WorldWideScience

Sample records for content measurements ofwood

  1. GLOBAL MEASURE ON IMAGE CONTENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigated approaches to supporting effective and efficient retrieval of image based on principle component analysis. First, it extracted the image content, texture and color. Gabor wavelet transforms were used to extract texture feature of the image and the average color was used to extract the color features. The principle component of the feature vector of image can be constructed. Content-based image retrieval was performed by comparing the feature vector of the query image with the projection feature vector of the image database on the principle component space of the query image. By this technique, it can reduce the dimensionality of feature vector, which in turn reduce the searching time.

  2. Quantitative measurements of autobiographical memory content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Gardner

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM, subjective recollection of past experiences, is fundamental in everyday life. Nevertheless, characterization of the spontaneous occurrence of AM, as well as of the number and types of recollected details, remains limited. The CRAM (Cue-Recalled Autobiographical Memory test (http://cramtest.info adapts and combines the cue-word method with an assessment that collects counts of details recalled from different life periods. The SPAM (Spontaneous Probability of Autobiographical Memories protocol samples introspection during everyday activity, recording memory duration and frequency. These measures provide detailed, naturalistic accounts of AM content and frequency, quantifying essential dimensions of recollection. AM content (∼20 details/recollection decreased with the age of the episode, but less drastically than the probability of reporting remote compared to recent memories. AM retrieval was frequent (∼20/hour, each memory lasting ∼30 seconds. Testable hypotheses of the specific content retrieved in a fixed time from given life periods are presented.

  3. Measuring the lactose content in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaskova Hana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy has become a powerful and popular tool for food systems analyses lately. Based on characteristic vibrations of the studied material, the information on its content and structure can be answered. In the paper, Raman spectroscopy is studied for a purpose of lactose content in milk assessment. Lactose, the milk disaccharide, in a human organism decomposes during digestion by the act of enzyme lactase to more easily digestible monosaccharides – glucose and galactose. The lack of enzyme lactase causes symptoms of lactose intolerance what limits lactose-intolerant individuals in the intake of milk and dairy products. Lactose-free products in the diet can be a solution. Raman spectroscopy offers rapid measurement independent of the number of chemicals and other in the paper listed benefits. Raman spectra of lactose, glucose and galactose exhibit enough differences to distinguish the content of lactose in milk. C-O-H bending mode at 1087 cm-1 is used for lactose quantification. The method accuracy for measuring content of lactose was tested on dried milk droplets. Evaluation of the spectroscopic data was related to two different substances - phenylalanine contained generally in the milk and crystal violet used as an internal standard.

  4. Carbon fiber content measurement in composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiushi

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) have been widely used in various structural applications in industries such as aerospace and automotive because of their high specific stiffness and specific strength. Their mechanical properties are strongly influenced by the carbon fiber content in the composites. Measurement of the carbon fiber content in CFRPs is essential for product quality control and process optimization. In this work, a novel carbonization-in-nitrogen method (CIN) is developed to characterize the fiber content in carbon fiber reinforced thermoset and thermoplastic composites. In this method, a carbon fiber composite sample is carbonized in a nitrogen environment at elevated temperatures, alongside a neat resin sample. The carbon fibers are protected from oxidization while the resin (the neat resin and the resin matrix in the composite sample) is carbonized under the nitrogen environment. The residue of the carbonized neat resin sample is used to calibrate the resin carbonization rate and calculate the amount of the resin matrix in the composite sample. The new method has been validated on several thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems and found to yield an accurate measurement of fiber content in carbon fiber polymer composites. In order to further understand the thermal degradation behavior of the high temperature thermoplastic polymer during the carbonization process, the mechanism and the kinetic model of thermal degradation behavior of carbon fiber reinforced poly (phenylene sulfide) (CPPS) are studied using thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The CPPS is subjected to TGA in an air and nitrogen atmosphere at heating rates from 5 to 40°C min--1. The TGA curves obtained in air are different from those in nitrogen. This demonstrates that weight loss occurs in a single stage in nitrogen but in two stages in air. To elucidate this difference, thermal decomposition kinetics is analyzed by applying the Kissinger, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Coat-Redfern and

  5. Bread Water Content Measurement Based on Hyperspectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhi; Møller, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    for bread quality based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging against the conventional manual loss-in-weight method. For this purpose, the hyperspectral components unmixing technology is used for measuring the water content quantitatively. And the definition on bread water content index is presented......Water content is one of the most important properties of the bread for tasting assesment or store monitoring. Traditional bread water content measurement methods mostly are processed manually, which is destructive and time consuming. This paper proposes an automated water content measurement...... for this measurement. The proposed measurement scheme is relatively inexpensive to implement, easy to set up. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness....

  6. Measuring populism: comparing two methods of content analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooduijn, M.; Pauwels, T.

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of populism - particularly over time and space - has received only scarce attention. In this research note two different ways to measure populism are compared: a classical content analysis and a computer-based content analysis. An analysis of political parties in the United Kingdom,

  7. A METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT OF GAS CONTENT IN SLURRY PIPELINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Most commercial slurries in hydrotransport pipelines usually contain some gas which can considerably degrade the pump performance, but this small amount of gas content can not be measured accurately online or continually using conventional methods. Based on analysis of effects of gas on pressure wave speed in slurries, an investigation was carried out to validate the feasibility of the method to determine gas content in slurries using sound speed. Moreover, its practical measuring methods were also discussed. It was found that the non-invasive measurement of the sound level noise spectrum across the pipeline should be a promising online measuring method of the slurry gas content.

  8. Soil volumetric water content measurements using TDR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vincenzi

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A physical model to measure some hydrological and thermal parameters in soils will to be set up. The vertical profiles of: volumetric water content, matric potential and temperature will be monitored in different soils. The volumetric soil water content is measured by means of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR technique. The result of a test to determine experimentally the reproducibility of the volumetric water content measurements is reported together with the methodology and the results of the analysis of the TDR wave forms. The analysis is based on the calculation of the travel time of the TDR signal in the wave guide embedded in the soil.

  9. Measurement of Moisture Content in Sand, Slag, and Crucible Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.H.

    1999-09-20

    The deinventory process at Rocky Flats (RFETS) has included moisture content measurements of sand, slag, and crucible (SSC) materials by performing weight loss measurements at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius on representative samples prior to packaging for shipment. Shipping requirements include knowledge of the moisture content. Work at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) showed that the measurement at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius did not account for all of the moisture. The objective of the work in this report was to determine if the measurement at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius at RFETS could be used to set upper bounds on moisture content and therefore, eliminate the need for RFETS to unpack, reanalyze and repack the material.

  10. Measurement of soil water content with dielectric dispersion frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) is an inexpensive and attractive methodology for repeated measurements of soil water content (SWC). Although there are some known measurement limitations for dry soil and sand, a fixed-frequency method is commonly employed using commercially available FDR probes....

  11. Rotational invariant similarity measurement for content-based image indexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Yong M.; Yoo, Kiwon

    2000-04-01

    We propose a similarity matching technique for contents based image retrieval. The proposed technique is invariant from rotated images. Since image contents for image indexing and retrieval would be arbitrarily extracted from still image or key frame of video, the rotation invariant property of feature description of image is important for general application of contents based image indexing and retrieval. In this paper, we propose a rotation invariant similarity measurement in cooperating with texture featuring base on HVS. To simplify computational complexity, we employed hierarchical similarity distance searching. To verify the method, experiments with MPEG-7 data set are performed.

  12. Snow water content estimation from measured snow temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The vertical temperature profiles of snow and sea ice have been measured in the Arctic during the 2nd Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition in 2003 (CHINARE2003). The high-resolution temperature profile in snow is solved by one-dimensional heat transfer equation. The effective heat diffusivity, internal heat sources are identified. The internal heat source refers to the penetrated solar radiation which usually warms the lower part of the snow layer in summer. By temperature gradient analysis, the zero level can be clarified quantitatively as the boundary of the dry and wet snow. According to the in situ time series of vertical temperature profile, the time series of water content in snow is obtained based on an evaluation method of snow water content associated with the snow and ice physical parameters. The relationship of snow water content and snow temperature and temporal-spatial distribution of snow water content are presented

  13. Bubble Content in Air/Hydro System--Part 1:Measurement of Bubble Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism of bubble formation in air/hydro systems is investigated. Results presented in this paper include further insight into the mechanism of bubble formation and the measurement of bubble content. The regularity of bubble transport in the system is found, with an idea for a new method for separating gas from oil. The method has been verified experimentally with favorable results.

  14. Information Theoretic Similarity Measures for Content Based Image Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, John; Iyengar, S. S.

    2001-01-01

    Content-based image retrieval is based on the idea of extracting visual features from images and using them to index images in a database. Proposes similarity measures and an indexing algorithm based on information theory that permits an image to be represented as a single number. When used in conjunction with vectors, this method displays…

  15. The measurement of instrumental ADL: content validity and construct validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, K; Schultz-Larsen, K; Kreiner, S

    1993-01-01

    A new measure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), which is able to discriminate among the large group of elderly who do not depend on help, was tested for content validity and construct validity. Most assessments of functional ability include Physical ADL (PADL) and Instrumental ADL....... The measure of Instrumental ADL included 30 activities in relation to tiredness and reduced speed. Construct validity was tested by the Rasch model for item analysis; internal validity was specifically addressed by assessing the homogeneity of items under different conditions. The Rasch item analysis of IADL...... showed that 14 items could be combined into two qualitatively different additive scales. The IADL-measure complies with demands for content validity, distinguishes between what the elderly actually do, and what they are capable of doing, and is a good discriminator among the group of elderly persons who...

  16. Content-based Image Retrieval by Information Theoretic Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madasu Hanmandlu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Content-based image retrieval focuses on intuitive and efficient methods for retrieving images from databases based on the content of the images. A new entropy function that serves as a measure of information content in an image termed as 'an information theoretic measure' is devised in this paper. Among the various query paradigms, 'query by example' (QBE is adopted to set a query image for retrieval from a large image database. In this paper, colour and texture features are extracted using the new entropy function and the dominant colour is considered as a visual feature for a particular set of images. Thus colour and texture features constitute the two-dimensional feature vector for indexing the images. The low dimensionality of the feature vector speeds up the atomic query. Indices in a large database system help retrieve the images relevant to the query image without looking at every image in the database. The entropy values of colour and texture and the dominant colour are considered for measuring the similarity. The utility of the proposed image retrieval system based on the information theoretic measures is demonstrated on a benchmark dataset.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(5, pp.415-430, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.1177

  17. Gastric residual volume (GRV) and gastric contents measurement by refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Kuo; McClave, Stephen A; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Chao, You-Chen

    2007-01-01

    Traditional use of gastric residual volumes (GRVs), obtained by aspiration from a nasogastric tube, is inaccurate and cannot differentiate components of the gastric contents (gastric secretion vs delivered formula). The use of refractometry and 3 mathematical equations has been proposed as a method to calculate the formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume. In this paper, we have validated these mathematical equations so that they can be implemented in clinical practice. Each of 16 patients receiving a nasogastric tube had 50 mL of water followed by 100 mL of dietary formula (Osmolite HN, Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, OH) infused into the stomach. After mixing, gastric content was aspirated for the first Brix value (BV) measurement by refractometry. Then, 50 mL of water was infused into the stomach and a second BV was measured. The procedure of infusion of dietary formula (100 mL) and then water (50 mL) was repeated and followed by subsequent BV measurement. The same procedure was performed in an in vitro experiment. Formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume were calculated from the derived mathematical equations. The formula concentrations, GRVs, and formula volumes calculated by using refractometry and the mathematical equations were close to the true values obtained from both in vivo and in vitro validation experiments. Using this method, measurement of the BV of gastric contents is simple, reproducible, and inexpensive. Refractometry and the derived mathematical equations may be used to measure formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume, and also to serve as a tool for monitoring the gastric contents of patients receiving nasogastric feeding.

  18. Measuring the 14C content in liquid scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enqvist, T.; Barabanov, I. R.; Bezrukov, L. B.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Gavrilyuk, Y. M.; Grishina, V. Yu; Gurentsov, V. I.; Hissa, J.; Joutsenvaara, J.; Kazalov, V. V.; Krokhaleva, S.; Kutuniva, J.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Kurlovich, A. S.; Loo, K.; Lubsandorzhiev, B. K.; Lubsandorzhiev, S.; Morgalyuk, V. P.; Novikova, G. Y.; Pshukov, A. M.; Sinev, V. V.; Słupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Umerov, Sh I.; Veresnikova, A. V.; Virkajärvi, A.; Yanovich, Y. A.; Zavarzina, V. P.

    2016-05-01

    We are going to perform a series of measurements where the 14C/12 C ratio will be measured from several liquid scintillator samples with a dedicated setup. The setup is designed with the aim of measuring ratios smaller than 10-18. Measurements take place in two underground laboratories: in the Baksan Neutrino Observatory, Russia and in the Pyhäsalmi mine, Finland. In Baksan the measurements started in 2015 and in Pyhäsalmi they start in the beginning of 2015. In order to fully understand the operation of the setup and its background contributions a development of simulation packages has also been started. Low-energy neutrino detection with a liquid scintillator requires that the intrinsic 14C content in the liquid is extremely low. In the Borexino CTF detector at Gran Sasso, Italy the 14C/12C ratio of 2 × 10-18 has been achieved being the lowest 14C concentration ever measured. In principle, the older the oil or gas source that the liquid scintillator is derived of and the deeper it situates, the smaller the 14C/12C ratio is supposed to be. This, however, is not generally the case, and the ratio is probably determined by the U and Th content of the local environment.

  19. Volumetric water content measurement probes in earth-dam construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardanis Michael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two frequency domain reflectometry (FDR probes have been used. They were used on compacted soils both in the laboratory and in the field. Measurements in the laboratory were intended for calibration. The range of densities and types of materials where insertion of the probes can be achieved was investigated first. The effect of sporadic presence of coarser grains and density on these calibrations, once insertion could be achieved, were investigated second. Measurements on laboratory prepared samples with the same moisture content were different when the sample was kept in the mould from when it was extruded from it. Also both these measurements were different from that in a sample of the same density but significantly larger in diameter. It was found that measurements with these probes are affected by dilation exhibited by soil around the rods of the probes during insertion. Readings immediately after insertion of the sensors on samples extruded from their moulds were the ones closer to measured values. These readings combined with total volume and mass obtained from sand-cone tests during the construction of an earth-dam allowed fairly accurate estimation of the dry unit weight but not the gravimetric water content.

  20. High resolution DNA content measurements of mammalian sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkel, D.; Lake, S.; Gledhill, B.L.; Van Dilla, M.A.; Stephenson, D.; Watchmaker, G.

    1982-01-01

    The high condensation and flat shape of the mammalian sperm nucleus present unique difficulties to flow cytometric measurement of DNA content. Chromatin compactness makes quantitative fluorescent staining for DNA difficult and causes a high index of refraction. The refractive index makes optical measurements sensitive to sperm head orientation. We demonstrate that the optical problems can be overcome using the commercial ICP22 epiillumination flow cytometer (Ortho Instruments, Westwood, MA) or a specially built cell orientating flow cytometer (OFCM). The design and operation of the OFCM are described. Measurements of the angular dependence of fluorescence from acriflavine stained rabbit sperm show that it is capable of orienting flat sperm with a tolerance of +-7/sup 0/. Differences in the angular dependence for the similarly shaped bull and rabbit sperm allow discrimination of these cells. We show that DNA staining with 4-6 diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) or an ethidium bromide mithramycin combination allows resolution of the X and Y populations in mouse sperm. They have also been successful with sperm from the bull, ram, rabbit, and boar. Reliable results with human sperm are not obtained. The accuracy of the staining and measurement techniques are verified by the correct determination of the relative content of these two populations in sperm from normal mice and those with the Cattanach (7 to X) translocation. Among the potential uses of these techniques are measurement of DNA content errors induced in sperm due to mutagen exposure, and assessment of the fractions of X and Y sperm in semen that may have one population artifically enriched.

  1. Equilibrium water content measurements for acid gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, R.A.; Fitzpatrick, E.; Bernard, F.; Wan, H.H.; Lesage, K.L.; Davis, P.M.; Clark, P.D. [Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    An accurate understanding of acid gas and water equilibrium is needed in order to design safe acid gas injection facilities. This paper described a joint industry project conducted to measure the water content of acid gas mixtures under moderate pressures and temperatures. The study has accumulated over 160 data points. Techniques used to obtain the measurements have included visual dew point determination for liquid acid gas and hydrates; the equilibration of samples in stirred autoclaves; basic static equilibration cells; and an isolated floating piston with a micro-sampler used to inject gaseous and liquid acid gas phases. As a result of the project, a high pressure micro-sampling technique has been developed to pressure limits of 1000 bar. 33 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  2. Measurement of tag confidence in user generated contents retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sihyoung; Min, Hyun-Seok; Lee, Young Bok; Ro, Yong Man

    2009-01-01

    As online image sharing services are becoming popular, the importance of correctly annotated tags is being emphasized for precise search and retrieval. Tags created by user along with user-generated contents (UGC) are often ambiguous due to the fact that some tags are highly subjective and visually unrelated to the image. They cause unwanted results to users when image search engines rely on tags. In this paper, we propose a method of measuring tag confidence so that one can differentiate confidence tags from noisy tags. The proposed tag confidence is measured from visual semantics of the image. To verify the usefulness of the proposed method, experiments were performed with UGC database from social network sites. Experimental results showed that the image retrieval performance with confidence tags was increased.

  3. A modified procedure for measuring oxygen-18 content of nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. A.; Aly, A. I. M.; Abdel Monem, N.; Hanafy, M.; Gomaa, H. E.

    2012-11-01

    SummaryMass spectrometric analysis of O-isotopic composition of nitrate has many potential applications in studies of environmental processes. Through this work, rapid, reliable, precise, broadly applicable, catalyst-free, low-priced and less labor intensive procedure for measuring δ18O of nitrate using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer has been developed and implemented. The conditions necessary to effect complete nitrate recovery and complete removal of other oxygen containing anions and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) without scarifying the isotopic signature of nitrate were investigated. The developed procedure consists of two main parts: (1) wet chemistry train for extraction and purification of nitrate from the liquid matrix; (2) off-line pyrolysis of extracted nitrate salt with activated graphite at 550 °C for 30 min. The conditions necessary to effect complete nitrate recovery and complete removal of other oxygen containing compounds were investigated. Dramatic reduction in processing times needed for analysis of δ18O of nitrate at natural abundance level was achieved. Preservation experiments revealed that chloroform (99.8%) is an effective preservative. Isotopic contents of some selected nitrate salts were measured using the modified procedure and some other well established methods at two laboratories in Egypt and Germany. Performance assessment of the whole developed analytical train was made using internationally distributed nitrate isotopes reference materials and real world sample of initial zero-nitrate content. The uncertainty budget was evaluated using the graphical nested hierarchal approach. The obtained results proved the suitability for handling samples of complicated matrices. Reduction of consumables cost by about 80% was achieved.

  4. Content Appraisal as a Method for Measuring the Effectiveness & Usability of Online Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Jenifer; Heidorn, Neely; Broady, Nick; Whittle, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Content appraisal is a simple, qualitative system to identify modifications to make website material more useful to clientele. This system provides a comprehensive evaluation of content, focuses on content strategy, identifies weaknesses, and provides recommendations for improvement. The criteria examined included knowledge level,…

  5. Predicted and measured total electron content over Havana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquer, R. G.; Jakowski, N.; Jadur, C. A.

    1997-03-01

    The total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere is a parameter often used to check the validity of ionospheric models. Moreover, it is very important for the systems which use transionospheric radio waves. In this paper, TEC measurements obtained with Faraday technique at Havana (23.1°N, 277.5°E, geomagnetic latitude: 34.2°), Cuba, during 1982-1983 period are used to check the validity of two ionospheric models to predict TEC over this station. Havana is a low latitude station but it is not affected by the equatorial anomaly (EA). The models considered are the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) and a Chapman layer with scale height equal to atomic oxygen scale height (CHOEA). Measured values of the critical frequency of the F2 ionospheric region obtained at San José de Las Lajas (23.0°N, 277.9°E, geomagnetic latitude: 34.1°), Cuba, are used as input coefficients in the models. The results show that the models have different performances as predictors of TEC over Havana. In general, the IRI gives very good predictions for the period around the daily minimum, and for the maximum TEC hours CHOEA is a very good predictor. Taking into account the simplicity of the calculations with CHOEA, this model would be an adequate alternative to predict TEC over stations which are not affected by the EA, as Havana, at least for the solar activity conditions considered.

  6. How Well Has Global Ocean Heat Content Variability Been Measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, A.; Weiss, J.; Fox-Kemper, B.; Fabienne, G.

    2016-12-01

    We introduce a new strategy that uses synthetic observations of an ensemble of model simulations to test the fidelity of an observational strategy, quantifying how well it captures the statistics of variability. We apply this test to the 0-700m global ocean heat content anomaly (OHCA) as observed with in-situ measurements by the Coriolis Dataset for Reanalysis (CORA), using the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) version 3.5. One-year running mean OHCAs for the years 2005 onward are found to faithfully capture the variability. During these years, synthetic observations of the model are strongly correlated at 0.94±0.06 with the actual state of the model. Overall, sub-annual variability and data before 2005 are signi cantly a ffected by the variability of the observing system. In contrast, the sometimes-used weighted integral of observations is not a good indicator of OHCA as variability in the observing system contaminates dynamical variability.

  7. The HI Content of Groups as Measured by ALFALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; Haynes, Martha P.; Finn, Rose; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 groups at distances between 70-160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5 < log M/M⊙ < 15.0, for a total of 1986 late-type galaxies out to a projected group-centric distance of 4.0 Mpc. We find that late-type galaxies in the centers of groups lack HI at fixed stellar mass relative to the regions surrounding them. Larger groups show evidence of a stronger gradient in HI properties, despite a similar gradient in stellar mass, and in color at fixed stellar mass, over the same range in r/R200. We compare several environment variables to determine which is the best predictor of galaxy properties; group-centric distance r and r/R200 are similarly effective predictors, while local density is slightly more effective and group size and halo mass are slightly less effective. Finally, we see evidence that HI is deficient for blue cloud galaxies in denser environments even when both stellar mass and color are fixed. This is consistent with a picture where HI is removed or destroyed, followed by reddening within the blue cloud. Overall, our results support the existence of pre-processing in isolated groups, along with an additional rapid mechanism for gas removal within larger groups and clusters, perhaps by ram-pressure stripping. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  8. Density-based similarity measures for content based search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hush, Don R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ruggiero, Christy E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We consider the query by multiple example problem where the goal is to identify database samples whose content is similar to a coUection of query samples. To assess the similarity we use a relative content density which quantifies the relative concentration of the query distribution to the database distribution. If the database distribution is a mixture of the query distribution and a background distribution then it can be shown that database samples whose relative content density is greater than a particular threshold {rho} are more likely to have been generated by the query distribution than the background distribution. We describe an algorithm for predicting samples with relative content density greater than {rho} that is computationally efficient and possesses strong performance guarantees. We also show empirical results for applications in computer network monitoring and image segmentation.

  9. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......; Race, 2001; Ramsden, 2003). This trend appears closely related to the ‘from-teaching-to-learning’ movement, which has had a strong influence on pedagogy since the early nineties (Keiding, 2007; Terhart, 2003). Another interpretation of the current interest in methodology can be derived from...... for selection of content (Klafki, 1985, 2000; Myhre, 1961; Nielsen, 2006). These attempts all share one feature, which is that criteria for selection of content appear very general and often, more or less explicitly, deal with teaching at the first Bologna-cycle; i.e. schooling at the primary and lower...

  10. Content validity of patient-reported outcome measures: perspectives from a PROMIS meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magasi, Susan; Ryan, Gery; Revicki, Dennis; Lenderking, William; Hays, Ron D; Brod, Meryl; Snyder, Claire; Boers, Maarten; Cella, David

    2012-06-01

    Content validity of patient-reported outcome measures (PROs) has been a focus of debate since the 2006 publication of the U.S. FDA Draft Guidance for Industry in Patient Reported Outcome Measurement. Under the auspices of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) initiative, a working meeting on content validity was convened with leading PRO measurement experts. Platform presentations and participant discussion highlighted key issues in the content validity debate, including inconsistency in the definition and evaluation of content validity, the need for empirical research to support methodological approaches to the evaluation of content validity, and concerns that continual re-evaluation of content validity slows the pace of science and leads to the proliferation of study-specific PROs. We advocate an approach to the evaluation of content validity, which includes meticulously documented qualitative and advanced quantitative methods. To advance the science of content validity in PROs, we recommend (1) development of a consensus definition of content validity; (2) development of content validity guidelines that delineate the role of qualitative and quantitative methods and the integration of multiple perspectives; (3) empirical evaluation of generalizability of content validity across applications; and (4) use of generic measures as the foundation for PROs assessment.

  11. Estimation of correction coefficients for measured coal bed methane contents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Bo; Fu Xuehai; Zhou Baoyan; Shen Jian; Zou Mingjun; Feng Qing

    2012-01-01

    Improving the accuracy and precision of coal bed methane (CBM) estimates requires correction of older data from older coal exploration surveys to newer standards.Three methods,the depth gradient method,the contour aerial weight method,and the well-point aerial weight method,were used to estimate the correction coefficient required to predict CBM gas content from coal exploration data.The data from the Nos.3 and 15 coal seams provided the coal exploration data while the CBM exploration stages within the X1 well block located in the southern part of the Qinshui Basin provided the data obtained using newer standards.The results show the correction coefficients obtained from the two aerial weight methods are similar in value but lower than the one obtained from the depth gradient method.The three methods provide similar results for the Nos.3 and 15 seams in that the correction factor is lower for the former seam.The results from the depth gradient method taken together with the coal seam burial depth and the coal rank suggest that variations in the correction factor increase linearly along with coal seam burial depth and coal rank.The correlation obtained can be applied to exploration and the evaluation of coal bed gas resources located in coalfields.

  12. Non-invasive means of measuring hepatic fat content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanjeev R Mehta; E Louise Thomas; Jimmy D Bell; Desmond G Johnston; Simon D Taylor-Robinson

    2008-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis affects 20% to 30% of the general adult population in the western world. Currently, the technique of choice for determining hepatic fat deposition and the stage of fibrosis is liver biopsy. However, it is an invasive procedure and its use is limited, particularly in children. It may also be subject to sampling error. Non-invasive techniques such as ultrasound, computerised tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) can detect hepatic steatosis, but currently cannot distinguish between simple steatosis and steatohepatitis, or stage the degree of fibrosis accurately. Ultrasound is widely used to detect hepatic steatosis, but its sensitivity is reduced in the morbidly obese and also in those with small amounts of fatty infiltration. It has been used to grade hepatic fat content, but this is subjective. CT can detect hepatic steatosis, but exposes subjects to ionising radiation, thus limiting its use in longitudinal studies and in children. Recently, magnetic resonance (MR) techniques using chemical shift imaging have provided a quantitative assessment of the degree of hepatic fatty infiltration, which correlates well with liver biopsy results in the same patients. Similarly, in vivo 1H MRS is a fast, safe, non-invasive method for the quantification of intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL) levels. Both techniques will be useful tools in future longitudinal clinical studies, either in examining the natural history of conditions causing hepatic steatosis(e.g. non-alcoholic fatty liver disease), or in testing new treatments for these conditions.

  13. Opto-thermal Moisture Content and Moisture Depth Profile Measurements in Organic Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Peng; GUO Xin-xin; CUI Ying-xin; Robert E. Imhof; Dane Bicanic

    2004-01-01

    Opto-thermal transient emission radiometry(OTTER) is a infrared remote sensing technique, which has been successfully used in in vivo skin moisture content and skin moisture depth profiling measurements. In present paper, we extend this moisture content measurement capability to analyze the moisture content of fruit (tomato, grape, etc. ) skins, and to study the relationship between fruits ripening process and their surface moisture and moisture depth profiles.

  14. A concise, content valid, gender invariant measure of workplace incivility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Russell A; Ritter, Kelsey-Jo

    2016-07-01

    The authors present a short, valid, gender invariant measure of workplace incivility that should have a high degree of utility in a variety of research designs, especially those concerned with reducing participant burden such as experience sampling and multiwave longitudinal designs. Given ongoing concerns about the psychometric properties of workplace mistreatment constructs, they validated a 4-item measure of experienced incivility based on series of 3 independent field studies (N = 2,636). In addition to retaining items on the basis of employee rated conceptual alignment (i.e., judgmental criteria) with a standard incivility definition (i.e., ambiguous intent to harm), items were also chosen based on external criteria in terms of their ability to explain incremental variance in outcomes of interest (e.g., role overload, interpersonal deviance). Items with large systematic relationships with other mistreatment constructs (i.e., abusive supervision, supervisor undermining) were excluded. In turn, the authors demonstrated that the 4-item measure is gender invariant, a critical issue that has received limited attention in the literature to date. They also experimentally investigated the effect of recall window (2 weeks, 1 month, 1 year) and found a differential pattern of effect sizes for various outcomes of interest. A fourth independent field study was conducted as a practical application of the measure within a longitudinal framework. An autoregressive model examining experienced incivility and counterproductive work behaviors was tested. Data was collected from a sample of 278 respondents at 3 time points with 1 month between assessments. Implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  16. A Simple Experiment To Measure the Content of Oxygen in the Air Using Heated Steel Wool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Francisco; Rivera, Rodrigo; Nunez, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    The typical experiment to measure the oxygen content in the atmosphere uses the rusting of steel wool inside a closed volume of air. Two key aspects of this experiment that make possible a successful measurement of the content of oxygen in the air are the use of a closed atmosphere and the use of a chemical reaction that involves the oxidation of…

  17. PRECEDENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF CONTENTS USING DOSE RATE MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.

    2012-06-05

    For the transportation of Radioactive Material (RAM) packages, the requirements for the maximum allowed dose rate at the package surface and in its vicinity are given in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 71.47. The regulations are based on the acceptable dose rates to which the public, workers, and the environment may be exposed. As such, the regulations specify dose rates, rather than quantity of radioactive isotopes and require monitoring to confirm the requirements are met. 10CFR71.47 requires that each package of radioactive materials offered for transportation must be designed and prepared for shipment so that under conditions normally incident to transportation the radiation level does not exceed 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) at any point on the external Surface of the package, and the transport index does not exceed 10. Before shipment, the dose rate of the package is determined by measurement, ensuring that it conforms to the regulatory limits, regardless of any analyses. This is the requirement for all certified packagings. This paper discusses the requirements for establishing the dose rates when shipping RAM packages and the precedents for meeting these requirements by measurement.

  18. Method for Measuring the Information Content of Terrain from Digital Elevation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujin Hu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As digital terrain models are indispensable for visualizing and modeling geographic processes, terrain information content is useful for terrain generalization and representation. For terrain generalization, if the terrain information is considered, the generalized terrain may be of higher fidelity. In other words, the richer the terrain information at the terrain surface, the smaller the degree of terrain simplification. Terrain information content is also important for evaluating the quality of the rendered terrain, e.g., the rendered web terrain tile service in Google Maps (Google Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA. However, a unified definition and measures for terrain information content have not been established. Therefore, in this paper, a definition and measures for terrain information content from Digital Elevation Model (DEM, i.e., a digital model or 3D representation of a terrain’s surface data are proposed and are based on the theory of map information content, remote sensing image information content and other geospatial information content. The information entropy was taken as the information measuring method for the terrain information content. Two experiments were carried out to verify the measurement methods of the terrain information content. One is the analysis of terrain information content in different geomorphic types, and the results showed that the more complex the geomorphic type, the richer the terrain information content. The other is the analysis of terrain information content with different resolutions, and the results showed that the finer the resolution, the richer the terrain information. Both experiments verified the reliability of the measurements of the terrain information content proposed in this paper.

  19. Comparison of sodium content of workplace and homemade meals through chemical analysis and salinity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Yeon-Kyung

    2014-10-01

    Most Koreans consume nearly 70-80% of the total sodium through their dishes. The use of a salinometer to measure salinity is recommended to help individuals control their sodium intake. The purpose of this study was to compare sodium content through chemical analysis and salinity measurement in foods served by industry foodservice operations and homemade meals. Workplace and homemade meals consumed by employees in 15 cafeterias located in 8 districts in Daegu were collected and the sodium content was measured through chemical analysis and salinity measurements and then compared. The foods were categorized into 9 types of menus with 103 workplace meals and 337 homemade meals. Workplace meals did not differ significantly in terms of sodium content per 100 g of food but had higher sodium content via chemical analysis in roasted foods per portion. Homemade meals had higher broth salt content and higher salt content by chemical analysis per 100 g of roasted foods and hard-boiled foods. One-dish workplace meals had higher salinity (P content (P content per 100 g of foods was higher in one-dish workplace meals (P content in foods and control one's sodium intake within the daily intake target as a way to promote cooking bland foods at home. However, estimated and actual measured values may differ.

  20. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  1. Results of radiometric ash-content measurements at the Dudar coal mine, Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csoti, T. (Veszpremi Szenbanyak Dudari Banyauezeme, Dudar (Hungary))

    1983-12-01

    The regression analysis of the results of calorimetric and radiometric ash-content measurements of 1239 coal samples have shown that the calorific values which cannot be measured easily with traditional means can be approximated reasonably from the more easily measured radiometric data. The introduction of the radiometric measurements can be recommended for coal deposits. 6 refs.

  2. Analysis of Measures and Effect on Reducing Olefin Content in Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article refers to major measures for reducing olefin content of automotive gasoline and the effect after adoption of these measures. The key for reducing olefin content in China's automotive gasoline pool is to reduce the olefin content of FCC naphtha. The domestic refiners apply the olefinreducing catalyst to decrease the olefin content of FCC gasoline as a convenient and cheap means to meet the national standard for automotive gasoline at the present phase. Furthermore, the novel domestic FCC reaction processes, such as the MIP, MGD, FDFCC and other processes can also apparently reduce olefin content in FCC gasoline. In order to further reduce the olefin content in gasoline to meet more stringent standard for automotive gasoline, Chinese refiners should optimize the processing scheme while aggressively disseminating hydrogenation process along with development of catalytic reforming,alkylation, etherification and other processes to completely change the simplistic composition of domestic gasoline pool.

  3. Flow microfluorometric DNA content measurements of tissue culture cells and peripheral lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cram, L.S. (Los Alamos Scientific Lab., NM); Lehman, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The difference in DNA content of peripheral lymphocytes from normal males, normal females, and an individual with a 48 (xxxy) chromosome constitution was determined by rapid flow microfluorometric techniques. A similar comparison was performed using tissue culture fibroblasts derived from an individual with a 49 (xxxxy) chromosome constitution and WI-38 cells as a normal control. Less than 60 min were required to isolate the lymphocytes, to stain the cells fluorescently, and to measure the increased DNA content. The measured increase in DNA content is consistent with chromosome DNA analyses and chromosome length measurements.

