WorldWideScience

Sample records for content voting network

  1. Thai Electoral Campaigning: Vote-Canvassing Networks and Hybrid Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyarat Chattharakul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on evidence gathered through participant observation, this article illuminates the nature of vote-canvassing, previously a black box in Thai electoral studies. Offering a close-up study of the internal mechanisms of an individual Thai election campaign, this article reveals that vote-canvasser networks are underpinned by long-term dyadic relationships, both hierarchical and horizontal, between the candidate, vote-canvassers and voters. These networks continue to be the most important factor in winning elections. This article documents how candidates draw up an election campaign map and identify voters along residential lines to maximise their vote-canvassing strategy. The findings of this article challenge Anek’s 1996 concept of “two democracies”, which argues that rural voters are influenced by money, local leaders, political factions and corrupt politicians while more well-educated, urban, middle-class voters are more oriented toward the alternative policies offered by competing parties. The case study of Kom’s election campaign showed that the role of the much-vaunted middle-class voters is not decisive, even in suburban areas of Bangkok. While political marketing has grown in importance in Thai elections, it has not displaced traditional electoral practices. Thai society is, in fact, deeply fragmented and diverse – too complex to be divided in such a simplistic manner. This article suggests that rather than undergoing a linear transformation, political hybridisation is a key trend in Thai election campaigns.

  2. A networked voting rule for democratic representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Alexis R.; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Brigatti, Edgardo; Moreno, Yamir

    2018-03-01

    We introduce a general framework for exploring the problem of selecting a committee of representatives with the aim of studying a networked voting rule based on a decentralized large-scale platform, which can assure a strong accountability of the elected. The results of our simulations suggest that this algorithm-based approach is able to obtain a high representativeness for relatively small committees, performing even better than a classical voting rule based on a closed list of candidates. We show that a general relation between committee size and representatives exists in the form of an inverse square root law and that the normalized committee size approximately scales with the inverse of the community size, allowing the scalability to very large populations. These findings are not strongly influenced by the different networks used to describe the individuals' interactions, except for the presence of few individuals with very high connectivity which can have a marginal negative effect in the committee selection process.

  3. A networked voting rule for democratic representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigatti, Edgardo; Moreno, Yamir

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a general framework for exploring the problem of selecting a committee of representatives with the aim of studying a networked voting rule based on a decentralized large-scale platform, which can assure a strong accountability of the elected. The results of our simulations suggest that this algorithm-based approach is able to obtain a high representativeness for relatively small committees, performing even better than a classical voting rule based on a closed list of candidates. We show that a general relation between committee size and representatives exists in the form of an inverse square root law and that the normalized committee size approximately scales with the inverse of the community size, allowing the scalability to very large populations. These findings are not strongly influenced by the different networks used to describe the individuals’ interactions, except for the presence of few individuals with very high connectivity which can have a marginal negative effect in the committee selection process. PMID:29657817

  4. Impartiality, Friendship-networks and Voting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    What is the extent to which a country's political institutions impact aggregate voting behavior in a comparative perspective? More specifically, are citizens in some countries more inclined vote on the basis of ‘quality’ or ‘merit’ over ‘friendship’ or ‘loyalty’, and if so, why? This paper seeks...... impartial states than those with highly partial institutions. Using several measures of ‘friendship’, I find strong empirical evidence for this claim, even when controlling for myriad alternative factors and taking into account various voting regimes. The analysis gives us new insights on how political...

  5. Vote!

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2006-01-01

    This bulletin comes out at the same time as the public meetings end. The attendance at these meeting encourages us to believe that you feel more and more concerned by your employment conditions and by the Management's decisions in this area. We now must consolidate this interest with a vote. It is essential that you take a few minutes of your time to express your opinion in an electronic poll. Now is the time to seize the opportunity you have been given to influence your employment conditions for the coming five years. We will ask you to give your opinion on two packages, the first concerning the future salary level, the second concerning other employment conditions. In both cases, your participation and replies will determine what the Staff Association should do next and will be carefully watched by our negotiation partners*. We will also ask you to tell us to what extent you would be willing to take action in the event that you disagree with the proposals made by the Management. The Staff Association needs ...

  6. Gap filling of 3-D microvascular networks by tensor voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, L; Plouraboue, F; Descombes, X

    2008-05-01

    We present a new algorithm which merges discontinuities in 3-D images of tubular structures presenting undesirable gaps. The application of the proposed method is mainly associated to large 3-D images of microvascular networks. In order to recover the real network topology, we need to fill the gaps between the closest discontinuous vessels. The algorithm presented in this paper aims at achieving this goal. This algorithm is based on the skeletonization of the segmented network followed by a tensor voting method. It permits to merge the most common kinds of discontinuities found in microvascular networks. It is robust, easy to use, and relatively fast. The microvascular network images were obtained using synchrotron tomography imaging at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. These images exhibit samples of intracortical networks. Representative results are illustrated.

  7. Fault diagnosis method for nuclear power plants based on neural networks and voting fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Gang; Ge Shengqi; Yang Li

    2010-01-01

    A new fault diagnosis method based on multiple neural networks (ANNs) and voting fusion for nuclear power plants (NPPs) was proposed in view of the shortcoming of single neural network fault diagnosis method. In this method, multiple neural networks that the types of neural networks were different were trained for the fault diagnosis of NPP. The operation parameters of NPP, which have important affect on the safety of NPP, were selected as the input variable of neural networks. The output of neural networks is fault patterns of NPP. The last results of diagnosis for NPP were obtained by fusing the diagnosing results of different neural networks by voting fusion. The typical operation patterns of NPP were diagnosed to demonstrate the effect of the proposed method. The results show that employing the proposed diagnosing method can improve the precision and reliability of fault diagnosis results of NPPs. (authors)

  8. A Network-Oriented Modeling Approach to Voting Behavior During the 2016 US Presidential Election

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedschalk, Linford; Treur, J.; Verwolf, Roos; De la Prieta, F

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a network-oriented computational model is presented for voting intentions over time specifically for the race between Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton in the 2016 US presidential election. The focus was on the role of social and mass communication media and the statements made by

  9. Road Network Extraction from VHR Satellite Images Using Context Aware Object Feature Integration and Tensor Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Maboudi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Road networks are very important features in geospatial databases. Even though high-resolution optical satellite images have already been acquired for more than a decade, tools for automated extraction of road networks from these images are still rare. One consequence of this is the need for manual interaction which, in turn, is time and cost intensive. In this paper, a multi-stage approach is proposed which integrates structural, spectral, textural, as well as contextual information of objects to extract road networks from very high resolution satellite images. Highlights of the approach are a novel linearity index employed for the discrimination of elongated road segments from other objects and customized tensor voting which is utilized to fill missing parts of the network. Experiments are carried out with different datasets. Comparison of the achieved results with the results of seven state-of-the-art methods demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  10. Tie Content in Professional Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarzecka, Olga

    in resource exchanges and the effect of these differences on the number of, and extent to which, resources are provided by a network tie. Chapter 3 explores how firm underperfomance and social identity with corporate elite alter types of resources a network tie provides. Chapter 4 focuses on a tie’s internal......Professional networks of senior managers have indisputable value for them as well as for their organizations. In recent years, much attention has been given to the structure of these networks as it reflects senior managers’ opportunity to access valuable resources. Surprisingly, the actual...... resources that senior managers acquire through their network ties, i.e. the tie content, remain heavily understudied. Hence, the purpose of this dissertation is to answer the following question: What resources flow through informal ties in senior managers’ professional networks, and why? The first chapter...

  11. Voting Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During his time as a state senator in Illinois, Barack Obama voted “Present” 129 times, a deliberate act of nonvoting that subsequently became an important campaign issue during the 2008 presidential elections. In this article, I examine the use of Present votes in the Illinois state senate. I find evidence that Present votes can largely be characterized as protest votes used as a legislative tool by the minority party. Incorporating information from Present votes into a Bayesian polytomous item-response model, I find that this information increases the efficiency of ideal point estimates by approximately 35%. There is little evidence of significant moderation by Obama when Present votes are accounted for, though my results suggest that Obama’s voting record may have moderated significantly before his subsequent election to the U.S. Senate. My results also suggest that because legislative nonvoting may occur for a variety of reasons, naive inclusion of nonvoting behavior into vote choice models may lead to biased results.

  12. Improving Remote Voting Security with CodeVoting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joaquim, Rui; Ribeiro, Carlos; Ferreira, Paulo

    One of the major problems that prevents the spread of elections with the possibility of remote voting over electronic networks, also called Internet Voting, is the use of unreliable client platforms, such as the voter's computer and the Internet infrastructure connecting it to the election server. A computer connected to the Internet is exposed to viruses, worms, Trojans, spyware, malware and other threats that can compromise the election's integrity. For instance, it is possible to write a virus that changes the voter's vote to a predetermined vote on election's day. Another possible attack is the creation of a fake election web site where the voter uses a malicious vote program on the web site that manipulates the voter's vote (phishing/pharming attack). Such attacks may not disturb the election protocol, therefore can remain undetected in the eyes of the election auditors.

  13. Content Propagation in Online Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blenn, N.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents methods and techniques to analyze content propagation within online social networks (OSNs) using a graph theoretical approach. Important factors and different techniques to analyze and describe content propagation, starting from the smallest entity in a network, representing a

  14. Improving Remote Voting Security with CodeVoting

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquim, Rui; Ribeiro, Carlos; Ferreira, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    One of the major problems that prevents the spread of elections with the possibility of remote voting over electronic networks, also called Internet Voting, is the use of unreliable client platforms, such as the voter’s computer and the Internet infrastructure connecting it to the election server. A computer connected to the Internet is exposed to viruses, worms, Trojans, spyware, malware and other threats that can compromise the election’s integrity. For instance, it is pos...

  15. Tree-based server-middleman-client architecture: improving scalability and reliability for voting-based network games in ad hoc wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y.; Fujinoki, H.

    2006-10-01

    The concept of a new tree-based architecture for networked multi-player games was proposed by Matuszek to improve scalability in network traffic at the same time to improve reliability. The architecture (we refer it as "Tree-Based Server- Middlemen-Client architecture") will solve the two major problems in ad-hoc wireless networks: frequent link failures and significance in battery power consumption at wireless transceivers by using two new techniques, recursive aggregation of client messages and subscription-based propagation of game state. However, the performance of the TBSMC architecture has never been quantitatively studied. In this paper, the TB-SMC architecture is compared with the client-server architecture using simulation experiments. We developed an event driven simulator to evaluate the performance of the TB-SMC architecture. In the network traffic scalability experiments, the TB-SMC architecture resulted in less than 1/14 of the network traffic load for 200 end users. In the reliability experiments, the TB-SMC architecture improved the number of successfully delivered players' votes by 31.6, 19.0, and 12.4% from the clientserver architecture at high (failure probability of 90%), moderate (50%) and low (10%) failure probability.

  16. Practical guide to content delivery networks

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    With a practical and organized approach to learning and implementation, A Practical Guide to Content Delivery Networks presents a step-by-step process for building a highly available and highly scalable content delivery network (CDN). CDN refers to the infrastructure behind any service that provides utility or access to data to an end user. This book offers terminology, tactics, potential problems to avoid, and individual layers of design, providing clear understanding of the framework for CDNs using a structural and visual approach. The text emphasizes a best-of-breed strategy, allowing a tec

  17. Content Delivery in Future Mobile Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Karl; Raber, Sergey

    2003-07-01

    With the fast progress in the deployment of wireless networks during the last few years, the global communication market requires the development of new methods for content delivery towards mobile users. It is currently characterised by the introduction of the 3rd generation of terrestrial mobile networks based on 3GPP's UMTS standard. It is expected that this will eventually lead to integrated all-IP-based infrastructures supporting a variety of radio access technologies (so-called beyond-3G-networks or 4th Generation networks). The integration of mobility support, security and accounting and provisioning of differentiated qualities of service are among the issues which are currently researched in the 4G framework.Since it is not possible to change network protocols and infrastructure at once in order to optimize them for mobile services, it is very important to find an appropriate way for the migration from the current infrastructure towards an integrated architecture, where fixed and mobile networks coexist and interoperate in the most effective and flexible way.The integration of satellite communication networks into the terrestrial mobile communication environment is the focus of R&D activities at the Competence Centre for Advanced Satellite Communication of the FhG FOKUS institute. These activities are presented in this article, with a focus on the CoDeSat Content Delivery over Satellite project.In the remainder of this article we first summarize services and service requirements as they are considered in our work. We then discuss the challenges derived from these requirements with respect to current network and protocol architectures. Finally, we describe our approach, and the current status of our prototype implementation.

  18. Retiring from Voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2012-01-01

    elections, we show how turnout for seniors falls more than 30 percentage points between ages 60 and 90. Though declining health matters, it is far from the entire story. Much of the turnout decline can be explained by the disruption of social ties. Withdrawing from the labour market demobilizes people....... Seniors also tend to live alone more often than the general population, meaning that they receive less social encouragement to vote. We also look into why turnout drops faster for women than for men. Women lose their social network earlier than men. They are on average widowed and live alone at an earlier...

  19. Content Dynamics Over the Network Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-04

    AFRL-AFOSR-CL-TR-2015-0003 Content dynamics over the network cloud Fernando Paganini UNIVERSIDAD ORT URUGUAY CUAREIM 1451 MONTEVIDEO, 11100 UY 11/04...approved for public release. FINAL PERFORMANCE REPORT: 7-15-2012 to 7-14-2015 AFOSR GRANT NUMBER: FA9550-12-1-0398 PI: Fernando Paganini Universidad ORT...349-362, Apr 2014. 7. M. Zubeldía, “From resource allocation to neighbor selection in peer-to-peer networks”, MS Thesis, Universidad ORT Uruguay

  20. Approval Voting and Parochialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jonathan; Altman, Nicole Y.; Kroll, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    In hypothetical scenarios involving two groups (nations or groups of workers), subjects voted on three proposals: one helped group A (their group), one helped B, and one helped both groups, more than the average of the first two but less than their maximum. When subjects voted for one proposal, most voted for the one that helped group A. This…

  1. Justice blocks and predictability of U.S. Supreme Court votes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Guimerà

    Full Text Available Successful attempts to predict judges' votes shed light into how legal decisions are made and, ultimately, into the behavior and evolution of the judiciary. Here, we investigate to what extent it is possible to make predictions of a justice's vote based on the other justices' votes in the same case. For our predictions, we use models and methods that have been developed to uncover hidden associations between actors in complex social networks. We show that these methods are more accurate at predicting justice's votes than forecasts made by legal experts and by algorithms that take into consideration the content of the cases. We argue that, within our framework, high predictability is a quantitative proxy for stable justice (and case blocks, which probably reflect stable a priori attitudes toward the law. We find that U.S. Supreme Court justice votes are more predictable than one would expect from an ideal court composed of perfectly independent justices. Deviations from ideal behavior are most apparent in divided 5-4 decisions, where justice blocks seem to be most stable. Moreover, we find evidence that justice predictability decreased during the 50-year period spanning from the Warren Court to the Rehnquist Court, and that aggregate court predictability has been significantly lower during Democratic presidencies. More broadly, our results show that it is possible to use methods developed for the analysis of complex social networks to quantitatively investigate historical questions related to political decision-making.

  2. Party brands and voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sigge Winther; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2014-01-01

    heuristics and voting models. Next, the article measures the brand value of Danish parties by utilizing a representative association analysis. Finally, this measure is used to conduct the very first empirical analysis of a party brand's effect on voting behavior. Overall, the primary finding demonstrates...

  3. History of voting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosema, Martin; Moghaddam, Fathali M.

    2017-01-01

    Voting is the act of declaring a choice among a number of alternative options in the process of reaching a group decision on a particular matter. In politics, this mostly concerns the selection of a person for a specific position, such as a mayor or a member of parliament. The right to vote in

  4. Advancing Future Network Science through Content Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    BitTorrent, PostgreSQL, MySQL , and GRSecurity) and emerging technologies (HadoopDFS, Tokutera, Sector/Sphere, HBase, and other BigTable-like...result. • Multi-Source Network Pulse Analyzer and Correlator provides course of action planning by enhancing the understanding of the complex dynamics

  5. Enabling content distribution in vehicular ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Luan, Tom H; Bai, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents key enabling technologies and state-of-the-art research on delivering efficient content distribution services to fast moving vehicles. It describes recent research developments and proposals towards the efficient, resilient and scalable content distribution to vehicles through both infrastructure-based and infrastructure-less vehicular networks. The authors focus on the rich multimedia services provided by vehicular environment content distribution including vehicular communications and media playback, giving passengers many infotainment applications. Common problem

  6. Sharing of Alcohol-Related Content on Social Networking Sites: Frequency, Content, and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erevik, Eilin K; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Vedaa, Øystein; Andreassen, Cecilie S; Pallesen, Ståle

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to explore students' reports of their sharing of alcohol-related content on different social networking sites (i.e., frequency of sharing and connotations of alcohol-related posts), and to identify indicators of such posting. Students at the four largest institutions for higher education in Bergen, Norway, were invited to participate in an Internet-based survey. The sample size was 11,236 (a 39.4% response rate). The survey included questions about disclosure of alcohol-related content on social networking sites, alcohol use (using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), personality factors (using the Mini-IPIP), and demographic characteristics. Binary logistic regressions were used to analyze indicators of frequent sharing of alcohol-related content depicting positive and negative aspects of alcohol use. A majority of the students had posted alcohol-related content (71.0%), although few reported having done so frequently. Positive aspects of alcohol use (e.g., enjoyment or social community) were most frequently shared. Young, single, and extroverted students with high alcohol consumption were more likely to report frequent sharing of alcohol-related content. Positive attitudes toward posting alcohol-related content and reports of exposure to such content particularly increased the likelihood of one's own posting of alcohol-related content. Positive aspects of alcohol use seem to be emphasized on social networking sites. Sharing of alcohol-related content is associated with heightened alcohol use, which implies that such sites can be relevant for prevention agents. Social influence from social networking sites, such as exposure to others' alcohol-related content, is associated with one's own sharing of similar content.

  7. Content-Based Covert Group Detection in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-06

    The students took courses in natural language processing, data mining in various multi-media data sets, text retrieval, text summarization and... mining in social media including: we performed work, on (a) diffusion in social networks, (b) influence maximization in signed social networks, (c...Learning, Information Retrieval, Data Mining and Database. There are 8,293 messages. Our method outperformed state of the art methods based on content

  8. Do Online Voting Patterns Reflect Evolved Features of Human Cognition? An Exploratory Empirical Investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Priestley

    Full Text Available Online votes or ratings can assist internet users in evaluating the credibility and appeal of the information which they encounter. For example, aggregator websites such as Reddit allow users to up-vote submitted content to make it more prominent, and down-vote content to make it less prominent. Here we argue that decisions over what to up- or down-vote may be guided by evolved features of human cognition. We predict that internet users should be more likely to up-vote content that others have also up-voted (social influence, content that has been submitted by particularly liked or respected users (model-based bias, content that constitutes evolutionarily salient or relevant information (content bias, and content that follows group norms and, in particular, prosocial norms. 489 respondents from the online social voting community Reddit rated the extent to which they felt different traits influenced their voting. Statistical analyses confirmed that norm-following and prosociality, as well as various content biases such as emotional content and originality, were rated as important motivators of voting. Social influence had a smaller effect than expected, while attitudes towards the submitter had little effect. This exploratory empirical investigation suggests that online voting communities can provide an important test-bed for evolutionary theories of human social information use, and that evolved features of human cognition may guide online behaviour just as it guides behaviour in the offline world.

  9. Do Online Voting Patterns Reflect Evolved Features of Human Cognition? An Exploratory Empirical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Maria; Mesoudi, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Online votes or ratings can assist internet users in evaluating the credibility and appeal of the information which they encounter. For example, aggregator websites such as Reddit allow users to up-vote submitted content to make it more prominent, and down-vote content to make it less prominent. Here we argue that decisions over what to up- or down-vote may be guided by evolved features of human cognition. We predict that internet users should be more likely to up-vote content that others have also up-voted (social influence), content that has been submitted by particularly liked or respected users (model-based bias), content that constitutes evolutionarily salient or relevant information (content bias), and content that follows group norms and, in particular, prosocial norms. 489 respondents from the online social voting community Reddit rated the extent to which they felt different traits influenced their voting. Statistical analyses confirmed that norm-following and prosociality, as well as various content biases such as emotional content and originality, were rated as important motivators of voting. Social influence had a smaller effect than expected, while attitudes towards the submitter had little effect. This exploratory empirical investigation suggests that online voting communities can provide an important test-bed for evolutionary theories of human social information use, and that evolved features of human cognition may guide online behaviour just as it guides behaviour in the offline world.

  10. a technological framework for transparent e-voting solution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Brazil, India, Kazakhstan, Peru, Russia, USA, UAE, and. Venezuela are legally ..... The wireless technology however, must be secure .... upon the reception of GSM network signal during its .... Wallach, “Analysis of an Electronic Voting System”,.

  11. On the performance of voting systems in spatial voting simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negriu, A.; Piatecki, C.

    2012-01-01

    We study the performance of voting systems in terms of minimizing the overall social disutility of making a collective choice in an univariate voting space with ideological voting and perfect information. In order to obtain a distribution of the performance indicator for each of the 12 systems

  12. A Network Contention Model for the Extreme-scale Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Naughton III, Thomas J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The Extreme-scale Simulator (xSim) is a performance investigation toolkit for high-performance computing (HPC) hardware/software co-design. It permits running a HPC application with millions of concurrent execution threads, while observing its performance in a simulated extreme-scale system. This paper details a newly developed network modeling feature for xSim, eliminating the shortcomings of the existing network modeling capabilities. The approach takes a different path for implementing network contention and bandwidth capacity modeling using a less synchronous and accurate enough model design. With the new network modeling feature, xSim is able to simulate on-chip and on-node networks with reasonable accuracy and overheads.

  13. Business communication in social networks: Content management and experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Nicolás

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, management of communication in social networks has become an indispensable strategic activity and contributes directly to change the mode of relationship between business and its stakeholders. The first section of this paper presents a brief analysis of the results reported in different specialized national studies in social networks. We analyse the general activities that users prefer to do and activities that users value most brands on networks. If an organization wants to successfully manage their communication in social networks is very important to know the behaviour of the users and design strategies based on their status and economic activity. This paper presents a brief analysis of social branding through the classification of different corporate content posted on their networks.

  14. Content-centric networks an overview, applications and research challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Syed Hassan; Kim, Dongkyun

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces Content-Centric Networking (CCN), a networking paradigm that provides a simple and effective solution to the challenging demands of future wired and wireless communications. It provides an overview of the recent developments in the area of future internet technologies, bringing together the advancements that have been made in Information-Centric Networking (ICN) in general, with a focus on CCN. It begins with an introduction to the basics of CCN is followed by an overview of the current internet paradigm and its challenges. Next, an application perspective has been included, where the authors encompass the selected applications for CCN with recent refereed research and developments. These applications include Internet of Things (IoT), Smart Grid, Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs), and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The book is a useful reference source for practising researchers, and can be used as supporting material for undergraduate and graduate level courses in computer science and...

  15. Peer-Assisted Content Distribution with Random Linear Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøll, Martin; Ledet-Pedersen, Jeppe; Sluyterman, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Peer-to-peer networks constitute a widely used, cost-effective and scalable technology to distribute bandwidth-intensive content. The technology forms a great platform to build distributed cloud storage without the need of a central provider. However, the majority of todays peer-to-peer systems...

  16. Fluid Analysis of Network Content Dissemination and Cloud Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    TASK NUMBER 5f.  WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) UNIVERSIDAD ORT URUGUAY CUAREIM 1451 MONTEVIDEO, 11100 UY 8...Paganini Universidad ORT, Cuareim 1451, Montevideo, Uruguay Abstract The project was concerned with optimizing performance in complex network content

  17. Ethereum blockchain for electronic voting

    OpenAIRE

    Kairys, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    Electronic voting is very interesting challenge and there is no reliable and safe solution developed yet. This thesis goal is to analyse decentralised distributed ledger (blockchain) application for electronic remote voting. Ethereum blockchain and smart contracts enables creation of secure and reliable solution for e-voting.

  18. Quality monitored distributed voting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogmo, David

    1997-01-01

    A quality monitoring system can detect certain system faults and fraud attempts in a distributed voting system. The system uses decoy voters to cast predetermined check ballots. Absent check ballots can indicate system faults. Altered check ballots can indicate attempts at counterfeiting votes. The system can also cast check ballots at predetermined times to provide another check on the distributed voting system.

  19. Vote. Election Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This election-education program is designed to help develop an informed electorate and to instill in future voters an appreciation of the importance of the right to vote. It provides a framework for discussions of the electoral process and gives students an opportunity to face the responsibilities and challenges associated with citizenship and…

  20. Linear Logical Voting Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Current approaches to electronic implementations of voting protocols involve translating legal text to source code of an imperative programming language. Because the gap between legal text and source code is very large, it is difficult to trust that the program meets its legal specification. In r...

  1. Voting Experiences I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jydebjerg, Camilla; Jakobsen, Tina Mou

    From 2008 to 2010, an EU-project ''My opinion my vote – MOTE'' is implemented. The aim of the project is to increase the political participation among people with learning disabilities. A qualitative interview survey of three rounds among 20 persons with learning disabilities and professional...

  2. Efficient Asymmetric Index Encapsulation Scheme for Anonymous Content Centric Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Content Centric Networking (CCN is an effective communication paradigm that well matches the features of wireless environments. To be considered a viable candidate in the emerging wireless networks, despite the clear benefits of location-independent security, CCN must at least have parity with existing solutions for confidential and anonymous communication. This paper designs a new cryptographic scheme, called Asymmetric Index Encapsulation (AIE, that enables the router to test whether an encapsulated header matches the token without learning anything else about both of them. We suggest using the AIE as the core protocol of anonymous Content Centric Networking. A construction of AIE which strikes a balance between efficiency and security is given. The scheme is proved to be secure based on the DBDH assumption in the random oracle with tight reduction, while the encapsulated header and the token in our system consist of only three elements.

  3. Vote Stuffing Control in IPTV-based Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Rajen

    Vote stuffing is a general problem in the functioning of the content rating-based recommender systems. Currently IPTV viewers browse various contents based on the program ratings. In this paper, we propose a fuzzy clustering-based approach to remove the effects of vote stuffing and consider only the genuine ratings for the programs over multiple genres. The approach requires only one authentic rating, which is generally available from recommendation system administrators or program broadcasters. The entire process is automated using fuzzy c-means clustering. Computational experiments performed over one real-world program rating database shows that the proposed approach is very efficient for controlling vote stuffing.

  4. Efficient Extraction of Content from Enriched Geospatial and Networked Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Qiang

    forth, which makes it possible to extract relevant and interesting information that can then be utilized in different applications. However, web content is often semantically rich, structurally complex, and highly dynamic. This dissertation addresses some of the challenges posed by the use of such data......Social network services such as Google Places and Twitter have led to a proliferation of user-generated web content that is constantly shared among users. These services enable access to various types of content, covering geospatial locations, textual descriptions, social relationships, and so...... by merging edges and nodes in the original graph. Generalized, compressed graphs provide a way to interpret large networks. The dissertation reports on studies that compare the proposed solutions with respect to their tradeoffs between result complexity and quality. The findings suggest that the solutions...

  5. Voting systems for environmental decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgman, Mark A; Regan, Helen M; Maguire, Lynn A; Colyvan, Mark; Justus, James; Martin, Tara G; Rothley, Kris

    2014-04-01

    Voting systems aggregate preferences efficiently and are often used for deciding conservation priorities. Desirable characteristics of voting systems include transitivity, completeness, and Pareto optimality, among others. Voting systems that are common and potentially useful for environmental decision making include simple majority, approval, and preferential voting. Unfortunately, no voting system can guarantee an outcome, while also satisfying a range of very reasonable performance criteria. Furthermore, voting methods may be manipulated by decision makers and strategic voters if they have knowledge of the voting patterns and alliances of others in the voting populations. The difficult properties of voting systems arise in routine decision making when there are multiple criteria and management alternatives. Because each method has flaws, we do not endorse one method. Instead, we urge organizers to be transparent about the properties of proposed voting systems and to offer participants the opportunity to approve the voting system as part of the ground rules for operation of a group. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Content-aware network storage system supporting metadata retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Qin, Leihua; Zhou, Jingli; Nie, Xuejun

    2008-12-01

    Nowadays, content-based network storage has become the hot research spot of academy and corporation[1]. In order to solve the problem of hit rate decline causing by migration and achieve the content-based query, we exploit a new content-aware storage system which supports metadata retrieval to improve the query performance. Firstly, we extend the SCSI command descriptor block to enable system understand those self-defined query requests. Secondly, the extracted metadata is encoded by extensible markup language to improve the universality. Thirdly, according to the demand of information lifecycle management (ILM), we store those data in different storage level and use corresponding query strategy to retrieval them. Fourthly, as the file content identifier plays an important role in locating data and calculating block correlation, we use it to fetch files and sort query results through friendly user interface. Finally, the experiments indicate that the retrieval strategy and sort algorithm have enhanced the retrieval efficiency and precision.

  7. CAN Tree Routing for Content-Addressable Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongtao LI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel topology to improve the routing performance of Content- Addressable Network overlays while minimizing the maintenance overhead during nodes churn. The key idea of our approach is to establish a P2P tree structure (CAN tree by means of equipping each node with a few long links towards some distant nodes. The long links enhance routing flexibility and robustness against failures. Nodes automatically adapt routing table to cope with network change. The routing complexity is O(log n, which is much better than a uniform greedy routing, while each node maintains two long links in average.

  8. Applying a rateless code in content delivery networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Zarlis, Muhammad; Parulian Sitorus, Sahat; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Content delivery network (CDN) allows internet providers to locate their services, to map their coverage into networks without necessarily to own them. CDN is part of the current internet infrastructures, supporting multi server applications especially social media. Various works have been proposed to improve CDN performances. Since accesses on social media servers tend to be short but frequent, providing redundant to the transmitted packets to ensure lost packets not degrade the information integrity may improve service performances. This paper examines the implementation of rateless code in the CDN infrastructure. The NS-2 evaluations show that rateless code is able to reduce packet loss up to 50%.

  9. Electronic Universal Vote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian USCATU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the days of informational society everything is going online. Most aspects of our lives have online components. Since democracy is a big issue, it could not escape this trend. Governments themselves are moving to the online environment for the purpose of improving their internal efficiency and their availability to the citizens, businesses and other parties interested. Since governments are the result of elections, elections have also been touched by the electronic fever. New electronic voting solutions arise and each one brings new debates with many arguments in their favor and against them. Accessibility and ease of use leads the arguments in favor of electronic voting over the internet, while fear of fraud is the main reason people are avoiding electronics and clinging on classic paper ballots.

  10. Frugal Bribery in Voting

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Palash; Misra, Neeldhara; Narahari, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Bribery in elections is an important problem in computational social choice theory. However, bribery with money is often illegal in elections. Motivated by this, we introduce the notion of frugal bribery and formulate two new pertinent computational problems which we call Frugal-bribery and Frugal- $bribery to capture bribery without money in elections. In the proposed model, the briber is frugal in nature and this is captured by her inability to bribe votes of a certain kind, namely, non-vul...

  11. User-generated content curation with deep convolutional neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tous Liesa, Rubén; Wust, Otto; Gómez, Mauro; Poveda, Jonatan; Elena, Marc; Torres Viñals, Jordi; Makni, Mouna; Ayguadé Parra, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report a work consisting in using deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for curating and filtering photos posted by social media users (Instagram and Twitter). The final goal is to facilitate searching and discovering user-generated content (UGC) with potential value for digital marketing tasks. The images are captured in real time and automatically annotated with multiple CNNs. Some of the CNNs perform generic object recognition tasks while others perform what we call v...

  12. Voting Experiments: Measuring Vulnerability of Voting Procedures to Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Palguta, Jan

    2011-01-01

    A minimal reduction in strategic voter’s knowledge about other voters’ voting patterns severely limits her ability to strategically manipulate the voting outcome. In this paper I relax the implicit assumption made in the Gibbard-Satterthwaite’s impossibility theorem about strategic voter‘s complete information about all other voters’ preference profiles. Via a series of computation-based simulations I find that vulnerability to strategic voting is decreasing in the number of voters and increa...

  13. Voting experiments: Bandwagon voting or false-consensus effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Bischoff; Henrik Egbert

    2008-01-01

    In an experiment designed to test for expressive voting, Tyran (JPubEc 2004) found a strong positive correlation between the participants' approval for a proposal to donate money for charity and their expected approval rate for fellow voters. This phenomenon can be due to bandwagon voting or a false consensus effect. The social science literature reports both effects for voting decisions. Replicating Tyran's experiment and adding new treatments, we provide evidence for a false consensus effec...

  14. Content-Based Multi-Channel Network Coding Algorithm in the Millimeter-Wave Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the development of wireless technology, the widespread use of 5G is already an irreversible trend, and millimeter-wave sensor networks are becoming more and more common. However, due to the high degree of complexity and bandwidth bottlenecks, the millimeter-wave sensor network still faces numerous problems. In this paper, we propose a novel content-based multi-channel network coding algorithm, which uses the functions of data fusion, multi-channel and network coding to improve the data transmission; the algorithm is referred to as content-based multi-channel network coding (CMNC. The CMNC algorithm provides a fusion-driven model based on the Dempster-Shafer (D-S evidence theory to classify the sensor nodes into different classes according to the data content. By using the result of the classification, the CMNC algorithm also provides the channel assignment strategy and uses network coding to further improve the quality of data transmission in the millimeter-wave sensor network. Extensive simulations are carried out and compared to other methods. Our simulation results show that the proposed CMNC algorithm can effectively improve the quality of data transmission and has better performance than the compared methods.

  15. Cellular automata with voting rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowiec, D.

    1996-01-01

    The chosen local interaction - the voting (majority) rule applied to the square lattice is known to cause the non ergodic cellular automata behaviour. Presented computer simulation results verify two cases of non ergodicity. The first one is implicated by the noise introduced to the local interactions and the second one follows properties of the initial lattice configuration selected at random. For the simplified voting rule - non symmetric voting, the critical behaviour has been explained rigorously. (author)

  16. Vote par sondage uniforme incorruptible

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard , Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Introduit en 2012 par David Chaum, le vote par sondage uniforme (random-sample voting) est un protocole de vote basé sur un choix d'une sous-population représentative , permettant de limiter les coûts tout en ayant de nombreux avantages, principalement lorsqu'il est couplé a d'autres techniques comme ThreeBallot. Nous analysons un problème de corruptibilité potentielle où les votants peuvent vendre leur vote au plus offrant et proposons une variation du protocole reméd...

  17. Peer Effects in Legislative Voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Fisman, Raymond; Kamenica, Emir

    2016-01-01

    variation in seating across the two venues of the Parliament (Brussels and Strasbourg), we show that this effect reflects persistent peer influence: a pair of MEPs who have sat together in the past are less likely to disagree on a vote even if they do not sit together during that particular vote.......Abstract We exploit seating rules in the European Parliament to estimate causal peer effects in legislative voting. We find that sitting next to each other reduces by 13 percent the likelihood that two Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) from the same party differ in their vote. Using...

  18. Analytical solution of a stochastic content-based network model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mungan, Muhittin; Kabakoglu, Alkan; Balcan, Duygu; Erzan, Ayse

    2005-01-01

    We define and completely solve a content-based directed network whose nodes consist of random words and an adjacency rule involving perfect or approximate matches for an alphabet with an arbitrary number of letters. The analytic expression for the out-degree distribution shows a crossover from a leading power law behaviour to a log-periodic regime bounded by a different power law decay. The leading exponents in the two regions have a weak dependence on the mean word length, and an even weaker dependence on the alphabet size. The in-degree distribution, on the other hand, is much narrower and does not show any scaling behaviour

  19. One Share–One Vote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund, Johan Erik; Poulsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Many European companies use some type of control-enhancing mechanism, such as dual class shares or a pyramid ownership structure. Such mechanisms cause deviations from the one share–one vote principle, allocating more voting rights than cash flow rights to some shares and, in turn, providing...

  20. 2008 Election Administration and Voting Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Election Assistance Commission — This dataset contains data about domestic absentee voting, provisional balloting, poll books, polling place, precincts, poll workers, and voting technology used in...

  1. 2010 Election Administration and Voting Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Election Assistance Commission — This dataset contains data about domestic absentee voting, provisional balloting, poll books, polling place, precincts, poll workers, and voting technology used in...

  2. Voting for a Career

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Benjamin Carl Krag

    effects depending on the senator's career ambitions. While retiring senators are no longer accountable to anyone but themselves, revolving door politicians will be accountable to their future employers, because they depend on them for post-elective employment. During their final Congress, this should lead......I investigate how the revolving door affects voting in the Senate. The literature on final-term problems suggests that senators should become more extreme before they leave office, because they no longer are accountable to voters. Lack of electoral accountability could, however, have different...... revolving door senators to moderate themselves, while retiring ones should grow more partisan. Using data on post-elective career trajectories from 102nd to the 113th Senate, I present fixed effects estimates that back this claim. I show that the effect is driven by senators, who choose to resign...

  3. One Share-One Vote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas; Eklund, Johan E.

    Shares with more voting rights than cash flow rights provide their owners with a disproportional influence that is often found to destroy the value of outside equity. This is taken as evidence of discretionary use of power. However, concentration of power does not necessarily result from control...... enhancing mechanisms; it could also be that some shareholders retain a large block in a one share-one vote structure. In this paper, we develop a methodology to disentangle disproportionality, which allows us to test the effect of deviations from one share-one vote more precisely. Our empirical findings add...

  4. Parliament votes against building fifth power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    After a heated three-day debate, Finland's parliament voted on September 24 to reject the proposal to build the country's fifth nuclear power reactor. As predicted, the vote was close: 107 voted against more nuclear power, 90 were in favor, two members of the 200-seat parliament were not present, and the speaker did not vote

  5. Affinity communities in United Nations voting: Implications for democracy, cooperation, and conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Scott D.; Cranmer, Skyler J.

    2017-10-01

    A network oriented examination of the co-voting network of the United Nations (UN) provides powerful insights into the international alignment of states, as well as normatively important processes such as democracy, defensive cooperation, and armed conflict. Here, we investigate the UN co-voting network using the tools of community detection and inductively identify "affinity communities" in which states articulate similar policy preferences through their voting patterns. Analysis of these communities reveals that there is more information contained in UN voting and co-voting patterns than has previously been thought. Affinity communities have complex relationships with some of the most normatively important international outcomes: they reflect transitions to democracy, have a feedback loop with the formation of defensive alliances, and actively help states avoid armed conflict.

  6. Pro-eating disorder communities on social networking sites: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarascio, Adrienne S; Shoaib, Amber; Timko, C Alix

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the number of pro-ana groups on social networking sites and to analyze their content. A general inductive approach was used to analyze the content. Two main themes emerged from the content analysis: social support and eating disorder specific content. Themes were similar across all groups; however, a linguistic analysis indicated differences between groups on the two different networking sites. There was an absence of content typically found on Internet sites. Pro-ana groups on social networking sites are focused on social interactions, and lack eating disorder specific content found on Internet sites.

  7. Voting Systems for Environmental Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    BURGMAN, MARK A; REGAN, HELEN M; MAGUIRE, LYNN A; COLYVAN, MARK; JUSTUS, JAMES; MARTIN, TARA G; ROTHLEY, KRIS

    2014-01-01

    Voting systems aggregate preferences efficiently and are often used for deciding conservation priorities. Desirable characteristics of voting systems include transitivity, completeness, and Pareto optimality, among others. Voting systems that are common and potentially useful for environmental decision making include simple majority, approval, and preferential voting. Unfortunately, no voting system can guarantee an outcome, while also satisfying a range of very reasonable performance criteria. Furthermore, voting methods may be manipulated by decision makers and strategic voters if they have knowledge of the voting patterns and alliances of others in the voting populations. The difficult properties of voting systems arise in routine decision making when there are multiple criteria and management alternatives. Because each method has flaws, we do not endorse one method. Instead, we urge organizers to be transparent about the properties of proposed voting systems and to offer participants the opportunity to approve the voting system as part of the ground rules for operation of a group. Sistemas de Votación para Decisiones Ambientales Resumen Los sistemas de votación agregan preferencias eficientemente y muy seguido se usan para decidir prioridades de conservación. Las características deseables de un sistema de votación incluyen la transitividad, lo completo que sean y la optimalidad de Pareto, entre otras. Los sistemas de votación que son comunes y potencialmente útiles para la toma de decisiones ambientales incluyen simple mayoría, aprobación y votación preferencial. Desafortunadamente, ningún sistema de votación puede garantizar un resultado y a la vez satisfacer un rango de criterios de desempeño muy razonable. Además, los métodos de votación pueden manipularse por los que toman las decisiones y votantes estratégicos si tienen el conocimiento de los patrones de votación y de las alianzas entre miembros dentro de las poblaciones votantes. Las

  8. The Witness-Voting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerck, Ed

    We present a new, comprehensive framework to qualitatively improve election outcome trustworthiness, where voting is modeled as an information transfer process. Although voting is deterministic (all ballots are counted), information is treated stochastically using Information Theory. Error considerations, including faults, attacks, and threats by adversaries, are explicitly included. The influence of errors may be corrected to achieve an election outcome error as close to zero as desired (error-free), with a provably optimal design that is applicable to any type of voting, with or without ballots. Sixteen voting system requirements, including functional, performance, environmental and non-functional considerations, are derived and rated, meeting or exceeding current public-election requirements. The voter and the vote are unlinkable (secret ballot) although each is identifiable. The Witness-Voting System (Gerck, 2001) is extended as a conforming implementation of the provably optimal design that is error-free, transparent, simple, scalable, robust, receipt-free, universally-verifiable, 100% voter-verified, and end-to-end audited.

  9. Real Time Synchronization of Live Broadcast Streams with User Generated Content and Social Network Streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokking, H.M.; Kaptein, A.M.; Veenhuizen, A.T.; Spitters4, M.M.; Niamut, O.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the work in the FP7 STEER project on augmenting a live broadcast with live user generated content. This user generated content consists of both video content, captured with mobile devices, and social network content, such as Facebook or Twitter messages. To enable multi-source

  10. What makes a vote, and what does a vote make?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Steffen; Gad, Christopher

    Digitalizing electoral processes entails substantial changes to the materialities on which such processes rely, and hence to how they are practiced, organized, and, in turn, how they may be analyzed and reflected upon. As researchers in the Danish strategic research project DemTech, which...... work-in-progress we will focus on one particular ‘problem’ which emerges in light of the project and the current efforts to digitalize electoral processes. That is, the problem of how a vote is constituted and defined as such; how the ways in which a vote works are related to its (potential) material...... of 'the state', ‘citizenship' and ‘democracy’, and what it means if a vote cannot be defined as one exact ‘thing’, but instead may, simultaneously, be many things at once....

  11. Voting Varieties: Towards a Plural Sociology of Effective Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald Sonnleitner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico, the puzzling relationships between socioeconomic development and voting challenge the classical theories of modernization: in many regions the most participative territories are the poorest ones. To comprehend this contradictory geography of electoral participation, this research explores the varieties of voting in different contexts, levels and scales, focusing on diverse forms of electoral mobilization (based on community or identity; on corporatism and patronage; on psychological, social or territorial linkages; or on individual and rational choice. This invites to revisit the relations between “universal” suffrage and socio‐political inclusion and participation, on democratic contestation and representation, on governance and legitimacy. What conditions favor/inhibit free, egalitarian, autonomous and effective voting, in hybrid situations of transition from/to democratic/authoritarian regimes?

  12. Enhancing the Functional Content of Eukaryotic Protein Interaction Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gaurav; Arora, Sonali; Manocha, Sahil; Whalen, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Protein interaction networks are a promising type of data for studying complex biological systems. However, despite the rich information embedded in these networks, these networks face important data quality challenges of noise and incompleteness that adversely affect the results obtained from their analysis. Here, we apply a robust measure of local network structure called common neighborhood similarity (CNS) to address these challenges. Although several CNS measures have been proposed in the literature, an understanding of their relative efficacies for the analysis of interaction networks has been lacking. We follow the framework of graph transformation to convert the given interaction network into a transformed network corresponding to a variety of CNS measures evaluated. The effectiveness of each measure is then estimated by comparing the quality of protein function predictions obtained from its corresponding transformed network with those from the original network. Using a large set of human and fly protein interactions, and a set of over GO terms for both, we find that several of the transformed networks produce more accurate predictions than those obtained from the original network. In particular, the measure and other continuous CNS measures perform well this task, especially for large networks. Further investigation reveals that the two major factors contributing to this improvement are the abilities of CNS measures to prune out noisy edges and enhance functional coherence in the transformed networks. PMID:25275489

  13. Modeling and optimization of cloud-ready and content-oriented networks

    CERN Document Server

    Walkowiak, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on modeling and optimization of cloud-ready and content-oriented networks in the context of different layers and accounts for specific constraints following from protocols and technologies used in a particular layer. It addresses a wide range of additional constraints important in contemporary networks, including various types of network flows, survivability issues, multi-layer networking, and resource location. The book presents recent existing and new results in a comprehensive and cohesive way. The contents of the book are organized in five chapters, which are mostly self-contained. Chapter 1 briefly presents information on cloud computing and content-oriented services, and introduces basic notions and concepts of network modeling and optimization. Chapter 2 covers various optimization problems that arise in the context of connection-oriented networks. Chapter 3 focuses on modeling and optimization of Elastic Optical Networks. Chapter 4 is devoted to overlay networks. The book concludes w...

  14. Multiscale Bayesian neural networks for soil water content estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Raghavendra B.; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Springer, Everett P.

