037-1068]. Elsewhere, particularly in deeper water, sandy surfaces appear moribund or inactive and large

  16. Quartz dissolution and silica deposition in hot-dry-rock geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, B.A.

    1982-07-01

    The kinetics of quartz dissolution control the produced fluid dissolved silica concentration in geothermal systems in which the downhole residence time is finite. The produced fluid of the Phase I, Run Segment 5 experimental Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal system at Fenton Hill, NM, was undersaturated with respect to quartz in one pass through the reservoir, suggesting that the rate of granite dissolution governed the outlet dissolved silica concentration in this system. The literature data for the rate of quartz dissolution in water from 65 to 625/sup 0/C is correlated using an empirical rate law which is first order in quartz surface area and degree of undersaturation of the fluid. The Arrhenius plot (ln k vs T/sup -1/) is linear over eight orders of magnitude of the rate constant, verifying the validity of the proposed rate expression. Carefully performed quartz dissolution experiments in the present study duplicated the literature data and completed the data base in the temperature range from 150 to 250/sup 0/C. Identical experiments using crushed granite indicate that the rate of quartz dissolution in the presence of granite could be as much as 1 to 2 orders of magnitude faster than the rates observed in the pure quartz experiments. A temperature dependent HDR reservoir model incorporates the quartz dissolution rate law to simulate the dissolved silica behavior during the Fenton Hill Run Segment 5 experiment. For this low-permeability, fracture-dominated reservoir, the assumptions of one-dimensional plug flow through a vertically-inclined rectangular fracture and one-dimensional rock heat conduction perpendicular to the direction of flow are employed. These simplifications lead to an analytical solution for the temperature field in the reservoir.

  17. Research of the multibarrier system for an underground deposition of radioactive wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Šofranko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals in brief with research problems of multiple protection barrier systems for an underground storage of highly radioactive waste in connection with the problem of resolving a definite liquidation of this waste. This problem has a worlwide importance and is comprehensively investigated, evaluated and resolved in many well accepted research centers. Present the experts agree, that the most suitable way of the long-lived radioactive wastes liquidation is their storage into suitable underground geological formations. The core insulation of radioactive wastes from the biosphere for an extremly long time can be achieved by using a technical isolation barrier in combination with an appropriate rock mass.

  18. Comparative Riftology: Insights into the Evolution of Passive Continental Margins and Continental Rifts from the Failed Midcontinent Rift (MCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elling, R. P.; Stein, C. A.; Stein, S.; Kley, J.; Keller, G. R.; Wysession, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Continental rifts evolve to seafloor spreading and are preserved in passive margins, or fail and remain as fossil features in continents. Rifts at different stages give insight into these evolutionary paths. Of particular interest is the evolution of volcanic passive margins, which are characterized by seaward dipping reflectors, volcanic rocks yielding magnetic anomalies landward of the oldest spreading anomalies, and are underlain by high-velocity lower crustal bodies. How and when these features form remains unclear. Insights are given by the Midcontinent Rift (MCR), which began to form during the 1.1 Ga rifting of Amazonia from Laurentia, but failed when seafloor spreading was established elsewhere. MCR volcanics are much thicker than other continental flood basalts, due to deposition in a narrow rift rather than a broad region, giving a rift's geometry but a LIP's magma volume. The MCR provides a snapshot of the deposition of a thick and highly magnetized volcanic section during rifting. Surface exposures and reflection seismic data near Lake Superior show a rift basin filled by inward-dipping flood basalt layers. Had the rift evolved to seafloor spreading, the basin would have split into two sets of volcanics with opposite-facing SDRs, each with a magnetic anomaly. Because the rift formed as a series of alternating half-grabens, structural asymmetries between conjugate margins would have naturally occurred had it gone to completion. Hence the MCR implies that many passive margin features form prior to seafloor spreading. Massive inversion of the MCR long after it failed has provided a much clearer picture of its structure compared to failed rifts with lesser degrees of inversion. Seismic imaging as well as gravity and magnetic modeling provide important insight into the effects of inversion on failed rifts. The MCR provides an end member for the evolution of actively extending rifts, characterized by upwelling mantle and negative gravity anomalies, to failed

  19. Physical properties and radiometric age estimates of surficial and fracture-fill deposits along a portion of the Carpetbag fault system, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shroba, R.R.; Muhs, D.R.; Rosholt, J.N.

    1988-07-01

    Surficial deposits and fracture-fill deposits (fracture fillings that consist chiefly of calcium carbonate-cemented, pebbly sand) were studied along a 2.5-km-long portion of the Carpetbag fault system in an area characterized by prominent, explosion-produced scarps and a shallow graben that formed during and subsequent to the 1970 Carpetbag nuclear event in the northwestern part of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site. The surficial deposits are fluvial and slopewash deposits and mixed eolian sediment that range in grain size from pebble gravel to silty sand. These deposits have been modified by the accumulation of varying amounts of pedogenic silt, clay, calcium carbonate, and probably opaline silica. Despite the occurrence of ancient fractures and linear features on aerial photographs, that are near and parallel to subsurface faults of the Carpetbag system, no other evidence for prehistoric surface faulting was observed in the study area. The lack of prehistoric fault scarps and the lack of offset of stratigraphic contacts exposed in trench excavations suggest that no significant vertical surface displacement has occurred on the Carpetbag system during the past 125,000 years and possible during the past 350,000 years. 39 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs

  20. Arsenic mobilization in a freshening groundwater system formed within glaciomarine deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, R.; Kirste, D.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic release to groundwater and conditions favoring As mobility are investigated in a system of aquifers formed within unconsolidated Quaternary sediments. The studied groundwater system is comprised of unconfined aquifers formed in glaciofluvial sediments with Ca–Mg–HCO 3 groundwater, and confined aquifers formed within glaciomarine sediments with high As (above 10 μg/L) Na–HCO 3 or Na–Cl groundwater. A positive relationship of As concentrations with the Na/(Ca + Mg) ratio of groundwater indicates that As release occurs in glaciomarine sediments concurrent to cation exchange reactions related to groundwater freshening. Arsenic is mobile in confined aquifers as a result of groundwater basic pH which prevents arsenate from adsorbing to mineral surfaces, and reducing conditions that favor speciation to arsenite. Selected extractions applied to sediment core samples indicate that As occurs in sediments predominantly in sulfide minerals and in Mn oxides and/or Fe oxyhydroxides. General positive relationships between As and the reduced species Fe 2+ , NH 3 and dissolved S 2− suggest that As release occurs at increasingly reducing conditions. Despite likely As release via Fe oxyhydroxide reductive dissolution, Fe remains at relatively low concentrations in groundwater (up to 0.37 mg/L) as a result of possible Fe adsorption and Fe reprecipitation as carbonate minerals favored by basic pH and high alkalinity. The presence of S 2− in some samples, a negative relationship between δ 34 S of SO 4 and SO 4 2- concentrations, and a positive relationship between δ 34 S and δ 18 O of SO 4 indicate that groundwater in confined aquifers is undergoing bacterial SO 4 reduction.