  4. Spectroscopic measurements of the total methane content in the atmosphere over St. Petersburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarova, M.V.; Poberovskii, A.V.; Timofeev, Y.M. [St. Petersburg State University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation). Research Institute of Physics

    2001-07-01

    The results of the ground-based spectroscopic measurements of the total methane content in the atmosphere over St. Petersburg are given. The characteristics of seasonal cycles and the estimates of the rate of increase in the total methane content are obtained for the observation period between 1991 and 1999. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. The reliability and validity of hand-held refractometry water content measures of hydrogel lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jason J; Mitchell, G Lynn; Good, Gregory W

    2003-06-01

    To investigate within- and between-examiner reliability and validity of hand-held refractometry water content measures of hydrogel lenses. Nineteen lenses of various nominal water contents were examined by two examiners on two occasions separated by 1 hour. An Atago N2 hand-held refractometer was used for all water content measures. Lenses were presented in a random order to each examiner by a third party, and examiners were masked to any potential lens identifiers. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), 95% limits of agreement, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to characterize the within- and between-examiner reliability and validity of lens water content measures. Within-examiner reliability was excellent (ICC, 0.97; 95% limits of agreement, -3.6% to +5.7%), and the inter-visit mean difference of 1.1 +/- 2.4% was not biased (p = 0.08). Between-examiner reliability was also excellent (ICC, 0.98; 95% limits of agreement, -4.1% to +3.9%). The mean difference between examiners was -0.1 +/- 2.1% (p = 0.83). The mean difference between the nominally reported water content and our water content measures was -2.1 +/- 1.7% (p refractometry and is material dependent. Therefore, investigators may need to account for bias when measuring hydrogel lens water content via hand-held refractometry.

  6. The Measurement of Sucrose Content of Sugar Cane Using Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoranto Trisnobudi, Tjia Liong Hoei, Enung Rosihan Nugraha

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of sucrose content of sugar cane is usually carried out by using polarimeter and Brix Wager scale. These two apparatus are operated manually so that the accuracy of the measurement results is depended on the operator skill. To overcome this problem we have developed an alternative method that can measure the sucrose content more quickly and accurately than the conventional methods. This new method was carried out by using ultrasonic waves whose velocity depends on the sucrose content. Firstly, the electronic apparatus used was calibrated with 37 samples of sugar cane with various sucrose content from 4.46 % to 7.29 %. The result of this calibration was an empirical equation between the ultrasonic wave velocity V and the sucrose content R, i.e. R = 2.65 V2 - 11,95 V + 17,65 where R in % and V in km/s. Then this equation was stored as database in a computer program that will be used to calculate the sucrose content. Finally, this sucrose content measurement system was tested by using 30 samples of sugar cane. The maximum error of the measurement result was 6.4 %.

  7. Patient-reported outcome measures in pediatric epilepsy: a content analysis using World Health Organization definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Salva; Fayed, Nora; Ronen, Gabriel M

    2014-09-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures that assess the effect of epilepsy on children's lives include the concepts of health, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and quality of life (QOL). They also contain varied health and health-related content. Our objectives were to identify what generic and epilepsy-specific PRO instruments are used in childhood epilepsy research and to make explicit their conceptual approach and biopsychosocial content. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were searched from 2001 to 2011 for PRO measures used in pediatric epilepsy. Measures were analyzed on an item-by-item basis according to World Health Organization (WHO) definitions of QOL and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY) biopsychosocial health framework to distinguish the conceptual approach within each measure. The health content analysis coded each item according to specific ICF-CY components of body function, activity and participation, environment, or personal factors to determine the health content for each measure. Three generic and 13 epilepsy-specific PRO measures were identified; 10 of 16 measures utilized a biopsychosocial health approach rather than an HRQOL or QOL approach. Content analysis showed that in 11 of 16 measures, >25% of the items represented participation and activity components of the ICF-CY, whereas a high proportion of environment items were found in only one epilepsy-specific measure. This comprehensive review provides information aiding clinicians and researchers in the selection of the appropriate PRO instruments for children with epilepsy on the basis of content. Most epilepsy-specific and generic PROs use a biopsychosocial health approach as opposed to a subjective HRQOL/QOL approach to measurement. Clinicians and researchers must be aware of these concepts and content when intending to measure outcomes validly. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. [content Validity In The Development And Adaptation Processes Of Measurement Instruments].

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to conduct a review of content validity, which is an important phase of processes of construction and adaptation of measurement instruments. Research of comprehensive literature was conducted by means of a review of national and international databases. Initially, a description of the conceptual basis and the measurement methods used in content validity was made, with emphasis on its application in the healthcare area. It was seen that controversy exists in the literature on...

  9. Measure of Information Content of Remotely Sensed Images Accounting for Spatial Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Ying

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A measure is proposed based on the information theory and geostatistics to evaluate information content in remotely sensed images. The method is based on the additive noise model and maximum mutual information.These factors affecting the information content have been taken into account, such as noise, spatial correlation and so on. It is suitable for measuring the information content in optical images that have robust spatial correlation with different land cover types. An experiment was performed on a Landsat TM image with three different kinds of land cover types (city, farmland and mountain. The result shows that city has the most information content. It also proves that there is a log positive correlation between information content and the variance of the images.

  10. Magnetic method for measuring moisture content using diamagnetic characteristics of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiji, Tsukada; Yasuaki, Matsunaga; Yuta, Nakamura; Ryota, Isshiki; Kayo, Fujimoto; Kenji, Sakai; Toshihiko, Kiwa

    2017-01-01

    Moisture content measurements of rice kernels and soil are important for agriculture. Therefore, in this study, a new measurement method using the diamagnetic characteristics of water was developed for measurements of the moisture content of rice kernels and soil. The magnetic characteristics of the samples were determined using a magnetometer developed by us based on a superconducting quantum interference device. Because of the diamagnetic characteristics of water, the susceptibility of rice kernels became more negative with increasing moisture content. In the case of soil, which is a mixture of diamagnetic and ferromagnetic materials, a second-harmonic detection method using AC with DC bias magnetic field was applied to reduce the influence of the ferromagnetic signal. The intensity of the second-harmonic signal of a soil was determined to be proportional to its moisture content.

  11. A comparison of ice water content measurement techniques on the FAAM BAe-146 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, S. J.; Cotton, R. J.; Barrett, P. A.; Vance, A. K.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a comparison of ice water content (qi) data from a variety of measurement techniques on the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft. Data are presented from a range of cloud types measured during the PIKNMIX field experiment that include mixed-phase stratocumulus, cumulus congestus and cirrus clouds. These measurements cover a broad range of conditions in which atmospheric ice particles are found in nature, such as the low-ice-water-content environments typically found in midlatitude cirrus and the environments with much higher ice water content often observed in cold convective clouds. The techniques include bulk measurements from (i) a Nevzorov hot-wire probe, (ii) the difference between the measured total water content (condensed plus vapour) and the water vapour content of the atmosphere and (iii) a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) (only for cirrus measurements). We also estimate the qi from integration of the measured particle size distribution (PSD) with assumptions on how the density of ice particles varies as a function of size. The results show that the only bulk ice water content technique capable of measuring high qi values (several g m-3) was the method of total water content minus water vapour. For low ice water contents we develop a new parametrisation of the Nevzorov baseline drift that enables the probe to be sensitive to qi ± 0.002 g m-3. In cirrus clouds the agreement between the Nevzorov and other bulk measurements was typically better than a factor of 2 for the CVI (qi > 0.008 g m-3) and the method of total water content minus water vapour (qi > 0.02 g m-3). Good agreement with the bulk measurements for all cases could be obtained with the estimate from the PSD provided that appropriate a priori assumptions on the mass-dimension relationship were made. This is problematic in the convective clouds sampled because pristine ice particles, heavily rimed particles and supercooled liquid

  12. A comparison of ice water content measurement techniques on the FAAM BAe-146 aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Abel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of ice water content (qi data from a variety of measurement techniques on the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft. Data are presented from a range of cloud types measured during the PIKNMIX field experiment that include mixed phase stratocumulus, cumulus congestus and cirrus clouds. These measurements cover a broad range of conditions in which atmospheric ice particles are found in nature, such as the low ice water content environments typically found in mid-latitude cirrus and the much higher ice water content environments often observed in cold convective clouds. The techniques include bulk measurements from (i a Nevzorov hot-wire probe (ii the difference between the measured total water content (condensed plus vapour and the water vapour content of the atmosphere and (iii a Counterflow Virtual Impactor (CVI (only for cirrus measurements. We also estimate the qi from integration of the measured particle size distribution (PSD with assumptions on how the density of ice particles varies as a function of size. The results show that the only bulk ice water content technique capable of measuring high qi values (several g kg−1 was the total water content minus water vapour method. For low ice water contents we develop a new parametrization of the Nevzorov base-line drift that enables the probe to be sensitive to qi ± 0.002 g m−3. In cirrus clouds the agreement between the Nevzorov and other bulk measurements was typically better than a factor of two for the CVI (qi 0.01 g kg−1 and the total water content minus water vapour method (qi > 0.03 g kg−1. Good agreement with the bulk measurements for all cases could be obtained with the estimate from the PSD provided that appropriate a-priori assumptions on the mass–dimension relationship were made. This is problematic in the convective clouds sampled because pristine ice particles, heavily rimed particles and

  13. A comparison of ice water content measurement techniques on the FAAM BAe-146 aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Abel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of ice water content (qi data from a variety of measurement techniques on the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft. Data are presented from a range of cloud types measured during the PIKNMIX field experiment that include mixed-phase stratocumulus, cumulus congestus and cirrus clouds. These measurements cover a broad range of conditions in which atmospheric ice particles are found in nature, such as the low-ice-water-content environments typically found in midlatitude cirrus and the environments with much higher ice water content often observed in cold convective clouds. The techniques include bulk measurements from (i a Nevzorov hot-wire probe, (ii the difference between the measured total water content (condensed plus vapour and the water vapour content of the atmosphere and (iii a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI (only for cirrus measurements. We also estimate the qi from integration of the measured particle size distribution (PSD with assumptions on how the density of ice particles varies as a function of size. The results show that the only bulk ice water content technique capable of measuring high qi values (several g m−3 was the method of total water content minus water vapour. For low ice water contents we develop a new parametrisation of the Nevzorov baseline drift that enables the probe to be sensitive to qi ± 0.002 g m−3. In cirrus clouds the agreement between the Nevzorov and other bulk measurements was typically better than a factor of 2 for the CVI (qi > 0.008 g m−3 and the method of total water content minus water vapour (qi > 0.02 g m−3. Good agreement with the bulk measurements for all cases could be obtained with the estimate from the PSD provided that appropriate a priori assumptions on the mass–dimension relationship were made. This is problematic in the convective clouds sampled because pristine ice particles, heavily rimed particles and

  14. Mode Content Determination of Terahertz Corrugated Waveguides Using Experimentally Measured Radiated Field Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawla, Sudheer K; Nanni, Emilio A; Shapiro, Michael A; Woskov, Paul P; Temkin, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    This work focuses on the accuracy of the mode content measurements in an overmoded corrugated waveguide using measured radiated field patterns. Experimental results were obtained at 250 GHz using a vector network analyzer with over 70 dB of dynamic range. The intensity and phase profiles of the fields radiated from the end of the 19 mm diameter helically tapped brass waveguide were measured on planes at 7, 10, and 13 cm from the waveguide end. The measured fields were back propagated to the waveguide aperture to provide three independent estimates of the field at the waveguide exit aperture. Projecting that field onto the modes of the guide determined the waveguide mode content. The three independent mode content estimates were found to agree with one another to an accuracy of better than ±0.3%. These direct determinations of the mode content were compared with indirect measurements using the experimentally measured amplitude in three planes, with the phase determined by a phase retrieval algorithm. The phase retrieval technique using the planes at 7, 10, and 13 cm yielded a mode content estimate in excellent agreement, within 0.3%, of the direct measurements. Phase retrieval results using planes at 10, 20, and 30 cm were less accurate due to truncation of the measurement in the transverse plane. The reported measurements benefited greatly from a precise mechanical alignment of the scanner with respect to the waveguide axis. These results will help to understand the accuracy of mode content measurements made directly in cold test and indirectly in hot test using the phase retrieval technique.

  15. Systematic content evaluation and review of measurement properties of questionnaires for measuring self-reported fatigue among older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, Thorlene; Riphagen, Ingrid I; Nygård, Arnhild J; Thingstad, Pernille; Helbostad, Jorunn L

    2015-09-01

    The assessment of fatigue in older people requires simple and user-friendly questionnaires that capture the phenomenon, yet are free from items indistinguishable from other disorders and experiences. This study aimed to evaluate the content, and systematically review and rate the measurement properties of self-report questionnaires for measuring fatigue, in order to identify the most suitable questionnaires for older people. This study firstly involved identification of questionnaires that purport to measure self-reported fatigue, and evaluation of the content using a rating scale developed for the purpose from contemporary understanding of the construct. Secondly, for the questionnaires that had acceptable content, we identified studies reporting measurement properties and rated the methodological quality of those studies according to the COSMIN system. Finally, we extracted and synthesised the results of the studies to give an overall rating for each questionnaire for each measurement property. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42013005589). Of the 77 identified questionnaires, twelve were selected for review after content evaluation. Methodological quality varied, and there was a lack of information on measurement error and responsiveness. The PROMIS-Fatigue item bank and short forms perform the best. The FACIT-Fatigue scale, Parkinsons Fatigue Scale, Perform Questionnaire, and Uni-dimensional Fatigue Impact Scale also perform well and can be recommended. Minor modifications to improve performance are suggested. Further evaluation of unresolved measurement properties, particularly with samples including older people, is needed for all the recommended questionnaires.

  16. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graneheim, U H; Lundman, B

    2004-02-01

    Qualitative content analysis as described in published literature shows conflicting opinions and unsolved issues regarding meaning and use of concepts, procedures and interpretation. This paper provides an overview of important concepts (manifest and latent content, unit of analysis, meaning unit, condensation, abstraction, content area, code, category and theme) related to qualitative content analysis; illustrates the use of concepts related to the research procedure; and proposes measures to achieve trustworthiness (credibility, dependability and transferability) throughout the steps of the research procedure. Interpretation in qualitative content analysis is discussed in light of Watzlawick et al.'s [Pragmatics of Human Communication. A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies and Paradoxes. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, London] theory of communication.

  17. Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

  18. Real-Time Low Frequency Impedance Measurements for Determination of Hydrogen Content in Pipeline Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseigne, A. N.; Koenig, K.; Olson, D. L.; Jackson, J. E.; Mishra, B.; McColskey, J. D.

    2009-03-01

    The assessment of hydrogen content in pipeline steel is an essential requirement to monitor loss of pipe integrity with time and to prevent failures. The use of pipeline steels of increasing strength significantly reduces the threshold hydrogen concentration for hydrogen cracking. Cathodic protection and corrosion processes both contribute to accumulation of hydrogen as a function of time, which may eventually meet the cracking criteria. New and unique methodologies based on electronic property measurements offer the pipeline industry advanced non-destructive tools to provide quantified in-situ hydrogen content measurements in real-time. The use of low frequency impedance measurements as a non-contact sensor has been demonstrated for real-time determination of hydrogen content in coated pipeline steel specimens in the laboratory. Scale-up to field measurements is in progress, and the development and use of a field sensor are discussed.

  19. Density-independent algorithm for sensing moisture content of sawdust based on reflection measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    A density-independent algorithm for moisture content determination in sawdust, based on a one-port reflection measurement technique is proposed for the first time. Performance of this algorithm is demonstrated through measurement of the dielectric properties of sawdust with an open-ended haft-mode s...

  20. Validating Measures of Algebra Teacher Subject Matter Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge. CRESST Report 820

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschang, Rebecca E.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Delacruz, Girlie C.; Baker, Eva L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate inferences about scores of one task designed to measure subject matter knowledge and three tasks designed to measure aspects of pedagogical content knowledge. Evidence for the validity of inferences was based on two expectations. First, if tasks were sensitive to expertise, we would find group differences.…

  1. Validating Measures of Algebra Teacher Subject Matter Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschang, Rebecca E.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Delacruz, Girlie C.; Baker, Eva L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate inferences about scores of one task designed to measure subject matter knowledge and three tasks designed to measure aspects of pedagogical content knowledge. Evidence for the validity of inferences was based on two expectations. First, if tasks were sensitive to expertise, we would find group differences.…

  2. Determination of Cloud Ice Water Content and Geometrical Thickness Using Microwave and Infrared Radiometric Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Man-Li C.

    1987-08-01

    Cloud ice water content and cloud geometrical thickness have been determined using a combination of near-infrared, thermal infrared and thermal microwave radiometric measurements. The radiometric measurements are from a Multispectral Cloud Radiometer, which has seven channels ranging from visible to thermal infrared, and an Advanced Microwave Moisture Sounder, which has four channels ranging from 90 to 183 GHz. Studies indicate that the microwave brightness temperatures depend not only on the amount of ice water content but also on the vertical distribution of ice water content. Studies also show that the low brightness temperature at 92 GHz for large ice water content is due to cloud reflection which reflects most of the irradiance incident at the cloud base downward. Therefore the 92 GHz channel detects a low brightness temperature at the cloud top.

  3. Do digestive contents confound body mass as a measure of relative condition in nestling songbirds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Vernasco, Ben J.; Andersen, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Relative nestling condition, typically measured as nestling mass or as an index including nestling mass, is commonly purported to correlate with fledgling songbird survival. However, most studies directly investigating fledgling survival have found no such relationship. We weighed feces and stomach contents of nestling golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) to investigate the potential contribution of variation in digestive contents to differences in nestling mass. We estimated that the mass of a seventh-day (near fledging) nestling golden-winged warbler varies by 0.65 g (approx. 9% of mean nestling mass) depending on the contents of the nestling's digestive system at the time of weighing, and that digestive contents are dissimilar among nestlings at any moment the brood is removed from the nest for weighing. Our conservative estimate of within-individual variation in digestive contents equals 72% and 24% of the mean within-brood and population-wide range in nestling mass, respectively. Based on our results, a substantive but typically unknown amount of the variation in body mass among nestlings is confounded by differences in digestive contents. We conclude that short-term variation in digestive contents likely precludes the use of body mass, and therefore any mass-dependent index, as a measure of relative nestling condition or as a predictor of survival in golden-winged warblers and likely in many other songbirds of similar size.

  4. Mobile TDR for geo-referenced measurement of soil water content and electrical conductivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anton; Schelde, Kirsten; Drøscher, Per;

    2007-01-01

    The development of site-specific crop management is constrained by the availability of sensors for monitoring important soil and crop related conditions. A mobile time-domain reflectometry (TDR) unit for geo-referenced soil measurements has been developed and used for detailed mapping of soil water...... are closely related to the clay and silt fractions of a variable field. The application to early season field mapping of water content, electrical conductivity and clay content is presented. The water and clay content maps are to be used for automated delineation of field management units. Based on a spatial...

  5. Measurement of bone mineral content by dual photon absorptiometry in patients with metabolic bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, Masami; Hino, Megumu; Ikekubo, Katsuji (Kobe City General Hospital (Japan)) (and others)

    1991-12-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral content in 225 patients with metabolic bone diseases (84 males and 102 females) and 186 healthy subjects (25 males and 200 females). Mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae tended to rapidly decrease after the age of 40 in healthy female subjects. For males, gradual decrease in mineral content was associated with aging. Bone mineral content showed a correlation with the severity of osteoporosis as shown on X-ray films. Mineral content tended to be decreased in the lumbar vertebrae in patients with vertebral compression fracture, and in the femur in patients with vertebral or femoral fracture. For hyperthyroidism, mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae was decreased in some females, but was within normal limit in males. Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism tended to be associated with decrease and increase in mineral content, respectively. Two each patients with osteomalacia or Cushing syndrome had a decreased mineral content. In these patients, it was increased after the treatment. (N.K.).

  6. Online measurement of contents in compound fertilizer and application research using VIS-NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhidan; Wang, Yubing; Wang, Rujing; Liu, Jing; Lu, Cuiping; Wang, Liusan

    2015-10-01

    The on-line measurement of the main component contents is essential for production, detection and identification of compound fertilizer. Using developed VIS-NIR sensors for on-line measurement of the main component contents in compound fertilizer, primary results about nitrogen (N), phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) and potassium oxide (K2O) were reported. A visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) spectrophotometer (Ocean Optics), with a measurement range of 360.18-2221.53 nm was used to measure fertilizer spectra in reflectance mode. By using principal component analysis (PCA) and mahalanobis distance method, 3 outlier samples were detected and eliminated from 174 samples firstly. Then these models of three components with the 124 samples in calibration set were established using principal component regress (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLS) coupled respectively with the full cross-validation technique after preprocessing the original spectrum with different methods. These models were used to estimate the contents of N, P2O5 and K2O of the other 47 samples in predicted set. The research results showed that the method could be applied to rapid measurement to the main component contents in compound fertilizer. Compared with the traditional analysis method, the on-line measurement could do it rapidly, inexpensively and pollution-freely. It suggested the potential use of the VIS-NIR sensing system for on-line measurement in the production, detection and identification process of compound fertilizer.

  7. A systematic review and content analysis of bullying and cyber-bullying measurement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Martell, Brandi N; Holland, Kristin M; Westby, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Bullying has emerged as a behavior with deleterious effects on youth; however, prevalence estimates vary based on measurement strategies employed. We conducted a systematic review and content analysis of bullying measurement strategies to gain a better understanding of each strategy including behavioral content. Multiple online databases (i.e., PsychInfo, MedLine, ERIC) were searched to identify measurement strategies published between 1985 and 2012. Included measurement strategies assessed bullying behaviors, were administered to respondents with ages of 12 to 20, were administered in English, and included psychometric data. Each publication was coded independently by two study team members with a pre-set data extraction form, who subsequently met to discuss discrepancies. Forty-one measures were included in the review. A majority used differing terminology; student self-report as primary reporting method; and included verbal forms of bullying in item content. Eleven measures included a definition of bullying, and 13 used the term "bullying" in the measure. Very few definitions or measures captured components of bullying such as repetition, power imbalance, aggression, and intent to harm. Findings demonstrate general inconsistency in measurement strategies on a range of issues, thus, making comparing prevalence rates between measures difficult.

  8. Automatic Ferrite Content Measurement based on Image Analysis and Pattern Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Muhammad Tanveer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The existing manual point counting technique for ferrite content measurement is a difficult time consuming method which has limited accuracy due to limited human perception and error induced by points on boundaries of grid spacing. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm, based on image analysis and pattern classification, to evaluate the volume fraction of ferrite in microstructure containing ferrite and austenite. The prime focus of the proposed algorithm is to solve the problem of ferrite content measurement using automatic binary classification approach. Classification of image data into two distinct classes, using optimum threshold finding method, is the key idea behind the new algorithm. Automation of the process to measure the ferrite content and to speed up specimen’s testing procedure is the main feature of the newly developed algorithm. Improved performance index by reducing error sources is reflected from obtained results and validated through the comparison with a well-known method of Ohtsu.

  9. Continuous measurements of the total ozone content in the full moon period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishov, Alexander G.

    1994-01-01

    Presented are the experimental data on the total ozone content obtained during continuous measurements (day-night-...-night-day) by Brewer 044 spectrophotometer near the Issyk Kul Lake (42.59N, 77.04W) at 1650 m above the sea level at full moon from 13 to 18 October 1989 under anomalously high transparent atmospheric conditions (the horizontal visibility range exceeded 50 km). At night the total O3 content decreased regularly to about 20 percent of the average daytime values. The minimum values at night were observed in 1-2 hours after the maximum solar dip below the horizon. In the daytime the measurements were carried out from direct Sun, at night - from the Moon. The values of the total ozone content for adjacent measurements from the Sun and from the Moon in the evening as well as in the morning are in good agreement.

  10. Dual frequency microstrip antenna sensor for water content measurements independent of temperature variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghretli, Mohamed; Khalid, Kaida; Valeriu Grozescu, Ionel; Sahri, Hamami; Abbas, Zulkifly

    2007-04-01

    Temperature variation causes errors in all indirect moisture measurement methods. To increase the accuracy of moisture content determination and to reduce the influence of temperature, a two-parameter measurement is used. The method uses the magnitude of reflected waves at two microwave frequencies in the X-band region. A dual frequency sensor system is developed to measure moisture content of dielectric-lossy liquids. The experiment is based on measurements of far-field reflection magnitudes at two different frequencies 8.48 GHz and 10.69 GHz using circular microstrip antennas. A calibration equation is sought that instantly gives temperature-independent moisture content of the samples under consideration. The sensor is integrated with a data acquisition card to record the detected reflection signals. The data analysis and error-correction technique are implemented using custom designed software. The system is tested using diluted rubber latex with moisture content ranging from 39.8% to 91.2% wet basis. The moisture content was predicted with a standard error less than 1.3% for the temperature range of 25 °C to 63 °C compared to the standard oven-drying technique.

  11. [Effect of freezing on the "creamatocrit" measurement of the lipid content of human donor milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Román, S; Alonso-Díaz, C; García-Lara, N R; Escuder-Vieco, D; Pallás-Alonso, C R

    2014-09-01

    To determine, by the creamatocrit measurement, the effect on the fat content of raw and pasteurized donor milk of freezing during 3 months at -20 °C. The evolution of the creamatocrit measurement (following Lucas technique) on frozen (-20 °C), raw and pasteurized human milk, was analyzed during 3 months. The fat content of raw milk (n=44) was 3.19 g/dl at the beginning and 2.86 g/dl after 3 months frozen (p=0.02). In pasteurized milk (n=36) fat content at the first determination was 2.59 g/dl and 2.20 g/dl after 1 month frozen (p=0.01). Afterwards there were no significant changes up to 3 months frozen. Variability was observed in the intermediate values. A reduction on the fat content measurement of raw and pasteurized donor human milk after freezing was observed. Freezing does not inactivate the milk lipase but does destroy the fat globule. Creamatocrit measurement may not be the best method to determine the fat content of processed human milk. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Porous media matric potential and water content measurements during parabolic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norikane, Joey H.; Jones, Scott B.; Steinberg, Susan L.; Levine, Howard G.; Or, Dani

    2005-01-01

    Control of water and air in the root zone of plants remains a challenge in the microgravity environment of space. Due to limited flight opportunities, research aimed at resolving microgravity porous media fluid dynamics must often be conducted on Earth. The NASA KC-135 reduced gravity flight program offers an opportunity for Earth-based researchers to study physical processes in a variable gravity environment. The objectives of this study were to obtain measurements of water content and matric potential during the parabolic profile flown by the KC-135 aircraft. The flight profile provided 20-25 s of microgravity at the top of the parabola, while pulling 1.8 g at the bottom. The soil moisture sensors (Temperature and Moisture Acquisition System: Orbital Technologies, Madison, WI) used a heat-pulse method to indirectly estimate water content from heat dissipation. Tensiometers were constructed using a stainless steel porous cup with a pressure transducer and were used to measure the matric potential of the medium. The two types of sensors were placed at different depths in a substrate compartment filled with 1-2 mm Turface (calcined clay). The ability of the heat-pulse sensors to monitor overall changes in water content in the substrate compartment decreased with water content. Differences in measured water content data recorded at 0, 1, and 1.8 g were not significant. Tensiometer readings tracked pressure differences due to the hydrostatic force changes with variable gravity. The readings may have been affected by changes in cabin air pressure that occurred during each parabola. Tensiometer porous membrane conductivity (function of pore size) and fluid volume both influence response time. Porous media sample height and water content influence time-to-equilibrium, where shorter samples and higher water content achieve faster equilibrium. Further testing is needed to develop these sensors for space flight applications.

  13. A High Resolution Capacitive Sensing System for the Measurement of Water Content in Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Aslam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ±50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design.

  14. Measurement of density and water content of soil using photon multiple scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertek, C.; Haselberger, N.

    1984-11-01

    A quantitative measure of density and of water content in soil was determined by photon multiple scattering following sample irradiation by a 0.7 mCi 137Cs source. Counting was effected using a stabilized single channel scintillation detector and counter system in the differential mode. Scattered photons of 80 keV energy were measured using a 20 keV window. The moving source method was applied to find the density of soil and count rate ratios of dry soil to wet soil. Independent calibrations were applied for the moisture measurements. Four curves were obtained for the soil density range of 0.5-1.5 g/cm 3 by using soil standards of 2.6, 7.0, 10.6 and 16.1 wt.% water content. Direct influence of photons was measured by blocking the direct path of photons to the detector by shielding both the Cs source and the detector.

  15. Measurement of resistant starch content in cooked rice and analysis of gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayoshi, Yuuki; Nakamura, Sumiko; Kameo, Yoji; Shiiba, Daisuke; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2015-01-01

    Digestion-resistant starch (RS) has many physiologic functions. The RS content is measured by enzymatically degrading flour samples according to the method of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Experiments have been performed with wheat, corn, and other grains, but there are no data for cooked rice grains in the form ingested by humans. Thus, we investigated a method to measure RS that is suitable for cooked rice grains using rice cultivars that are reported to differentially increase postprandial blood glucose in humans. Using a method for cooking individual rice grains and optimized enzyme reaction conditions, we established an RS measurement method. We also found that the amylopectin crystal condition affects the RS content measured using our method.

  16. 40 CFR 63.5390 - How do I measure the HAP content of a finish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... finish? 63.5390 Section 63.5390 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Leather Finishing Operations Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.5390 How do I measure the HAP content of a finish? (a) To determine...

  17. The Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ): validation of a content-independent measure of repetitive negative thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehring, T.; Zetsche, U.; Weidacker, K.; Wahl, K.; Schönfeld, S.; Ehlers, A.

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) has been found to be involved in the maintenance of several types of emotional problems and has therefore been suggested to be a transdiagnostic process. However, existing measures of RNT typically focus on a particular disorder-specific content. In this article, t

  18. Method and apparatus for measuring an elemental carbon content in an aerosol of soot particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt Ott, A.; Burtscher, H.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and apparatus for measuring an elemental carbon content in an aerosol of soot particles by exposing the particles to ultraviolet radiation to induce photoelectron emission of the particles, wherein whilst the particles receive ultraviolet radiation the aero sol with

  19. Measurement of Mg Content in Zn1-xMgxO Films by Electron Probe Microanalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Feng-Ping; JIAN Shui-Sheng; WANG Lin; Kenichi OGATA; Kazuto KOIKE; Shigehiko SASA; Masatake INOUE; Mitsuaki YANO

    2006-01-01

    @@ Zn1-xMgxO films are grown on A-sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy, and Mg content in the Zn1-xMgx O films is measured by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) when the acceleration voltage, the emis-sion current, and the magnification are set to be 1kV, 30μA and 1000, respectively.

  20. Constructions of contents and measures satisfying a prescribed set of integral inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Let Ψ be a given set real-valued functions on the set T and β:Ψ→R be a given functional with values in the extended real line. The paper gives sufficent conditions for the exists of a content (or a measure) μ with good regularity and smoothnes properties and with the property that β(ψ) is less th...

  1. Constructions of contents and measures satisfying a prescribed set of integral inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Let Ψ be a given set real-valued functions on the set T and β:Ψ→R be a given functional with values in the extended real line. The paper gives sufficent conditions for the exists of a content (or a measure) μ with good regularity and smoothnes properties and with the property that β(ψ) is less than...

  2. Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of blood oxygenation content and its application in sports practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guodong; Gong, Hui; Ge, Xinfa; Luo, Qingming

    2003-12-01

    To research the change characteristics of blood oxygenation content in skeletal muscle, the change regularity between blood oxygenation content and exercise intensity as well as HbO2 and blood lactate acid while taking incremental exercises, we took an in vivo, real-time and continuous measurement on the blood oxygenation content of eight sportsmen when they did incremental exercises of five degrees on a power bicycle using a portable tissue oximeter which is based on the principle of near-infrared spectroscopy(NIRS), simultaneously, we detected the blood lactate acid of subjects after each degree of incremental physical load instantly using a blood lactate analysis equipment. The results showed that the content of HbO2 descended regularly while that of Hb ascended; blood volume decreased; and the density of lactate increased as the intensity of exercises was heightened. The statistics analyses showed that the relationship between HbO2 and blood lactate is rather close (correlation coefficient r=-0.918). With this discovery, a theoretical basis in measuring the relative change of blood oxygenation content non-invasively was evidenced, and a novel technology for assessing the physical situation of sportsman, grasping sports density and evaluating the training effect could be imported.

  3. Colorimetric measurement of triglycerides cannot provide an accurate measure of stored fat content in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader Al-Anzi

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster has recently emerged as a useful model system in which to study the genetic basis of regulation of fat storage. One of the most frequently used methods for evaluating the levels of stored fat (triglycerides in flies is a coupled colorimetric assay available as a kit from several manufacturers. This is an aqueous-based enzymatic assay that is normally used for measurement of mammalian serum triglycerides, which are present in soluble lipoprotein complexes. In this short communication, we show that coupled colorimetric assay kits cannot accurately measure stored triglycerides in Drosophila. First, they fail to give accurate readings when tested on insoluble triglyceride mixtures with compositions like that of stored fat, or on fat extracted from flies with organic solvents. This is probably due to an inability of the lipase used in the kits to efficiently cleave off the glycerol head group from fat molecules in insoluble samples. Second, the measured final products of the kits are quinoneimines, which absorb visible light in the same wavelength range as Drosophila eye pigments. Thus, when extracts from crushed flies are assayed, much of the measured signal is actually due to eye pigments. Finally, the lipoprotein lipases used in colorimetric assays also cleave non-fat glycerides. The glycerol backbones liberated from all classes of glycerides are measured through the remaining reactions in the assay. As a consequence, when these assay kits are used to evaluate tissue extracts, the observed signal actually represents the amount of free glycerols together with all types of glycerides. For these reasons, findings obtained through use of coupled colorimetric assays on Drosophila samples must be interpreted with caution. We also show here that using thin-layer chromatography to measure stored triglycerides in flies eliminates all of these problems.