    2008-08-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANN) have been used for some time now to estimate soil hydraulic parameters from other available or more easily measurable soil properties. However, most such uses of ANNs as pedotransfer functions (PTFs) have been at matching spatial scales (1:1) of inputs and outputs. This approach assumes that the outputs are only required at the same scale as the input data. Unfortunately, this is rarely true. Different hydrologic, hydroclimatic, and contaminant transport models require soil hydraulic parameter data at different spatial scales, depending upon their grid sizes. While conventional (deterministic) ANNs have been traditionally used in these studies, the use of Bayesian training of ANNs is a more recent development. In this paper, we develop a Bayesian framework to derive soil water retention function including its uncertainty at the point or local scale using PTFs trained with coarser-scale Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO)-based soil data. The approach includes an ANN trained with Bayesian techniques as a PTF tool with training and validation data collected across spatial extents (scales) in two different regions in the United States. The two study areas include the Las Cruces Trench site in the Rio Grande basin of New Mexico, and the Southern Great Plains 1997 (SGP97) hydrology experimental region in Oklahoma. Each region-specific Bayesian ANN is trained using soil texture and bulk density data from the SSURGO database (scale 1:24,000), and predictions of the soil water contents at different pressure heads with point scale data (1:1) inputs are made. The resulting outputs are corrected for bias using both linear and nonlinear correction techniques. The results show good agreement between the soil water content values measured at the point scale and those predicted by the Bayesian ANN-based PTFs for both the study sites. Overall, Bayesian ANNs coupled with nonlinear bias correction are found to be very suitable tools for deriving soil

  15. Tax Salience, Voting, and Deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    Tax incentives can be more or less salient, i.e. noticeable or cognitively easy to process. Our hypothesis is that taxes on consumers are more salient to consumers than equivalent taxes on sellers because consumers underestimate the extent of tax shifting in the market. We show that tax salience...... biases consumers' voting on tax regimes, and that experience is an effective de-biasing mechanism in the experimental laboratory. Pre-vote deliberation makes initially held opinions more extreme rather than correct and does not eliminate the bias in the typical committee. Yet, if voters can discuss...... their experience with the tax regimes they are less likely to be biased....

  16. On improving the efficiency of tensor voting

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Rodrigo; Garcia, Miguel Angel; Puig, Domenec; Pizarro, Luis; Burgeth, Bernhard; Weickert, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes two alternative formulations to reduce the high computational complexity of tensor voting, a robust perceptual grouping technique used to extract salient information from noisy data. The first scheme consists of numerical approximations of the votes, which have been derived from an in-depth analysis of the plate and ball voting processes. The second scheme simplifies the formulation while keeping the same perceptual meaning of the original tensor voting: The stick tensor v...

  17. A multi-tiered architecture for content retrieval in mobile peer-to-peer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we address content retrieval in Mobile Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Networks. We design a multi-tiered architecture for content : retrieval, where at Tier 1, we design a protocol for content similarity governed by a parameter that trades accu...

  18. 12 CFR 7.2022 - Voting trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices § 7.2022 Voting trusts. The shareholders of a national bank may establish a voting trust under the applicable law of a state selected by the participants and designated in the trust agreement, provided the... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting trusts. 7.2022 Section 7.2022 Banks and...

  19. 12 CFR 708a.13 - Voting guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting guidelines. 708a.13 Section 708a.13... INSURED CREDIT UNIONS TO MUTUAL SAVINGS BANKS § 708a.13 Voting guidelines. A converting credit union must conduct its member vote on conversion in a fair and legal manner. NCUA provides the following guidelines...

  20. RIES: Internet voting in action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubbers, E.M.G.M.; Jacobs, B.P.F.; Pieters, Wolter

    2004-01-01

    RIES stands for Rijnland Internet Election System. It is an online voting system that was developed by one of the Dutch local authorities on water management. The system has been used twice in the fall of 2004 for in total approximately two million potential voters. In this paper we describe how

  1. RIES: Internet voting in action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubbers, E.M.G.M.; Jacobs, B.P.F.; Pieters, Wolter

    2005-01-01

    RIES stands for Rijnland Internet Election System. It is an online voting system that has been used twice in the fall of 2004 for in total over two million potential voters. In this paper we describe how this system works. Furthermore we describe how the system allowed us to independently verify the

  2. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare...

  3. Vote Counting as Mathematical Proof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Pattinson, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    then consists of a sequence (or tree) of rule applications and provides an independently checkable certificate of the validity of the result. This reduces the need to trust, or otherwise verify, the correctness of the vote counting software once the certificate has been validated. Using a rule...

  4. Emotion shapes the diffusion of moralized content in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Julian A.; Jost, John T.; Tucker, Joshua A.; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2017-01-01

    Political debate concerning moralized issues is increasingly common in online social networks. However, moral psychology has yet to incorporate the study of social networks to investigate processes by which some moral ideas spread more rapidly or broadly than others. Here, we show that the expression of moral emotion is key for the spread of moral and political ideas in online social networks, a process we call “moral contagion.” Using a large sample of social media communications about three polarizing moral/political issues (n = 563,312), we observed that the presence of moral-emotional words in messages increased their diffusion by a factor of 20% for each additional word. Furthermore, we found that moral contagion was bounded by group membership; moral-emotional language increased diffusion more strongly within liberal and conservative networks, and less between them. Our results highlight the importance of emotion in the social transmission of moral ideas and also demonstrate the utility of social network methods for studying morality. These findings offer insights into how people are exposed to moral and political ideas through social networks, thus expanding models of social influence and group polarization as people become increasingly immersed in social media networks. PMID:28652356

  5. Emotion shapes the diffusion of moralized content in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, William J; Wills, Julian A; Jost, John T; Tucker, Joshua A; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2017-07-11

    Political debate concerning moralized issues is increasingly common in online social networks. However, moral psychology has yet to incorporate the study of social networks to investigate processes by which some moral ideas spread more rapidly or broadly than others. Here, we show that the expression of moral emotion is key for the spread of moral and political ideas in online social networks, a process we call "moral contagion." Using a large sample of social media communications about three polarizing moral/political issues ( n = 563,312), we observed that the presence of moral-emotional words in messages increased their diffusion by a factor of 20% for each additional word. Furthermore, we found that moral contagion was bounded by group membership; moral-emotional language increased diffusion more strongly within liberal and conservative networks, and less between them. Our results highlight the importance of emotion in the social transmission of moral ideas and also demonstrate the utility of social network methods for studying morality. These findings offer insights into how people are exposed to moral and political ideas through social networks, thus expanding models of social influence and group polarization as people become increasingly immersed in social media networks.

  6. Identification of Case Content with Quantitative Network Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Martin Lolle; Olsen, Henrik Palmer; Tarissan, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    the relevant articles. In order to enhance information retrieval about case content, without relying on manual labor and subjective judgment, we propose in this paper a quantitative method that gives a better indication of case content in terms of which articles a given case is more closely associated with...

  7. Networked Content Analysis: The case of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niederer, S.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Content Analysis has been developed within communication science as a technique to analyze bodies of text for features or (recurring) themes, in order to identify cultural indicators, societal trends and issues. And while Content Analysis has seen a tremendous uptake across scientific disciplines,

  8. Implementation of Self-Bias Transistor on Voting Logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harzawardi Hasim; Syirrazie Che Soh

    2014-01-01

    Study in the eld of digital integrated circuit (IC) already become common to the modern industrial. Day by day we have been introduced with new gadget that was developed based on transistor. This paper will study the implementation of self-bias transistor on voting logic. The self-bias transistor will connected both on pull-up network and pull-down network. On previous research, study on comparison of total number of transistors, time propagation delay, and frequency between NAND and NOR gate of voting logic. It's show, with the same number of transistor, NAND gate achieve high frequency and low time propagation delay compare to NOR gate. We extend this analysis by comparing the total number of transistor, time propagation delay, frequency and power dissipation between common NAND gate with self-bias NAND gate. Extensive LTSpice simulations were performed using IBM 90 nm CMOS(Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) process technology. The result show self-bias voting NAND gate consumes 54 % less power dissipation, 43% slow frequency and 43 % high time propagation delay compare to common voting NAND gate. (author)

  9. On the analysis of human mobility model for content broadcasting in 5G networks

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong

    2018-02-15

    Today\\'s mobile service providers aim at ensuring end-to-end performance guarantees. Hence, ensuring an efficient content delivery to end users is highly required. Currently, transmitting popular contents in modern mobile networks rely on unicast transmission. This result into a huge underutilization of the wireless bandwidth. The urban scale mobility of users is beneficial for mobile networks to allocate radio resources spatially and temporally for broadcasting contents. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive analysis on a human activity/mobility model and the content broadcasting system in 5G mobile networks. The objective of this work is to describe how human daily activities could improve the content broadcasting efficiency. We achieve the objective by analyzing the transition probabilities of a user traveling over several places according to the change of states of daily human activities. Using a reallife simulation, we demonstrate the relationship between the human mobility and the optimization objective of the content broadcasting system.

  10. Do Altruistic Preferences Matter for Voting Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahler, Daniel Gerszon

    2017-01-01

    and actual votes are analyzed by locating the Danish political parties in a political compass. Altruistic preferences are found to drive votes to the left and away from extreme candidates. A smaller U.S. survey on the 2016 presidential candidates (n = 400) yields similar results. The results suggest...... they would vote for if elections were held tomorrow, (2) the party they would vote for if they only were to consider what is best for themselves, and (3) the party they would vote for if they were to consider what is best for society as a whole. Differences in where individuals cast their altruistic, selsh...

  11. Voting by older adults with cognitive impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlawish, Jason

    2008-02-01

    This presidential election year reminds us of the importance of each vote and of the integrity of the electoral process. Recent elections have been decided by very narrow margins. In this context, the voting rights and capacity of persons with dementia warrant attention. About 4.5 million Americans currently live with dementia. Whether these citizens should vote raises a host of ethical, legal, and practical issues. At what point does someone lose the capacity to vote, and who decides? What kinds of assistance should these voters get, and who should provide it? And how can the voting rights of residents in long-term care facilities be protected?

  12. Secure Biometric E-Voting Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Taha Kh.; Aborizka, Mohamed

    The implementation of the e-voting becomes more substantial with the rapid increase of e-government development. The recent growth in communications and cryptographic techniques facilitate the implementation of e-voting. Many countries introduced e-voting systems; unfortunately most of these systems are not fully functional. In this paper we will present an e-voting scheme that covers most of the e-voting requirements, smart card and biometric recognition technology were implemented to guarantee voter's privacy and authentication.

  13. Network Characteristics and the Value of Collaborative User-Generated Content

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Ransbotham; Gerald C. Kane; Nicholas H. Lurie

    2012-01-01

    User-generated content is increasingly created through the collaborative efforts of multiple individuals. In this paper, we argue that the value of collaborative user-generated content is a function both of the direct efforts of its contributors and of its embeddedness in the content-contributor network that creates it. An analysis of Wikipedia's WikiProject Medicine reveals a curvilinear relationship between the number of distinct contributors to user-generated content and viewership. A two-...

  14. On improving the efficiency of tensor voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Rodrigo; Garcia, Miguel Angel; Puig, Domenec; Pizarro, Luis; Burgeth, Bernhard; Weickert, Joachim

    2011-11-01

    This paper proposes two alternative formulations to reduce the high computational complexity of tensor voting, a robust perceptual grouping technique used to extract salient information from noisy data. The first scheme consists of numerical approximations of the votes, which have been derived from an in-depth analysis of the plate and ball voting processes. The second scheme simplifies the formulation while keeping the same perceptual meaning of the original tensor voting: The stick tensor voting and the stick component of the plate tensor voting must reinforce surfaceness, the plate components of both the plate and ball tensor voting must boost curveness, whereas junctionness must be strengthened by the ball component of the ball tensor voting. Two new parameters have been proposed for the second formulation in order to control the potentially conflictive influence of the stick component of the plate vote and the ball component of the ball vote. Results show that the proposed formulations can be used in applications where efficiency is an issue since they have a complexity of order O(1). Moreover, the second proposed formulation has been shown to be more appropriate than the original tensor voting for estimating saliencies by appropriately setting the two new parameters.

  15. Didactic Networks: A Proposal for e-learning Content Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Javier Del Alamo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Didactic Networks proposed in this paper are based on previous publications in the field of the RSR (Rhetorical-Semantic Relations. The RSR is a set of primitive relations used for building a specific kind of semantic networks for artificial intelligence applications on the web: the RSN (Rhetorical-Semantic Networks. We bring into focus the RSR application in the field of elearning, by defining Didactic Networks as a new set of semantic patterns oriented to the development of elearning applications. The different lines we offer in our research fall mainly into three levels: (1 The most basic one is in the field of computational linguistics and related to Logical Operations on RSR (RSR Inverses and plurals, RSR combinations, etc, once they have been created. The application of Walter Bosma's results regarding rhetorical distance application and treatment as semantic weighted networks is one of the important issues here. (2 In parallel, we have been working on the creation of a knowledge representation and storage model and data architecture capable of supporting the definition of knowledge networks based on RSR. (3 The third strategic line is in the meso-level, the formulation of a molecular structure of knowledge based on the most frequently used patterns. The main contribution at this level is the set of Fundamental Cognitive Networks (FCN as an application of Novak's mental maps proposal. This paper is part of this third intermediate level, and the Fundamental Didactic Networks (FDN are the result of the application of rhetorical theory procedures to the instructional theory. We have formulated a general set of RSR capable of building discourse, making it possible to express any concept, procedure or principle in terms of knowledge nodes and RSRs. The Instructional knowledge can then be elaborated in the same way. This network structure expressing the instructional knowledge in terms of RSR makes the objective of developing web

  16. SCONES: Secure Content-Oriented Networking for Exploring Space, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We envision a secure content-oriented internetwork as a natural generalization of the cache-and-forward architecture inherent in delay-tolerant networks. Using our...

  17. Engagement with News Content in Online Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeldorf-Hirsch, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Reports indicate that as the Internet is displacing traditional news sources, younger users continue to be disconnected from the news. Fortunately, the Internet provides new ways of sharing and discussing news stories with others through social networking sites such as Facebook, which may be important for engaging users in the news they read…

  18. Voting based object boundary reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qi; Zhang, Like; Ma, Jingsheng

    2005-07-01

    A voting-based object boundary reconstruction approach is proposed in this paper. Morphological technique was adopted in many applications for video object extraction to reconstruct the missing pixels. However, when the missing areas become large, the morphological processing cannot bring us good results. Recently, Tensor voting has attracted people"s attention, and it can be used for boundary estimation on curves or irregular trajectories. However, the complexity of saliency tensor creation limits its applications in real-time systems. An alternative approach based on tensor voting is introduced in this paper. Rather than creating saliency tensors, we use a "2-pass" method for orientation estimation. For the first pass, Sobel d*etector is applied on a coarse boundary image to get the gradient map. In the second pass, each pixel puts decreasing weights based on its gradient information, and the direction with maximum weights sum is selected as the correct orientation of the pixel. After the orientation map is obtained, pixels begin linking edges or intersections along their direction. The approach is applied to various video surveillance clips under different conditions, and the experimental results demonstrate significant improvement on the final extracted objects accuracy.

  19. Contention aware mobility prediction routing for intermittently connected mobile networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elwhishi, Ahmed; Ho, Pin-Han; Shihada, Basem

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel multi-copy routing protocol, called predict and forward (PF), for delay tolerant networks, which aims to explore the possibility of using mobile nodes as message carriers for end-to-end delivery of the messages. With PF, the message forwarding decision is made by manipulating the probability distribution of future inter-contact and contact durations based on the network status, including wireless link condition and nodal buffer availability. In particular, PF is based on the observations that the node mobility behavior is semi-deterministic and could be predicted once there is sufficient mobility history information. We implemented the proposed protocol and compared it with a number of existing encounter-based routing approaches in terms of delivery delay, delivery ratio, and the number of transmissions required for message delivery. The simulation results show that PF outperforms all the counterpart multi-copy encounter-based routing protocols considered in the study.

  20. Exploiting Publication Contents and Collaboration Networks for Collaborator Recommendation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjie Kong

    Full Text Available Thanks to the proliferation of online social networks, it has become conventional for researchers to communicate and collaborate with each other. Meanwhile, one critical challenge arises, that is, how to find the most relevant and potential collaborators for each researcher? In this work, we propose a novel collaborator recommendation model called CCRec, which combines the information on researchers' publications and collaboration network to generate better recommendation. In order to effectively identify the most potential collaborators for researchers, we adopt a topic clustering model to identify the academic domains, as well as a random walk model to compute researchers' feature vectors. Using DBLP datasets, we conduct benchmarking experiments to examine the performance of CCRec. The experimental results show that CCRec outperforms other state-of-the-art methods in terms of precision, recall and F1 score.

  1. Contention aware mobility prediction routing for intermittently connected mobile networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elwhishi, Ahmed

    2013-04-26

    This paper introduces a novel multi-copy routing protocol, called predict and forward (PF), for delay tolerant networks, which aims to explore the possibility of using mobile nodes as message carriers for end-to-end delivery of the messages. With PF, the message forwarding decision is made by manipulating the probability distribution of future inter-contact and contact durations based on the network status, including wireless link condition and nodal buffer availability. In particular, PF is based on the observations that the node mobility behavior is semi-deterministic and could be predicted once there is sufficient mobility history information. We implemented the proposed protocol and compared it with a number of existing encounter-based routing approaches in terms of delivery delay, delivery ratio, and the number of transmissions required for message delivery. The simulation results show that PF outperforms all the counterpart multi-copy encounter-based routing protocols considered in the study.

  2. Identification and management of distributed data NGN, content-centric networks and the web

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolomeo, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Although several books and academic courses discuss data management and networking, few of them focus on the convergence of networking and software technologies for identifying, addressing, and managing distributed data. Focusing on this convergence, Identification and Management of Distributed Data: NGN, Content-Centric Networks and the Web collates and describes the various distributed data management technologies to help readers from various backgrounds understand the common aspects that govern distributed data management. With a focus on the primary problems in identifying, addressing, and

  3. E-Voting Solutions for Digital Democracy in Knowledge Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian STOICA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergent technologies specific to current information and knowledge society, and social networks influence every aspect of our existence, from lucrative activities to recreational ones. There is no part of our life that is not influenced by the explosive development of general information and communication technologies. We witness a spectacular and until recently unimagined metamorphoses of work nature, business process reengineering, controversial evolution of social networks and new directions of electronic government. Over this background of changes, we take on the tasks of deepening the understanding of field that is largely unexplored, namely the electronic vote in digital democracy, without taking any side, pro or against this type of casting our electoral options. The current context encompasses technological, legislative, political, economic and social aspects. Even more, the context of electronic voting in digital democracy involves aspects regarding globalization, technical challenges concerning interoperability, data standardization and security.

  4. Contention Aware Routing for Intermittently Connected Mobile Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elwhishi, Ahmed; Ho, Pin Han; Naik, Sagar; Shihada, Basem

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel multi-copy routing protocol, called Self Adaptive Utility-based Routing Protocol (SAURP), for Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) that are possibly composed of a vast number of miniature devices such as smart phones, hand-held devices, and sensors mounted in fixed or mobile objects. SAURP aims to explore the possibility of taking mobile nodes as message carriers in order for end-to-end delivery of the messages. The best carrier for a message is determined by the prediction result using a novel contact model, where the network status, including wireless link condition and nodal buffer availability, are jointly considered. The paper argues and proves that the nodal movement and the predicted collocation with the message recipient can serve as meaningful information to achieve an intelligent message forwarding decision at each node. The proposed protocol has been implemented and compared with a number of existing encounter-based routing approaches in terms of delivery delay, and the number of transmissions required for message delivery. The simulation results show that the proposed SAURP outperforms all the counterpart multi-copy encounter-based routing protocols considered in the study.

  5. Contention Aware Routing for Intermittently Connected Mobile Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elwhishi, Ahmed

    2011-08-21

    This paper introduces a novel multi-copy routing protocol, called Self Adaptive Utility-based Routing Protocol (SAURP), for Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) that are possibly composed of a vast number of miniature devices such as smart phones, hand-held devices, and sensors mounted in fixed or mobile objects. SAURP aims to explore the possibility of taking mobile nodes as message carriers in order for end-to-end delivery of the messages. The best carrier for a message is determined by the prediction result using a novel contact model, where the network status, including wireless link condition and nodal buffer availability, are jointly considered. The paper argues and proves that the nodal movement and the predicted collocation with the message recipient can serve as meaningful information to achieve an intelligent message forwarding decision at each node. The proposed protocol has been implemented and compared with a number of existing encounter-based routing approaches in terms of delivery delay, and the number of transmissions required for message delivery. The simulation results show that the proposed SAURP outperforms all the counterpart multi-copy encounter-based routing protocols considered in the study.

  6. A network and visual quality aware N-screen content recommender system using joint matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Farman; Sarwar, Ghulam; Lee, Sungchang

    2014-01-01

    We propose a network and visual quality aware N-Screen content recommender system. N-Screen provides more ways than ever before to access multimedia content through multiple devices and heterogeneous access networks. The heterogeneity of devices and access networks present new questions of QoS (quality of service) in the realm of user experience with content. We propose, a recommender system that ensures a better visual quality on user's N-screen devices and the efficient utilization of available access network bandwidth with user preferences. The proposed system estimates the available bandwidth and visual quality on users N-Screen devices and integrates it with users preferences and contents genre information to personalize his N-Screen content. The objective is to recommend content that the user's N-Screen device and access network are capable of displaying and streaming with the user preferences that have not been supported in existing systems. Furthermore, we suggest a joint matrix factorization approach to jointly factorize the users rating matrix with the users N-Screen device similarity and program genres similarity. Finally, the experimental results show that we also enhance the prediction and recommendation accuracy, sparsity, and cold start issues.

  7. A Network and Visual Quality Aware N-Screen Content Recommender System Using Joint Matrix Factorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a network and visual quality aware N-Screen content recommender system. N-Screen provides more ways than ever before to access multimedia content through multiple devices and heterogeneous access networks. The heterogeneity of devices and access networks present new questions of QoS (quality of service in the realm of user experience with content. We propose, a recommender system that ensures a better visual quality on user’s N-screen devices and the efficient utilization of available access network bandwidth with user preferences. The proposed system estimates the available bandwidth and visual quality on users N-Screen devices and integrates it with users preferences and contents genre information to personalize his N-Screen content. The objective is to recommend content that the user’s N-Screen device and access network are capable of displaying and streaming with the user preferences that have not been supported in existing systems. Furthermore, we suggest a joint matrix factorization approach to jointly factorize the users rating matrix with the users N-Screen device similarity and program genres similarity. Finally, the experimental results show that we also enhance the prediction and recommendation accuracy, sparsity, and cold start issues.

  8. On Some Incompatible Properties of Voting Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Chevallier-Mames , Benoît; Fouque , Pierre-Alain; Pointcheval , David; Stern , Julien; Traoré , Jacques

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of simultaneously achieving several security properties, for voting schemes, without non-standard assumptions. More specifically, we focus on the universal veriability of the computation of the tally, on the unconditional privacy/anonymity of the votes, and on the receipt-freeness properties, for the most classical election processes. Under usual assumptions and efficiency requirements, we show that a voting system that wants to publish the final list of th...

  9. Tensor voting for robust color edge detection

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Rodrigo; García, Miguel Ángel; Puig, Domenec

    2014-01-01

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7584-8_9 This chapter proposes two robust color edge detection methods based on tensor voting. The first method is a direct adaptation of the classical tensor voting to color images where tensors are initialized with either the gradient or the local color structure tensor. The second method is based on an extension of tensor voting in which the encoding and voting processes are specifically tailored to ...

  10. Electronic voting systems for defending free will and resisting bribery and coercion based on ring anonymous signcryption scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Chih Hsiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vote by ballot is the feature in a democratic society and the process of decision-making, tending to achieve the philosophy of democratic politics by having the public who are eligible to vote for competent candidates or leaders. With the rapid development of technologies and network applications, electronization has been actively promoted globally during the social transformation period that the concept of electronic voting is further derived. The major advantages of electronic voting, comparing with traditional voting, lie in the mobility strength of electronic voting, reducing a large amount of election costs and enhancing the convenience for the public. Electronic voting allows voters completing voting on the Internet that not only are climate and location restrictions overcome, but the voter turnout is also increased and the voting time is reduced for the public. With the development in the past three decades, electronic voting presents outstanding performance theoretically and practically. Nevertheless, it is regrettable that electronic voting schemes still cannot be completely open because of lures by money and threats. People to lure by money and threats would confirm the voters following their instructions through various methods that more factors would appear on election results, affecting the quality and fairness of the election. In this study, this project aims to design an electronic voting scheme which could actually defend voters’ free will so that lure of money and threats would fail. Furthermore, an electronic voting system based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography is proposed to ensure the efficiency and security, and Ring Signature and Signcryption are applied to reducing the computing costs. Moreover, this project also focuses on applying voting system to mobile devices. As the system efficiency and security are emphasized, voters do not need to participate in the election, but simply complete voting with smart phones, i

  11. Voting Power and Shareholder Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Therese; Poulsen, Thomas; Thomsen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the development of a voting power theory that is applied to a unique data set on Swedish shareholder meetings. The authors hypothesize that there is a positive relationship between shareholder activism and the largest shareholder's sensitivity to greater participation by small...... shareholders. It is shown that firms' amenability to small shareholder influence results in more proposals by nomination committees that are dominated by large shareholders, but fewer proposals by other shareholders. The importance of local institutions are highlighted and a call for more research regarding...... shareholder activism in alternative institutional settings is mad...

  12. Internet voting: a conceptual challenge to democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trauth, E.M.; Pieters, Wolter; Howcroft, D.; Butler, T.; Fitzgerald, B.; DeGross, J.I.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the implications for social inclusion of the advent of Internet voting. Although the issue of social exclusion or social inclusion with regard to technological developments in the voting process is often approached as a matter of either security or turnout, we will take a

  13. The wonders of CERN need your vote!

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Two of CERN's creations were chosen by the US news group CNN as their 'seven wonders of the modern world'. The LHC and the World Wide Web are among the leading entries you can vote for to find the greatest wonder of all. Cast your vote at: http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2006/modern.wonders/

  14. Towards quantum-based privacy and voting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillery, Mark; Ziman, Mario; Buzek, Vladimir; Bielikova, Martina

    2006-01-01

    The privacy of communicating participants is often of paramount importance, but in some situations it is an essential condition. A typical example is a fair (secret) voting. We analyze in detail communication privacy based on quantum resources, and we propose new quantum protocols. Possible generalizations that would lead to voting schemes are discussed

  15. Self-tallying quantum anonymous voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingle; Yu, Chaohua; Gao, Fei; Qi, Haoyu; Wen, Qiaoyan

    2016-08-01

    Anonymous voting is a voting method of hiding the link between a vote and a voter, the context of which ranges from governmental elections to decision making in small groups like councils and companies. In this paper, we propose a quantum anonymous voting protocol assisted by two kinds of entangled quantum states. Particularly, we provide a mechanism of opening and permuting the ordered votes of all the voters in an anonymous manner; any party who is interested in the voting results can acquire a permutation copy and then obtains the voting result through a simple calculation. Unlike all previous quantum works on anonymous voting, our quantum anonymous protocol possesses the properties of privacy, self-tallying, nonreusability, verifiability, and fairness at the same time. In addition, we demonstrate that the entanglement of the quantum states used in our protocol makes an attack from an outside eavesdropper and inside dishonest voters impossible. We also generalize our protocol to execute the task of anonymous multiparty computation, such as anonymous broadcast and anonymous ranking.

  16. Road detection in SAR images using a tensor voting algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dajiang; Hu, Chun; Yang, Bing; Tian, Jinwen; Liu, Jian

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, the problem of the detection of road networks in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images is addressed. Most of the previous methods extract the road by detecting lines and network reconstruction. Traditional algorithms such as MRFs, GA, Level Set, used in the progress of reconstruction are iterative. The tensor voting methodology we proposed is non-iterative, and non-sensitive to initialization. Furthermore, the only free parameter is the size of the neighborhood, related to the scale. The algorithm we present is verified to be effective when it's applied to the road extraction using the real Radarsat Image.

  17. A model for the distribution of watermarked digital content on mobile networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattolillo, Franco; D'Onofrio, Salvatore

    2006-10-01

    Although digital watermarking can be considered one of the key technologies to implement the copyright protection of digital contents distributed on the Internet, most of the content distribution models based on watermarking protocols proposed in literature have been purposely designed for fixed networks and cannot be easily adapted to mobile networks. On the contrary, the use of mobile devices currently enables new types of services and business models, and this makes the development of new content distribution models for mobile environments strategic in the current scenario of the Internet. This paper presents and discusses a distribution model of watermarked digital contents for such environments able to achieve a trade-off between the needs of efficiency and security.

  18. What Combinations of Contents is Driving Popularity in IPTV-based Social Networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Rajen

    IPTV-based Social Networks are gaining popularity with TV programs coming over IP connection and internet like applications available on home TV. One such application is rating TV programs over some predefined genres. In this paper, we suggest an approach for building a recommender system to be used by content distributors, publishers, and motion pictures producers-directors to decide on what combinations of contents may drive popularity or unpopularity. This may be used then for creating a proper mixture of media contents which can drive high popularity. This may also be used for the purpose of catering customized contents for group of users whose taste is similar and thus combinations of contents driving popularity for a certain group is also similar. We use a novel approach for this formulation utilizing fuzzy decision trees. Computational experiments performed over real-world program review database shows that the proposed approach is very efficient towards understanding of the content combinations.

  19. Incentive Mechanism for P2P Content Sharing over Heterogenous Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kenichiro; Hashimoto, Ryo; Yoshino, Makoto; Shinkuma, Ryoichi; Takahashi, Tatsuro

    In peer-to-peer (P2P) content sharing, users can share their content by contributing their own resources to one another. However, since there is no incentive for contributing contents or resources to others, users may attempt to obtain content without any contribution. To motivate users to contribute their resources to the service, incentive-rewarding mechanisms have been proposed. On the other hand, emerging wireless technologies, such as IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks, beyond third generation (B3G) cellular networks and mobile WiMAX, provide high-speed Internet access for wireless users. Using these high-speed wireless access, wireless users can use P2P services and share their content with other wireless users and with fixed users. However, this diversification of access networks makes it difficult to appropriately assign rewards to each user according to their contributions. This is because the cost necessary for contribution is different in different access networks. In this paper, we propose a novel incentive-rewarding mechanism called EMOTIVER that can assign rewards to users appropriately. The proposed mechanism uses an external evaluator and interactive learning agents. We also investigate a way of appropriately controlling rewards based on the system service's quality and managing policy.

  20. EDUCATIONAL NETWORK RESOURCES IN JOURNALISM AND PUBLISHING: FEATURES OF THE SITES' CONTENT AND DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna A. Zenzina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the concept of electronic educational resource, its importance for the orientation of students in cyberspace, the basic requirements for the design and content of educational resources eligibility criteria standards. Filed benefits of having their own educational resource for high school. Singled out the importance of the interaction of educational resources with social networks. Detected differences and similarities of design and content of educational resources of Kyiv Universities in journalism and publishing.

  1. Moral Foundations and Voting Intention in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Milesi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the view of morality proposed by the Moral Foundations Theory, this paper investigates whether voting intention is associated with moral foundation endorsement in not perfectly bipolar electoral contexts. Three studies carried out in Italy from 2010 to 2013, showed that controlling for ideological orientation, moral foundation endorsement is associated with voting intention. In Study 1 and 3, in fictitious and real national elections, intention to vote for right-wing political groups rather than for left-wing rivals was associated with Sanctity, confirming previous results obtained in the U.S. Furthermore, as a function of the specific competing political groups in each of the examined contexts other moral foundations predicted voting intention. In Study 1, Care and Authority predicted voting intention for the major political groups rather than for an autonomist party that aimed at decreasing central government’s fiscal power in favor of fiscal regional autonomy. In Study 3, Loyalty predicted the intention to vote for the major parliamentarian parties rather than for a movement that aimed at capturing disaffection towards traditional politics. In Study 2, at real regional elections, Loyalty predicted voting intention for the incumbent right-wing governor rather than for the challengers and Fairness predicted voting intention for left-wing extra-parliamentarian political groups rather than for the major left-wing party. Thus multiple moral concerns can be associated with voting intention. In fragmented and unstable electoral contexts, at each election the context of the competing political groups may elicit specific moral concerns that can contribute to affect voting intention beyond ideological orientation.

  2. Voting-based Classification for E-mail Spam Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Awad Al-Shboul

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of spam e-mail has gained a tremendous amount of attention. Although entities tend to use e-mail spam filter applications to filter out received spam e-mails, marketing companies still tend to send unsolicited e-mails in bulk and users still receive a reasonable amount of spam e-mail despite those filtering applications. This work proposes a new method for classifying e-mails into spam and non-spam. First, several e-mail content features are extracted and then those features are used for classifying each e-mail individually. The classification results of three different classifiers (i.e. Decision Trees, Random Forests and k-Nearest Neighbor are combined in various voting schemes (i.e. majority vote, average probability, product of probabilities, minimum probability and maximum probability for making the final decision. To validate our method, two different spam e-mail collections were used.

  3. Information content of neural networks with self-control and variable activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolle, D.; Amari, S.I.; Dominguez Carreta, D.R.C.; Massolo, G.

    2001-01-01

    A self-control mechanism for the dynamics of neural networks with variable activity is discussed using a recursive scheme for the time evolution of the local field. It is based upon the introduction of a self-adapting time-dependent threshold as a function of both the neural and pattern activity in the network. This mechanism leads to an improvement of the information content of the network as well as an increase of the storage capacity and the basins of attraction. Different architectures are considered and the results are compared with numerical simulations

  4. Personalized Social Network Activity Feeds for Increased Interaction and Content Contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo eBerkovsky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks were originally conceived as means of sharing information and activities with friends, and their success has been one of the primary contributors of the tremendous growth of the Web. Social network activity feeds were devised as a means to aggregate recent actions of friends into a convenient list. But the volume of actions and content generated by social network users is overwhelming, such that keeping users up-to-date with friend activities is an ongoing challenge for social network providers. Personalization has been proposed as a solution to combat social network information overload and help users to identify the nuggets of relevant information in the incoming flood of network activities. In this paper, we propose and thoroughly evaluate a personalized model for predicting the relevance of the activity feed items, which informs the ranking of the feeds and facilitates personalization. Results of a live study show that the proposed feed personalization approach successfully identifies and promotes relevant feed items and boosts the uptake of the feeds. In addition, it increases the contribution of user-generated content to the social network and spurs interaction between users.

  5. Wurf.it: A Network Coding Reliable Multicast Content Streaming Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Nestor; Pihl, Jeppe; Heide, Janus

    demonstrator consists of stored simulations with ns-3 in a laptop and a Wurf.it implementation within a WiFi network. For the implementation, a video content from a mobile camera is distributed with low delay using SCORE to a set of heterogenous receivers (e.g. dierent platforms). Use cases of Wurf.it are mild...

  6. Give-and-take based peer-to-peer content distribution networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Compared to traditional content distribution schemes, peer- to-peer networks ... are shared among users who desire to download files. In a peer-to-peer ..... randomly generated data points, with 300 segments and 200 peers. From the figure ...

  7. Artificial Neural Network Modelling of the Energy Content of Municipal Solid Wastes in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Oumarou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents an application of the artificial neural network model using the back propagation learning algorithm to predict the actual calorific value of the municipal solid waste in major cities of the northern part of Nigeria, with high population densities and intense industrial activities. These cities are: Kano, Damaturu, Dutse, Bauchi, Birnin Kebbi, Gusau, Maiduguri, Katsina and Sokoto. Experimental data of the energy content and the physical characterization of the municipal solid waste serve as the input parameter in nature of wood, grass, metal, plastic, food remnants, leaves, glass and paper. Comparative studies were made by using the developed model, the experimental results and a correlation which was earlier developed by the authors to predict the energy content. While predicting the actual calorific value, the maximum error was 0.94% for the artificial neural network model and 5.20% by the statistical correlation. The network with eight neurons and an R2 = 0.96881 in the hidden layer results in a stable and optimum network. This study showed that the artificial neural network approach could successfully be used for energy content predictions from the municipal solid wastes in Northern Nigeria and other areas of similar waste stream and composition.

  8. Toward more usable electronic voting: testing the usability of a smartphone voting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bryan A; Tossell, Chad C; Byrne, Michael D; Kortum, Philip

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this research was to assess the usability of a voting system designed for smart-phones. Smartphones offer remote participation in elections through the use of pervasive technology. Voting on these devices could, among other benefits, increase voter participation while allowing voters to use familiar technology. However, the usability of these systems has not been assessed. A mobile voting system optimized for use on a smartphone was designed and tested against traditional voting platforms for usability. There were no reliable differences between the smartphone-based system and other voting methods in efficiency and perceived usability. More important, though, smartphone owners committed fewer errors on the mobile voting system than on the traditional voting systems. Even with the known limitations of small mobile platforms in both displays and controls, a carefully designed system can provide a usable voting method. Much of the concern about mobile voting is in the area of security; therefore, although these results are promising, security concerns and usability issues arising from mitigating them must be strongly considered. The results of this experiment may help to inform current and future election and public policy officials about the benefits of allowing voters to vote with familiar hardware.

  9. Content Downloading with the Assistance of Roadside Cars for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigang Gong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plenty of multimedia contents such as traffic images, music, and movies pose great challenges for content downloading due to the high mobility of vehicles and intermittent connectivity for vehicular ad hoc networks. Roadside units or APs can improve the efficiency of content downloading but with the cost of large investments. In this paper, an efficient content downloading scheme is proposed with the assistance of parking clusters, which are formed by roadside parked cars. After receiving the downloading request, the parking clusters, which the downloader will travel through according to the estimated trajectory, will make a download scheduling for the downloader. Then the downloader acquires the content chunks while it drives through the parking clusters. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves better performance than intervehicle approach and RSU based approach.

  10. A Hybrid P2P Overlay Network for Non-strictly Hierarchically Categorized Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yi; Asaka, Takuya; Takahashi, Tatsuro

    In P2P content distribution systems, there are many cases in which the content can be classified into hierarchically organized categories. In this paper, we propose a hybrid overlay network design suitable for such content called Pastry/NSHCC (Pastry for Non-Strictly Hierarchically Categorized Content). The semantic information of classification hierarchies of the content can be utilized regardless of whether they are in a strict tree structure or not. By doing so, the search scope can be restrained to any granularity, and the number of query messages also decreases while maintaining keyword searching availability. Through simulation, we showed that the proposed method provides better performance and lower overhead than unstructured overlays exploiting the same semantic information.

  11. A Protocol for Content-Based Communication in Disconnected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Haillot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In content-based communication, information flows towards interested hosts rather than towards specifically set destinations. This new style of communication perfectly fits the needs of applications dedicated to information sharing, news distribution, service advertisement and discovery, etc. In this paper we address the problem of supporting content-based communication in partially or intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. The protocol we designed leverages on the concepts of opportunistic networking and delay-tolerant networking in order to account for the absence of end-to-end connectivity in disconnected MANETs. The paper provides an overview of the protocol, as well as simulation results that show how this protocol can perform in realistic conditions.

  12. Content-Adaptive Packetization and Streaming of Wavelet Video over IP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Peng Ho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework of content-adaptive packetization scheme for streaming of 3D wavelet-based video content over lossy IP networks. The tradeoff between rate and distortion is controlled by jointly adapting scalable source coding rate and level of forward error correction (FEC protection. A content dependent packetization mechanism with data-interleaving and Reed-Solomon protection for wavelet-based video codecs is proposed to provide unequal error protection. This paper also tries to answer an important question for scalable video streaming systems: given extra bandwidth, should one increase the level of channel protection for the most important packets, or transmit more scalable source data? Experimental results show that the proposed framework achieves good balance between quality of the received video and level of error protection under bandwidth-varying lossy IP networks.

  13. Social Network Facebook in News: Comparisiion of Space Dedicated to Social Network Facebook ads its Content in Czech Media in the Years 2009 and 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Bezdíčková, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Diploma thesis "Social Network Facebook in News: Comparison of Space Dedicated to Social Network Facebook and its Content in Czech Media in the Years 2009 and 2011", is dedicated to the way of use and citation of social network Facebook in the selected news media. The paper summarizes the establishment and strengthening of online media, particularly the phenomenon of social networks on the example of social network Facebook, and their influence on the transformation of the media sector, news ...

  14. Shareholders proposals, vote outcome, and board composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani Khaled Bouresli

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the variables that affect vote outcome in shareholder proposals. We found that sponsor identity, proposal type, and board composition play a significant role in determining vote outcome. Furthermore, we found that the interaction between the prior performance with board composition is significant and has a negative coefficient. We conducted nonparametric tests to investigate changes in board’s major characteristics before and after targeting. The results indicate that some changes in management and boards occur after shareholder proposals. These changes, however, are unrelated to variables that impact vote outcome. We conclude that shareholders proposals are not effective at changing company behavior or corporate governance

  15. Quantum anonymous voting with anonymity check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horoshko, Dmitri; Kilin, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new protocol for quantum anonymous voting having serious advantages over the existing protocols: it protects both the voters from a curious tallyman and all the participants from a dishonest voter in unconditional way. The central idea of the protocol is that the ballots are given back to the voters after the voting process, which gives a possibility for two voters to check the anonymity of the vote counting process by preparing a special entangled state of two ballots. Any attempt of cheating from the side of the tallyman results in destroying the entanglement, which can be detected by the voters.

  16. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  17. Canada Votes: How We Elect Our Government. Second Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granfield, Linda

    This information book provides a student text on voting procedures in Canada. The short sections provide easy reading on the federal electoral process in Canada. Students read about who can vote, how and when women and minorities won voting rights, the different parties, the voting process --both present and past, and election day happenings.…

  18. Multimedia Cross–Platform Content Distribution for Mobile Peer–to–Peer Networks using Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Heide, Janus; Vingelmann, Peter

    2010-01-01

    communication. In this paper we will introduce a mobile application that runs on Symbian as well as iPhone/iPod de vices and is able to exchange multimedia content in a point to multipoint fashion. The mobile application coined PictureViewer can convey pictures from one source device to many neighboring devices...

  19. Explicit Content Caching at Mobile Edge Networks with Cross-Layer Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingyu; Su, Youxing; Luo, Wenbin; Hong, Xuemin; Shi, Jianghong

    2018-01-01

    The deployment density and computational power of small base stations (BSs) are expected to increase significantly in the next generation mobile communication networks. These BSs form the mobile edge network, which is a pervasive and distributed infrastructure that can empower a variety of edge/fog computing applications. This paper proposes a novel edge-computing application called explicit caching, which stores selective contents at BSs and exposes such contents to local users for interactive browsing and download. We formulate the explicit caching problem as a joint content recommendation, caching, and delivery problem, which aims to maximize the expected user quality-of-experience (QoE) with varying degrees of cross-layer sensing capability. Optimal and effective heuristic algorithms are presented to solve the problem. The theoretical performance bounds of the explicit caching system are derived in simplified scenarios. The impacts of cache storage space, BS backhaul capacity, cross-layer information, and user mobility on the system performance are simulated and discussed in realistic scenarios. Results suggest that, compared with conventional implicit caching schemes, explicit caching can better exploit the mobile edge network infrastructure for personalized content dissemination. PMID:29565313

  20. Explicit Content Caching at Mobile Edge Networks with Cross-Layer Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingyu; Su, Youxing; Luo, Wenbin; Hong, Xuemin; Shi, Jianghong

    2018-03-22

    The deployment density and computational power of small base stations (BSs) are expected to increase significantly in the next generation mobile communication networks. These BSs form the mobile edge network, which is a pervasive and distributed infrastructure that can empower a variety of edge/fog computing applications. This paper proposes a novel edge-computing application called explicit caching, which stores selective contents at BSs and exposes such contents to local users for interactive browsing and download. We formulate the explicit caching problem as a joint content recommendation, caching, and delivery problem, which aims to maximize the expected user quality-of-experience (QoE) with varying degrees of cross-layer sensing capability. Optimal and effective heuristic algorithms are presented to solve the problem. The theoretical performance bounds of the explicit caching system are derived in simplified scenarios. The impacts of cache storage space, BS backhaul capacity, cross-layer information, and user mobility on the system performance are simulated and discussed in realistic scenarios. Results suggest that, compared with conventional implicit caching schemes, explicit caching can better exploit the mobile edge network infrastructure for personalized content dissemination.

  1. Political Broadcast Advertising and Primary Election Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanat, John

    1974-01-01

    Results of a research project which hypothisized that: Other things being equal, the heavier a candidate's usage of broadcast advertising in a primary election campaign, the greater will be his share of the votes in the election. (Author/HB)

  2. Allegheny County Voting District (2016) Web Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This webmap demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  3. Allegheny County Voting District (2015) Web Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This webmap demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  4. Trustworthy Voting: From Machine to System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, N.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe an electronic voting approach that takes a system view, incorporating a trustworthy process based on open source software, simplified procedures, and built-in redundant safeguards that prevent tampering. © 2009 IEEE.

  5. Civitas: Toward a Secure Voting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    voting, we believe that remote vot- ing is the right problem to solve. One of our goals was therefore to strike a reasonable compromise between enabling...versions of this work. References [1] Ben Adida . Advances in Cryptographic Voting Systems. PhD thesis, MIT, Aug. 2006. [2] Roberto Araújo, Sébastien...3] Association for Computing Machinery. SIG elections. http://www.acm.org/sigs/elections, 2007. [4] Jonathan Bannet, David W. Price , Algis Rudys

  6. Open your eyes and vote!

    CERN Multimedia

    Rebecca Leam

    The CERN film-making club is organizing the second edition of the CinéGlobe International Short Film Festival and everyone is invited to attend a series of selection screenings in November to vote on which they like and think should be publicly shown in the Globe and at the Forum Meyrin in February 2010.   This year over 700 short films were submitted for three competitions: the majority for the general fiction category for films up to ten minutes in length, and others for science fiction (20 minutes) and science documentary (30 minutes). “In 2007 we had just one competition open to films from any genre. We decided to add the science related competitions to the second edition to make a stronger link with CERN as a physics lab,” explained Quentin King, Chairman of the Selection Committee and member of CERN’s film-making club, Open Your Eyes Films. “The entries are extremely diverse and touch on almost every aspect of life. The creativity of short...