  1. Reconstruction of a saline, lacustrine carbonate system (Priabonian, St-Chaptes Basin, SE France): Depositional models, paleogeographic and paleoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettéron, Alexandre; Hamon, Youri; Fournier, François; Séranne, Michel; Pellenard, Pierre; Joseph, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    A 220-m thick carbonate-dominated succession has been deposited in shallow-water, saline lake environments during the early to middle Priabonian (MP17A-MP18 mammal zones) in the Saint-Chaptes Basin (south-east France). The palaeoenvironmental, paleoclimatic and palaeogeographic significance of such saline lake carbonates has been deciphered on the basis of a multi-proxy analyses including: 1) depositional and diagenetic features; 2) biological components (molluscs, benthic foraminifera, characean gyrogonites, spores and pollens); 3) carbon and oxygen stable isotopes; 4) trace elements; and 5) clay mineralogy. Five stages of lacustrine system evolution have been identified: 1) fresh-water closed lake under dry climate (unit U1); 2) fresh to brackish water lacustrine deltaic system with a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation under relatively wet climatic conditions (unit U2); 3) salt-water lacustrine carbonate system under humid climatic setting (unit U3); 4) evaporitic lake (unit U4); and 5) closed lake with shallow-water carbonate sedimentation under subtropical to Mediterranean climate with dry seasons (unit U5). Upper Eocene aridification is evidenced to have started as early as the earliest Priabonian (unit U1: MP17A mammal zone). A change from humid to dryer climatic conditions is recorded between units U3 and U4. The early to middle Priabonian saline lake is interpreted as an athalassic (inland) lake that have been transiently connected with neighboring salt lakes influenced by seawater and/or fed with sulfates deriving from recycling of evaporites. Maximum of connection with neighboring saline lakes (Mormoiron Basin, Camargue and Central grabens, Hérault Basin) likely occurred during unit U3 and at the base of unit U5. The most likely sources of salts of these adjacent basins are: 1) Triassic evaporites derived from salt-diapirs (Rhône valley) or from paleo-outcrops located east of the Durance fault or offshore in the Gulf of Lion; or 2) marine

  2. Records of continental slope sediment flow morphodynamic responses to gradient and active faulting from integrated AUV and ROV data, offshore Palos Verdes, southern California Borderland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Katherine L.; Brothers, Daniel; Paull, Charles K.; McGann, Mary; Caress, David W.; Conrad, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Variations in seabed gradient are widely acknowledged to influence deep-water deposition, but are often difficult to measure in sufficient detail from both modern and ancient examples. On the continental slope offshore Los Angeles, California, autonomous underwater vehicle, remotely operated vehicle, and shipboard methods were used to collect a dense grid of high-resolution multibeam bathymetry, chirp sub-bottom profiles, and targeted sediment core samples that demonstrate the influence of seafloor gradient on sediment accumulation, depositional environment, grain size of deposits, and seafloor morphology. In this setting, restraining and releasing bends along the active right-lateral Palos Verdes Fault create and maintain variations in seafloor gradient. Holocene down-slope flows appear to have been generated by slope failure, primarily on the uppermost slope (~ 100–200 m water depth). Turbidity currents created a low relief (water depositional systems. These results help to bridge gaps in scale between existing deep-sea and experimental datasets and may provide constraints for future numerical modeling studies.

  3. PECVD-ONO: A New Deposited Firing Stable Rear Surface Passivation Layer System for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hofmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited (PECVD stack layer system consisting of a-SiOx:H, a-SiNx:H, and a-SiOx:H is presented for silicon solar cell rear side passivation. Surface recombination velocities below 60 cm/s (after firing and below 30 cm/s (after forming gas anneal were achieved. Solar cell precursors without front and rear metallisation showed implied open-circuit voltages Voc values extracted from quasi-steady-state photoconductance (QSSPC measurements above 680 mV. Fully finished solar cells with up to 20.0% energy conversion efficiency are presented. A fit of the cell's internal quantum efficiency using software tool PC1D and a comparison to a full-area aluminium-back surface field (Al-BSF and thermal SiO2 is shown. PECVD-ONO was found to be clearly superior to Al-BSF. A separation of recombination at the metallised and the passivated area at the solar cell's rear is presented using the equations of Fischer and Kray. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA has been used to evaluate the hydrogen depth profile of the passivation layer system at different stages.

  4. Constraints on the depositional age and tectonometamorphic evolution of marbles from the Biharia Nappe System (Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiser Martin Kaspar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Basement rocks from the Biharia Nappe System in the Apuseni Mountains comprise several dolomite and calcite marble sequences or lenses which experienced deformation and metamorphic overprint during the Alpine orogeny. New Sr, O and C-isotope data in combination with considerations from the lithological sequences indicate Middle to Late Triassic deposition of calcite marbles from the Vulturese-Belioara Series (Biharia Nappe s.str.. Ductile deformation and large-scale folding of the siliciclastic and carbonatic lithologies is attributed to NW-directed nappe stacking during late Early Cretaceous times (D2. The studied marble sequences experienced a metamorphic overprint under lower greenschist- facies conditions (316-370 °C based on calcite - dolomite geothermometry during this tectonic event. Other marble sequences from the Biharia Nappe System (i.e. Vidolm and Baia de Arieș nappes show similarities in the stratigraphic sequence and their isotope signature, together with a comparable structural position close to nappe contact. However, the dataset is not concise enough to allow for a definitive attribution of a Mesozoic origin to other marble sequences than the Vulturese-Belioara Series.