  4. Antioxidants in food: content, measurement, significance, action, cautions, caveats, and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzie, Iris F F; Choi, Siu-Wai

    2014-01-01

    There are a multitude of antioxidants in foods, especially in foods of plant origin. Higher intake of antioxidant-rich foods is clearly associated with better health and functional longevity. The specific agents and mechanisms responsible are not yet clear, but there is convincing evidence that including more plant-based, antioxidant-rich foods, herbs, and beverages in the diet is effective in promoting health and lowering risk of various age-related diseases. The content of some individual antioxidants, such as vitamin C, in food can be measured, but it is not feasible to attempt to measure each antioxidant separately, and methods have been developed to assess the "total antioxidant content" of foods. One of the most widely used methods is the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, which is relatively simple, quick, sensitive, and inexpensive to perform. There are many published studies that have used the FRAP assay, and these have generated a very large database of total antioxidant content of foods that can help guide food choices for increased antioxidant intake. The FRAP assay has also been used to assess the bioavailability of antioxidants in foods and to investigate the effects of growing conditions, storage, processing, and cooking method on the total antioxidant content of food. The test can be employed as a quality control check device, and to detect adulteration of food. Furthermore, in a modified form (FRASC), the assay can measure ascorbic acid content almost simultaneously with the total antioxidant content of the sample. In this chapter, basic concepts of oxidation and the role of antioxidants, as well as the types and action of different antioxidants in foods will be reviewed briefly, and the underpinning concepts and evidence for health benefits of increased intake of dietary antioxidants will be discussed, with some focus on vitamin C, and also in the context of our evolutionary development. The basic concepts and limitations of measuring

  5. Retrieving Soil Water Contents from Soil Temperature Measurements by Using Linear Regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin XU; Binbin ZHOU

    2003-01-01

    A simple linear regression method is developed to retrieve daily averaged soil water content from diurnal variations of soil temperature measured at three or more depths. The method is applied to Oklahoma Mesonet soil temperature data collected at the depths of 5, 10, and 30 cm during 11-20 June 1995. The retrieved bulk soil water contents are compared with direct measurements for one pair of nearly collocated Mesonet and ARM stations and also compared with the retrievals of a previous method at 14 enhanced Oklahoma Mesonet stations. The results show that the current method gives more persistent retrievals than the previous method. The method is also applied to Oklahoma Mesonet soil temperature data collected at the depths of 5, 25, 60, and 75 cm from the Norman site during 20 30 July 1998 and 1-31 July 2000. The retrieved soil water contents are verified by collocated soil water content measurements with rms differences smaller than the soil water observation error (0.05 ma m-a). The retrievals are found to be moderately sensitive to random errors (±0.1 K) in the soil temperature observations and errors in the soil type specifications.

  6. A NEW INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING LOCAL MOISTURE CONTENTS IN MOIST POROUS MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Ji-tian; WANG Ji-hao; GUI Ke-ting; SHI Ming-heng

    2005-01-01

    A new instrument was developed for measuring the local moisture content in moist porous media based on the needle-type capacitance sensor and single-chip microprocessor technique. The working principle, the structure and characteristics of the hardware and software of the instrument were presented. The dynamic response characteristics and reliability of the instrument were experimentally determined. As an example, the instrument was employed to measure the heat and mass transport properties of a moist porous material. The experimental results show that the instrument can be used for measuring the local moisture content in moist porous media and would be an effective tool for determining the heat and mass transport properties in moist porous media.

  7. Uncertainty Quantification for Nuclear Density Functional Theory and Information Content of New Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    McDonnell, J D; Higdon, D; Sarich, J; Wild, S M; Nazarewicz, W

    2015-01-01

    Statistical tools of uncertainty quantification can be used to assess the information content of measured observables with respect to present-day theoretical models; to estimate model errors and thereby improve predictive capability; to extrapolate beyond the regions reached by experiment; and to provide meaningful input to applications and planned measurements. To showcase new opportunities offered by such tools, we make a rigorous analysis of theoretical statistical uncertainties in nuclear density functional theory using Bayesian inference methods. By considering the recent mass measurements from the Canadian Penning Trap at Argonne National Laboratory, we demonstrate how the Bayesian analysis and a direct least-squares optimization, combined with high-performance computing, can be used to assess the information content of the new data with respect to a model based on the Skyrme energy density functional approach. Employing the posterior probability distribution computed with a Gaussian process emulator, w...

  8. Cosmic-Ray Neutron Probe: Non-Invasive Measurement of Soil Water Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zreda, M.; Desilets, D.; Ferre, T. P.

    2005-12-01

    Water content measurement methods have been designed primarily for either highly accurate, small scale applications (time domain reflectometry, neutron probe) or for rapid estimation over very large areas (satellite imagery), but no established technique exists for the scale intermediate to point measurement and satellite images. We are developing a novel technique for soil water determination that operates on the horizontal scale of dekameters. This scale of operation makes the method an appealing tool for both direct measurement at relevant scales and for calibration of satellite remote sensors. The method is based on the same principle that underlies conventional neutron probes: thermalization of neutrons by hydrogen atoms. The standard neutron probe works by emitting fast neutrons from a source in the instrument, and measuring the flux of neutrons that are scattered back. Our new probe uses a similar detector, but has cosmic-ray neutrons as a source. Results from a series of laboratory and field experiments show that our cosmic-ray probe is capable of measuring changes of water content resulting from irrigation or infiltration after a storm event. Our sensitivity experiments indicate that that 1% change in volumetric water content corresponds to approximately 1% change in neutron flux. Neutron intensities are sensitive to water in the upper 10-50 cm of soil and over a footprint of 10-100 m in diameter. Both the depth and the footprint decrease with increasing soil water content. Coupling neutron detectors with various shielding materials (we used cadmium and polyethylene) changes the energy sensitivity of the instrument, and thereby also the sensitivity to water content. The maximum sensitivity of the instrument to water (or hydrogen) content is achieved by placing the instrument about 20 cm below the surface or about 100-200 m above the surface (in a balloon or an aircraft). Our new method has several useful features: it is non-invasive and non

  9. Measures to reduce carbon content of fly ash in CFB boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, L.; Liu, D.C.; Zhang, S.H.; Chen, H.P. [HuaZhong Univ. of Science and Technology, National Laboratory of Coal Combustion (China); Huang, Y.P.; Liu, C.M. [Da Ye Power Plant, Hu-Bei (China); Winter, F. [Vienna Technical Univ., Vienna (Austria)

    2002-07-01

    There is a significant need to develop clean coal combustion technology in China, given that the major energy source is coal, accounting for 75 per cent of primary energy. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion offers high combustion intensity with low pollutant emissions. It also has good combustion stability and excellent fuel flexibility. However, the high carbon content of the fly ash and the low boiler heat efficiency are two problems that must be addressed, particularly for middle and small sized CFB boilers. This study examined several reasons for high carbon content of fly ash in CFB boilers, including the distribution of particle size, the heating value of the coal and the fractional return of cold material to the combustion chamber. Operating conditions of the fly ash circulating combustion system were also examined. Proven effective measures to reduce carbon content were then suggested. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  10. Development of an automatic measuring device for total sugar content in chlortetracycline fermenter based on STM32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruochen; Chen, Xiangguang; Yao, Minpu; Huang, Suyi; Ma, Deshou; Zhou, Biao

    2017-01-01

    Because fermented liquid in chlortetracycline fermenter has high viscosity and complex composition, conventional instruments can't directly measure its total sugar content of fermented liquid. At present, offline artificial sampling measurement is usually the way to measuring total sugar content in chlortetracycline Fermenter. it will take too much time and manpower to finish the measurement., and the results will bring the lag of control process. To realize automatic measurement of total sugar content in chlortetracycline fermenter, we developed an automatic measuring device for total sugar content based on STM32 microcomputer. It can not only realize the function of automatic sampling, filtering, measuring of fermented liquid and automatic washing of the device, but also can make the measuring results display in the field and finish data communication. The experiment results show that the automatic measuring device of total sugar content in chlortetracycline fermenter can meet the demand of practical application.

  11. Nondestructive Measurement of Water Content and Moisture Migration of Unsaturated Red Clays in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the moisture migration mechanism of the unsaturated red clays, which are sensitive to water content change and widely distributed in South China, and then rationally use them as a filling material for highway embankments, a method to measure the water content of red clay cylinders using X-ray computed tomography (CT was proposed and verified. Then, studies on the moisture migrations in the red clays under the rainfall and ground water level were performed at different degrees of compaction. The results show that the relationship between dry density, water content, and CT value determined from X-ray CT tests can be used to nondestructively measure the water content of red clay cylinders at different migration time, which avoids the error reduced by the sample-to-sample variation. The rainfall, ground water level, and degree of compaction are factors that can significantly affect the moisture migration distance and migration rate. Some techniques, such as lowering groundwater table and increasing degree of compaction of the red clays, can be used to prevent or delay the moisture migration in highway embankments filled with red clays.

  12. ATS-6 radio beacon electron content measurements at Ootacamund, India, October 1975-July 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouwer, S.D.; Davies, K.; Donnelly, R.F.; Grubb, R.N.; Jones, J.E.

    1980-03-01

    An atlas of total slant-path columnar electron content data measured between the ATS-6 satellite and Ootacamund, India, a site near the magnetic Equator is presented. Although these measurements were taken during a solar minimum, the general level of flare and geomagnetic activity that occurred during the observation period is summarized. These total content (N(T)) data were derived from the modulation phase (group delay) of a carrier signal transmitted from the geostationary satellite's Radio Beacon Experiment. This atlas contains two data sets: (1) N(T) as 2-min subsamples digitally recorded between 2 October 1975 and 28 January 1976 corrected for ATS-6 pitch maneuvers and (2) N(T) as 15-min subsamples chart recorded between 21 October 1975 and 22 July 1976 but uncorrected for changes in satellite orientation.

  13. [Measurement of T and DHT contents in normal and diseased human prostate tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Ye, L; Ding, Q; Fang, Z; Yao, M; Shi, D

    2000-07-01

    To measure T and DHT contents in normal and diseased human prostate tissues. Serum and prostatic T and DHT levels were measured in patients with normal, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. A decline was observed in serum T level, but no change in DHT concentration with aging. There were no significant differences in both blood T and DHT levels between the patients with BPH or PCA and normal controls. Serum T level remained constant. There were excessive accumulation of DHT in BPH, and cancerous prostate tissues were responsible for the pathogenesis of BPH and PCA. Finasteride treatment did not produce a reduction in prostatic DHT content. More than one form of 5a-reductases is responsible for the high level of DHT in the gland.

  14. Measuring the level and content of consciousness during epileptic seizures: the Ictal Consciousness Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanna, A E; Mula, M; Servo, S; Strigaro, G; Tota, G; Barbagli, D; Collimedaglia, L; Viana, M; Cantello, R; Monaco, F

    2008-07-01

    Ictal alterations of the level of general awareness and subjective content of consciousness play a pivotal role in the clinical phenomenology of epilepsy, and reflect the pathological involvement of different neurobiological substrates. However, no self-reported measures have been proposed for patients experiencing altered conscious states during seizures. This study describes the development and validation of a new scale for the quantitative assessment of the level and content of ictal consciousness, the Ictal Consciousness Inventory (ICI). The ICI is a 20-item questionnaire generated on the basis of interviews with patients, literature review, and consultation with experts. It was tested on a sample of 110 patients attending three different epilepsy clinics in Northern Italy, who also completed standardized clinical scales. Standard psychometric methods were used to demonstrate that this scale satisfies criteria for acceptability, reliability, and validity. The ICI is proposed as a user-friendly and clinically sound instrument for the measurement of ictal alterations of consciousness in patients with epilepsy.

  15. Accuracy of the Water Vapour Content Measurements in the Atmosphere Using Optical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Galkin, V D; Alekseeva, G A; Novikov, V V; Pakhomov, V P

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the accuracy and the errors of water vapour content measurements in the atmosphere using optical methods, especially starphotometer. After the general explanations of the used expressions for the star-magnitude observations of the water vapour absorption in section 3 the absorption model for the water vapour band will be discussed. Sections 4 and 5 give an overview on the technique to determine the model parameters both from spectroscopic laboratory and radiosonde observation data. Finally, the sections 6 and 7 are dealing with the details of the errors; that means errors of observable magnitude, of instrumental extraterrestrial magnitude, of atmospheric extinction determination and of water vapour content determination by radiosonde humidity measurements. The main conclusion is: Because of the high precision of the results the optical methods for water vapour observation are suited to validate and calibrate alternative methods (GPS, LIDAR, MICROWAVE) which are making constant progress wo...

  16. Whole-Mount DAPI Staining and Measurement of DNA Content in Plant Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittger, Arp; Hülskamp, Martin

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONDuring development, many plant cells undergo endoreduplication, whereby ploidy increases to a multiple of the normal 2C content. For example, trichome development is accompanied by an increase in ploidy to 32C, indicating that trichome cells undergo four rounds of endoreduplication. In the protocol described here, DNA levels, and hence developmental progress in the corresponding cells, are measured by staining the DNA with a fluorescent marker and then quantifying the fluorescence of individual nuclei.

  17. Porous Media Matric Potential and Water Content Measurements During Parabolic Flight

    OpenAIRE

    Norikane, Joey H.; Jones, Scott B.; Steinberg, Susan L.; Levine, Howard G.; Or, Dani

    2005-01-01

    Control of water and air in the root zone of plants remains a challenge in the microgravity environment of space. Due to limited flight opportunities, research aimed at resolving microgravity porous media fluid dynamics must often be conducted on Earth. The NASA KC-135 reduced gravity flight program offers an opportunity for Earth-based researchers to study physical processes in a variable gravity environment. The objectives of this study were to obtain measurements of water content and matri...

  18. Statistical Sampling Plans for Prior Measurement Verification and Determination of the SNM Content of Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.F. Piepel, R.J. Brouns

    1982-03-01

    Current regulations require that prior information on the Special Nuclear Material (SNM) content o f a population o f containers be verified and that periodic measurements o f the SNM inventory of a facility be performed. This report develops and describes statistical sampling plans for accomplishing these tasks and compares results obtained by sampling to those obtained by the current practice o f performing a census (100% sampling)

  19. Uncertainty quantification for nuclear density functional theory and information content of new measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonnell, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schunck, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Higdon, D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sarich, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wild, S. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nazarewicz, W. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-03-24

    Statistical tools of uncertainty quantification can be used to assess the information content of measured observables with respect to present-day theoretical models, to estimate model errors and thereby improve predictive capability, to extrapolate beyond the regions reached by experiment, and to provide meaningful input to applications and planned measurements. To showcase new opportunities offered by such tools, we make a rigorous analysis of theoretical statistical uncertainties in nuclear density functional theory using Bayesian inference methods. By considering the recent mass measurements from the Canadian Penning Trap at Argonne National Laboratory, we demonstrate how the Bayesian analysis and a direct least-squares optimization, combined with high-performance computing, can be used to assess the information content of the new data with respect to a model based on the Skyrme energy density functional approach. Employing the posterior probability distribution computed with a Gaussian process emulator, we apply the Bayesian framework to propagate theoretical statistical uncertainties in predictions of nuclear masses, two-neutron dripline, and fission barriers. Overall, we find that the new mass measurements do not impose a constraint that is strong enough to lead to significant changes in the model parameters. As a result, the example discussed in this study sets the stage for quantifying and maximizing the impact of new measurements with respect to current modeling and guiding future experimental efforts, thus enhancing the experiment-theory cycle in the scientific method.

  20. Measurements of Intracellular Ca2+ Content and Phosphatidylserine Exposure in Human Red Blood Cells: Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro C. Wesseling

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The increase of the intracellular Ca2+ content as well as the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS on the outer cell membrane surface after activation of red blood cells (RBCs by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA has been investigated by a variety of research groups. Carrying out experiments, which we described in several previous publications, we observed some discrepancies when comparing data obtained by different investigators within our research group and also between batches of LPA. In addition, we found differences comparing the results of double and single labelling experiments (for Ca2+ and PS. Furthermore, the results of PS exposure depended on the fluorescent dye used (annexin V-FITC versus annexin V alexa fluor® 647. Therefore, it seems necessary to investigate these methodological approaches in more detail to be able to quantify results and to compare data obtained by different research groups. Methods: The intracellular Ca2+ content and the PS exposure of RBCs separated from whole blood have been investigated after treatment with LPA (2.5 µM obtained from three different companies (Sigma-Aldrich, Cayman Chemical Company, and Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc.. Fluo-4 and x-rhod-1 have been used to detect intracellular Ca2+ content, annexin V alexa fluor® 647 and annexin V-FITC have been used for PS exposure measurements. Both parameters (Ca2+ content, PS exposure were studied using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Results: The percentage of RBCs showing increased intracellular Ca2+ content as well as PS exposure changes significantly between different LPA manufacturers as well as on the condition of mixing of LPA with the RBC suspension. Furthermore, the percentage of RBCs showing PS exposure is reduced in double labelling compared to single labelling experiments and depends also on the fluorescent dye used. Finally, data on Ca2+ content are slightly affected whereas PS exposure data are not affected significantly

  1. DAPI-fluorescent fading: a problem in microscopy or a way to measure nuclear DNA content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué; Kober, V.; del Río-Portilla, Miguel Á.

    2006-01-01

    In observation by confocal or conventional fluorescence microscopy, the retardation of the lost in fluorescence, from highest signal of fluorescence to lowest intensity are important factors in order to obtain accurate images. This problem is very common in fluorochromes for nuclear DNA and especially for DAPI stain. The fluorescence of DAPI is rapidly lost when it is exposure to excitation by ultra violet (UV) light, and especially under optimal condition of observation. Although the fading process could be retardate by using of mounting medium with antifading solutions, the photochemical process underlying the fluorescence decay has not yet been fully explained. In addiction, neither relationship has been tested between the fluorescence fading and nuclear DNA content. However, the capacity of the DNA to absorb UV light is knows. In order to test this relationship we measured by means of image analysis the fluorescence intensity in several nuclei types during a fading period. The analysis was performed by an algorithm specifically built in MATLAB software. The relationship between nuclear DNA content and DAPI-fluorescence fading was found equal to 99%. This study demonstrates the feasibility for estimates genome size by quantification of fluorescence fading. In this context, the present method allows to measure nuclear DNA content in several medical applications (cancer, HIV, organ transplants, etc). Nowadays, for measuring DNA content, flow cytometry is widely used; however, with the flow cytometry method it is not possible to select a specific group of cells, such as from a specific region of a tumor. Moreover, the using of image analysis allows automatizing diagnostics procedures.

  2. Method for Determining the Coalbed Methane Content with Determination the Uncertainty of Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlązak, Nikodem; Korzec, Marek

    2016-06-01

    Methane has a bad influence on safety in underground mines as it is emitted to the air during mining works. Appropriate identification of methane hazard is essential to determining methane hazard prevention methods, ventilation systems and methane drainage systems. Methane hazard is identified while roadways are driven and boreholes are drilled. Coalbed methane content is one of the parameters which is used to assess this threat. This is a requirement according to the Decree of the Minister of Economy dated 28 June 2002 on work safety and hygiene, operation and special firefighting protection in underground mines. For this purpose a new method for determining coalbed methane content in underground coal mines has been developed. This method consists of two stages - collecting samples in a mine and testing the sample in the laboratory. The stage of determining methane content in a coal sample in a laboratory is essential. This article presents the estimation of measurement uncertainty of determining methane content in a coal sample according to this methodology.

  3. Use of a standard urine assay for measuring the phosphate content of beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Elizabeth; Costelloe, Seán; Bosomworth, Mike; Fouque, Denis; Freeman, Julienne; Keane, David; Thompson, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Phosphate in beverages is readily absorbed and could have a significant impact on serum phosphate levels. Patients are routinely warned about the phosphoric acid in colas, but information on the phosphate content of other beverages is difficult to find. We have shown that the phosphomolybdate method, which is used in the vast majority of hospital laboratories for measuring phosphate in urine, can give an accurate measurement of the phosphate content of beer, cider, wine, and soft drinks. No change to the standard assay protocol is required. There was considerable variation between different types of wine and beer, probably due to the methods of production. The information the assay provides could enable staff providing dietary advice to compare locally available beverages and help patients to avoid or limit their intake of those with high phosphate content. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. NIR Hyperspectral Imaging Measurement of Sugar Content in Peach Using PLS Regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging measurement of sugar content in peach was introduced. NIR spectral images (650~ 1 000 nm, resolution: 2 nm) of peach samples were captured with developed hyperspectral imaging setup. Partial least square (PLS) regression prediction model was developed to estimate the sugar content in peach; step-wise backward method was utilized to determine optimal wavelength subsets. Experimental results show that the calibration model with optimal wavelength subsets has a correlation coefficient of prediction of 0.97 and a standard error of prediction of 0.19, the prediction accuracy is higher than the calibration model applied over the whole wavelength, which proves that variable selection plays an important role in improving the prediction accuracy of PLS regression model.

  5. Fast Measurement of Soluble Solid Content in Mango Based on Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiajia; He, Yong

    Mango is a kind of popular tropical fruit, and the soluble solid content is an important in this study visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/SWNIR) technique was applied. For sake of investigating the feasibility of using VIS/SWNIR spectroscopy to measure the soluble solid content in mango, and validating the performance of selected sensitive bands, for the calibration set was formed by 135 mango samples, while the remaining 45 mango samples for the prediction set. The combination of partial least squares and backpropagation artificial neural networks (PLS-BP) was used to calculate the prediction model based on raw spectrum data. Based on PLS-BP, the determination coefficient for prediction (Rp) was 0.757 and root mean square and the process is simple and easy to operate. Compared with the Partial least squares (PLS) result, the performance of PLS-BP is better.

  6. Near field measurements on contrail properties from fuels with different sulfur content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, A. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Busen, R. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Schroeder, F.P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Baumann, R. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Kuhn, M. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Stroem, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology; Hagen, D.E. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States); Whitefield, P.D. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States); Baumgardner, D. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Arnold, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany). Bereich Atmosphaerenphysik; Borrmann, S. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Schumann, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-08-01

    Microphysical properties of jet engine exhaust aerosol and contrails were studied in the near field of the emitting aircraft for different fuel sulfur contents. Measurements were performed behind the research aircraft ATTAS of DLR and an Airbus A310-300 using fuels with different sulfur contents of 6 ppm and 2700 ppm. The major differences in accumulation mode aerosol and microphysical contrail properties between the used aircraft were an increased number concentration of both the accumulation mode aerosol and the contrail particles in the Airbus A310-300 plume compared to the ATTAS plume. Part of the difference in contrail particles may be caused by different ambient conditions, but the major differences are assumed to be caused by different engine properties. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of a method to measure water content in porous media by employing ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Leonardo Sáenz Cruz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A method to measure water content in porous media, such as solis and grains, was developed as a real time nondestructive test. The method was based on piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers as a sensor system. Transmiters and receivers was developed to administrate the sensors system and ultrasonic signal. Transmiters and receivers are placed facing each other and located inside the porous media 10 cm apart. The method was evaluated in two porous meda, namely a column 30 cm coarse sand and a paddy rice variety Fedearroz 50, in order to evaluate the sensors system performance in two different porous media with different water holder capacity. Tools were developed for data acquisition, capacity of 16 analog signal, 12 bits resolution. Electronic circuits, C++ OPP programming and Matlab were used. The results showed a monotonically increment of millivolts as a response of the transducer as the water content was decreasing

  8. Determination of Radioisotope Content by Measurement of Waste Package Dose Rates - 13394

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Daiane Cristini B.; Gimenes Tessaro, Ana Paula; Vicente, Roberto [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute Brazil, Radioactive Waste Management Department IPEN/GRR, Sao Paulo. SP. (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this communication is to report the observed correlation between the calculated air kerma rates produced by radioactive waste drums containing untreated ion-exchange resin and activated charcoal slurries with the measured radiation field of each package. Air kerma rates at different distances from the drum surface were calculated with the activity concentrations previously determined by gamma spectrometry of waste samples and the estimated mass, volume and geometry of solid and liquid phases of each waste package. The water content of each waste drum varies widely between different packages. Results will allow determining the total activity of wastes and are intended to complete the previous steps taken to characterize the radioisotope content of wastes packages. (authors)

  9. Rapid and accurate biofuel moisture content gauging using magnetic resonance measurement technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaervinen, T.

    2013-04-15

    Biomass is extensively utilised in energy production and as a raw material, such as for the production of liquid biofuels. All those processes will benefit if the moisture content of bio material is known in advance as accurately as possible under transient circumstances. Biofuel trade is increasingly based on the calorific value of fuels. In the first step, this also increases the need for rapid and accurate moisture content determination. During the last few years, large biofuel standardisation has been implemented, emphasising biofuel quality control at all stages of the utilisation chain. In principle, the moisture instrumental measurement can be utilised by many technologies and procedures. Typical techniques are infrared, radiofrequency, microwave, radiometric, electrical conductivity, capacitance, and impedance. Nuclear magnetic resonance (MR) and thermal neutron absorption are also applied. The MR measurement principle has been known and utilised already since the early 1950s. It has become the basic instrumental analysis tool in chemistry. It is also well-known as a very accurate method for analysing most compounds, especially substances containing hydrogen. The utilisation of MR metering is expanded extensively to medical diagnostics as a form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Because of the precision of the MR principle, there have for a long time been efforts to apply it in new and different areas, and to make more user-friendly, smaller, and even portable devices. Such a device was designed by Vaisala a few years ago. VTT has utilised Vaisala's MR prototype for approximately one year for moisture content measurement of different biofuels. The first step in the use of an MR device for moisture determination was the definition of its measurement accuracy compared to the standard method (EN 14774). Those tests proved that the absolute precision seems to be comparable to the standard moisture content measurement method. It was also found out that

  10. C-14 content of ten meteorites measured by tandem accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. M.; Andrews, H. R.; Ball, G. C.; Burn, N.; Imahori, Y.; Milton, J. C. D.; Fireman, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of C-14 in three North American and seven Antarctic meteorites show in most cases that this cosmogenic isotope, which is tightly bound, was separated from absorbed atmospheric radiocarbon by stepwise heating extractions. The present upper limit to age determination by the accelerator method varies from 50,000 to 70,000 years, depending on the mass and carbon content of the sample. The natural limit caused by cosmic ray production of C-14 in silicate rocks at 2000 m elevation is estimated to be 55,000 + or - 5000 years. An estimation is also made of the 'weathering ages' of the Antarctic meteorites from the specific activity of loosely bound CO2 which is thought to be absorbed from the terrestrial atmosphere. Accelerator measurements are found to agree with previous low level counting measurements, but are more sensitive and precise.

  11. Using measured soil water contents to estimate evapotranspiration and root water uptake profiles - a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guderle, M.; Hildebrandt, A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of plants in soil water relations, and thus ecosystem functioning, requires information about root water uptake. We evaluated four different complex water balance methods to estimate sink term patterns and evapotranspiration directly from soil moisture measurements. We tested four methods. The first two take the difference between two measurement intervals as evapotranspiration, thus neglecting vertical flow. The third uses regression on the soil water content time series and differences between day and night to account for vertical flow. The fourth accounts for vertical flow using a numerical model and iteratively solves for the sink term. None of these methods requires any a priori information of root distribution parameters or evapotranspiration, which is an advantage compared to common root water uptake models. To test the methods, a synthetic experiment with numerical simulations for a grassland ecosystem was conducted. Additionally, the time series were perturbed to simulate common sensor errors, like those due to measurement precision and inaccurate sensor calibration. We tested each method for a range of measurement frequencies and applied performance criteria to evaluate the suitability of each method. In general, we show that methods accounting for vertical flow predict evapotranspiration and the sink term distribution more accurately than the simpler approaches. Under consideration of possible measurement uncertainties, the method based on regression and differentiating between day and night cycles leads to the best and most robust estimation of sink term patterns. It is thus an alternative to more complex inverse numerical methods. This study demonstrates that highly resolved (temporally and spatially) soil water content measurements may be used to estimate the sink term profiles when the appropriate approach is used.

  12. ROBUST hot wire probe efficiency for total water content measurements in glaciated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Delphine; Lilie, Lyle; Weber, Marc; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Strapp, J. Walter

    2017-04-01

    During the two High Altitude Ice Crystals (HAIC, Dezitter et al. 2013)/High Ice Water Content (HIWC, Strapp et al., 2016a) international flight campaigns that investigated deep convection in the tropics, the French Falcon 20 research aircraft was equipped with two different devices measuring the Total Water Content (TWC): - the IKP-2 (Isokinetic Probe, Davison et al. 2008, 2016), - and the hot wire ROBUST probe (Strapp et al. 2008; Grandin et al. 2014). The IKP-2 probe is an evaporator that has been specifically designed to measure high ice water content (Strapp et al. 2016b) with a collection efficiency near unity. It has undergone extensive performance assessment in liquid and glaciated conditions in several wind tunnels. The Robust probe was initially developed by Science Engineering Associates to estimate high ice water content in a high speed wind tunnel, in harsh conditions where other hot-wires had been observed to suffer failures. It was known at the outset that, like other hot-wire TWC probes, it would measure only a quasi-constant fraction of the true ice water content. Early wind tunnel and flight experience with the ROBUST probe revealed that this fraction was the order of 40% for ice crystals. During the HAIC/HIWC campaigns (Leroy et al. 2016, 2017), supercooled liquid water conditions were documented according to a detailed analysis of a Rosemount Ice detector (RICE) and a Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP) measurements, and were found to be rare. Thus, the HAIC/HIWC dataset represents a unique opportunity to study in more detail the ROBUST efficiency in glaciated conditions, using the IKP-2 values as a comparative reference. Comparison of IKP-2 and ROBUST measurements will show that the ROBUST behavior differs between low (below 1.5 g/m3) and high (above 2 g/m3) ice content conditions and is also sensitive to temperature. The sensitivity of the ROBUST collection efficiency to ice particles size could also be explored as optical imaging probes were part of the

  13. THE CONTENT OF AN ECONOMIC CATEGORY AND THE MEASUREMENT OF THE MARKET DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Korotkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the economic and statistical categories and levels of consumer demand. There is no uniformity in the interpretation of the content of an economic category and demand level in the literature on the economic theory and applied research of the market. We want to conduct the verification of the demand category, a consolidation of the wording of measuring the level of demand, the classification of demand. Theoretical basis of the conducted research is the methodology of the economic theory and the general theory of statistics.

  14. A Method for In-Situ Measurement of Stem Water Content in Trees and Shrubs Using Time Domain Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.; Tape, K. D.; Young, J.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying vegetation water content is a critical aspect of understanding plant physiology, particularly how plants cope with drought, and ecosystem water balance. Yet, we lack a method to continuously monitor plant water content, particularly on small plants. We developed a method to continuously monitor tree and shrub water content using time domain reflectometry (TDR), a measurement technique commonly used to assess soil moisture. TDR probes were fabricated and inserted into trees and shrubs. Automated measurements were made at 30 minute intervals over several months. Calibration was performed by drying cut sections of trees and shrubs in the lab while making paired TDR and weight measurements on those samples to calculate gravimetric water content. Gravimetric water content was converted to volumetric water content to create a calibration equations relating TDR measurements to water content in Betula neoalaskana, Picea mariana, Populus tremuloides, and Salix alaxensis. Our fabricated TDR probes and our calibration equations permit continuous, non-destructive, and accurate measurements of stem water content in live trees and shrubs. These data show diurnal and seasonal patterns of water content which can be incorporated into plant physiological and hydrological models.

  15. Simulation study of the aerosol information content in OMI spectral reflectance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Veihelmann

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI is an imaging UV-VIS solar backscatter spectrometer and is designed and used primarily to retrieve trace gases like O3 and NO2 from the measured Earth reflectance spectrum in the UV-visible (270–500 nm. However, also aerosols are an important science target of OMI. The multi-wavelength algorithm is used to retrieve aerosol parameters from OMI spectral reflectance measurements in up to 20 wavelength bands. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA is performed to quantify the information content of OMI reflectance measurements on aerosols and to assess the capability of the multi-wavelength algorithm to discern various aerosol types. This analysis is applied to synthetic reflectance measurements for desert dust, biomass burning aerosols, and weakly absorbing anthropogenic aerosol with a variety of aerosol optical thicknesses, aerosol layer altitudes, refractive indices and size distributions. The range of aerosol parameters considered covers the natural variability of tropospheric aerosols. This theoretical analysis is performed for a large number of scenarios with various geometries and surface albedo spectra for ocean, soil and vegetation. When the surface albedo spectrum is accurately known and clouds are absent, OMI reflectance measurements have 2 to 4 degrees of freedom that can be attributed to aerosol parameters. This information content depends on the observation geometry and the surface albedo spectrum. An additional wavelength band is evaluated, that comprises the O2-O2 absorption band at a wavelength of 477 nm. It is found that this wavelength band adds significantly more information than any other individual band.

  16. Laboratory experiments on rainfall-induced flowslide from pore pressure and moisture content measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Hakro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available During or immediately after rainfall many slope failures have been observed. The slope failure occurred due to rainfall infiltration that rapidly increase the pore pressure and trigger the slope failure. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the rainfall-induced slope failure, but the mechanism of slope failure is still not well clarified. To investigate mechanism of rainfall-induced slope failure laboratory experiments have been conducted in flume. The slope was prepared with sandy soil in flume with constant inclination of 45°, because most of rainfall-induced slope failure occurred in sandy soil and on steep slope. The hydrological parameters such as pore pressure and moisture content were measured with piezometers and advanced Imko TDRs respectively. The slope failure occurred due to increase in moisture content and rise in pore pressure. During the flowslide type of slope failure the sudden increase in pore pressure was observed. The higher moisture content and pore pressure was at the toe of the slope. The pore pressure was higher at the toe of the slope and smaller at the upper part of the slope. After the saturation the run-off was observed at the toe of the slope that erodes the toe and forming the gullies from toe to upper part of the slope. In the case antecedent moisture conditions the moisture content and the pore pressure increased quickly and producing the surface runoff at the horizontal part of the slope. The slope having less density suffer from flowslide type of the failure, however in dense slope no major failure was occurred even at higher rainfall intensity. The antecedent moisture accompanied with high rainfall intensity also not favors the initiation of flowslide in case of dense slope. The flowslide type of failure can be avoided by controlling the density of soil slope. Knowing such parameters that controls the large mass movement helpful in developing the early warning system for flowslide type of

  17. On-sample water content measurement for a complete local monitoring in triaxial testing of unsaturated soils

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz-Castelblanco, José; Pereira, Jean-Michel; Cui, Yu-Jun

    2013-01-01

    To provide a complete local monitoring of the state of an unsaturated soil sample during triaxial testing, a local water content measurement device was adapted to a triaxial device comprising the measurement of local displacements (Hall effect transducers) and suction (High capacity transducer). Water content was locally monitored by means of a resistivity probe. The water content/resistivity calibration curves of an intact natural unsaturated loess from Northern France extracted by block sampling at two depths (1 and 3.3 m) were carefully determined, showing good accuracy and repeatability. The validity of two models giving the resistivity of unsaturated soils with respect to their water content was examined.