  7. The mathematics of elections and voting

    CERN Document Server

    Wallis, W D

    2014-01-01

    The Mathematics of Elections and Voting  takes an in-depth look at the mathematics in the context of voting and electoral systems, with focus on simple ballots, complex elections, fairness, approval voting, ties, fair and unfair voting, and manipulation techniques. The exposition opens with a sketch of the mathematics behind the various methods used in conducting elections. The reader is lead to a comprehensive picture of the theoretical background of mathematics and elections through an analysis of Condorcet’s Principle and Arrow’s Theorem of conditions in electoral fairness. Further detailed discussion of various related topics include: methods of manipulating the outcome of an election, amendments, and voting on small committees. In recent years, electoral theory has been introduced into lower-level mathematics courses, as a way to illustrate the role of mathematics in our everyday life.  Few books have studied voting and elections from a more formal mathematical viewpoint.  This text wi...

  8. Cooperative Content Distribution over Wireless Networks for Energy and Delay Minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-06-01

    Content distribution with mobile-to-mobile cooperation is studied. Data is sent to mobile terminals on a long range link then the terminals exchange the content using an appropriate short range wireless technology. Unicasting and multicasting are investigated, both on the long range and short range links. Energy minimization is formulated as an optimization problem for each scenario, and the optimal solutions are determined in closed form. Moreover, the schemes are applied in public safety vehicular networks, where Long Term Evolution (LTE) network is used for the long range link, while IEEE 802.11 p is considered for inter-vehicle collaboration on the short range links. Finally, relay-based multicasting is applied in high speed trains for energy and delay minimization. Results show that cooperative schemes outperform non-cooperative ones and other previous related work in terms of energy and delay savings. Furthermore, practical implementation aspects of the proposed methods are also discussed.

  9. Network-Coded Content Delivery in Femtocaching-Assisted Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shnaiwer, Yousef N.; Sorour, Sameh; Aboutorab, Neda; Sadeghi, Parastoo; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation cellular networks are expected to be assisted by femtocaches (FCs), which collectively store the most popular files for the clients. Given any arbitrary non-fragmented placement of such files, a strict no-latency constraint, and clients' prior knowledge, new file download requests could be efficiently handled by both the FCs and the macrocell base station (MBS) using opportunistic network coding (ONC). In this paper, we aim to find the best allocation of coded file downloads to the FCs so as to minimize the MBS involvement in this download process. We first formulate this optimization problem over an ONC graph, and show that it is NP-hard. We then propose a greedy approach that maximizes the number of files downloaded by the FCs, with the goal to reduce the download share of the MBS. This allocation is performed using a dual conflict ONC graph to avoid conflicts among the FC downloads. Simulations show that our proposed scheme almost achieves the optimal performance and significantly saves on the MBS bandwidth.

  10. Network-Coded Content Delivery in Femtocaching-Assisted Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shnaiwer, Yousef N.

    2015-12-06

    Next-generation cellular networks are expected to be assisted by femtocaches (FCs), which collectively store the most popular files for the clients. Given any arbitrary non-fragmented placement of such files, a strict no-latency constraint, and clients\\' prior knowledge, new file download requests could be efficiently handled by both the FCs and the macrocell base station (MBS) using opportunistic network coding (ONC). In this paper, we aim to find the best allocation of coded file downloads to the FCs so as to minimize the MBS involvement in this download process. We first formulate this optimization problem over an ONC graph, and show that it is NP-hard. We then propose a greedy approach that maximizes the number of files downloaded by the FCs, with the goal to reduce the download share of the MBS. This allocation is performed using a dual conflict ONC graph to avoid conflicts among the FC downloads. Simulations show that our proposed scheme almost achieves the optimal performance and significantly saves on the MBS bandwidth.

  11. Human Inspired Self-developmental Model of Neural Network (HIM): Introducing Content/Form Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajíček, Jiří

    This paper presents cross-disciplinary research between medical/psychological evidence on human abilities and informatics needs to update current models in computer science to support alternative methods for computation and communication. In [10] we have already proposed hypothesis introducing concept of human information model (HIM) as cooperative system. Here we continue on HIM design in detail. In our design, first we introduce Content/Form computing system which is new principle of present methods in evolutionary computing (genetic algorithms, genetic programming). Then we apply this system on HIM (type of artificial neural network) model as basic network self-developmental paradigm. Main inspiration of our natural/human design comes from well known concept of artificial neural networks, medical/psychological evidence and Sheldrake theory of "Nature as Alive" [22].

  12. Using Pathfinder networks to discover alignment between expert and consumer conceptual knowledge from online vaccine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amith, Muhammad; Cunningham, Rachel; Savas, Lara S; Boom, Julie; Schvaneveldt, Roger; Tao, Cui; Cohen, Trevor

    2017-10-01

    This study demonstrates the use of distributed vector representations and Pathfinder Network Scaling (PFNETS) to represent online vaccine content created by health experts and by laypeople. By analyzing a target audience's conceptualization of a topic, domain experts can develop targeted interventions to improve the basic health knowledge of consumers. The underlying assumption is that the content created by different groups reflects the mental organization of their knowledge. Applying automated text analysis to this content may elucidate differences between the knowledge structures of laypeople (heath consumers) and professionals (health experts). This paper utilizes vaccine information generated by laypeople and health experts to investigate the utility of this approach. We used an established technique from cognitive psychology, Pathfinder Network Scaling to infer the structure of the associational networks between concepts learned from online content using methods of distributional semantics. In doing so, we extend the original application of PFNETS to infer knowledge structures from individual participants, to infer the prevailing knowledge structures within communities of content authors. The resulting graphs reveal opportunities for public health and vaccination education experts to improve communication and intervention efforts directed towards health consumers. Our efforts demonstrate the feasibility of using an automated procedure to examine the manifestation of conceptual models within large bodies of free text, revealing evidence of conflicting understanding of vaccine concepts among health consumers as compared with health experts. Additionally, this study provides insight into the differences between consumer and expert abstraction of domain knowledge, revealing vaccine-related knowledge gaps that suggest opportunities to improve provider-patient communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. BP neural network optimized by genetic algorithm approach for titanium and iron content prediction in EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Liu Mingzhe; Li Zhe; Li Lei; Shi Rui; Tuo Xianguo

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative elemental content analysis is difficult due to the uniform effect, particle effect and the element matrix effect, etc, when using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. In this paper, a hybrid approach of genetic algorithm (GA) and back propagation (BP) neural network was proposed without considering the complex relationship between the concentration and intensity. The aim of GA optimized BP was to get better network initial weights and thresholds. The basic idea was that the reciprocal of the mean square error of the initialization BP neural network was set as the fitness value of the individual in GA, and the initial weights and thresholds were replaced by individuals, and then the optimal individual was sought by selection, crossover and mutation operations, finally a new BP neural network model was created with the optimal initial weights and thresholds. The calculation results of quantitative analysis of titanium and iron contents for five types of ore bodies in Panzhihua Mine show that the results of classification prediction are far better than that of overall forecasting, and relative errors of 76.7% samples are less than 2% compared with chemical analysis values, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method. (authors)

  14. The Relationship between Voting Knowledge and Voting Attitudes of Selected Ninth and Tenth Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    A study showed that the acquisition of voting knowledge in a civics class positively influenced ninth- and tenth-grade students' attitudes toward voting. Teachers should give students a solid foundation concerning the electoral process and encourage students to participate in the political process. (RM)

  15. GPU-Vote: A Framework for Accelerating Voting Algorithms on GPU.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, van den G.J.W.; Nugteren, C.; Mesman, B.; Corporaal, H.; Kaklamanis, C.; Papatheodorou, T.; Spirakis, P.G.

    2012-01-01

    Voting algorithms, such as histogram and Hough transforms, are frequently used algorithms in various domains, such as statistics and image processing. Algorithms in these domains may be accelerated using GPUs. Implementing voting algorithms efficiently on a GPU however is far from trivial due to

  16. Energy Efficient Caching in Backhaul-Aware Cellular Networks with Dynamic Content Popularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiequ Ji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Caching popular contents at base stations (BSs has been regarded as an effective approach to alleviate the backhaul load and to improve the quality of service. To meet the explosive data traffic demand and to save energy consumption, energy efficiency (EE has become an extremely important performance index for the 5th generation (5G cellular networks. In general, there are two ways for improving the EE for caching, that is, improving the cache-hit rate and optimizing the cache size. In this work, we investigate the energy efficient caching problem in backhaul-aware cellular networks jointly considering these two approaches. Note that most existing works are based on the assumption that the content catalog and popularity are static. However, in practice, content popularity is dynamic. To timely estimate the dynamic content popularity, we propose a method based on shot noise model (SNM. Then we propose a distributed caching policy to improve the cache-hit rate in such a dynamic environment. Furthermore, we analyze the tradeoff between energy efficiency and cache capacity for which an optimization is formulated. We prove its convexity and derive a closed-form optimal cache capacity for maximizing the EE. Simulation results validate the proposed scheme and show that EE can be improved with appropriate choice of cache capacity.

  17. Sex, race, gender, and the presidential vote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan B. Hansen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Racial resentment has been shown to have a significant impact on voting by whites in recent presidential elections, and a much larger impact than the traditional gender-gap measure based on the male-female dichotomy. This analysis will use data from the American National Election Studies [ANES] to compare broader indicators of race and gender applicable to the Democratic and Republican parties as well as to respondents’ opinions of appropriate roles for women. Since the 1980s the parties have diverged considerably on abortion and women’s issues, and voters now view the Democrats as more supportive than Republicans of equality for women and reproductive rights. Perceptions of party differences on women’s issues strongly influenced vote choice, 1988–2008, and in 2008 had greater impact on whites’ votes than opinions on aid to blacks, abortion, gay marriage, or the economy. Although racial resentment was a strong predictor of the white vote in 2012 as in previous years, presidential voting was also significantly influenced by respondent sex as well as opinions on gender roles. Voters regarded the Democratic Party as “better for the interests of women,” and this proved to be a highly effective wedge issue for the Democrats in 2012.

  18. Vote Buying In Lampung Local Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robi Cahyadi Kurniawan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vote buying in elections, both general elections and local elections is a phenomenon in Indonesian politics. Lampung Province has implemented direct elections simultaneously in December 2015 and February 2017. This study explains that vote buying can change voter choice in three regional head elections in Lampung Province. This study was conducted with the object of research residing in Way Kanan District on July 2014, Pringsewu District on February 2016 and Bandar Lampung City on November 2015. This study used a survey approach, using stratified random sampling method. The survey conducted on 662 respondents in each county or district and city object being studied. The results show that voters believe that vote buying will happen in local elections.Voters may be influenced their choice if given relief goods, gifts of money or the provision of project. The thesis in this study is vote buying can change voting choice of voters.

  19. User-Adapted Recommendation of Content on Mobile Devices Using Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Hirotoshi; Mizuno, Nobuhiro; Hara, Kousuke; Motomura, Yoichi

    Mobile devices, such as cellular phones and car navigation systems, are essential to daily life. People acquire necessary information and preferred content over communication networks anywhere, anytime. However, usability issues arise from the simplicity of user interfaces themselves. Thus, a recommendation of content that is adapted to a user's preference and situation will help the user select content. In this paper, we describe a method to realize such a system using Bayesian networks. This user-adapted mobile system is based on a user model that provides recommendation of content (i.e., restaurants, shops, and music that are suitable to the user and situation) and that learns incrementally based on accumulated usage history data. However, sufficient samples are not always guaranteed, since a user model would require combined dependency among users, situations, and contents. Therefore, we propose the LK method for modeling, which complements incomplete and insufficient samples using knowledge data, and CPT incremental learning for adaptation based on a small number of samples. In order to evaluate the methods proposed, we applied them to restaurant recommendations made on car navigation systems. The evaluation results confirmed that our model based on the LK method can be expected to provide better generalization performance than that of the conventional method. Furthermore, our system would require much less operation than current car navigation systems from the beginning of use. Our evaluation results also indicate that learning a user's individual preference through CPT incremental learning would be beneficial to many users, even with only a few samples. As a result, we have developed the technology of a system that becomes more adapted to a user the more it is used.

  20. Electoral system, pesonal votes, and party choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Søren Risbjerg

    Using local elections in Denmark as an example this paper shows that individual party choice is influenced both by individual level, municipality level, and national level characteristics. Some hypotheses about the effects of the electoral system on personal votes derived from a theory by Carey...... & Shugart (1995) are first tested using a fixed-effects model. The effect of the personal reputation of the candidates, measured by personal votes, on party choice is then tested using a multilevel multinomial logit model suggested by Rabe-Hesketh and Skrondal (2008). The paper shows that both the electoral...

  1. An entropy approach for evaluating the maximum information content achievable by an urban rainfall network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ridolfi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological models are the basis of operational flood-forecasting systems. The accuracy of these models is strongly dependent on the quality and quantity of the input information represented by rainfall height. Finer space-time rainfall resolution results in more accurate hazard forecasting. In this framework, an optimum raingauge network is essential in predicting flood events.

    This paper develops an entropy-based approach to evaluate the maximum information content achievable by a rainfall network for different sampling time intervals. The procedure is based on the determination of the coefficients of transferred and nontransferred information and on the relative isoinformation contours.

    The nontransferred information value achieved by the whole network is strictly dependent on the sampling time intervals considered. An empirical curve is defined, to assess the objective of the research: the nontransferred information value is plotted versus the associated sampling time on a semi-log scale. The curve has a linear trend.

    In this paper, the methodology is applied to the high-density raingauge network of the urban area of Rome.

  2. Intra-Campaign Changes in Voting Preferences: The Impact of Media and Party Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, David; Königslöw, Katharina Kleinen-von; Kritzinger, Sylvia; Thomas, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    An increasing number of citizens change and adapt their party preferences during the electoral campaign. We analyze which short-term factors explain intra-campaign changes in voting preferences, focusing on the visibility and tone of news media reporting and party canvassing. Our analyses rely on an integrative data approach, linking data from media content analysis to public opinion data. This enables us to investigate the relative impact of news media reporting as well as party communication. Inherently, we overcome previously identified methodological problems in the study of communication effects on voting behavior. Our findings reveal that campaigns matter: Especially interpersonal party canvassing increases voters’ likelihood to change their voting preferences in favor of the respective party, whereas media effects are limited to quality news outlets and depend on individual voters’ party ambivalence.

  3. Intra-Campaign Changes in Voting Preferences: The Impact of Media and Party Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, David; Königslöw, Katharina Kleinen-von; Kritzinger, Sylvia; Thomas, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    An increasing number of citizens change and adapt their party preferences during the electoral campaign. We analyze which short-term factors explain intra-campaign changes in voting preferences, focusing on the visibility and tone of news media reporting and party canvassing. Our analyses rely on an integrative data approach, linking data from media content analysis to public opinion data. This enables us to investigate the relative impact of news media reporting as well as party communication. Inherently, we overcome previously identified methodological problems in the study of communication effects on voting behavior. Our findings reveal that campaigns matter: Especially interpersonal party canvassing increases voters' likelihood to change their voting preferences in favor of the respective party, whereas media effects are limited to quality news outlets and depend on individual voters' party ambivalence.

  4. A Regional GPS Receiver Network For Monitoring Mid-latitude Total Electron Content During Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, A.; Cander, Lj. R.

    A regional GPS receiver network has been used for monitoring mid-latitude total elec- tron content (TEC) during ionospheric storms at the current solar maximum. Differ- ent individual storms were examined to study how the temporal patterns of changes develop and how they are related to solar and geomagnetic activity for parameter de- scriptive of plasmaspheric-ionospheric ionisation. Use is then made of computer con- touring techniques to produce snapshot maps of TEC for different study cases. Com- parisons with the local ionosonde data at different phases of the storms enable the storm developments to be studied in detail.

  5. Cognitive Properties of Approval Voting : an Experimental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Przybyszewski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes two series of experiments demonstrating the cognitive properties of approval voting. The former series is devoted to mental processes induced in decision makers who use the method of approval voting. Based on cognitive effort, the use of choice strategies is presented in this paper. The observations of respondents show that most of them use relatively effortless strategy of eliminating alternatives and attributes. Few respondents use more sophisticated methods. The other series of experiments analyses the number of alternatives chosen in approval voting. It appears that the average number is not constant, even for similar votes but it depends on the subject of voting. The number of chosen alternatives and the subjective significance of the scope of voting are negatively or positively correlated in the case of special votes. The analyzed experiments show that the cognitive properties of approval voting have a diverse structure. (original abstract

  6. Social Content Recommendation Based on Spatial-Temporal Aware Diffusion Modeling in Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available User interactions in online social networks (OSNs enable the spread of information and enhance the information dissemination process, but at the same time they exacerbate the information overload problem. In this paper, we propose a social content recommendation method based on spatial-temporal aware controlled information diffusion modeling in OSNs. Users interact more frequently when they are close to each other geographically, have similar behaviors, and fall into similar demographic categories. Considering these facts, we propose multicriteria-based social ties relationship and temporal-aware probabilistic information diffusion modeling for controlled information spread maximization in OSNs. The proposed social ties relationship modeling takes into account user spatial information, content trust, opinion similarity, and demographics. We suggest a ranking algorithm that considers the user ties strength with friends and friends-of-friends to rank users in OSNs and select highly influential injection nodes. These nodes are able to improve social content recommendations, minimize information diffusion time, and maximize information spread. Furthermore, the proposed temporal-aware probabilistic diffusion process categorizes the nodes and diffuses the recommended content to only those users who are highly influential and can enhance information dissemination. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  7. Cooperative ad hoc networks for energy and delay efficient content distribution with fast channel variations

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-11-20

    Cooperative ad hoc networks for the efficient distribution of content of common interest are studied in the case of fast channel variations. Mobiles are grouped into cooperative clusters for the purpose of receiving the content with optimized energy efficiency. Data are sent to mobile terminals on a long range (LR) link, and then, the terminals exchange the content by using an appropriate short range wireless technology. When channel state information is available for the LR links, unicasting is used on the LR. When accurate channel state information is not available, threshold-based multicasting is implemented on the LR. Energy minimization is formulated as an optimization problem for each scenario, and the optimal solutions are determined in closed form in scenarios with fast channel variations. Results show significant energy savings in the proposed schemes compared with the noncooperative case and other previous related work. Furthermore, the energy minimizing solutions are shown to lead to reduced delay in the content distribution process. Practical implementation aspects of the proposed methods are also discussed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Cooperative ad hoc networks for energy and delay efficient content distribution with fast channel variations

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Abu-Dayya, Adnan A.

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative ad hoc networks for the efficient distribution of content of common interest are studied in the case of fast channel variations. Mobiles are grouped into cooperative clusters for the purpose of receiving the content with optimized energy efficiency. Data are sent to mobile terminals on a long range (LR) link, and then, the terminals exchange the content by using an appropriate short range wireless technology. When channel state information is available for the LR links, unicasting is used on the LR. When accurate channel state information is not available, threshold-based multicasting is implemented on the LR. Energy minimization is formulated as an optimization problem for each scenario, and the optimal solutions are determined in closed form in scenarios with fast channel variations. Results show significant energy savings in the proposed schemes compared with the noncooperative case and other previous related work. Furthermore, the energy minimizing solutions are shown to lead to reduced delay in the content distribution process. Practical implementation aspects of the proposed methods are also discussed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Content-based Image Hiding Method for Secure Network Biometric Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjiu Che

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For secure biometric verification, most existing methods embed biometric information directly into the cover image, but content correlation analysis between the biometric image and the cover image is often ignored. In this paper, we propose a novel biometric image hiding approach based on the content correlation analysis to protect the network-based transmitted image. By using principal component analysis (PCA, the content correlation between the biometric image and the cover image is firstly analyzed. Then based on particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm, some regions of the cover image are selected to represent the biometric image, in which the cover image can carry partial content of the biometric image. As a result of the correlation analysis, the unrepresented part of the biometric image is embedded into the cover image by using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT. Combined with human visual system (HVS model, this approach makes the hiding result perceptually invisible. The extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed hiding approach is robust against some common frequency and geometric attacks; it also provides an effective protection for the secure biometric verification.

  10. Political Economy of Committee Voting and Its Application

    OpenAIRE

    Takagi, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on information aggregation in committees and its application. The first essay analyzes how the distribution of votes affects the accuracy of group decisions. In a weighted voting system, votes are typically assigned based on the criteria that are unrelated to the voters’ ability to make a correct judgment. I introduce an information aggregation model in which voters are identical except for voting shares. If the information is free, the optimal weigh...

  11. A multi-scale convolutional neural network for phenotyping high-content cellular images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinez, William J; Hossain, Imtiaz; Lazic, Stanley E; Davies, John W; Zhang, Xian

    2017-07-01

    Identifying phenotypes based on high-content cellular images is challenging. Conventional image analysis pipelines for phenotype identification comprise multiple independent steps, with each step requiring method customization and adjustment of multiple parameters. Here, we present an approach based on a multi-scale convolutional neural network (M-CNN) that classifies, in a single cohesive step, cellular images into phenotypes by using directly and solely the images' pixel intensity values. The only parameters in the approach are the weights of the neural network, which are automatically optimized based on training images. The approach requires no a priori knowledge or manual customization, and is applicable to single- or multi-channel images displaying single or multiple cells. We evaluated the classification performance of the approach on eight diverse benchmark datasets. The approach yielded overall a higher classification accuracy compared with state-of-the-art results, including those of other deep CNN architectures. In addition to using the network to simply obtain a yes-or-no prediction for a given phenotype, we use the probability outputs calculated by the network to quantitatively describe the phenotypes. This study shows that these probability values correlate with chemical treatment concentrations. This finding validates further our approach and enables chemical treatment potency estimation via CNNs. The network specifications and solver definitions are provided in Supplementary Software 1. william_jose.godinez_navarro@novartis.com or xian-1.zhang@novartis.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. User research of a voting machine: Preliminary findings and experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Menno D.T.; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a usability study of the Nedap voting machine in the Netherlands. On the day of the national elections, 566 voters participated in our study immediately after having cast their real vote. The research focused on the correspondence between voter intents and voting results,

  13. Eos a Universal Verifiable and Coercion Resistant Voting Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patachi, Stefan; Schürmann, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Authority. Eos uses two mixing phases with the goal to break the connection between the voter and vote, not to preserve vote privacy (which is given already) but to guarantee coercion resistance by making it (nearly) impossible for a coercer to follow their vote through the bulletin board. Eos...

  14. Verifiability of electronic voting: between confidence and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Gutwirth, Serge; Poullet, Yves; De Hert, Paul

    2010-01-01

    When computing scientists speak about electronic voting, it is often in terms of trust. But there are two contradictory statements. First, they argue that it should not be necessary to trust e-voting systems, which would be the case if they are provably secure. Second, for an e-voting system to be

  15. Security analysis of electronic voting and online banking systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tjøstheim, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The main focus of this dissertation is on security analysis of electronic voting and online banking systems. Six papers form the basis of the thesis and include the following topics: a model for analysis of voting systems, a case study where we apply the proposed model, a new scheme for remote electronic voting, and three case studies of commercial online banking solutions in Norway.

  16. Classroom Voting Questions to Stimulate Discussions in Precalculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Kelly; Zullo, Holly; Huckaby, David A.; Storm, Christopher; Stewart, Ann

    2018-01-01

    Classroom voting can be an effective way to stimulate student discussions. In this pedagogy, the instructor poses a multiple-choice question to the class, and then allows a few minutes for consideration and small-group discussion before students vote, either with clickers, cell phones, or a non-electronic method. After the vote the instructor…

  17. Inequality Aversion and Voting on Redistribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höchtl, Wolfgang; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    of income classes. We experimentally study voting on redistribution between two income classes and show that the effect of inequality aversion is asymmetric. Inequality aversion is more likely to matter if the “rich” are in majority. With a “poor” majority, we find that redistribution outcomes look...

  18. Personality and Attitude Determinants of Voting Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, John C.; Severy, Lawrence J.

    1976-01-01

    Measures of racial attitude, conceptual style, commitment to candidate and electoral process, social-political evaluation, and voting intentions, were administered to white college students (N=320) before the 1972 Presidential election. Prediction of behavioral intentions becomes more powerful as attitudinal measures are made more directly…

  19. Vote. Speak Out. 3-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    The purpose of this election-education program is to help develop an informed electorate and to instill in future voters an appreciation of the importance of the right to vote. It provides a framework for discussions of the electoral process and gives students in grades three through six an opportunity to face the responsibilities and challenges…

  20. Inequality aversion and voting on redistribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höchtl, Wolfgang; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2012-01-01

    of income classes. We experimentally study voting on redistribution between two income classes and show that the effect of inequality aversion is asymmetric. Inequality aversion is more likely to matter if the “rich” are in majority. With a “poor” majority, we find that redistribution outcomes look...

  1. Central banks’ voting records and future policy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, R.; Šmídková, K.; Zápal, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2012), s. 1-19 ISSN 1815-4654 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : monetary policy * voting record * transparency Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.895, year: 2012 http://www.ijcb.org/journal/ijcb12q4a1.pdf

  2. From stochastic completion fields to tensor voting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almsick, van M.A.; Duits, R.; Franken, E.M.; Haar Romenij, ter B.M.; Olsen, O.F.; Florack, L.M.J.; Kuijper, A.

    2005-01-01

    Several image processing algorithms imitate the lateral interaction of neurons in the visual striate cortex V1 to account for the correlations along contours and lines. Here we focus on two methodologies: tensor voting by Guy and Medioni, and stochastic completion fields by Mumford, Williams and

  3. 7 CFR 1205.204 - Voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... through the Internet during the voting period. A completed and signed CN-100 and supporting documentation.... Forms obtained via the Internet will be located at http://www.ams.usda.gov/Cotton. Upon request by...

  4. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  5. Bandwagon voting or false-consensus effect in voting experiments? First results and methodological limits

    OpenAIRE

    Bischoff, Ivo; Egbert, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    In an experiment designed to test for expressive voting, Tyran (JPubEc 2004) found a strong positive correlation between the participants' approval to a proposal to donate money for charity and their expected approval rate for fellow voters. This phenomenon can be due to a bandwagon effect or a false consensus effect. Both effects have been reported for voting decisions in the social science literature. Redoing Tyran's experiment and adding new treatments, we provide evidence for a false cons...

  6. Unraveling Network-induced Memory Contention: Deeper Insights with Machine Learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves, Taylor Liles; Grant, Ryan; Gonzales, Aaron; Arnold, Dorian

    2017-01-01

    Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) is expected to be an integral communication mechanism for future exascale systems enabling asynchronous data transfers, so that applications may fully utilize CPU resources while simultaneously sharing data amongst remote nodes. We examine Network-induced Memory Contention (NiMC) on Infiniband networks. We expose the interactions between RDMA, main-memory and cache, when applications and out-of-band services compete for memory resources. We then explore NiMCs resulting impact on application-level performance. For a range of hardware technologies and HPC workloads, we quantify NiMC and show that NiMCs impact grows with scale resulting in up to 3X performance degradation at scales as small as 8K processes even in applications that previously have been shown to be performance resilient in the presence of noise. In addition, this work examines the problem of predicting NiMC's impact on applications by leveraging machine learning and easily accessible performance counters. This approach provides additional insights about the root cause of NiMC and facilitates dynamic selection of potential solutions. Finally, we evaluated three potential techniques to reduce NiMCs impact, namely hardware offloading, core reservation and network throttling.

  7. Video Quality Prediction Models Based on Video Content Dynamics for H.264 Video over UMTS Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiya Khan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present video quality prediction models for objective non-intrusive, prediction of H.264 encoded video for all content types combining parameters both in the physical and application layer over Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS networks. In order to characterize the Quality of Service (QoS level, a learning model based on Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS and a second model based on non-linear regression analysis is proposed to predict the video quality in terms of the Mean Opinion Score (MOS. The objective of the paper is two-fold. First, to find the impact of QoS parameters on end-to-end video quality for H.264 encoded video. Second, to develop learning models based on ANFIS and non-linear regression analysis to predict video quality over UMTS networks by considering the impact of radio link loss models. The loss models considered are 2-state Markov models. Both the models are trained with a combination of physical and application layer parameters and validated with unseen dataset. Preliminary results show that good prediction accuracy was obtained from both the models. The work should help in the development of a reference-free video prediction model and QoS control methods for video over UMTS networks.

  8. A Fair Contention Access Scheme for Low-Priority Traffic in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagufta Henna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, wireless body area networks (WBANs have attracted significant consideration in ubiquitous healthcare. A number of medium access control (MAC protocols, primarily derived from the superframe structure of the IEEE 802.15.4, have been proposed in literature. These MAC protocols aim to provide quality of service (QoS by prioritizing different traffic types in WBANs. A contention access period (CAPwith high contention in priority-based MAC protocols can result in higher number of collisions and retransmissions. During CAP, traffic classes with higher priority are dominant over low-priority traffic; this has led to starvation of low-priority traffic, thus adversely affecting WBAN throughput, delay, and energy consumption. Hence, this paper proposes a traffic-adaptive priority-based superframe structure that is able to reduce contention in the CAP period, and provides a fair chance for low-priority traffic. Simulation results in ns-3 demonstrate that the proposed MAC protocol, called traffic- adaptive priority-based MAC (TAP-MAC, achieves low energy consumption, high throughput, and low latency compared to the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, and the most recent priority-based MAC protocol, called priority-based MAC protocol (PA-MAC.

  9. Cohesion and Coalition Formation in the European Parliament: Roll-Call Votes and Twitter Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepnalkoski, Darko; Karpf, Andreas; Mozetič, Igor; Grčar, Miha

    2016-01-01

    We study the cohesion within and the coalitions between political groups in the Eighth European Parliament (2014-2019) by analyzing two entirely different aspects of the behavior of the Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) in the policy-making processes. On one hand, we analyze their co-voting patterns and, on the other, their retweeting behavior. We make use of two diverse datasets in the analysis. The first one is the roll-call vote dataset, where cohesion is regarded as the tendency to co-vote within a group, and a coalition is formed when the members of several groups exhibit a high degree of co-voting agreement on a subject. The second dataset comes from Twitter; it captures the retweeting (i.e., endorsing) behavior of the MEPs and implies cohesion (retweets within the same group) and coalitions (retweets between groups) from a completely different perspective. We employ two different methodologies to analyze the cohesion and coalitions. The first one is based on Krippendorff's Alpha reliability, used to measure the agreement between raters in data-analysis scenarios, and the second one is based on Exponential Random Graph Models, often used in social-network analysis. We give general insights into the cohesion of political groups in the European Parliament, explore whether coalitions are formed in the same way for different policy areas, and examine to what degree the retweeting behavior of MEPs corresponds to their co-voting patterns. A novel and interesting aspect of our work is the relationship between the co-voting and retweeting patterns.

  10. Clientelism and vote buying in local elections: A case study of Kartu Bintan Sejahtera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Samnuzulsari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study finds out clientelism and vote buying on Kartu Bintan Sejahtera (KBS in Bintan Regency, Riau Islands. The objective of this study is to understand the practices of clientelism and vote buying using KBS. This study based on case study research. The informants consist of General Election Commission of (KPUD Riau Islands, candidates of the governor of Riau Islands 2015-2020, candidates of Bintan Regent 2015-2020, along with their supporting parties and campaigning team, and bureaucracy of the implementation of KBS. The main findings of this study suggest that KBS is used as a clientelism and vote buying practices by the candidate of Riau Islands governor and Bintan Regent, 2015-2020 period. This study also finds that formal and informal political networks are utilized by the candidates as a clientelism and vote buying arenas. This study not only contributes to the literature of clientelism and vote buying, but also adds the literature of social policy in the context of Indonesian local politics setting. This study suggests that KBS is used as a media to obtain the support of the voters in the election of governor of Riau Islands and regent of Bintan 2015-2020. All candidates capitalize the issue of KBS to obtain the popularity. The patterns of the practice of clientelism and vote buying in KBS is by using various media campaigns to promote the success story of KBS. Not only in formal campaign but also in informal campaign, they always promote KBS as their success.

  11. Content-specific network analysis of peer-to-peer communication in an online community for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Sahiti; Cobb, Nathan K; Cohen, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of user interactions in online communities could improve our understanding of health-related behaviors and inform the design of technological solutions that support behavior change. However, to achieve this we would need methods that provide granular perspective, yet are scalable. In this paper, we present a methodology for high-throughput semantic and network analysis of large social media datasets, combining semi-automated text categorization with social network analytics. We apply this method to derive content-specific network visualizations of 16,492 user interactions in an online community for smoking cessation. Performance of the categorization system was reasonable (average F-measure of 0.74, with system-rater reliability approaching rater-rater reliability). The resulting semantically specific network analysis of user interactions reveals content- and behavior-specific network topologies. Implications for socio-behavioral health and wellness platforms are also discussed.

  12. Voting frequentia as an indicator of political activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kryvoshein

    2017-07-01

    Found that the amount of voting frequentia depends on the political regime, the form of government and the level elections. Determined that democracies characterized by an autonomous form of voting frequentia and for undemocratic – mobilizational form of voting frequentia. Followed that the highest rate of participation in voting observed in countries with a parliamentary form of government and proportional electoral system, more than 2/3 of the voting frequentia observed in countries with a parliamentary form of government and majoritarian electoral systems, lowest level of voting frequentia observed in countries with a presidential form of government. It also notes that increased voting frequentia observed in countries where compulsory voting is set. Observed trend of dependency and level elections: electoral activity of elections on the local, regional and supra-national representative authority is much lower than in the presidential and parliamentary elections. Attention is drawn to in explaining the voting frequentia considered rational and irrational factors, since voting is a two-tiered process: active, politically defined part of the voters voted party ideologically and politically unbiased – rationally.

  13. [Voting by cognitively impaired persons: legal and ethical issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosquet, Antoine; Medjkane, Amar; Vinceneux, Philippe; Mahé, Isabelle

    2010-03-01

    In democratic countries, cognitively impaired persons are a substantial and growing group of citizens. Most of them are citizens with dementia. In dementia, cognitive impairment induces a loss of some capacities, resulting in vulnerability and increased need for assistance. Voting by cognitively impaired persons raises any questions about the integrity of the electoral process, the risk of fraud and the respect of their citizenship. In France, the law is not definite about the voting of cognitively impaired persons. An objective assessment for voting capacity may be useful both for professionals in charge of voting organisation and for guardianship judge in order to help him in his decision to remove or keep the voting right of persons placed under guardianship. Assessing the reality of voting by cognitively impaired citizens is necessary to advance respect for their right to vote.

  14. Digital herders and phase transition in a voting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisakado, M.; Mori, S.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss a voting model with two candidates, C1 and C2. We set two types of voters—herders and independents. The voting of independent voters is based on their fundamental values; on the other hand, the voting of herders is based on the number of votes. Herders always select the majority of the previous r votes, which are visible to them. We call them digital herders. We can accurately calculate the distribution of votes for special cases. When r >= 3, we find that a phase transition occurs at the upper limit of t, where t is the discrete time (or number of votes). As the fraction of herders increases, the model features a phase transition beyond which a state where most voters make the correct choice coexists with one where most of them are wrong. On the other hand, when r independent voters. Finally, we recognize the behavior of human beings by conducting simple experiments.

  15. A Novel CAN Tree Coordinate Routing in Content-Addressable Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongtao Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel approach to improve coordination routing while minimizing the maintenance overhead during nodes churn. It bases on “CAN Tree Routing for Content- Addressable Network” 1 which is a solution for peer-to-peer routing. We concentrated on coordinate routing in this paper. The key idea of our approach is a recursion process to calculate target zone code and search in CAN tree 1. Because the hops are via long links in CAN, it enhances routing flexibility and robustness against failures. Nodes automatically adapt routing table to cope with network change. The routing complexity is , which is much better than a uniform greedy routing, while each node maintains two long links in average.

  16. A content analysis of displayed alcohol references on a social networking web site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Briner, Leslie R; Williams, Amanda; Brockman, Libby; Walker, Leslie; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2010-08-01

    Exposure to alcohol use in media is associated with adolescent alcohol use. Adolescents frequently display alcohol references on Internet media, such as social networking web sites. The purpose of this study was to conduct a theoretically based content analysis of older adolescents' displayed alcohol references on a social networking web site. We evaluated 400 randomly selected public MySpace profiles of self-reported 17- to 20-year-olds from zip codes, representing urban, suburban, and rural communities in one Washington county. Content was evaluated for alcohol references, suggesting: (1) explicit versus figurative alcohol use, (2) alcohol-related motivations, associations, and consequences, including references that met CRAFFT problem drinking criteria. We compared profiles from four target zip codes for prevalence and frequency of alcohol display. Of 400 profiles, 225 (56.3%) contained 341 references to alcohol. Profile owners who displayed alcohol references were mostly male (54.2%) and white (70.7%). The most frequent reference category was explicit use (49.3%); the most commonly displayed alcohol use motivation was peer pressure (4.7%). Few references met CRAFFT problem drinking criteria (3.2%). There were no differences in prevalence or frequency of alcohol display among the four sociodemographic communities. Despite alcohol use being illegal and potentially stigmatizing in this population, explicit alcohol use is frequently referenced on adolescents' MySpace profiles across several sociodemographic communities. Motivations, associations, and consequences regarding alcohol use referenced on MySpace appear consistent with previous studies of adolescent alcohol use. These references may be a potent source of influence on adolescents, particularly given that they are created and displayed by peers. (c) 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Content-rich biological network constructed by mining PubMed abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharp Burt M

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The integration of the rapidly expanding corpus of information about the genome, transcriptome, and proteome, engendered by powerful technological advances, such as microarrays, and the availability of genomic sequence from multiple species, challenges the grasp and comprehension of the scientific community. Despite the existence of text-mining methods that identify biological relationships based on the textual co-occurrence of gene/protein terms or similarities in abstract texts, knowledge of the underlying molecular connections on a large scale, which is prerequisite to understanding novel biological processes, lags far behind the accumulation of data. While computationally efficient, the co-occurrence-based approaches fail to characterize (e.g., inhibition or stimulation, directionality biological interactions. Programs with natural language processing (NLP capability have been created to address these limitations, however, they are in general not readily accessible to the public. Results We present a NLP-based text-mining approach, Chilibot, which constructs content-rich relationship networks among biological concepts, genes, proteins, or drugs. Amongst its features, suggestions for new hypotheses can be generated. Lastly, we provide evidence that the connectivity of molecular networks extracted from the biological literature follows the power-law distribution, indicating scale-free topologies consistent with the results of previous experimental analyses. Conclusions Chilibot distills scientific relationships from knowledge available throughout a wide range of biological domains and presents these in a content-rich graphical format, thus integrating general biomedical knowledge with the specialized knowledge and interests of the user. Chilibot http://www.chilibot.net can be accessed free of charge to academic users.

  18. How Election Polls Shape Voting Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Olav; Hansen, Jonas Hedegaard; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates how election information such as opinion polls can influence voting intention. The bandwagon effect claims that voters ‘float along’: a party experiencing increased support receives more support, and vice versa. Through a large national survey experiment, evidence is found...... of a bandwagon effect among Danish voters. When voters are exposed to a news story describing either an upwards or downwards movement for either a small or large party, they tend to move their voting intentions in the according direction. The effect is strongest in the positive direction – that is, when a party...... experiences increased support, more follows. Consistent effects are found across two different parties for a diverse national sample in a political context very different from earlier research on the bandwagon effects. Considering previous research and the fact that evidence is not found that suggests...

  19. An Artificial Neural Network for Movement Pattern Analysis to Estimate Blood Alcohol Content Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharani, Pedram; Suffoletto, Brian; Chung, Tammy; Karimi, Hassan A

    2017-12-13

    Impairments in gait occur after alcohol consumption, and, if detected in real-time, could guide the delivery of "just-in-time" injury prevention interventions. We aimed to identify the salient features of gait that could be used for estimating blood alcohol content (BAC) level in a typical drinking environment. We recruited 10 young adults with a history of heavy drinking to test our research app. During four consecutive Fridays and Saturdays, every hour from 8 p.m. to 12 a.m., they were prompted to use the app to report alcohol consumption and complete a 5-step straight-line walking task, during which 3-axis acceleration and angular velocity data was sampled at a frequency of 100 Hz. BAC for each subject was calculated. From sensor signals, 24 features were calculated using a sliding window technique, including energy, mean, and standard deviation. Using an artificial neural network (ANN), we performed regression analysis to define a model determining association between gait features and BACs. Part (70%) of the data was then used as a training dataset, and the results tested and validated using the rest of the samples. We evaluated different training algorithms for the neural network and the result showed that a Bayesian regularization neural network (BRNN) was the most efficient and accurate. Analyses support the use of the tandem gait task paired with our approach to reliably estimate BAC based on gait features. Results from this work could be useful in designing effective prevention interventions to reduce risky behaviors during periods of alcohol consumption.

  20. An Artificial Neural Network for Movement Pattern Analysis to Estimate Blood Alcohol Content Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Gharani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Impairments in gait occur after alcohol consumption, and, if detected in real-time, could guide the delivery of “just-in-time” injury prevention interventions. We aimed to identify the salient features of gait that could be used for estimating blood alcohol content (BAC level in a typical drinking environment. We recruited 10 young adults with a history of heavy drinking to test our research app. During four consecutive Fridays and Saturdays, every hour from 8 p.m. to 12 a.m., they were prompted to use the app to report alcohol consumption and complete a 5-step straight-line walking task, during which 3-axis acceleration and angular velocity data was sampled at a frequency of 100 Hz. BAC for each subject was calculated. From sensor signals, 24 features were calculated using a sliding window technique, including energy, mean, and standard deviation. Using an artificial neural network (ANN, we performed regression analysis to define a model determining association between gait features and BACs. Part (70% of the data was then used as a training dataset, and the results tested and validated using the rest of the samples. We evaluated different training algorithms for the neural network and the result showed that a Bayesian regularization neural network (BRNN was the most efficient and accurate. Analyses support the use of the tandem gait task paired with our approach to reliably estimate BAC based on gait features. Results from this work could be useful in designing effective prevention interventions to reduce risky behaviors during periods of alcohol consumption.

  1. Sex, race, gender, and the presidential vote

    OpenAIRE

    Susan B. Hansen

    2016-01-01

    Racial resentment has been shown to have a significant impact on voting by whites in recent presidential elections, and a much larger impact than the traditional gender-gap measure based on the male-female dichotomy. This analysis will use data from the American National Election Studies [ANES] to compare broader indicators of race and gender applicable to the Democratic and Republican parties as well as to respondents’ opinions of appropriate roles for women. Since the 1980s the parties have...

  2. Embryo Cell Membranes Reconstruction by Tensor Voting

    OpenAIRE

    Michelin , Gaël; Guignard , Léo; Fiuza , Ulla-Maj; Malandain , Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Image-based studies of developing organs or embryos produce a huge quantity of data. To handle such high-throughput experimental protocols, automated computer-assisted methods are highly desirable. This article aims at designing an efficient cell segmentation method from microscopic images. The proposed approach is twofold: first, cell membranes are enhanced or extracted by the means of structure-based filters, and then perceptual grouping (i.e. tensor voting) allows t...

  3. Voting on pensions: sex and marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Leroux, Marie-Louise; Pestieau, Pierre; Racionero, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Existing political economy models of pensions focus on age and productivity. In this paper we incorporate two additional individual characteristics: sex and marital status. We ignore the role of age, by assuming that people vote at the start of their life, and characterize the preferred rate of taxation that finances a Beveridgean pension scheme when individuals differ in wage, sex and marital status. We allow for two types of couples: one-breadwinner and two-breadwinner couples. Marriage poo...

  4. Social and content aware One-Class recommendation of papers in scientific social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; He, XiRan; Ishuga, Carolyne Isigi

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of information technology, scientific social networks (SSNs) have become the fastest and most convenient way for researchers to communicate with each other. Many published papers are shared via SSNs every day, resulting in the problem of information overload. How to appropriately recommend personalized and highly valuable papers for researchers is becoming more urgent. However, when recommending papers in SSNs, only a small amount of positive instances are available, leaving a vast amount of unlabelled data, in which negative instances and potential unseen positive instances are mixed together, which naturally belongs to One-Class Collaborative Filtering (OCCF) problem. Therefore, considering the extreme data imbalance and data sparsity of this OCCF problem, a hybrid approach of Social and Content aware One-class Recommendation of Papers in SSNs, termed SCORP, is proposed in this study. Unlike previous approaches recommended to address the OCCF problem, social information, which has been proved playing a significant role in performing recommendations in many domains, is applied in both the profiling of content-based filtering and the collaborative filtering to achieve superior recommendations. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed SCORP approach, a real-life dataset from CiteULike was employed. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach is superior to all of the compared approaches, thus providing a more effective method for recommending papers in SSNs.

  5. Voting Behavior in Parliamentary Elections in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Řádek Miroslav

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Department of Political Science at Alexander Dubcek University in Trencin prepared its own exit poll during election day on March 5, 2016. The survey asked seven questions that were aimed at determining the preferences of the respondents concerning not only the current but also past general elections. Interviewers surveyed the choice of political party or movement in parliamentary elections in 2016 as well as preferences in past elections. Followed by questions concerning motivation to vote - when did the respondents decide to go to vote and what or who inspired this decision. The survey also tried to found out how many preferential votes did the voters give to the candidates of political parties and movements. Final question asked about expectations for the future of individual respondents. This article is the information output of the survey. The interviewers were 124 university students and its return was 1,612 sheets. The aim of this paper is to communicate the findings of this unique survey, which is unprecedented in the Slovak political science.

  6. How Election Polls Shape Voting Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Olav; Hansen, Jonas Hedegaard; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates how election information such as opinion polls can influence voting intention. The bandwagon effect claims that voters ‘float along’: a party experiencing increased support receives more support, and vice versa. Through a large national survey experiment, evidence is fou...... that the effect of polls vary across sociodemographic groups, the results imply that bandwagon behaviour is based not on social or political contingencies, such as media or political institution, but on fundamentals of political cognition....... of a bandwagon effect among Danish voters. When voters are exposed to a news story describing either an upwards or downwards movement for either a small or large party, they tend to move their voting intentions in the according direction. The effect is strongest in the positive direction – that is, when a party......This article investigates how election information such as opinion polls can influence voting intention. The bandwagon effect claims that voters ‘float along’: a party experiencing increased support receives more support, and vice versa. Through a large national survey experiment, evidence is found...