  5. MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemouel, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.

    1981-01-01

    Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

  6. The fate of eroded soil organic carbon along a European transect – controls after deposition in terrestrial and aquatic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkels, Frédérique; Cammeraat, Erik; Kalbitz, Karsten

    that the turnover of deposited C is significantly affected by soil and organic matter properties, and whether deposition occurs in terrestrial or aquatic environments. We sampled topsoils from 10 agricultural sites along a European transect, spanning a wide range of SOC and soil characteristics (e.g. texture......The potential fate of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC) after deposition is key to understand carbon cycling in eroding landscapes. Globally, large quantities of sediments and SOC are redistributed by soil erosion on agricul-tural land, particularly after heavy precipitation events. Deposition......, aggregation, C content, etc.). Turnover of SOC was determined for terrestrial and aquatic depositional conditions in a 10-week incubation study. Moreover, we studied the impact of labile carbon inputs (‘priming’) on SOC stability using 13C labelled cellulose. We evaluated potentially important controls...

  7. Investigation of Deposit Formation Mechanisms for Engine In-cylinder Combustion and Exhaust Systems Using Quantitative Analysis and Sustainability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Z.; Meng, Q.; Mohamadian, H. P.; Wang, J. T.; Chen, L.; Zhu, L.

    2007-06-01

    The formation of SI engine combustion deposits is a complex phenomenon which depends on various factors of fuel, oil, additives, and engine. The goal of this study is to examine the effects of operating conditions, gasoline, lubricating oil, and additives on deposit formation. Both an experimental investigation and theoretical analysis are conducted on a single cylinder engine. As a result, the impact of deposits on engine performance and exhaust emissions (HC, NO x ) has been indicated. Using samples from a cylinder head and exhaust pipe as well as switching gases via the dual-gas method (N2, O2), the deposit formation mechanism is thoroughly investigated via the thermogravity analysis approach, where the roles of organic, inorganic, and volatile components of fuel, additives, and oil on deposit formation are identified from thermogravity curves. Sustainable feedback control design is then proposed for potential emission control and performance optimization

  8. Large-scale subduction of continental crust implied by India-Asia mass-balance calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, Miquela; Rowley, David B.; Currie, Brian; Colman, Albert S.

    2016-11-01

    Continental crust is buoyant compared with its oceanic counterpart and resists subduction into the mantle. When two continents collide, the mass balance for the continental crust is therefore assumed to be maintained. Here we use estimates of pre-collisional crustal thickness and convergence history derived from plate kinematic models to calculate the crustal mass balance in the India-Asia collisional system. Using the current best estimates for the timing of the diachronous onset of collision between India and Eurasia, we find that about 50% of the pre-collisional continental crustal mass cannot be accounted for in the crustal reservoir preserved at Earth's surface today--represented by the mass preserved in the thickened crust that makes up the Himalaya, Tibet and much of adjacent Asia, as well as southeast Asian tectonic escape and exported eroded sediments. This implies large-scale subduction of continental crust during the collision, with a mass equivalent to about 15% of the total oceanic crustal subduction flux since 56 million years ago. We suggest that similar contamination of the mantle by direct input of radiogenic continental crustal materials during past continent-continent collisions is reflected in some ocean crust and ocean island basalt geochemistry. The subduction of continental crust may therefore contribute significantly to the evolution of mantle geochemistry.

  9. Nature, diversity of deposit types and metallogenic relations of South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, K.; Peters, S.G.; Cromie, P.; Burrett, C.; Hou, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The South China Region is rich in mineral resources and has a wide diversity of deposit types. The region has undergone multiple tectonic and magmatic events and related metallogenic processes throughout the earth history. These tectonic and metallogenic processes were responsible for the formation of the diverse styles of base and precious metal deposits in South China making it one of the resource-rich regions in the world. During the Proterozoic, the South China Craton was characterised by rifting of continental margin before eruption of submarine volcanics and development of platform carbonate rocks, and the formation of VHMS, stratabound copper and MVT deposits. The Phanerozoic metallogeny of South China was related to opening and closing of the Tethyan Ocean involving multiple orogenies by subduction, back-arc rifting, arc-continent collision and post-collisional extension during the Indosinian (Triassic), Yanshanian (Jurassic to Cretaceous) and Himalayan (Tertiary) Orogenies. The Late Palaeozoic was a productive metallogenic period for South China resulting from break-up and rifting of Gondwana. Significant stratabound base and precious metal deposits were formed during the Devonian and Carboniferous (e.g., Fankou and Dabaoshan deposits). These Late Palaeozoic SEDEX-style deposits have been often overprinted by skarn systems associated with Yanshanian magmatism (e.g., Chengmenshan, Dongguashan and Qixiashan). A number of Late Palaeozoic to Early Mesozoic VHMS deposits also developed in the Sanjiang fold belt in the western part of South China (e.g., Laochang and Gacun). South China has significant sedimentary rock-hosted Carlin-like deposits, which occur in the Devonian- to Triassic-aged accretionary wedge or rift basins at the margin of the South China Craton. They are present in a region at the junction of Yunnan, Guizhou, and Guangxi Provinces called the 'Southern Golden Triangle', and are also present in NW Sichuan, Gansu and Shaanxi, in an area known as

  10. Electrical properties of GaAs metal–oxide–semiconductor structure comprising Al2O3 gate oxide and AlN passivation layer fabricated in situ using a metal–organic vapor deposition/atomic layer deposition hybrid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Aoki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a compressive study on the fabrication and optimization of GaAs metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS structures comprising a Al2O3 gate oxide, deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD, with an AlN interfacial passivation layer prepared in situ via metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD. The established protocol afforded self-limiting growth of Al2O3 in the atmospheric MOCVD reactor. Consequently, this enabled successive growth of MOCVD-formed AlN and ALD-formed Al2O3 layers on the GaAs substrate. The effects of AlN thickness, post-deposition anneal (PDA conditions, and crystal orientation of the GaAs substrate on the electrical properties of the resulting MOS capacitors were investigated. Thin AlN passivation layers afforded incorporation of optimum amounts of nitrogen, leading to good capacitance–voltage (C–V characteristics with reduced frequency dispersion. In contrast, excessively thick AlN passivation layers degraded the interface, thereby increasing the interfacial density of states (Dit near the midgap and reducing the conduction band offset. To further improve the interface with the thin AlN passivation layers, the PDA conditions were optimized. Using wet nitrogen at 600 °C was effective to reduce Dit to below 2 × 1012 cm−2 eV−1. Using a (111A substrate was also effective in reducing the frequency dispersion of accumulation capacitance, thus suggesting the suppression of traps in GaAs located near the dielectric/GaAs interface. The current findings suggest that using an atmosphere ALD process with in situ AlN passivation using the current MOCVD system could be an efficient solution to improving GaAs MOS interfaces.