  18. Use of low-frequency electrical impedance measurements to determine phospholipid content in amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, F.; Cametti, C.; Zimatore, G.; Maraviglia, B.; Pachi', A.

    1996-09-01

    In this report we propose a new method for an in vitro test of the foetal lung maturity based on the measurement of the electrical conductivity of the overall amniotic fluid obtained from transabdominal amniocentesis, since this quantity can be linked to a first approximation in a very simple way to the phospholipid content. We have carried out measurements of 85 different samples of amniotic fluid as a function of gestation weeks and we have observed a pronounced change of the electrical conductivity that reflects the increase in the phospholipid concentration occurring at the end of normal pregnancies. The method could be further developed to obtain similar information on in vivo experiments by means of bioelectric impedance tomography, taking advantage of the frequency dependence of the tissue electrical impedance.

  19. Measurement of sugar content in Fuji apples by FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕德; 应义斌

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the potential of FT-NIR spectroscopy and the influence of the distance between the light source/detection probe and the fruit for measuring the sugar content (SC) of Fuji apples, diffuse reflectance spectra were measured in the spectral range from 12500 to 4000 cm-1 at 0 mm, 2 mm, 4 mm and 6 mm distances. Four calibration models at four distances were established between diffused reflectance spectra and sugar content by partial least squares (PLS) analysis. The correlation coefficients (R) of calibrations ranged from 0.982 to 0.997 with SEC values from 0.138 to 0.453 and the SECV values from 0.74 to 1.58. The best model of original spectra at 0 mm distance yielded high correlation determination of 0.918, a SEC of 0.092, and a SEP of 0.773. The results showed that different light/detection probe-fruit distances influence the apple reflective spectra and SC predictions.

  20. Measurement of sugar content in Fuji apples by FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕德; 应义斌

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the potential of FT-NIR spectroscopy and the influence of the distance between the light source/detection probe and the fruit for measuring the sugar content (SC) of Fuji apples, diffuse reflectance spectra were measured in the spectral range from 12500 to 4000 cm(1 at 0 mm, 2 mm, 4 mm and 6 mm distances. Four calibration models at four distances were established between diffused reflectance spectra and sugar content by partial least squares (PLS) analysis. The correlation coefficients (R) of calibrations ranged from 0.982 to 0.997 with SEC values from 0.138 to 0.453 and the SECV values from 0.74 to 1.58. The best model of original spectra at 0 mm distance yielded high correlation determination of 0.918, a SEC of 0.092, and a SEP of 0.773. The results showed that different light/detection probe-fruit distances influence the apple reflective spectra and SC predictions.

  1. Variability within intramuscular fat content of pigs as measured by gravimetry, FTIR and NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geers, R; Decanniere, C; Villé, H; Van Hecke, P; Bosschaerts, L

    1995-01-01

    In order to determine in vivo intramuscular fat content of pigs' biceps femoris, three methods were compared. Gravimetry and FTIR spectroscopy after total fat extraction from a biopsy (about 400 mg skeletal muscle tissue) and in vivo (1)H NMR spectroscopy after imaging and volume of interest selection were used. Mean values (g fat/100 g fresh tissue) were, respectively, 1·47 ± 0·35 (gravimetry), 1·26 ± 0·33 (FTIR) and 0·51 ± 0·19 (NMR); but NMR-values represented only triglycerides. Within an intramuscular fat range from 1·1 to 2·7 g per 100 g fresh muscle tissue, possible to estimate a calibration line between the in vitro and in vivo data for hybrid piglets of about 18 kg. Repeated in vivo NMR measurements on the same muscle volume showed a mean coefficient of variation of 5·5 ± 2·7%. The coefficient of variation of measurements on different volumes within the same muscle was 14 ± 10%. The mean intramuscular fat content of 18 kg or 100 kg pigs was, respectively, 1·64 ± 0·46 (biceps femoris) and 1·32 ± 0·1 (longissimus dorsi) g per 100 g fresh muscle tissue.

  2. Optimizing top precision performance measure of content-based image retrieval by learning similarity function

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Ru-Ze

    2017-04-24

    In this paper we study the problem of content-based image retrieval. In this problem, the most popular performance measure is the top precision measure, and the most important component of a retrieval system is the similarity function used to compare a query image against a database image. However, up to now, there is no existing similarity learning method proposed to optimize the top precision measure. To fill this gap, in this paper, we propose a novel similarity learning method to maximize the top precision measure. We model this problem as a minimization problem with an objective function as the combination of the losses of the relevant images ranked behind the top-ranked irrelevant image, and the squared Frobenius norm of the similarity function parameter. This minimization problem is solved as a quadratic programming problem. The experiments over two benchmark data sets show the advantages of the proposed method over other similarity learning methods when the top precision is used as the performance measure.

  3. Understanding the aerosol information content in multi-spectral reflectance measurements using a synergetic retrieval algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martynenko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An information content analysis for multi-wavelength SYNergetic AErosol Retrieval algorithm SYNAER was performed to quantify the number of independent pieces of information that can be retrieved. In particular, the capability of SYNAER to discern various aerosol types is assessed. This information content depends on the aerosol optical depth, the surface albedo spectrum and the observation geometry. The theoretical analysis is performed for a large number of scenarios with various geometries and surface albedo spectra for ocean, soil and vegetation. When the surface albedo spectrum and its accuracy is known under cloud-free conditions, reflectance measurements used in SYNAER is able to provide for 2–4° of freedom that can be attributed to retrieval parameters: aerosol optical depth, aerosol type and surface albedo.

    The focus of this work is placed on an information content analysis with emphasis to the aerosol type classification. This analysis is applied to synthetic reflectance measurements for 40 predefined aerosol mixtures of different basic components, given by sea salt, mineral dust, biomass burning and diesel aerosols, water soluble and water insoluble aerosols. The range of aerosol parameters considered through the 40 mixtures covers the natural variability of tropospheric aerosols. After the information content analysis performed in Holzer-Popp et al. (2008 there was a necessity to compare derived degrees of freedom with retrieved aerosol optical depth for different aerosol types, which is the main focus of this paper.

    The principle component analysis was used to determine the correspondence between degrees of freedom for signal in the retrieval and derived aerosol types. The main results of the analysis indicate correspondence between the major groups of the aerosol types, which are: water soluble aerosol, soot, mineral dust and sea salt and degrees of freedom in the algorithm and show the ability of the SYNAER to

  4. Compared performance of penetrometers and effect of soil water content on penetration resistance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Aparecido Mome Filho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture techniques have a great impact on crops and soil quality, especially by the increased machinery traffic and weight. Several devices have been developed for determining soil properties in the field, aimed at managing compacted areas. Penetrometry is a widely used technique; however, there are several types of penetrometers, which have different action modes that can affect the soil resistance measurement. The objective of this study was to compare the functionality of two penetrometry methods (manual and automated mode in the field identification of compacted, highly mechanized sugarcane areas, considering the influence of soil water volumetric content (θ on soil penetration resistance (PR. Three sugarcane fields on a Rhodic Eutrudrox were chosen, under a sequence of harvest systems: one manual harvest (1ManH, one mechanized harvest (1MH and three mechanized harvests (3MH. The different degrees of mechanization were associated to cumulative compaction processes. An electronic penetrometer was used on PR measurements, so that the rod was introduced into the soil by hand (Manual and by an electromechanical motor (Auto. The θ was measured in the field with a soil moisture sensor. Results showed an effect of θ on PR measurements and that regression models must be used to correct data before comparing harvesting systems. The rod introduction modes resulted in different mean PR values, where the "Manual" overestimated PR compared to the "Auto" mode at low θ.

  5. Measuring snow liquid water content with low-cost GPS receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Franziska; Prasch, Monika; Schmid, Lino; Schweizer, Jürg; Mauser, Wolfram

    2014-11-06

    The amount of liquid water in snow characterizes the wetness of a snowpack. Its temporal evolution plays an important role for wet-snow avalanche prediction, as well as the onset of meltwater release and water availability estimations within a river basin. However, it is still a challenge and a not yet satisfyingly solved issue to measure the liquid water content (LWC) in snow with conventional in situ and remote sensing techniques. We propose a new approach based on the attenuation of microwave radiation in the L-band emitted by the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS). For this purpose, we performed a continuous low-cost GPS measurement experiment at the Weissfluhjoch test site in Switzerland, during the snow melt period in 2013. As a measure of signal strength, we analyzed the carrier-to-noise power density ratio (C/N0) and developed a procedure to normalize these data. The bulk volumetric LWC was determined based on assumptions for attenuation, reflection and refraction of radiation in wet snow. The onset of melt, as well as daily melt-freeze cycles were clearly detected. The temporal evolution of the LWC was closely related to the meteorological and snow-hydrological data. Due to its non-destructive setup, its cost-efficiency and global availability, this approach has the potential to be implemented in distributed sensor networks for avalanche prediction or basin-wide melt onset measurements.

  6. Measuring Snow Liquid Water Content with Low-Cost GPS Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Koch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The amount of liquid water in snow characterizes the wetness of a snowpack. Its temporal evolution plays an important role for wet-snow avalanche prediction, as well as the onset of meltwater release and water availability estimations within a river basin. However, it is still a challenge and a not yet satisfyingly solved issue to measure the liquid water content (LWC in snow with conventional in situ and remote sensing techniques. We propose a new approach based on the attenuation of microwave radiation in the L-band emitted by the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS. For this purpose, we performed a continuous low-cost GPS measurement experiment at the Weissfluhjoch test site in Switzerland, during the snow melt period in 2013. As a measure of signal strength, we analyzed the carrier-to-noise power density ratio (C/N0 and developed a procedure to normalize these data. The bulk volumetric LWC was determined based on assumptions for attenuation, reflection and refraction of radiation in wet snow. The onset of melt, as well as daily melt-freeze cycles were clearly detected. The temporal evolution of the LWC was closely related to the meteorological and snow-hydrological data. Due to its non-destructive setup, its cost-efficiency and global availability, this approach has the potential to be implemented in distributed sensor networks for avalanche prediction or basin-wide melt onset measurements.

  7. Measuring GNSS ionospheric total electron content at Concordia, and application to L-band radiometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Romano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the project BIS - Bipolar Ionospheric Scintillation and Total Electron Content Monitoring, the ISACCO-DMC0 and ISACCO-DMC1 permanent monitoring stations were installed in 2008. The principal scope of the stations is to measure the ionospheric total electron content (TEC and to monitor the ionospheric scintillations, using high-sampling-frequency global positioning system (GPS ionospheric scintillation and TEC monitor (GISTM receivers. The disturbances that the ionosphere can induce on the electromagnetic signals emitted by the Global Navigation Satellite System constellations are due to the presence of electron density anomalies in the ionosphere, which are particularly frequent at high latitudes, where the upper atmosphere is highly sensitive to perturbations coming from outer space. With the development of present and future low-frequency space-borne microwave missions (e.g., Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity [SMOS], Aquarius, and Soil Moisture Active Passive missions, there is an increasing need to estimate the effects of the ionosphere on the propagation of electromagnetic waves that affects satellite measurements. As an example, how the TEC data collected at Concordia station are useful for the calibration of the European Space Agency SMOS data within the framework of an experiment promoted by the European Space Agency (known as DOMEX will be discussed. The present report shows the ability of the GISTM station to monitor ionospheric scintillation and TEC, which indicates that only the use of continuous GPS measurements can provide accurate information on TEC variability, which is necessary for continuous calibration of satellite data.

  8. Determination of optimal dead sea salt content in a cosmetic emulsion using rheology and stability measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Mohameed, Hazim A; Bsoul, Abeer

    2008-01-01

    Dead Sea mud and salts are known for their therapeutic and cosmetic properties. The presence of Dead Sea (DS) salts in different types of cosmetics has affected the stability and the flow properties of the finished products. In this study, an attempt was made to find the optimum Dead Sea salt content in a cosmetic emulsion (model of body cream) using both rheology and stability measurements. The rheological properties were tested during a four-month storage period at three different storage temperatures: 8 degrees C, room temperature, and 45 degrees C. In addition to rheological measurements and centrifuge tests, the conductivities of the emulsion samples were also determined. The centrifuge tests showed that the cream samples containing more than 0.25 wt% of DS salt showed phase separation. The addition of DS salt to the cosmetic emulsion led to two maxima in the emulsion viscosity at salt contents of 0.07 wt% and 0.15 wt%. However, the emulsion samples containing 0.15% of DS salt was considered the optimum sample since it contained the maximum amount of salt and exhibited the maximum viscosity at all tested conditions. It was found that the viscosity of the emulsion is increased with storage time and storage temperature. This behavior was accompanied by a decrease in conductivity. This behavior was explained by water evaporation from the emulsion. However, it has been shown that the presence of DS salt in the cosmetic emulsion significantly reduces the rate of water evaporation. The conductivity measurements reflect the rate of water evaporation, and the presence of DS salt reduces the rate of conductivity. Conductivity is observed to decrease with storage time and temperature.

  9. Application of Neural Network in the Measuring System On-line for Water Content of Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengrong Zhao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to introduce a new way to measure the water content of Crude Oil. In this measurement system, capacitive sensor is used as sensitive element and BP neural network model is adopted to deal with data. Water content and temperature are used as input parameters to set up BP neural network model. By MATLAB simulation, a moisture content of crude oil is forecasted, so that the influence comes from temperature variation is compensated and the accuracy of the measurement result is improved.

  10. Remote estimation of canopy nitrogen content in winter wheat using airborne hyperspectral reflectance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xianfeng; Huang, Wenjiang; Kong, Weiping; Ye, Huichun; Luo, Juhua; Chen, Pengfei

    2016-11-01

    Timely and accurate assessment of canopy nitrogen content (CNC) provides valuable insight into rapid and real-time nitrogen status monitoring in crops. A semi-empirical approach based on spectral index was extensively used for nitrogen content estimation. However, in many cases, due to specific vegetation types or local conditions, the applicability and robustness of established spectral indices for nitrogen retrieval were limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the optimal spectral index for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) CNC estimation using Pushbroom Hyperspectral Imager (PHI) airborne hyperspectral data. Data collected from two different field experiments that were conducted during the major growth stages of winter wheat in 2002 and 2003 were used. Our results showed that a significant linear relationship existed between nitrogen and chlorophyll content at the canopy level, and it was not affected by cultivars, growing conditions and nutritional status of winter wheat. Nevertheless, it varied with growth stages. Periods around heading stage mainly worsened the relationship and CNC estimation, and CNC assessment for growth stages before and after heading could improve CNC retrieval accuracy to some extent. CNC assessment with PHI airborne hyperspectra suggested that spectral indices based on red-edge band including narrowband and broadband CIred-edge, NDVI-like and ND705 showed convincing results in CNC retrieval. NDVI-like and ND705 were sensitive to detect CNC changes less than 5 g/m2, narrowband and broadband CIred-edge were sensitive to a wide range of CNC variations. Further evaluation of CNC retrieval using field measured hyperspectra indicated that NDVI-like was robust and exhibited the highest accuracy in CNC assessment, and spectral indices (CIred-edge and CIgreen) that established on narrow or broad bands showed no obvious difference in CNC assessment. Overall, our study suggested that NDVI-like was the optimal indicator for winter

  11. Measurement of the muon content in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veberič Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The muon content of extensive air showers produced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays is an observable sensitive to the composition of primary particles and to the properties of hadronic interactions governing the evolution of air-shower cascades. We present different methods for estimation of the number of muons at the ground and the muon production depth. These methods use measurements of the longitudinal, lateral, and temporal distribution of particles in air showers recorded by the detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The results, obtained at about 140 TeV center-of-mass energy for proton primaries, are compared to the predictions of LHC-tuned hadronic-interaction models used in simulations with different primary masses. The models exhibit a deficitin the predicted muon content. The combination of these results with other independent mass composition analyses, such as those involving the depth of shower maximum observablemax, provide additional constraints on hadronic-interaction models for energies beyond the reach of the LHC.

  12. Dynamic Measurements of the Position, Orientation, and DNA Content of Individual Unlabeled Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfain, Aaron M; Garmann, Rees F; Jin, Yan; Lahini, Yoav; Manoharan, Vinothan N

    2016-07-01

    A complete understanding of the cellular pathways involved in viral infections will ultimately require a diverse arsenal of experimental techniques, including methods for tracking individual viruses and their interactions with the host. Here we demonstrate the use of holographic microscopy to track the position, orientation, and DNA content of unlabeled bacteriophages (phages) in solution near a planar, functionalized glass surface. We simultaneously track over 100 individual λ phages at a rate of 100 Hz across a 33 μm × 33 μm portion of the surface. The technique determines the in-plane motion of the phage to nanometer precision, and the height of the phage above the surface to 100 nm precision. Additionally, we track the DNA content of individual phages as they eject their genome following the addition of detergent-solubilized LamB receptor. The technique determines the fraction of DNA remaining in the phage to within 10% of the total 48.5 kilobase pairs. Analysis of the data reveals that under certain conditions, λ phages move along the surface with their heads down and intermittently stick to the surface by their tails, causing them to stand up. Furthermore, we find that in buffer containing high concentrations of both monovalent and divalent salts, λ phages eject their entire DNA in about 7 s. Taken together, these measurements highlight the potential of holographic microscopy to resolve the fast kinetics of the early stages of phage infection.

  13. Measurement of the pseudoscalar mixing angle and $\\eta^{\\prime}$ gluonium content with KLOE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosino, F; Antonelli, M; Bacci, C; Beltrame, P; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, S; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocchetta, S; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Bowring, D; Branchini, P; Caloi, R; Campana, P; Capon, G; Capussela, T; Ceradini, F; Chi, S; Chiefari, G; Ciambrone, P; Conetti, S; De Lucia, E; De Santis, A; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; Dell'Agnello, S; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Falco, S; Di Micco, B; Doria, A; Dreucci, M; Felici, G; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Finocchiaro, G; Fiore, S; Forti, C; Franzini, P; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Gorini, E; Graziani, E; Incagli, M; Kluge, W; Kulikov, V; Lacava, F; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Leone, D; Martini, M; Massarotti, P; Mei, W; Meola, S; Miscetti, S; Moulson, M; Murtas, F; Müller, S; Napolitano, M; Nguyen, F; Palutan, M; Pasqualucci, E; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Perfetto, F; Pontecorvo, L; Primavera, M; Santangelo, P; Santovetti, E; Saracino, G; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Scuri, F; Sfiligoi, I; Spadaro, T; Testa, M; Tortora, L; Valente, P; Valeriani, B; Venanzoni, G; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Xu, G; al, et

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the ratio $R_{\\phi}=BR(\\phi \\to \\eta^{\\prime} \\gamma)/BR(\\phi \\to \\eta \\gamma)$ by looking for the radiative decays $\\phi \\to \\eta^{\\prime} \\gamma$ and $\\phi \\to \\eta \\gamma$ in the final states $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ 7 $\\gamma$'s and 7 $\\gamma$'s respectively, in a sample of $\\sim 1.3\\cdot 10^{9}$ $\\phi$ mesons produced at the Frascati $\\phi$-factory. We obtain $R_{\\phi}=(4.77\\pm0.09_{stat}\\pm0.19_{sys})\\cdot 10^{-3}$ from which we derive $BR(\\phi \\to \\eta^{\\prime} \\gamma)=(6.20\\pm0.11_{stat}\\pm0.25_{sys})\\cdot 10^{-5}$. In the hypothesis of no gluonium content we extract the pseudoscalar mixing angle in the quark-flavor basis $\\phi_P=(41.4\\pm0.3_{stat}\\pm0.7_{sys}\\pm0.6_{th})^{\\circ}$. Combining the value of $R_{\\phi}$ with other constraints, we estimate the gluonium fractional content of $\\eta^{\\prime}$ meson as $Z^2 = 0.14\\pm0.04$ and the mixing angle $\\phi_P = (39.7\\pm0.7)^{\\circ}$.

  14. Measurement of the muon content in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veberič, Darko

    2016-07-01

    The muon content of extensive air showers produced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays is an observable sensitive to the composition of primary particles and to the properties of hadronic interactions governing the evolution of air-shower cascades. We present different methods for estimation of the number of muons at the ground and the muon production depth. These methods use measurements of the longitudinal, lateral, and temporal distribution of particles in air showers recorded by the detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The results, obtained at about 140 TeV center-of-mass energy for proton primaries, are compared to the predictions of LHC-tuned hadronic-interaction models used in simulations with different primary masses. The models exhibit a deficitin the predicted muon content. The combination of these results with other independent mass composition analyses, such as those involving the depth of shower maximum observablemax, provide additional constraints on hadronic-interaction models for energies beyond the reach of the LHC.

  15. The Atmospheric Water Vapor Content in Fennoscandia Measured by GPS 1996- 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgered, G.; Nilsson, T.; Ning, T.; Johansson, J.

    2008-12-01

    We have used 10 years of ground-based GPS data to estimate time series of the water vapor content above each one of 33 GPS receiver sites in Finland and Sweden. Although a 10 year period is much too short to search for climate change we use the data set to assess the stability and consistency of the linear trend of the water vapor content that can be estimated from the data. The linear trends in the integrated water vapor content range from -0.2 to +1.0 kg m-2 decade-1. As one may expect we find different systematic patterns for summer and winter data. The formal uncertainty of these trends, taking the temporal correlation of the variability about the estimated model into account, are of the order of 0.4 kg m-2 decade-1. Mostly, this uncertainty is due to the natural short-term variability in the water vapor content, while the formal uncertainties in the GPS measurements have only a small impact on the trend errors. The overall goal for the possible use of GPS data in climate research is to determine to which extent these independent data can be used to discriminate between different climate models --- both in terms of absolute values as well as long term trends --- thereby improving the quality of the models and increasing the probability to produce realistic scenarios of the future climate. It seems reasonable to assume that such applications will require uncertainties of less than 0.1 kg m-2 decade-1. In addition to GPS also additional global navigational satellite systems (GNSS), such as the European Galileo and the finalization of the Russian GLONASS, can be used in the future. This will significantly improve the spatial sampling of the atmosphere, and also reduce the relative influence of orbit errors for individual satellites. On the other hand such changes can introduce new systematic effects in the estimated water vapor time series and care must be taken in order to understand and correct for such effects.

  16. Improved process control through real-time measurement of mineral content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turler, Daniel; Karaca, Murat; Davis, William B.; Giauque, Robert D.; Hopkins, Deborah

    2001-11-02

    In a highly collaborative research and development project with mining and university partners, sensors and data-analysis tools are being developed for rock-mass characterization and real-time measurement of mineral content. Determining mineralogy prior to mucking in an open-pit mine is important for routing the material to the appropriate processing stream. A possible alternative to lab assay of dust and cuttings obtained from drill holes is continuous on-line sampling and real-time x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. Results presented demonstrate that statistical analyses combined with XRF data can be employed to identify minerals and, possibly, different rock types. The objective is to create a detailed three-dimensional mineralogical map in real time that would improve downstream process efficiency.

  17. Measurement and analysis of soil nitrogen and organic matter content using near-infrared spectroscopy techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yong; SONG Hai-yan; PEREIRA Annia García; G(O)MEZ Antihus Hemández

    2005-01-01

    Near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy is as a rapid, convenient and simple nondestructive technique useful for quantifying several soil properties. This method was used to estimate nitrogen (N) and organic matter (OM) content in a soil of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou County. A total of 125 soil samples were taken from the field. Ninety-five samples spectra were used during the calibration and cross validation stage. Thirty samples spectra were used to predict N and OM concentration. NIR spectra of these samples were correlated using partial least square regression. The regression coefficients between measured and predicted values of N and OM was 0.92 and 0.93, and SEP (standard error of prediction) were 3.28 and 0.06, respectively, which showed that NIR method had potential to accurately predict these constituents in this soil. The results showed that NIR spectroscopy could be a good tool for precision farming application.

  18. Optimization of {sup 18}O measurement using NRA for studies of isotopic content in fossil meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borysiuk, M., E-mail: maciek.borysiuk@pixe.lth.se [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Kristiansson, P.; Arteaga-Marrero, N.; Elfman, M.; Golubev, P.; Nilsson, E.J.C.; Nilsson, C.; Pallon, J.; Salim, N. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-10-15

    In this work, we discuss the possibility of a new approach to measuring oxygen isotope ratios in fossil meteorite samples, specifically one based on nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Variations of oxygen ratios within meteoritic chromite grains can help to determine the type of meteorite to which the grains originally belonged. In this work, we have evaluated the possibility to use the reaction {sup 18}O(p, {alpha}){sup 15}N just above the 846 keV resonance to estimate the relative oxygen-18 content in a number of test samples. Another technique has to be employed for oxygen-16 measurements. A large area segmented silicon detector is used to detect the produced {alpha} particles. Results of the experimental {sup 18}O measurements for a number of samples including four extraterrestrial chromite grains are presented and compared with SIMNRA simulations. The advantage of a segmented silicon detector in the form of inherent pile-up suppression can be clearly seen in the current work.

  19. Bone mineral content measurement in small infants by single-photon absorptiometry: current methodologic issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steichen, J.J.; Asch, P.A.; Tsang, R.C.

    1988-07-01

    Single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), developed in 1963 and adapted for infants by Steichen et al. in 1976, is an important tool to quantitate bone mineralization in infants. Studies of infants in which SPA was used include studies of fetal bone mineralization and postnatal bone mineralization in very low birth weight infants. The SPA technique has also been used as a research tool to investigate longitudinal bone mineralization and to study the effect of nutrition and disease processes such as rickets or osteopenia of prematurity. At present, it has little direct clinical application for diagnosing bone disease in single patients. The bones most often used to measure bone mineral content (BMC) are the radius, the ulna, and, less often, the humerus. The radius appears to be preferred as a suitable bone to measure BMC in infants. It is easily accessible; anatomic reference points are easily palpated and have a constant relationship to the radial mid-shaft site; soft tissue does not affect either palpation of anatomic reference points or BMC quantitation in vivo. The peripheral location of the radius minimizes body radiation exposure. Trabecular and cortical bone can be measured separately. Extensive background studies exist on radial BMC in small infants. Most important, the radius has a relatively long zone of constant BMC. Finally, SPA for BMC in the radius has a high degree of precision and accuracy. 61 references.

  20. Towards Assessing the Information Content of Dual-Polarization Radar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangrande, S. E.; McGraw, R. L.; Fierce, L.; Zhang, G.

    2016-12-01

    Improving utilization of dual polarization radar measurements, including for the retrieval of larger-scale rainfall accumulation, detailed phase partitioning and drop size distributions (DSDs), is one potential path toward developing or improving process-level cloud models and parameterizations for climate prediction. There are known and immediate demands for high-quality rainfall-accumulation maps to act as a key component for continuous climate-model-forcing datasets. Similarly, the monitoring of particle size and phase evolution may serve as key constraint for modeled deep convective processes. Whereas there is no shortage of dual-polarization retrieval methodologies for the key geophysical quantities of interest (e.g., precipitation estimates, DSD), less emphasis has been on the use of dual-polarization quantities as constraints for such retrievals. Here, we explore an application of linear programming to dual-polarization retrievals. This effort builds on Twomey's work, "Information content of remote sensing", which uses algebraic covariance matrix/eigenvalue analysis. Linear programming is used to perform geometric-type analysis (e.g., obtaining nested bounds to feasible sets of conditions consistent with the measurement constraints) beyond the capability of variance-based methods. Key motivating questions can be expressed as, `What are the upper and lower bounds on quantities of interest such as rainfall rate, consistent with a given set of dual polarization radar measurements?'

  1. Measurement of calcium content of gallstones by computed tomography and the relationship between gallbladder function and calcification of gallstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Masashi; Tamasawa, Naoki; Takebe, Kazuo (Hirosaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Makino, Isao; Sakuraba, Kiyoshi; Tamura, Toyokazu

    1990-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between gallbladder function and calcification of gallstones, we studied gallbladder contractility by oral cholecystography, the computed tomography (CT) number of stones for 30 gallstone patients, calcium content of 13 stones operatively extirpated, and the degree of inflammatory change in 13 surgical gallbladder specimens. There was significant correlation between the calcium content and CT numbers of stones, and 1% of the calcium content of gallstone was approximately equal to 40 Hounsfield Units (HU) of the CT number. The calcium content of stones in patients with normal gallbladder contractility was extrapolated to be below 1.5%, while that with poor contractility ranged from 0% to 21%. Additionally there is a possibility that calcium content increases, related to the inflammatory change of gallbladder. Hence our results suggested that measurement of the CT number of stones is useful to evaluate the calcium content of gallstones, and that the gallbladder contractility could be one of the factors to influence calcification of stones. (author).

  2. Retrieval of ozone column content from airborne Sun photometer measurements during SOLVE II: comparison with coincident satellite and aircraft measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Livingston

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 2003 SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II, the fourteen-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14 was mounted on the NASA DC-8 aircraft and measured spectra of total and aerosol optical depth (TOD and AOD during the sunlit portions of eight science flights. Values of ozone column content above the aircraft have been derived from the AATS-14 measurements by using a linear least squares method that exploits the differential ozone absorption in the seven AATS-14 channels located within the Chappuis band. We compare AATS-14 columnar ozone retrievals with temporally and spatially near-coincident measurements acquired by the SAGE III and the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III satellite sensors during four solar occultation events observed by each satellite. RMS differences are 19 DU (7% of the AATS value for AATS-SAGE and 10 DU (3% of the AATS value for AATS-POAM. In these checks of consistency between AATS-14 and SAGE III or POAM III ozone results, the AATS-14 analyses use airmass factors derived from the relative vertical profiles of ozone and aerosol extinction obtained by SAGE III or POAM III. We also compare AATS-14 ozone retrievals for measurements obtained during three DC-8 flights that included extended horizontal transects with total column ozone data acquired by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME satellite sensors. To enable these comparisons, the amount of ozone in the column below the aircraft is estimated either by assuming a climatological model or by combining SAGE and/or POAM data with high resolution in-situ ozone measurements acquired by the NASA Langley Research Center chemiluminescent ozone sensor, FASTOZ, during the aircraft vertical profile at the start or end of each flight. Resultant total column ozone values agree with corresponding TOMS and GOME measurements to within 10

  3. Retrieval of ozone column content from airborne Sun photometer measurements during SOLVE II: comparison with coincident satellite and aircraft measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Livingston

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 2003 SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II, the fourteen-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14 was mounted on the NASA DC-8 aircraft and measured spectra of total and aerosol optical depth (TOD and AOD during the sunlit portions of eight science flights. Values of ozone column content above the aircraft have been derived from the AATS-14 measurements by using a linear least squares method that exploits the differential ozone absorption in the seven AATS-14 channels located within the Chappuis band. We compare AATS-14 columnar ozone retrievals with temporally and spatially near-coincident measurements acquired by the SAGE III and the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III satellite sensors during four solar occultation events observed by each satellite. RMS differences are 19 DU (6% of the AATS value for AATS-SAGE and 10 DU (3% of the AATS value for AATS-POAM. In these checks of consistency between AATS-14 and SAGE III or POAM III ozone results, the AATS-14 analyses use airmass factors derived from the relative vertical profiles of ozone and aerosol extinction obtained by SAGE III or POAM III.

    We also compare AATS-14 ozone retrievals for measurements obtained during three DC-8 flights that included extended horizontal transects with total column ozone data acquired by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME satellite sensors. To enable these comparisons, the amount of ozone in the column below the aircraft is estimated either by assuming a climatological model or by combining SAGE and/or POAM data with high resolution in-situ ozone measurements acquired by the NASA Langley Research Center chemiluminescent ozone sensor, FASTOZ, during the aircraft vertical profile at the start or end of each flight. Resultant total column ozone values agree with corresponding TOMS and GOME measurements to

  4. Measuring ice and liquid water content in moderately supercooled clouds with Cloudnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühl, Johannes; Seifert, Patric; Myagkov, Alexander; Albert, Ansmann

    2016-04-01

    The interaction between ice nuclei and clouds is an important topic in weather and climate research. Recent laboratory experiments and field in-situ field campaigns present more and more detailed measurements of ice nucleating particles (INP) at temperatures close to 0°C. This brings moderately supercooled mixed-phase clouds into the focus of current cloud research. One current example is the European Union BACCHUS project. A major goal of BACCHUS is the analysis of the anthropogenic impact on ice nucleation. Within this project, we use the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Remote Observations System (LACROS) and the Cloudnet framework in order to get quantitative insight into the formation of ice in mixed-phase layered clouds with cloud top temperature (CTT) from -40 to 0°C. Depolarization measurements from lidar and radar show a clear dependence between particle shape and the temperature under which the particles have been formed. The special focus of this work is on the CTT range from -10 to 0°C. An algorithm is presented to decide between ice and liquid water precipitation falling from the clouds showing that between 10% and 30% of all layered clouds show ice precipitation with CTT between -5 and 0°C. For these slightly supercooled clouds an average ice-water-content between 10e-7 and 10e-8 [kg per cubic meter] is found.

  5. In-Line Measurement of Water Contents in Ethanol Using a Zeolite-Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Chul Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM was utilized to measure the water content in ethanol. For the improvement of measurement sensitivity, the QCM was modified by applying zeolite particles on the surface with poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA binder. The measurement performance was examined with ethanol of 1% to 5% water content in circulation. The experimental results showed that the frequency drop of the QCM was related with the water content though there was some deviation. The sensitivity of the zeolite-coated QCM was sufficient to be implemented in water content determination, and a higher ratio of silicon to aluminum in the molecular structure of the zeolite gave better performance. The coated surface was inspected by microscopy to show the distribution of zeolite particles and PMMA spread.

  6. The HI Content of Galaxies in Groups and Clusters as Measured by ALFALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odekon, Mary Crone; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Finn, Rose A.; McGowan, Christopher; Micula, Adina; Reed, Lyle; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory

    2016-06-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 systems at distances between 70 and 160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5<' {log} M/{M}⊙ < 15.0, for a total of 1986 late-type galaxies. We find that late-type galaxies in the centers of groups lack HI at fixed stellar mass relative to the regions surrounding them. Larger groups show evidence of a stronger dependence of HI properties on environment, despite a similar dependence of color on environment at fixed stellar mass. We compare several environment variables to determine which is the best predictor of galaxy properties; group-centric distance r and r/{R}200 are similarly effective predictors, while local density is slightly more effective and group size and halo mass are slightly less effective. While both central and satellite galaxies in the blue cloud exhibit a significant dependence of HI content on local density, only centrals show a strong dependence on stellar mass, and only satellites show a strong dependence on halo mass. Finally, we see evidence that HI is deficient for blue cloud galaxies in denser environments even when both stellar mass and color are fixed. This is consistent with a picture where HI is removed or destroyed, followed by reddening within the blue cloud. Our results support the existence of pre-processing in isolated groups, along with an additional rapid mechanism for gas removal within larger groups and clusters, perhaps ram-pressure stripping.