  7. Voting Intention and Choices: Are Voters Always Rational and Deliberative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Ching; Chen, Eva E; Tsai, Chia-Hung; Yen, Nai-Shing; Chen, Arbee L P; Lin, Wei-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    Human rationality--the ability to behave in order to maximize the achievement of their presumed goals (i.e., their optimal choices)--is the foundation for democracy. Research evidence has suggested that voters may not make decisions after exhaustively processing relevant information; instead, our decision-making capacity may be restricted by our own biases and the environment. In this paper, we investigate the extent to which humans in a democratic society can be rational when making decisions in a serious, complex situation-voting in a local political election. We believe examining human rationality in a political election is important, because a well-functioning democracy rests largely upon the rational choices of individual voters. Previous research has shown that explicit political attitudes predict voting intention and choices (i.e., actual votes) in democratic societies, indicating that people are able to reason comprehensively when making voting decisions. Other work, though, has demonstrated that the attitudes of which we may not be aware, such as our implicit (e.g., subconscious) preferences, can predict voting choices, which may question the well-functioning democracy. In this study, we systematically examined predictors on voting intention and choices in the 2014 mayoral election in Taipei, Taiwan. Results indicate that explicit political party preferences had the largest impact on voting intention and choices. Moreover, implicit political party preferences interacted with explicit political party preferences in accounting for voting intention, and in turn predicted voting choices. Ethnic identity and perceived voting intention of significant others were found to predict voting choices, but not voting intention. In sum, to the comfort of democracy, voters appeared to engage mainly explicit, controlled processes in making their decisions; but findings on ethnic identity and perceived voting intention of significant others may suggest otherwise.

  8. Voting Intention and Choices: Are Voters Always Rational and Deliberative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ching Lee

    Full Text Available Human rationality--the ability to behave in order to maximize the achievement of their presumed goals (i.e., their optimal choices--is the foundation for democracy. Research evidence has suggested that voters may not make decisions after exhaustively processing relevant information; instead, our decision-making capacity may be restricted by our own biases and the environment. In this paper, we investigate the extent to which humans in a democratic society can be rational when making decisions in a serious, complex situation-voting in a local political election. We believe examining human rationality in a political election is important, because a well-functioning democracy rests largely upon the rational choices of individual voters. Previous research has shown that explicit political attitudes predict voting intention and choices (i.e., actual votes in democratic societies, indicating that people are able to reason comprehensively when making voting decisions. Other work, though, has demonstrated that the attitudes of which we may not be aware, such as our implicit (e.g., subconscious preferences, can predict voting choices, which may question the well-functioning democracy. In this study, we systematically examined predictors on voting intention and choices in the 2014 mayoral election in Taipei, Taiwan. Results indicate that explicit political party preferences had the largest impact on voting intention and choices. Moreover, implicit political party preferences interacted with explicit political party preferences in accounting for voting intention, and in turn predicted voting choices. Ethnic identity and perceived voting intention of significant others were found to predict voting choices, but not voting intention. In sum, to the comfort of democracy, voters appeared to engage mainly explicit, controlled processes in making their decisions; but findings on ethnic identity and perceived voting intention of significant others may suggest

  9. Visualizing Public Opinion in Croatia Based on Available Social Network Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševa, Jurica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade advances of computer technologies have lead towards a technological reality where the line between information consumers and information producers is blurred. This technological omnipresence allows for unprecedented data creation capabilities. Based on various data sources, it seems humans have fully embraced data-generating activities. One such activity is using online social network applications, like Facebook or Twitter in almost all aspects of their lives. One of the main features of online social network applications is perceived freedom of speech, individuality and privacy, even though every application has some special features. Therefore, content generated using these services presents the public with interesting insights in private life of people and their attitudes towards public affairs. Social network applications are active the most during specific public events aimed at the massive public. Due to its brevity, ease of use and frequency, Twitter is an interesting social network application for research and analysis. Other than allowing almost exclusively short messages (up to 140 characters, a tweet (a Twitter post can contain location of the message sender as well as a graphic to accompany the textual message. The textual part of the message may contain so called hashtags – keywords used for indexing and easy identification of a subject the message is related to. These hashtags allow us to group messages related to a specific event. Recent governmental elections held in Croatia were very popular amongst the Croatian Twitter community. Usage of hashtags allowed us to identify the right messages and thus most-used words to describe this event and potentially identify how people felt when talking, i.e. writing, about politics and the held elections. Furthermore, geolocation information, optionally embedded in a tweet, makes it possible to analyze which keywords were used in which parts of Croatia, all pertaining to

  10. The association of personal semantic memory to identity representations: insight into higher-order networks of autobiographical contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Matthew D

    2017-11-01

    Identity representations are higher-order knowledge structures that organise autobiographical memories on the basis of personality and role-based themes of one's self-concept. In two experiments, the extent to which different types of personal semantic content are reflected in these higher-order networks of memories was investigated. Healthy, young adult participants generated identity representations that varied in remoteness of formation and verbally reflected on these themes in an open-ended narrative task. The narrative responses were scored for retrieval of episodic, experience-near personal semantic and experience-far (i.e., abstract) personal semantic contents. Results revealed that to reflect on remotely formed identity representations, experience-far personal semantic contents were retrieved more than experience-near personal semantic contents. In contrast, to reflect on recently formed identity representations, experience-near personal semantic contents were retrieved more than experience-far personal semantic contents. Although episodic memory contents were retrieved less than both personal semantic content types to reflect on remotely formed identity representations, this content type was retrieved at a similar frequency as experience-far personal semantic content to reflect on recently formed identity representations. These findings indicate that the association of personal semantic content to identity representations is robust and related to time since acquisition of these knowledge structures.

  11. Cross-Layer Scheme to Control Contention Window for Per-Flow in Asymmetric Multi-Hop Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Pham Thanh; Nakagawa, Kenji

    The IEEE 802.11 MAC standard for wireless ad hoc networks adopts Binary Exponential Back-off (BEB) mechanism to resolve bandwidth contention between stations. BEB mechanism controls the bandwidth allocation for each station by choosing a back-off value from one to CW according to the uniform random distribution, where CW is the contention window size. However, in asymmetric multi-hop networks, some stations are disadvantaged in opportunity of access to the shared channel and may suffer severe throughput degradation when the traffic load is large. Then, the network performance is degraded in terms of throughput and fairness. In this paper, we propose a new cross-layer scheme aiming to solve the per-flow unfairness problem and achieve good throughput performance in IEEE 802.11 multi-hop ad hoc networks. Our cross-layer scheme collects useful information from the physical, MAC and link layers of own station. This information is used to determine the optimal Contention Window (CW) size for per-station fairness. We also use this information to adjust CW size for each flow in the station in order to achieve per-flow fairness. Performance of our cross-layer scheme is examined on various asymmetric multi-hop network topologies by using Network Simulator (NS-2).

  12. Perceived health from biological motion predicts voting behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Robin S S; Arend, Isabel; Ward, Robert

    2010-04-01

    Body motion signals socially relevant traits like the sex, age, and even the genetic quality of actors and may therefore facilitate various social judgements. By examining ratings and voting decisions based solely on body motion of political candidates, we considered how the candidates' motion affected people's judgements and voting behaviour. In two experiments, participants viewed stick figure motion displays made from videos of politicians in public debate. Participants rated the motion displays for a variety of social traits and then indicated their vote preference. In both experiments, perceived physical health was the single best predictor of vote choice, and no two-factor model produced significant improvement. Notably, although attractiveness and leadership correlated with voting behaviour, neither provided additional explanatory power to a single-factor model of health alone. Our results demonstrate for the first time that motion can produce systematic vote preferences.

  13. Poverty and vote buying: Survey-based evidence from Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Sandholt; Justesen, Mogens K.

    2014-01-01

    Alongside the spread of democracy in the developing world, vote buying has emerged as an integral part of election campaigns. Yet, we know little about the causes of vote buying in young democracies. In this paper, we analyse the sources of vote buying in sub-Saharan African. Using data from...... the Afrobarometer, we focus on the impact of poverty on vote buying at the individual- and country-level. Results from multilevel regressions show that poor voters are significantly more likely to be targets of vote buying than wealthier voters. This effect increases when elections are highly competitive. Thus......, micro-level poverty seems to be an important source of vote buying in Africa and has major implications for the way electoral democracy operates....

  14. Vote Markets, Latent Opportunism, and the Secret Ballot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Mogens Kamp; Bøttkjær, Louise Thorn; Gates, Scott

    The secret ballot is a cornerstone of modern democracy because it protects voter autonomy and allows voters to express their political preferences freely without fear of repercussions. In theory, the secret ballot is supposed to prevent vote buying – the exchange of votes for money or material...... goods – from operating during elections. Yet, empirical evidence from surveys around the world suggests that vote buying is a common feature of elections in new democracies. Indeed, a fundamental puzzle concerns why political parties use vote buying to mobilize electoral support when the secret ballot...... allows voters to renege on their commitments and vote as they please. In this paper, we address this puzzle by arguing that voter perceptions of ballot secrecy affect their responses to vote buying offers. Theoretically, we develop a game theoretical model, where voter beliefs in the secret ballot guide...

  15. 25 CFR 217.6 - Method of casting votes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of casting votes. 217.6 Section 217.6 Indians.... § 217.6 Method of casting votes. Within 30 days after an issue and any analysis provided for in §§ 217.4... superintendent in writing of the number of votes cast for and against the proposed or alternative solutions. If...

  16. Voting pattern of mental patients in a community state hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M M; Grossman, S A

    1967-06-01

    The voting pattern of mental patients in a community-based state hospital was studied. Patients were polled on the New York City mayoralty race. A comparison to the vote of the general population revealed that the hospital sample vote resembled most closely the election results of the hospital district. The results highlight the advantage of community-centered mental health facilities, which undertake the treatment and rehabilitation of mental patients under conditions that maintain ties with family and community.

  17. Legislator voting and behavioral science theory: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Gregory J; Vernick, Jon S; Reiney, Erin V; Gielen, Andrea C

    2012-11-01

    To examine the application of behavioral science theories to explain the voting behavior of legislators for public health policies. We conducted a systematic review to identify studies that examined factors associated with legislator support, intention to vote, or actual votes on public health policies, emphasizing those grounded in behavior science theory. Twenty-one papers met our inclusion criteria, and 6 were explicitly grounded in a behavioral science theory. Behavioral science theories, and the theory of planned behavior in particular, provide a framework for understanding legislator voting behavior and can be used by advocates to advance pro-health policies.

  18. Two kinds of Phase transitions in a Voting model

    OpenAIRE

    Hisakado, Masato; Mori, Shintaro

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a voting model with two candidates, C_0 and C_1. We consider two types of voters--herders and independents. The voting of independents is based on their fundamental values; on the other hand, the voting of herders is based on the number of previous votes. We can identify two kinds of phase transitions. One is an information cascade transition similar to a phase transition seen in Ising model. The other is a transition of super and normal diffusions. These phase trans...

  19. 2008 Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Election Assistance Commission — This dataset contains data about military and overseas voting for the 2008 election cycle. The dataset and corresponding report address ballot transmissions to, and...

  20. 2010 Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Election Assistance Commission — This dataset contains data about military and overseas voting for the 2010 election cycle. The dataset and corresponding report address ballot transmissions to, and...

  1. Brand content diffusion on Social Networking Sites: Exploring the triadic relationship between the brand, the individual, and the community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trostli de Araújo Costa, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation explores the antecedents and consequences of brand content diffusion on Social Networking Sites (SNSs), by investigating what influences SNS users to pass along messages created by brands via retweeting on Twitter, and sharing on Facebook. The dissertation is organized in four

  2. Alcohol-Related Posts from Young People on Social Networking Sites: Content and Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Hanneke; Gebhardt, Winifred A; van den Putte, Bas

    2017-07-01

    Many young people place alcohol-related posts on social networking sites (SNS) which can result in undesirable effects. Although several recent studies have investigated the occurrence of alcohol-related SNS use, it is neither clear (a) what type of alcohol posts are placed on SNS, (b) the motivations to place alcohol posts, nor (c) which young people are most likely to place alcohol posts. This study addressed these three goals. A large cross-sectional study among young participants (12-30 years; N = 561) assessed the posting of different types of alcohol posts, the motivations to (not) post these posts, and potential differences in posting between subgroups (i.e., in terms of age, gender, and religion). Participants reported that they most often placed moderate, instead of more extreme, alcohol posts, in particular, when alcohol was present in the post "by chance". Furthermore, they indicated to post alcohol-related content mostly for entertainment reasons. Finally, we found differences in self-reported posting and motivations to post according to age, gender, and religion. These findings provide relevant implications for future interventions aiming to decrease alcohol posts, for example, by making participants aware of their posting behavior and by targeting specific at risk groups. Future research should explore the effectiveness of such intervention strategies and should investigate whether alcohol posts lead to an underestimation of alcohol-related risks.

  3. A Logical Analysis of Quantum Voting Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Soroush Rafiee; Shirinkalam, Elahe; Smets, Sonja

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we provide a logical analysis of the Quantum Voting Protocol for Anonymous Surveying as developed by Horoshko and Kilin in (Phys. Lett. A 375, 1172-1175 2011). In particular we make use of the probabilistic logic of quantum programs as developed in (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 53, 3628-3647 2014) to provide a formal specification of the protocol and to derive its correctness. Our analysis is part of a wider program on the application of quantum logics to the formal verification of protocols in quantum communication and quantum computation.

  4. Prediction of benzo[a]pyrene content of smoked sausage using back-propagation artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Cai, Kezhou; Tu, Zehui; Nie, Wen; Ji, Tuo; Hu, Bing; Chen, Conggui; Jiang, Shaotong

    2017-11-29

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a potent mutagen and carcinogen, is reported to be present in processed meat products and, in particular, in smoked meat. However, few methods exist for predictive determination of the BaP content of smoked meats such as sausage. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) model based on the back-propagation (BP) algorithm was used to predict the BaP content of smoked sausage. The results showed that the BP network based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was the best suited for creating a nonlinear map between the input and output parameters. The optimal network structure was 3-7-1 and the learning rate was 0.6. This BP-ANN model allowed for accurate predictions, with the correlation coefficients (R) for the experimentally determined training, validation, test and global data sets being 0.94, 0.96, 0.95 and 0.95 respectively. The validation performance was 0.013, suggesting that the proposed BP-ANN may be used to predictively detect the BaP content of smoked meat products. An effective predictive model was constructed for estimation of the BaP content of smoked sausage using ANN modeling techniques, which shows potential to predict the BaP content in smoked sausage. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Policy content and stakeholder network analysis for infant and young child feeding in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Sumit; Devkota, Madhu Dixit; Uddin, Shahadat; Thow, Anne Marie

    2017-06-13

    Despite concerted effort from government and partners, Nepal continues to have a high burden of under nutrition among children. Identifying opportunities to strengthen policy support for infant and young child feeding (IYCF) is a key component to improve child survival, growth and development. This study aims to explore policy support for IYCF and to identify the influential stakeholders for IYCF for effective future policy development and programmatic action. Policies relevant to IYCF were identified through web searches and direct approaches to relevant government ministries. Policy content was analysed based on four key domains focussed on mothers, using a qualitative synthesis approach. Three group interviews were conducted using the participatory tool "Net-Map", to identify the influential stakeholders in IYCF policy and programming processes. Twenty-six relevant policy documents were analysed for content relating to IYCF. General support for IYCF was found in most of the development plans and high-level health sector policies. Most implementation level documents included support for provision of correct information to mothers. Capacity building of frontline workers for IYCN and system strengthening were well supported through sectoral plans and policies. However, gaps were identified regarding maternity protection, support for monitoring and evaluation, and translation of high-level policy directives into implementation level guidelines, resulting in a lack of clarity over roles and responsibilities. Both government and non-governmental stakeholders, particularly donors, emerged as influential drivers of IYCF policy decisions in Nepal, through technical assistance and funding. The Nutrition Technical Committee under the Ministry of Health, UNICEF, Suaahara, USAID and WHO were identified as key actors providing technical assistance. Key funding agencies were identified as UNICEF and USAID. This study reveals strong policy support for key dimensions of IYCF

  6. Policy content and stakeholder network analysis for infant and young child feeding in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Karn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite concerted effort from government and partners, Nepal continues to have a high burden of under nutrition among children. Identifying opportunities to strengthen policy support for infant and young child feeding (IYCF is a key component to improve child survival, growth and development. This study aims to explore policy support for IYCF and to identify the influential stakeholders for IYCF for effective future policy development and programmatic action. Methods Policies relevant to IYCF were identified through web searches and direct approaches to relevant government ministries. Policy content was analysed based on four key domains focussed on mothers, using a qualitative synthesis approach. Three group interviews were conducted using the participatory tool “Net-Map”, to identify the influential stakeholders in IYCF policy and programming processes. Results Twenty-six relevant policy documents were analysed for content relating to IYCF. General support for IYCF was found in most of the development plans and high-level health sector policies. Most implementation level documents included support for provision of correct information to mothers. Capacity building of frontline workers for IYCN and system strengthening were well supported through sectoral plans and policies. However, gaps were identified regarding maternity protection, support for monitoring and evaluation, and translation of high-level policy directives into implementation level guidelines, resulting in a lack of clarity over roles and responsibilities. Both government and non-governmental stakeholders, particularly donors, emerged as influential drivers of IYCF policy decisions in Nepal, through technical assistance and funding. The Nutrition Technical Committee under the Ministry of Health, UNICEF, Suaahara, USAID and WHO were identified as key actors providing technical assistance. Key funding agencies were identified as UNICEF and USAID. Conclusions

  7. Defending majority voting systems against a strategic attacker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Hausken, Kjell; Ben Haim, Hanoch

    2013-01-01

    Voting systems used in technical and tactical decision making in pattern recognition and target detection, data handling, signal processing, distributed and secure computing etc. are considered. A maxmin two period game is analyzed where the defender first protects and chooses units for participation in voting. The attacker thereafter attacks a subset of units. It is shown that when the defender protects all the voting units, the optimal number of units chosen for voting is either one or the maximal possible odd number. When the defender protects only the units chosen for voting, the optimal number of chosen units increases with the defender resource superiority (i.e., more resources than the attacker) and with probability of providing correct output by any unit. The system success probability always increases in the total number of voting units, the defender–attacker resource ratio, and the probability that each voting unit produces a correct output. The system success probability increases in the attacker–defender contest intensity if the defender achieves per-unit resource superiority, and otherwise decreases in the contest intensity. The presented model and enumerative algorithm allow obtaining optimal voting system defense strategy for any combination of parameters: total number of units, attack and defense resources, unit success probability and contest intensity.

  8. 29 CFR 1922.4 - Responsibilities of the Board; voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities of the Board; voting. 1922.4 Section 1922.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT § 1922.4 Responsibilities of the Board; voting. (a) Determinations and...

  9. Creating Discussions with Classroom Voting in Linear Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Kelly; Zullo, Holly; Duncan, Jonathan; Stewart, Ann; Snipes, Marie

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of classroom voting in linear algebra, in which the instructors posed multiple-choice questions to the class and then allowed a few minutes for consideration and small-group discussion. After each student in the class voted on the correct answer using a classroom response system, a set of clickers, the instructor then guided a…

  10. Empirical study on voting power in participatory forest planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainikainen, N; Kangas, A; Kangas, J

    2008-07-01

    Multicriteria decision support systems are applied in natural resource management in order to clarify the planning process for the stakeholders, to make all available information usable and all objectives manageable. Especially when the public is involved in planning, the decision support system should be easy to comprehend, transparent and fair. Social choice theory has recently been applied to group decision-making in natural resources management to accomplish these objectives. Although voting forms the basis of democracy, and is usually taken as a fair method, the influence of voters over the outcome may vary. It is also possible to vote strategically to improve the results from each stakeholder's point of view. This study examines the use of social choice theory in revealing stakeholders' preferences in participatory forest planning, and the influence of different voters on the outcome. The positional voting rules examined were approval voting and Borda count, but both rules were slightly modified for the purposes of this study. The third rule examined, cumulative rule, resembles utilitarian voting rules. The voting rules were tested in a real participatory forest planning situation in eastern Lapland, Finland. All voting rules resulted in a different joint order of importance of the criteria. Yet, the preference orders produced had also a lot in common and the criteria could be divided into three quite distinct groups according to their importance. The influence of individual voters varied between the voting rules, and in each case different voter was the most influential.

  11. E-voting in Europe: divergent democratic practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, Jorgen S.; Leenes, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    Corresponding author Recent technological developments have opened up the possibility of electronic voting and this clearly provides some opportunities and threats. On the one hand, the new technology may help to make voting more cost effective and more convenient for the voter and may even increase

  12. Analysis of Spatial Voting Patterns: An Approach in Political Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimasewski, Ted

    1973-01-01

    Passage of the 26th Amendment gave young adults the right to vote. This study attempts to further student understanding of the electoral process by presenting a method for analyzing spatial voting patterns. The spatial emphasis adds another dimension to the temporal and behavioral-structural approaches in studying the American electoral system.…

  13. The theory of voting and equilibria in noncooperative games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte

    1993-01-01

    We consider the problem of modeling voting situations, seeking models and equilibrium concepts which are easier to incorporate in large sequential decision games than the models and solution concepts used by the "theory of voting." It is demonstrated that one can avoid using very refined solution...

  14. Acceptance of voting technology: between confidence and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter

    2006-01-01

    Social aspects of security of information systems are often discussed in terms of “actual security��? and “perceived security��?. This may lead to the hypothesis that e-voting is controversial because in paper voting, actual and perceived security coincide, whereas they do not in electronic systems.

  15. Comparing Youth Opinions toward Compulsory Voting across Five Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesek, Jessamay T.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses a comparative case study design to examine youth (ages 13-20) opinions toward compulsory voting across five democratic countries: Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and the United States. Youth responses toward compulsory voting demonstrate how youth come to learn about citizen rights and responsibilities with varied understandings…

  16. EU member states' voting for authorizing genetically engineered crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smart, Richard D.; Blum, Matthias; Wesseler, Justus

    2015-01-01

    Several authors suggest a gridlock of the European Union's (EU's) approval process for genetically engineered (GE) crops. We analyse the voting behaviour of EU Member States (MSs) for voting results from 2003 to 2015 on the approval of GE crops to test for a gridlock; no reliable data are

  17. Internet voting: a monstrous alliance between democracy and technology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Sudweeks, F.; Hrachovec, H.; Ess, C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we aim at finding a cultural explanation of the controversy around the introduction of electronic voting, especially Internet voting. In her PhD thesis, Martijntje Smits (2002b) argues that controversies surrounding the introduction of new technologies can often be explained in terms

  18. Expressive voting and political ideology in a laboratory democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiese, Rasmus; Jong-A-Pin, Richard

    2017-01-01

    We test the theory of expressive voting in relation to political ideology in a laboratory experiment. After deriving our hypotheses from a decision theoretic model, we examine voting decisions in an experiment in which we use the size of the electorate as the treatment variable. Using a Heckman

  19. The design, purpose, and effects of voting advice applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosema, Martin; Anderson, Joel; Walgrave, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    In recent electoral politics, one of the most striking internet-related developments is the increasingly widespread use of Voting Advice Applications (VAAs). In this introduction to the symposium devoted to analysing the design, purpose, and effects of voting advice applications, we briefly discuss

  20. Gendering the vote for populist radical-right parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, N.; Zaslove, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Why do more men than women vote for populist radical-right (PRR) parties? And do more men than women still vote for the PRR? Can attitudes regarding gender and gender equality explain these differences (if they exist)? These are the questions that Spierings and Zaslove explore in this article. They

  1. 11 CFR 110.18 - Voting age population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting age population. 110.18 Section 110.18 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CONTRIBUTION AND EXPENDITURE LIMITATIONS AND... population of the United States, of each State, and of each Congressional district. The term voting age...

  2. Assessing the implications of cellular network performance on mobile content access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaup, Fabian; Michelinakis, Foivos; Bui, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Mobile applications such as VoIP, (live) gaming, or video streaming have diverse QoS requirements ranging from low delay to high throughput. The optimization of the network quality experienced by end-users requires detailed knowledge of the expected network performance. Also, the achieved service...... of cellular network measurements, focused on analyzing root causes of mobile network performance variability. Measurements conducted on a 4G cellular network in Germany show that management and configuration decisions have a substantial impact on the performance. Specifically, it is observed...

  3. Generalized information fusion and visualization using spatial voting and data modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel and innovative information fusion and visualization framework for multi-source intelligence (multiINT) data using Spatial Voting (SV) and Data Modeling. We describe how different sources of information can be converted into numerical form for further processing downstream, followed by a short description of how this information can be fused using the SV grid. As an illustrative example, we show the modeling of cyberspace as cyber layers for the purpose of tracking cyber personas. Finally we describe a path ahead for creating interactive agile networks through defender customized Cyber-cubes for network configuration and attack visualization.

  4. Online Voting System Based on Image Steganography and Visual Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Issac

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the implementation of an online voting system based on image steganography and visual cryptography. The system was implemented in Java EE on a web-based interface, with MySQL database server and Glassfish application server as the backend. After considering the requirements of an online voting system, current technologies on electronic voting schemes in published literature were examined. Next, the cryptographic and steganography techniques best suited for the requirements of the voting system were chosen, and the software was implemented. We have incorporated in our system techniques like the password hashed based scheme, visual cryptography, F5 image steganography and threshold decryption cryptosystem. The analysis, design and implementation phase of the software development of the voting system is discussed in detail. We have also used a questionnaire survey and did the user acceptance testing of the system.

  5. Anonymous voting for multi-dimensional CV quantum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Rong-Hua; Xiao Yi; Shi Jin-Jing; Guo Ying; Lee, Moon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the design of anonymous voting protocols, CV-based binary-valued ballot and CV-based multi-valued ballot with continuous variables (CV) in a multi-dimensional quantum cryptosystem to ensure the security of voting procedure and data privacy. The quantum entangled states are employed in the continuous variable quantum system to carry the voting information and assist information transmission, which takes the advantage of the GHZ-like states in terms of improving the utilization of quantum states by decreasing the number of required quantum states. It provides a potential approach to achieve the efficient quantum anonymous voting with high transmission security, especially in large-scale votes. (paper)

  6. Phase transition and information cascade in a voting model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisakado, M [Standard and Poor' s, Marunouchi 1-6-5, Chiyoda ku, Tokyo 100-0005 (Japan); Mori, S, E-mail: masato_hisakado@standardandpoors.co, E-mail: mori@sci.kitasato-u.ac.j [Department of Physics, School of Science, Kitasato University, Kitasato 1-15-1, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555 (Japan)

    2010-08-06

    In this paper, we introduce a voting model that is similar to a Keynesian beauty contest and analyse it from a mathematical point of view. There are two types of voters-copycat and independent-and two candidates. Our voting model is a binomial distribution (independent voters) doped in a beta binomial distribution (copycat voters). We find that the phase transition in this system is at the upper limit of t, where t is the time (or the number of the votes). Our model contains three phases. If copycats constitute a majority or even half of the total voters, the voting rate converges more slowly than it would in a binomial distribution. If independents constitute the majority of voters, the voting rate converges at the same rate as it would in a binomial distribution. We also study why it is difficult to estimate the conclusion of a Keynesian beauty contest when there is an information cascade.

  7. Phase transition and information cascade in a voting model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisakado, M; Mori, S

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a voting model that is similar to a Keynesian beauty contest and analyse it from a mathematical point of view. There are two types of voters-copycat and independent-and two candidates. Our voting model is a binomial distribution (independent voters) doped in a beta binomial distribution (copycat voters). We find that the phase transition in this system is at the upper limit of t, where t is the time (or the number of the votes). Our model contains three phases. If copycats constitute a majority or even half of the total voters, the voting rate converges more slowly than it would in a binomial distribution. If independents constitute the majority of voters, the voting rate converges at the same rate as it would in a binomial distribution. We also study why it is difficult to estimate the conclusion of a Keynesian beauty contest when there is an information cascade.

  8. Phase transition and information cascade in a voting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisakado, M.; Mori, S.

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we introduce a voting model that is similar to a Keynesian beauty contest and analyse it from a mathematical point of view. There are two types of voters—copycat and independent—and two candidates. Our voting model is a binomial distribution (independent voters) doped in a beta binomial distribution (copycat voters). We find that the phase transition in this system is at the upper limit of t, where t is the time (or the number of the votes). Our model contains three phases. If copycats constitute a majority or even half of the total voters, the voting rate converges more slowly than it would in a binomial distribution. If independents constitute the majority of voters, the voting rate converges at the same rate as it would in a binomial distribution. We also study why it is difficult to estimate the conclusion of a Keynesian beauty contest when there is an information cascade.

  9. Digital Voting Systems and Communication in Classroom Lectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the use of digital voting systems in large group teaching situations have often focused on the ”non-anonymity” and control and testing functions that the technology provides. There has also been some interest in how students might use their votes tactically to gain “credits”. By focusing...... on an empirical study of students’ experiences with digital voting systems in lectures at two Danish universities, this study considers the premises and the contexts surrounding this technology. It will also aim to show that for both instructors and students, digital voting systems are a much broader resource...... than simply a device for facilitating ”non-anonymity”, test, control and allocation of credits. The case studies showed, for instance, that digital voting systems can be conducive to a more open approach in which the systems are used as communication tools and teaching resources in situations where...

  10. Potential benefits and harms of a peer support social network service on the internet for people with depressive tendencies: qualitative content analysis and social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Uchida, Chiyoko; Miyaki, Koichi; Sakai, Michi; Shimbo, Takuro; Nakayama, Takeo

    2009-07-23

    Internet peer support groups for depression are becoming popular and could be affected by an increasing number of social network services (SNSs). However, little is known about participant characteristics, social relationships in SNSs, and the reasons for usage. In addition, the effects of SNS participation on people with depression are rather unknown. The aim was to explore the potential benefits and harms of an SNS for depression based on a concurrent triangulation design of mixed methods strategy, including qualitative content analysis and social network analysis. A cross-sectional Internet survey of participants, which involved the collection of SNS log files and a questionnaire, was conducted in an SNS for people with self-reported depressive tendencies in Japan in 2007. Quantitative data, which included user demographics, depressive state, and assessment of the SNS (positive vs not positive), were statistically analyzed. Descriptive contents of responses to open-ended questions concerning advantages and disadvantages of SNS participation were analyzed using the inductive approach of qualitative content analysis. Contents were organized into codes, concepts, categories, and a storyline based on the grounded theory approach. Social relationships, derived from data of "friends," were analyzed using social network analysis, in which network measures and the extent of interpersonal association were calculated based on the social network theory. Each analysis and integration of results were performed through a concurrent triangulation design of mixed methods strategy. There were 105 participants. Median age was 36 years, and 51% (36/71) were male. There were 37 valid respondents; their number of friends and frequency of accessing the SNS were significantly higher than for invalid/nonrespondents (P = .008 and P = .003). Among respondents, 90% (28/31) were mildly, moderately, or severely depressed. Assessment of the SNS was performed by determining the access

  11. Conditions of vacuous voting in the boardroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene M. Andert

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of U.S. corporate governance has been approached as a management structure without regard for the non-hierarchical oversight qualities that are embedded in the legal foundation of its birth. This paper reviews the: (1 U.S. federal Model Business Corporation that unifies the individual state corporate enabling statutes; and (2 The Delaware General Corporation Law that applies to over half of the U.S. Fortune 500 companies and posits the structure of U.S. corporate governance is nonhierarchical, though practiced hierarchically. Further, it is not always the full board that creates board action, and asymmetrical communication and asymmetrical member action create the conditions for vacuous voting.

  12. Legal requirements governing proxy voting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The requirements in Danish company law concerning proxy voting in companies whose shares have been accepted for listing on a regulated market have been successively tightened in recent years, and corporate governance principles have also led to the introduction of several requirements concerning...... proxy holders. A thorough knowledge of these requirements is important not only for the listed companies but also for their advisers and investors in Denmark and abroad. This article considers these requirements as well as the additional requirements which will derive from Directive 2007....../36 on the exercise of shareholders' rights in listed companies, which must be implemented by 3 August 2009. It is pointed out that companies may provide with advantage in their articles of association for both the existing and the forthcoming requirements at this early stage....

  13. Information cascade on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisakado, Masato; Mori, Shintaro

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we discuss a voting model by considering three different kinds of networks: a random graph, the Barabási-Albert (BA) model, and a fitness model. A voting model represents the way in which public perceptions are conveyed to voters. Our voting model is constructed by using two types of voters-herders and independents-and two candidates. Independents conduct voting based on their fundamental values; on the other hand, herders base their voting on the number of previous votes. Hence, herders vote for the majority candidates and obtain information relating to previous votes from their networks. We discuss the difference between the phases on which the networks depend. Two kinds of phase transitions, an information cascade transition and a super-normal transition, were identified. The first of these is a transition between a state in which most voters make the correct choices and a state in which most of them are wrong. The second is a transition of convergence speed. The information cascade transition prevails when herder effects are stronger than the super-normal transition. In the BA and fitness models, the critical point of the information cascade transition is the same as that of the random network model. However, the critical point of the super-normal transition disappears when these two models are used. In conclusion, the influence of networks is shown to only affect the convergence speed and not the information cascade transition. We are therefore able to conclude that the influence of hubs on voters' perceptions is limited.

  14. Policy content and stakeholder network analysis for infant and young child feeding in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Puri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decade, infant and young child feeding (IYCF indicators in India have improved. However, poor IYCF practices are still apparent, associated with pervasive high rates of child under-nutrition. Interventions to improve IYCF need augmentation by appropriate policy support to consolidate gains. The aim of this study was to identify opportunities to strengthen and support IYCF policies through a policy content and stakeholder network analysis. Methods IYCF policies and guidelines were systematically mapped and coded using predetermined themes. Six ‘net-map’ group interviews were conducted for stakeholder analysis with data analyzed using ORA (organizational risk analyzer, copyright Carley, Carnegie Mellon University software. The study was carried out at a national level and in the states of Maharashtra and unified Andhra Pradesh. Results Thirty relevant policy documents were identified. Support for IYCF was clearly apparent and was actioned within sectoral policies and strategic plans. We identified support for provision of information to mothers and caregivers in both sectoral and high-level/strategic policy documents. At a sectoral level, there was support for training health care workers and for enabling mothers to access IYCF. Opportunities to strengthen policy included expanding coverage and translating policy goals into implementation level documents. At the national level, Ministry of Women and Child Development [MoWCD], Ministry of Health and Family Welfare [MoHFW] and the Prime Minister’s Nutrition Council [PMNC] were the most influential actors in providing technical support while MoHFW, MoWCD, and Bill Melinda Gates Foundation were the most influential actors in providing funding and were therefore influential stakeholders in shaping IYCF policies and programs. Conclusion We identified a wide range of strengths in the IYCF policy environment in India and also opportunities for improvement. One key

  15. Policy content and stakeholder network analysis for infant and young child feeding in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Rasheed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF practices are essential for nutrition of infants and young children. Bangladesh has one of the highest levels of malnutrition globally along with sub-optimal IYCF practices. A supportive policy environment is essential to ensure that effective IYCF interventions are scaled up. The objectives of our study were to assess the support for IYCF in the national policy environment through policy analysis and stakeholder analysis and in so doing identify opportunities to strengthen the policy environment. Methods We used a matrix developed by SAIFRN (the South Asian Infant Feeding Research Network to systematically identify supportive national policies, plans and guidelines for IYCF. We adapted narrative synthesis and descriptive approaches to analyze policy content, based on four themes with a focus on support for mothers. We conducted three Net-Map interviews to identify stakeholders who influenced the policies and programs related to IYCF. Results We identified 19 national policy documents relevant to IYCF. Overall, there was good level of support for IYCF practices at policy level – particularly regarding general support for IYCF and provision of information to mothers – but these were not consistently supported at implementation level, particularly regarding specificity and population coverage. We identified gaps regarding the training of health workers, capacity building, the monitoring and targeting of vulnerable mothers and providing an enabling environment to mothers, specifically with respect to maternity leave for working women. Urban populations and providers outside the public sector remained uncovered by policy. Our stakeholder analysis identified government entities such as the National Nutrition Service, as the most influential in terms of both technical and funding support as they had the mandate for formulation and implementation of policies and national programs

  16. Policy content and stakeholder network analysis for infant and young child feeding in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Seema; Fernandez, Sylvia; Puranik, Amrita; Anand, Deepika; Gaidhane, Abhay; Quazi Syed, Zahiruddin; Patel, Archana; Uddin, Shahadat; Thow, Anne Marie

    2017-06-13

    Over the last decade, infant and young child feeding (IYCF) indicators in India have improved. However, poor IYCF practices are still apparent, associated with pervasive high rates of child under-nutrition. Interventions to improve IYCF need augmentation by appropriate policy support to consolidate gains. The aim of this study was to identify opportunities to strengthen and support IYCF policies through a policy content and stakeholder network analysis. IYCF policies and guidelines were systematically mapped and coded using predetermined themes. Six 'net-map' group interviews were conducted for stakeholder analysis with data analyzed using ORA (organizational risk analyzer, copyright Carley, Carnegie Mellon University) software. The study was carried out at a national level and in the states of Maharashtra and unified Andhra Pradesh. Thirty relevant policy documents were identified. Support for IYCF was clearly apparent and was actioned within sectoral policies and strategic plans. We identified support for provision of information to mothers and caregivers in both sectoral and high-level/strategic policy documents. At a sectoral level, there was support for training health care workers and for enabling mothers to access IYCF. Opportunities to strengthen policy included expanding coverage and translating policy goals into implementation level documents. At the national level, Ministry of Women and Child Development [MoWCD], Ministry of Health and Family Welfare [MoHFW] and the Prime Minister's Nutrition Council [PMNC] were the most influential actors in providing technical support while MoHFW, MoWCD, and Bill Melinda Gates Foundation were the most influential actors in providing funding and were therefore influential stakeholders in shaping IYCF policies and programs. We identified a wide range of strengths in the IYCF policy environment in India and also opportunities for improvement. One key strength is the integration of IYCF policies into a range of agendas and

  17. Policy content and stakeholder network analysis for infant and young child feeding in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Sabrina; Roy, Swapan Kumar; Das, Susmita; Chowdhury, Syeda Nafisa; Iqbal, Mohammad; Akter, Syeda Mahsina; Jahan, Khurshid; Uddin, Shahadat; Thow, Anne Marie

    2017-06-13

    Appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are essential for nutrition of infants and young children. Bangladesh has one of the highest levels of malnutrition globally along with sub-optimal IYCF practices. A supportive policy environment is essential to ensure that effective IYCF interventions are scaled up. The objectives of our study were to assess the support for IYCF in the national policy environment through policy analysis and stakeholder analysis and in so doing identify opportunities to strengthen the policy environment. We used a matrix developed by SAIFRN (the South Asian Infant Feeding Research Network) to systematically identify supportive national policies, plans and guidelines for IYCF. We adapted narrative synthesis and descriptive approaches to analyze policy content, based on four themes with a focus on support for mothers. We conducted three Net-Map interviews to identify stakeholders who influenced the policies and programs related to IYCF. We identified 19 national policy documents relevant to IYCF. Overall, there was good level of support for IYCF practices at policy level - particularly regarding general support for IYCF and provision of information to mothers - but these were not consistently supported at implementation level, particularly regarding specificity and population coverage. We identified gaps regarding the training of health workers, capacity building, the monitoring and targeting of vulnerable mothers and providing an enabling environment to mothers, specifically with respect to maternity leave for working women. Urban populations and providers outside the public sector remained uncovered by policy. Our stakeholder analysis identified government entities such as the National Nutrition Service, as the most influential in terms of both technical and funding support as they had the mandate for formulation and implementation of policies and national programs. Stakeholders from different sectors played important

  18. Content-based organization of the information space in multi-database networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papazoglou, M.; Milliner, S.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract. Rapid growth in the volume of network-available data, complexity, diversity and terminological fluctuations, at different data sources, render network-accessible information increasingly difficult to achieve. The situation is particularly cumbersome for users of multi-database systems who

  19. New Abstraction Networks and a New Visualization Tool in Support of Auditing the SNOMED CT Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, James; Ochs, Christopher; Perl, Yehoshua; Xu, Junchuan

    2012-01-01

    Medical terminologies are large and complex. Frequently, errors are hidden in this complexity. Our objective is to find such errors, which can be aided by deriving abstraction networks from a large terminology. Abstraction networks preserve important features but eliminate many minor details, which are often not useful for identifying errors. Providing visualizations for such abstraction networks aids auditors by allowing them to quickly focus on elements of interest within a terminology. Previously we introduced area taxonomies and partial area taxonomies for SNOMED CT. In this paper, two advanced, novel kinds of abstraction networks, the relationship-constrained partial area subtaxonomy and the root-constrained partial area subtaxonomy are defined and their benefits are demonstrated. We also describe BLUSNO, an innovative software tool for quickly generating and visualizing these SNOMED CT abstraction networks. BLUSNO is a dynamic, interactive system that provides quick access to well organized information about SNOMED CT. PMID:23304293

  20. Strategic Planning to Conduct Joint Force Network Operations: A Content Analysis of NETOPS Organizations Strategic Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    flowing texts coding ( Denzin & Lincoln , 2000) and therefore the most appropriate methodology for this research is a content analysis. Content Analysis...Leady & Ormrod, Cresswell, Denzin & Lincoln , and Neuendorf (Leady, 2005; Denzin & Lincoln , 2000; Cresswell, 2003; Neuendorf, 2002). The steps used in...uncil Clinger Methods Denzin eneral Govern y ol Press omputers olsti, O.R. (1969). Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and

  1. Digital herders and phase transition in a voting model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisakado, M [Standard and Poor' s, Marunouchi 1-6-5, Chiyoda ku, Tokyo 100-0005 (Japan); Mori, S, E-mail: masato_hisakado@standardandpoors.com, E-mail: mori@sci.kitasato-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, School of Science, Kitasato University, Kitasato 1-15-1, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555 (Japan)

    2011-07-08

    In this paper, we discuss a voting model with two candidates, C{sub 1} and C{sub 2}. We set two types of voters-herders and independents. The voting of independent voters is based on their fundamental values; on the other hand, the voting of herders is based on the number of votes. Herders always select the majority of the previous r votes, which are visible to them. We call them digital herders. We can accurately calculate the distribution of votes for special cases. When r {>=} 3, we find that a phase transition occurs at the upper limit of t, where t is the discrete time (or number of votes). As the fraction of herders increases, the model features a phase transition beyond which a state where most voters make the correct choice coexists with one where most of them are wrong. On the other hand, when r < 3, there is no phase transition. In this case, the herders' performance is the same as that of the independent voters. Finally, we recognize the behavior of human beings by conducting simple experiments.

  2. Digital herders and phase transition in a voting model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisakado, M; Mori, S

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a voting model with two candidates, C 1 and C 2 . We set two types of voters-herders and independents. The voting of independent voters is based on their fundamental values; on the other hand, the voting of herders is based on the number of votes. Herders always select the majority of the previous r votes, which are visible to them. We call them digital herders. We can accurately calculate the distribution of votes for special cases. When r ≥ 3, we find that a phase transition occurs at the upper limit of t, where t is the discrete time (or number of votes). As the fraction of herders increases, the model features a phase transition beyond which a state where most voters make the correct choice coexists with one where most of them are wrong. On the other hand, when r < 3, there is no phase transition. In this case, the herders' performance is the same as that of the independent voters. Finally, we recognize the behavior of human beings by conducting simple experiments.

  3. Social network ties beyond nonredundancy: an experimental investigation of the effect of knowledge content and tie strength on creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Smith, Jill E

    2014-09-01

    Social network research emphasizes the access to nonredundant knowledge content that network ties provide. I suggest that some content is more beneficial than others and that tie strength may affect creativity for reasons other than the associated structure. That is, tie strength may affect how individuals process nonredundant knowledge. I investigate 2 types of knowledge content--information (i.e., facts or data) and frames (i.e., interpretations or impressions)--and explore whether tie strength influences their effect on creativity. Drawing on creativity theory, I employ an experimental design to provide greater theoretical clarity and to isolate causality. According to the results from 2 studies, distinct frames received from contacts facilitate creativity, but the effect of distinct information is more complex. When individuals receive distinct information from strong ties, it constrains creativity compared to distinct frames. Content from weak ties appears to facilitate creativity across all scenarios. The results of mediated moderation analysis indicate the effect of framing versus information for strong ties is driven by decision-making time, as an indicator of cognitive expansion. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. mEducator: A Best Practice Network for Repurposing and Sharing Medical Educational Multi-type Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidis, Panagiotis D.; Kaldoudi, Eleni; Pattichis, Costas

    Although there is an abundance of medical educational content available in individual EU academic institutions, this is not widely available or easy to discover and retrieve, due to lack of standardized content sharing mechanisms. The mEducator EU project will face this lack by implementing and experimenting between two different sharing mechanisms, namely, one based one mashup technologies, and one based on semantic web services. In addition, the mEducator best practice network will critically evaluate existing standards and reference models in the field of e-learning in order to enable specialized state-of-the-art medical educational content to be discovered, retrieved, shared, repurposed and re-used across European higher academic institutions. Educational content included in mEducator covers and represents the whole range of medical educational content, from traditional instructional teaching to active learning and experiential teaching/studying approaches. It spans the whole range of types, from text to exam sheets, algorithms, teaching files, computer programs (simulators or games) and interactive objects (like virtual patients and electronically traced anatomies), while it covers a variety of topics. In this paper, apart from introducing the relevant project concepts and strategies, emphasis is also placed on the notion of (dynamic) user-generated content, its advantages and peculiarities, as well as, gaps in current research and technology practice upon its embedding into existing standards.