  11. Development of data processing system for regional geophysical and geochemical exploration of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits based on ArcGIS Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Shaoyang; Ke Dan; Hou Huiqun; Hu Shuiqing

    2010-01-01

    According to the data processing need of geophysical and geochemical exploration of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits, the function design of the regional geophysical and geochemical data processing system is completed in the paper. The geophysical and geochemical data processing software with powerful functions is also developed based on ArcGIS Engine which remedies the shortage of GIS software for performing the geophysical and geochemical data processing. The development technique route of system software and key techniques are introduced, and the development processes of system software are showed through some development examples. Application practices indicate that the interface of developed system software with friendly interface and utility functions, may quickly perform the data processing of regional geophysical and geochemical exploration and provide the helpful deep information for predicting metallogenic prospective areas of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits. The system software is of a great application foreground. (authors)

  12. Considering bioactivity in modelling continental growth and the Earth's evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höning, D.; Spohn, T.

    2013-09-01

    The complexity of planetary evolution increases with the number of interacting reservoirs. On Earth, even the biosphere is speculated to interact with the interior. It has been argued (e.g., Rosing et al. 2006; Sleep et al, 2012) that the formation of continents could be a consequence of bioactivity harvesting solar energy through photosynthesis to help build the continents and that the mantle should carry a chemical biosignature. Through plate tectonics, the surface biosphere can impact deep subduction zone processes and the interior of the Earth. Subducted sediments are particularly important, because they influence the Earth's interior in several ways, and in turn are strongly influenced by the Earth's biosphere. In our model, we use the assumption that a thick sedimentary layer of low permeability on top of the subducting oceanic crust, caused by a biologically enhanced weathering rate, can suppress shallow dewatering. This in turn leads to greater vailability of water in the source region of andesitic partial melt, resulting in an enhanced rate of continental production and regassing rate into the mantle. Our model includes (i) mantle convection, (ii) continental erosion and production, and (iii) mantle water degassing at mid-ocean ridges and regassing at subduction zones. The mantle viscosity of our model depends on (i) the mantle water concentration and (ii) the mantle temperature, whose time dependency is given by radioactive decay of isotopes in the Earth's mantle. Boundary layer theory yields the speed of convection and the water outgassing rate of the Earth's mantle. Our results indicate that present day values of continental surface area and water content of the Earth's mantle represent an attractor in a phase plane spanned by both parameters. We show that the biologic enhancement of the continental erosion rate is important for the system to reach this fixed point. An abiotic Earth tends to reach an alternative stable fixed point with a smaller

  13. Radioisotope distribution characteristics of the groundwater system in volcanic-type U deposits and isotope-dating estimation of the system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bingguan

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of groundwater sample measurements collected from the uranogenic belt of Mesozoic volcanic rocks in East China, the distribution characteristics of radioisotopes, including the total U content (CΣu), the activity of nuclides (Aui) or their activity ratio (ARu) and the relationship among the three ((Aui,ARu)=f(CΣu)), have been studied. Also, it is performed for radioactive water halos in the area to be divided into four various mineralization tendencies: (1) the convergent tendency of negative correlation, which has the genetic relationship with the primary U accumulation in volcanic rocks; (2) the scattered tendency of positive correlation, which is intimately related to epigenetic U mineralization in the supergene zone of volcanic rocks or in the sandstones; (3) the both positive and negative multiple-correlative tendency, which indicates that the primary volcanic-type U deposit has been leached and destroyed, and the secondary U enrichment has occurred within the supergene zone; (4) non-correlative tendency, which mainly results from increasing dispersion U. For the above recognitions, an evolution model for radioactive water halos related to this type of U deposit has been derived, and an attempt to estimate the radioisotopic age of the groundwater system also has been made. (author). 14 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  14. New understanding in genesis of uranium deposit Bashblak in tarim basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Mingkuan; Zhao Ruiquan

    2000-01-01

    Using metallogenic theory of hydrogenic uranium deposit and theory of oil-gas reduction, the author makes a re-recognition of the metallogenic mechanism of the biggest uranium deposit in Tarim basin--uranium deposit Bashblak in order to give some reference guide in the prospecting for in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits in the biggest intra-continental basin in China--Tarim basin

  15. Uranium-series dating of Quaternary deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarcz, H.; Gascoyne, M.

    1984-01-01

    In view of the interest in the problem of time scales in geomorphology it is fortunate that there exists a number of geochronometers applicable to the measurement of the age of such young deposits. This paper is specifically devoted to those which arise from the disequilibrium between the daughter isotopes of U-238 and U-235, and their respective parents. The authors describe applications to Quaternary continental deposits that can give information about climatic change (travertine, lacrustine limestones, pedogenic carbonates, detrinal sediments, volcanic rocks). (Auth.)

  16. Macromammalian faunas, biochronology and palaeoecology of the early Pleistocene Main Quarry hominin-bearing deposits of the Drimolen Palaeocave System, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Justin W; Rovinsky, Douglass S; Herries, Andy I R; Menter, Colin G

    2016-01-01

    The Drimolen Palaeocave System Main Quarry deposits (DMQ) are some of the most prolific hominin and primate-bearing deposits in the Fossil Hominids of South Africa UNESCO World Heritage Site. Discovered in the 1990s, excavations into the DMQ have yielded a demographically diverse sample of Paranthropus robustus (including DNH 7, the most complete cranium of the species recovered to date), early Homo, Papio hamadryas robinsoni and Cercopithecoides williamsi. Alongside the hominin and primate sample is a diverse macromammalian assemblage, but prior publications have only provided a provisional species list and an analysis of the carnivores recovered prior to 2008. Here we present the first description and analysis of the non-primate macromammalian faunas from the DMQ, including all 826 taxonomically identifiable specimens catalogued from over two decades of excavation. We also provide a biochronological interpretation of the DMQ deposits and an initial discussion of local palaeoecology based on taxon representation.The current DMQ assemblage consists of the remains of minimally 147 individuals from 9 Orders and 14 Families of mammals. The carnivore assemblage described here is even more diverse than established in prior publications, including the identification of Megantereon whitei, Lycyaenops silberbergi, and first evidence for the occurrence of Dinofelis cf. barlowi and Dinofelis aff. piveteaui within a single South African site deposit. The cetartiodactyl assemblage is dominated by bovids, with the specimen composition unique in the high recovery of horn cores and dominance of Antidorcas recki remains. Other cetartiodactyl and perissodactyl taxa are represented by few specimens, as are Hystrix and Procavia; the latter somewhat surprisingly so given their common occurrence at penecontemporaneous deposits in the region. Equally unusual (particularly given the size of the sample) is the identification of single specimens of giraffoid, elephantid and aardvark