  7. Retrieval of aerosol microphysical properties from AERONET photopolarimetric measurements: 1. Information content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Jun

    2015-07-01

    This paper is the first part of a two-part study that aims to retrieve aerosol particle size distribution (PSD) and refractive index from the multispectral and multiangular polarimetric measurements taken by the new-generation Sun photometer as part of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). It provides theoretical analysis and guidance to the companion study in which we have developed an inversion algorithm for retrieving 22 aerosol microphysical parameters associated with a bimodal PSD function from real AERONET measurements. Our theoretical analysis starts with generating the synthetic measurements at four spectral bands (440, 675, 870, and 1020 nm) with a Unified Linearized Vector Radiative Transfer Model for various types of spherical aerosol particles. Subsequently, the quantitative information content for retrieving aerosol parameters is investigated in four observation scenarios, i.e., I1, I2, P1, and P2. Measurements in the scenario (I1) comprise the solar direct radiances and almucantar radiances that are used in the current AERONET operational inversion algorithm. The other three scenarios include different additional measurements: (I2) the solar principal plane radiances, (P1) the solar principal plane radiances and polarization, and (P2) the solar almucantar polarization. Results indicate that adding polarization measurements can increase the degree of freedom for signal by 2-5 in the scenario P1, while not as much of an increase is found in the scenarios I2 and P2. Correspondingly, smallest retrieval errors are found in the scenario P1: 2.3% (2.9%) for the fine-mode (coarse-mode) aerosol volume concentration, 1.3% (3.5%) for the effective radius, 7.2% (12%) for the effective variance, 0.005 (0.035) for the real-part refractive index, and 0.019 (0.068) for the single-scattering albedo. These errors represent a reduction from their counterparts in scenario I1 of 79% (57%), 76% (49%), 69% (52%), 66% (46%), and 49% (20%), respectively. We further

  8. Measurement of soluble solids content in watermelon by Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Hai-qing; YING Yi-bin; LU Hui-shan; FU Xia-ping; YU Hai-yan

    2007-01-01

    Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world with soluble solids content (SSC) being one of the major characteristics used for assessing its quality. This study was aimed at obtaining a method for nondestructive SSC detection of watermelons by means of visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmittance technique. Vis/NIR transmittance spectra of intact watermelons were acquired using a low-cost commercially available spectrometer operating over the range 350~1000 nm. Spectra data were analyzed by two multivariate calibration techniques: partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR)methods. Two experiments were designed for two varieties of watermelons [Qilin (QL), Zaochunhongyu (ZC)], which have different skin thickness range and shape dimensions. The influences of different data preprocessing and spectra treatments were also investigated. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) between the predicted and measured parameter values.Results showed that spectra data preprocessing influenced the performance of the calibration models. The first derivative spectra showed the best results with high correlation coefficient of determination [r=0.918 (QL); r=0.954 (ZC)], low RMSEP [0.65 °Brix(QL); 0.58 °Brix (ZC)], low RMSEC [0.48 °Brix (QL); 0.34 °Brix (ZC)] and small difference between the'RMSEP and the RMSEC by PLS method. The nondestructive Vis/NIR measurements provided good estimates of SSC index of watermelon, and the predicted values were highly correlated with destructively measured values for SSC. The models based on smoothing spectra(Savitzky-Golay filter smoothing method) did not enhance the performance of calibration models obviously. The results indicated the feasibility of Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance spectral analysis for predicting watermelon SSC in a nondestructive way.

  9. Sapflow+: a four-needle heat-pulse sap flow sensor enabling nonempirical sap flux density and water content measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy

    2012-10-01

    • To our knowledge, to date, no nonempirical method exists to measure reverse, low or high sap flux density. Moreover, existing sap flow methods require destructive wood core measurements to determine sapwood water content, necessary to convert heat velocity to sap flux density, not only damaging the tree, but also neglecting seasonal variability in sapwood water content. • Here, we present a nonempirical heat-pulse-based method and coupled sensor which measure temperature changes around a linear heater in both axial and tangential directions after application of a heat pulse. By fitting the correct heat conduction-convection equation to the measured temperature profiles, the heat velocity and water content of the sapwood can be determined. • An identifiability analysis and validation tests on artificial and real stem segments of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) confirm the applicability of the method, leading to accurate determinations of heat velocity, water content and hence sap flux density. • The proposed method enables sap flux density measurements to be made across the entire natural occurring sap flux density range of woody plants. Moreover, the water content during low flows can be determined accurately, enabling a correct conversion from heat velocity to sap flux density without destructive core measurements. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Effect of Cultural Measures on Nutrient Contents in Rice Plants with Erect Panicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGBOLUN; ZOUBANGJItffu

    1999-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out with rice variety of Shenong 91 of short culms and erect panicles to study nutrient contents in high-yiedlding rice plants and to increase rice yield by appropriate fertilization.Nitrogen,phosphorus,potassium,magnesium,zinc,manganese,iron and copper contents in rice plants varied with different treatment factors.The relationship between the nutrient contents and treatment factors could be simulated using a multiple quadratic equation.The nutrient contents in plants should be appropriate for high-yielding rice.If the mean nutrient content in rice plants producuing 11 t ha-1 or more of grain (uj) was set as the standard value and the standard deviation (σj) was set as the range of variation,the nutrient content in high-yielding rice plants should be μj±1.99σj.Rice leaves were sensitive to the nutrient elements.Heavy nitrogen dressing increased the content of nitrogen in rice plants.Sparse transplanting also increased nitrogen content,Improper application of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium could affect the nutrient contents and decrease the grain yield.

  11. A TWO-PROBE METHOD FOR MEASURING WATER CONTENT OF THIN FOREST FLOOR LITTER LAYERS USING TIME DOMAIN REFLECTOMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few methods exist that allow non-destructive in situ measurement of the water content of forest floor litter layers (Oa,Oe, and Oi horizons). Continuous non-destructive measurement is needed in studies of ecosystem processes because of the relationship between physical structure ...

  12. Ground penetrating radar for determining volumetric soil water content ; results of comparative measurements at two test sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmeeren, R.A. van; Sariowan, S.V.; Gehrels, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) can provide information on the soil water content of the unsaturated zone in sandy deposits via measurements from the surface, and so avoids drilling. Proof of this was found from measurements of radar wave velocities carried out ten times over 13 months at two test si

  13. The Relationship between Content Area General Outcome Measurement and Statewide Testing in Sixth-Grade World History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Paul; McCarter, Kevin S.; Schraven, Jodie; Haydel, Beth

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend validity research on a content area general outcome measurement tool known as vocabulary matching. Previous research has reported moderately strong to strong correlations between the group-administered vocabulary-matching measure and a standardized assessment instrument. The present study extended the…

  14. THE MEASUREMENT OF ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND POLYPHENOL CONTENT IN SELECTED FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasek, Marek; Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Sochacka, Małgorzata; Zawada, Katarzyna; Modzelewska, Wiktoria; Krześniak, Leszek M; Wroczyński, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS), defined as a disturbance in the balance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defenses, can result in the development of many serious diseases like diabetes or cancer. Moreover, the role of oxidative stress in the acceleration of the aging process is also confirmed. ROS are constantly produced in the natural biochemical processes, mainly during cellular respiration. Their enhanced production may be the result of e.g., an inappropriate diet high in saturated fats, low in fiber, fruits and vegetables, insufficient physical activity or smoking. To prevent oxidative stress, besides changes in life style, the additional supplementation of antioxidants is proposed. On the Polish market, the number of food supplements with declared antioxidant activity is still increasing. However, their antioxidant properties are rarely confirmed experimentally. The aim of our study was to determine the antioxidant potential of selected dietary supplements available on the market and recommended in chronic fatigue syndrome. The antioxidant potential was measured using four methods: FRAP, ORAC, HORAC, EPR/DPPH. Moreover, the content of polyphenols in the dietary supplements was also determined.

  15. Online Measurement Perspectives for Students’ Strategy Use: Tool Use within a Content Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griet Lust

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigates whether students’ tool use in a Content Management Systems (CMSs for example, blackboard, WebCT, relates to students’ strategy use within a CMS-supported course. In this way, the study strives to explain the tool use differences, and furthermore, it strives to find (online behavioral indications for students’ strategy use. Data were collected within a first-year undergraduate course “Learning & Instruction”. Students (n=182 reported their strategy use as measured through the Inventory of Learning Styles (Vermunt, 1998. Students’ tool use within the CMS was logged. K-means cluster analyses revealed four clusters that were characterized by different strategies and accompanying tool use. Specifically, two clusters revealed a tool use pattern that was in line with the behavioral profile of students’-reported strategy use. Interestingly, two clusters revealed a tool use pattern that was in contrast to the reported strategy use. These results raise questions with respect to students’ tool perceptions and students’ calibration capacities.

  16. The HI Content of Galaxies in Groups and Clusters as Measured by ALFALFA

    CERN Document Server

    Odekon, Mary Crone; Haynes, Martha P; Finn, Rose A; McGowan, Christopher; Micula, Adina; Reed, Lyle; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 systems at distances between 70-160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5

  17. Measurements of water potential and water content in unsaturated crystalline rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneebeli, Martin; Flühler, Hannes; Gimmi, Thomas; Wydler, Hannes; LäSer, Hans-Peter; Baer, Toni

    1995-08-01

    A water desaturation zone develops around a tunnel in water-saturated rock when the evaporative water loss at the rock surface is larger than the water flow from the surrounding saturated region of restricted permeability. We describe the methods with which such water desaturation processes in rock materials can be quantified. The water retention characteristic θ (ψ) of crystalline rock samples was determined with a pressure membrane apparatus. The negative water potential, identical to the capillary pressure, ψ, below the tensiometric range (ψ drilled into the granodiorite as a measuring chamber. The water potentials observed in a cylindrical granodiorite monolith ranged between -0.1 and -3.0 MPa; those near the wall in a ventilated tunnel between -0.1 and -2.2 MPa. Two types of three-rod TDR probes were used, one as a depth probe inserted into the rock, the other as a surface probe using three copper stripes attached to the surface for detecting water content changes in the rock-to-air boundary. The TDR signal was smoothed with a low-pass filter, and the signal length determined based on the first derivative of the trace. Despite the low porosity of crystalline rock these standard methods are applicable to describe the unsaturated zone in solid rock and may also be used in other consolidated materials such as concrete.

  18. Evidence of students' content reasoning in relation to measure of reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghanikar, Mojgan Matloob; Murphy, Sytil; Zollman, Dean

    2012-02-01

    As part of a study of the science preparation of elementary school teachers, we investigated the quality of students' reasoning and explored the relationship between sophistication of reasoning and the degree to which the courses are considered inquiry oriented. First, we devised written content questions, which were open ended with the distinguishing feature of applying recently learned concepts in a new context. All the questions developed were based on a common template that required students to recognize and generalize the relevant facts or concepts and their interrelationships to suggest an applicable or plausible theory. To evaluate students' answers, we developed a rubric based on Bloom's taxonomy as revised and expanded by Anderson. Along with analyzing students' reasoning, we visited 20 universities and observed the courses in which the students were enrolled. We ranked the courses with respect to characteristics that are valued for the inquiry courses. With the large amount of collected data, we found that the likelihood of the higher cognitive processes are in favor of classes with higher measures of inquiry.

  19. Measuring the Cold Dust Content of Broad and Narrow-Line Optically Luminous QSOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petric, Andreea

    2015-08-01

    Coevolution of galaxies and their central black holes (BH) has been the central theme of much of recent extragalactic astronomical research. Observations of the dynamics of stars and gas in the nuclear regions of nearby galaxies suggest that the overwhelming majority of spheroidal glaxies in the local Universe contain massive BHs and that, wiht some important caveats, the masses of those central BH correlate with the velocity dispersions of the stars in the sheroid and the bulge luminosities. An impressive body of research has been dedicated to understanding the mechanisms responsible for such a fundamental perhaps causal relation.An important component pertinent to those investigations is an accurate census of the basic properties of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in AGN hosts. The motivation for this is that the cold molecular gas is the basic fuel for star-formation and black hole growth.We present high sensitivity observations taken with the Herschel Space Observatory to measure the cold dust content in a sample of 85 nearby (z ≤ 0.5) QSOs chosen from the optically luminous broad-line PG QSOs sample and in a complementary sample of 85 narrow-line QSOs chosen to match the redshift and optical luminosity distribution of the broad-line targets.The FIR data are combined with near-infrared and mid-infrared measurements from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer to determine their IR spectral energy distributions which we use to assess aggregate dust properties. We estimate dust temperatures that range between ~20 and 70 K with a median temperature of 45 K respectively, and dust masses between 9 × 10 4M⊙ and 5 × 10 8M⊙ with a median mass of 3 × 10 7M⊙. We investigate the relation between star-formation rates (SFRs) estimated from the IR luminosities and SFRs determined from measurements of the 11.3 micron PAH. We also compare indicators of AGN strength such as the [OIII] 5007 Angstroms and 5100 Angstroms luminosities

  20. What do Demand-Control and Effort-Reward work stress questionnaires really measure? A discriminant content validity study of relevance and representativeness of measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Cheryl; Johnston, Derek; Allan, Julia; Pollard, Beth; Johnston, Marie

    2017-05-01

    The Demand-Control (DC) and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models predict health in a work context. Self-report measures of the four key constructs (demand, control, effort, and reward) have been developed and it is important that these measures have good content validity uncontaminated by content from other constructs. We assessed relevance (whether items reflect the constructs) and representativeness (whether all aspects of the construct are assessed, and all items contribute to that assessment) across the instruments and items. Two studies examined fourteen demand/control items from the Job Content Questionnaire and seventeen effort/reward items from the Effort-Reward Imbalance measure using discriminant content validation and a third study developed new methods to assess instrument representativeness. Both methods use judges' ratings and construct definitions to get transparent quantitative estimates of construct validity. Study 1 used dictionary definitions while studies 2 and 3 used published phrases to define constructs. Overall, 3/5 demand items, 4/9 control items, 1/6 effort items, and 7/11 reward items were uniquely classified to the appropriate theoretical construct and were therefore 'pure' items with discriminant content validity (DCV). All pure items measured a defining phrase. However, both the DC and ERI assessment instruments failed to assess all defining aspects. Finding good discriminant content validity for demand and reward measures means these measures are usable and our quantitative results can guide item selection. By contrast, effort and control measures had limitations (in relevance and representativeness) presenting a challenge to the implementation of the theories. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? While the reliability and construct validity of Demand-Control and Effort-Reward-Imbalance (DC and ERI) work stress measures are routinely reported, there has not been adequate investigation of their content

  1. Determination of threshold value of soil water content for field and vegetable plants with lysimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, S.

    2009-04-01

    Both the potential water consumption of plants and their ability to withdraw soil water are necessary in order to estimate actual evapotranspiration and to predict irrigation timing and amount. In relating to root water uptake the threshold value at which plants reducing evapotranspiration is an important parameter. Since transpiration is linearly correlated to dry matter production, under the condition that the AET/PET-Quotient is smaller than 1.0 (de Wit 1958, Tanner & Sinclair 1983), the dry matter production begins to decline too. Plants respond to drought with biochemical, physiological and morphological modifications in order to avoid damages, for instance by increasing the root water uptake. The objective of the study is to determine threshold values of soil water content and pressure head respectively for different field and vegetable plants with lysimeter measurements and to derive so called reduction functions. Both parameter, potenzial water demand in several growth stages and threshold value of soil water content or pressure head can be determined with weighable field lysimeter. The threshold value is reached, when the evapotranspiration under natural rainfall condition (AET) drop clearly (0.8 PET) below the value under well watered condition (PET). Basis for the presented results is the lysimeter plant Buttelstedt of the Thuringian State Institute of Agriculture. It consist of two lysimeter cellars, each with two weighable monolithic lysimeters. The lysimeter are 2.5 m deep with a surface area of 2 m2 to allow a non-restrictive root growth and to arrange a representative number of plants. The weighing accuracy amounts to 0.05 mm. The percolating water is collected by ceramic suction cups with suction up to 0.3 MPa at a depth of 2.3 m. The soil water content is measured by using neutron probe. One of the two lysimeter cellars represents the will irrigated, the other one the non irrigated and/or reduced irrigated part of field. The soil is a Haplic

  2. An Infra-Red Heating Based Fast Method of Moisture Content Measurement and Its Application to Measure Blend Proportion of Polyester-Viscose Woven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Kothari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Moisture content values of plain woven fabrics of polyester-viscose blended yarns were measured using standard conditioning procedures as well as a new method of preconditioning of samples using infra-red heating and subsequent conditioning in a desiccator for a specific conditioning time. The effects of drying time and conditioning time on measured moisture content values were studied and optimization of these parameters were done. Results of the moisture content measurement using these methods show a sufficiently linear relationship between measured moisture content and the proportion of viscose in the fabric samples. The regression analysis showed very high coefficients of determination (above 0.98 in all cases. Regression equations were used to predict the blend proportion of fabric samples from the moisture content data. It was found that even the moisture content values using a shorter conditioning time of 60 minutes and even 10 minutes yielded correct prediction with a maximum error of magnitude less than 3.0 in blend percentage values.

  3. Measurement of soy contents in ground beef using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Models for determining contents of soy products in ground beef were developed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Samples were prepared by mixing four kinds of soybean protein products (Arconet, toasted soy grits, Profam and textured vegetable protein (TVP)) with ground beef (content from 0%–100...

  4. Validity and measurement precision of the PROMIS physical function item bank and a content validity-driven 20-item short form in rheumatoid arthritis compared with traditional measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voshaar, M.A.; Klooster, P.M. ten; Glas, C.A.; Vonkeman, H.E.; Taal, E.; Krishnan, E.; Bernelot Moens, H.J.; Boers, M.; Terwee, C.B.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Laar, M.A. van der

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the content validity and measurement properties of the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) physical function item bank and a 20-item short form in patients with RA in comparison with the HAQ disability index (HAQ-DI) and 36-item Short Form Health S

  5. Use of the Rasch measurement model to explore the relationship between content knowledge and topic-specific pedagogical content knowledge for organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidowitz, Bette; Potgieter, Marietjie

    2016-06-01

    Research has shown that a high level of content knowledge (CK) is necessary but not sufficient to develop the special knowledge base of expert teachers known as pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). This study contributes towards research to quantify the relationship between CK and PCK in science. In order to determine the proportion of the variance in PCK accounted for by the variance in CK, instruments are required which are valid and reliable as well as being unidimensional to measure person abilities for CK and PCK. An instrument consisting of two paper-and-pencil tests was designed to assess Grade 12 teachers CK and PCK in organic chemistry. We used the Rasch measurement model to convert raw score data into interval measures and to provide empirical evidence for the validity, reliability and unidimensionality of the tests. The correlation between CK and PCK was estimated as r = .66 (p teaching experience, high levels of CK can be acquired with limited teaching experience. These findings support the hypothesis that CK is a requirement for the development of TSPCK; proficiency in CK is, however, not necessarily associated with high levels of TSPCK.

  6. Biobased carbon content of resin extracted from polyethylene composite by carbon-14 concentration measurements using accelerator mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Taguchi, Kazuhiro; Kunioka, Masao; Funabashi, Masahiro; Ninomiya, Fumi

    2014-01-01

    An estimation procedure for biobased carbon content of polyethylene composite was studied using carbon-14 (14C) concentration ratios as measured by accelerated mass spectrometry (AMS). Prior to the measurement, additives and fillers in composites should be removed because they often contain a large amount of biobased carbon and may shift the estimation. Samples of resin with purity suitable for measurement were isolated from composites with a Soxhlet extractor using heated cyclohexanone. Afte...

  7. A new method using evaporation for high-resolution measurements of soil thermal conductivity at changing water contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, A.; Trinks, S.; Facklam, M.; Wessolek, G.

    2012-04-01

    The thermal conductivity of soils is a key parameter to know if their use as heat source or sink is planned. It is required to calculate the efficiency of ground-source heat pump systems in combination with soil heat exchangers. Apart from geothermal energy, soil thermal conductivity is essential to estimate the ampacity for buried power cables. The effective thermal conductivity of saturated and unsaturated soils, as a function of water transport, water vapour transport and heat conduction, mainly depends on the soil water content, its bulk density and texture. The major objectives of this study are (i) to describe the thermal conductivity of soil samples with a non-steady state measurement at changing water contents and for different bulk densities. Based on that it is (ii) tested if available soil thermal conductivity models are able to describe the measured data for the whole range of water contents. The new method allows a continuous measurement of thermal conductivity for soil from full water saturation to air-dryness. Thermal conductivity is measured with a thermal needle probe in predefined time intervals while the change of water content is controlled by evaporation. To relate the measured thermal conductivity to the current volumetric water content, the decrease in weight of the sample, due to evaporation, is logged with a lab scale. Soil texture of the 11 soil substrates tested in this study range between coarse sand and silty clay. To evaluate the impact of the bulk density on heat transport processes, thermal conductivity at 20°C was measured at 1.5g/cm3; 1.7g/cm3 and 1.9g/cm3 for each soil substrate. The results correspond well to literature values used to describe heat transport in soils. Due to the high-resolution and non-destructive measurements, the specific effects of the soil texture and bulk density on thermal conductivity could be proved. Decreasing water contents resulted in a non-linear decline of the thermal conductivity for all samples

  8. In-Line Measurement of Water Content in Ethanol Using a PVA-Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Chul Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An in-line device for measuring the water content in ethanol was developed using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance. Bio-ethanol is widely used as the replacement of gasoline, and its water content is a key component of its specifications. When the PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance is contacted with ethanol containing a small amount of water, the water is absorbed into the PVA increasing the load on the microbalance surface to cause a frequency drop. The determination performance of the PVA-coated microbalance is examined by measuring the frequency decreases in ethanol containing 2% to 10% water while the ethanol flows through the measurement device. The measurements indicates that the higher water content is the more the frequency reduction is, though some deviation in the measurements is observed. This indicates that the frequency measurement of an unknown concentration of water in ethanol can be used to determine the water content in ethanol. The PVA coating is examined by microscopy and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  9. In-line measurement of water content in ethanol using a PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung Chul; Yamamoto, Takuji; Kim, Young Han

    2014-01-16

    An in-line device for measuring the water content in ethanol was developed using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-coated quartz crystal microbalance. Bio-ethanol is widely used as the replacement of gasoline, and its water content is a key component of its specifications. When the PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance is contacted with ethanol containing a small amount of water, the water is absorbed into the PVA increasing the load on the microbalance surface to cause a frequency drop. The determination performance of the PVA-coated microbalance is examined by measuring the frequency decreases in ethanol containing 2% to 10% water while the ethanol flows through the measurement device. The measurements indicates that the higher water content is the more the frequency reduction is, though some deviation in the measurements is observed. This indicates that the frequency measurement of an unknown concentration of water in ethanol can be used to determine the water content in ethanol. The PVA coating is examined by microscopy and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy.

  10. Effects of amiodarone therapy on thyroid iodine content as measured by x-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragu, P.; Schlumberger, M.; Davy, J.M.; Slama, M.; Berdeaux, A.

    1988-04-01

    Thyroid iodine content (TIC) was measured by x-ray fluorescence in 68 patients who had received amiodarone treatment for varying intervals (1 g/week for 1-120 months). Thirty-six patients were euthyroid; the mean TIC of the patients (n = 15), who had been treated for less than 12 months was 30 +/- 19 (+/- SD) mg, twice the normal mean value (14.6 +/- 5.0 mg), and it was 39 +/- 17 mg in those (n = 16) who had been treated for 12-60 months and 29 +/- 6 mg in those (n = 5) who had been treated longer (greater than 60 months). Nineteen patients were hyperthyroid and had elevated TIC values. Of them, 6 patients had a goiter; their TIC (50 +/- 19 mg) was not significantly different from that of the hyperthyroid patients with no goiter (55 +/- 29 mg), but they became hyperthyroid more rapidly. Thirteen patients were hypothyroid; none had TIC values above the normal range, and it was below 2.5 mg in 5 patients. A sequential study was undertaken in 11 euthyroid patients who had no detectable antithyroid antibodies. TIC did not increase during treatment in 2 patients; both developed hypothyroidism, which was transient in 1 despite continuation of amiodarone treatment. The TIC initially increased during amiodarone treatment in the other 9 patients, leveling off at the end of the first year. The TIC rose well above the upper limit of the normal range in 4 patients, of whom 2 became hyperthyroid during the second year of treatment. TIC remained within the normal range in the other 5 patients, of whom 3 became hypothyroid after 12-24 months of treatment (1 subclinical, 2 overt). Although the TIC was significantly higher in the patients with hyperthyroidism than in the patients who remained euthyroid, the TIC test cannot be used to predict the occurrence of hyperthyroidism.

  11. Determination of the optimized single-layer ionospheric height for electron content measurements over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Yuan, Yunbin; Zhang, Baocheng; Wang, Ningbo; Li, Zishen; Liu, Xifeng; Zhang, Xiao

    2017-08-01

    The ionosphere effective height (IEH) is a very important parameter in total electron content (TEC) measurements under the widely used single-layer model assumption. To overcome the requirement of a large amount of simultaneous vertical and slant ionospheric observations or dense "coinciding" pierce points data, a new approach comparing the converted vertical TEC (VTEC) value using mapping function based on a given IEH with the "ground truth" VTEC value provided by the combined International GNSS Service Global Ionospheric Maps is proposed for the determination of the optimal IEH. The optimal IEH in the Chinese region is determined using three different methods based on GNSS data. Based on the ionosonde data from three different locations in China, the altitude variation of the peak electron density (hmF2) is found to have clear diurnal, seasonal and latitudinal dependences, and the diurnal variation of hmF2 varies from approximately 210 to 520 km in Hainan. The determination of the optimal IEH employing the inverse method suggested by Birch et al. (Radio Sci 37, 2002. doi: 10.1029/2000rs002601) did not yield a consistent altitude in the Chinese region. Tests of the method minimizing the mapping function errors suggested by Nava et al. (Adv Space Res 39:1292-1297, 2007) indicate that the optimal IEH ranges from 400 to 600 km, and the height of 450 km is the most frequent IEH at both high and low solar activities. It is also confirmed that the IEH of 450-550 km is preferred for the Chinese region instead of the commonly adopted 350-450 km using the determination method of the optimal IEH proposed in this paper.

  12. Measuring use of research evidence in public health policy: a policy content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex

    2014-05-23

    There are few Australian studies showing how research evidence is used to inform the development of public health policy. International research has shown that compensation for injury rehabilitation can have negative impacts on health outcomes. This study examined transport injury compensation policy in the Australian state of Victoria to: determine type and purpose of reference to information sources; and to identify the extent of reference to academic research evidence in transport related injury rehabilitation compensation policy. Quantitative content analysis of injury rehabilitation compensation policies (N = 128) from the Victorian state government transport accident compensation authority. The most commonly referenced types of information were Internal Policy (median = 6 references per policy), Clinical/Medical (2.5), and Internal Legislation (1). Academic Research Evidence was the least often referenced source of information. The main purpose of reference to information was to support injury treatment and rehabilitation compensation claims decision-making. Transport injury compensation policy development is complex; with multiple sources of information cited including legislation, internal policy, external policy and clinical/medical evidence. There is limited use of academic research evidence in Victorian state government injury treatment and rehabilitation compensation policies. Decisions regarding compensation for injury treatment and rehabilitation services could benefit from greater use of academic research evidence. This study is one of the first to examine the use of research evidence in existing Australian public health policy decision-making using rigorous quantitative methods. It provides a practical example of how use of research evidence in public health policy can be objectively measured.

  13. Measurements of water content in hydroxypropyl-methyl-cellulose based hydrogels via texture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Gaetano; Cascone, Sara; Cafaro, Maria Margherita; Titomanlio, Giuseppe; d'Amore, Matteo; Barba, Anna Angela

    2013-01-30

    In this work, a fast and accurate method to evaluate the water content in a cellulose derivative-based matrix subjected to controlled hydration was proposed and tuned. The method is based on the evaluation of the work of penetration required in the needle compression test. The work of penetration was successfully related to the hydrogel water content, assayed by a gravimetric technique. Moreover, a fitting model was proposed to correlate the two variables (the water content and the work of penetration). The availability of a reliable tool is useful both in the quantification of the water uptake phenomena, both in the management of the testing processes of novel pharmaceutical solid dosage forms.

  14. Knowledge-based method for determining the meaning of ambiguous biomedical terms using information content measures of similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Bridget T; Pedersen, Ted; Liu, Ying; Melton, Genevieve B; Pakhomov, Serguei V

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel knowledge-based word sense disambiguation method that determines the sense of an ambiguous word in biomedical text using semantic similarity or relatedness measures. These measures quantify the degree of similarity between concepts in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). The objective of this work was to develop a method that can disambiguate terms in biomedical text by exploiting similarity information extracted from the UMLS and to evaluate the efficacy of information content-based semantic similarity measures, which augment path-based information with probabilities derived from biomedical corpora. We show that information content-based measures obtain a higher disambiguation accuracy than path-based measures because they weight the path based on where it exists in the taxonomy coupled with the probability of the concepts occurring in a corpus of text.

  15. Performance evaluation of two types of heated cables for distributed temperature sensing-based measurement of soil moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingfeng Cao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Distributed temperature sensing (DTS using heated cables has been recently developed for distributed monitoring of in-situ soil moisture content. In this method, the thermal and electrical properties of heated cables have a significant influence on the measurement accuracy of soil moisture content. In this paper, the performances of two heated cables, i.e. the carbon-fiber heated cable (CFHC and the metal-net heated cable (MNHC, are studied in the laboratory. Their structures, uniformity in the axial direction, measurement accuracy and suitability are evaluated. The test results indicate that the MNHC has a better uniformity in the axial direction than CFHC. Both CFHC and MNHC have high measurement accuracy. The CFHC is more suitable for short-distance measurement (≤500 m, while the MNHC can be used for long-distance measurement (>500 m.

  16. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetic resonance measurements of the moisture content and hydration condition of a magnetic mixture material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, K., E-mail: tsukada@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp; Kusaka, T.; Saari, M. M.; Takagi, R.; Sakai, K.; Kiwa, T. [The Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-Naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Bito, Y. [Central Research Lab., Hitachi. Ltd., 1-280 Higashi-Koigakubo, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8601 (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    We developed a magnetic measurement method to measure the moisture content and hydration condition of mortar as a magnetic mixture material. Mortar is a mixture of Portland cement, sand, and water, and these materials exhibit different magnetic properties. The magnetization–magnetic field curves of these components and of mortars with different moisture contents were measured, using a specially developed high-temperature-superconductor superconducting quantum interference device. Using the differences in magnetic characteristics, the moisture content of mortar was measured at the ferromagnetic saturation region over 250 mT. A correlation between magnetic susceptibility and moisture content was successfully established. After Portland cement and water are mixed, hydration begins. At the early stage of the hydration/gel, magnetization strength increased over time. To investigate the magnetization change, we measured the distribution between bound and free water in the mortar in the early stage by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI results suggest that the amount of free water in mortar correlates with the change in magnetic susceptibility.

  17. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetic resonance measurements of the moisture content and hydration condition of a magnetic mixture material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, K.; Kusaka, T.; Saari, M. M.; Takagi, R.; Sakai, K.; Kiwa, T.; Bito, Y.

    2014-05-01

    We developed a magnetic measurement method to measure the moisture content and hydration condition of mortar as a magnetic mixture material. Mortar is a mixture of Portland cement, sand, and water, and these materials exhibit different magnetic properties. The magnetization-magnetic field curves of these components and of mortars with different moisture contents were measured, using a specially developed high-temperature-superconductor superconducting quantum interference device. Using the differences in magnetic characteristics, the moisture content of mortar was measured at the ferromagnetic saturation region over 250 mT. A correlation between magnetic susceptibility and moisture content was successfully established. After Portland cement and water are mixed, hydration begins. At the early stage of the hydration/gel, magnetization strength increased over time. To investigate the magnetization change, we measured the distribution between bound and free water in the mortar in the early stage by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI results suggest that the amount of free water in mortar correlates with the change in magnetic susceptibility.

  18. [Nondestructive measurement of sugar content of Hami melon based on diffuse reflectance hyperspectral imaging technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ben-Xue; Xiao, Wen-Dong; Qi, Xiang-Xiang; He, Qing-Hai; Li, Feng-Xia

    2012-11-01

    The research on nondestructive test for detecting the sugar content of Hami melon by the technology of hyperspectral imaging was put forward. The research used the hyperspectral imaging system to get the diffuse reflective spectrum information (400 - 1 000 nm) of anilox class Hami melon sugar content, chose effective whole wavelength (500 - 820 nm)to do the modeling regression analysis the sugar content of Hami melon. The research compared the correction method of MSC and SNV, and also compared the influence of accuracy of modeling in terms of the spectrum pretreatment methods of original spectrum, first order differential, second order differential; Using the methods of PLS, SMLR and PCR, the comparative analysis of sugar content detection model effect with skin Hami melon and peel Hami melon was conducted. The results showed that after the original spectrum being processed by MSC and first order differential spectrum, modeling effect could be very good using the method of PLS and SMLR. Synthesizing correction set correlation coefficient and forecast modeling effect, it's feasible to detect the sugar content of skin Hami melon by the PLS method, with a correction sample correlation coefficient (R(c)) of 0.861 and the lower root mean square errors of correction (RMSEC) of 0.627, and a prediction sample correlation coefficient (R(p)) of 0.706 and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.873. The best effect to detecti the sugar content of peel Hami melon was obtained by the SMLR method with a correction sample correlation coefficient (R(c)) of 0.928 and the lower root mean square errors of correction (RMSEC) of 0.458, with a Prediction sample correlation coefficient (R(p)) of 0.818 and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.727. The results of this study indicate that the technology of hyperspectral imaging can be used to predict the sugar content of Hami melon.

  19. Optical diffusion property of cerumen from ear canal and correlation to metal content measured by synchrotron x-ray absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Todd; Dehipawala, Sumudu; Cheung, E.; Golebiewska, U.; Schneider, P.; Tremberger, G., Jr.; Kokkinos, D.; Lieberman, D.; Dehipawala, Sunil; Cheung, T.