  5. Multi-Device to Multi-Device (MD2MD Content-Centric Networking Based on Multi-RAT Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheolhoon Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method whereby a device can transmit and receive information using a beacon, and also describes application scenarios for the proposed method. In a multi-device to multi-device (MD2MD content-centric networking (CCN environment, the main issue involves searching for and connecting to nearby devices. However, if a device can’t find another device that satisfies its requirements, the connection is delayed due to the repetition of processes. It is possible to rapidly connect to a device without repetition through the selection of the optimal device using the proposed method. Consequently, the proposed method and scenarios are advantageous in that they enable efficient content identification and delivery in a content-centric Internet of Things (IoT environment, in which multiple mobile devices coexist.

  6. Multi-Task Vehicle Detection with Region-of-Interest Voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wenqing; Liu, Yao; Shen, Chen; Cai, Deng; Hua, Xian-Sheng

    2017-10-12

    Vehicle detection is a challenging problem in autonomous driving systems, due to its large structural and appearance variations. In this paper, we propose a novel vehicle detection scheme based on multi-task deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) and region-of-interest (RoI) voting. In the design of CNN architecture, we enrich the supervised information with subcategory, region overlap, bounding-box regression and category of each training RoI as a multi-task learning framework. This design allows the CNN model to share visual knowledge among different vehicle attributes simultaneously, thus detection robustness can be effectively improved. In addition, most existing methods consider each RoI independently, ignoring the clues from its neighboring RoIs. In our approach, we utilize the CNN model to predict the offset direction of each RoI boundary towards the corresponding ground truth. Then each RoI can vote those suitable adjacent bounding boxes which are consistent with this additional information. The voting results are combined with the score of each RoI itself to find a more accurate location from a large number of candidates. Experimental results on the real-world computer vision benchmarks KITTI and the PASCAL2007 vehicle dataset show that our approach achieves superior performance in vehicle detection compared with other existing published works.

  7. Quantum voting and violation of Arrow's impossibility theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ning; Yunger Halpern, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    We propose a quantum voting system in the spirit of quantum games such as the quantum prisoner's dilemma. Our scheme enables a constitution to violate a quantum analog of Arrow's impossibility theorem. Arrow's theorem is a claim proved deductively in economics: Every (classical) constitution endowed with three innocuous-seeming properties is a dictatorship. We construct quantum analogs of constitutions, of the properties, and of Arrow's theorem. A quantum version of majority rule, we show, violates this quantum Arrow conjecture. Our voting system allows for tactical-voting strategies reliant on entanglement, interference, and superpositions. This contribution to quantum game theory helps elucidate how quantum phenomena can be harnessed for strategic advantage.

  8. Content Generation and Social Network Interaction within Academic Library Facebook Pages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Ginna Gauntner

    2014-01-01

    The use of Facebook to share resources and engage patrons continues to gain acceptance within academic libraries. While many studies have analyzed the types of content academic libraries share on Facebook, there has not yet been a full examination of how this content is generated. This article examined the posting methods, the user responses, and…

  9. Augmenting a TV Broadcast with Synchronised User Generated Video and Relevant Social Network Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokking, H.M.; Veenhuizen, A.T.; Kaptein, A.M.; Niamut, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    As TNO, we have developed an Augmented Live Broadcast use case, using components from the FP7 STEER project. In this use case, a television broadcast of a live event is augmented with user generated content. This user generated content consists of videos made by users at the event, and also of

  10. CERTIFICATE REVOCATION SCHEME BASED ON WEIGHTED VOTING GAME AND RATIONAL SECURE MULTIPARTY COMPUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Aravinthan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mobile Adhoc Network consists of deployed mobile nodes which lead to the frequent changes in network topology. Due to topology changes, required infrastructure is unavailable for communication. Moreover, malicious nodes present in MANET make use of this modification and can easily launch highly vulnerable attacks on the routing path of the network. Hence, Security issue such as removing misbehaving nodes is the primary issue in MANET. Effective certificate revocation scheme was introduced to identify and eliminate the node with malicious activities in the network based on the weighted voting game (ECR-WVG approach. In this approach, weights and quota were two factors, determined for an effective revocation of malicious nodes certificates. However, security during multiparty transmission was not taken into account in ECR-WVG. In Effective Certificate Revocation Scheme based on Weighted Voting Game and Rational Secure Multi-Party Computing (ECR-WVG-RSMPC method, rational secret sharing scheme is introduced along with ECR-WVG approach for securing multiparty transmission. Performance evaluation can be done between ECR-WVG and ECR-WVG-RSMPC in terms of false revocation, malicious node revocation, normalized time for revocation and revocation accuracy ratio.

  11. He votes or she votes? Female and male discursive strategies in Twitter political hashtags.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Cunha

    Full Text Available In this paper, we conduct a study about differences between female and male discursive strategies when posting in the microblogging service Twitter, with a particular focus on the hashtag designation process during political debate. The fact that men and women use language in distinct ways, reverberating practices linked to their expected roles in the social groups, is a linguistic phenomenon known to happen in several cultures and that can now be studied on the Web and on online social networks in a large scale enabled by computing power. Here, for instance, after analyzing tweets with political content posted during Brazilian presidential campaign,we found out that male Twitter users, when expressing their attitude toward a given candidate, are more prone to use imperative verbal forms in hashtags, while female users tend to employ declarative forms. This difference can be interpreted as a sign of distinct approaches in relation to other network members: for example, if political hashtags are seen as strategies of persuasion in Twitter, imperative tags could be understood as more overt ways of persuading and declarative tags as more indirect ones. Our findings help to understand human gendered behavior in social networks and contribute to research on the new fields of computer-enabled Internet linguistics and social computing, besides being useful for several computational tasks such as developing tag recommendation systems based on users' collective preferences and tailoring targeted advertising strategies, among others.

  12. He votes or she votes? Female and male discursive strategies in Twitter political hashtags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Evandro; Magno, Gabriel; Gonçalves, Marcos André; Cambraia, César; Almeida, Virgilio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a study about differences between female and male discursive strategies when posting in the microblogging service Twitter, with a particular focus on the hashtag designation process during political debate. The fact that men and women use language in distinct ways, reverberating practices linked to their expected roles in the social groups, is a linguistic phenomenon known to happen in several cultures and that can now be studied on the Web and on online social networks in a large scale enabled by computing power. Here, for instance, after analyzing tweets with political content posted during Brazilian presidential campaign,we found out that male Twitter users, when expressing their attitude toward a given candidate, are more prone to use imperative verbal forms in hashtags, while female users tend to employ declarative forms. This difference can be interpreted as a sign of distinct approaches in relation to other network members: for example, if political hashtags are seen as strategies of persuasion in Twitter, imperative tags could be understood as more overt ways of persuading and declarative tags as more indirect ones. Our findings help to understand human gendered behavior in social networks and contribute to research on the new fields of computer-enabled Internet linguistics and social computing, besides being useful for several computational tasks such as developing tag recommendation systems based on users' collective preferences and tailoring targeted advertising strategies, among others.

  13. Deep learning of the sectional appearances of 3D CT images for anatomical structure segmentation based on an FCN voting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangrong; Takayama, Ryosuke; Wang, Song; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    We propose a single network trained by pixel-to-label deep learning to address the general issue of automatic multiple organ segmentation in three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images. Our method can be described as a voxel-wise multiple-class classification scheme for automatically assigning labels to each pixel/voxel in a 2D/3D CT image. We simplify the segmentation algorithms of anatomical structures (including multiple organs) in a CT image (generally in 3D) to a majority voting scheme over the semantic segmentation of multiple 2D slices drawn from different viewpoints with redundancy. The proposed method inherits the spirit of fully convolutional networks (FCNs) that consist of "convolution" and "deconvolution" layers for 2D semantic image segmentation, and expands the core structure with 3D-2D-3D transformations to adapt to 3D CT image segmentation. All parameters in the proposed network are trained pixel-to-label from a small number of CT cases with human annotations as the ground truth. The proposed network naturally fulfills the requirements of multiple organ segmentations in CT cases of different sizes that cover arbitrary scan regions without any adjustment. The proposed network was trained and validated using the simultaneous segmentation of 19 anatomical structures in the human torso, including 17 major organs and two special regions (lumen and content inside of stomach). Some of these structures have never been reported in previous research on CT segmentation. A database consisting of 240 (95% for training and 5% for testing) 3D CT scans, together with their manually annotated ground-truth segmentations, was used in our experiments. The results show that the 19 structures of interest were segmented with acceptable accuracy (88.1% and 87.9% voxels in the training and testing datasets, respectively, were labeled correctly) against the ground truth. We propose a single network based on pixel-to-label deep learning to address the challenging

  14. Allegheny County Voting District Boundaries (Spring 2015 - Spring 2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  15. Allegheny County Voting District Boundaries (Spring 2017 - present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County.If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  16. Allegheny County Voting District Boundaries (Fall 2016 - Spring 2017)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  17. Motion Detection in Ultrasound Image-Sequences Using Tensor Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inba, Masafumi; Yanagida, Hirotaka; Tamura, Yasutaka

    2008-05-01

    Motion detection in ultrasound image sequences using tensor voting is described. We have been developing an ultrasound imaging system adopting a combination of coded excitation and synthetic aperture focusing techniques. In our method, frame rate of the system at distance of 150 mm reaches 5000 frame/s. Sparse array and short duration coded ultrasound signals are used for high-speed data acquisition. However, many artifacts appear in the reconstructed image sequences because of the incompleteness of the transmitted code. To reduce the artifacts, we have examined the application of tensor voting to the imaging method which adopts both coded excitation and synthetic aperture techniques. In this study, the basis of applying tensor voting and the motion detection method to ultrasound images is derived. It was confirmed that velocity detection and feature enhancement are possible using tensor voting in the time and space of simulated ultrasound three-dimensional image sequences.

  18. Statistical analysis of Nomao customer votes for spots of France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálovics, Róbert; Daróczy, Bálint; Benczúr, András; Pap, Julia; Ermann, Leonardo; Phan, Samuel; Chepelianskii, Alexei D.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of votes of customers for spots of France collected by the startup company Nomao. The frequencies of votes per spot and per customer are characterized by a power law distribution which remains stable on a time scale of a decade when the number of votes is varied by almost two orders of magnitude. Using the computer science methods we explore the spectrum and the eigenvalues of a matrix containing user ratings to geolocalized items. Eigenvalues nicely map to large towns and regions but show certain level of instability as we modify the interpretation of the underlying matrix. We evaluate imputation strategies that provide improved prediction performance by reaching geographically smooth eigenvectors. We point on possible links between distribution of votes and the phenomenon of self-organized criticality.

  19. Two kinds of phase transitions in a voting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisakado, M.; Mori, S.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss a voting model with two candidates, C0 and C1. We consider two types of voters—herders and independents. The voting of independents is based on their fundamental values, while the voting of herders is based on the number of previous votes. We can identify two kinds of phase transitions. One is an information cascade transition similar to a phase transition seen in the Ising model. The other is a transition of super and normal diffusions. These phase transitions coexist. We compared our results to the conclusions of experiments and identified the phase transitions in the upper limit of the time t by using the analysis of human behavior obtained from experiments.

  20. Psychosocial Correlates as Predictors of Voting Behaviour in Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . ... The study examines the influence of some psychosocial factors (age, gender, perceived benefit, self-esteem, personality, and personal attributes of the candidate, religious and ethnic affiliation) on the voting behaviour of Nigerians.

  1. Executive compensation, financial performance and say on pay votes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 was passed as a response to the late-2000s recession. A shareholder opt-in executive pay vote was introduced as a solution to the managerial power problem. We examine the results of this recommended solution and prove its viability. We find that there is a stronger association between high CEO pay and low say-on-pay vote support for firms with negative financial performance. We also find the market-to-book ratio is significantly lower for companies that failed say-on-pay votes. Furthermore, regulated industries such as financial services are more likely receive unfavourable say-on-pay votes. We document an increase in the sensitivity of CEO pay to poor performance. Overall, these finds are consistent with calls for less “rewards for failure” that led to the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.

  2. VT Data - Voting Tabulation Areas per Decennial Redistricting 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This layer represents the smallest voting tabulation area. In some cases, the geographic extent is a municipality, in other cases it is a section...

  3. Dimension, Egalitarianism and Decisiveness of European Voting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Carreras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of three major aspects has been carried out that may apply to any of the successive voting systems used for the European Union Council of Ministers, from the first one established in the Treaty of Rome in 1958 to the current one established in Lisbon. We mainly consider the voting systems designed for the enlarged European Union adopted in the Athens summit, held in April 2003 but this analysis can be applied to any other system. First, it is shown that the dimension of these voting systems does not, in general, reduce. Next, the egalitarian effects of superposing two or three weighted majority games (often by introducing additional consensus are considered. Finally, the decisiveness of these voting systems is evaluated and compared. (original abstract

  4. The Drastic Outcomes from Voting Alliances in Three-Party Democratic Voting (1990 → 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galam, Serge

    2013-04-01

    The drastic effect of local alliances in three-party competition is investigated in democratic hierarchical bottom-up voting. The results are obtained analytically using a model which extends a sociophysics frame introduced in 1986 (Galam in J. Math. Phys. 30:426, 1986) and 1990 (Galam in J. Stat. Phys. 61:943, 1990) to study two-party systems and the spontaneous formation of democratic dictatorship. It is worth stressing that the 1990 paper was published in the Journal of Statistical Physics, the first paper of its kind in this journal. It was shown how a minority in power can preserve its leadership using bottom-up democratic elections. However such a bias holds only down to some critical value of minimum support. The results were used latter to explain the sudden collapse of European communist parties in the nineties. The extension to three-party competition reveals the mechanisms by which a very small minority party can get a substantial representation at higher levels of the hierarchy when the other two competing parties are big. Additional surprising results are obtained, which enlighten the complexity of three-party democratic bottom-up voting. In particular, the unexpected outcomes of local voting alliances are singled out. Unbalanced democratic situations are exhibited with strong asymmetries between the actual bottom support of a party and its associated share of power at the top leadership. Subtle strategies are identified for a party to maximize its hold on the top leadership. The results are also valid to describe opinion dynamics with three competing opinions.

  5. Voting Behaviour in the 2009 South African Election

    OpenAIRE

    Norbert Kersting

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses voting behaviour in the South African election of 2009 and draws conclusions regarding the significance of party affiliation and issue-based voting in South Africa. It demonstrates the low level of voter registration and voter turnout. In the 2009 election the Independent Electoral Commission had problems with electoral management for the first time; however, it was able to prevent electoral violence. During the campaign the newly founded COPE focused on institutional re...

  6. Voting behaviour in the 2009 South African election

    OpenAIRE

    Kersting, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses voting behaviour in the South African election of 2009 and draws conclusions regarding the significance of party affiliation and issue-based voting in South Africa. It demonstrates the low level of voter registration and voter turnout. In the 2009 election the Independent Electoral Commission had problems with electoral management for the first time; however, it was able to prevent electoral violence. During the campaign the newly founded COPE focused on institutional re...

  7. 39 CFR 6.6 - Quorum and voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quorum and voting. 6.6 Section 6.6 Postal Service....6 Quorum and voting. As provided by 39 U.S.C. 205(c), the Board acts by resolution upon a majority... the compensation and benefits of the Postmaster General and Deputy Postmaster General, 39 U.S.C. 205(c...

  8. Normal estimation for pointcloud using GPU based sparse tensor voting

    OpenAIRE

    Liu , Ming; Pomerleau , François; Colas , Francis; Siegwart , Roland

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Normal estimation is the basis for most applications using pointcloud, such as segmentation. However, it is still a challenging problem regarding computational complexity and observation noise. In this paper, we propose a normal estimation method for pointcloud using results from tensor voting. Comparing with other approaches, we show it has smaller estimation error. Moreover, by varying the voting kernel size, we find it is a flexible approach for structure extraction...

  9. A Theory of Strategic Voting in Runoff Elections

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent Bouton

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the properties of runoff electoral systems when voters are strategic. A model of three-candidate runoff elections is presented, and two new features are included: the risk of upset victory in the second round is endogenous, and many types of runoff systems are considered. Three main results emerge. First, runoff elections produce equilibria in which only two candidates receive a positive fraction of the votes. Second, a sincere voting equilibrium does not always exist. Fin...

  10. MONITOR Ionospheric Network: two case studies on scintillation and electron content variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Béniguel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The ESA MONITOR network is composed of high-frequency-sampling global navigation satellite systems (GNSS receivers deployed mainly at low and high latitudes to study ionosphere variability and jointly with global GNSS data and ionospheric processing software in support of the GNSS and its satellite-based augmentation systems (SBAS like the European EGNOS. In a recent phase of the project, the network was merged with the CNES/ASECNA network and new receivers were added to complement the latter in the western African sector. This paper summarizes MONITOR, presenting two case studies on scintillations (using almost 2 years of data measurements. The first case occurred during the major St. Patrick's Day geomagnetic storm in 2015. The second case study was performed in the last phase of the project, which was supported by ESA EGNOS Project Office, when we paid special attention to extreme events that might degrade the system performance of the European EGNOS.

  11. Towards a Standard Architecture for Digital Voting Systems - Defining a Generalized Ballot Schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cochran, Dermot Robert

    2015-01-01

    Many electoral jurisdictions have their own distinctive voting schemes. There is no clear consensus about the ideal voting scheme for fair elections. Various systems for electronic and online voting have been either proposed or developed, but these systems tend to be aimed at particular vote...... counting schemes e.g. plurality. This paper proposes a way to decouple the ballot casting process from the vote counting scheme, using a generalized ballot schema....

  12. Energy Analysis of Contention Tree-Based Access Protocols in Dense Machine-to-Machine Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vázquez-Gallego

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine-to-Machine (M2M area networks aim at connecting an M2M gateway with a large number of energy-constrained devices that must operate autonomously for years. Therefore, attaining high energy efficiency is essential in the deployment of M2M networks. In this paper, we consider a dense M2M area network composed of hundreds or thousands of devices that periodically transmit data upon request from a gateway or coordinator. We theoretically analyse the devices’ energy consumption using two Medium Access Control (MAC protocols which are based on a tree-splitting algorithm to resolve collisions among devices: the Contention Tree Algorithm (CTA and the Distributed Queuing (DQ access. We have carried out computer-based simulations to validate the accuracy of the theoretical models and to compare the energy performance using DQ, CTA, and Frame Slotted-ALOHA (FSA in M2M area networks with devices in compliance with the IEEE 802.15.4 physical layer. Results show that the performance of DQ is totally independent of the number of contending devices, and it can reduce the energy consumed per device in more than 35% with respect to CTA and in more than 80% with respect to FSA.

  13. Potential Benefits and Harms of a Peer Support Social Network Service on the Internet for People With Depressive Tendencies: Qualitative Content Analysis and Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Uchida, Chiyoko; Miyaki, Koichi; Sakai, Michi; Shimbo, Takuro

    2009-01-01

    Background Internet peer support groups for depression are becoming popular and could be affected by an increasing number of social network services (SNSs). However, little is known about participant characteristics, social relationships in SNSs, and the reasons for usage. In addition, the effects of SNS participation on people with depression are rather unknown. Objective The aim was to explore the potential benefits and harms of an SNS for depression based on a concurrent triangulation design of mixed methods strategy, including qualitative content analysis and social network analysis. Methods A cross-sectional Internet survey of participants, which involved the collection of SNS log files and a questionnaire, was conducted in an SNS for people with self-reported depressive tendencies in Japan in 2007. Quantitative data, which included user demographics, depressive state, and assessment of the SNS (positive vs not positive), were statistically analyzed. Descriptive contents of responses to open-ended questions concerning advantages and disadvantages of SNS participation were analyzed using the inductive approach of qualitative content analysis. Contents were organized into codes, concepts, categories, and a storyline based on the grounded theory approach. Social relationships, derived from data of “friends,” were analyzed using social network analysis, in which network measures and the extent of interpersonal association were calculated based on the social network theory. Each analysis and integration of results were performed through a concurrent triangulation design of mixed methods strategy. Results There were 105 participants. Median age was 36 years, and 51% (36/71) were male. There were 37 valid respondents; their number of friends and frequency of accessing the SNS were significantly higher than for invalid/nonrespondents (P = .008 and P = .003). Among respondents, 90% (28/31) were mildly, moderately, or severely depressed. Assessment of the SNS was

  14. Self-Adapting Routing Overlay Network for Frequently Changing Application Traffic in Content-Based Publish/Subscribe System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the large-scale distributed simulation area, the topology of the overlay network cannot always rapidly adapt to frequently changing application traffic to reduce the overall traffic cost. In this paper, we propose a self-adapting routing strategy for frequently changing application traffic in content-based publish/subscribe system. The strategy firstly trains the traffic information and then uses this training information to predict the application traffic in the future. Finally, the strategy reconfigures the topology of the overlay network based on this predicting information to reduce the overall traffic cost. A predicting path is also introduced in this paper to reduce the reconfiguration numbers in the process of the reconfigurations. Compared to other strategies, the experimental results show that the strategy proposed in this paper could reduce the overall traffic cost of the publish/subscribe system in less reconfigurations.

  15. Dynamic QoS Evaluation of Multimedia Contents in Wireless Networks by “Double-Boomerang” Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Giunta

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a cooperative network-aware processing of multimedia content for dynamic quality of service management in wireless IP networks. Our technique can be also used for quality control in UMTS environments, exploiting the tracing watermarking recently introduced in literature. In this work, we use the transmitted video-sequences to monitor the QoS in a videoconference call. The video-sequence of every active user travels on the communication link, one time as video (transparent mode, one time as watermark (hidden mode describing a boomerang trajectory. The results obtained through our simulation trials confirm the validity of such approach. In fact, the advantages of distributing the management process are (i an easier and more precise localization of the cause of QoS problems, (ii a better knowledge of local situations, (iii a lower complexity for a single QoS agent and (iv an increase in possible actions.

  16. Alcohol-Related Posts from Young People on Social Networking Sites : Content and Motivations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.; Gebhardt, W.A.; van den Putte, B.

    Many young people place alcohol-related posts on social networking sites (SNS) which can result in undesirable effects. Although several recent studies have investigated the occurrence of alcohol-related SNS use, it is neither clear (a) what type of alcohol posts are placed on SNS, (b) the

  17. An Explication and Test of Communication Network Content and Multiplexity as Predictors of Organizational Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Connie; Bach, Betsy Wackernagel

    1991-01-01

    Examines the relationship between identification and communication using organizational identification (OI) as a theoretical framework for studying communication networks among incoming graduate students in three university departments of communication. Concludes that, irrespective of initial OI, stronger initial multiplexity predicts the growth…

  18. Relationship between color and tannin content in sorghum grain: application of image analysis and artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sedghi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between sorghum grain color and tannin content was reported in several references. In this study, 33 phenotypes of sorghum grain differing in seed characteristics were collected and analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu method. A computer image analysis method was used to determine the color characteristics of all 33 sorghum phenotypes. Two methods of multiple linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN models were developed to describe tannin content in sorghum grain from three input parameters of color characteristics. The goodness of fit of the models was tested using R², MS error, and bias. The computer image analysis technique was a suitable method to estimate tannin through sorghum grain color strength. Therefore, the color quality of the samples was described according three color parameters: L* (lightness, a* (redness - from green to red and b* (blueness - from blue to yellow. The developed regression and ANN models showed a strong relationship between color and tannin content of samples. The goodness of fit (in terms of R², which corresponds to training the ANN model, showed higher accuracy of prediction of ANN compared with the equation established by the regression method (0.96 vs. 0.88. The ANN models in term of MS error showed lower residuals distribution than that of regression model (0.002 vs. 0.006. The platform of computer image analysis technique and ANN-based model may be used to estimate the tannin content of sorghum.

  19. Multimodal Classification of Violent Online Political Extremism Content with Graph Convolutional Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudinac, S.; Gornishka, I.; Worring, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present a multimodal approach to categorizing user posts based on their discussion topic. To integrate heterogeneous information extracted from the posts, i.e. text, visual content and the information about user interactions with the online platform, we deploy graph convolutional

  20. Self-organizing algorithms for cache cooperation in content distribution networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, S.C.; Gupta, V.; Walid, A.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The on-demand delivery of video content is anticipated to show tremendous growth over the next few years, driven by the huge popularity of user-generated video clips and the expansion of VoD libraries. Even stronger growth is likely to be fueled by the proliferation of IPTV services

  1. Online Community and User-Generated Content: Understanding the Role of Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jeong Ha

    2010-01-01

    Models of user generated content (UGC) creation such as Facebook, MySpace, and YouTube are facing robust growth accelerated by the adoption of Web 2.0 technologies and standards. These business models offer a fascinating avenue for exploring the role of social influence online. This dissertation is motivated by the success of YouTube, which is…

  2. [Hispanic American kidney patients in the age of online social networks: content analysis of postings, 2010 - 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Martínez, Francisco J; Urias-Vázquez, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Describe the use of online social networks by people with chronic kidney disease, their caregivers, and family members, living in Hispanic American countries, and identify the most frequent topics and subtopics in their postings. A qualitative study was conducted of postings by chronic kidney patients, their caregivers, and family members, living in Hispanic America, on five social networks: Blogger, Facebook, Twitter, WordPress, and YouTube, from 2010 to 2012. The internal search engines of each network were used with medical and lay terms in Spanish: chronic kidney disease, renal failure, peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, renal transplant, renal patient, nephropathy, and kidney patients association. An analysis was carried out of the thematic content of 1 846 postings on Facebook, Blogger, and WordPress. A total of 162 social network accounts were identified (97 individuals and 65 groups); the majority was in Mexico (46), with others in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, and Peru (44 accounts). The most frequent topics were exchange of information (46.0%), descriptions of experiences as patients (17.9%), support (15.6%), descriptions of experiences with health services (8.5%), interaction with peers (3.5%), and promotion of behavior change (3.4%). Chronic kidney patients living in Hispanic America use online social networks to inform and to be informed, describe their experiences with the disease and health services, and as a support mechanism. This produces knowledge that is different from and complementary to knowledge conveyed by health professionals. There is a pressing need to promote studies of the opportunities that these technologies offer in the Americas, a region characterized by enormous social inequality.

  3. ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS ON VOTE-POPULARITY FUNCTION FOR ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE-MARIUS JULA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The regional analysis in Romania confirms the hypothesis of a significant correlation between the status of the economy and political behaviour of the electors. The level and the dynamic of the unemployment at regional level have an influence on vote behaviour, as stated by the partisan political business cycle theory: in the areas with a higher unemployment rate there is a voting preference (tendency towards the political left wing. This conclusion is interesting for a political perspective. If the unemployment electors carry their votes toward left, the left wing government in office between 1992-1996 and 2000-2004 promotes an economic policy that outcomes in a diminishing the electoral support for this party: during these periods, the global unemployment rate decreased from 8.2% to 6.6% in first period (1992-1996 and from 12.3% to 6.3% in the second. Moreover, the partisan electoral behaviour hypothesis affirms that the private entrepreneurs and the self-employed vote toward right-wing parties. That means that electoral support for left party in office during the mentioned periods was also reduced by another result of the reform, namely the strong increase in the number of registered companies (large numbers of them are limited liability companies. A political analogous situation was recorded during the 1996-2000 legislatures. The global unemployment rate increased and the business environment became unfavourable, leading to a decrease of the electoral support for the right-wing governmental coalition in office.In Romania, regarding the elections from 2008-2009, a new electoral law was introduced. The main changes concerned the election of chairpersons of county councils by uninominal voting, separating general and presidential elections and the introduction uninominal voting system for parliamentary elections, with a correction of the total number of seats with the total number of votes obtained by each party on national level.

  4. Marketing on Social Networks: Content Analysis of Facebook Profiles of Selected Czech E-shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Čeněk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The research focused on the identification of types and frequencies of posts added by e-shops and the reactions of fans to the posts. Three e-shops were analysed: Alza.cz, Czc.cz and Mironet.cz. Several categories were selected as qualitative units of analysis of communication between e-shops and fans, the frequencies of all the selected categories were measured and correlations between selected variables were calculated. Methodology/methods: The main research method was quantitative content analysis, which allows the gathering of large numbers of qualitative data and transforming them into data of quantitative nature that can be the subject of further statistical analysis. In case of interesting quantitative findings, a qualitative explanation was used. Both communication from e-shops to fans and communication from fans to e-shops (and among fans in the years 2011–2015 were analysed. Scientific aim: The objective of the research presented in this article is based on content analysis to evaluate the level of the Facebook communication of selected Czech e-shops with consumer electronics within 2011–2015 using a quantitative content analysis method. Findings: The results show that the posting frequency of all the analysed e-shops is between 1.5–4 days. The e-shops vary in the most frequent types of posts. Posts that elicited the highest numbers of reactions were characteristic with their viral nature. A strong, statistically significant correlation between the number of fans of the fan page and the frequency of their reactions to the posts was found. Conclusions: All of the analysed e-shops should increase the frequency of contact with their fans through more frequent posting and modification in the content of the posts. Based on findings, the several suggestions for effective and successful managing the Facebook activities are served.

  5. Peer-to-Peer Content Distribution and Over-The-Top TV: An Analysis of Value Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boever, Jorn; de Grooff, Dirk

    The convergence of Internet and TV, i.e., the Over-The-Top TV (OTT TV) paradigm, created opportunities for P2P content distribution as these systems reduce bandwidth expenses for media companies. This resulted in the arrival of legal, commercial P2P systems which increases the importance of studying economic aspects of these business operations. This chapter examines the value networks of three cases (Kontiki, Zattoo and bittorrent) in order to compare how different actors position and distinguish themselves from competitors by creating value in different ways. The value networks of legal systems have different compositions depending on their market orientation - Business-to-Business (B2B) and/or Businessto- Consumer (B2C). In addition, legal systems differ from illegal systems as legal companies are not inclined to grant control to users, whereas users havemost control in value networks of illegal, self-organizing file sharing communities. In conclusion, the OTT TV paradigm made P2P technology a partner for the media industry rather than an enemy. However, we argue that the lack of control granted to users will remain a seed-bed for the success of illegal P2P file sharing communities.

  6. myCourse: An Educational Content Management Platform with Social Networking Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Ignatiadis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We adopt the direction towards new educational and pedagogic paradigms, where learning is a process of emergence and co-evolution of the individual, the social group and the wider society. In this direction, Service-Oriented Architectures are becoming a popular system paradigm for e-learning. In this article, we present our research and development efforts to provide a social networking learning platform for developing services which address the personal learning needs of the users and enable them to create value. We also present the specific characteristics of our community driven service framework and discuss our approach in comparison to other similar approaches and frameworks.

  7. Joint Content Placement and Traffic Management for Cloud Mobile Video Distribution over Software-Defined Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenghuan Zhang; Xiaofeng Jiang; Hongsheng Xi

    2016-01-01

    To cope with the rapid growth of mobile video,video providers have leveraged cloud technologies to deploy their mobile video service system for more cost-effective and scalable performance.The emergence of Software-Defined Networking (SDN) provides a promising solution to manage the underlying network.In this paper,we introduce an SDN-enabled cloud mobile video distribution architecture and propose a joint video placement,request dispatching and traffic management mechanism to improve user experience and reduce the system operational cost.We use a utility function to capture the two aspects of user experience:the level of satisfaction and average latency,and formulate the joint optimization problem as a mixed integer programming problem.We develop an optimal algorithm based on dual decomposition and prove its optimality.We conduct simulations to evaluate the performance of our algorithm and the results show that our strategy can effectively cut down the total cost and guarantee user experience.

  8. Tunable Tensor Voting Improves Grouping of Membrane-Bound Macromolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loss, Leandro A.; Bebis, George; Parvin, Bahram

    2009-04-15

    Membrane-bound macromolecules are responsible for structural support and mediation of cell-cell adhesion in tissues. Quantitative analysis of these macromolecules provides morphological indices for damage or loss of tissue, for example as a result of exogenous stimuli. From an optical point of view, a membrane signal may have nonuniform intensity around the cell boundary, be punctate or diffused, and may even be perceptual at certain locations along the boundary. In this paper, a method for the detection and grouping of punctate, diffuse curvilinear signals is proposed. Our work builds upon the tensor voting and the iterative voting frameworks to propose an efficient method to detect and refine perceptually interesting curvilinear structures in images. The novelty of our method lies on the idea of iteratively tuning the tensor voting fields, which allows the concentration of the votes only over areas of interest. We validate the utility of our system with synthetic and annotated real data. The effectiveness of the tunable tensor voting is demonstrated on complex phenotypic signals that are representative of membrane-bound macromolecular structures.

  9. Inference of segmented color and texture description by tensor voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jiaya; Tang, Chi-Keung

    2004-06-01

    A robust synthesis method is proposed to automatically infer missing color and texture information from a damaged 2D image by (N)D tensor voting (N > 3). The same approach is generalized to range and 3D data in the presence of occlusion, missing data and noise. Our method translates texture information into an adaptive (N)D tensor, followed by a voting process that infers noniteratively the optimal color values in the (N)D texture space. A two-step method is proposed. First, we perform segmentation based on insufficient geometry, color, and texture information in the input, and extrapolate partitioning boundaries by either 2D or 3D tensor voting to generate a complete segmentation for the input. Missing colors are synthesized using (N)D tensor voting in each segment. Different feature scales in the input are automatically adapted by our tensor scale analysis. Results on a variety of difficult inputs demonstrate the effectiveness of our tensor voting approach.

  10. Social Network and Content Analysis of the North American Carbon Program as a Scientific Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Ihli, Monica; Hendrick, Oscar; Delgado-Arias, Sabrina; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Griffith, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The North American Carbon Program (NACP) was formed to further the scientific understanding of sources, sinks, and stocks of carbon in Earth's environment. Carbon cycle science integrates multidisciplinary research, providing decision-support information for managing climate and carbon-related change across multiple sectors of society. This investigation uses the conceptual framework of com-munities of practice (CoP) to explore the role that the NACP has played in connecting researchers into a carbon cycle knowledge network, and in enabling them to conduct physical science that includes ideas from social science. A CoP describes the communities formed when people consistently engage in shared communication and activities toward a common passion or learning goal. We apply the CoP model by using keyword analysis of abstracts from scientific publications to analyze the research outputs of the NACP in terms of its knowledge domain. We also construct a co-authorship network from the publications of core NACP members, describe the structure and social pathways within the community. Results of the content analysis indicate that the NACP community of practice has substantially expanded its research on human and social impacts on the carbon cycle, contributing to a better understanding of how human and physical processes interact with one another. Results of the co-authorship social network analysis demonstrate that the NACP has formed a tightly connected community with many social pathways through which knowledge may flow, and that it has also expanded its network of institutions involved in carbon cycle research over the past seven years.

  11. Analysis of the Voting Method used in the European Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honorata Sosnowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Game theoreticians usually deal with standard voting methods such as plurality voting or approval voting. In reality however, some complicated non-standard voting methods are used. In this paper the voting method and rotation scheme have been presented used by the Governing Council of the European Central Bank (ECB, as it enlarges to accommodate new members of the economic and monetary union. We present game theoretical approaches for analyzing this method and different methods of computing the Shapley value for games connected with voting under such rotation schemes. (original abstract

  12. Capacity to Vote in Persons with Dementia and the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Irastorza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to vote in patients with mental illness is increasingly questioned. The objective of this study is to evaluate this capacity in a group of subjects with dementia (Alzheimer's disease and other elderly subjects without dementia. With a sample of 68 subjects with dementia and 25 controls living in a senior residence, a transversal study was carried out over 4 months. Subjects were evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Competence Assessment Tool for voting (CAT-V. The results were more positive for the Doe criteria (as part of the CAT-V, and a correlation was found with the MMSE in subjects with dementia and, to a lesser degree, in the controls. We conclude that the capacity to vote is related to cognitive deterioration and, within that, is more related to understanding and appreciation.

  13. Forecasting the Senate vote on the Supreme Court vacancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. Basinger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper forecasts current senators’ votes on Merrick Garland’s nomination to the U.S. Supreme Court, in the unlikely case that a vote actually takes place. The forecasts are necessarily conditional, awaiting measurement of the nominee’s characteristics. Nonetheless, a model that combines parameters estimated from existing data with values of some measurable characteristics of senators—particularly their party affiliations, party loyalty levels, and ideological positions—is sufficient to identify potential swing voters in the Senate. By accounting for a more nuanced and refined understanding of the confirmation process, our model reveals that if President Obama were to nominate almost any nominee (conservative or liberal today, that nominee would be rejected if a vote was allowed to take place. So why nominate anyone at all? Obama’s hope for a successful confirmation must come from the stochastic component, that is, from outside the traditional decision-making calculus.

  14. Ideology, Party Systems and Corruption Voting in European Democracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas; Bågenholm, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    What is the impact of corruption on citizens' voting behavior? There is a growing literature on an increasingly ubiquitous puzzle in many democratic countries: that corrupt officials continue to be re-elected by voters. In this study we address this issue with a novel theory and newly collected...... original survey data for 24 European countries. The crux of the argument is that voters' ideology is a salient factor in explaining why citizens would continue voting for their preferred party despite the fact that it has been involved in a corruption scandal. Developing a theory of supply (number...... of effective parties) and demand (voters must have acceptable ideological alternatives to their preferred party), we posit that there is a U-shaped relationship between the likelihood of corruption voting and where voters place themselves on the left/right spectrum. The further to the fringes, the more likely...

  15. Solar Cycle variations in Earth's open flux content measured by the SuperDARN radar network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, S. M.; Milan, S. E.; Lester, M.

    2013-09-01

    We present a long term study, from 1996 - 2012, of the latitude of the Heppner-Maynard Boundary (HMB) determined using the northern hemisphere SuperDARN radars. The HMB represents the equatorward extent of ionospheric convection and is here used as a proxy for the amount of open flux in the polar cap. The mean HMB latitude (measured at midnight) is found to be at 64 degrees during the entire period, with secondary peaks at lower latitudes during the solar maximum of 2003, and at higher latitudes during the recent extreme solar minimum of 2008-2011. We associate these large scale statistical variations in open flux content with solar cycle variations in the solar wind parameters leading to changes in the intensity of the coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere.

  16. Advertising Content, Platform Characteristics and the Appeal of Beer Advertising on a Social Networking Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jonathan K; Babor, Thomas F; Grady, James J

    2018-03-15

    The current study was conducted to investigate how changes in the content of a social media ad, user engagement values associated with the ad and user-generated comments (UGCs) associated with the ad can influence the appeal (i.e. source appeal, informational appeal and emotional appeal) of a social media ad. Facebook beer ads that violated the guidelines of a relevant marketing code were rated as more emotionally appealing compared to Facebook beer ads that did not violated the guidelines. Increased emotional appeal in beer advertising increases the probability that the ad will be remembered and influence future drinking occasions. A 2 (ad regulatory compliance: compliant vs. non-compliant) × 2 (user engagement: low vs. high) × 2 (UGC congruence: pro- vs anti-alcohol) mixed factorial experiment was conducted with 120 young adults, 21-24 years old. Each participant viewed four Facebook beer ads that were previously evaluated for thematic content and regulatory compliance. Participants were randomized to view either high or low user engagement values and either pro- or anti-drinking user-generated comments. After each ad exposure, ad appeal was assessed. Statistical analysis was conducted using hierarchical linear modeling. Models were adjusted for demographics, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores and Facebook involvement. Source appeal (P = 0.034) and informational appeal (P advertising regulations. Emotional appeal was significantly higher among ads that were non-compliant (P = 0.004). The effect of user engagement and UGCs were non-significant (p's > 0.05). Additionally, AUDIT scores (p's advertising caused by non-compliant advertising may increase the probability that the ad will be remembered and influence future drinking occasions.

  17. Public goods and voting on formal sanction schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putterman, Louis; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl; Kamei, Kenju

    2011-01-01

    The burgeoning literature on the use of sanctions to support the provision of public goods has largely neglected the use of formal or centralized sanctions. We let subjects playing a linear public goods game vote on the parameters of a formal sanction scheme capable of either resolving...... or exacerbating the free-rider problem, depending on parameter settings. Most groups quickly learned to choose parameters inducing efficient outcomes. We find that cooperative orientation, political attitude, gender and intelligence have a small but sometimes significant influence on voting....

  18. Public Goods and Voting on Formal Sanction Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putterman, Louis; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Kamei, Kenju

    The burgeoning literature on the use of sanctions to support public goods provision has largely neglected the use of formal or centralized sanctions. We let subjects playing a linear public goods game vote on the parameters of a formal sanction scheme capable both of resolving and of exacerbating...... the free-rider problem, depending on parameter settings. Most groups quickly learned to choose parameters inducing efficient outcomes. But despite uniform money payoffs implying common interest in those parameters, voting patterns suggest significant influence of cooperative orientation, political...

  19. Delay-sensitive content distribution via peer-to-peer collaboration in public safety vehicular ad-hoc networks

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Filali, Fethi; Abu-Dayya, Adnan A.

    2014-01-01

    Delay-sensitive content distribution with peer-to-peer (P2P) cooperation in public safety vehicular networks is investigated. Two cooperative schemes are presented and analyzed. The first scheme is based on unicasting from the base station, whereas the second is based on threshold based multicasting. Long Term Evolution (LTE) is used for long range (LR) communications with the base station (BS) and IEEE 802.11p is considered for inter-vehicle collaboration on the short range (SR). The first scheme is shown to outperform non-cooperative unicasting and multicasting, while the second scheme outperforms non-cooperative unicasting beyond a specific number of cooperating vehicles, when the appropriate 802.11p power class is used. The first scheme achieves the best performance among the compared methods, and a practical approximation of that scheme is shown to be close to optimal performance. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Combined wavelet transform-artificial neural network use in tablet active content determination by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalus, Pascal; Walter, Serge; Ulmschneider, Michel

    2007-05-22

    The pharmaceutical industry faces increasing regulatory pressure to optimize quality control. Content uniformity is a basic release test for solid dosage forms. To accelerate test throughput and comply with the Food and Drug Administration's process analytical technology initiative, attention is increasingly turning to nondestructive spectroscopic techniques, notably near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (NIRS). However, validation of NIRS using requisite linearity and standard error of prediction (SEP) criteria remains a challenge. This study applied wavelet transformation of the NIR spectra of a commercial tablet to build a model using conventional partial least squares (PLS) regression and an artificial neural network (ANN). Wavelet coefficients in the PLS and ANN models reduced SEP by up to 60% compared to PLS models using mathematical spectra pretreatment. ANN modeling yielded high-linearity calibration and a correlation coefficient exceeding 0.996.

  1. Delay-sensitive content distribution via peer-to-peer collaboration in public safety vehicular ad-hoc networks

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2014-05-01

    Delay-sensitive content distribution with peer-to-peer (P2P) cooperation in public safety vehicular networks is investigated. Two cooperative schemes are presented and analyzed. The first scheme is based on unicasting from the base station, whereas the second is based on threshold based multicasting. Long Term Evolution (LTE) is used for long range (LR) communications with the base station (BS) and IEEE 802.11p is considered for inter-vehicle collaboration on the short range (SR). The first scheme is shown to outperform non-cooperative unicasting and multicasting, while the second scheme outperforms non-cooperative unicasting beyond a specific number of cooperating vehicles, when the appropriate 802.11p power class is used. The first scheme achieves the best performance among the compared methods, and a practical approximation of that scheme is shown to be close to optimal performance. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-Adaptive Contention Aware Routing Protocol for Intermittently Connected Mobile Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elwhishi, Ahmed

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel multicopy routing protocol, called Self-Adaptive Utility-based Routing Protocol (SAURP), for Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) that are possibly composed of a vast number of devices in miniature such as smart phones of heterogeneous capacities in terms of energy resources and buffer spaces. SAURP is characterized by the ability of identifying potential opportunities for forwarding messages to their destinations via a novel utility function-based mechanism, in which a suite of environment parameters, such as wireless channel condition, nodal buffer occupancy, and encounter statistics, are jointly considered. Thus, SAURP can reroute messages around nodes experiencing high-buffer occupancy, wireless interference, and/or congestion, while taking a considerably small number of transmissions. The developed utility function in SAURP is proved to be able to achieve optimal performance, which is further analyzed via a stochastic modeling approach. Extensive simulations are conducted to verify the developed analytical model and compare the proposed SAURP with a number of recently reported encounter-based routing approaches in terms of delivery ratio, delivery delay, and the number of transmissions required for each message delivery. The simulation results show that SAURP outperforms all the counterpart multicopy encounter-based routing protocols considered in the study.

  3. Self-Adaptive Contention Aware Routing Protocol for Intermittently Connected Mobile Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elwhishi, Ahmed; Ho, Pin-Han; Naik, K.; Shihada, Basem

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel multicopy routing protocol, called Self-Adaptive Utility-based Routing Protocol (SAURP), for Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) that are possibly composed of a vast number of devices in miniature such as smart phones of heterogeneous capacities in terms of energy resources and buffer spaces. SAURP is characterized by the ability of identifying potential opportunities for forwarding messages to their destinations via a novel utility function-based mechanism, in which a suite of environment parameters, such as wireless channel condition, nodal buffer occupancy, and encounter statistics, are jointly considered. Thus, SAURP can reroute messages around nodes experiencing high-buffer occupancy, wireless interference, and/or congestion, while taking a considerably small number of transmissions. The developed utility function in SAURP is proved to be able to achieve optimal performance, which is further analyzed via a stochastic modeling approach. Extensive simulations are conducted to verify the developed analytical model and compare the proposed SAURP with a number of recently reported encounter-based routing approaches in terms of delivery ratio, delivery delay, and the number of transmissions required for each message delivery. The simulation results show that SAURP outperforms all the counterpart multicopy encounter-based routing protocols considered in the study.

  4. Spin-glass-like transition in the majority-vote model with anticonformists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiecki, Andrzej

    2018-03-01

    Majority-vote model on scale-free networks and random graphs is investigated in which a randomly chosen fraction p of agents (called anticonformists) follows an antiferromagnetic update rule, i.e., they assume, with probability governed by a parameter q (0 transition from a disordered (paramagnetic) state to a spin-glass-like state, characterized by a non-zero value of the spin-glass order parameter measuring the overlap of agents' opinions in two replicas of the system, and simultaneously by the magnetization close to zero. In the case of the model on scale-free networks the critical value of the parameter q weakly depends on the details of the degree distribution. As p is decreased, the critical value of q falls quickly to zero and only the disordered phase is observed. On the other hand, for p close to zero for decreasing q the usual ferromagnetic transition is observed.