  17. Macromammalian faunas, biochronology and palaeoecology of the early Pleistocene Main Quarry hominin-bearing deposits of the Drimolen Palaeocave System, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin W. Adams

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Drimolen Palaeocave System Main Quarry deposits (DMQ are some of the most prolific hominin and primate-bearing deposits in the Fossil Hominids of South Africa UNESCO World Heritage Site. Discovered in the 1990s, excavations into the DMQ have yielded a demographically diverse sample of Paranthropus robustus (including DNH 7, the most complete cranium of the species recovered to date, early Homo, Papio hamadryas robinsoni and Cercopithecoides williamsi. Alongside the hominin and primate sample is a diverse macromammalian assemblage, but prior publications have only provided a provisional species list and an analysis of the carnivores recovered prior to 2008. Here we present the first description and analysis of the non-primate macromammalian faunas from the DMQ, including all 826 taxonomically identifiable specimens catalogued from over two decades of excavation. We also provide a biochronological interpretation of the DMQ deposits and an initial discussion of local palaeoecology based on taxon representation.The current DMQ assemblage consists of the remains of minimally 147 individuals from 9 Orders and 14 Families of mammals. The carnivore assemblage described here is even more diverse than established in prior publications, including the identification of Megantereon whitei, Lycyaenops silberbergi, and first evidence for the occurrence of Dinofelis cf. barlowi and Dinofelis aff. piveteaui within a single South African site deposit. The cetartiodactyl assemblage is dominated by bovids, with the specimen composition unique in the high recovery of horn cores and dominance of Antidorcas recki remains. Other cetartiodactyl and perissodactyl taxa are represented by few specimens, as are Hystrix and Procavia; the latter somewhat surprisingly so given their common occurrence at penecontemporaneous deposits in the region. Equally unusual (particularly given the size of the sample is the identification of single specimens of giraffoid, elephantid

  18. Coordination: Southeast Continental Shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    An overview of the Oceanograhic Program of Skidaway Institute of Oceanograhy is presented. Included are the current five year plan for studies of the Southeast Continental Shelf, a summary of research accomplishments, proposed research for 1981-1982, current status of the Savannah Navigational Light Tower, and a list of publications. (ACR)

  19. Mud depocenters on continental shelves—appearance, initiation times, and growth dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Lantzsch, Hendrik; Nizou, Jean

    2015-12-01

    Mud accumulates on continental shelves under a variety of environmental conditions and results in a diverse formation of mud depocenters (MDCs). Their three-dimensional architectures have been in the focus of several recent studies. Due to some terminological confusion concerning MDCs, the present study sets out to define eight individual MDC types in terms of surface sediment distribution and internal geometry. Under conditions of substantial sediment supply, prodeltas (distal zones off river deltas; triangular sheets), subaqueous deltas (disconnected from deltas by strong normal-to-shore currents; wedge-like clinoforms), and mud patches (scattered distribution) and mud blankets (widespread covers) are formed. Forced by hydrodynamic conditions, mud belts in the strict sense (detached from source; elongated bodies), and shallow-water contourite drifts (detached from source; growing normal to prevailing current direction; triangular clinoforms) develop. Controlled by local morphology, mud entrapments (in depressions, behind morphological steps) and mud wedges (triangular clinoforms growing in flow direction) are deposited. Shelf mud deposition took place (1) during early outer-shelf drowning (~14 ka), (2) after inner-shelf inundation to maximum flooding (9.5-6.5 ka), and (3) in sub-recent times (near the fluvial source, (2) uni-directional, extending along advective current transport paths, and (3) progradational, forming clinoforms that grow either parallel or normal to the bottom current direction. Classical mud belts may be initiated around defined nuclei, the remote sites of which are determined by seafloor morphology rather than the location of the source. From a stratigraphic perspective, mud depocenters coincide with sea-level highstand-related, shelf-wide condensed sections. They often show a conformable succession from transgressive to highstand systems tract stages.

  20. Evaluation of iron deposits in the reticuloendothelial system using T2-relaxation rate of MRI. Relation with serum ferritin and Fe concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Kae; Togami, Izumi; Kitagawa, Takahiro

    1996-01-01

    MR imaging is a useful non-invasive technique to detect iron deposits in many organs, but it is difficult to evaluate quantitatively. This study was performed to determine the possibility whether T2 relaxation rate (1/T2) could quantify iron deposits in the reticuloendothelial system (liver, spleen and bone marrow) of 11 patients and four normal volunteers. A moderate correlation was obtained between T2-relaxation rate and the serum ferritin level. These results suggest that T2-relaxation rate may provide useful information for the repeated quantitative evaluation of patients with iron-overload-syndromes. (author)

  1. Delivery of albuterol and ipratropium bromide from two nebulizer systems in chronic stable asthma. Efficacy and pulmonary deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.A.; Newman, S.P.; Bloom, R.; Talaee, N.; Clarke, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Bronchodilator responses to both nebulized albuterol (salbutamol) and ipratropium bromide and aerosol delivery to the tracheobronchial tree have been assessed in eight patients with chronic stable asthma (mean baseline FEV1, 50 percent; reversibility greater than 20 percent). Two commercially available nebulizer systems were used, namely, a Turret nebulizer operated at a compressed gas flow rate of 12 L/min (droplet MMD, 3.3 mu) and an Inspiron nebulizer driven at 6 L/min (MMD, 7.7 mu). Albuterol was given as doses of 250 micrograms, 250 micrograms, 500 micrograms, and 1,000 micrograms (cumulative dose, 2 mg) and ipratropium bromide as doses of 50 micrograms, 50 micrograms, 100 micrograms, and 200 micrograms (cumulative dose, 400 micrograms) at intervals of 35 minutes. For albuterol, bronchodilatation was significantly (p less than 0.05) greater at all dosage levels with the Turret. For ipratropium, bronchodilatation was similar for both nebulizers. Measurements of aerosol deposition using 99m Tc-labelled pentetic acid (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid; DTPA) showed that 9.1 +/- 1.1 percent and 2.7 +/- 0.2 percent of the dose reached the lungs during nebulization to dryness for Turret and Inspiron, respectively (p less than 0.01); distribution within the lungs was similar for the two aerosols. Selection of nebulizer apparatus can influence delivery of aerosol and subsequent bronchodilator response to albuterol in patients with chronic stable asthma but is less important for aerosol delivery of ipratropium bromide in these patients