    2012-03-01

    Human (and other mammals) would secrete cerumen (ear wax) to protect the skin of the ear canal against pathogens and insects. The studies of biodiversity of pathogen in human include intestine microbe colony, belly button microbe colony, etc. Metals such as zinc and iron are essentials to bio-molecular pathways and would be related to the underlying pathogen vitality. This project studies the biodiversity of cerumen via its metal content and aims to develop an optical probe for metal content characterization. The optical diffusion mean free path and absorption of human cerumen samples dissolved in solvent have been measured in standard transmission measurements. EXFAS and XANES have been measured at Brookhaven Synchrotron Light Source for the determination of metal contents, presumably embedded within microbes/insects/skin cells. The results show that a calibration procedure can be used to correlate the optical diffusion parameters to the metal content, thus expanding the diagnostic of cerumen in the study of human pathogen biodiversity without the regular use of a synchrotron light source. Although biodiversity measurements would not be seriously affected by dead microbes and absorption based method would do well, the scattering mean free path method would have potential to further study the cell based scattering centers (dead or live) via the information embedded in the speckle pattern in the deep-Fresnel zone.

  20. An automatic time domain reflectometry device to measure and store soil water contents for stand-alone field use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsen, van den H.G.M.; Kokot, J.; Skierucha, W.; Halbertsma, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A field set-up was developed to measure soil moisture content on ten different positions using the time domain reflectometry (TDR) technique. The set-up works on a 12 V battery or solar panel system, independent of an external power source, has low power consumption, and compact dimensions. The

  1. An automatic time domain reflectometry device to measure and store soil water contents for stand-alone field use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsen, van den H.G.M.; Kokot, J.; Skierucha, W.; Halbertsma, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A field set-up was developed to measure soil moisture content on ten different positions using the time domain reflectometry (TDR) technique. The set-up works on a 12 V battery or solar panel system, independent of an external power source, has low power consumption, and compact dimensions. The syst

  2. Simultaneous Moisture Content and Mass Flow Measurements in Wood Chip Flows Using Coupled Dielectric and Impact Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengmin Pan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An 8-electrode capacitance tomography (ECT sensor was built and used to measure moisture content (MC and mass flow of pine chip flows. The device was capable of directly measuring total water quantity in a sample but was sensitive to both dry matter and moisture, and therefore required a second measurement of mass flow to calculate MC. Two means of calculating the mass flow were used: the first being an impact sensor to measure total mass flow, and the second a volumetric approach based on measuring total area occupied by wood in images generated using the capacitance sensor’s tomographic mode. Tests were made on 109 groups of wood chips ranging in moisture content from 14% to 120% (dry basis and wet weight of 280 to 1100 g. Sixty groups were randomly selected as a calibration set, and the remaining were used for validation of the sensor’s performance. For the combined capacitance/force transducer system, root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP for wet mass flow and moisture content were 13.42% and 16.61%, respectively. RMSEP using the combined volumetric mass flow/capacitance sensor for dry mass flow and moisture content were 22.89% and 24.16%, respectively. Either of the approaches was concluded to be feasible for prediction of moisture content in pine chip flows, but combining the impact and capacitance sensors was easier to implement. In situations where flows could not be impeded, however, the tomographic approach would likely be more useful.

  3. Measuring beyond Content: A Rubric Bank for Assessing Skills in Authentic Research Assignments in the Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishbaugh, Tara L. S.; Cessna, Stephen; Horst, S. Jeanne; Leaman, Lori; Flanagan, Toni; Neufeld, Doug Graber; Siderhurst, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Herein we report the development of an analytic rubric bank to assess non-content learning, namely higher order cognitive skills, the understanding of the nature of science, and effective scientific communication skills in student research projects. Preliminary findings indicate that use of this tool enhances our students' learning in these areas,…

  4. Use of Water Content Reflectometers in Bioinfiltration/Bioretention to Measure Water Movement and Estimate Evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most bioinfiltration/bioretention models assume runoff is evenly distributed across the surface area and after the engineered fill media is no longer saturated, the volumetric water content (VWC) is constant throughout the media profile and at field capacity. Four to nine water ...

  5. Methodological Choices in the Content Analysis of Textbooks for Measuring Alignment with Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polikoff, Morgan S.; Zhou, Nan; Campbell, Shauna E.

    2015-01-01

    With the recent adoption of the Common Core standards in many states, there is a need for quality information about textbook alignment to standards. While there are many existing content analysis procedures, these generally have little, if any, validity or reliability evidence. One exception is the Surveys of Enacted Curriculum (SEC), which has…

  6. Equilibrium moisture content of radiata pine at elevated temperature and pressure reveals measurement challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Hamish; Gabbitas, Brian; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2012-01-01

    Relatively few studies have been performed on the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure. Eight studies indicated that EMC near saturation decreased between 100 and 150 °C, whilst five studies indicated that EMC increased. The aim of this ...... conditions with minimal standard error, (2) specimens with low initial moisture content to avoid unwanted wood mass loss over time, (3) a relative humidity upper limit that avoids drift above 95 %, and (4) extrapolation of data to humidity approaching 100 %.......Relatively few studies have been performed on the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure. Eight studies indicated that EMC near saturation decreased between 100 and 150 °C, whilst five studies indicated that EMC increased. The aim...... of this study was to identify the likely source of the disagreement using radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood which was conditioned to a moisture content of around 3 % and then exposed for 1 h at 150 °C and relative humidities of either 50, 70 or 90 %. Mean values of EMC, obtained through in situ...

  7. A nonintrusive nuclear monitor for measuring liquid contents in sealed vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J. J.; Mall, G. H.

    1984-01-01

    A nonintrusive nuclear technique for monitoring fluid contents in sealed vessels, regardless of the fluid distribution inside the vessels is described. The technique is applicable to all-g environments. It is based on the differences in Cesium-137 gamma ray attenuation coefficients in air and the test liquids.

  8. Pivot Points: Direct Measures of the Content and Process of Community-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickersham, Carol; Westerberg, Charles; Jones, Karen; Cress, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This research is an initial investigation into the ways community-based learning increase the cognitive skills central to the exercise of the sociological imagination. In addition to identifying a means to reveal that learning had occurred, we looked for evidence that the students were mastering sociological content, especially the concepts and…

  9. Non-destructive Measurement of Total Carotenoid Content in Processed Tomato Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.; Streza, M.; Dóka, O.; Valinger, D.; Luterotti, S.; Ajtony, Zs; Kurtanjek, Z.; Dadarlat, D.

    2015-01-01

    Carotenes found in a diversity of fruits and vegetables are among important natural antioxidants. In a study described in this paper, the total carotenoid content (TCC) in seven different products derived from thermally processed tomatoes was determined using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPA

  10. Methodological Choices in the Content Analysis of Textbooks for Measuring Alignment with Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polikoff, Morgan S.; Zhou, Nan; Campbell, Shauna E.

    2015-01-01

    With the recent adoption of the Common Core standards in many states, there is a need for quality information about textbook alignment to standards. While there are many existing content analysis procedures, these generally have little, if any, validity or reliability evidence. One exception is the Surveys of Enacted Curriculum (SEC), which has…

  11. Non-destructive Measurement of Total Carotenoid Content in Processed Tomato Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.; Streza, M.; Dóka, O.; Valinger, D.; Luterotti, S.; Ajtony, Zs; Kurtanjek, Z.; Dadarlat, D.

    2015-01-01

    Carotenes found in a diversity of fruits and vegetables are among important natural antioxidants. In a study described in this paper, the total carotenoid content (TCC) in seven different products derived from thermally processed tomatoes was determined using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy

  12. Organic and inorganic content of fluorotic rat incisors measured by FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Isabel Maria; Saiani, Regina Aparecida; Chan, K. L. Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G.; Gerlach, Raquel Fernanda; Bachmann, Luciano

    2010-09-01

    Details on how fluoride interferes in enamel mineralization are still controversial. Therefore, this study aimed at analyzing the organic contents of fluorosis-affected teeth using Fourier Transformation Infrared spectroscopy. To this end, 10 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one received 45 ppm fluoride in distilled water for 60 days; the other received distilled water only. Then, the lower incisors were removed and prepared for analysis by two FTIR techniques namely, transmission and micro-ATR. For the first technique, the enamel was powdered, whereas in the second case one fluorotic incisor was cut longitudinally for micro-ATR. Using transmission and powdered samples, FTIR showed a higher C-H content in the fluorotic enamel compared with control enamel ( p < 0.05, n = 4 in the flurotic, and n = 5 in the control group). Results from the micro-ATR-FTIR spectroscopic analysis on one longitudinally cut incisor carried out at six points reveal a higher C-H bond content at the surface of the enamel, with values decreasing toward the dentine-enamel junction, and reaching the lowest values at the subsuperficial enamel. These results agree with the morphological data, which indicate that in the rat incisor the fluorotic lesion is superficial, rather than subsuperficial, as in the case of human enamel. The results also suggest that the increased C-H bond content may extend toward the more basal enamel (intraosseous), indicating that fluorotic enamel may intrinsically contain more protein. Finally, particularly when coupled to ATR, FTIR is a suitable tool to study the rat incisor enamel, which is a largely used model of normal and abnormal amelogenesis. Further studies along this line may definitely answer some questions regarding protein content in fluorotic enamel as well as their origin.

  13. Xanthan biopolymers: A review of methods for the determination of concentration and for the measurement of acetate and pyruvate content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Kevin C.; Nasr-El-Din, Hisham A. (Petroleum Recovery Institute, Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1993-07-26

    Xanthan gum is used extensively for enhanced oil recovery as a mobility control agent, in drilling operations to increase the suspension capacity of the drilling mud, and in gels to improve the volumetric sweep efficiency. Flow properties, injectivity, and adsorption characteristics depend on acetate and pyruvate content of xanthan. This review discusses various methods and techniques available for measuring the concentration of xanthan and its pyruvate and acetate content in laboratory and field samples. It includes a description of the principles of each method, advantages, limitations, interferences, and other information necessary to understand the strengths and weaknesses of each.

  14. Synchronous measurements of total ozone content in the tropical and the midlatitude zones during March-May 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishov, A. G.; Perov, S. P.; Semenov, V. K.

    1992-07-01

    A series of synchronous measurements of the total ozone content over Lake Issyk-Kul' (Kyrgyzstan) and Tumba (India), both located at 77 deg W but at widely separated latitudes (42.62 deg N and 8.53 deg N, respectively) was carried out using a high-sensitivity Brewer spectrophotometer and the SFSU ozonometric instrument. A statistical correlation was demonstrated between the daily mean total ozone content over Lake Issyk-Kul' and the 2800 MHz solar radiation flux. No statistically significant correlation was observed for the Tumba location.

  15. Biobased carbon content of resin extracted from polyethylene composite by carbon-14 concentration measurements using accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Kazuhiro; Kunioka, Masao; Funabashi, Masahiro; Ninomiya, Fumi

    2014-01-01

    An estimation procedure for biobased carbon content of polyethylene composite was studied using carbon-14 ((14)C) concentration ratios as measured by accelerated mass spectrometry (AMS). Prior to the measurement, additives and fillers in composites should be removed because they often contain a large amount of biobased carbon and may shift the estimation. Samples of resin with purity suitable for measurement were isolated from composites with a Soxhlet extractor using heated cyclohexanone. After cooling of extraction solutions, the resin was recovered as a fine semi-crystalline precipitate, which was easily filtered. Recovery rates were almost identical (99%), even for low-density polyethylene and linear low-density polyethylene, which may have lower crystallinity. This procedure could provide a suitable approach for estimation of biobased carbon content by AMS on the basis of the standard ASTM D 6866. The biobased carbon content for resin extracted from polyethylene composites allow for the calculation of biosynthetic polymer content, which is an indicator of mass percentage of the biobased plastic resin in the composite.

  16. Determination of Solids Content of Charcoal-Impregnated Polyurethane Foams Using Density Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    de la mousse de polyurethane impr~gnge au charbon de bois donnant des r~sultats dont les 6carts types sont inf~rieurs A 0,7 %. Sont pr~sentges des...que la teneur en charbon de bois. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT/R9SUMf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . ii INTRODUCTION...tione of title, body of abstract arid indexi ng annotation must he entered wvlheii the overall docuiletil is classiliedl I. ORIGINATING ACTiVITY 2a

  17. Evolved-Lithology Clasts in Lunar Breccias: Relating Petrogenetic Diversity to Measured Water Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Simon, J. J.; Ross, D. K.

    2017-01-01

    Studies of the inventory and distribution of water in lunar rocks have recently begun to focus on alkali suite samples as possible water repositories, particularly the most highly evolved granitoid lithologies. Although H analyses of feldspars in these rocks have so far pointed to 'low' (less than 20 ppm) H2O contents, there is sufficient variability in the dataset (e.g., 2-20 ppm) to warrant consideration of the petrogenetic factors that may have caused some granitoid-to-intermediate rocks to be dryer or wetter than others. Given that all examples of these rocks occur as clasts in complex impact breccias, the role of impact and other factors in altering water contents established by primary igneous processes becomes a major factor. We are supporting our ongoing SIMS studies of water in evolved lunar lithologies with systematic SEM and EPMA observations. Here we report a synthesis of the observations as part of developing discriminating factors for reconstructing the thermal, crystallization and shock history of these samples as compared with their water contents.

  18. Political leaders and the media. Can we measure political leadership images in newspapers using computer-assisted content analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaldering, Loes; Vliegenthart, Rens

    Despite the large amount of research into both media coverage of politics as well as political leadership, surprisingly little research has been devoted to the ways political leaders are discussed in the media. This paper studies whether computer-aided content analysis can be applied in examining political leadership images in Dutch newspaper articles. It, firstly, provides a conceptualization of political leader character traits that integrates different perspectives in the literature. Moreover, this paper measures twelve political leadership images in media coverage, based on a large-scale computer-assisted content analysis of Dutch media coverage (including almost 150.000 newspaper articles), and systematically tests the quality of the employed measurement instrument by assessing the relationship between the images, the variance in the measurement, the over-time development of images for two party leaders and by comparing the computer results with manual coding. We conclude that the computerized content analysis provides a valid measurement for the leadership images in Dutch newspapers. Moreover, we find that the dimensions political craftsmanship, vigorousness, integrity, communicative performances and consistency are regularly applied in discussing party leaders, but that portrayal of party leaders in terms of responsiveness is almost completely absent in Dutch newspapers.

  19. Measurements of the total-body potassium contents. Application of reference value with the whole-body counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Training Radiological Technicians; Saegusa, Kenji; Arimizu, Noboru; Kuniyasu, Yoshio; Itoh, Hisao

    2001-08-01

    The total-body potassium contents were measured in 405 healthy volunteers and 186 patients with whole body counter in Chiba University Hospital. The total-body potassium contents was expressed by the reference value (R value). The R value was calculated as measured potassium contents (g) divided by the body surface area (m{sup 2}) and adjusted by age and sex of healthy persons. The R value was 100.65{+-}9.22% in 405 healthy volunteers. Those of each disease were as follows: liver cirrhosis; 94.24{+-}11.22%, chronic hepatitis; 95.74{+-}11.24%, hyperthyroidism; 99.37{+-}10.8%, periodic paralysis; 82.0{+-}9.01%, Barter's syndrome; 93.99{+-}9.86%, myasthenia gravis; 97.34{+-}6.42% and hypo-potassemia; 90.64{+-}11.76%, respectively. The R values of other diseases such as uterine cancer, breast cancer, anemia, hypertension were 97.78{+-}11.5%, 99.22{+-}8.88%, 96.64{+-}12.73%, 98.5{+-}9.63% respectively. Fourteen patients showed especially lower R values under 75%. These were 1 liver cirrhosis, 3 hypertension, 1 diabetes mellitus, 3 hypo-potassemia, 1 periodic paralysis, 2 Barter's syndrome, 2 chemical poisoning, and 1 breast cancer. Follow-up study was performed in some patients with the lower R values. The result of follow-up study showed that there was a relationship between improvement of symptoms and increase of total body potassium contents. (author)

  20. Estimation of chlorophyll contents in leaves and canopy of steppe vegetation using hyperspectral measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dandan; Xiao, Chenchao; Zhang, Zhenhua; Wei, Hongyan; Shang, Kun

    2016-04-01

    As an important part of the Eurasian Steppe, the temperate typical steppe in Inner Mongolia is highly representative of the Eurasian vegetation. Compared to multispectral remote sensing, hyperspectral remote sensing is more sensitive in monitoring some characteristics of vegetation. However, the research on the typical temperate steppe in Inner Mongolia is still not perfect, so we selected three sampling zones with different dominant species on the typical steppe in Xilinhot of Inner Mongolia. We collected spectrum of leaves and canopy separately to estimate content of chlorophyll of steppe vegetation. In addition, we compared and analyzed the advantage and feasibility of different estimation methods in estimating chlorophyll contents of meadows which have different dominant species through cross validation. The conclusions drawn in this research are as follows: Due to significant discontinuity, maximum first derivative method and Lagrange interpolation method are not suitable for estimation of chlorophyll of typical steppe. Compared with other methods, the red edge position calculated with four points linear interpolation obviously migrates to long wave direction. Inverted Gaussian model and four points linear interpolation both show low sensitivity for Stipa grandis steppe zone (with Stipa grandis as dominant species) where chlorophyll concentration is low and there is saturation phenomenon and weak stability (obvious variation of R2) for Leymus chinensis steppe (with Leymus chinensis as dominant species) where chlorophyll concentration is high, so they are also not the best choice. Linear extrapolation and polynomial fitting show certain saturation for high concentration of chlorophyll and also high correlation coefficient for both leaves and canopy, so they are suitable for estimation of chlorophyll concentration of leaves and canopy on the steppe. The different methods of extracting red edge are better at estimating chlorophyll of leaves than canopy and the

  1. The consequence of measured porosities and clay contents on P-wave AVO for shaly sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Adel A. A.

    2004-12-01

    The modified AVO (amplitude versus offset) equations presented in Othman (2003 Tecnologia de la Intrusión de Agua de Mar en Acuifros Costeros: Paises Mediterráneos—Coastal Acquifer Intrusion Technology: Mediterranean Countries (Madrid: IGME) pp 295-302) are confirmed by application of our data. About 26 layers composed mainly of shales and sandstones encountered in an oil well in the Gulf of Suez are utilized in the present study. P-wave velocity, density, porosity and the clay content of these rocks are principal feedback parameters in this investigation. The attributes of the assessed AVO coefficient (Ra) are studied with reference to several parameter ratios in the AVO case. These ratios include the porosity ratio (phgr1/phgr2), Poisson's ratio (σ1/σ2), density ratio (ρ1/ρ2), clay content ratio (C1/C2) and P-wave velocity ratio (α1/α2). Subscripts 1 and 2 respectively refer to the upper and lower layers relative to the interface. The applied data reveal linear relationships between the velocity ratio, α1/α2, and the porosity ratio, phgr1/phgr2. α1/α2 is found to decrease with increasing phgr1/phgr2. The clay content ratio C1/C2 increases linearly with increasing phgr1/phgr2 as well as with increasing Poisson's ratio, σ1/σ2. The density ratio, ρ1/ρ2, demonstrates a weak decrease proportional to phgr1/phgr2. Ra generally increases with increasing phgr1/phgr2, C1/C2 and σ1/σ2. On the other hand, Ra decreases with increasing ρ1/ρ2 and α1/α2. These relations are valid for the offset condition according to our data.

  2. Temperature Buffer Test. Measurements of water content and density of the excavated buffer material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    TBT (Temperature Buffer Test) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modeling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at understanding and modeling the thermo-hydromechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test was carried out at the - 420 m level in Aespoe HRL in a 8 meters deep and 1.76 m diameter deposition hole, with two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter), surrounded by a MX-80 bentonite buffer and a confining plug on top anchored with 9 rods. It was installed during spring 2003. The bentonite around upper heater was removed during the period October - December 2009 and the buffer around the lower heater was removed during January - Mars 2010. During dismantling of the buffer, samples were taken on which analyses were made. This report describes the work with the deteroemoeination of the water content and the density of the taken samples. Most of the samples were taken from the buffer by core drilling from the upper surface of each installed bentonite block. The cores had a diameter of about 50 mm and a maximum length equal to the original height of the bentonite blocks (about 500 mm). The water content of the buffer was determined by drying a sample at a temperature of 105 deg C for 24 h and the bulk density was determined by weighing a sample both in the air and immerged in paraffin oil with known density. The water content, dry density, degree of saturation and void ratio of the buffer were then plotted. The plots show that all parts of the buffer had taken up water and the degree of saturation of the buffer varied between 90 - 100%. Large variation in the dry density of the buffer was also observed.

  3. Odor active compounds content in spices and their microencapsulated powders measured by SPME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Elżbieta; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, Renata; Adamiec, Janusz; Wąsowicz, Erwin; Przygoński, Krzysztof; Remiszewski, Marian

    2010-10-01

    Within this study, main odorants of marjoram and thyme (linalool and thymol) were determined in spices and microencapsulated powders using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Analyses were conducted on selected batches of spices before and after decontamination and on microencapsulated powders prepared for technological purposes (improvement of aroma in decontaminated spices). Conditions of SPME analyses were determined for individual compounds and matrices. Determination of total and surface contents of compounds and the percentage dependencies between encapsulated and surface aroma made it possible to identify the best powders in terms of their quality.

  4. Certain Results of Measurements of Characteristics of Stratospheric Aerosol Layer and Total Ozone Content at Siberian Lidar Station in Tomsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzorov Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the results of long-term remote optical monitoring, obtained at the Siberian Lidar Station of Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences in Tomsk (56.5°N, 85.0°E. The scattering characteristics of stratospheric aerosol layer, obtained according to data of lidar measurements since 1986, are presented. We analyze the trends of changes in the total ozone (TO content over Tomsk for the period 1996-2013 according to data of spectrophotometric measurements with employment of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data for the period 1979-1994. We determined the periods of elevated content of stratospheric aerosol over Tomsk aftera series of explosive eruptions of volcanoes of Pacific Ring of Fire and Iceland in 2006-2011. Since the second half of 1990s, we record an increasing TO trend, equaling 0.65 DU/yr for the period 1996-2013.

  5. Certain Results of Measurements of Characteristics of Stratospheric Aerosol Layer and Total Ozone Content at Siberian Lidar Station in Tomsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevzorov, Aleksey; Bazhenov, Oleg; Burlakov, Vladimir; Dolgii, Sergey

    2016-06-01

    We consider the results of long-term remote optical monitoring, obtained at the Siberian Lidar Station of Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences in Tomsk (56.5°N, 85.0°E). The scattering characteristics of stratospheric aerosol layer, obtained according to data of lidar measurements since 1986, are presented. We analyze the trends of changes in the total ozone (TO) content over Tomsk for the period 1996-2013 according to data of spectrophotometric measurements with employment of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data for the period 1979-1994. We determined the periods of elevated content of stratospheric aerosol over Tomsk aftera series of explosive eruptions of volcanoes of Pacific Ring of Fire and Iceland in 2006-2011. Since the second half of 1990s, we record an increasing TO trend, equaling 0.65 DU/yr for the period 1996-2013.

  6. Information content-based Gene Ontology functional similarity measures: which one to use for a given biological data type?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston K Mazandu

    Full Text Available The current increase in Gene Ontology (GO annotations of proteins in the existing genome databases and their use in different analyses have fostered the improvement of several biomedical and biological applications. To integrate this functional data into different analyses, several protein functional similarity measures based on GO term information content (IC have been proposed and evaluated, especially in the context of annotation-based measures. In the case of topology-based measures, each approach was set with a specific functional similarity measure depending on its conception and applications for which it was designed. However, it is not clear whether a specific functional similarity measure associated with a given approach is the most appropriate, given a biological data set or an application, i.e., achieving the best performance compared to other functional similarity measures for the biological application under consideration. We show that, in general, a specific functional similarity measure often used with a given term IC or term semantic similarity approach is not always the best for different biological data and applications. We have conducted a performance evaluation of a number of different functional similarity measures using different types of biological data in order to infer the best functional similarity measure for each different term IC and semantic similarity approach. The comparisons of different protein functional similarity measures should help researchers choose the most appropriate measure for the biological application under consideration.

  7. Automatic determination of moisture content in biofuels based on NIR-measurements; Automatisk fukthaltsbestaemning av biobraenslen med NIR-metoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Wiklund, Sven Erik [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Karlsson, Mikael; Tryzell, Robert [Bestwood AB, Sundbyberg (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    The determination of moisture content of biofuel is of large importance for the energy sector. The used methods for moisture determination are based on fuels samples taken from the bulk followed by drying and weighing. To be able to instead determine the moisture content based on a method with good accuracy and with a short response time would be a large improvement. Both for the fuel sampling and the following analysis there are Swedish standards but concerning the fuel sampling the standards are often not followed. The main reason is the difficulties to sample fuel samples from different depth from a delivery. This is one of the reasons that some plants have installed mechanical samplers but the investment cost for these is relatively high. The aim of this project was to investigate the use of the NIR-method for automatic moisture determination in biofuels. Within the project the NIR-method was used to determine the moisture content on withdrawn fuel samples, in addition the possibility to integrate the NIR-method in an automatic sampling system is also described. A large number of samples, in total over 200 samples, have been evaluated with the NIR-method and compared with the reference method, oven drying and gravimetric determination of moisture content. That the NIR-method can be used to determine moisture content in a number of well defined materials have previously been shown. In this report it has moreover been shown that the method can be used under the conditions at the fuel delivery station and for a large spectrum of biofuels. The accuracy that can be achieved with the NIR-method is in the same magnitude as the standard method, i.e. the reference method used for the measurements. Altogether this shows that the NIR-method is an interesting alternative for integration in an automatic measurement system for determination of fuel moisture content in biofuels. To be able to use the NIR-method for automatic determination of fuel moisture content at the

  8. Determination of uranium content in phosphate ores using different measurement techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Al-Eshaikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important unconventional source of uranium is found in phosphate deposits; unfortunately, nowadays its exploitation is limited by economic constraints. The uranium concentrations in phosphate ores in the world vary regionally and most countries with large phosphate deposits have either plant in operation to extract uranium or are at the stage of pilot extraction plants. The aim of this investigation is to evaluate uranium content in the Saudi phosphate ores for, at least, two reasons: firstly, upgrading the phosphate quality by removing the uranium content in order to reduce the radioactivity in the fertilizer products. Secondly, getting benefit from the extracted uranium for its domestic use as a fuel in nuclear power and desalination plants. The results of this study show that the uranium concentration in Saudi phosphate rocks is relatively low (less than 100 ppm, which is not economically encouraging for its direct extraction. However, its extraction as a byproduct from the phosphoric acid, which will have higher concentration could be quite promising and worth exploiting.

  9. Protein content of human apatite and brushite kidney stones: significant correlation with morphologic measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Rocky; Asplin, John R; Jackson, Molly E; Williams, James C

    2008-10-01

    Apatite and brushite kidney stones share calcium and phosphate as their main inorganic components. We tested the hypothesis that these stone types differ in the amount of proteins present in the stones. Intact stones were intensively analyzed by microcomputed tomography (micro CT) for both morphology (including the volume of voids, i.e., space devoid of X-ray dense material) and mineral type. To extract all proteins present in kidney stones in soluble form we developed a three-step extraction procedure using the ground stone powder. Apatite stones had significantly higher levels of total protein content and void volume compared to brushite stones. The void volume was highly correlated with the total protein contents in all stones (r2 = 0.61, P brushite stones contained significantly fewer void regions and proteins than did apatite stones (3.2 +/- 4.5% voids for brushite vs. 10.8 +/- 11.2% for apatite, P brushite vs. 6.0 +/- 2.4% for apatite, P brushite and apatite stones is higher than that was previously thought, and also suggest that micro CT-visible void regions are related to the presence of protein.

  10. Estimation of the intramuscular fat content of m. longissimus thoracis in crossbred beef cattle based on live animal measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogalski, Zenon; Pogorzelska-Przybyłek, Paulina; Białobrzewski, Ireneusz; Modzelewska-Kapituła, Monika; Sobczuk-Szul, Monika; Purwin, Cezary

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the usefulness of live animal measurements in estimating the intramuscular fat (IMF) content of m. longissimus thoracis (MLT) in beef cattle. Live animal measurements were performed in young crossbred bulls (96) and steers (59), the offspring of Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows and beef bulls (Limousin, Hereford and Charolais), at the end of the fattening period. The content of intramuscular fat was determined in samples from MLT by chemical analyses. A prediction model was developed by stepwise regression. In the validation model, the values of R(2)=0.74, RMSE=0.37% were determined. The results indicate that selected biometric (chest width, chest girth) ultrasound measurements (thickness of subcutaneous rump and back fat) and selected blood parameters (triglycerides) can be used to predict IMF content with satisfactory precision and accuracy. The analyzed parameters could constitute a valuable tool in the process of selecting beef quality traits and determining the slaughter value of young beef cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of free water and water activity measurements as functional alternatives to total moisture content in broiler excreta and litter samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven-Hangoor, van der E.; Rademaker, C.; Paton, N.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Litter moisture contents vary greatly between and within practical poultry barns. The current experiment was designed to measure the effects of 8 different dietary characteristics on litter and excreta moisture content. Additionally, free water content and water activity of the excreta and litter

  12. New aspects of osteoporosis: Bone mineral content (BMC) measurement in osteoporosis associated with drugs, arthritis, and related conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, M.D.; Shapiro, B.

    1987-02-01

    Sensitive, non-invasive measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) provide the means to identify and characterize, prior to the development of symptoms, osteoporosis associated with drugs, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus, anorexia nervosa and immobilization. Moreover, BMC can be used to effectively screen populations at risk for the development of osteoporosis and longitudinal studies in individual patients can be used to guide effective anti-osteopenia therapy. This review will briefly detail recent BMC measurements in osteoporosis due to drugs, arthritis and related conditions.

  13. Measuring the muon content of air showers with IceTop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Javier G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IceTop, the surface component of the IceCube detector, has been used to measure the energy spectrum of cosmic ray primaries in the range between 1.58 PeV and 1.26 EeV. It can also be used to study the low energy muons in air showers by looking at large distances (> 300 m from the shower axis. We will show the muon lateral distribution function at large lateral distances as measured with IceTop and discuss the implications of this measurement. We will also discuss the prospects for low energy muon studies with IceTop.

  14. Information Contents of a Signal at Repeated Positioning Measurements of the Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM by Laser Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stejskal Tomáš

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The input of this paper lies in displaying possibilities how to determine the condition of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM based on a large number of repeated measurements. The number of repeated measurements exceeds common requirements for determining positioning accuracy. The total offset in the accuracy of spatial positioning consists of partial inaccuracies of individual axes. 6 basic errors may be defined at each axis. In a triaxial set, that translates into 18 errors, to which an offset from the perpendicularity between the axial pairs must be added. Therefore, the combined number of errors in a single position is 21. These errors are systemic and stem from the machine’s geometry. In addition, there are accidental errors to account for as well. Accidental errors can be attributed to vibrations, mass inertness, passive resistance, and in part to fluctuations in temperature. A peculiar set of systemic errors are time-varying errors. The nature of those errors may be reversible, for instance if they result from influence of temperature or elastic deformation. They can be also irreversible, for example as a result of wear and tear or line clogging, due to loosened connection or permanent deformation of a part post collision. A demonstration of thermal equalizing of the machine’s parts may also be observed in case of failure to adhere to a sufficient time interval from the moment the air-conditioning is turned on. Repeated measurements done on a selected axis with linear interferometer can provide complex information on the CMM condition and also on the machine’s interaction with the given technical environment.

  15. Using Micromechanical Resonators to Measure Rheological Properties and Alcohol Content of Model Solutions and Commercial Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogenboom, Bart W.; Anna Dejardin; Jake Stinson; Rosemary Paxman; McKendry, Rachel A.

    2012-01-01

    Micromechanic resonators provide a small-volume and potentially high-throughput method to determine rheological properties of fluids. Here we explore the accuracy in measuring mass density and viscosity of ethanol-water and glycerol-water model solutions, using a simple and easily implemented model to deduce the hydrodynamic effects on resonating cantilevers of various length-to-width aspect ratios. We next show that these measurements can be extended to determine the alcohol percentage of bo...

  16. Quantitative Targeted Proteomics and Electrochromic Shift for Measuring Photosystem Content of Marine Phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. M.; Bailleul, B.; Melanson, J. R.; Campbell, D. A.; Cockshutt, A. M.; Cardol, P.

    2016-02-01

    Abundance and stoichiometry data for the photosystems, the intersystem electron transport complexes and the Calvin cycle enzymes are rich in information about light and nutrient acclimation. Quantifying these complexes is essential for understanding limitations on and capacities for photosynthesis. Targeted quantitative immunodetections of conserved subunits (eg. PsbA for PSII; PsaC for PSI) are becoming an established method for absolute measurement of these complexes. An advantage of protein measurements is that they can be done with non-living flash-frozen samples and processed post-field. A pitfall of physical versus functional measures is that in some scenarios, such as during photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII), physical and functional measures give different values, but such disparities are often meaningful, informing targeted studies of regulation, repair and enzyme kinetics. Electrochromic Shift (ECS) is an alternative, fast and noninvasive method which can be exploited to determine functional PSI:PSII ratios in living cells. The basis for ECS is that pigments in the photosynthetic membrane exhibit a shift in their absorption spectra when the electric component of the proton motive force is generated across the membrane in the light. Cross-validation of methods by independent measures builds confidence in results from both approaches and can be useful for ground truthing of underway or high-throughput optical measurements or functional measurements from bioassays. We present comparative data from immunoquantitation and ECS for an array of diatom taxa. The physical data fall within established ranges. The basis for similarities and disparities in the photosystem stoichiometries between the methods are discussed.

  17. Free-space reflection method for measuring moisture content and bulk density of particulate materials at microwave frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxiao; Han, Bing; Zhang, Tao

    2015-03-01

    A measurement system based on free-space reflection method is designed for simultaneous and independent determination of moisture content and bulk density of particulate materials. The proposed system consists of microwave cavity oscillator, horn antenna, slide rail, sample holder, mixer, and digital meter. Sand and rice with different moisture contents and bulk densities are chosen as samples. Calibration models for moisture content and bulk density are proposed according to the measurement of the position of the minimum of the traveling-standing wave and the ratio of the maximum-to-minimum field strength of the traveling-standing wave at different temperatures. The moisture constant, ranging from 0% to 24.6%, is obtained with a coefficient of determination (R2) greater than 0.982 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) value of less than 0.695%. The bulk density, ranging from 0.501 g/cm3 to 1.822 g/cm3, is determined with a R2 ≥ 0.961 and a SEP value ranging from 0.0144 g/cm3 to 0.0382 g/cm3 for different samples.