  5. Content-driven analysis of an online community for smoking cessation: integration of qualitative techniques, automated text analysis, and affiliation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Sahiti; Fujimoto, Kayo; Cobb, Nathan; Cohen, Trevor

    2015-06-01

    We identified content-specific patterns of network diffusion underlying smoking cessation in the context of online platforms, with the aim of generating targeted intervention strategies. QuitNet is an online social network for smoking cessation. We analyzed 16 492 de-identified peer-to-peer messages from 1423 members, posted between March 1 and April 30, 2007. Our mixed-methods approach comprised qualitative coding, automated text analysis, and affiliation network analysis to identify, visualize, and analyze content-specific communication patterns underlying smoking behavior. Themes we identified in QuitNet messages included relapse, QuitNet-specific traditions, and cravings. QuitNet members who were exposed to other abstinent members by exchanging content related to interpersonal themes (e.g., social support, traditions, progress) tended to abstain. Themes found in other types of content did not show significant correlation with abstinence. Modeling health-related affiliation networks through content-driven methods can enable the identification of specific content related to higher abstinence rates, which facilitates targeted health promotion.

  6. Vote Buying or Campaign Promises? Electoral Strategies When Party Credibility is Limited

    OpenAIRE

    Hanusch, Marek; Keefer, Philip; Vlaicu, Razvan

    2016-01-01

    What explains significant variation across countries in the use of vote buying instead of campaign promises to secure voter support? This paper explicitly models the tradeoff parties face between engaging in vote buying and making campaign promises, and explores the distributional consequences of this decision, in a setting where party credibility can vary. When parties are less credible they spend more on vote buying and target vote buying more heavily toward groups that do not believe campa...

  7. Elections: DOD Needs More Comprehensive Planning to Address Military and Overseas Absentee Voting Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Acknowledgments Contact Acknowledgments Related GAO Products Page 75 GAO-16-378 DOD Overseas Absentee Voting U.S. Postal Service: Actions... Products Page 76 GAO-16-378 DOD Overseas Absentee Voting Election Reform: Nine States’ Experiences Implementing Federal Requirements for...ELECTIONS DOD Needs More Comprehensive Planning to Address Military and Overseas Absentee Voting Challenges

  8. Does Economic Education Make a Difference in Congress? How Economics Majors Vote on Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Roark, J. Brian

    2012-01-01

    The author of this article expands the background theory of voting to incorporate the undergraduate majors of members of Congress. Examining nine votes on trade across the 109th and 110th Congresses reveals that economics majors are the only category of college major to vote in favor of free trade in a predictable way. Controls for a variety of…

  9. Sistem Pemungutan Suara Elektronik Menggunakan Model Poll Site E-Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryati Haryati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available General elections is a regular agenda for a democtaric state, the applied paper based voting has several drawbacks, including spoiled ballots, inaccuracy in the counting of votes and reporting of election results which tends to be slow. Therefore , it needs to develop an electronic voting system that is user friendly for Indonesian people, which will reduce confusion from the previous system changes. Electronic voting aims at increasing participation, accuracy and efficiency of election results. Electrinoc voting has its own challenges to the implementation in Indonesia, ranging from the lack of legal protection, the heterogeneous level of education, culture, soceity and the digital gaps. The model developed in this thesis is the poll site e-voting, based on the rules of General Elections Commision (KPU as the organizer of the elections. In this model, people still go to the pools, using the ID number od ID card as a verification tool and voting at the voting booths provided. The system automatically stores the results in a database option, and after the spesified time will show both the results of the voting and other and other information required by the Commission. Voting system with a model of e-voting poll site is expected to have a good chance an a low level of risk to be applied in Indonesia.   Keywords : E-voting; Poll site; Rule based; Risk.

  10. Voting in central banks: theory versus stylized facts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, R.; Šmídková, K.; Zápal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2016), s. 1-62 ISSN 1935-1682 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : monetary policy * voting record * collective decision-making Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.252, year: 2016

  11. Teaching Case: Analysis of an Electronic Voting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nik; Toohey, Danny

    2014-01-01

    This teaching case discusses the analysis of an electronic voting system. The development of the case was motivated by research into information security and management, but as it includes procedural aspects, organizational structure and personnel, it is a suitable basis for all aspects of systems analysis, planning and design tasks. The material…

  12. Voting rights for older children and civic education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, Michael; Schinkel, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The issue of voting rights for older children has been high on the political and philosophical agenda for quite some time now, and not without reason. Aside from principled moral and philosophical reasons why it is an important matter, many economic, environmental, and political issues are currently

  13. The role of remote voting in encouraging return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordje Stefanovic

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Once there is a genuine possibility of going home, what influences a forced migrant’s decision to return to a pre-conflict residence, often in the face of very difficult conditions? What role can remote voting play?

  14. 7 CFR 1230.631 - Challenge of votes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the voting period, the ballots of producers may be challenged at the FSA county office. (b) Who can... in-person ballot or an absentee ballot whose name is posted on the In-Person Voter Registration List... notify all challenged persons that documentation such as sales documents, tax records, or other similar...

  15. The 'Snap Vote' of 462/1 BCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christian Ammitzbøll

    2014-01-01

    still holds that the absence of 4,000 politically conservative hoplites under the leadership of Kimon paved the way for radical democratic reform - championed by Ephialtes and voted through the Athenian assembly in a ‘snap vote’ by the mass of democratic rowers who remained in the city. This note re...

  16. The Context of Voting: Does Neighborhood Ethnic Diversity Affect Turnout?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Danckert, Bolette; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2017-01-01

    (mobilization theory), diminishes social cohesion that in turn makes voters likely to withdraw from voting (marginalization theory), or does not impact turnout at all. This study is one of the first to investigate the question using individual-level longitudinal data, which adds substantially to the causal...

  17. An efficient method for tensor voting using steerable filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, E.M.; Almsick, van M.A.; Rongen, P.M.J.; Florack, L.M.J.; Haar Romenij, ter B.M.; Leonardis, A.; Bischof, H; Pinz, A.

    2006-01-01

    In many image analysis applications there is a need to extract curves in noisy images. To achieve a more robust extraction, one can exploit correlations of oriented features over a spatial context in the image. Tensor voting is an existing technique to extract features in this way. In this paper, we

  18. The 26th Amendment and Youth Voting Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamel, Wynell

    1996-01-01

    Describes learning activities to be used in conjunction with a facsimile of the 92nd Congress's joint resolution passing the 26th Amendment extending the voting franchise to 18-year-olds. These activities include document analysis, time lines, class discussions, and storytelling. Briefly reviews the amendment process. (MJP)

  19. "All in Favour, Say Aye!" Voting in Pupils' Collaborative Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on the findings of an Economic and Social Research Council and British Telecom-funded project which explored the teaching of collaborative talk in the secondary English classroom. During the analysis of the video data collected, voting was observed as a strategy in pupils' collaborative decision-making. Converse to its democratic…

  20. 7 CFR 900.302 - Associations eligible to vote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Conduct of Referenda To Determine Producer Approval of Milk Marketing Orders To Be Made Effective Pursuant to Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as Amended § 900.302 Associations eligible to vote... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing...

  1. 7 CFR 900.304 - Who may vote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Conduct of Referenda To Determine Producer Approval of Milk Marketing Orders To Be Made Effective Pursuant to Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as Amended § 900.304 Who may vote. (a) Each producer... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements...

  2. 7 CFR 900.307 - Time for voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Conduct of Referenda To Determine Producer Approval of Milk Marketing Orders To Be Made Effective Pursuant to Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as Amended § 900.307 Time for voting. There shall be... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements...

  3. Presidential Debate Watching, Issue Knowledge, Character Evaluation, and Vote Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.; Hansen, Glenn J.

    2004-01-01

    This study employs NES (National Election Survey) data from several presidential elections to investigate the effects of presidential debate watching on voters' issue knowledge, character evaluation, and vote choice. Debates can instill issue knowledge; however, voters are less likely to learn about incumbent presidents seeking re-election after a…

  4. Voting patterns and alliance formation in the European Parliament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hix, Simon; Noury, Abdul; Roland, Gérard

    2009-03-27

    Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) have voluntarily formed transnational political groups and invariably follow the voting instructions of these groups. This is intriguing as there are few obvious incentives for doing so. Unlike national parties, for example, the political groups in the European Parliament are not punished by the electorate if they are divided on key issues, as citizens know very little about what goes on inside the European Parliament. This paper pieces together an explanation of why the European political groups exist and why they have become so powerful by looking at the determinants of group cohesion and by undertaking a spatial analysis of voting in the European Parliament. MEPs who share preferences on a range of issues on the European Union policy agenda have an incentive to establish a division-of-labour contract and to share the costs of collecting information. Once internal party policy specialization and agenda setting has been established, MEPs have incentives to follow the voting instructions of their group owing to the advantages of cohesion in a context of repeated voting.

  5. Early Election Returns and the Voting Behavior of Adolescent Voters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Leon; And Others

    1971-01-01

    High school students participated in a field experiment that tested the effects of exposure to early election returns in a nonpartisan referendum. Students in the brighter classes changed their vote less frequently, but when they changed their preferences they showed a greater bandwagon effect. Students in the classes of lower academic achievement…

  6. The fluctuating female vote: politics, religion, and the ovulatory cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Kristina M; Rae, Ashley; Griskevicius, Vladas

    2013-06-01

    Each month, many women experience an ovulatory cycle that regulates fertility. Although research has found that this cycle influences women's mating preferences, we proposed that it might also change women's political and religious views. Building on theory suggesting that political and religious orientation are linked to reproductive goals, we tested how fertility influenced women's politics, religiosity, and voting in the 2012 U.S. presidential election. In two studies with large and diverse samples, ovulation had drastically different effects on single women and women in committed relationships. Ovulation led single women to become more liberal, less religious, and more likely to vote for Barack Obama. In contrast, ovulation led women in committed relationships to become more conservative, more religious, and more likely to vote for Mitt Romney. In addition, ovulation-induced changes in political orientation mediated women's voting behavior. Overall, the ovulatory cycle not only influences women's politics but also appears to do so differently for single women than for women in relationships.

  7. Memberships, Voting, Social Trust, and Online Participation in Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Lauren Ann; Slater, Robert O.

    2012-01-01

    American political and civic engagement was examined by life stage and educational attainment levels in 2008 political data. Engaged proportions of older Americans were larger than young Americans for Memberships, Voting, and Social Trust. A larger proportion of Young Adults (23%) than Older Adults (19%), however, was found for Online…

  8. Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins by Voting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Peng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to identify which proteins can interact with RNA for the purpose of protein annotation, since interactions between RNA and proteins influence the structure of the ribosome and play important roles in gene expression. This paper tries to identify proteins that can interact with RNA using voting systems. Firstly through Weka, 34 learning algorithms are chosen for investigation. Then simple majority voting system (SMVS is used for the prediction of RNA-binding proteins, achieving average ACC (overall prediction accuracy value of 79.72% and MCC (Matthew’s correlation coefficient value of 59.77% for the independent testing dataset. Then mRMR (minimum redundancy maximum relevance strategy is used, which is transferred into algorithm selection. In addition, the MCC value of each classifier is assigned to be the weight of the classifier’s vote. As a result, best average MCC values are attained when 22 algorithms are selected and integrated through weighted votes, which are 64.70% for the independent testing dataset, and ACC value is 82.04% at this moment.

  9. The Theory and Implementation of Electronic Voting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Groth, Jens; Salomonsen, Gorm

    2002-01-01

    scheme shorter and easier to compute and verify, for voters as well as authorities, than in currently known schemes. Finally, we discuss various issues connected with the security of a practical implementation of the scheme for on-line voting. Notably, this includes minimizing risks that are beyond what...

  10. Mechanisms for efficient voting with private information about preferences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engelmann, Dirk; Grimm, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 563 (2012), s. 1010-1041 ISSN 0013-0133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : simple voting game * linking decisions * successful cooperation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.118, year: 2012

  11. Weighted voting-based consensus clustering for chemical structure databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Faisal; Ahmed, Ali; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Salim, Naomie

    2014-06-01

    The cluster-based compound selection is used in the lead identification process of drug discovery and design. Many clustering methods have been used for chemical databases, but there is no clustering method that can obtain the best results under all circumstances. However, little attention has been focused on the use of combination methods for chemical structure clustering, which is known as consensus clustering. Recently, consensus clustering has been used in many areas including bioinformatics, machine learning and information theory. This process can improve the robustness, stability, consistency and novelty of clustering. For chemical databases, different consensus clustering methods have been used including the co-association matrix-based, graph-based, hypergraph-based and voting-based methods. In this paper, a weighted cumulative voting-based aggregation algorithm (W-CVAA) was developed. The MDL Drug Data Report (MDDR) benchmark chemical dataset was used in the experiments and represented by the AlogP and ECPF_4 descriptors. The results from the clustering methods were evaluated by the ability of the clustering to separate biologically active molecules in each cluster from inactive ones using different criteria, and the effectiveness of the consensus clustering was compared to that of Ward's method, which is the current standard clustering method in chemoinformatics. This study indicated that weighted voting-based consensus clustering can overcome the limitations of the existing voting-based methods and improve the effectiveness of combining multiple clusterings of chemical structures.

  12. Education's impact on explanations of radical right-wing voting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, M.; Tolsma, J.

    2011-01-01

    One of the reactions to the large demographic changes in Europe due to migration has been the rise of radical right-wing parties. Previous research has shown that education is one of the most relevant explanations of this voting behaviour. By pooling the European Social Surveys from 2002, 2004, 2006

  13. 7 CFR 1280.626 - Certification and voting procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1280.626 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB... Internet during the voting period. A completed and signed form LS-86 and supporting documentation, such as...

  14. Teacher Directed Design: Content Knowledge, Pedagogy and Assessment under the Nevada K-12 Real-Time Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, P.; Ewing-Taylor, J.; Crippen, K. J.; Smith, K. D.; Snelson, C. M.

    2004-12-01

    Education professionals and seismologists under the emerging SUN (Shaking Up Nevada) program are leveraging the existing infrastructure of the real-time Nevada K-12 Seismic Network to provide a unique inquiry based science experience for teachers. The concept and effort are driven by teacher needs and emphasize rigorous content knowledge acquisition coupled with the translation of that knowledge into an integrated seismology based earth sciences curriculum development process. We are developing a pedagogical framework, graduate level coursework, and materials to initiate the SUN model for teacher professional development in an effort to integrate the research benefits of real-time seismic data with science education needs in Nevada. A component of SUN is to evaluate teacher acquisition of qualified seismological and earth science information and pedagogy both in workshops and in the classroom and to assess the impact on student achievement. SUN's mission is to positively impact earth science education practices. With the upcoming EarthScope initiative, the program is timely and will incorporate EarthScope real-time seismic data (USArray) and educational materials in graduate course materials and teacher development programs. A number of schools in Nevada are contributing real-time data from both inexpensive and high-quality seismographs that are integrated with Nevada regional seismic network operations as well as the IRIS DMC. A powerful and unique component of the Nevada technology model is that schools can receive "stable" continuous live data feeds from 100's seismograph stations in Nevada, California and world (including live data from Earthworm systems and the IRIS DMC BUD - Buffer of Uniform Data). Students and teachers see their own networked seismograph station within a global context, as participants in regional and global monitoring. The robust real-time Internet communications protocols invoked in the Nevada network provide for local data acquisition

  15. Together Everyone Achieves More: Leadership Networks and Interagency Relationships of the Judge Advocate Generals Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-22

    leadership networks may be formal or informal in nature, but share the trait that all of the nodes of the network create products or perform services...Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (“USERRA”), voting rights by enforcing the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act of 1986

  16. Voting contagion: Modeling and analysis of a century of U.S. presidential elections

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Social influence plays an important role in human behavior and decisions. Sources of influence can be divided as external, which are independent of social context, or as originating from peers, such as family and friends. An important question is how to disentangle the social contagion by peers from external influences. While a variety of experimental and observational studies provided insight into this problem, identifying the extent of contagion based on large-scale observational data with an unknown network structure remains largely unexplored. By bridging the gap between the large-scale complex systems perspective of collective human dynamics and the detailed approach of social sciences, we present a parsimonious model of social influence, and apply it to a central topic in political science—elections and voting behavior. We provide an analytical expression of the county vote-share distribution, which is in excellent agreement with almost a century of observed U.S. presidential election data. Analyzing the social influence topography over this period reveals an abrupt phase transition from low to high levels of social contagion, and robust differences among regions. These results suggest that social contagion effects are becoming more instrumental in shaping large-scale collective political behavior, with implications on democratic electoral processes and policies. PMID:28542409

  17. Gender, populist attitudes, and voting: Explaining the gender gap in voting for populist radical right and populist radical left parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, N.; Zaslove, A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Empirical studies have demonstrated that compared to almost all other parties, populist radical right (PRR) parties draw more votes from men than from women. However, the two dominant explanations that are generally advanced to explain this disparity - gender differences regarding socio-economic

  18. Why Czech Parliamentary party Groups Vote less Unitedly. The Role of Frequent Voting and Big Majorities in Passing Bills

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linek, Lukáš; Rakušanová, Petra

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2005), s. 423-442 ISSN 0038-0288 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : parliamentary party groups * Czech political parties * voting Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.113, year: 2005

  19. Facebook as communication support for persons with potential mild acquired cognitive impairment: A content and social network analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghdam, Aboozar; Hamidi, Ulrika; Bartfai, Aniko; Koch, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    Social media has the potential to increase social participation and support for the well-being of individuals with chronic medical conditions. To date, Facebook is the most popular social medium for different types of communication. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the potential use of Facebook as a means of communication for persons with potential Mild Acquired Cognitive Impairment (MACI), a non-progressive mild cognitive impairment after an acquired brain injury. The aim of this study was to explore how persons with potential MACI, specifically persons with perceived brain fatigue after brain injury, communicate through Facebook, to classify the content of the communication and to visualize the frequency and types of interactions. A social network analysis of the interactions between members' and a qualitative content analysis of a whole year's communication of a public Facebook group for Swedish speaking persons (1310 members) with perceived brain fatigue after an illness or injury to the brain were performed. The results showed how members use social media technology and Facebook as a means for communication and support for their condition. Individual group members showed very different patterns of communication and interactions. However, for the group as a whole, the most frequent topics in their communication were related to informational support and banter in posts, and socialization in comments. The findings also showed that the majority of members only communicated with few other members and had few direct communications. The most used communication feature of Facebook was likes in form of "thumbs-up". This study indicated that social media and in this case Facebook is used for communication and social support by persons with potential MACI, and revealed that their communication behavior is similar to the healthy population. Further studies relating specific cognitive problems of the participants to the use of social media would provide more

  20. Facebook as communication support for persons with potential mild acquired cognitive impairment: A content and social network analysis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Ulrika; Bartfai, Aniko; Koch, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Social media has the potential to increase social participation and support for the well-being of individuals with chronic medical conditions. To date, Facebook is the most popular social medium for different types of communication. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the potential use of Facebook as a means of communication for persons with potential Mild Acquired Cognitive Impairment (MACI), a non-progressive mild cognitive impairment after an acquired brain injury. The aim of this study was to explore how persons with potential MACI, specifically persons with perceived brain fatigue after brain injury, communicate through Facebook, to classify the content of the communication and to visualize the frequency and types of interactions. Methods and materials A social network analysis of the interactions between members’ and a qualitative content analysis of a whole year’s communication of a public Facebook group for Swedish speaking persons (1310 members) with perceived brain fatigue after an illness or injury to the brain were performed. Results The results showed how members use social media technology and Facebook as a means for communication and support for their condition. Individual group members showed very different patterns of communication and interactions. However, for the group as a whole, the most frequent topics in their communication were related to informational support and banter in posts, and socialization in comments. The findings also showed that the majority of members only communicated with few other members and had few direct communications. The most used communication feature of Facebook was likes in form of “thumbs-up”. Conclusions This study indicated that social media and in this case Facebook is used for communication and social support by persons with potential MACI, and revealed that their communication behavior is similar to the healthy population. Further studies relating specific cognitive problems of the

  1. Preserving anonymity in e-voting system using voter non-repudiation oriented scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Isredza Rahmi A.; Radzi, Siti Nafishah Md; Rahman, Nurul Hidayah Ab; Wen, Chuah Chai; Abdullah, Nurul Azma

    2017-10-01

    The voting system has been developed from traditional paper ballot to electronic voting (e-voting). The e-voting system has high potential to be widely used in election event. However, the e-voting system still does not meet the most important security properties which are voter's authenticity and non-repudiation. This is because voters can simply vote again by entering other people's identification number. In this project, an electronic voting using voter non-repudiation oriented scheme will be developed. This system contains ten modules which are log in, vote session, voter, candidate, open session, voting results, user account, initial score, logs and reset vote count. In order to ensure there would be no non-repudiation issue, a voter non-repudiation oriented scheme concept will be adapted and implemented in the system. This system will be built using Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 which only can be accessed using personal computers at the voting center. This project will be beneficial for future use in order to overcome non-repudiation issue.

  2. Investigating local controls on temporal stability of soil water content using sensor network data and an inverse modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, W.; Bogena, H. R.; Huisman, J. A.; Martinez, G.; Pachepsky, Y. A.; Vereecken, H.

    2013-12-01

    Soil water content is a key variable in the soil, vegetation and atmosphere continuum with high spatial and temporal variability. Temporal stability of soil water content (SWC) has been observed in multiple monitoring studies and the quantification of controls on soil moisture variability and temporal stability presents substantial interest. The objective of this work was to assess the effect of soil hydraulic parameters on the temporal stability. The inverse modeling based on large observed time series SWC with in-situ sensor network was used to estimate the van Genuchten-Mualem (VGM) soil hydraulic parameters in a small grassland catchment located in western Germany. For the inverse modeling, the shuffled complex evaluation (SCE) optimization algorithm was coupled with the HYDRUS 1D code. We considered two cases: without and with prior information about the correlation between VGM parameters. The temporal stability of observed SWC was well pronounced at all observation depths. Both the spatial variability of SWC and the robustness of temporal stability increased with depth. Calibrated models both with and without prior information provided reasonable correspondence between simulated and measured time series of SWC. Furthermore, we found a linear relationship between the mean relative difference (MRD) of SWC and the saturated SWC (θs). Also, the logarithm of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), the VGM parameter n and logarithm of α were strongly correlated with the MRD of saturation degree for the prior information case, but no correlation was found for the non-prior information case except at the 50cm depth. Based on these results we propose that establishing relationships between temporal stability and spatial variability of soil properties presents a promising research avenue for a better understanding of the controls on soil moisture variability. Correlation between Mean Relative Difference of soil water content (or saturation degree) and inversely

  3. An Exploration of the Technological, Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK Framework: Utilising a Social Networking Site in Irish Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Glowatz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into the use of social media for academic purposes is growing. Much of it suggests that social networking sites (SNSs could be used as innovative tools for teaching (Duncan & Baryzck, 2013; Harris, 2012; O’Brien & Glowatz, 2013. This paper argues that research in this field has often neglected to take account of the pedagogy involved in successfully utilising a SNS for educational purposes. Koehler & Mishra (2009 have proposed the technological, pedagogical and content knowledge framework (TPACK to explore the relationship of technology to teaching in order to build the basis for further research. We explore the suitability of the TPACK framework in the context of SNSs for academic engagement, and we review its relevance to the adoption of a SNS as a teaching tool. Our investigation so far suggests that the current TPACK framework overlooks some important elements that are relevant to the adoption of SNSs. This paper outlines some of these overlooked elements and evaluates the use of the TPACK framework in the exploration of SNS usage in higher education to engage students with curriculum. Specifically, we address the key question, ‘Does the TPACK framework provide an insight into the knowledge base required to effectively deliver a module utilizing SNSs?’

  4. Analysing and controlling the tax evasion dynamics via majority-vote model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, F W S, E-mail: fwslima@gmail.co, E-mail: wel@ufpi.edu.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do PiauI, 64049-550, Teresina - PI (Brazil)

    2010-09-01

    Within the context of agent-based Monte-Carlo simulations, we study the well-known majority-vote model (MVM) with noise applied to tax evasion on simple square lattices, Voronoi-Delaunay random lattices, Barabasi-Albert networks, and Erdoes-Renyi random graphs. In the order to analyse and to control the fluctuations for tax evasion in the economics model proposed by Zaklan, MVM is applied in the neighborhood of the noise critical q{sub c} to evolve the Zaklan model. The Zaklan model had been studied recently using the equilibrium Ising model. Here we show that the Zaklan model is robust because this can be studied using equilibrium dynamics of Ising model also through the nonequilibrium MVM and on various topologies cited above giving the same behavior regardless of dynamic or topology used here.

  5. Analysing and controlling the tax evasion dynamics via majority-vote model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, F W S

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of agent-based Monte-Carlo simulations, we study the well-known majority-vote model (MVM) with noise applied to tax evasion on simple square lattices, Voronoi-Delaunay random lattices, Barabasi-Albert networks, and Erdoes-Renyi random graphs. In the order to analyse and to control the fluctuations for tax evasion in the economics model proposed by Zaklan, MVM is applied in the neighborhood of the noise critical q c to evolve the Zaklan model. The Zaklan model had been studied recently using the equilibrium Ising model. Here we show that the Zaklan model is robust because this can be studied using equilibrium dynamics of Ising model also through the nonequilibrium MVM and on various topologies cited above giving the same behavior regardless of dynamic or topology used here.

  6. CONSIDERATIONS WITH REGARD TO THE USUFRUCT OVER THE RIGHT OF VOTE AS GUARANTY APPLIED IN THE BUSINESS ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin CONSTANTINESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to scrutinize the usufruct over the right of vote related to a share as legal concept (from foregoing and current Romanian legislation and doctrine standpoint and to highlight also the legal traits and the effective benefits provided as guaranty. To the same extent, the consolidation of the legal regime of this concept as guaranty is also the pursued objective. Although the usufruct over the right of vote has been not considered as a valid guaranty, the companies from Romania (mostly the banks used this mechanism as guaranty within the (sophisticated lending transactions. It is worthy to be mentioned that the right of vote may be related to a share belonging to a joint-stock company or to a social part belonging to a limited liability company. The main scope of such guaranty is to strengthen the creditor’s rights besides other established hard collaterals (mortgages over real estates, shares, receivables etc.. Thus, the creditor may influence the corporate will of a company (within the general shareholders meeting. Moreover, the guaranty has to be set up in the form of a notarized deed (authenticated by a Notary Public aiming to be considered a writ of execution and to enable the creditor to commence the foreclosure if needed. Having in mind the above, this paper mainly regards: the content of the right of vote related to a share, security, social part, the applicability of the usufruct to the shares belonging to different companies (joint-stock companies listed or not listed to the Stock Exchange, other companies of capitals and persons, the relevant differences between the usufruct as dismemberment of the ownership right and the usufruct as guaranty, the significant aspects regarding the guaranty agreement, proposals to amend the legislation.

  7. Electronic Voting Protocol Using Identity-Based Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Gallegos-Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic voting protocols proposed to date meet their properties based on Public Key Cryptography (PKC, which offers high flexibility through key agreement protocols and authentication mechanisms. However, when PKC is used, it is necessary to implement Certification Authority (CA to provide certificates which bind public keys to entities and enable verification of such public key bindings. Consequently, the components of the protocol increase notably. An alternative is to use Identity-Based Encryption (IBE. With this kind of cryptography, it is possible to have all the benefits offered by PKC, without neither the need of certificates nor all the core components of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI. Considering the aforementioned, in this paper we propose an electronic voting protocol, which meets the privacy and robustness properties by using bilinear maps.

  8. Optimistic Selection Rule Better Than Majority Voting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takuya; Obata, Takuya; Hoki, Kunihito; Ito, Takeshi

    A recently proposed ensemble approach to game-tree search has attracted a great deal of attention. The ensemble system consists of M computer players, where each player uses a different series of pseudo-random numbers. A combination of multiple players under the majority voting system would improve the performance of a Shogi-playing computer. We present a new strategy of move selection based on the search values of a number of players. The move decision is made by selecting one player from all M players. Each move is selected by referring to the evaluation value of the tree search of each player. The performance and mechanism of the strategy are examined. We show that the optimistic selection rule, which selects the player that yields the highest evaluation value, outperforms the majority voting system. By grouping 16 or more computer players straightforwardly, the winning rates of the strongest Shogi programs increase from 50 to 60% or even higher.

  9. An adaptive tensor voting algorithm combined with texture spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Su, Qing-tang; Lü, Gao-huan; Zhang, Xiao-feng; Liu, Yu-huan; He, An-zhi

    2015-01-01

    An adaptive tensor voting algorithm combined with texture spectrum is proposed. The image texture spectrum is used to get the adaptive scale parameter of voting field. Then the texture information modifies both the attenuation coefficient and the attenuation field so that we can use this algorithm to create more significant and correct structures in the original image according to the human visual perception. At the same time, the proposed method can improve the edge extraction quality, which includes decreasing the flocculent region efficiently and making image clear. In the experiment for extracting pavement cracks, the original pavement image is processed by the proposed method which is combined with the significant curve feature threshold procedure, and the resulted image displays the faint crack signals submerged in the complicated background efficiently and clearly.

  10. Method for secure electronic voting system: face recognition based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, M. Affan; Baig, Misbah M.; Mehboob, Shahzain; Naseem, Imran

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a framework for low cost secure electronic voting system based on face recognition. Essentially Local Binary Pattern (LBP) is used for face feature characterization in texture format followed by chi-square distribution is used for image classification. Two parallel systems are developed based on smart phone and web applications for face learning and verification modules. The proposed system has two tire security levels by using person ID followed by face verification. Essentially class specific threshold is associated for controlling the security level of face verification. Our system is evaluated three standard databases and one real home based database and achieve the satisfactory recognition accuracies. Consequently our propose system provides secure, hassle free voting system and less intrusive compare with other biometrics.

  11. Electronic Voting Protocol Using Identity-Based Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Garcia, Gina; Tapia-Recillas, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    Electronic voting protocols proposed to date meet their properties based on Public Key Cryptography (PKC), which offers high flexibility through key agreement protocols and authentication mechanisms. However, when PKC is used, it is necessary to implement Certification Authority (CA) to provide certificates which bind public keys to entities and enable verification of such public key bindings. Consequently, the components of the protocol increase notably. An alternative is to use Identity-Based Encryption (IBE). With this kind of cryptography, it is possible to have all the benefits offered by PKC, without neither the need of certificates nor all the core components of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). Considering the aforementioned, in this paper we propose an electronic voting protocol, which meets the privacy and robustness properties by using bilinear maps.

  12. Advertisement recognition using mode voting acoustic fingerprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmi, Reza; Abedi Firouzjaee, Hosein; Janalizadeh Choobbasti, Ali; Mortazavi Najafabadi, S. H. E.; Safavi, Saeid

    2017-12-01

    Emergence of media outlets and public relations tools such as TV, radio and the Internet since the 20th century provided the companies with a good platform for advertising their goods and services. Advertisement recognition is an important task that can help companies measure the efficiency of their advertising campaigns in the market and make it possible to compare their performance with competitors in order to get better business insights. Advertisement recognition is usually performed manually with help of human labor or is done through automated methods that are mainly based on heuristics features, these methods usually lack abilities such as scalability, being able to be generalized and be used in different situations. In this paper, we present an automated method for advertisement recognition based on audio processing method that could make this process fairly simple and eliminate the human factor out of the equation. This method has ultimately been used in Miras information technology in order to monitor 56 TV channels to detect all ad video clips broadcast over some networks.

  13. The Effectiveness of Campaign Messages on Turnout and Vote Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Friedel, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I study campaign effects on turnout and vote choice. I analyze different campaign messages and the way they affect voters across various situations. First, through an online survey experiment, I study the impact of campaign messages and ideological cues on voters as they make inferences on candidates. Next, through a field experiment, I test whether microtargeted messages or general messages on the economy have any effect on turnout. Lastly, using online survey data, I e...

  14. Mesh Denoising based on Normal Voting Tensor and Binary Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, S. K.; Reitebuch, U.; Polthier, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a tensor multiplication based smoothing algorithm that follows a two step denoising method. Unlike other traditional averaging approaches, our approach uses an element based normal voting tensor to compute smooth surfaces. By introducing a binary optimization on the proposed tensor together with a local binary neighborhood concept, our algorithm better retains sharp features and produces smoother umbilical regions than previous approaches. On top of that, we provide a stoc...

  15. Voting over Selective Immigration Policies with Immigration Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Russo

    2011-01-01

    The claim that "skilled immigration is welcome" is often associated to the increasing adoption of selective immigration policies. I study the voting over differentiated immigration policies in a two-country, three-factor general equilibrium model where there exist skilled and unskilled workers, migration decisions are endogenous, enforcing immigration restriction is costly, and natives dislike unskilled immigration. According to my findings, decisions over border closure are made to protect t...

  16. Voting strategy for artifact reduction in digital breast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Tao; Moore, Richard H.; Kopans, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    Artifacts are observed in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) reconstructions due to the small number of projections and the narrow angular range that are typically employed in tomosynthesis imaging. In this work, we investigate the reconstruction artifacts that are caused by high-attenuation features in breast and develop several artifact reduction methods based on a 'voting strategy'. The voting strategy identifies the projection(s) that would introduce artifacts to a voxel and rejects the projection(s) when reconstructing the voxel. Four approaches to the voting strategy were compared, including projection segmentation, maximum contribution deduction, one-step classification, and iterative classification. The projection segmentation method, based on segmentation of high-attenuation features from the projections, effectively reduces artifacts caused by metal and large calcifications that can be reliably detected and segmented from projections. The other three methods are based on the observation that contributions from artifact-inducing projections have higher value than those from normal projections. These methods attempt to identify the projection(s) that would cause artifacts by comparing contributions from different projections. Among the three methods, the iterative classification method provides the best artifact reduction; however, it can generate many false positive classifications that degrade the image quality. The maximum contribution deduction method and one-step classification method both reduce artifacts well from small calcifications, although the performance of artifact reduction is slightly better with the one-step classification. The combination of one-step classification and projection segmentation removes artifacts from both large and small calcifications

  17. Strategic Voting in Heterogeneous Electorates: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Tyszler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We study strategic voting in a setting where voters choose from three options and Condorcet cycles may occur. We introduce in the electorate heterogeneity in preference intensity by allowing voters to differ in the extent to which they value the three options. Three information conditions are tested: uninformed, in which voters know only their own preference ordering and the own benefits from each option; aggregate information, in which in addition they know the aggregate realized distribution of the preference orderings and full information, in which they also know how the relative importance attributed to the options are distributed within the electorate. As a general result, heterogeneity seems to decrease the level of strategic voting in our experiment compared to the homogenous preference case that we study in a companion paper. Both theoretically and empirically (with data collected in a laboratory experiment, the main comparative static results obtained for the homogenous case carry over to the present setting with preference heterogeneity. Moreover, information about the realized aggregate distribution of preferences seems to be the element that best explains observed differences in voting behavior. Additional information about the realized distribution of preference intensity does not yield significant further changes.

  18. Reliability and considerations of electronic voting, a global vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussibeth Tatiana Places Chungata

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to perform an analysis of all the aspects that comprise and revolve around the use or implementation of new technologies in election processes such as automation of democracy; this is done through the collection of bibliographic information from articles, books, and other sources on concepts, differences, comparisons, methodology of citizen participation, experiences, among others. With the purpose of establishing the utility or inconveniences that may present this electronic voting system to use it in real elections. There are realized general descriptions of every topic, where little by little possible factors of adoption are explored or I reject to this new technology, clarifying in the functionality, used elements and factors to comply. As a result, it reflects on the positive and negative impact that have these systems in society, giving points to consider about this Automation at different stages which comprise the electoral processes, from the construction, configuration, storage up to the transmission and consolidation of results. Is leaves clear them criteria that is should evaluate a system of vote electronic that van from reliability to effectiveness in their processes, to determine the need and relationship of costs - benefits. Without leaving of side our country, there is described the current condition that has the system of electronic vote in our electoral processes, which until now has not been implemented, only has performed testing of printing in our community.

  19. Voting Patterns on Hungarian Parliamentary Elections in 2002–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnabás Rácz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the post–communist transitional era, Hungarian elections show diverse results among various areas, raising the question if there are firmly embedded differences between some parts of the country. In the light of the election returns between 1985–2006, it appears that there is a more or less definite pattern. This study will examine the 2006 legislative returns and compare the results with the previous trends and especially the 2002 data, testing the validity of the findings indicating the presence of some fairly constant regional standards of voting. As a main indicator of past trends we use mostly the territorial (party lists which provide more accurate picture of voting preferences that individual districts which in runoffs carry an indirect distortion of voters’ primary preferences by other considerations.2 For a deeper analysis of the recent 2002 and 2006 elections, we will compare the first run individual district voting outcomes, as they give the more accurate picture of the voters’ real preferences.

  20. Do authoritarians vote for authoritarians? Evidence from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollie J. Cohen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2016 presidential election campaign in the United States, scholars argued that authoritarian visions of the family are associated with support for Donald Trump, a candidate also noted to exhibit authoritarian or illiberal tendencies. Though it is plausible that “authoritarian” citizens (defined by parenting attitudes vote for “authoritarian” candidates (defined by disrespect for democratic institutions, past research provides relatively little guide regarding this relationship. One reason is that few US candidates announce overtly authoritarian views. Latin America, by contrast, has had many such candidates. We take advantage of this variation using the 2012 AmericasBarometer, which applied a battery of authoritarian parenting attitudes. We first describe mass authoritarianism across Latin America, showing it is associated with many social attitudes. We then examine authoritarians’ voting behavior, distinguishing between support for “mano dura” (“strong arm” candidates, who are usually rightists, and for candidates threatening violations of general civil liberties, who are often leftists in Latin America. We find that authoritarians tend to vote for right-wing authoritarian candidates, while authoritarianism boosts support for candidates threatening civil liberty violations only among citizens identifying on the ideological right. Education is the most consistent determinant reducing support for both leftist and rightist authoritarian candidates.

  1. Robustness of public choice models of voting behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai UNGUREANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern economics modeling practice involves highly unrealistic assumptions. Since testing such models is not always an easy enterprise, researchers face the problem of determining whether a result is dependent (or not on the unrealistic details of the model. A solution for this problem is conducting robustness analysis. In its classical form, robustness analysis is a non-empirical method of confirmation – it raises our trust in a given result by implying it with from several different models. In this paper I argue that robustness analysis could be thought as a method of post-empirical failure. This form of robustness analysis involves assigning guilt for the empirical failure to a certain part of the model. Starting from this notion of robustness, I analyze a case of empirical failure from public choice theory or the economic approach of politics. Using the fundamental methodological principles of neoclassical economics, the first model of voting behavior implied that almost no one would vote. This was clearly an empirical failure. Public choice scholars faced the problem of either restraining the domain of their discipline or giving up to some of their neoclassical methodological features. The second solution was chosen and several different models of voting behavior were built. I will treat these models as a case for performing robustness analysis and I will determine which assumption from the original model is guilty for the empirical failure.

  2. Teacher Perceptions About the Electronic Voting System Used in Classroom Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Fidan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic voting system used in the study, primary and secondary schools (Elektroy - EOS use, and on the contributions of the educational environment using the system to investigate teachers' views. Case study used qualitative research methods. In this respect primary and secondary schools in the province of Bolu in Turkey, EOS opinion of the class that implements the different branches were 22 teachers, content analysis was conducted. To increase the interest and motivation of students to EOS result of the study course, the student assessment opportunities offered at the time and concluded that the competitive environment created. In this system, the uses of instructional materials have been identified mostly used as a measurement tool. Sorry did not see top-ranked students fail to hear them, the formation of a noisy environment, such as time consuming problems encountered in the implementation process have been identified.

  3. Predicting methionine and lysine contents in soybean meal and fish meal using a group method of data handling-type neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottaghitalab, M.; Nikkhah, N.; Darmani-Kuhi, H.; López, S.; France, J.

    2015-07-01

    Artificial neural network models offer an alternative to linear regression analysis for predicting the amino acid content of feeds from their chemical composition. A group method of data handling-type neural network (GMDH-type NN), with an evolutionary method of genetic algorithm, was used to predict methionine (Met) and lysine (Lys) contents of soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM) from their proximate analyses (i.e. crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash and moisture). A data set with 119 data lines for Met and 116 lines for Lys was used to develop GMDH-type NN models with two hidden layers. The data lines were divided into two groups to produce training and validation sets. The data sets were imported into the GEvoM software for training the networks. The predictive capability of the constructed models was evaluated by their abilities to estimate the validation data sets accurately. A quantitative examination of goodness of fit for the predictive models was made using a number of precision, concordance and bias statistics. The statistical performance of the models developed revealed close agreement between observed and predicted Met and Lys contents for SBM and FM. The results of this study clearly illustrate the validity of GMDH-type NN models to estimate accurately the amino acid content of poultry feed ingredients from their chemical composition . (Author)

  4. Gender, populist attitudes, and voting: Explaining the gender gap in voting for populist radical right and populist radical left parties

    OpenAIRE

    Spierings, N.; Zaslove, A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Empirical studies have demonstrated that compared to almost all other parties, populist radical right (PRR) parties draw more votes from men than from women. However, the two dominant explanations that are generally advanced to explain this disparity - gender differences regarding socio-economic position and lower perceptions regarding the threat of immigrants - cannot fully explain the difference. The article contends that it might actually be gender differences regarding the conceptualisati...

  5. Network Convergence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Network Convergence. User is interested in application and content - not technical means of distribution. Boundaries between distribution channels fade out. Network convergence leads to seamless application and content solutions.

  6. Effects of Degree of Enzymatic Interesterification on the Physical Properties of Margarine Fats: Solid Fat Content, Crystallization Behavior, Crystal Morphology, and Crystal Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Smith, Paul; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    In this study enzymatic-interesterified margarine fats with different conversion degrees were produced in a packed-bed reactor. The effects of conversion degree on the formation of free fatty acids and diacyglycerols, solid fat content, crystallization behavior, microstructure, and crystal network...... °C with increasing conversion degree. Increased conversion degree from the blend to products, measured by X-ray with addition of 50% of rapeseed oil for dilution, caused the content of â to decrease from 100% to 33%, and 30% and eventually to pure ⢠crystal. However, double chain packing...

  7. College Students' Responses to Suicidal Content on Social Networking Sites: An Examination Using a Simulated Facebook Newsfeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbitt-Hall, Darcy J; Gauthier, Jami M; Davis, Margaret T; Witte, Tracy K

    2016-10-01

    Although Facebook has a peer-initiated suicide prevention protocol, little is known about users' abilities to notice, recognize, and appropriately interpret suicidal content or about their willingness to intervene. In this study, 468 college students were randomly assigned to interact with a simulated Facebook newsfeed containing content reflecting various suicide risk levels. A larger proportion of those exposed to content reflecting moderate and severe suicide risk noticed, recognized, appropriately interpreted, and endorsed taking action to intervene, as compared to those exposed to content representing no or low risk. Overall, results indicate that college students are responsive to suicidal content on Facebook. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  8. Do Implicit Attitudes Predict Actual Voting Behavior Particularly for Undecided Voters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Malte; Smith, Colin Tucker; Plischke, Thomas; Bluemke, Matthias; Nosek, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    The prediction of voting behavior of undecided voters poses a challenge to psychologists and pollsters. Recently, researchers argued that implicit attitudes would predict voting behavior particularly for undecided voters whereas explicit attitudes would predict voting behavior particularly for decided voters. We tested this assumption in two studies in two countries with distinct political systems in the context of real political elections. Results revealed that (a) explicit attitudes predicted voting behavior better than implicit attitudes for both decided and undecided voters, and (b) implicit attitudes predicted voting behavior better for decided than undecided voters. We propose that greater elaboration of attitudes produces stronger convergence between implicit and explicit attitudes resulting in better predictive validity of both, and less incremental validity of implicit over explicit attitudes for the prediction of voting behavior. However, greater incremental predictive validity of implicit over explicit attitudes may be associated with less elaboration. PMID:22952898

  9. Indigenous Adoption of Internet Voting: A Case Study of Whitefish River First Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Gabel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous communities and organizations are increasingly using digital technologies to build community capacity, strengthen community consultation, and improve political participation. In particular, Internet voting is a type of technology to which First Nations have been drawn. This article explores Whitefish River First Nation's (WRFN experience introducing Internet voting in the course of ratifying a new matrimonial real property law (MRP. Specifically, we examine the implications of Internet voting for political participation and electoral administration at the community level. Although community members’ uptake of Internet voting was very modest, we find the experience of adoption had other subtle impacts on community capacity, specifically in terms of empowering the community to pass its own laws and connecting youth and elders. With respect to administration, Internet voting provided an opportunity to connect with community members using technology, to modernize voting processes, and to better accommodate community members needs.

  10. Challenges amp Solutions Of Adoption In Regards To Phone-Based Remote E-Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Ken Jamnadas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Remote Voting Systems has not been universally adopted by most countries for their elections such as in the case of Fiji. Although mobile phones are quite prevalent around the world and the amount of smart phones sold is increasing at a rapid rate there have not been many elections which have capitalized on the use of Mobile Phones as a remote voting tool. This paper is a limited review of previous papers on remote voting systems. The aim was to study challenges of adoption of remote e-voting systems such as through a mobile phone and suggest innovative solutions to those challenges. As such we propose a combination of new policy solutions and technical solutions such as the use of QR code and checksum for vote verification the use of real time facial recognition systems and the leveraging of existing mobile hardware to ensure a secure anonymous and trustworthy remote voting system like it has never been before.