  2. Oxygen isotope mapping and evaluation of paleo-hydrothermal systems associated with synvolcanic intrusion and VMS deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, B.E

    2001-01-01

    Whole-rock oxygen isotope mapping provides a useful method for the delineation and quantitative evaluation of paleo-hydrothermal systems associated with syn-volcanic intrusions and volcanic-associated massive sulfide (VMS) deposits. During the course of a four-year study of regional alteration systems associated with VMS Deposits, four syn-volcanic intrusive complexes in Canada were mapped using stable isotope techniques. The complexes included Noranda, Quebec; Clifford-Ben Nevis, Ontario; Snow Lake, Manitoba, and Sturgeon Lake, Ontario. This study was regional in extent, involving large areas and large numbers of whole-rock samples: Noranda (625 km 2 ;≥600 samples, plus others (total = 1198); Sturgeon Lake (525 km 2 ; 452 samples); Clifford-Ben Nevis (160 km 2 ; 251 samples); and Snow Lake (84 km 2 ; 575 samples). Isotopic data on whole-rock carbonates and hydrous minerals were also collected. The regional isotopic studies were carried out in concert with other studies on mineral assemblages and mineral composition, and on associated intrusive and extrusive rocks. The Clifford-Ben Nevis area was selected as a control area, in as much as it contains no known VMS deposits; all other areas are well-known, productive VMS districts. Oxygen isotope maps are, in a sense, thermal maps, illustrating the paleo-distribution of heat and fluids, and offering a potential aid to exploration. The isotopic data may be contoured to reveal zones of 18 O depletion and enrichment, relative to unaltered rocks. Zones of δ 18 O≤60% comprise rocks that have reacted with seawater at high (e.g., 300+ o C) temperatures. The volume of foot-wall rocks isotopically-depleted by water/rock interaction during the life of one or more episodes of submarine hydrothermal activity is proportional to the amount of heat available from the syn-volcanic intrusive center. These altered rocks comprise the reaction zone often inferred to have supplied metals and other constituents for the VMS deposits

  3. Fabrication of a Transparent Anti-stain Thin Film Using an Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma Deposition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzaki Y.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, outdoor-constructed solar panels have a problem such as power generation efficiency is reduced by the face plate dirt. On the other hand, electronic touch panels have a problem such as deterioration of visibility of the screen by finger grease stain. To solve these problems, we need to fabricate the anti-stain surfaces which have superhydrophobic and oil-repellent abilities without spoiling the transparency of the transparent substrate. In this study, we fabricated lotus leaves like surface on a glass substrate. Firstly, SiO2 particles of ca. 100 nm diameter were arranged on the glass substrates. Secondly, to obtain the fractal-like structure (ultra-micro-rough structure on the surface, ZnO thin film having a columnar structure was fabricated on the SiO2 particles by using an atmospheric pressure cold plasma deposition system. By using these processes, the ZnO columns formed radiantly on the spherical surface of the SiO2 particles. Furthermore, without spoiling the ultra-micro-rough structure, a transparent anti-stain monolayer with low surface energy was prepared by using a chemical adsorption technique onto the surface. Average value of the water droplet contact angles of the samples fabricated was 151.8 deg. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM observation reviled that this sample has a raspberry structure in which columnar structure has grown radially on the SiO2 particles.

  4. Relation between the continental TCZ and the TCZ over Equatorial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    So the relationship between the continental and oceanic TCZ is complex. On the one hand, the oceanic TCZ maintains the continental TCZ by propagations, on the other it tries to suppress it by competition.

  5. 75 FR 1076 - Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... initiate civil penalty proceedings; however, violations that cause injury, death, or environmental damage... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties... daily civil penalty assessment. SUMMARY: The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act requires the MMS to...

  6. Measurement of deposition rate and ion energy distribution in a pulsed dc magnetron sputtering system using a retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shailesh; Gahan, David; Scullin, Paul; Doyle, James; Lennon, Jj; Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K; Daniels, Stephen; Hopkins, M B

    2016-04-01

    A compact retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance has been developed to measure deposition rate, ionized flux fraction, and ion energy distribution arriving at the substrate location. The sensor can be placed on grounded, electrically floating, or radio frequency (rf) biased electrodes. A calibration method is presented to compensate for temperature effects in the quartz crystal. The metal deposition rate, metal ionization fraction, and energy distribution of the ions arriving at the substrate location are investigated in an asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering reactor under grounded, floating, and rf biased conditions. The diagnostic presented in this research work does not suffer from complications caused by water cooling arrangements to maintain constant temperature and is an attractive technique for characterizing a thin film deposition system.