  18. Using Micromechanical Resonators to Measure Rheological Properties and Alcohol Content of Model Solutions and Commercial Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W. Hoogenboom

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Micromechanic resonators provide a small-volume and potentially high-throughput method to determine rheological properties of fluids. Here we explore the accuracy in measuring mass density and viscosity of ethanol-water and glycerol-water model solutions, using a simple and easily implemented model to deduce the hydrodynamic effects on resonating cantilevers of various length-to-width aspect ratios. We next show that these measurements can be extended to determine the alcohol percentage of both model solutions and commercial beverages such as beer, wine and liquor. This demonstrates how micromechanical resonators can be used for quality control of every-day drinks.

  19. Using micromechanical resonators to measure rheological properties and alcohol content of model solutions and commercial beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxman, Rosemary; Stinson, Jake; Dejardin, Anna; McKendry, Rachel A; Hoogenboom, Bart W

    2012-01-01

    Micromechanic resonators provide a small-volume and potentially high-throughput method to determine rheological properties of fluids. Here we explore the accuracy in measuring mass density and viscosity of ethanol-water and glycerol-water model solutions, using a simple and easily implemented model to deduce the hydrodynamic effects on resonating cantilevers of various length-to-width aspect ratios. We next show that these measurements can be extended to determine the alcohol percentage of both model solutions and commercial beverages such as beer, wine and liquor. This demonstrates how micromechanical resonators can be used for quality control of every-day drinks.

  20. Measurement of Monochromatic Emissivity of Cement Clinker with Various Fe2O3 Content at High Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.J.Ye; C.F.Ma; 等

    1996-01-01

    An applicatiopn of the optical pyrometer is studied for measuring monochromatic emissivities of cement clinker with various Fe2O3 contnet.The idsa of using “brightness temperature” is introduced into the eimssivity measurement.In this method,there is no need for measuring an actual temperature of sample surfaces,only with determining both brightness temperatures of a sample and a blackbody can the required emissivity be evaluated according to Wien's radiation law.In practice,the cement clinker is regarded as a greybody,the monochromatic emissivity is approximately equal to the total emissivity,so a single-colour optical pyrometer is applied for this purpose,Test measurements are carried out on 10 kinds of cement clinkers,Experimental data are treated by the least square method.As a result ,the emissivity variation with temperature at a certain Fe2O3 content is quite well represented by εn=a+bT.Furthermore,this work first reported that the eimissivities of cement clinker change consierably with Fe2O3 contents.In multiple cement production this conclusion is very important.

  1. Measurement of Aluminum Content In Reflector Materials For The PICO Dark Matter Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsodi, Haley; PICO Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The PICO collaboration uses a bubble chamber technique to search for dark matter particles. Bubbles are registered with cameras, pressure sensors and acoustic transducers. To increase the visual contrast between bubbles and liquid, retro-reflectors are used to diffuse light from LEDs evenly throughout the inner chamber. One must, however, be careful that reflector materials not contribute radioactive background. Light nuclei, such as aluminum, can absorb alpha particles from radioactive contaminants and produce high energy neutron background in the inner volume of the chamber. Since aluminum oxides are a common reflector material and since commercial compositions are trade secrets, we had to demonstrate that the amounts of aluminum in the reflectors was small enough to allow them to be used in the chambers. After acid digesting candidate material strips, they were analyzed using Microwave Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. All of the proposed materials were found to have less than 1% Aluminum content (by mass), making them safe for use by the experiment. Indiana University South Bend.

  2. Measurement of the Relative Free Radical Content of Insulating Oils of Petroleum Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issouf Fofana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil/paper insulation degradation in transformers involves chemical and physical changes in the materials. Some of the chemical reactions involve very reactive intermediates called free radicals. Free radicals play a major role in a wide variety of ageing processes. The detection of these reactive species in oil may, in principle, provide useful information for monitoring oil degradation. This manuscript details a laboratory technique, which determines the relative content of free radicals in insulating oils of petroleum origin by a spectrophotometric method. Free radicals may be formed in oils under operating or test conditions. The procedure enables the determination of the relative concentration of free radicals, which can act as the precursors of decay products such as charge carriers, oxidized molecules, as well as polymerization products. The technique involves using a reactive free radical reagent, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, added to oil to assess free radical concentration. This method is applicable to new, reclaimed, or used oils as well as naturally or artificially oxidized oil (the cause of aging can be chemical, physical, or electrical. In this contribution, free radicals were assessed following electrical discharge application in oil.

  3. Measurements of the muon content of air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiño, I.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory offers a unique window to study cosmic rays and particle physics at energies above 3 EeV (corresponding to a centre-of-mass energy of 75 TeV in proton-proton collisions) inaccessible to accelerator experiments. We discuss the different methods of estimating the number of muons in showers recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, which is an observable sensitive to primary mass composition and to properties of the hadronic interactions in the shower. The muon content, derived from data with these methods, is presented and compared to predictions from the post-LHC hadronic interaction models for different primary composition. We find that models do not reproduce well the Auger observations, displaying a deficit of muons at the ground. In the light of these results, a better understanding of ultra-high energy extensive air showers and hadronic interactions is crucial to determine the composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We report on the upgrade plans of the Pierre Auger Observatory to achieve this science goal.

  4. Service Life Prediction of Wood Claddings by in-situ Measurement of Wood Moisture Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang; Lindegaard, Berit; Morsing, Niels

    2009-01-01

    The Danish Technological Institute is in co-operation with industry partners running a project aiming at predicting the service life of different wood protecting systems. The project focuses on examining the moisture reducing effect of different protecting systems for timber claddings and the abi......The Danish Technological Institute is in co-operation with industry partners running a project aiming at predicting the service life of different wood protecting systems. The project focuses on examining the moisture reducing effect of different protecting systems for timber claddings...... are exposed. This study examines the data from the first five years of outdoor exposure using data from a test rack with a water-borne acrylic coating and a test rack with ICP coating for case studies. The moisture content data was converted into weekly average and weekly variation values which gave a deeper...... insight into the performance of the tested systems. The first was used to check for moisture build-up in the construction whereas the latter gave an indication of the gradual degradation of the coating itself, i.e. the degree of cracking. A linear tendency with time was found for all tested systems...

  5. Measuring Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juice Using a Pencil Lead Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David; Friend, Jeffrey; Kariuki, James

    2010-01-01

    A pencil lead successfully served as an electrode for the determination of ascorbic acid in commercial orange juice. Cyclic voltammetry was used as an electrochemical probe to measure the current produced from the oxidation of ascorbic acid with a variety of electrodes. The data demonstrate that the less expensive pencil lead electrode gives…

  6. Using measures of information content and complexity of time series as hydrologic metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The information theory has been previously used to develop metrics that allowed to characterize temporal patterns in soil moisture dynamics, and to evaluate and to compare performance of soil water flow models. The objective of this study was to apply information and complexity measures to characte...

  7. Measuring Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juice Using a Pencil Lead Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David; Friend, Jeffrey; Kariuki, James

    2010-01-01

    A pencil lead successfully served as an electrode for the determination of ascorbic acid in commercial orange juice. Cyclic voltammetry was used as an electrochemical probe to measure the current produced from the oxidation of ascorbic acid with a variety of electrodes. The data demonstrate that the less expensive pencil lead electrode gives…

  8. Measuring Reading Comprehension of Content Area Texts Using an Assessment of Knowledge Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Marcia H.; Guthrie, John T.

    2015-01-01

    The authors outline results of 3 studies conducted to examine the structure of disciplinary knowledge from reading measured through proximity data. In Study 1, 168 third-grade students were asked to read a science text and rate the relationships of keywords from the passage. From these ratings, comprehension scores were calculated that related…

  9. Nondestructive Determination of Moisture Content in Dry Fruits by Impedance and Phase angle measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impedance (Z), and phase angle (') of a cylindrical parallel-plate capacitor with dry fruits between the plates was measured using a CI meter (Chari’s Impedance meter), at 1 and 9 MHz . Capacitance, C was derived from Z and ', and using the C, ', and Z values of a set of cherries whose moisture con...

  10. Measuring Job Content: Skills, Technology, and Management Practices. Discussion Paper No. 1357-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The conceptualization and measurement of key job characteristics has not changed greatly for most social scientists since the Dictionary of Occupational Titles and Quality of Employment surveys were created, despite their recognized limitations. However, debates over the roles of job skill requirements, technology, and new management practices in…

  11. [Estimating total nitrogen content in wetland vegetation based on measured reflectance spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Wang, Yi-hong; Sun, Yong-hua; Miao, Qian

    2012-02-01

    More and more urban wetlands have been supplied with reclaimed water. And monitoring the growth condition of large-area wetland vegetation is playing a very important role in wetland restoration and reconstruction. Recently, remote sensing technology has become an important tool for vegetation growth monitoring. The South Wetland in the Olympic Park, a typical wetland using reused water, was selected as the research area. The leaf reflectance spectra and were acquired for the main wetland plants reed (Phragmites australis) and cattail (Typha angustifolia) with an ASD FieldSpec 3 spectrometer (350 2 500 nm). The total nitrogen (TN) content of leaf samples was determined by Kjeldahl method subsequently. The research established univariate models involving simple ratio spectral index (SR) model and normalized difference spectral index (ND) model, as well as multivariate models including stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) model and partial least squares regression (PLSR) model. Moreover, the accuracy of all the models was tested through cross-validated coefficient of determination (R2(CV)) and cross-validated root mean square error (RMSE(CV)). The results showed that (1) comparing different types of wetland plants, the accuracy of all established prediction models using Phragmites australis reflectance spectra was higher than that using Typha angustifolia reflectance spectra. (2) compared with univariate techniques, multivariate regressions improved the estimation of TN concentration in leaves. (3) among the various investigated models, the accuracy of PLSR model was the highest (R2(CV) = 0.80, RMSE(CV) = 0.24). PLSR provided the most useful explorative tool for unraveling the relationship between spectral reflectance and TN consistence of leaves. The result would not only provide a scientific basis for remote sensing retrieval of biochemical variables of wetland vegetation, but also provide a strong scientific basis for the monitoring and management of urban

  12. Measurement of the Branching Fraction and CP Content for the Decay B0 --> D*+ D*-

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    We report a measurement of the branching fraction of the decay B^0 --> D^{*+} D^{*-} and of the CP-odd component of its final state using the BaBar detector. With data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.4 fb^{-1} collected at the Upsilon(4S) resonance during 1999-2000, we have reconstructed 38 candidate signal events in the mode B^0 --> D^{*+}D^{*-} with an estimated background of 6.2 \\pm 0.5 events. From these events, we determine the branching fraction to be BR(B^0 --> D^{*+}D^{*-}) = (8.3 +/- 1.6(stat) +/- 1.2(syst)) x 10^{-4}. The measured CP-odd fraction of the final state is 0.22 +/- 0.18(stat) +/- 0.03(syst).

  13. Catching a glimpse of working memory: top-down capture as a tool for measuring the content of the mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Nicholas D; Thomas, Rick P; Buttaccio, Daniel R; Davelaar, Eddy J

    2012-11-01

    This article outlines a methodology for probing working memory (WM) content in high-level cognitive tasks (e.g., decision making, problem solving, and memory retrieval) by capitalizing on attentional and oculomotor biases evidenced in top-down capture paradigms. This method would be of great use, as it could measure the information resident in WM at any point in a task and, hence, track information use over time as tasks dynamically evolve. Above and beyond providing a measure of information occupancy in WM, such a method would benefit from sensitivity to the specific activation levels of individual items in WM. This article additionally forwards a novel fusion of standard free recall and visual search paradigms in an effort to assess the sensitivity of eye movements in top-down capture, on which this new measurement technique relies, to item-specific memory activation (ISMA). The results demonstrate eye movement sensitivity to ISMA in some, but not all, cases.

  14. Effectively integrating information content and structural relationship to improve the GO-based similarity measure between proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Bo; Feltus, F Alex; Zhou, Jizhong; Luo, Feng

    2010-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO) provides a knowledge base to effectively describe proteins. However, measuring similarity between proteins based on GO remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose a new similarity measure, information coefficient similarity measure (SimIC), to effectively integrate both the information content (IC) of GO terms and the structural information of GO hierarchy to determine the similarity between proteins. Testing on yeast proteins, our results show that SimIC efficiently addresses the shallow annotation issue in GO, thus improves the correlations between GO similarities of yeast proteins and their expression similarities as well as between GO similarities of yeast proteins and their sequence similarities. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proposed SimIC is superior in predicting yeast protein interactions. We predict 20484 yeast protein-protein interactions (PPIs) between 2462 proteins based on the high SimIC values of biological process (BP) and cellular component (CC). Examining the...

  15. Comparing contents of outcome measures in cerebral palsy using the International Classification of Functioning (ICF-CY): a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiariti, Veronica; Klassen, Anne F; Cieza, Alarcos; Sauve, Karen; O'Donnell, Maureen; Armstrong, Robert; Mâsse, Louise C

    2014-01-01

    The International Classification of Functioning children and youth version (ICF-CY) provides a universal framework for defining and classifying functioning and disability in children worldwide. To facilitate the application of the ICF in practice, ICF based-tools like the "ICF Core Sets" are being developed. In the context of the development of the ICF-CY Core Sets for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP), the aims of this study were as follows: to identify and compare the content of outcome measures used in studies of children with CP using the ICF-CY coding system; and to describe the most frequently addressed areas of functioning in those studies. We searched multiple databases likely to capture studies involving children with CP from January 1998 to March 2012. We included all English language articles that studied children aged 2-18 years and described an interventional or observational study. Constructs of the outcome measures identified in studies were linked to the ICF-CY by two trained professionals. We found 231 articles that described 238 outcome measures. The outcome measures contained 2193 concepts that were linked to the ICF-CY and covered 161 independent ICF-CY categories. Out of the 161 categories, 53 (33.5%) were related to body functions, 75 (46%) were related to activities/participation, 26 (16.1%) were related to environmental factors, and 7 (4.3%) were related to body structures. This systematic review provides information about content of measures that may guide researchers and clinicians in their selection of an outcome measure for use in a study and/or clinical practice with children with CP. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Using measured soil water contents to estimate evapotranspiration and root water uptake profiles – a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Guderle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of plants for soil water relations, and thus for ecosystem functioning, requires information about root water uptake. We evaluated four different complex water balance methods to estimate sink term patterns and evapotranspiration directly from soil moisture measurements. We tested four methods: the first two take the difference between two measurement intervals as evapotranspiration, thus neglecting vertical flow. The third uses regression on the soil water content time series and differences between day and night to account for vertical flow. The fourth accounts for vertical flow using a numerical model and iteratively solves for the sink term. Neither of those methods requires any a priori information of root distribution parameters or evapotranspiration, which is the advantage, compared to common root water uptake models. To test the methods, a synthetic experiment with numerical simulations for a grassland ecosystem was conducted. Additionally, the time series were perturbed to simulate common sensor errors, like those due to measurement precision and inaccurate sensor calibration. We tested each method for a range of measurement frequencies and applied performance criteria to evaluate the suitability of each method. In general, we show that methods accounting for vertical flow predict evapotranspiration and the sink term distribution more accurately than the simpler approaches. Under consideration of possible measurement uncertainties, the method based on regression and differentiating between day and night cycles leads to the best and most robust estimation of sink term patterns. It is thus an alternative to more complex inverse numerical methods. This study demonstrates that highly resolved (temporal and spatial soil water content measurements may be used to estimate the sink term profiles when the appropriate approach is used.

  17. Passive remote sensing of columnar water vapour content above land surfaces. Pt. 1 and 2. Theoretical algorithm development. - Comparison of OVID measurements with radiosonde and dial measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, B. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.; Bakan, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Ehret, G. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Fischer, J. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Weltraumwissenschaften; Kaestner, M. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Kiemle, C. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-03-01

    A method is presented to retrieve the total atmospheric water vapour content above land surfaces with the aid of airborne or satellite spectral measurements of backscattered solar radiation. During algorithm development, special emphasis is given to proper description of the global variety of temperature, pressure, and water vapour profiles, as well as optical parameters of aerosols and spectral surface reflectivity values. Sensitivity studies show that the variability of spectral surface reflectivity has the greatest impact on the errors of the derived water vapour contents. The number and location of necessary channels is therefore optimized with respect to the influence of surface reflectance. Finally the water vapour algorithm for the spectrometer MERIS on board ESA`s environmental satellite ENVISAT is defined. (orig.)

  18. Measuring Technological and Content Knowledge of Undergraduate Primary Teachers in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukakis, Spyros; Chionidou-Moskofoglou, Maria; Mangina-Phelan, Eleni; Roussos, Petros

    Twenty-five final-year undergraduate students of primary education who were attending a course on mathematics education participated in a research project during the 2009 spring semester. A repeated measures experimental design was used. Quantitative data on students' computer attitudes, self-efficacy in ICT, attitudes toward educational software, and self-efficacy in maths were collected. Data analysis showed a statistically non-significant improvement on participants' computer attitudes and self-efficacy in ICT and ES, but a significant improvement of self-efficacy in mathematics.

  19. Measurement of activity limitations and participation restrictions: examination of ICF-linked content and scale properties of the FIM and PC-PART instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darzins, Susan W; Imms, Christine; Di Stefano, Marilyn

    2017-05-01

    To explore the operationalization of activity and participation-related measurement constructs through comparison of item phrasing, item response categories and scoring (scale properties) for two separate instruments targeting activities of daily living. Personal Care Participation Assessment and Resource Tool (PC-PART) item content was linked to ICF categories using established linking rules. Previously reported ICF-linked FIM content categories and ICF-linked PC-PART content categories were compared to identify common ICF categories between the instruments. Scale properties of both instruments were compared using a patient scenario to explore the instruments' separate measurement constructs. The PC-PART and FIM shared 15 of the 53 level two ICF-linked categories identified across both instruments. Examination of the instruments' scale properties for items with overlapping ICF content, and exploration through a patient scenario, provided supportive evidence that the instruments measure different constructs. While the PC-PART and FIM share common ICF-linked content, they measure separate constructs. Measurement construct was influenced by the instruments' scale properties. The FIM was observed to measure activity limitations and the PC-PART measured participation restrictions. Scrutiny of instruments' scale properties in addition to item content is critical in the operationalization of activity and participation-related measurement constructs. Implications for Rehabilitation When selecting outcome measures for use in rehabilitation it is necessary to examine both the content of the instruments' items and item phrasing, response categories and scoring, to clarify the construct being measured. Measurement of activity limitations as well as participation restrictions in activities of daily living required for community life provides a more comprehensive measurement of rehabilitation outcomes than measurement of either construct alone. To measure the effects of

  20. Analysis of the application of the optical method to the measurements of the water vapor content in the atmosphere – Part 1: Basic concepts – the measurements of the water vapor content in the atmosphere with the optical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Galkin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We retrieved the total content of the atmospheric water vapor from extensive sets of photometric data obtained since 1995 at Lindenberg Meteorological Observatory with star and sun photometers. Different methods of determination of the empirical parameters that are necessary for the retrieval are discussed. The instruments were independently calibrated using laboratory measurements made at Pulkovo Observatory with the VKM-100 multi-pass vacuum cell. The empirical parameters were also calculated by the simulation of the atmospheric absorption by water vapor, using the MODRAN-4 program package for different model atmospheres. The results are compared to those presented in the literature, obtained with different instruments and methods of the retrieval. The accuracy of the empirical parameters used for the power approximation that links the water vapor content with the observed absorption is analyzed. Currently, the calibration and measurement errors yield the uncertainty of about 10% in the total column water vapor. We discuss the possibilities for improving the accuracy of calibration to ~1%, which will make it possible to use data obtained by optical photometry as an independent reference for other methods (GPS, lidar, etc.

  1. Measurement of heme efflux and heme content in isolated developing chloroplasts. [Cucumis sativus, cv. Sumter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.; Weinstein, J.D. (Clemson Univ., SC (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Hemes destined for cytosolic hemoproteins must originate in one of the cellular compartments which have the capacity for heme synthesis, namely the chloroplast or the mitochondria. Since developing chloroplasts from greening cucumber (Cucumis sativus, cv. Sumter) cotyledons are known to contain complete heme and chlorophyll biosynthetic pathways, they were tested for their capacity export hemes. Picomole quantities of heme were measured by reconstitution of the heme with apo-peroxidase and subsequent determination of peroxidase activity. The assay method was sensitive (as little as 0.7 picomole of heme could be detected in a volume of 100 microliters) and was linear with heme concentration. When intact plastids were incubated with apo-peroxidase, a steady-state rate of efflux between 0.12 and 0.45 picomole heme/minute/milligram plastid protein was measured. The efflux rate was not due to plastid breakage and could be enhanced by incubating with the heme precursor, {delta}-aminolevulinic acid. Cold acetone extraction removed 47 {plus minus} 17 picomoles heme/milligram plastid protein from the total b-type heme pool in the chloroplasts (166 {plus minus} 9 picomoles heme/milligram protein, by acid-acetone extraction). The reconstitution technique provided a similar estimate of readily exchangeable heme in the plastid, 37 {plus minus} 8 picomoles heme/milligram protein (or 6 micromolar in the plastids). These values may be indicative of a free heme pool which exists in the chloroplast.

  2. Measuring and factors influencing mathematics teachers' technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) in three southernmost provinces, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adulyasas, Lilla

    2017-08-01

    Technology becomes an important role in teaching and learning mathematics nowadays. Integrating technology in the classroom helps students have better understanding in many of mathematics concepts. One of the major framework for assessing the knowledge of integrating technology with the pedagogy and content in the classroom is Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework. This study aimed to measure mathematics teachers' TPACK in three southernmost provinces, Thailand and to study on factors influencing their TPACK. A quantitative study was carried out with 210 secondary level mathematics teachers in the three southernmost provinces, Thailand which were random by two stage sampling technique. Data were collected by using a questionnaire to identify the level of mathematics teachers' TPACK and the factors influencing their TPACK. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation and multiple regression analysis were used for analysing data. Findings reveal that the mean score of mathematics teachers' TPACK is 3.33 which is in the medium level and the three factors which have positive correlation at .05 level of significant with the level of TPACK are teaching experience factor, individual specialization factor and personal & organization factor. However, there are only two factors influencing mathematics teachers' TPACK. The two factors are individual specialization factor and personal & organization factors. These give better understanding on mathematics teachers' knowledge in integrating technology with the pedagogy and content which will be the important information for improving mathematics teachers' TPACK.

  3. Inferring brown carbon content from UV aerosol absorption measurements during biomass burning season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Arola, A. T.; Torres, O.; Jethva, H. T.; Andrade, M.; Labow, G. J.; Eck, T. F.; Li, Z.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stenchikov, G. L.; Osipov, S.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring spectral dependence of light absorption by colored organic or "brown" carbon (BrC) is important, because of its effects on photolysis rates of ozone and surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Enhanced UV spectral absorption by BrC can in turn be exploited for simultaneous retrievals of BrC and black carbon (BC) column amounts in field campaigns. We present an innovative ground-based retrieval of BC and BrC volume fractions and their mass absorption efficiencies during the biomass burning season in Santa Cruz, Bolivia in September-October 2007. Our method combines retrieval of BC volume fraction using AERONET inversion in visible wavelengths with the inversion of total BC+BrC absorption (i.e., column effective imaginary refractive index, kmeas) using Diffuse/Direct irradiance measurements in UV wavelengths. First, we retrieve BrC volume fraction by fitting kmeas at 368nm using Maxwell-Garnett (MG) mixing rules assuming: (1) flat spectral dependence of kBC, (2) known value of kBrC at 368nm from laboratory absorption measurements or smoke chamber experiments, and (3) known BC volume fraction from AERONET inversion. Next, we derive kBrC in short UVB wavelengths by fitting kmeas at 305nm, 311nm, 317nm, 325nm, and 332nm using MG mixing rules and fixed volume fractions of BC and BrC. Our retrievals show larger than expected spectral dependence of kBrC in UVB wavelengths, implying reduced surface UVB irradiance and inhibited photolysis rates of surface ozone destruction. We use a one-dimensional chemical box model to show that the observed strong wavelength dependence of BrC absorption leads to inhibited photolysis of ozone to O(1D), a loss mechanism, while having little impact or even accelerating photolysis of NO2, an ozone production mechanism. Although BC only absorption in biomass burning aerosols is important for climate radiative forcing in the visible wavelengths, additional absorption by BrC is important because of its impact on surface UVB radiation

  4. Service Life Prediction of Wood Claddings by in-situ Measurement of Wood Moisture Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang; Lindegaard, Berit; Morsing, Niels

    2009-01-01

    The Danish Technological Institute is in co-operation with industry partners running a project aiming at predicting the service life of different wood protecting systems. The project focuses on examining the moisture reducing effect of different protecting systems for timber claddings...... and the ability of these to maintain the appearance of the surfaces, when the wood is used in service class 3 (EN 335-1 1992). A façade construction is exposed to weathering at the field test area of the Danish Technological Institute (near Copenhagen). In specific locations of the construction measurements...... of wood moisture are done by in-situ resistance moisture meters (Lindegaard and Morsing 2006). The aim is that the test should form the basis of evaluation of the maintenance requirements and the prediction of service life of the surface treatment and the wood/construction. At the moment 60 test racks...

  5. The microphysical information content of polarimetric radar measurements in the melting layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troemel, Silke; Ryzhkov, Alexander V.; Zhang, Pengfei; Simmer, Clemens

    2014-05-01

    The practical utilization of the backscatter differential phase δ, measured by polarimetric weather radars, is not well explored yet. δ is defined as the difference between the phases of horizontally and vertically polarized components of the wave caused by backscattering from objects within the radar resolution volume. δ bears important information about the dominant size of raindrops and wet snowflakes in the melting layer. The backscatter differential phase, which is immune to attenuation, partial beam blockage, and radar miscalibration, would complement the information routinely available from reflectivity ZH, differential reflectivity ZDR, and cross-correlation coefficient ρhv which are traditionally used for characterizing microphysical properties of the melting layer. Actual measurements of δ have been performed with a number of polarimetric WSR-88D radars operated at S band in US. Similar observations of δ were made in Germany using research X band radars in Bonn (BoXPol) and Jülich (JüXPol). Contrary to our expectations δgbservations at S band showed much higher magnitudes than the δ observations at X band. Maximal observed δ at X band is 8.5° , whereas maximal observed δ at S band is 40° . Model simulations which assume spheroidal shapes for melting snowflakes in the absence of aggregation within the melting layer yield much lower values of δ than observed, especially at S band. According to simulations of δ the simulated values of δ are relatively small and barely exceed 4° at X, C, and S bands. Indeed, the simulations assume that mixed-phase particles do not interact with each other and wet snowflakes do not aggregate. Taking aggregation into account in the model the magnitude of δ can be significantly higher. The huge observed δ magnitudes at S band ranging from 18 to 40° , however, are impressive and unexpected at first. Since all X band observations are from Germany and all S band observations taken into account are from the U

  6. A New TDR-Waveform Approach Capable to Measure Soil Moisture Contents at Large Electrical Conductivity Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristi Matte, F.; Fierro, V.; Suarez, F. I.; Munoz, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Soil moisture is a key parameter in various disciplines, including hydrology, meteorology, agriculture, and mining. Nowadays, there are multiple methods to measure soil moisture. One of the most utilized methods is time domain reflectometry (TDR), which is an indirect method that uses electromagnetic waves to determine the water content of a soil. TDR methods have been widely used because they are non-invasive, easy to use, and have good accuracy in most of the soils. However, a major limitation of current TDR methods lies in the inability to use them in highly conductive saline soils - which are very common in arid and semi-arid regions. TDR methods fail in these soils mainly due to the extremely large signal attenuation along the sensors probes that preclude the detection of the end of the rods, invalidating the use of this methodology. In this work, we propose a new approach to analyze the TDR waveform that enables to use TDR methods at bulk electrical conductivities (BECs) higher than those specified by TDR manufacturers. We assessed the performance of the new approach with a commonly used TDR sensor in sandy soils that had saturated BECs between 1-12 dSm-1. It was found that the traditional methodology it is indeed incapable to estimate soil moisture contents for BECs higher than 4 dSm-1, while the new methodology doubles the actual BEC range with reliable and accurate measures with a maximum error of 6%. These results open a new window of monitoring moisture content in soils where current TDR methods are fairly inaccurate.

  7. Measurement of 210Po atoms content in glass as an indicator of long-term exposure to radon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, J; Olszewski, J; Skubalski, J

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of exposure to radon are performed using numerous research methods which register either temporary or periodic radon concentrations. The method presented below allows for the estimation of average radon concentration in the past. This is possible due to indirect measurement of the contents of 210Pb embedded in glass structure. The half-life of 210Pb is about 22 years. A number of exposures of window glass to radon have been carried out in laboratory conditions (radon chamber) and the obtained results were used to calculate the coefficient that renders it possible to define global indoor exposure to radon. The registration was made using a track detector CR-39, which records alpha particles resulting from the disintegration of 210Po, one of 222Rn decay products.

  8. Information content and sensitivity of the 3β + 2α lidar measurement system for aerosol microphysical retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Sharon P.; Chemyakin, Eduard; Liu, Xu; Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Stamnes, Snorre; Sawamura, Patricia; Moore, Richard H.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Richard A.

    2016-11-01

    There is considerable interest in retrieving profiles of aerosol effective radius, total number concentration, and complex refractive index from lidar measurements of extinction and backscatter at several wavelengths. The combination of three backscatter channels plus two extinction channels (3β + 2α) is particularly important since it is believed to be the minimum configuration necessary for the retrieval of aerosol microphysical properties and because the technological readiness of lidar systems permits this configuration on both an airborne and future spaceborne instrument. The second-generation NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2) has been making 3β + 2α measurements since 2012. The planned NASA Aerosol/Clouds/Ecosystems (ACE) satellite mission also recommends the 3β + 2α combination.Here we develop a deeper understanding of the information content and sensitivities of the 3β + 2α system in terms of aerosol microphysical parameters of interest. We use a retrieval-free methodology to determine the basic sensitivities of the measurements independent of retrieval assumptions and constraints. We calculate information content and uncertainty metrics using tools borrowed from the optimal estimation methodology based on Bayes' theorem, using a simplified forward model look-up table, with no explicit inversion. The forward model is simplified to represent spherical particles, monomodal log-normal size distributions, and wavelength-independent refractive indices. Since we only use the forward model with no retrieval, the given simplified aerosol scenario is applicable as a best case for all existing retrievals in the absence of additional constraints. Retrieval-dependent errors due to mismatch between retrieval assumptions and true atmospheric aerosols are not included in this sensitivity study, and neither are retrieval errors that may be introduced in the inversion process. The choice of a simplified model adds clarity to the

  9. Timer: a new objective measure of consultation content and its application to computer assisted consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, M; Robins, S; Brown, G

    1986-01-01

    As part of the research into the effect in the consultation of the use of a computer to prompt opportunistic preventive care a valid, objective, and practical measure of the consultation process was required. After a review of the alternative methods the Time Interval Medical Event Recorder (Timer) was developed, its reliability tested, and applied to 93 control consultations and 49 computer assisted consultations. Timer records, every five seconds, four consultation events: the problems being dealt with, the physical activity, the verbal activity, and the secondary tasks being attempted. Timer showed that control consultations lasted an average of 6 minutes 58 seconds. The doctors spent 35% of their time on administration, and patients and doctors were both conversational for just 33% of the consultation. Giving information was the most common verbal activity (48% of the duration of the consultation) with silence accounting for 21% of the time. When the computer was used the average consultation was longer, at 7 minutes and 46 seconds. The doctor's contribution to the consultation appeared to have increased. Patient centred speech fell from 36% in controls to 28% of the duration of the consultation when the computer was used, while doctor centred speech rose from 30% to 34.5%. Secondary tasks (exploring patient concepts, education, management sharing, and prevention) were attempted during 28% of the control consultations and 40% of the computer consultations. This was accounted for by the increase in prevention (p less than 0.001). Timer is a reliable and practical tool for researching the consultation, and though it has shown validity in detecting differences between consultations that use a computer and those that do not, further applications are required to establish its full value. PMID:3089391

  10. Study of the muon content of very high-energy EAS measured with the KASCADE-Grande observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Arteaga-Velazquez, J C; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Bluemer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Cantoni, E; Chiavassa, A; Cossavella, F; Curcio, C; Daumiller, K; de Souza, V; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Engler, J; Fuchs, B; Fuhrmann, D; Gils, H J; Glasstetter, R; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hoerandel, J R; Huber, D; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Kang, D; Klages, H O; Link, K; Luczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Melissas, M; Milke, J; Mitrica, B; Morello, C; Oehlschlaeger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Palmieri, N; Petcu, M; Pierog, T; Rebel, H; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Schoo, S; Schroeder, F G; Sima, O; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Weindl, A; Wochele, D; Wochele, J

    2013-01-01

    The KASCADE-Grande detector is an air-shower array devoted to the study of primary cosmic rays with very high-energies (E = 10^{16} - 10^{18} eV). The instrument is composed of different particle detector systems suitable for the detailed study of the properties of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) developed by cosmic rays in the atmosphere. Among the EAS observables studied with the detector, the charged number of particles, the muon content (at different energy thresholds), and the number of electrons are found. By comparing the measurements of these air-shower parameters with the expectations from MC simulations, different hadronic interaction models can be tested at the high-energy regime with the KASCADE-Grande experiment. In this work, the results of a study on the evolution of the muon content of EAS with zenith angle, performed with the KASCADE-Grande instrument, is presented. Measurements are compared with predictions from MC simulations based on the QGSJET II, QGSJET II-04, SIBYLL 2.1 and EPOS 1.99 hadron...

  11. DaGO-Fun: tool for Gene Ontology-based functional analysis using term information content measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazandu, Gaston K; Mulder, Nicola J

    2013-09-25

    The use of Gene Ontology (GO) data in protein analyses have largely contributed to the improved outcomes of these analyses. Several GO semantic similarity measures have been proposed in recent years and provide tools that allow the integration of biological knowledge embedded in the GO structure into different biological analyses. There is a need for a unified tool that provides the scientific community with the opportunity to explore these different GO similarity measure approaches and their biological applications. We have developed DaGO-Fun, an online tool available at http://web.cbio.uct.ac.za/ITGOM, which incorporates many different GO similarity measures for exploring, analyzing and comparing GO terms and proteins within the context of GO. It uses GO data and UniProt proteins with their GO annotations as provided by the Gene Ontology Annotation (GOA) project to precompute GO term information content (IC), enabling rapid response to user queries. The DaGO-Fun online tool presents the advantage of integrating all the relevant IC-based GO similarity measures, including topology- and annotation-based approaches to facilitate effective exploration of these measures, thus enabling users to choose the most relevant approach for their application. Furthermore, this tool includes several biological applications related to GO semantic similarity scores, including the retrieval of genes based on their GO annotations, the clustering of functionally related genes within a set, and term enrichment analysis.