  11. Analyzing the behavior and reliability of voting systems comprising tri-state units using enumerated simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacoub, Sherif

    2003-01-01

    Voting is a common technique used in combining results from peer experts, for multiple purposes, and in a variety of domains. In distributed decision making systems, voting mechanisms are used to obtain a decision by incorporating the opinion of multiple units. Voting systems have many applications in fault tolerant systems, mutual exclusion in distributed systems, and replicated databases. We are specifically interested in voting systems as used in decision-making applications. In this paper, we describe a synthetic experimental procedure to study the behavior of a variety of voting system configurations using a simulator to: analyze the state of each expert, apply a voting mechanism, and analyze the voting results. We introduce an enumerated-simulation approach and compare it to existing mathematical approaches. The paper studies the following behaviors of a voting system: (1) the reliability of the voting system, R; (2) the probability of reaching a consensus, P c ; (3) certainty index, T; and (4) the confidence index, C. The configuration parameters controlling the analysis are: (1) the number of participating experts, N, (2) the possible output states of an expert, and (3) the probability distribution of each expert states. We illustrate the application of this approach to a voting system that consists of N units, each has three states: correct (success), wrong (failed), and abstain (did not produce an output). The final output of the decision-making (voting) system is correct if a consensus is reached on a correct unit output, abstain if all units abstain from voting, and wrong otherwise. We will show that using the proposed approach, we can easily conduct studies to unleash several behaviors of a decision-making system with tri-state experts

  12. A NOVEL PIPELINE FOR DRUG DISCOVERY IN NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS USING HIGH-CONTENT SINGLE-CELL SCREENING OF SIGNALLING NETWORK RESPONSES EX VIVO

    OpenAIRE

    Lago Cooke, Santiago Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The current work entails the development of a novel high content platform for the measurement of kinetic ligand responses across cell signalling networks at the single-cell level in distinct PBMC subtypes ex vivo. Using automated sample preparation, fluorescent cellular barcoding and flow cytometry the platform is capable of detecting 21, 840 parallel cell signalling responses in each PBMC sample. We apply this platform to characterize the effects of neuropsychiatric treatments and CNS ligand...

  13. Design and Implementation of a Mobile Voting System Using a Novel Oblivious and Proxy Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yan Chiou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic voting systems can make the voting process much more convenient. However, in such systems, if a server signs blank votes before users vote, it may cause undue multivoting. Furthermore, if users vote before the signing of the server, voting information will be leaked to the server and may be compromised. Blind signatures could be used to prevent leaking voting information from the server; however, malicious users could produce noncandidate signatures for illegal usage at that time or in the future. To overcome these problems, this paper proposes a novel oblivious signature scheme with a proxy signature function to satisfy security requirements such as information protection, personal privacy, and message verification and to ensure that no one can cheat other users (including the server. We propose an electronic voting system based on the proposed oblivious and proxy signature scheme and implement this scheme in a smartphone application to allow users to vote securely and conveniently. Security analyses and performance comparisons are provided to show the capability and efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  14. Efficiency analysis on platform over the top (OTT) to deploy content and applications (edutainment) in digital television on optical network link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puche, William S.; Sierra, Javier E.; Moreno, Gustavo A.

    2014-08-01

    The convergence of new technologies in the digital world has made devices with internet connectivity such as televisions, smatphone, Tablet, Blu-ray, game consoles, among others, to increase more and more. Therefore the major research centers are in the task of improving the network performance to mitigate the bottle neck phenomenon regarding capacity and high transmission rates in information and data. The implementation of standard HbbTV (Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV), and technological platforms OTT (Over the Top), capable of distributing video, audio, TV, and other Internet services via devices connected directly to the cloud. Therefore a model to improve the transmission capacity required by content distribution networks (CDN) for online TV, with high-capacity optical networks is proposed.

  15. Voting rights for alien residents--who wants it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, K R

    1985-01-01

    Foreign nationals permanently domiciled in Sweden have been entitled since 1975 to vote and to municipal and county council elections. This article examines some of the major issues associated with international migration and disenfranchisement of migrants created by a contradiction between economic and political rationale. The alien population of Sweden remained small for a long time, but during the 1960s it rose 1st to 300,000 and later to 400,000 persons. Since 1970, aliens have constituted roughly 5% of the total national population of 8.3 million. Surveys following the 3 elections held in Sweden so far have shown immigrants to be quite well informed concerning election procedures and the parties. In contrast to single males, women with children tend to be highly stable, because of favorable social security for women, particularly for women with children. Participation elections among women (55%) is higher than among men (49%), and married women (58%) are usually the highest participants. Class-voting is still rather strong in Sweden; the percentage difference in preference for Socialist parties between working-class and middle-class was as high 55% in 1960. Long term trends in the distribution of party-preference among immigrants are determined to a large extent by the policy on immigration regulation and political asylum for refugees and exiles. Another selectivity is due to the differential remigration rate. A 1976 study showed that although local franchise of immigrants is now the law of the land, some Swedes are still against the granting of voting rights and electability to immigrants. On the whole, there is clearly a psychological environment conducive, at least in Stockholm, to the task of putting local franchise reform into real practice.

  16. Mesh Denoising based on Normal Voting Tensor and Binary Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sunil Kumar; Reitebuch, Ulrich; Polthier, Konrad

    2017-08-17

    This paper presents a two-stage mesh denoising algorithm. Unlike other traditional averaging approaches, our approach uses an element-based normal voting tensor to compute smooth surfaces. By introducing a binary optimization on the proposed tensor together with a local binary neighborhood concept, our algorithm better retains sharp features and produces smoother umbilical regions than previous approaches. On top of that, we provide a stochastic analysis on the different kinds of noise based on the average edge length. The quantitative results demonstrate that the performance of our method is better compared to state-of-the-art smoothing approaches.

  17. A Type Theoretic Investigation of the Verification of Voting Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel

    is correct, and on the other hand we can we trust that the secrecy of the vote is preserved. These seemingly contradictory statements have fuelled new developments in cryptography, but the question remain can we trust these developments? The thesis of my dissertation is that it possible to formalise...... and calculation of probabilities, in particular ∑-types are used as they correspond to summation. Furthermore, I extend the type theory with process algebraic constructions in order to capture attack games as defined by semantic security in cryptography. To type these processes I propose a session type system...

  18. General Election 2004: Empirical Validation of Voting Pattern in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Arabi Idid

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The purpose of this study is to test the effects of the politically related socio-economic issues, personality of the new Prime Minister and the perceived strength of the ruling party, Barisan Nasional (BN, in influencing the outcomes of elections. It uses the data from the Star-IIUM Survey 2004 and the official election results of general election 2004 for the three northern states of Malaysia and applies the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The study found that the personal attributes of the Prime Minister, the strength of the ruling party and the campaign issues positively influenced the popular votes secured by the BN candidates.

  19. Marijuana policy opinions in Washington state since legalization: Would voters vote the same way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Kerr, William C

    2016-12-01

    In 2012, voters in Washington state approved Initiative 502 (I-502) which legalized recreational marijuana use at the state level. This study examines the relationship between demographics, marijuana and alcohol use, and voting outcomes, as well as how these variables relate to (i) whether voters would still vote the same way (a reflection of satisfaction with the new policy) and (ii) the likelihood of using marijuana purchased from legal retail stores. The sample consists of 2,007 adult Washington state residents recruited through Random Digit Dial between January and October 2014. Bivariate tests and multivariable regressions were used for analyses. Less than five percent of those who voted for marijuana legalization would change their votes, whereas 14% of those who voted against legalization would change their votes. In multivariable models controlling for demographics, substance use, and marijuana-related opinions, those who voted for legalization had half the odds of changing their votes than those who voted against it. Among past-year non-marijuana users, almost 10% were somewhat/very likely to use marijuana if they could buy it from a legal store. Past marijuana use, the belief that adults should be allowed to grow marijuana for personal use, and the belief that marijuana is not very risky for health were all related to increased likelihood of using marijuana purchased from legal stores. Since November 2012, support for marijuana legalization in Washington state has increased; accounting for the proportion of voters who would change their votes suggests that I-502 would pass today with even more votes in favor.

  20. Three dimensional reconstruction of the human skeletal muscle mitochondrial network as a tool to assess mitochondrial content and structural organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Rannvá; Larsen, Steen; Dohlmann, Tine L

    2015-01-01

    a method to visualize mitochondrial networks in high resolution and assess mitochondrial volume. Methods: Confocal fluorescence microscopy imaging of mitochondrial network stains in human vastus lateralis single muscle fibers and, focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) imaging, combined...... mitochondrial dynamics in response to life-style interventions and/or in certain pathologies. Our results question the classification of mitochondria into subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar pools, since they are physically interconnected. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  1. Pushing the Quality Level in Networked News Business: Semantic-Based Content Retrieval and Composition in International News Publishing

    OpenAIRE

    M.W. Schranz

    2006-01-01

    Electronic publishing exploits numerous possibilities to present or exchange information and to communicate via most current media like the Internet. By utilizing modern Web technologies like Web Services, loosely coupled services, and peer-to-peer networks we describe the integration of an intelligent business news presentation and distribution network. Employing semantics technologies enables the coupling of multinational and multilingual business news data on a scaleable international leve...

  2. Effect of Maleic Acid Content on the Thermal Stability, Swelling Behaviour and Network Structure of Gelatin -Based Hydrogels Prepared by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, M.; Dessouki, A.M.; Abdel-Ghaffar, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The preparation of highly swelling hydrogels containing diprotic acid and gelatin carried out by gamma-irradiation of acrylamide/maleic acid/gelatine/water mixture at ambient temperature. Poly (acrylamide/maleic acid/gelatin) p(AAm/MA/G) hydrogels were prepared in different MA and G contents at low dose rate (0.94 kGy/h), and moderate dose rate (3.84 kGy/h). The prepared hydrogels were confirmed by FT1R . The effect of copolymer composition, dose and dose rate on the swelling behaviour and the type of water diffusion in the network structure of the hydrogels was discussed. Increasing of MA content and G in the initial mixture leads to an increase in the amount of MA and G in the gel system and decrease in the gelation percent. The swelling behaviours of the hydrogel prepared at moderate dose rate increased with increasing MA mole content in the gel system. On the other hand, no systematic dependence of swelling on MA content was observed for the hydrogels obtained at low dose rate. Pore structure of the hydrogels was monitored by using scanning electron microscopy. Systematic swelling of P(AAm/MA/G) hydrogels prepared at moderate dose rates can be explained by the homogeneous pore size distribution of network. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was employed to study the effect of network structure formation on the thermal behavior of the copolymer. To give a better understanding of the thermal stability of polymers, the rate of the thermal decomposition of P(AAm/MA/G) hydrogels has been evaluated

  3. An Improved Evolutionary Programming with Voting and Elitist Dispersal Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Sayan; Gunjan, Kumar; Das, Swagatam

    Although initially conceived for evolving finite state machines, Evolutionary Programming (EP), in its present form, is largely used as a powerful real parameter optimizer. For function optimization, EP mainly relies on its mutation operators. Over past few years several mutation operators have been proposed to improve the performance of EP on a wide variety of numerical benchmarks. However, unlike real-coded GAs, there has been no fitness-induced bias in parent selection for mutation in EP. That means the i-th population member is selected deterministically for mutation and creation of the i-th offspring in each generation. In this article we present an improved EP variant called Evolutionary Programming with Voting and Elitist Dispersal (EPVE). The scheme encompasses a voting process which not only gives importance to best solutions but also consider those solutions which are converging fast. By introducing Elitist Dispersal Scheme we maintain the elitism by keeping the potential solutions intact and other solutions are perturbed accordingly, so that those come out of the local minima. By applying these two techniques we can be able to explore those regions which have not been explored so far that may contain optima. Comparison with the recent and best-known versions of EP over 25 benchmark functions from the CEC (Congress on Evolutionary Computation) 2005 test-suite for real parameter optimization reflects the superiority of the new scheme in terms of final accuracy, speed, and robustness.

  4. Ising percolation in a three-state majority vote model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balankin, Alexander S., E-mail: abalankin@ipn.mx [Grupo Mecánica Fractal, ESIME, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Martínez-Cruz, M.A.; Gayosso Martínez, Felipe [Grupo Mecánica Fractal, ESIME, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Mena, Baltasar [Laboratorio de Ingeniería y Procesos Costeros, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sisal, Yucatán, 97355 (Mexico); Tobon, Atalo; Patiño-Ortiz, Julián; Patiño-Ortiz, Miguel; Samayoa, Didier [Grupo Mecánica Fractal, ESIME, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico)

    2017-02-05

    Highlights: • Three-state non-consensus majority voter model is introduced. • Phase transition in the absorbing state non-consensus is revealed. • The percolation transition belongs to the universality class of Ising percolation. • The effect of an updating rule for a tie between voter neighbors is highlighted. - Abstract: In this Letter, we introduce a three-state majority vote model in which each voter adopts a state of a majority of its active neighbors, if exist, but the voter becomes uncommitted if its active neighbors are in a tie, or all neighbors are the uncommitted. Numerical simulations were performed on square lattices of different linear size with periodic boundary conditions. Starting from a random distribution of active voters, the model leads to a stable non-consensus state in which three opinions coexist. We found that the “magnetization” of the non-consensus state and the concentration of uncommitted voters in it are governed by an initial composition of system and are independent of the lattice size. Furthermore, we found that a configuration of the stable non-consensus state undergoes a second order percolation transition at a critical concentration of voters holding the same opinion. Numerical simulations suggest that this transition belongs to the same universality class as the Ising percolation. These findings highlight the effect of an updating rule for a tie between voter neighbors on the critical behavior of models obeying the majority vote rule whenever a strict majority exists.

  5. Ising percolation in a three-state majority vote model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balankin, Alexander S.; Martínez-Cruz, M.A.; Gayosso Martínez, Felipe; Mena, Baltasar; Tobon, Atalo; Patiño-Ortiz, Julián; Patiño-Ortiz, Miguel; Samayoa, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-state non-consensus majority voter model is introduced. • Phase transition in the absorbing state non-consensus is revealed. • The percolation transition belongs to the universality class of Ising percolation. • The effect of an updating rule for a tie between voter neighbors is highlighted. - Abstract: In this Letter, we introduce a three-state majority vote model in which each voter adopts a state of a majority of its active neighbors, if exist, but the voter becomes uncommitted if its active neighbors are in a tie, or all neighbors are the uncommitted. Numerical simulations were performed on square lattices of different linear size with periodic boundary conditions. Starting from a random distribution of active voters, the model leads to a stable non-consensus state in which three opinions coexist. We found that the “magnetization” of the non-consensus state and the concentration of uncommitted voters in it are governed by an initial composition of system and are independent of the lattice size. Furthermore, we found that a configuration of the stable non-consensus state undergoes a second order percolation transition at a critical concentration of voters holding the same opinion. Numerical simulations suggest that this transition belongs to the same universality class as the Ising percolation. These findings highlight the effect of an updating rule for a tie between voter neighbors on the critical behavior of models obeying the majority vote rule whenever a strict majority exists.

  6. Ising percolation in a three-state majority vote model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balankin, Alexander S.; Martínez-Cruz, M. A.; Gayosso Martínez, Felipe; Mena, Baltasar; Tobon, Atalo; Patiño-Ortiz, Julián; Patiño-Ortiz, Miguel; Samayoa, Didier

    2017-02-01

    In this Letter, we introduce a three-state majority vote model in which each voter adopts a state of a majority of its active neighbors, if exist, but the voter becomes uncommitted if its active neighbors are in a tie, or all neighbors are the uncommitted. Numerical simulations were performed on square lattices of different linear size with periodic boundary conditions. Starting from a random distribution of active voters, the model leads to a stable non-consensus state in which three opinions coexist. We found that the "magnetization" of the non-consensus state and the concentration of uncommitted voters in it are governed by an initial composition of system and are independent of the lattice size. Furthermore, we found that a configuration of the stable non-consensus state undergoes a second order percolation transition at a critical concentration of voters holding the same opinion. Numerical simulations suggest that this transition belongs to the same universality class as the Ising percolation. These findings highlight the effect of an updating rule for a tie between voter neighbors on the critical behavior of models obeying the majority vote rule whenever a strict majority exists.

  7. The application of artificial neural networks and support vector regression for simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of commercial eye drop contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Maryam; Sohrabi, Mahmoud Reza

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector regression (SVR) as intelligent methods coupled with UV spectroscopy for simultaneous quantitative determination of Dorzolamide (DOR) and Timolol (TIM) in eye drop. Several synthetic mixtures were analyzed for validating the proposed methods. At first, neural network time series, which one type of network from the artificial neural network was employed and its efficiency was evaluated. Afterwards, the radial basis network was applied as another neural network. Results showed that the performance of this method is suitable for predicting. Finally, support vector regression was proposed to construct the Zilomole prediction model. Also, root mean square error (RMSE) and mean recovery (%) were calculated for SVR method. Moreover, the proposed methods were compared to the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a reference method. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test at the 95% confidence level applied to the comparison results of suggested and reference methods that there were no significant differences between them. Also, the effect of interferences was investigated in spike solutions.

  8. Policy voting, projection, and persuasion: an application of balance theory to electoral behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Max; Visser, Max

    1994-01-01

    In this article differences between rational, policy-based, and rationalized voting are discussed, and it is argued that these forms of electoral decision making are not properly analyzed in existing electoral studies. Policy voting, persuasion, and projection are then redefined as three possible

  9. Accuracy gains of adding vote expectation surveys to a combined forecast of US presidential election outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Graefe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In averaging forecasts within and across four-component methods (i.e. polls, prediction markets, expert judgment and quantitative models, the combined PollyVote provided highly accurate predictions for the US presidential elections from 1992 to 2012. This research note shows that the PollyVote would have also outperformed vote expectation surveys, which prior research identified as the most accurate individual forecasting method during that time period. Adding vote expectations to the PollyVote would have further increased the accuracy of the combined forecast. Across the last 90 days prior to the six elections, a five-component PollyVote (i.e. including vote expectations would have yielded a mean absolute error of 1.08 percentage points, which is 7% lower than the corresponding error of the original four-component PollyVote. This study thus provides empirical evidence in support of two major findings from forecasting research. First, combining forecasts provides highly accurate predictions, which are difficult to beat for even the most accurate individual forecasting method available. Second, the accuracy of a combined forecast can be improved by adding component forecasts that rely on different data and different methods than the forecasts already included in the combination.

  10. 75 FR 1525 - Walnuts Grown in California; Changes to Regulations Governing Voting Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0... for voting by mail or telegram to include voting by e-mail and facsimile. In addition, reference to... U.S.C. 601-612), the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) has considered the economic impact of this...

  11. Class voting in Western industrialized countries, 1945-1990: Systematizing and testing explanations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwbeerta, P.; Ultee, W.C.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzing data obtained from the literature and our own calculations, significant differences were found among countries in their levels of class voting. The Scandinavian countries had the highest and Canada and the USA the lowest levels of class voting. Since the 1950s, there was a decline in

  12. Legality, separation of powers, stability of electoral law: The impact of new voting technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Driza Maurer, Ardita

    2016-01-01

    Legality, separation of powers and stability of electoral law are some of the principles of the European constitutional heritage. They should be respected and implemented throughout the electoral process, including when new voting technologies are used. This paper discusses e-voting specific implementations of the principles or challenges to it. Ongoing and proposed improvements in legislation or practice are pinpointed.

  13. Tensor voting for image correction by global and local intensity alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jiaya; Tang, Chi-Keung

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a voting method to perform image correction by global and local intensity alignment. The key to our modeless approach is the estimation of global and local replacement functions by reducing the complex estimation problem to the robust 2D tensor voting in the corresponding voting spaces. No complicated model for replacement function (curve) is assumed. Subject to the monotonic constraint only, we vote for an optimal replacement function by propagating the curve smoothness constraint using a dense tensor field. Our method effectively infers missing curve segments and rejects image outliers. Applications using our tensor voting approach are proposed and described. The first application consists of image mosaicking of static scenes, where the voted replacement functions are used in our iterative registration algorithm for computing the best warping matrix. In the presence of occlusion, our replacement function can be employed to construct a visually acceptable mosaic by detecting occlusion which has large and piecewise constant color. Furthermore, by the simultaneous consideration of color matches and spatial constraints in the voting space, we perform image intensity compensation and high contrast image correction using our voting framework, when only two defective input images are given.

  14. 75 FR 1614 - Submission for OMB Review-2010 Election Administration and Voting Survey; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... ballots cast; voter registration; overseas and military voting; Election Day activities; voting technology... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Karen Lynn-Dyson or Ms. Shelly Anderson at (202) 566-3100. SUPPLEMENTARY... transmitted, returned and submitted for counting (cast), and counted; (b) Total number of UOCAVA absentee...

  15. Ethics of e-voting: an essay on requirements and values in Internet elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Becker, M.J.; Mishra, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate ethical issues involved in the development and implementation of Internet voting technology. From a phenomenological perspective, we describe how voting via the Internet mediates the relation between people and democracy. In this relation, trust plays a major role. The

  16. Ethics of e-voting: an essay on requirements and values in Internet elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Brey, P.A.E.; Becker, M.J.; Grodzinsky, F.S.; Introna, L.D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate ethical issues involved in the development and implementation of Internet voting technology. From a phenomenological perspective, we describe how voting via the Internet mediates the relation between people and democracy. In this relation, trust plays a major role. The

  17. Analysing Vote Counting Algorithms Via Logic - And its Application to the CADE Election Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Beckert, Bernhard; Gore, Rejeev

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for using first-order logic to specify the semantics of preferences as used in common vote counting algorithms. We also present a corresponding system that uses Celf linear-logic programs to describe voting algorithms and which generates explicit examples when the algorithm de...

  18. Estimating the Preferences of Central Bankers : An Analysis of Four Voting Records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Mahieu, R.J.; Raes, L.B.D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyzes the voting records of four central banks (Sweden, Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic) with spatial models of voting. We infer the policy preferences of the monetary policy committee members and use these to analyze the evolution in preferences over time and the

  19. Estimating the preferences of central bankers : an analysis of four voting records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Mahieu, R.J.; Raes, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the voting records of four central banks (Sweden, Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic) with spatial models of voting. We infer the policy preferences of the monetary policy committee members and use these to analyze the evolution in preferences over time and the differences in

  20. Public Choice and Private Interest: Explaining the Vote for Property Tax Classification in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Howard S.

    1979-01-01

    Argues that citizens' perceptions of their monetary self-interest can markedly influence their votes and that such self-interested voting requires clear definition of the alternatives, widespread publicity about the issues, and a simple presentation of what each alternative implies. Available from NTA-TIA, 21 East State Street, Columbus, OH 43215.…

  1. Clickers and Classroom Voting in a Transition to Advanced Mathematics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, Shannon R.; Metcalf, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    Clickers and classroom voting are used across a number of disciplines in a variety of institutions. There are several papers that describe the use of clickers in mathematics classrooms such as precalculus, calculus, statistics, and even differential equations. This paper describes a method of incorporating clickers and classroom voting in a…

  2. Geography, culture, and religion: Explaining the bias in Eurovision song contest voting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierdijk, L.; Vellekoop, M.H.

    This paper analyses votes cast in the Eurovision Song Contest in the period 1975 - 2003. We test whether accusations of 'political' voting among participants can be substantiated by looking at geographical influences. Our approach differs in two ways from earlier studies. First, we take into account

  3. Can Governments Use Get Out the Vote Letters to Solve Europe’s Turnout Crisis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Dahlgaard, Jens Olav; Hansen, Jonas Hedegaard

    2018-01-01

    to vote in an upcoming Danish election is delivered to more than 60,000 first-time voters using direct personal letters. Eight different letters are designed, based on the calculus of voting and prospect theory. The sample is randomly divided into treatment groups or the control group. Using validated...

  4. A generalization of Paillier's public-key system with applications to electronic voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Jurik, Mads Johan; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2010-01-01

    schemes. We show how the basic scheme for a yes/no vote can be easily adapted to casting a vote for up to t out of L candidates. The same basic building blocks can also be adapted to provide receipt-free elections, under appropriate physical assumptions. The scheme for 1 out of L elections can...

  5. Framing Electoral Transparency: A comparative analysis of three e-votes counting ceremonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Markussen, Randi; Bélanger, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    in the field of e-voting has been proved to be di cult to tackle practically as well as analytically. In this paper we introduce the notion of ‘frames of transparency’ and deploy it to conduct a comparative analysis of three e-votes counting ceremonies in Norway, Estonia and Australia. We ask the question...

  6. Temptations of turnout and modernisation: e-voting discourses in the UK and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; van Haren, R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of the research described was to identify reasons for differences between discourses on electronic voting in the UK and The Netherlands, from a qualitative point of view. Design/methodology/approach – From both countries, eight e-voting experts were interviewed on their

  7. Underneath the culture of consensus: Transparency, credible commitments and voting in the Council of Ministers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finke, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The Council of Ministers rarely records negative individual votes, much less rejected proposals. The literature explains this high level of support by the Council’s ’culture of consensus’ and the few negative votes are explained as signalling to the domestic audience. We introduce an alternative...

  8. Modeling the Effects of Cu Content and Deformation Variables on the High-Temperature Flow Behavior of Dilute Al-Fe-Si Alloys Using an Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakiba, Mohammad; Parson, Nick; Chen, X-Grant

    2016-06-30

    The hot deformation behavior of Al-0.12Fe-0.1Si alloys with varied amounts of Cu (0.002-0.31 wt %) was investigated by uniaxial compression tests conducted at different temperatures (400 °C-550 °C) and strain rates (0.01-10 s -1 ). The results demonstrated that flow stress decreased with increasing deformation temperature and decreasing strain rate, while flow stress increased with increasing Cu content for all deformation conditions studied due to the solute drag effect. Based on the experimental data, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to study the relationship between chemical composition, deformation variables and high-temperature flow behavior. A three-layer feed-forward back-propagation artificial neural network with 20 neurons in a hidden layer was established in this study. The input parameters were Cu content, temperature, strain rate and strain, while the flow stress was the output. The performance of the proposed model was evaluated using the K-fold cross-validation method. The results showed excellent generalization capability of the developed model. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the strain rate is the most important parameter, while the Cu content exhibited a modest but significant influence on the flow stress.

  9. Periodic Discordance Between Vote Equality and Representational Equality in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Cowan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available American democracy has two central values that are often in tension: vote equality, that each vote has equal influence, and representational equality, that each elected official represents equal numbers of people. The electoral standard of “one person, one vote” ensures representational equality, and that often ensures vote equality. This relationship fails, however, under certain demographic conditions, namely, when a large, non-enfranchised population resides unevenly across jurisdictions. Then, representational equality is preserved and vote equality is violated. Prior to women’s suffrage, for example, western states had relatively fewer women than the remainder of the country, contributing to gross vote inequality, though rectified through extension of the franchise. Given recent high rates of immigration to some states, I ask whether the two values are in tension. I find that they are, and quantify the electoral consequences of this disjuncture at 13 House seats in 2010.

  10. A triangle voting algorithm based on double feature constraints for star sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qiaoyun; Zhong, Xuyang

    2018-02-01

    A novel autonomous star identification algorithm is presented in this study. In the proposed algorithm, each sensor star constructs multi-triangle with its bright neighbor stars and obtains its candidates by triangle voting process, in which the triangle is considered as the basic voting element. In order to accelerate the speed of this algorithm and reduce the required memory for star database, feature extraction is carried out to reduce the dimension of triangles and each triangle is described by its base and height. During the identification period, the voting scheme based on double feature constraints is proposed to implement triangle voting. This scheme guarantees that only the catalog star satisfying two features can vote for the sensor star, which improves the robustness towards false stars. The simulation and real star image test demonstrate that compared with the other two algorithms, the proposed algorithm is more robust towards position noise, magnitude noise and false stars.

  11. The Political Gender Gap: Gender Bias in Facial Inferences that Predict Voting Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Bowman, Nicholas E.; Gill, Harleen

    2008-01-01

    Background Throughout human history, a disproportionate degree of political power around the world has been held by men. Even in democracies where the opportunity to serve in top political positions is available to any individual elected by the majority of their constituents, most of the highest political offices are occupied by male leaders. What psychological factors underlie this political gender gap? Contrary to the notion that people use deliberate, rational strategies when deciding whom to vote for in major political elections, research indicates that people use shallow decision heuristics, such as impressions of competence solely from a candidate's facial appearance, when deciding whom to vote for. Because gender has previously been shown to affect a number of inferences made from the face, here we investigated the hypothesis that gender of both voter and candidate affects the kinds of facial impressions that predict voting behavior. Methodology/Principal Finding Male and female voters judged a series of male and female political candidates on how competent, dominant, attractive and approachable they seemed based on their facial appearance. Then they saw a series of pairs of political candidates and decided which politician they would vote for in a hypothetical election for President of the United States. Results indicate that both gender of voter and candidate affect the kinds of facial impressions that predict voting behavior. All voters are likely to vote for candidates who appear more competent. However, male candidates that appear more approachable and female candidates who appear more attractive are more likely to win votes. In particular, men are more likely to vote for attractive female candidates whereas women are more likely to vote for approachable male candidates. Conclusions/Significance Here we reveal gender biases in the intuitive heuristics that voters use when deciding whom to vote for in major political elections. Our findings underscore

  12. The political gender gap: gender bias in facial inferences that predict voting behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Y Chiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Throughout human history, a disproportionate degree of political power around the world has been held by men. Even in democracies where the opportunity to serve in top political positions is available to any individual elected by the majority of their constituents, most of the highest political offices are occupied by male leaders. What psychological factors underlie this political gender gap? Contrary to the notion that people use deliberate, rational strategies when deciding whom to vote for in major political elections, research indicates that people use shallow decision heuristics, such as impressions of competence solely from a candidate's facial appearance, when deciding whom to vote for. Because gender has previously been shown to affect a number of inferences made from the face, here we investigated the hypothesis that gender of both voter and candidate affects the kinds of facial impressions that predict voting behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Male and female voters judged a series of male and female political candidates on how competent, dominant, attractive and approachable they seemed based on their facial appearance. Then they saw a series of pairs of political candidates and decided which politician they would vote for in a hypothetical election for President of the United States. Results indicate that both gender of voter and candidate affect the kinds of facial impressions that predict voting behavior. All voters are likely to vote for candidates who appear more competent. However, male candidates that appear more approachable and female candidates who appear more attractive are more likely to win votes. In particular, men are more likely to vote for attractive female candidates whereas women are more likely to vote for approachable male candidates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we reveal gender biases in the intuitive heuristics that voters use when deciding whom to vote for in major political elections. Our

  13. Multimedia content classification metrics for content adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Rui; Andrade, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Multimedia content consumption is very popular nowadays. However, not every content can be consumed in its original format: the combination of content, transport and access networks, consumption device and usage environment characteristics may all pose restrictions to that purpose. One way to provide the best possible quality to the user is to adapt the content according to these restrictions as well as user preferences. This adaptation stage can be best executed if knowledge about the conten...

  14. Multimedia content classification metrics for content adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Rui; Andrade, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Multimedia content consumption is very popular nowadays. However, not every content can be consumed in its original format: the combination of content, transport and access networks, consumption device and usage environment characteristics may all pose restrictions to that purpose. One way to provide the best possible quality to the user is to adapt the content according to these restrictions as well as user preferences. This adaptation stage can be best executed if knowledge about the conten...

  15. Democratic accountability and the votes for nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, F

    1980-10-01

    Political aspects of nuclear energy figured in United Kingdom elections during the 1970s as the issue of risks aroused popular interest. The failure of such a complex issue to make an impact at the polls reflects certain electoral inadequacies in the democratic process in that too much time elapsed between opportunities for citizens to express their will and this resulted in pressure groups replacing referenda. Nuclear issues illustrate the dilemma of risk assignment and risk assignment when the perception of risks is not balanced by clear information about the benefits. True democratic accountability would allow citizens to vote directly on each major issue rather than periodically electing a representative with a package of unrelated positions. 7 references. (DCK)

  16. How campaigns enhance European issues voting during European Parliament elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Møller Hansen, Kasper; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2017-01-01

    Based on findings from the literature on campaign effects on the one hand, and the literature on European Parliament elections on the other, we propose a model of European Parliamentary elections in which the campaign shift the calculus of electoral support, making differences in national political...... allegiances less important and attitudes about the European project more important by informing voters of and getting them interested in European politics. In effect, we argue that the political campaign leading up to the election makes European Parliament elections less second-order. While previous studies...... have demonstrated that EU attitudes can matter for voting behavior in European Parliament elections, existing research has drawn on post-election surveys that do not enable us to capture campaign effects. Our contribution is to assess the impact of a campaign by utilizing a rolling cross sectional...

  17. Toward protocols for quantum-ensured privacy and secure voting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanome, Marianna; Buzek, Vladimir; Ziman, Mario; Hillery, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We present a number of schemes that use quantum mechanics to preserve privacy, in particular, we show that entangled quantum states can be useful in maintaining privacy. We further develop our original proposal [see M. Hillery, M. Ziman, V. Buzek, and M. Bielikova, Phys. Lett. A 349, 75 (2006)] for protecting privacy in voting, and examine its security under certain types of attacks, in particular dishonest voters and external eavesdroppers. A variation of these quantum-based schemes can be used for multiparty function evaluation. We consider functions corresponding to group multiplication of N group elements, with each element chosen by a different party. We show how quantum mechanics can be useful in maintaining the privacy of the choices group elements.

  18. Toward protocols for quantum-ensured privacy and secure voting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanome, Marianna [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, New York City College of Technology, 300 Jay Street, Brooklyn, New York 11201 (United States); Buzek, Vladimir; Ziman, Mario [Research Center for Quantum Information, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanicka 68a, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Hillery, Mark [Department of Physics, Hunter College of CUNY, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10021 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    We present a number of schemes that use quantum mechanics to preserve privacy, in particular, we show that entangled quantum states can be useful in maintaining privacy. We further develop our original proposal [see M. Hillery, M. Ziman, V. Buzek, and M. Bielikova, Phys. Lett. A 349, 75 (2006)] for protecting privacy in voting, and examine its security under certain types of attacks, in particular dishonest voters and external eavesdroppers. A variation of these quantum-based schemes can be used for multiparty function evaluation. We consider functions corresponding to group multiplication of N group elements, with each element chosen by a different party. We show how quantum mechanics can be useful in maintaining the privacy of the choices group elements.

  19. A Field-Scale Sensor Network Data Set for Monitoring and Modeling the Spatial and Temporal Variation of Soil Water Content in a Dryland Agricultural Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasch, C. K.; Brown, D. J.; Campbell, C. S.; Cobos, D. R.; Brooks, E. S.; Chahal, M.; Poggio, M.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a soil water content monitoring data set and auxiliary data collected at a 37 ha experimental no-till farm in the Northwestern United States. Water content measurements have been compiled hourly since 2007 by ECH2O-TE and 5TE sensors installed at 42 locations and five depths (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 m, 210 sensors total) across the R.J. Cook Agronomy Farm, a Long-Term Agro-Ecosystem Research Site stationed on complex terrain in a Mediterranean climate. In addition to soil water content readings, the data set includes hourly and daily soil temperature readings, annual crop histories, a digital elevation model, Bt horizon maps, seasonal apparent electrical conductivity, soil texture, and soil bulk density. Meteorological records are also available for this location. We discuss the unique challenges of maintaining the network on an operating farm and demonstrate the nature and complexity of the soil water content data. This data set is accessible online through the National Agriculture Library, has been assigned a DOI, and will be maintained for the long term.

  20. Analysis on the Content, Features and Formation of Motivation on Strategic Network%企业战略网络内涵、特征及形成动因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇; 张敬文; 阮平南

    2011-01-01

    在梳理战略网络理论相关研究的基础上,对战略网络内涵和特征进行重新界定,并对战略网络形成动因进行深入研究.%Based on the research of strategic network theory, this paper re - defines the content and characteristics of strategic network. At last, it studies the causes for the formation of strategic network.

  1. Diverging Life Expectancies and Voting Patterns in the 2016 US Presidential Election

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To assess whether voting patterns in the 2016 US presidential election were correlated with long-run trends in county life expectancy. Methods. I examined county-level voting data from the 2008 and 2016 presidential elections and assessed Donald Trump’s share of the 2016 vote, change in the Republican vote share between 2008 and 2016, and changes in absolute numbers of Democratic and Republican votes. County-level estimates of life expectancy at birth were obtained for 1980 and 2014 from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Results. Changes in county life expectancy from 1980 to 2014 were strongly negatively associated with Trump’s vote share, with less support for Trump in counties experiencing greater survival gains. Counties in which life expectancy stagnated or declined saw a 10-percentage-point increase in the Republican vote share between 2008 and 2016. Conclusions. Residents of counties left out from broader life expectancy gains abandoned the Democratic Party in the 2016 presidential election. Since coming to power, the Trump administration has proposed cuts to health insurance for the poor, social programs, health research, and environmental and worker protections, which are key determinants of population health. Health gaps likely will continue to widen without significant public investment in population health. PMID:28817322

  2. Applying voting theory in natural resource management: a case of multiple-criteria group decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen, Sanna; Kangas, Annika; Kangas, Jyrki

    2002-02-01

    Voting theory has a lot in common with utility theory, and especially with group decision-making. An expected-utility-maximising strategy exists in voting situations, as well as in decision-making situations. Therefore, it is natural to utilise the achievements of voting theory also in group decision-making. Most voting systems are based on a single criterion or holistic preference information on decision alternatives. However, a voting scheme called multicriteria approval is specially developed for decision-making situations with multiple criteria. This study considers the voting theory from the group decision support point of view and compares it with some other methods applied to similar purposes in natural resource management. A case study is presented, where the approval voting approach is introduced to natural resources planning and tested in a forestry group decision-making process. Applying multicriteria approval method was found to be a potential approach for handling some challenges typical for forestry group decision support. These challenges include (i) utilising ordinal information in the evaluation of decision alternatives, (ii) being readily understandable for and treating equally all the stakeholders in possession of different levels of knowledge on the subject considered, (iii) fast and cheap acquisition of preference information from several stakeholders, and (iv) dealing with multiple criteria.

  3. Diverging Life Expectancies and Voting Patterns in the 2016 US Presidential Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Jacob

    2017-10-01

    To assess whether voting patterns in the 2016 US presidential election were correlated with long-run trends in county life expectancy. I examined county-level voting data from the 2008 and 2016 presidential elections and assessed Donald Trump's share of the 2016 vote, change in the Republican vote share between 2008 and 2016, and changes in absolute numbers of Democratic and Republican votes. County-level estimates of life expectancy at birth were obtained for 1980 and 2014 from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Changes in county life expectancy from 1980 to 2014 were strongly negatively associated with Trump's vote share, with less support for Trump in counties experiencing greater survival gains. Counties in which life expectancy stagnated or declined saw a 10-percentage-point increase in the Republican vote share between 2008 and 2016. Residents of counties left out from broader life expectancy gains abandoned the Democratic Party in the 2016 presidential election. Since coming to power, the Trump administration has proposed cuts to health insurance for the poor, social programs, health research, and environmental and worker protections, which are key determinants of population health. Health gaps likely will continue to widen without significant public investment in population health.

  4. Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Rauno Lindholm, Daniel; Boisen Devantier, Lykke; Nyborg, Karoline Lykke; Høgsbro, Andreas; Fries, de; Skovlund, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine what influencing factor that has had an impact on the presumed increasement of the use of networking among academics on the labour market and how it is expressed. On the basis of the influence from globalization on the labour market it can be concluded that the globalization has transformed the labour market into a market based on the organization of networks. In this new organization there is a greater emphasis on employees having social qualificati...

  5. Social video content delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Wenwu

    2016-01-01

    This brief presents new architecture and strategies for distribution of social video content. A primary framework for socially-aware video delivery and a thorough overview of the possible approaches is provided. The book identifies the unique characteristics of socially-aware video access and social content propagation, revealing the design and integration of individual modules that are aimed at enhancing user experience in the social network context. The change in video content generation, propagation, and consumption for online social networks, has significantly challenged the traditional video delivery paradigm. Given the massive amount of user-generated content shared in online social networks, users are now engaged as active participants in the social ecosystem rather than as passive receivers of media content. This revolution is being driven further by the deep penetration of 3G/4G wireless networks and smart mobile devices that are seamlessly integrated with online social networking and media-sharing s...

  6. Mental illness and the right to vote: a review of legislation across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhugra, Dinesh; Pathare, Soumitra; Gosavi, Chetna; Ventriglio, Antonio; Torales, Julio; Castaldelli-Maia, João; Tolentino, Edgardo Juan L; Ng, Roger

    2016-08-01

    The right to vote is an important right signifying freedom of thought as well as full citizenship in any setting. Right to vote is enshrined and protected by international human rights treaties. The right of 'everyone' to take part in the political process and elections is based on universal and equal suffrage. Although these International Conventions have been ratified by the large majority of United Nations Member States, their application across the globe is by no means universal. This study sets out to examine the domestic laws of UN Member States in order to explore whether individuals with mental health problems have the right to vote in actuality and, thu,s can participate in political life. Through various searches, electoral laws and Constitutions of 193 Member States of the United Nations were studied. The authors were able to find legislation and/or Constitutional provisions in 167 of the 193 Member States. Twenty-one countries (11%) only placed no restrictions on the right to vote by persons with mental health problems. Over one third of the countries (36%) deny all persons with any mental health problems a right to vote without any qualifier. Some of these discriminatory attitudes are reflected in the multiplicity of terms used to describe persons with mental health problems. Another 21 countries (11%) denied the right to vote to detained persons; of these, nine Member States specifically denied the right to vote to persons who were detained under the mental health law, while the remainder denied the right to vote to all those who were interdicted or judicially interdicted. It would appear that in many countries the denial of voting rights is attributed to a lack of ability to consent by the individuals with mental illness. Further exploration of explanation is required to understand these variations, which exist in spite of international treaties.

  7. County community health associations of net voting shift in the 2016 U.S. presidential election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfy, Jason H; Stewart, Charles; Bhambhani, Vijeta

    2017-01-01

    In the U.S. presidential election of 2016, substantial shift in voting patterns occurred relative to previous elections. Although this shift has been associated with both education and race, the extent to which this shift was related to public health status is unclear. To determine the extent to which county community health was associated with changes in voting between the presidential elections of 2016 and 2012. Ecological study with principal component analysis (PCA) using principal axis method to extract the components, then generalized linear regression. General community. All counties in the United States. Physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, percent food insecure, teen birth rate, primary care physician visit rate, age-adjusted mortality rate, violent crime rate, average health care costs, percent diabetic, and percent overweight or obese. The percentage of Donald Trump votes in 2016 minus percentage of Mitt Romney votes in 2012 ("net voting shift"). Complete public health data was available for 3,009 counties which were included in the analysis. The mean net voting shift was 5.4% (+/- 5.8%). Of these 3,009 counties, 2,641 (87.8%) had positive net voting shift (shifted towards Trump) and 368 counties (12.2%) had negative net voting shift (shifted away from Trump). The first principal component ("unhealthy score") accounted for 68% of the total variance in the data. The unhealthy score included all health variables except primary care physician rate, violent crime rate, and health care costs. The mean unhealthy score for counties was 0.39 (SD 0.16). Higher normalized unhealthy score was associated with positive net voting shift (22.1% shift per unit unhealthy, p Donald Trump in 2016 relative to Mitt Romney in 2012 and measures of poor public health. Although these results do not demonstrate causality, these results suggest a possible role for health status in political choices.

  8. Brix, pH and anthocyanin content determination in whole Port wine grape berries by hyperspectral imaging and neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Armando M.; Franco, Camilo; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results of measuring pH, sugars, and anthocyanin content of whole grape berries. The spectrum of each sample, composed of six whole grape berries, was collected using hyperspectral imaging in reflectance mode from 380 to 1028 nm. The spectra were converted to enological...... parameters by multilayer perceptrons created using 240 samples that were split for 7-fold cross-validation and test. The test set with 30 samples revealed R2 values of 0.73, 0.92 and 0.95 and RMSE of 0.18, 0.95 °Brix and 14 mg/l for pH, sugars and anthocyanin content, respectively. This is the only work, up...

  9. An Advanced Radiative Transfer and Neural Network Scheme and Evaluation for Estimating Water Vapor Content from MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebiao Mao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work made an improvement upon and a further evaluation of previous work for estimating water vapor content from near-infrared around 1 μm from MODIS data. The accuracy of RM-NN is determined by the complicated relationship of the geophysical parameters. An advanced scheme is proposed for building different training databases for different seasons in different regions to reduce the complexity. The training database includes three parts. The first part is a simulation database by MODTRAN for different weather conditions, which is made as a basic database; the second part is reliable field measurement data in observation stations; and the third part is the MYD05_L2 product on clear days, which is produced by the standard product algorithm for water vapor content. The comparative analyses based on simulation data indicate that maximum accuracy of single condition could be improved by about 34% relative to the “all conditions” results. Two study regions in China and America are selected as test areas, and the evaluation shows that the mean and the standard deviation of estimation error are about 0.08 g cm−2 and 0.09 g cm−2, respectively. All the analysis indicates that the advanced scheme can improve the retrieval accuracy of water vapor content, which can make full use of the advantages of previous methods.

  10. Workplace Characteristics and Working Class Vote for the Old and New Right

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph; Rennwald, Line

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on the role of plant size for working class vote. We argue that workplace size does matter for political behaviour. Workers in smaller plants are less unionized and therefore base their voting decisions more strongly on their cultural attitudes, which undermine the support...... for social democratic parties. Using data from the European Social Survey (2002–2010), we find that workers in small plants have more right-wing attitudes and, consequently, vote for new and old right parties, contrarily to workers in larger plants. Our research points towards important structural...... explanations of working class support for the right and its cross-national differences....

  11. Brief implicit association test: Validity and utility in prediction of voting behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Maša D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We employed the Brief Implicit Association Test (a recently developed short version of IAT to measure implicit political attitudes toward four political parties running for Serbian parliament. To test its criterion validity, we measured voting intention and actual voting behavior. In addition, we introduced political involvement as a potential moderator of the BIAT’s predictive and incremental validity. The BIAT demonstrated good internal and predictive validity, but lacked incremental validity over self-report measures. Predictive power of the BIAT was moderated by political involvement - the BIAT scores were stronger predictors of voting intention and behavior among voters highly involved in politics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018

  12. A New Proxy Electronic Voting Scheme Achieved by Six-Particle Entangled States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Ding, Li-Yuan; Jiang, Xiu-Li; Li, Peng-Fei

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we use quantum proxy signature to construct a new secret electronic voting scheme. In our scheme, six particles entangled states function as quantum channels. The voter Alice, the Vote Management Center Bob, the scrutineer Charlie only perform two particles measurements on the Bell bases to realize the electronic voting process. So the scheme reduces the technical difficulty and increases operation efficiency. We use quantum key distribution and one-time pad to guarantee its unconditional security. The significant advantage of our scheme is that transmitted information capacity is twice as much as the capacity of other schemes.