  7. Characterization of Pb(Zr, Ti)O sub 3 thin films prepared by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition using a solid delivery system

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, J C; Hwang, C S; Kim, H J; Lee, J M

    1999-01-01

    Pb(Zr, Ti)O sub 3 (PZT) thin films were deposited on Pt/SiO sub 2 /Si substrates by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition technique using a solid delivery system to improve the reproducibility of the deposition. The self-regulation mechanism, controlling the Pb-content of the film, was observed to work above a substrate temperature of 620 .deg. C. Even with the self-regulation mechanism, PZT films having low leakage current were obtained only when the molar mixing ratio of the input precursors was 1

  8. Measurement of deposition rate and ion energy distribution in a pulsed dc magnetron sputtering system using a retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Shailesh, E-mail: shailesh.sharma6@mail.dcu.ie [Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Impedans Limited, Chase House, City Junction Business Park, Northern Cross, D17 AK63, Dublin 17 (Ireland); Gahan, David, E-mail: david.gahan@impedans.com; Scullin, Paul; Doyle, James; Lennon, Jj; Hopkins, M. B. [Impedans Limited, Chase House, City Junction Business Park, Northern Cross, D17 AK63, Dublin 17 (Ireland); Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K.; Daniels, Stephen [Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2016-04-15

    A compact retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance has been developed to measure deposition rate, ionized flux fraction, and ion energy distribution arriving at the substrate location. The sensor can be placed on grounded, electrically floating, or radio frequency (rf) biased electrodes. A calibration method is presented to compensate for temperature effects in the quartz crystal. The metal deposition rate, metal ionization fraction, and energy distribution of the ions arriving at the substrate location are investigated in an asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering reactor under grounded, floating, and rf biased conditions. The diagnostic presented in this research work does not suffer from complications caused by water cooling arrangements to maintain constant temperature and is an attractive technique for characterizing a thin film deposition system.

  9. Application of a rule-based model to estimate mercury exchange for three background biomes in the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, J.S.; Weisberg, P.J.; Pillai, R.; Ericksen, J.A.; Kuiken, T.; Lindberg, S.E.; Zhang, H.; Rytuba, J.J.; Gustin, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystems that have low mercury (Hg) concentrations (i.e., not enriched or impactedbygeologic or anthropogenic processes) cover most of the terrestrial surface area of the earth yet their role as a net source or sink for atmospheric Hg is uncertain. Here we use empirical data to develop a rule-based model implemented within a geographic information system framework to estimate the spatial and temporal patterns of Hg flux for semiarid deserts, grasslands, and deciduous forests representing 45% of the continental United States. This exercise provides an indication of whether these ecosystems are a net source or sink for atmospheric Hg as well as a basis for recommendation of data to collect in future field sampling campaigns. Results indicated that soil alone was a small net source of atmospheric Hg and that emitted Hg could be accounted for based on Hg input by wet deposition. When foliar assimilation and wet deposition are added to the area estimate of soil Hg flux these biomes are a sink for atmospheric Hg. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  10. Variations in the microstructure of nickel-based alloy coatings with the metalloids boron and silicon as a function of deposition parameters in a dual beam ion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitz, J.K.G.

    1986-01-01

    We have deposited coatings using a dual beam ion source system with two different targets as sputtering sources; (i) a predominantly amorphous Ni/sub 63.5/Cr/sub 12.3/Fe/sub 3.5/Si/sub 7.9/B/sub 12.8/ foil and (ii) a crystalline Ni/sub 55.3/Cr/sub 16.9/Si/sub 7.2/B/sub 21.6/ slab from a casting. Amorphous coatings were produced by the foil for all conditions studied. The coatings that were deposited from the slab target that were less than 400 nm in thickness which were deposited at rates from 8--50 nm/min appeared to be amorphous. The thicker (>400 nm) coatings and the extremely low deposition rate (2 nm/min) coatings produced by the slab comprised both partially polycrystalline and amorphous material. All of the coatings studied exhibited inferior wear and erosion resistance properties compared to iron-based amorphous metal coatings containing Ti, C, or N, which have been studied by other groups. However, the corrosion resistance to 4 N HCl is good, ranging from less than 0.01 to 0.22 mm/yr as a function of deposition rate, concurrent ion bombardment conditions, and coating thickness

  11. Development of automated lance systems for removing deposited sludge around heat transfer tubes with a trianglar pattern in a steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, K. S.; Sung, H. J.; Jeong, W. T.; Hong, S. Y.; Park, Y. S.

    2003-01-01

    Automated lance systems have been developed to remove sludge deposits filed up around the heat transfer tubes of a triangular pattern in a steam generator. The accessible ways of the lance systems inside the steam generator are the annulus region which occupies the space between the outermost tubes and the inner wall of the steam generator, and the Blowdown Lane region (BdL) without tubes along the centerline of the steam generator. The lance system along the annulus employes a slidable guide support rail and a lance body. The guide support rail, which is composed of two parallel circular rods with a vertical distance, is tightly fixed inside the hand holes. The guide support rail extends from a hand hole at 0 degree to the other hand hole at 180 degree. The lance body is slideably held on the guide support rail by means of supporting holders which are attached on both the bottom and the upper plates of the lance body. The lance body is comprised of a nozzle block with a nozzle cylinder and a first drive means which makes sweeping motion of the nozzle cylinder, a second drive means which aligns the direction of nozzle jets from the nozzle cylinder toward the desired tube lanes by rotating the nozzle block in the horizontal plane, and two side wall supporting wheel assemblies attached to the outer surface of the lance body, rolling along the inner wall of the steam generator. For the transportation of the lance, two control cables which extend outward through the hand holes are attached to both ends of the lance body and are driven by a drive means with a powered drum. The lance system along the blowdown lane adopts a horizontal guide support rail and a lance body which can convey three nozzle blocks for emitting high pressure water in the 30, 90 and 150 degree directions. By utilizing the above two lance systems, the shadow zones around the tubes where the high pressure water does not reach are highly reduced

  12. The return, devolution and deposit systems (RDDS), what do they involve?; Los sistemas de deposito devolucion y retorno (SDDR), Que implican?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz de Siria Alvarez, L.

    2003-07-01

    The return, devolution and deposit systems (RDDS), what do they involve?. In this article, we try to clarify these doubts about SDDR (Return, Devolution and Deposit Systems) and show the differences between obligations regarding domestic packages and industrial ones. In addition to this, it is important to know if we are treating pure waste or a re-usable product. One of the most unknown features in the 11/97 Law of Packages and Remainders of Packages are the RDDS. This is because of the large number of obligations and the small area of action that they have. Because of that, application of this system is practically null as an alternative to the integrated management systems (IMS). (Author)