  13. Modelling of P2P-Based Video Sharing Performance for Content-Oriented Community-Based VoD Systems in Wireless Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The video sharing performance is a key factor for scalability and quality of service of P2P VoD systems in wireless mobile networks. There are some impact factors for the video sharing performance, such as available upload bandwidth, resource distribution in overlay networks, and mobility of mobile nodes. In this paper, we firstly model user behaviors: joining, playback, and departure for the content-oriented community-based VoD systems in wireless mobile networks and construct a resource assignment model by the analysis of transition of node state: suspend, wait, and playback. We analyze the influence of the above three factors: upload bandwidth, startup delay, and resource distribution for the sharing performance and QoS of systems. We further propose the improved resource sharing strategies from the perspectives of community architecture, resource distribution, and data transmission for the systems. Extensive tests show how the improved strategies achieve much better performance results in comparison with original strategies.

  14. Obtaining Networked Scintillation and Total Electron Content Data Across Africa and Asia: Partnering with the IHY/UNBSSI Developing Nations Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, K. M.; Basu, S.; Erickson, T.; Sunanda, B.; David, B.

    2005-12-01

    Under the Scintillation Network Decision Aid (SCINDA) project, scientists at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) have developed a sensor network for the purpose of monitoring low-latitude ionospheric total electron content (TEC) and scintillations associated with equatorial Spread F. In addition to monitoring GPS scintillations, TEC and VHF scintillations, the sensor package measures ionospheric drifts when irregularities are present providing important data on vertical electric fields in the F-region .The network currently consists of twelve stations distributed around the globe and the data have been used to conduct numerous studies on the characteristics and climatology of equatorial scintillation, including the impacts of magnetic storms on the equatorial ionosphere. Notably absent from the existing network are observing sites in Africa where both satellite observations and limited historical data sets suggest significant scintillation activity, though the detailed behavior and longitudinal variations across the continent are largely unknown. The latter aspect, in particular, is of great interest because of substantial changes in the orientation of the geomagnetic field in extreme West Africa that transition to a more uniform field geometry spanning the rest of the continent. Understanding the effects of these changes on scintillation climatology will provide new insights into the processes that trigger equatorial Spread F and assist researchers in developing improved forecasts of such activity. AFRL aims to establish 5-8 monitoring sites across equatorial Africa in collaboration with host nations participating in the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative during the IHY period. In addition to expanding scientific opportunities, it is hoped that these sites will lead to greater awareness of the significant space weather issues impacting Africa and result in enhanced international collaboration between both African and non-African scientists

  15. Team performance in networked supervisory control of unmanned air vehicles: effects of automation, working memory, and communication content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick, Ryan; Shaw, Tyler; de Visser, Ewart; Saqer, Haneen; Kidwell, Brian; Parasuraman, Raja

    2014-05-01

    Assess team performance within a net-worked supervisory control setting while manipulating automated decision aids and monitoring team communication and working memory ability. Networked systems such as multi-unmanned air vehicle (UAV) supervision have complex properties that make prediction of human-system performance difficult. Automated decision aid can provide valuable information to operators, individual abilities can limit or facilitate team performance, and team communication patterns can alter how effectively individuals work together. We hypothesized that reliable automation, higher working memory capacity, and increased communication rates of task-relevant information would offset performance decrements attributed to high task load. Two-person teams performed a simulated air defense task with two levels of task load and three levels of automated aid reliability. Teams communicated and received decision aid messages via chat window text messages. Task Load x Automation effects were significant across all performance measures. Reliable automation limited the decline in team performance with increasing task load. Average team spatial working memory was a stronger predictor than other measures of team working memory. Frequency of team rapport and enemy location communications positively related to team performance, and word count was negatively related to team performance. Reliable decision aiding mitigated team performance decline during increased task load during multi-UAV supervisory control. Team spatial working memory, communication of spatial information, and team rapport predicted team success. An automated decision aid can improve team performance under high task load. Assessment of spatial working memory and the communication of task-relevant information can help in operator and team selection in supervisory control systems.

  16. Imagining class : A study into material social class position, subjective identification, and voting behavior across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Hooge, L.; Achterberg, P.H.J.; Reeskens, T.

    2018-01-01

    The traditional approach to class voting has largely ignored the question whether material class positions coincide with subjective class identification. Following Sosnaud et al. (2013), this study evaluates party preferences when Europeans’ material and subjective social class do not coincide.

  17. A Voting TOPSIS Approach for Determining the Priorities of Areas Damaged in Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjin He

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the priority determination problem for areas that have been damaged during disasters. Relief distribution should be planned while considering the priorities of the damaged areas. To determine the priorities of the damaged areas, we first define four criteria and then propose a voting TOPSIS (technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution that utilizes the fuzzy pair-wise comparison, data envelopment analysis, and TOPSIS. Since the voting TOPSIS is based on the voting results of multiple experts, it can be applied to urgent situations quickly, regardless of the consistency of comparison, the number of alternatives, and the number of participating experts. The proposed approach is validated using a real-world case, and this case analysis shows that the voting TOPSIS is viable.

  18. Could the outcome of the 2016 US elections have been predicted from past voting patterns?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmitz, Peter MU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, a team of analysts has for some years been using statistical techniques to predict election outcomes during election nights in South Africa. The prediction method involves using statistical clusters based on past voting patterns...

  19. Addressing the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by voting by persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlawish, Jason H; Bonnie, Richard J; Appelbaum, Paul S; Lyketsos, Constantine; James, Bryan; Knopman, David; Patusky, Christopher; Kane, Rosalie A; Karlan, Pamela S

    2004-09-15

    This article addresses an emerging policy problem in the United States participation in the electoral process by citizens with dementia. At present, health care professionals, family caregivers, and long-term care staff lack adequate guidance to decide whether individuals with dementia should be precluded from or assisted in casting a ballot. Voting by persons with dementia raises a series of important questions about the autonomy of individuals with dementia, the integrity of the electoral process, and the prevention of fraud. Three subsidiary issues warrant special attention: development of a method to assess capacity to vote; identification of appropriate kinds of assistance to enable persons with cognitive impairment to vote; and formulation of uniform and workable policies for voting in long-term care settings. In some instances, extrapolation from existing policies and research permits reasonable recommendations to guide policy and practice. However, in other instances, additional research is necessary.

  20. 75 FR 27743 - Publication of State Plan Pursuant to the Help America Vote Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION Publication of State Plan Pursuant to the Help America Vote Act... previously submitted by New Mexico. DATES: This notice is effective upon publication in the Federal Register... 27744

  1. Iterative Tensor Voting for Perceptual Grouping of Ill-Defined Curvilinear Structures: Application to Adherens Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Leandro A.; Bebis, George; Parvin, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach is proposed for perceptual grouping and localization of ill-defined curvilinear structures. Our approach builds upon the tensor voting and the iterative voting frameworks. Its efficacy lies on iterative refinements of curvilinear structures by gradually shifting from an exploratory to an exploitative mode. Such a mode shifting is achieved by reducing the aperture of the tensor voting fields, which is shown to improve curve grouping and inference by enhancing the concentration of the votes over promising, salient structures. The proposed technique is applied to delineation of adherens junctions imaged through fluorescence microscopy. This class of membrane-bound macromolecules maintains tissue structural integrity and cell-cell interactions. Visually, it exhibits fibrous patterns that may be diffused, punctate and frequently perceptual. Besides the application to real data, the proposed method is compared to prior methods on synthetic and annotated real data, showing high precision rates. PMID:21421432

  2. Biases in the effects of family background characteristics on voting preference: The Dutch case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Graaf, N.D. de; Eisinga, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether intergenerational transmission of party preference is biased by retrospective and other-report measurement of family background characteristics [In our model the dependent variable is voting preference, while one of our explanatory variables is father's party

  3. Analyzing the determinants of the voting behavior using a genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vizcaíno-González

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using data about votes emitted by funds in meetings held by United States banks from 2003 to 2013, we apply a genetic algorithm to a set of financial variables in order to detect the determinants of the vote direction. Our findings indicate that there are three main explanatory factors: the market value of the firm, the shareholder activism measured as the total number of funds voting, and the temporal context, which reflects the influence of recent critical events affecting the banking industry, including bankruptcies, reputational failures, and mergers and acquisitions. As a result, considering that voting behavior has been empirically linked to reputational harms, these findings can be considered as a useful insight about the keys that should be taken into account in order to achieve an effective reputational risk management strategy.

  4. The strategic effect of the plurality vote at the district level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The plurality vote (first-past-the-post) is one of the most restrictive electoral systems used for parliamentary elections. Empirically, its deterring effect on small political parties has been widely studied at the national level, while theoretical arguments highlight its strategic effect...... at the district level. This paper argues that the strategic effect, reducing the votes expressed for minor parties in plurality vote systems, is uneven across districts. The strongest strategic effect is expected in very competitive constituencies, where the two strongest candidates are in close competition...... with each other. The paper estimates the effect empirically, based on electoral results for minor political parties from six parliamentary democracies using the plurality vote. The methodology proposed in this paper allows me to separate sociological or geographical factors from strategic factors affecting...

  5. 75 FR 57807 - Advisory Committee on Organ Transplantation; Request for Nominations for Voting Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... consists of up to 25 members, who are Special Government Employees, and 5 ex-officio, non-voting members... for appropriately qualified female, minority, or disabled candidates. Dated: September 15, 2010...

  6. 78 FR 49276 - Advisory Committee on Organ Transplantation; Request for Nominations for Voting Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... 25 members, who are Special Government Employees, and 5 ex-officio, non-voting members. Members and... committees; and therefore, extends particular encouragement to nominations for appropriately qualified female...

  7. 76 FR 1559 - Guidelines for the Use of Electronic Voting Systems in Union Officer Elections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Federal Voting Assistance Program (FVAP) and the Department of Defense's Business Transformation Agency....regulations.gov , and during normal business hours at the above address. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  8. Workplace characteristics and working class vote for the old and new right

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph; Rennwald, Line

    This paper focuses on the structural determinants of working class vote for new right and old right parties. We argue that the size of the company does matter in explaining the support of workers for these parties. In small-sized companies, there is greater proximity with the management than...... of old and new right parties - is strengthened. These arguments are tested through a set of multilevel models analysing the determinants of working class vote for new right parties in 16 European countries. Using data from the European Social Survey (2002-2010) and information on company size...... at the individual level, we find that workers in small companies are more right-wing and, consequently, vote for new and old right parties, whereas workers in larger companies are more likely to vote for social democrats indicating a continuation of the traditional working class milieu. This effect can be explained...

  9. Integrating multiple vegetation indices via an artificial neural network model for estimating the leaf chlorophyll content of Spartina alterniflora under interspecies competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pudong; Shi, Runhe; Zhang, Chao; Zeng, Yuyan; Wang, Jiapeng; Tao, Zhu; Gao, Wei

    2017-10-31

    The invasive species Spartina alterniflora and native species Phragmites australis display a significant co-occurrence zonation pattern and this co-exist region exerts most competitive situations between these two species, competing for the limited space, directly influencing the co-exist distribution in the future. However, these two species have different growth ratios in this area, which increase the difficulty to detect the distribution situation directly by remote sensing. As chlorophyll content is a key indicator of plant growth and physiological status, the objective of this study was to reduce the effect of interspecies competition when estimating Cab content; we evaluated 79 published representative indices to determine the optimal indices for estimating the chlorophyll a and b (Cab) content. After performing a sensitivity analysis for all 79 spectral indices, five spectral indices were selected and integrated using an artificial neural network (ANN) to estimate the Cab content of different competition ratios: the Gitelson ratio green index, the transformed chlorophyll absorption ratio index/optimized soil-adjusted vegetation index, the modified normalized difference vegetation index, the chlorophyll fluorescence index, and the Vogelmann chlorophyll index. The ANN method yielded better results (R 2  = 0.7110 and RMSE = 8.3829 μg cm -2 ) on average than the best single spectral index (R 2  = 0.6319 and RMSE = 9.3535 μg cm -2 ), representing an increase of 10.78% in R 2 and a decrease of 10.38% in RMSE. Our results indicated that integrating multiple vegetation indices with an ANN can alleviate the impact of interspecies competition and achieve higher estimation accuracy than the traditional approach using a single index.

  10. County community health associations of net voting shift in the 2016 U.S. presidential election.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason H Wasfy

    Full Text Available In the U.S. presidential election of 2016, substantial shift in voting patterns occurred relative to previous elections. Although this shift has been associated with both education and race, the extent to which this shift was related to public health status is unclear.To determine the extent to which county community health was associated with changes in voting between the presidential elections of 2016 and 2012.Ecological study with principal component analysis (PCA using principal axis method to extract the components, then generalized linear regression.General community.All counties in the United States.Physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, percent food insecure, teen birth rate, primary care physician visit rate, age-adjusted mortality rate, violent crime rate, average health care costs, percent diabetic, and percent overweight or obese.The percentage of Donald Trump votes in 2016 minus percentage of Mitt Romney votes in 2012 ("net voting shift".Complete public health data was available for 3,009 counties which were included in the analysis. The mean net voting shift was 5.4% (+/- 5.8%. Of these 3,009 counties, 2,641 (87.8% had positive net voting shift (shifted towards Trump and 368 counties (12.2% had negative net voting shift (shifted away from Trump. The first principal component ("unhealthy score" accounted for 68% of the total variance in the data. The unhealthy score included all health variables except primary care physician rate, violent crime rate, and health care costs. The mean unhealthy score for counties was 0.39 (SD 0.16. Higher normalized unhealthy score was associated with positive net voting shift (22.1% shift per unit unhealthy, p < 0.0001. This association was stronger in states that switched Electoral College votes from 2012 to 2016 than in other states (5.9% per unit unhealthy, p <0.0001.Substantial association exists between a shift toward voting for Donald Trump in 2016 relative to Mitt Romney in 2012

  11. Fibromodulin deficiency reduces collagen structural network but not glycosaminoglycan content in a syngeneic model of colon carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, P Olof; Kalamajski, Sebastian; Maccarana, Marco; Oldberg, Åke; Rubin, Kristofer

    2017-01-01

    Tumor barrier function in carcinoma represents a major challenge to treatment and is therefore an attractive target for increasing drug delivery. Variables related to tumor barrier include aberrant blood vessels, high interstitial fluid pressure, and the composition and structure of the extracellular matrix. One of the proteins associated with dense extracellular matrices is fibromodulin, a collagen fibrillogenesis modulator expressed in tumor stroma but scarce in normal loose connective tissues. Here, we investigated the effects of fibromodulin on stroma ECM in a syngeneic murine colon carcinoma model. We show that fibromodulin deficiency decreased collagen fibril thickness but glycosaminoglycan content and composition were unchanged. Furthermore, vascular density, pericyte coverage and macrophage amount were unaffected. Fibromodulin can therefore be a unique effector of dense collagen matrix assembly in tumor stroma and, without affecting other major matrix components or the cellular composition, can function as a main agent in tumor barrier function.

  12. A Closed-Form Solution to Tensor Voting: Theory and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Tai-Pang; Yeung, Sai-Kit; Jia, Jiaya; Tang, Chi-Keung; Medioni, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    We prove a closed-form solution to tensor voting (CFTV): given a point set in any dimensions, our closed-form solution provides an exact, continuous and efficient algorithm for computing a structure-aware tensor that simultaneously achieves salient structure detection and outlier attenuation. Using CFTV, we prove the convergence of tensor voting on a Markov random field (MRF), thus termed as MRFTV, where the structure-aware tensor at each input site reaches a stationary state upon convergence...

  13. Comments on "A closed-form solution to Tensor voting: theory and applications"

    OpenAIRE

    Maggiori, Emmanuel; Lotito, Pablo Andres; Manterola, Hugo Luis; del Fresno, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    We comment on a paper that describes a closed-form formulation to Tensor Voting, a technique to perceptually group clouds of points, usually applied to infer features in images. The authors proved an analytic solution to the technique, a highly relevant contribution considering that the original formulation required numerical integration, a time-consuming task. Their work constitutes the first closed-form expression for the Tensor Voting framework. In this work we first observe that the propo...

  14. Using Instant Messaging Systems as a Platform for Electronic Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meletiadou, Anastasia; Grimm, Rüdiger

    Many Instant Messaging (IM) systems like Skype or Spark offer ex tended services such as file sharing, VoIP, or a shared whiteboard. As the name suggests, IM applications are predominantly used for spontaneous text-based communication for private or business purposes. In this paper we explore their potential to serve as platforms for secure collaborative applications like electronic contract negotiation, e-payment or electronic voting. Such applications have to deal with challenges like time constraints (“instant” com munication is desired), integration of media channels and the absence of one uni fying “sphere of control” covering all participants. In this paper, we address these challenges by discussing one particular secure collaborative application: secure decision processes for small groups. We provide the following contribu tions: (1) we define three varying scenarios and corresponding security require ments (2) we present an IM-based architecture implementing these scenarios, in cluding a Video-based authentication mechanism, and (3) we discuss poten tial attack patterns.

  15. Speaker gender identification based on majority vote classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezghani, Eya; Charfeddine, Maha; Nicolas, Henri; Ben Amar, Chokri

    2017-03-01

    Speaker gender identification is considered among the most important tools in several multimedia applications namely in automatic speech recognition, interactive voice response systems and audio browsing systems. Gender identification systems performance is closely linked to the selected feature set and the employed classification model. Typical techniques are based on selecting the best performing classification method or searching optimum tuning of one classifier parameters through experimentation. In this paper, we consider a relevant and rich set of features involving pitch, MFCCs as well as other temporal and frequency-domain descriptors. Five classification models including decision tree, discriminant analysis, nave Bayes, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor was experimented. The three best perming classifiers among the five ones will contribute by majority voting between their scores. Experimentations were performed on three different datasets spoken in three languages: English, German and Arabic in order to validate language independency of the proposed scheme. Results confirm that the presented system has reached a satisfying accuracy rate and promising classification performance thanks to the discriminating abilities and diversity of the used features combined with mid-level statistics.

  16. Robust estimation of adaptive tensors of curvature by tensor voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wai-Shun; Tang, Chi-Keung

    2005-03-01

    Although curvature estimation from a given mesh or regularly sampled point set is a well-studied problem, it is still challenging when the input consists of a cloud of unstructured points corrupted by misalignment error and outlier noise. Such input is ubiquitous in computer vision. In this paper, we propose a three-pass tensor voting algorithm to robustly estimate curvature tensors, from which accurate principal curvatures and directions can be calculated. Our quantitative estimation is an improvement over the previous two-pass algorithm, where only qualitative curvature estimation (sign of Gaussian curvature) is performed. To overcome misalignment errors, our improved method automatically corrects input point locations at subvoxel precision, which also rejects outliers that are uncorrectable. To adapt to different scales locally, we define the RadiusHit of a curvature tensor to quantify estimation accuracy and applicability. Our curvature estimation algorithm has been proven with detailed quantitative experiments, performing better in a variety of standard error metrics (percentage error in curvature magnitudes, absolute angle difference in curvature direction) in the presence of a large amount of misalignment noise.

  17. Robust membrane detection based on tensor voting for electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Antonio; Garcia, Inmaculada; Asano, Shoh; Lucic, Vladan; Fernandez, Jose-Jesus

    2014-04-01

    Electron tomography enables three-dimensional (3D) visualization and analysis of the subcellular architecture at a resolution of a few nanometers. Segmentation of structural components present in 3D images (tomograms) is often necessary for their interpretation. However, it is severely hampered by a number of factors that are inherent to electron tomography (e.g. noise, low contrast, distortion). Thus, there is a need for new and improved computational methods to facilitate this challenging task. In this work, we present a new method for membrane segmentation that is based on anisotropic propagation of the local structural information using the tensor voting algorithm. The local structure at each voxel is then refined according to the information received from other voxels. Because voxels belonging to the same membrane have coherent structural information, the underlying global structure is strengthened. In this way, local information is easily integrated at a global scale to yield segmented structures. This method performs well under low signal-to-noise ratio typically found in tomograms of vitrified samples under cryo-tomography conditions and can bridge gaps present on membranes. The performance of the method is demonstrated by applications to tomograms of different biological samples and by quantitative comparison with standard template matching procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stereo using monocular cues within the tensor voting framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordohai, Philippos; Medioni, Gérard

    2006-06-01

    We address the fundamental problem of matching in two static images. The remaining challenges are related to occlusion and lack of texture. Our approach addresses these difficulties within a perceptual organization framework, considering both binocular and monocular cues. Initially, matching candidates for all pixels are generated by a combination of matching techniques. The matching candidates are then embedded in disparity space, where perceptual organization takes place in 3D neighborhoods and, thus, does not suffer from problems associated with scanline or image neighborhoods. The assumption is that correct matches produce salient, coherent surfaces, while wrong ones do not. Matching candidates that are consistent with the surfaces are kept and grouped into smooth layers. Thus, we achieve surface segmentation based on geometric and not photometric properties. Surface overextensions, which are due to occlusion, can be corrected by removing matches whose projections are not consistent in color with their neighbors of the same surface in both images. Finally, the projections of the refined surfaces on both images are used to obtain disparity hypotheses for unmatched pixels. The final disparities are selected after a second tensor voting stage, during which information is propagated from more reliable pixels to less reliable ones. We present results on widely used benchmark stereo pairs.

  19. Inferring segmented dense motion layers using 5D tensor voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Changki; Medioni, Gérard

    2008-09-01

    We present a novel local spatiotemporal approach to produce motion segmentation and dense temporal trajectories from an image sequence. A common representation of image sequences is a 3D spatiotemporal volume, (x,y,t), and its corresponding mathematical formalism is the fiber bundle. However, directly enforcing the spatiotemporal smoothness constraint is difficult in the fiber bundle representation. Thus, we convert the representation into a new 5D space (x,y,t,vx,vy) with an additional velocity domain, where each moving object produces a separate 3D smooth layer. The smoothness constraint is now enforced by extracting 3D layers using the tensor voting framework in a single step that solves both correspondence and segmentation simultaneously. Motion segmentation is achieved by identifying those layers, and the dense temporal trajectories are obtained by converting the layers back into the fiber bundle representation. We proceed to address three applications (tracking, mosaic, and 3D reconstruction) that are hard to solve from the video stream directly because of the segmentation and dense matching steps, but become straightforward with our framework. The approach does not make restrictive assumptions about the observed scene or camera motion and is therefore generally applicable. We present results on a number of data sets.

  20. Imagining class: A study into material social class position, subjective identification, and voting behavior across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hooge, Lorenzo; Achterberg, Peter; Reeskens, Tim

    2018-02-01

    The traditional approach to class voting has largely ignored the question whether material class positions coincide with subjective class identification. Following Sosnaud et al. (2013), this study evaluates party preferences when Europeans' material and subjective social class do not coincide. Seminal studies on voting behavior have suggested that members of lower classes are more likely to vote for the economic left and cultural right and that higher classes demonstrate the opposite pattern. Yet, these studies have on the one hand overlooked the possibility that there is a mismatch between the material class people can be classified in and the class they think they are part of, and on the other hand the consequences of this discordant class identification on voting behavior. Analyzing the 2009 wave of the European Elections Study, we find that the majority of the Europeans discordantly identify with the middle class, whereas only a minority of the lower and higher classes concordantly identify with their material social class. Further, material class only seems to predict economic voting behavior when it coincides with subjective class; for instance, individuals who have an inflated class identification are more likely to vote for the economic left, even when they materially can be classified as middle or high class. We conclude this paper with a discussion on scholarly debates concerning class and politics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. World Wide Web voted most wonderful wonder by web-wide world

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The results are in, and the winner is...the World Wide Web! An online survey conducted by the CNN news group ranks the World Wide Web-invented at CERN--as the most wonderful of the seven modern wonders of the world. (See Bulletin No. 49/2006.) There is currently no speculation about whether they would have had the same results had they distributed the survey by post. The World Wide Web won with a whopping 50 per cent of the votes (3,665 votes). The runner up was CERN again, with 16 per cent of voters (1130 votes) casting the ballot in favour of the CERN particle accelerator. Stepping into place behind CERN and CERN is 'None of the Above' with 8 per cent of the votes (611 votes), followed by the development of Dubai (7%), the bionic arm (7%), China's Three Gorges Damn (5%), The Channel Tunnel (4%), and France's Millau viaduct (3%). Thanks to everyone from CERN who voted. You can view the results on http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2006/modern.wonders/

  2. Cortisol and politics: variance in voting behavior is predicted by baseline cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jeffrey A; Smith, Kevin B; Alford, John R; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K; Hibbing, John R

    2014-06-22

    Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Alternative majority-voting methods for real-time computing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang G.; Dolter, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Two techniques that provide a compromise between the high time overhead in maintaining synchronous voting and the difficulty of combining results in asynchronous voting are proposed. These techniques are specifically suited for real-time applications with a single-source/single-sink structure that need instantaneous error masking. They provide a compromise between a tightly synchronized system in which the synchronization overhead can be quite high, and an asynchronous system which lacks suitable algorithms for combining the output data. Both quorum-majority voting (QMV) and compare-majority voting (CMV) are most applicable to distributed real-time systems with single-source/single-sink tasks. All real-time systems eventually have to resolve their outputs into a single action at some stage. The development of the advanced information processing system (AIPS) and other similar systems serve to emphasize the importance of these techniques. Time bounds suggest that it is possible to reduce the overhead for quorum-majority voting to below that for synchronous voting. All the bounds assume that the computation phase is nonpreemptive and that there is no multitasking.

  4. Government instability shifts skin tone representations of and intentions to vote for political candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Chadly; Balcetis, Emily; Cole, Shana; West, Tessa V; Caruso, Eugene M

    2016-01-01

    Does government stability shift the way White and Black Americans represent and make voting decisions about political candidates? Participants judged how representative lightened, darkened, and unaltered photographs were of a racially ambiguous candidate ostensibly running for political office (Studies 1-3). When the governmental system was presented as stable, White participants who shared (vs. did not share) the candidate's political beliefs rated a lightened photo as more representative of the candidate, and Black participants who shared (vs. did not share) the candidate's political beliefs rated a darkened photo as more representative (Studies 1-3). However, under conditions of instability, both Whites and Blacks who shared (vs. did not share) the candidate's political beliefs rated a lightened photo as more representative (Study 3). Representations of (Studies 2 and 3) and actual differences in (Studies 4a and 4b) skin tone predicted intentions to vote for candidates, as a function of government stability and participants' race. Further evidence suggested that system stability shifted the motivations that guided voting decisions (Study 4a and 4b). When the system was stable, the motivation to enhance one's group predicted greater intentions to vote for lighter skinned candidates among Whites, and greater intentions to vote for darker skinned candidates among Blacks. When the system was unstable, however, lacking confidence in the sociopolitical system predicted intentions to vote for lighter skinned candidates among both Whites and Blacks. Implications for political leadership and social perception are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Cortisol and Politics: Variance in Voting Behavior is Predicted by Baseline Cortisol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Kevin B.; Alford, John R.; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K.; Hibbing, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity. PMID:24835544

  6. Two Studies on Twitter Networks and Tweet Content in Relation to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): Conversation, Information, and 'Diary of a Daily Life'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsley, Bronwyn; Palmer, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    To date, there is no research examining how adults with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) or Motor Neurone Disease (MND) and severe communication disability use Twitter, nor the use of Twitter in relation to ALS/MND beyond its use for fundraising and raising awareness. In this paper we (a) outline a rationale for the use of Twitter as a method of communication and information exchange for adults with ALS/MND, (b) detail multiple qualitative and quantitative methods used to analyse Twitter networks and tweet content in the our studies, and (c) present the results of two studies designed to provide insights on the use of Twitter by an adult with ALS/MND and by #ALS and #MND hashtag communities in Twitter. We will also discuss findings across the studies, implications for health service providers in Twitter, and directions for future Twitter research in relation to ALS/MND.

  7. Finding Multi-scale Connectivity in Our Geospace Observational System: A New Perspective for Total Electron Content Data Through Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranaghan, R. M.; Mannucci, A. J.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Malik, N.

    2017-12-01

    How do we evolve beyond current traditional methods in order to innovate into the future? In what disruptive innovations will the next frontier of space physics and aeronomy (SPA) be grounded? We believe the answer to these compelling, yet equally challenging, questions lies in a shift of focus: from a narrow, field-specific view to a radically inclusive, interdisciplinary new modus operandi at the intersection of SPA and the information and data sciences. Concretely addressing these broader themes, we present results from a novel technique for knowledge discovery in the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (MIT) system: complex network analysis (NA). We share findings from the first NA of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) data, including hemispheric and interplanetary magnetic field clock angle dependencies [1]. Our work shows that NA complements more traditional approaches for the investigation of TEC structure and dynamics, by both reaffirming well-established understanding, giving credence to the method, and identifying new connections, illustrating the exciting potential. We contextualize these new results through a discussion of the potential of data-driven discovery in the MIT system when innovative data science techniques are embraced. We address implications and potentially disruptive data analysis approaches for SPA in terms of: 1) the future of the geospace observational system; 2) understanding multi-scale phenomena; and 3) machine learning. [1] McGranaghan, R. M., A. J. Mannucci, O. Verkhoglyadova, and N. Malik (2017), Finding multiscale connectivity in our geospace observational system: Network analysis of total electron content, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 122, doi:10.1002/2017JA024202.

  8. Beyond Retinal Layers: A Deep Voting Model for Automated Geographic Atrophy Segmentation in SD-OCT Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zexuan; Chen, Qiang; Niu, Sijie; Leng, Theodore; Rubin, Daniel L

    2018-01-01

    To automatically and accurately segment geographic atrophy (GA) in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images by constructing a voting system with deep neural networks without the use of retinal layer segmentation. An automatic GA segmentation method for SD-OCT images based on the deep network was constructed. The structure of the deep network was composed of five layers, including one input layer, three hidden layers, and one output layer. During the training phase, the labeled A-scans with 1024 features were directly fed into the network as the input layer to obtain the deep representations. Then a soft-max classifier was trained to determine the label of each individual pixel. Finally, a voting decision strategy was used to refine the segmentation results among 10 trained models. Two image data sets with GA were used to evaluate the model. For the first dataset, our algorithm obtained a mean overlap ratio (OR) 86.94% ± 8.75%, absolute area difference (AAD) 11.49% ± 11.50%, and correlation coefficients (CC) 0.9857; for the second dataset, the mean OR, AAD, and CC of the proposed method were 81.66% ± 10.93%, 8.30% ± 9.09%, and 0.9952, respectively. The proposed algorithm was capable of improving over 5% and 10% segmentation accuracy, respectively, when compared with several state-of-the-art algorithms on two data sets. Without retinal layer segmentation, the proposed algorithm could produce higher segmentation accuracy and was more stable when compared with state-of-the-art methods that relied on retinal layer segmentation results. Our model may provide reliable GA segmentations from SD-OCT images and be useful in the clinical diagnosis of advanced nonexudative AMD. Based on the deep neural networks, this study presents an accurate GA segmentation method for SD-OCT images without using any retinal layer segmentation results, and may contribute to improved understanding of advanced nonexudative AMD.

  9. Design and implementation of I2Vote--an interactive image-based voting system using windows mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ooijen, P M A; Broekema, A; Oudkerk, M

    2011-08-01

    To develop, implement and test a novel audience response system (ARS) that allows image based interaction for radiology education. The ARS developed in this project is based on standard Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) (HP iPAQ 114 classic handheld) running Microsoft® Windows Mobile® 6 Classic with a large 3.5 in. TFT touch screen (320×240 pixel resolution), high luminance and integrated IEEE 802.11b/g wireless. For software development Visual Studio 2008 professional (Microsoft) was used and all components were written in C#. Two test sessions were conducted to test the software technically followed by two real classroom tests in a radiology class for medical students on thoracic radiology. The novel ARS, called I2Vote, was successfully implemented and provided an easy to use, stable setup. The acceptance of both students and teachers was very high and the interaction with the students improved because of the anonymous interaction possibility. An easy to use handheld based ARS that enables interactive, image-based, teaching is achieved. The system effectively adds an extra dimension to the use of an ARS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Role of Online Social Identity in the Relationship Between Alcohol-Related Content on Social Networking Sites and Adolescent Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, Karlee J; O'Donnell, Alexander W; Lala, Girish; Barber, Bonnie L

    2018-01-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) are social platforms that facilitate communication. For adolescents, peers play a crucial role in constructing the self online through displays of group norms on SNSs. The current study investigated the role of online social identity (OSI) in the relationship between adolescent exposure to alcohol-related content posted by peers on SNSs and alcohol use. In a sample (N = 929) of Australian adolescents (Age M = 17.25, SD = 0.31) higher levels of exposure to alcohol-related content on SNSs was associated with higher levels of alcohol use. Importantly, the association was stronger when the participants reported higher OSI particularly when also reporting low or moderate amount of time spent on SNS. The findings can be explained by social identity literature that demonstrates individuals align their behaviors with other members of their social group to demonstrate, enact, and maintain social identity. The results of this study reflect the importance of considering the construction of the "self" through online and offline constructs.

  11. The Role of Online Social Identity in the Relationship Between Alcohol-Related Content on Social Networking Sites and Adolescent Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Alexander W.; Lala, Girish; Barber, Bonnie L.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Social networking sites (SNSs) are social platforms that facilitate communication. For adolescents, peers play a crucial role in constructing the self online through displays of group norms on SNSs. The current study investigated the role of online social identity (OSI) in the relationship between adolescent exposure to alcohol-related content posted by peers on SNSs and alcohol use. In a sample (N = 929) of Australian adolescents (Age M = 17.25, SD = 0.31) higher levels of exposure to alcohol-related content on SNSs was associated with higher levels of alcohol use. Importantly, the association was stronger when the participants reported higher OSI particularly when also reporting low or moderate amount of time spent on SNS. The findings can be explained by social identity literature that demonstrates individuals align their behaviors with other members of their social group to demonstrate, enact, and maintain social identity. The results of this study reflect the importance of considering the construction of the “self” through online and offline constructs. PMID:28574719

  12. Prediction of Thermal Properties of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse as a Function of Moisture Content Using Artificial Neural Networks and Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosukonda Ramana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks (ANN and traditional regression models were developed for prediction of thermal properties of sweet sorghum bagasse as a function of moisture content and room temperature. Predictions were made for three thermal properties: 1 thermal conductivity, 2 volumetric specific heat, and 3 thermal diffusivity. Each thermal property had five levels of moisture content (8.52%, 12.93%, 18.94%, 24.63%, and 28.62%, w. b. and room temperature as inputs. Data were sub-partitioned for training, testing, and validation of models. Backpropagation (BP and Kalman Filter (KF learning algorithms were employed to develop nonparametric models between input and output data sets. Statistical indices including correlation coefficient (R between actual and predicted outputs were produced for selecting the suitable models. Prediction plots for thermal properties indicated that the ANN models had better accuracy from unseen patterns as compared to regression models. In general, ANN models were able to strongly generalize and interpolate unseen patterns within the domain of training.

  13. Measuring the Dynamics of Climate Change Communication in Mass Media and Social Networks with Computer-Assisted Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, A.; Stepchenkova, S.

    2012-12-01

    To date, multiple authors have examined media representations of and public attitudes towards climate change, as well as how these representations and attitudes differ from scientific knowledge on the issue of climate change. Content analysis of newspaper publications, TV news, and, recently, Internet blogs has allowed for identification of major discussion themes within the climate change domain (e.g., newspaper trends, comparison of climate change discourse in different countries, contrasting liberal vs. conservative press). The majority of these studies, however, have processed texts manually, limiting textual population size, restricting the analysis to a relatively small number of themes, and using time-expensive coding procedures. The use of computer-assisted text analysis (CATA) software is important because the difficulties with manual processing become more severe with an increased volume of data. We developed a CATA approach that allows a large body of text materials to be surveyed in a quantifiable, objective, transparent, and time-efficient manner. While staying within the quantitative tradition of content analysis, the approach allows for an interpretation of the public discourse closer to one of more qualitatively oriented methods. The methodology used in this study contains several steps: (1) sample selection; (2) data preparation for computer processing and obtaining a matrix of keyword frequencies; (3) identification of themes in the texts using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA); (4) combining identified themes into higher order themes using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA); (5) interpretation of obtained public discourse themes using factor scores; and (6) tracking the development of the main themes of the climate change discourse through time. In the report, we concentrate on two examples of CATA applied to study public perception of climate change. First example is an analysis of temporal change in public discourse on climate change. Applying

  14. Push button parliament–why India needs a non-partisan, recorded vote system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalaka Patil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Decisions of national importance are made by Parliamentary voting. Yet Indian Members of Parliament (MPs vote with a remarkable lack of freedom and accountability. The introduction of the Tenth Schedule in the Constitution has crippled free expression, since it provides that MPs voting against ‘any direction’ of their Party are liable to disqualification from the legislature In addition, except for Constitutional amendments, Indian Parliamentary Procedure Rules do not require votes of MPs to be recorded unless the Speaker’s decision is contested in the House. The result is that voting in the House has become mechanical, controlled by Party politics and devoid of responsibility. This paper comments on a general theory of democratic accountability through the lens of Parliamentary voting. It suggests that the voting system adopted in the Parliament is an effective indicator to measure the level of accountability of its Members. In the context of India, this paper argues that the level of accountability will increase to a desirable extent only when there is adoption of a recorded system for every important House vote. Upon examination of India’s record thus far (through the sample of the 14th Lok Sabha it becomes evident that the level of divisions (recorded votes is substantially lower than other countries. This leads the paper to probe, as to why that might be the case. Part II of the paper answers that question by examining the Tenth Schedule of the Constitution. The paper scrutinizes the disproportionate influence of the Party in decision making in the Parliament. Apart from dealing with the inherent problem of the Tenth Schedule, this paper suggests two procedural changes to make parliamentary expression more meaningful. Firstly, the recording of all important votes within the Parliament and secondly, registering Party whips with the Minister of Parliamentary Affairs so that the voter knows the clear stand of every Parliamentary

  15. Push button parliament–why India needs a non-partisan, recorded vote system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalaka Patil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Decisions of national importance are made by Parliamentary voting. Yet Indian Members of Parliament (MPs vote with a remarkable lack of freedom and accountability. The introduction of the Tenth Schedule in the Constitution has crippled free expression, since it provides that MPs voting against ‘any direction’ of their Party are liable to disqualification from the legislature  In addition, except for Constitutional amendments, Indian Parliamentary Procedure Rules do not require votes of MPs to be recorded unless the Speaker’s decision is contested in the House. The result is that voting in the House has become mechanical, controlled by Party politics and devoid of responsibility. This paper comments on a general theory of democratic accountability through the lens of Parliamentary voting. It suggests that the voting system adopted in the Parliament is an effective indicator to measure the level of accountability of its Members. In the context of India, this paper argues that the level of accountability will increase to a desirable extent only when there is adoption of a recorded system for every important House vote. Upon examination of India’s record thus far (through the sample of the 14th Lok Sabha it becomes evident that the level of divisions (recorded votes is substantially lower than other countries. This leads the paper to probe, as to why that might be the case. Part II of the paper answers that question by examining the Tenth Schedule of the Constitution. The paper scrutinizes the disproportionate influence of the Party in decision making in the Parliament. Apart from dealing with the inherent problem of the Tenth Schedule, this paper suggests two procedural changes to make parliamentary expression more meaningful. Firstly, the recording of all important votes within the Parliament and secondly, registering Party whips with the Minister of Parliamentary Affairs so that the voter knows the clear stand of every Parliamentary

  16. Electronic voting to encourage interactive lectures: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer Edward

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic Voting Systems have been used for education in a variety of disciplines. Outcomes from these studies have been mixed. Because results from these studies have been mixed, we examined whether an EVS system could enhance a lecture's effect on educational outcomes. Methods A cohort of 127 Year 5 medical students at the University of Adelaide was stratified by gender, residency status and academic record then randomised into 2 groups of 64 and 63 students. Each group received consecutive 40-minute lectures on two clinical topics. One group received the EVS for both topics. The other group received traditional teaching only. Evaluation was undertaken with two, 15-question multiple-choice questionnaires (MCQ assessing knowledge and problem solving and undertaken as a written paper immediately before and after the lectures and repeated online 8–12 weeks later. Standardised institutional student questionnaires were completed for each lecture and independent observers assessed student behaviour during the lectures. Lecturer's opinions were assessed by a questionnaire developed for this study. Results Two-thirds of students randomised to EVS and 59% of students randomised to traditional lectures attended. One-half of the students in the EVS group and 41% in the traditional group completed all questionnaires. There was no difference in MCQ scores between EVS and traditional lectures (p = 0.785. The cervical cancer lectures showed higher student ranking in favour of EVS in all parameters. The breast cancer lectures showed higher ranking in favour of traditional lectures in 5 of 7 parameters (p Conclusion In this setting, EVS technology used in large group lectures did not offer significant advantages over the more traditional lecture format.

  17. An e-voting system for Android Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes López García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos electorales que utilizan dispositivos electrónicos permiten a los votantes emitir su voto de forma electrónica. Dispositivos tales como las computadoras de escritorio, las máquinas de registro directo (DRE, tarjetas inteligentes, etc., junto con las redes privadas o el Internet han sido las herramientas principales para implementar sistemas electrónicos de votación. Años atrás, los dispositivos móviles no habían sido considerados debido a sus restricciones en almacenamiento y poco poder de procesamiento; sin embargo, en la actualidad, la tecnología en estos dispositivos ha evolucionado, y es posible implementar aplicaciones cada vez más completas, que consideran los servicios de seguridad como son la confidencialidad y la autenticación. En este artículo, un sistema de votación electrónica (e-voting es implementado para teléfonos inteligentes Android. El sistema está compuesto de tres entidades: Servidor de Autenticación (SA, Servidor de Votación (SV y el votante (V el cual se ejecuta en un teléfono inteligente Android. Dos mensajes de longitud corta son necesarios para generar una boleta electrónica entre el V y el SA. Con la finalidad de emitir el voto, la boleta es enviada en un mensaje más, del V al SV. Las funciones de emparejamiento bilineales son usadas para verificar las firmas contenidas en la boleta electrónica, la cual tiene una longitud corta, por tanto, el tiempo de transmisión es muy corto. Adicionalmente, considerando que las operaciones más costosas, como el emparejamiento bilineal, no son ejecutadas en el V, los resultados obtenidos de las pruebas muestran que el sistema de votación electrónica es muy eficiente.

  18. Improved Vote Aggregation Techniques for the Geo-Wiki Cropland Capture Crowdsourcing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, Artem; Fritz, Steffen; Khachay, Michael; Nurmukhametov, Oleg; Salk, Carl; See, Linda; Shchepashchenko, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    Crowdsourcing is a new approach for solving data processing problems for which conventional methods appear to be inaccurate, expensive, or time-consuming. Nowadays, the development of new crowdsourcing techniques is mostly motivated by so called Big Data problems, including problems of assessment and clustering for large datasets obtained in aerospace imaging, remote sensing, and even in social network analysis. By involving volunteers from all over the world, the Geo-Wiki project tackles problems of environmental monitoring with applications to flood resilience, biomass data analysis and classification of land cover. For example, the Cropland Capture Game, which is a gamified version of Geo-Wiki, was developed to aid in the mapping of cultivated land, and was used to gather 4.5 million image classifications from the Earth's surface. More recently, the Picture Pile game, which is a more generalized version of Cropland Capture, aims to identify tree loss over time from pairs of very high resolution satellite images. Despite recent progress in image analysis, the solution to these problems is hard to automate since human experts still outperform the majority of machine learning algorithms and artificial systems in this field on certain image recognition tasks. The replacement of rare and expensive experts by a team of distributed volunteers seems to be promising, but this approach leads to challenging questions such as: how can individual opinions be aggregated optimally, how can confidence bounds be obtained, and how can the unreliability of volunteers be dealt with? In this paper, on the basis of several known machine learning techniques, we propose a technical approach to improve the overall performance of the majority voting decision rule used in the Cropland Capture Game. The proposed approach increases the estimated consistency with expert opinion from 77% to 86%.

  19. Partial inertia induces additional phase transition in the majority vote model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harunari, Pedro E; de Oliveira, M M; Fiore, C E

    2017-10-01

    Explosive (i.e., discontinuous) transitions have aroused great interest by manifesting in distinct systems, such as synchronization in coupled oscillators, percolation regime, absorbing phase transitions, and more recently, the majority-vote model with inertia. In the latter, the model rules are slightly modified by the inclusion of a term depending on the local spin (an inertial term). In such a case, Chen et al. [Phys Rev. E 95, 042304 (2017)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.95.042304] have found that relevant inertia changes the nature of the phase transition in complex networks, from continuous to discontinuous. Here we give a further step by embedding inertia only in vertices with degree larger than a threshold value 〈k〉k^{*}, 〈k〉 being the mean system degree and k^{*} the fraction restriction. Our results, from mean-field analysis and extensive numerical simulations, reveal that an explosive transition is presented in both homogeneous and heterogeneous structures for small and intermediate k^{*}'s. Otherwise, a large restriction can sustain a discontinuous transition only in the heterogeneous case. This shares some similarities with recent results for the Kuramoto model [Phys. Rev. E 91, 022818 (2015)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.91.022818]. Surprisingly, intermediate restriction and large inertia are responsible for the emergence of an extra phase, in which the system is partially synchronized and the classification of phase transition depends on the inertia and the lattice topology. In this case, the system exhibits two phase transitions.

  20. METHODS OF CONTENTS CURATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kukharenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Content curated - a new activity (started in 2008 qualified network users with process large amounts of information to represent her social network users. To prepare content curators developed 7 weeks distance course, which examines the functions, methods and tools curator. Courses showed a significant relationship success learning on the availability of advanced personal learning environment and the ability to process and analyze information.