  13. Loess as an environmental archive of atmospheric trace element deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazina, T.; Winkel, L. H.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental archives such as ice cores, lake sediment cores, and peat cores have been used extensively to reconstruct past atmospheric deposition of trace elements. These records have provided information about how anthropogenic activities such as mining and fossil fuel combustion have disturbed the natural cycles of various atmospherically transported trace elements (e.g. Pb, Hg and Se). While these records are invaluable for tracing human impacts on such trace elements, they often provide limited information about the long term natural cycles of these elements. An assumption of these records is that the observed variations in trace element input, prior to any assumed anthropogenic perturbations, represent the full range of natural variations. However, records such as those mentioned above which extend back to a maximum of ~400kyr may not capture the potentially large variations of trace element input occurring over millions of years. Windblown loess sediments, often representing atmospheric deposition over time scales >1Ma, are the most widely distributed terrestrial sediments on Earth. These deposits have been used extensively to reconstruct continental climate variability throughout the Quaternary and late Neogene periods. In addition to being a valuable record of continental climate change, loess deposits may represent a long term environmental archive of atmospheric trace element deposition and may be combined with paleoclimate records to elucidate how fluctuations in climate have impacted the natural cycle of such elements. Our research uses the loess-paleosol deposits on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) to quantify how atmospheric deposition of trace elements has fluctuated in central China over the past 6.8Ma. The CLP has been used extensively to reconstruct past changes of East Asian monsoon system (EAM). We present a suite of trace element concentration records (e.g. Pb, Hg, and Se) from the CLP which exemplifies how loess deposits can be used as an

  14. Hydrodynamic cavitation characteristics of an orifice system and its effects on CRUD-like SiC deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Man; Bang, In Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CRUD-like SiC deposition was prepared for examining the erosion test in the cavitation field. • We investigated the comparison between swirl flow and common flow on cavitation. • Magnitude of shock pressure was investigated at low cavitation number. - Abstract: In a nuclear power plant, chalk river unidentified deposit (CRUD) is known as a deposit that is composed of corrosion and oxidation materials. It has a porous structure, which combines with boron that is injected into the coolant for controlling power levels. The buildup of corrosion products on the fuel cladding surface has proven to be particularly significant for both BWRs and PWRs. The high temperature of the cladding surface attracts impurities and chemical additives in the reactor coolant that deposit on the fuel rod surface in a process. The deposits on a fuel rod, known as CRUD, can be tenacious, insulative compounds capable of increasing the local clad temperature and accelerating clad corrosion—sometimes to the point of fuel failure. The deposition of CRUD on fuel cladding surfaces causes uneven heating of the reactor core. The situation is exacerbated by boron, which is added to the coolant to control power levels. However, boron becomes concentrated and is deposited within thick CRUD deposits. Ultrasonic mechanisms were developed but they have limitations for decontamination. In this experiment, a decontamination test was conducted using a sample sheet that was composed of SiC/water nanofluids. In addition, it was exposed to swirl flow and common flow for checking enhanced cavitation. It is measured by a pressure film, as shock pressure is associated with cavitation number. As a pressure film is wetted easily in water, it was injected into a holder. In the experiment, the maximum shock pressure was obtained during swirl flow at a low cavitation number. This indicates that pressure was concentrated on the pressure film. Consequently, cavitation can get rid of CRUD layers

  15. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will allow interested persons... importation of fruits and vegetables to allow the importation of fresh apricots from continental Spain into...

  16. 78 FR 6227 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... continental Spain. As a condition of entry, fresh apricots from continental Spain would have to be produced in... organization of Spain certifying that the fruit is free from all quarantine pests and has been produced in...

  17. 78 FR 32183 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2012-0002] RIN 0579-AD63 Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant... continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) into the United States. This action will... avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) into the United States...

  18. Continental temperatures through the early Eocene in western central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, G. N.; Collinson, M. E.; Riegel, W.; Wilde, V.; Farnsworth, A.; Lunt, D. J.; Robson, B.; Scott, A. C.; Lenz, O.; Pancost, R.

    2016-12-01

    In contrast to the marine realm, our understanding of terrestrial temperature change during greenhouse climates is poorly constrained. Recently, branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) have been used to successfully reconstruct mean annual air temperature (MAAT) during the early Paleogene. However, despite the potential to provide new insights into terrestrial climate, the application of this proxy in lignite and coal deposits is still limited. Using samples recovered from Schöningen, Germany ( 48°N), we provide the first detailed study into the occurrence and distribution of brGDGTs through a sequence of Early Eocene lignites and associated marine interbeds. Branched GDGTs are abundant and present in every sample. In comparison to modern studies, changes in vegetation type do not appear to significantly impact brGDGT distributions; however, there are subtle differences in these distributions between lignites and siliciclastic nearshore marine interbed sediments. Using the most recent brGDGT temperature calibration, we generate the first continental temperature record from central-western continental Europe through the Early Eocene. Lignite-derived MAAT estimates range from 23 to 26°C and those derived from the nearshore marine interbeds always exceed 20°C. These estimates are consistent with other mid-latitude palaeoclimate proxy records which indicate enhanced early Eocene warmth. In the basal part of the section, warming is recorded in both the lignites ( 2°C) and nearshore marine interbeds ( 2-3°C). This culminates in a long-term temperature maximum, likely including the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Although this trend is relatively well established in marginal marine sediments within the SW Pacific, it has rarely been shown in other regions or terrestrial settings. Using a suite of new climate model simulations, our warming trend is consistent with a doubling of CO2 (from 560ppmv to 1120ppmv) which broadly agrees with proxy

  19. Contributions to knowledge of the continental margin of Uruguay. Description of background samples in the continental margin of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F

    2015-01-01

    This study provide data concerning of the background sediments of the continental margin of Uruguay. There were carried out different works with witnesses in order to extract various sediment samples from the continental shelf

  20. Geomorphic characterization of four shelf-sourced submarine canyons along the U.S. Mid-Atlantic continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obelcz, Jeffrey; Brothers, Daniel S.; Chaytor, Jason D.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Ross, Steve W.; Brooke, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Shelf-sourced submarine canyons are common features of continental margins and are fundamental to deep-sea sedimentary systems. Despite their geomorphic and geologic significance, relatively few passive margin shelf-breaching canyons worldwide have been mapped using modern geophysical methods. Between 2007 and 2012 a series of geophysical surveys was conducted across four major canyons of the US Mid-Atlantic margin: Wilmington, Baltimore, Washington, and Norfolk canyons. More than 5700 km2 of high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and 890 line-km of sub-bottom CHIRP profiles were collected along the outer shelf and uppermost slope (depths of 80-1200 m). The data allowed us to compare and contrast the fine-scale morphology of each canyon system. The canyons have marked differences in the morphology and orientation of canyon heads, steepness and density of sidewall gullies, and the character of the continental