  12. Measurements of the Ice Water Content of Cirrus in the Tropics and Subtropics. I; Instrument Details and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, E. M.; Smith, J. B.; Sayres, D.; Pittman, J. V.; Allen, N.; Demusz, J.; Greenberg, M.; Rivero, M.; Anderson, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe an instrument mounted in a pallet on the NASA WB-57 aircraft that is designed to measure the sum of gas phase and solid phase water, or total water, in cirrus clouds. Using an isokinetic inlet, a 600-watt heater mounted directly in the flow, and Lyman-alpha photofragment fluorescence technique for detection, accurate measurements of total water have been made over almost three orders of magnitude. Isokinetic flow is achieved with an actively controlled roots pump by referencing aircraft pressure, temperature, and true air speed, together with instrument flow velocity, temperature, and pressure. During CRYSTAL FACE, the instrument operated at duct temperatures sufficiently warm to completely evaporate particles up to 150 microns diameter. In flight diagnostics, intercomparison with water measured by absorption in flight, as well as intercomparisons in clear air with water vapor measured by the Harvard water vapor instrument and the JPL infrared tunable diode laser hygrometer validate the detection sensitivity of the instrument and illustrate minimal hysteresis from instrument surfaces. The simultaneous measurement of total water and water vapor in cirrus clouds yields their ice water content.

  13. Phosphodiester content measured in human liver by in vivo (31) P MR spectroscopy at 7 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Lucian A B; Clarke, William T; Valkovič, Ladislav; Levick, Christina; Pavlides, Michael; Barnes, Eleanor; Cobbold, Jeremy F; Robson, Matthew D; Rodgers, Christopher T

    2017-02-28

    Phosphorus ((31) P) metabolites are emerging liver disease biomarkers. Of particular interest are phosphomonoester and phosphodiester (PDE) "peaks" that comprise multiple overlapping resonances in (31) P spectra. This study investigates the effect of improved spectral resolution at 7 Tesla (T) on quantifying hepatic metabolites in cirrhosis. Five volunteers were scanned to determine metabolite T1 s. Ten volunteers and 11 patients with liver cirrhosis were scanned at 7T. Liver spectra were acquired in 28 min using a 16-channel (31) P array and 3D chemical shift imaging. Concentrations were calculated using γ-adenosine-triphosphate (γ-ATP) = 2.65 mmol/L wet tissue. T1 means ± standard deviations: phosphatidylcholine 1.05 ± 0.28 s, nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide (NAD(+) ) 2.0 ± 1.0 s, uridine-diphosphoglucose (UDPG) 3.3 ± 1.4 s. Concentrations in healthy volunteers: α-ATP 2.74 ± 0.11 mmol/L wet tissue, inorganic phosphate 2.23 ± 0.20 mmol/L wet tissue, glycerophosphocholine 2.34 ± 0.46 mmol/L wet tissue, glycerophosphoethanolamine 1.50 ± 0.28 mmol/L wet tissue, phosphocholine 1.06 ± 0.16 mmol/L wet tissue, phosphoethanolamine 0.77 ± 0.14 mmol/L wet tissue, NAD(+) 2.37 ± 0.14 mmol/L wet tissue, UDPG 2.00 ± 0.22 mmol/L wet tissue, phosphatidylcholine 1.38 ± 0.31 mmol/L wet tissue. Inorganic phosphate and phosphatidylcholine concentrations were significantly lower in patients; glycerophosphoethanolamine concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.05). We report human in vivo hepatic T1 s for phosphatidylcholine, NAD(+) , and UDPG for the first time at 7T. Our protocol allows high signal-to-noise, repeatable measurement of metabolite concentrations in human liver. The splitting of PDE into its constituent peaks at 7T may allow more insight into changes in metabolism. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of

  14. The thyroid content measured with B ultrasound in adults%成人甲状腺容积的B超检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秋实; 石惠杰; 何桦松; 高本; 杨艳敏

    2001-01-01

    Objective To measure the content of thyroid gland in adults.Methods During 1997-2000 504 adult cases in normal situ ation of health had been detected of their thyroid gland content,at the same time two parts of thyroid gland in left and right are detected separately;the data are treated with the soft files of SPSS.Results The contents of thyroid gland in adults are:the mean is 12.97 ml,the median is 12.06 ml,the mode is 11.05 ml and the distri buti on of the detected data is a light positive skewness mode;and among which the mean content of left lobe is 6.47 ml and the right is 6.49 ml,so the thyroid gland of adults just is a symmetric body;and at the same time 19 cases of thyroid gland disease are found out,the prevalene rate is 3.77%.Conclusions In this paper the thyroid gland content of adults was estimated on and the prevalence rate of thyroid gland disease was also estimated on;the authors think that these materials may be useful for any doctor working at the public health departments.%目的 了解成人甲状腺容积。方法 采用SAL-32B型B超机测定504名正常成 人的甲状腺容积,分别按左叶、右叶和峡部计算,相加得总容积。用SPSS软件处理数据 。结果 B超所检测的成人甲状腺容积均数为(12.97±0.22 )ml,中位数为12.06 ml,众数为11.05 ml,略呈正偏态分布;其中左叶均数为6.47 m l,右叶为6.49 ml,相互对称。同时检出甲状腺病19例,检出率为3.77%。结论 用B超可观察正常成人的甲状腺容积,同时也能检测出甲状腺疾病,可供门诊医生参考,也有益于预防。

  15. Retrieval of ice crystals' mass from ice water content and particle distribution measurements: a numerical optimization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutris, Pierre; Leroy, Delphine; Fontaine, Emmanuel; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Strapp, J. Walter

    2016-04-01

    A new method to retrieve cloud water content from in-situ measured 2D particle images from optical array probes (OAP) is presented. With the overall objective to build a statistical model of crystals' mass as a function of their size, environmental temperature and crystal microphysical history, this study presents the methodology to retrieve the mass of crystals sorted by size from 2D images using a numerical optimization approach. The methodology is validated using two datasets of in-situ measurements gathered during two airborne field campaigns held in Darwin, Australia (2014), and Cayenne, France (2015), in the frame of the High Altitude Ice Crystals (HAIC) / High Ice Water Content (HIWC) projects. During these campaigns, a Falcon F-20 research aircraft equipped with state-of-the art microphysical instrumentation sampled numerous mesoscale convective systems (MCS) in order to study dynamical and microphysical properties and processes of high ice water content areas. Experimentally, an isokinetic evaporator probe, referred to as IKP-2, provides a reference measurement of the total water content (TWC) which equals ice water content, (IWC) when (supercooled) liquid water is absent. Two optical array probes, namely 2D-S and PIP, produce 2D images of individual crystals ranging from 50 μm to 12840 μm from which particle size distributions (PSD) are derived. Mathematically, the problem is formulated as an inverse problem in which the crystals' mass is assumed constant over a size class and is computed for each size class from IWC and PSD data: PSD.m = IW C This problem is solved using numerical optimization technique in which an objective function is minimized. The objective function is defined as follows: 2 J(m)=∥P SD.m - IW C ∥ + λ.R (m) where the regularization parameter λ and the regularization function R(m) are tuned based on data characteristics. The method is implemented in two steps. First, the method is developed on synthetic crystal populations in

  16. Analysis of the application of the optical method to the measurements of the water vapor content in the atmosphere – Part 1: Basic concepts of the measurement technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Galkin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We retrieved the total content of the atmospheric water vapor (or Integrated Water Vapor, IWV from extensive sets of photometric data obtained since 1995 at Lindenberg Meteorological Observatory with star and sun photometers. Different methods of determination of the empirical parameters that are necessary for the retrieval are discussed. The instruments were independently calibrated using laboratory measurements made at Pulkovo Observatory with the VKM-100 multi-pass vacuum cell. The empirical parameters were also calculated by the simulation of the atmospheric absorption by water vapor, using the MODRAN-4 program package for different model atmospheres. The results are compared to those presented in the literature, obtained with different instruments and methods of the retrieval. The reliability of the empirical parameters, used for the power approximation that links the water vapor content with the observed absorption, is analyzed. Currently, the total (from measurements, calibration, and calculations errors yield the standard uncertainty of about 10 % in the total column water vapor. We discuss the possibilities for improving the accuracy of calibration to ~1 % as indispensable condition in order to make it possible to use data obtained by optical photometry as an independent reference for other methods (GPS, MW-radiometers, lidar, etc.

  17. A Novel Low-Cost Instrumentation System for Measuring the Water Content and Apparent Electrical Conductivity of Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rêgo Segundo, Alan Kardek; Martins, José Helvecio; Monteiro, Paulo Marcos de Barros; de Oliveira, Rubens Alves; Freitas, Gustavo Medeiros

    2015-10-05

    The scarcity of drinking water affects various regions of the planet. Although climate change is responsible for the water availability, humanity plays an important role in preserving this precious natural resource. In case of negligence, the likely trend is to increase the demand and the depletion of water resources due to the increasing world population. This paper addresses the development, design and construction of a low cost system for measuring soil volumetric water content (θ), electrical conductivity (σ) and temperature (T), in order to optimize the use of water, energy and fertilizer in food production. Different from the existing measurement instruments commonly deployed in these applications, the proposed system uses an auto-balancing bridge circuit as measurement method. The proposed models to estimate θ and σ and correct them in function of T are compared to the ones reported in literature. The final prototype corresponds to a simple circuit connected to a pair of electrode probes, and presents high accuracy, high signal to noise ratio, fast response, and immunity to stray capacitance. The instrument calibration is based on salt solutions with known dielectric constant and electrical conductivity as reference. Experiments measuring clay and sandy soils demonstrate the satisfactory performance of the instrument.

  18. Retrieval of Vertical Profiles of Liquid Water and Ice Content in Mixed Clouds from Doppler Radar and Microwave Radiometer Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageot, Henri

    1996-01-01

    A new method to retrieve vertical profiles of liquid water content Mw(z), ice water content Mi(z), and ice particle size distribution Ni(D, z), (where D is the ice particle size and z the vertical coordinate) in mixed nonprecipitating clouds using the observations of a zenith-viewing Doppler radar and of a microwave radiometer is proposed. In this method, the profile of the vertical air velocity deduced from Doppler radar measurements is used to describe the rate of production by the updrafts of water. vapor in excess of saturation with respect to ice. Using a Zi Mi power-law relation with an unknown linear parameter (let i, be this parameter) and initially assuming that Zw is negligible with respect to Zi, (where Zw and Zi are the radar reflectivity factors of liquid water and ice particles respectively), the measured radar reflectivity factor profile Zm ( Zi) is inverted to estimate Ni(D, z). From Ni(D, z), the profile of the rate of water vapor that can be consumed by pure deposition on ice particles is calculated. The difference between the rate of production of the exam water vapor and the rate of deposited water vapor is an expression of the rate of liquid water generation at each level. By writing that the integral of the liquid water along the profile has to be equal to the total liquid water deduced from the microwave radiometer measurement, an estimation of the i parameter is obtained. From i, an estimation of the profiles Mw(z), Mi(z), Zw(z), Zi(z) (=Zm Zw), and Ni(D, z) is calculated. If Zw is effectively negligible with respect to Zi, the computation of the retrieved profiles is ended. If not, Zi(z) is corrected and a new estimation of the profiles is computed. The results of the numerical simulation of the algorithm are presented.

  19. Correlation of lycopene measured by HPLC with the L, a, b color readings of a hydroponic tomato and the relationship of maturity with color and lycopene content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, R.; Lee, T. C.; Logendra, L.; Janes, H.

    2000-01-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Laura) were separated, according to the ripening stage, by a sensory panel into seven groups, and color was measured on the tomato surface with a Minolta Chroma meter. The L, a, b, hue, chroma, and lycopene content were plotted against the maturity stages of the tomatoes, and several good correlations were found. The a/b ratio and the lycopene content were the parameters that allowed six of seven maturity groups in the tomato to be statistically distinguished. The lycopene content, measured by HPLC, was also correlated with the color measurements, and the a, a/b, and (a/b)(2) color factors produced the best regressions. An estimation of the lycopene content in tomatoes can be achieved by using a portable chroma meter, with a possible field usage application. Equations to calculate the lycopene content of tomatoes based on the color readings are reported.

  20. Correlation of lycopene measured by HPLC with the L, a, b color readings of a hydroponic tomato and the relationship of maturity with color and lycopene content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, R.; Lee, T. C.; Logendra, L.; Janes, H.

    2000-01-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Laura) were separated, according to the ripening stage, by a sensory panel into seven groups, and color was measured on the tomato surface with a Minolta Chroma meter. The L, a, b, hue, chroma, and lycopene content were plotted against the maturity stages of the tomatoes, and several good correlations were found. The a/b ratio and the lycopene content were the parameters that allowed six of seven maturity groups in the tomato to be statistically distinguished. The lycopene content, measured by HPLC, was also correlated with the color measurements, and the a, a/b, and (a/b)(2) color factors produced the best regressions. An estimation of the lycopene content in tomatoes can be achieved by using a portable chroma meter, with a possible field usage application. Equations to calculate the lycopene content of tomatoes based on the color readings are reported.

  1. Physics background in luminosity measurement at ILC and measurement of the proton b-content at H1 using multivariate method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandurovic, Mila

    2011-12-15

    ILC physics program sets the minimal precision of the luminosity measurement to be of order of 10{sup -3}. This may be accomplished by construction of fine granulated electromagnetic calorimeter, which will measure the rate of Bhabha scattering process at small angles at one hand and by the experimental control of various systematic effects at the other. The first part of this thesis is dedicated to the study of four-fermion processes e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}e{sup +}e{sup -}f anti f, as a physics background in the luminosity measurement. This SM process comes as one of the major systematic effects in luminosity measurement at ILC due to the high cross-section and the fact that electron spectators emitted at low polar angles can be misidentified as a signal. It has been demonstrated that the event selection can be performed in a way that the overall relative systematic uncertainty does not exceed 2.3 10{sup -3}. Selection efficiency of the Bhabha signal is maintained to limit the statistical uncertainty of the measurement at 1.2 10{sup -4}. In addition, background suppression potential is discussed for various selection setups. The second part of the thesis is dedicated to the physics of heavy quarks at the H1 experiment at the accelerator HERA at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. The HERA experiments H1 and ZEUS gave an important experimental insight of the proton structure in the wide phase space of photon virtuality and Bjorken scaling variable. In this thesis the b-content of the proton is measured that can be further used for F{sub 2}{sup b} and the corresponding cross-section measurements. With the sample of 54.4 pb{sup -1} of HERA II data the proton b-content is measured, using the e{sup -}p neutral current events of deep inelastic scattering in the kinematic region of Q{sup 2}>6 GeV{sup 2} and the Bjorken scaling variable 0.0002

  2. Relationship between liver PCB content and biochemical and morphometric measures in bream (Abramis brama) from Rybinsk Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillitt, D.E.; Zajicek, J.L. [NBS, Columbia, MO (United States); Chuiko, G.M.; Flerov, B.A.; Stepanova, V.M.; Zhelnin, Y.Y.; Pod`gornaya, V.A. [IBIW, Borok (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    PCBs are widely distributed in aquatic environments throughout the world, due to local contamination and global transport. However, little is known of the local distribution of PCBs in Rybinsk Reservoir, Russia. The Rybinsk Reservoir, constructed in the 1940`s, is the largest artificial waterbody in Europe (4,550 km{sup 2}) and provides drinking water for cities in the surrounding area. Industrialization in Cherepovetz, a city at the northeastern portion of the reservoir including the largest metallurgical facility in Europe, has resulted in chemical contamination of the reservoir. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of PCB contamination in Bream taken from six locations in the reservoir and to compare the chemical analyses with biochemical and morphometric indicators of fish health. Concentrations of PCBs ranged from non-detected to 3.4 ug/g of liver, with the greatest concentrations found in fish taken near the industrialized area. The pattern of the PCB congeners in the livers of Bream taken near Cherepovetz closely resembled that of the standard Aroclor 1254. PCB content was negatively correlated with protein content and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in Bream liver. Other morphometric factors and biochemical measures varied among locations, but were unrelated to concentrations of PCBs in the livers of Bream.

  3. Effect of purificatory measures through cow's urine and milk on strychnine and brucine content of Kupeelu (Strychnos nuxvomica Linn.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V J; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2012-01-01

    Strychnos nux vomica Linn.(Loganaceae) commonly known as Nux vomica (Kupeelu), is a poisonous plant and its seeds are used widely in Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial. Ayurveda advocates that nux vomica seeds are to be administered in therapeutics only after going through certain purificatory measures (Shodhana). There are more than six media: cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel), castor oil (Eranda taila) and fresh ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa) etc., which have been reported in different classical texts of Ayurveda for proper processing of nux vomica seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by using three different methods as described in ancient treatise by using cow's urine and cow's milk as media alone and together. This study revealed that all the methods studied reduced the toxicity of strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by HPTLC. Out of these three methods maximum reduction in strychnine and brucine contents was found when the seeds were purified by keeping them in cow's urine for seven days followed by boiling in cow's milk for three hrs.

  4. Developing a patient-centered outcome measure for complementary and alternative medicine therapies I: defining content and format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritenbaugh Cheryl

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients receiving complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies often report shifts in well-being that go beyond resolution of the original presenting symptoms. We undertook a research program to develop and evaluate a patient-centered outcome measure to assess the multidimensional impacts of CAM therapies, utilizing a novel mixed methods approach that relied upon techniques from the fields of anthropology and psychometrics. This tool would have broad applicability, both for CAM practitioners to measure shifts in patients' states following treatments, and conventional clinical trial researchers needing validated outcome measures. The US Food and Drug Administration has highlighted the importance of valid and reliable measurement of patient-reported outcomes in the evaluation of conventional medical products. Here we describe Phase I of our research program, the iterative process of content identification, item development and refinement, and response format selection. Cognitive interviews and psychometric evaluation are reported separately. Methods From a database of patient interviews (n = 177 from six diverse CAM studies, 150 interviews were identified for secondary analysis in which individuals spontaneously discussed unexpected changes associated with CAM. Using ATLAS.ti, we identified common themes and language to inform questionnaire item content and wording. Respondents' language was often richly textured, but item development required a stripping down of language to extract essential meaning and minimize potential comprehension barriers across populations. Through an evocative card sort interview process, we identified those items most widely applicable and covering standard psychometric domains. We developed, pilot-tested, and refined the format, yielding a questionnaire for cognitive interviews and psychometric evaluation. Results The resulting questionnaire contained 18 items, in visual analog scale format

  5. Developing a patient-centered outcome measure for complementary and alternative medicine therapies I: defining content and format

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients receiving complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies often report shifts in well-being that go beyond resolution of the original presenting symptoms. We undertook a research program to develop and evaluate a patient-centered outcome measure to assess the multidimensional impacts of CAM therapies, utilizing a novel mixed methods approach that relied upon techniques from the fields of anthropology and psychometrics. This tool would have broad applicability, both for CAM practitioners to measure shifts in patients' states following treatments, and conventional clinical trial researchers needing validated outcome measures. The US Food and Drug Administration has highlighted the importance of valid and reliable measurement of patient-reported outcomes in the evaluation of conventional medical products. Here we describe Phase I of our research program, the iterative process of content identification, item development and refinement, and response format selection. Cognitive interviews and psychometric evaluation are reported separately. Methods From a database of patient interviews (n = 177) from six diverse CAM studies, 150 interviews were identified for secondary analysis in which individuals spontaneously discussed unexpected changes associated with CAM. Using ATLAS.ti, we identified common themes and language to inform questionnaire item content and wording. Respondents' language was often richly textured, but item development required a stripping down of language to extract essential meaning and minimize potential comprehension barriers across populations. Through an evocative card sort interview process, we identified those items most widely applicable and covering standard psychometric domains. We developed, pilot-tested, and refined the format, yielding a questionnaire for cognitive interviews and psychometric evaluation. Results The resulting questionnaire contained 18 items, in visual analog scale format, in which each line was

  6. Measurement of contemporary and fossil carbon contents of PM2.5 aerosols: results from Turtleback Dome, Yosemite National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench, Graham

    2004-04-15

    The impact of aerosol particulate matter of mean mass aerodynamic diameter carbon materials, and the known 14C/C levels in contemporary carbon materials allow the use of a two-component model to derive contemporary and fossil carbon contents of the particulate matter. Such data can be used to estimate the relative contributions of fossil fuels and biogenic aerosols to the total aerosol loading. Here, the methodology for performing such an assessment using total suspended particulate hi-vol aerosol samplers to collect PM2.5 aerosols on quartz fiber filters and the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry to measure 14C/C ratios is presented and illustrated using PM2.5 aerosols collected at Yosemite National Park.

  7. Liquid water content measurements using the Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoff, R. C.; Bachalo, E. J.; Bachalo, W. D.; Oldenburg, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) based icing probe suitable for use in icing tunnels and airborne applications is assessed. The instrument is shown to accurately and repeatably measure liquid water content (LWC) to within better than 20 percent of the nominal expected value in the NASA Lewis IRT. This was seen to be true over a wide range of tunnel operating conditions. The principles used by the PDPA for MVD and LWC determination are discussed. Calibration curves for the IRT median volume diameter are also determined and compared to the existing calibration determined via the PMS instruments. As has been shown in previous work, the PDPA is quite repeatable. The results are typically 3 to 5 microns smaller than the existing calibrations for a given run condition. Reasons for these differences are also discussed.

  8. Applications of the direct photon absorption technique for measuring bone mineral content in vivo. Determination of body composition in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The bone mineral content, BMC, determined by monoenergetic photon absorption technique, of 29 different locations on the long bones and vertebral columns of 24 skeletons was measured. Compressive tests were made on bone from these locations in which the maximum load and maximum stress were measured. Also the ultimate strain, modulus of elasticity and energy absorbed to failure were determined for compact bone from the femoral diaphysis and cancellous bone from the eighth through eleventh thoracic vertebrae. Correlations and predictive relationships between these parameters were examined to investigate the applicability of using the BMC at sites normally measured in vivo, i.e. radius and ulna in estimating the BMC and/or strength of the spine or femoral neck. It was found that the BMC at sites on the same bone were highly correlated r = 0.95 or better; the BMC at sites on different bones were also highly interrelated, r = 0.85. The BMC at various sites on the long bones could be estimated to between 10 and 15 per cent from the BMC of sites on the radius or ulna.

  9. Three methods to retrieve slant total electron content measurements from ground-based GPS receivers and performance assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baocheng

    2016-07-01

    The high sampling rate along with the global coverage of ground-based receivers makes Global Positioning System (GPS) data particularly ideal for sensing the Earth's ionosphere. Retrieval of slant total electron content measurements (TECMs) constitutes a key first step toward extracting various ionospheric parameters from GPS data. Within the ionospheric community, the interpretation of TECM is widely recognized as the slant total electron content along the satellite receiver line of sight, biased by satellite and receiver differential code biases (DCBs). The Carrier-to-Code Leveling (CCL) has long been used as a geometry-free method for retrieving TECM, mainly because of its simplicity and effectiveness. In fact, however, the CCL has proven inaccurate as it may give rise to TECM very susceptible to so-called leveling errors. With the goal of attaining more accurate TECM retrieval, we report in this contribution two other methods than the CCL, namely, the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and the Array-aided PPP (A-PPP). The PPP further exploits the International GPS Service (IGS) orbit and clock products and turns out to be a geometry-based method. The A-PPP is designed to retrieve TECM from an array of colocated receivers, taking advantage of the broadcast orbit and clock products. Moreover, A-PPP also takes into account the fact that the ionospheric effects measured from one satellite to all colocated receivers ought to be the same, thus leading to the estimability of interreceiver DCB. We perform a comparative study of the formal precision and the empirical accuracy of the TECM that are retrieved, respectively, by three methods from the same set of GPS data. Results of such a study can be used to assess the actual performance of the three methods. In addition, we check the temporal stability in A-PPP-derived interreceiver DCB estimates over time periods ranging from 1 to 3 days.

  10. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF DIRECT MEASUREMENT TO DETERMINE THYROID 131I CONTENT OF TWO TEPCO WORKERS CONSIDERING INDIVIDUAL TISSUE THICKNESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, the National Institute of Radiological Sciences examined seven heavily exposed emergency workers and performed internal dose estimations. The largest dose contributor was found to be (131)I, which was detected by thyroid monitor with an HPGe detector. Different energy peaks from (131)I were simultaneously identified in the pulse-height spectra of the two subjects with the highest doses regardless of late measurements. A closer look at the spectra indicated that the count ratio of the two peak areas at 80.2 and 365 keV differed somewhat between the individual workers, suggesting a difference in attenuation in the overlaying soft tissue and in the thyroid itself. In this study, the relationship between the count ratio (80.2/365 keV) and the thickness of soft tissue overlying the thyroid was investigated by means of numerical simulations performed using the Japanese Male (JM) phantom varying the thickness of the overlaying tissue. From the measured count ratios, it was possible to estimate that the overlaying tissue was thinner for Worker 1 (difference from the JM phantom: -0.34±1.29 cm) and thicker for Worker 2 (diff.: 2.5±1.2 cm). The thyroid (131)I contents evaluated taking into account the individual thicknesses were 4.3 kBq for Worker 1 and 8.4 kBq for Worker 2, resulting in a significant increase for Worker 2 compared with the content based on the default counting efficiency at 365 keV of the original JM phantom. However, the results have large uncertainty factors of 1.4 for Worker 1 and 1.3 for Worker 2 and should be carefully considered together with other factors influencing the attenuation.

  11. 西瓜番茄红素测定方法的研究%Measurement of Lycopene Contents in Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁平丽; 路绪强; 刘文革; 赵胜杰; 芦金生; 阎志红; 何楠; 关立颖; 朱红菊

    2012-01-01

    西瓜果实中番茄红素含量很高,对人体保健和疾病的预防有着重要的意义.以同基因型不同倍性的西瓜果实为材料,分别用HPLC(高效液相色谱法)和分光光度法测定其中番茄红素的含量并进行比较,确定简便准确测定西瓜番茄红素的方法.结果认为:HPLC法用甲醇-乙腈-二氯甲烷(20∶75∶5)为流动相,502 nm为检测波长能较好的对西瓜样品中番茄红素做定性定量分析;分光光度法测得的番茄红素含量平均是HPLC法的1.45倍,2种方法结果基本一致,均可对不同品种间番茄红素含量高低进行比较;另外试验结果显示多倍体西瓜番茄红素的含量要高于二倍体.%Watermelon(Citrullus lanatus )is one of the few species that accumulate a large amount of lycopene in fruits with health-benefits to human. The contents of lycopene in different ploidy watermelon fruits were determined by HPLC and UV-visible spectrophotometric methods to develop an accurate and convenient method for watermelon lycopene content measurement. The HPLC method was simple and accurate with the mobile phase methanol: acetonitrile:dichloromethane at ratio of 20 : 75 : 5 and detected at 502 nm. The amount of lycopene measured by U. V. visible spectrophotomelric method was 1.45 times of that by HPLC. Both methods can be used to compare lycopene content in different watermelon cultivars. In addition, our results indicated that polyploidy watermelons have much more lycopene than diploid one.

  12. Evaluation of transmission and reflection modalities for measuring content uniformity of pharmaceutical tablets with near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dong; LoBrutto, Rosario; Cheney, James; Wabuyele, Busolo Wa; Berry, Joseph; Lyon, Robbe; Wu, Huiquan; Khan, Mansoor A; Hussain, Ajaz S

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how one may assess spectral changes with instrument configuration (or composition), in combination with the spectral changes in the measurement that are caused by experimental effects, and subsequently select an appropriate measurement modality for tablet content uniformity determination with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Two NIR spectrometers furnished with three configurations in the sample measurement interface were evaluated. One spectrometer, Bruker MPA (multiple purpose analyzer), was equipped with two measurement modalities, diffuse transmission (DT) and diffuse reflection based on integrating sphere optics (DR/IS). The other spectrometer, Bruker StepOne, was equipped only with diffuse reflection mode based on a fiber-optic probe (DR/FO). The data were collected with each of the configurations for the tablets associated with two dosage strengths differing significantly in diameter and thickness. Spectral diagnosis was performed in terms of sensitivity and selectivity. The signal-to-noise ratio computed for the data collected with the DT and DR/IS spectrometers was approximately an order of magnitude greater than that computed for the DR/FO spectrometer. The net-analyte-signal-based selectivity analysis of NIR spectra associated with the sample tablet and the placebo tablet indicated that both transmission and reflection mode provided similar selectivity when the optimal spectral range was chosen. A partial least squares (PLS) calibration model was developed for each data set. The overall standard error of calibration for each DT and DR/IS measurement was approximately 0.3% in weight for each strength, significantly better than the value of 1.0% in weight produced by the DR/FO measurement. This result was consistent with the sensitivity analysis based on spectral noise characterization. The poor analytical performance of the DR/FO spectrometer was attributed to the small illumination spot size of the reflection probe and thus the

  13. Measurement of contemporary and fossil carbon contents of PM 2.5 aerosols: results from Turtleback Dome, Yosemite National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bench, G

    2003-10-17

    The impact of aerosol particulate matter of mean mass aerodynamic diameter {le} 2.5 {proportional_to}m (PM 2.5 aerosols), on health, visibility, and compliance with EPA's regional haze regulations is a growing concern. Techniques that can help better characterize particulate matter are required to better understand the constituents, causes and sources of PM 2.5 aerosols. Measurement of the {sup 14}C/C ratio of the PM 2.5 aerosols, the absence of {sup 14}C in fossil carbon materials and the known {sup 14}C/C levels in contemporary carbon materials allows use of a two-component model to derive contemporary and fossil carbon contents of the particulate matter. Such data can be used to estimate the relative contributions of fossil fuels and biogenic aerosols to the total aerosol loading. Here, the methodology for performing such an assessment using total suspended particulate Hi-vol aerosol samplers to collect PM 2.5 aerosols on quartz fiber filters and the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry to measure {sup 14}C/C ratios is presented and illustrated using PM 2.5 aerosols collected at Yosemite National Park.

  14. Modeling research on wheat protein content measurement using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy and optimized radial basis function neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Mao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy and radial basis function (RBF neural network algorithm were used to measure the protein content of wheat owing to their nondestructiveness and quick speed as well as better performance compared to the traditional measuring method (semimicro-Kjeldahl in actual practice. To simplify the complex structure of the RBF network caused by the excessive wave points of samples obtained by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, we proposed the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to optimize the cluster center in the hidden layers of the RBF neural network. In addition, a series of improvements for the PSO algorithm was also made to deal with its drawbacks in premature convergence and mechanical inertia weight setting. The experimental analysis demonstrated that the improved PSO algorithm greatly reduced the complexity of the network structure and improved the training speed of the RBF network. Meanwhile, the research result also proved the high performance of the model with its root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP and prediction correlation coefficient (R at 0.26576 and 0.975, respectively, thereby fulfilling the modern agricultural testing requirements featuring nondestructiveness, real-timing, and abundance in the number of samples.

  15. Quantifying K, U and Th contents of marine sediments using shipboard natural gamma radiation spectra measured on DV JOIDES Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschouwer, David; Dunlea, Ann G.; Auer, Gerald; Anderson, Chloe H.; Brumsack, Hans; de Loach, Aaron; Gurnis, Michael C.; Huh, Youngsook; Ishiwa, Takeshige; Jang, Kwangchul; Kominz, Michelle A.; März, Christian; Schnetger, Bernhard; Murray, Richard W.; Pälike, Heiko; Expedition 356 shipboard scientists, IODP

    2017-04-01

    During International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) expeditions, shipboard-generated data provide the first insights into the cored sequences. The natural gamma radiation (NGR) of the recovered material, for example, is routinely measured on the ocean drilling research vessel DV JOIDES Resolution. At present, only total NGR counts are readily available as shipboard data, although full NGR spectra (counts as a function of gamma-ray energy level) are produced and archived. These spectra contain unexploited information, as one can estimate the sedimentary contents of potassium (K), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) from the characteristic gamma-ray energies of isotopes in the 40K, 232Th, and 238U radioactive decay series. Dunlea et al. [2013] quantified K, Th and U contents in sediment from the South Pacific Gyre by integrating counts over specific energy levels of the NGR spectrum. However, the algorithm used in their study is unavailable to the wider scientific community due to commercial proprietary reasons. Here, we present a new MATLAB algorithm for the quantification of NGR spectra that is transparent and accessible to future NGR users. We demonstrate the algorithm's performance by comparing its results to shore-based inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-emission spectrometry (ICP-ES), and quantitative wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses. Samples for these comparisons come from eleven sites (U1341, U1343, U1366-U1369, U1414, U1428-U1430, U1463) cored in two oceans during five expeditions. In short, our algorithm rapidly produces detailed high-quality information on sediment properties during IODP expeditions at no extra cost. Dunlea, A. G., R. W. Murray, R. N. Harris, M. A. Vasiliev, H. Evans, A. J. Spivack, and S. D'Hondt (2013), Assessment and use of NGR instrumentation on the JOIDES Resolution to quantify U, Th, and K concentrations in marine sediment, Scientific Drilling, 15, 57-63.

  16. Measurements of Water and B4C Content of Rackable Can Storage Boxes for HEU Storage at the HEUMF at the Y-12 National Security Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, JS

    2003-03-24

    Extensive measurements at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with BoroBond{trademark} blocks of varying thickness, natural boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) content, and water content, and with a simplified mockup of the Rackable Can Storage Box (RCSB) of fixed natural B{sub 4}C and water content, have led to a method of quantifying the water content of RCSBs by fast neutron time-of-flight transmission measurements (NMIS)* and quantifying the B{sub 4}C content with gamma ray spectrometry assuming the water content is known. The time-of-flight transmission measurements results can also be used to assess the uniformity of the BoroBond{trademark} in the RCSB. The data from both measurements will be stored for future comparisons to initial measurements. These methods can also be implemented at the RCSB production site, or subsequently at the Y-12 National Security Complex during the operating lifetime of the RCSBs at the Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility.

  17. [Application of infrared spectroscopy technique to protein content fast measurement in milk powder based on support vector machines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Cao, Fang; Feng, Shui-Juan; He, Yong

    2008-05-01

    In the present study, the JASCO Model FTIR-4 000 fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Japan) was used, with a valid range of 7 800-350 cm(-1). Seven brands of milk powder were bought in a local supermarket. Milk powder was compressed into a uniform tablet with a diameter of 5 mm and a thickness of 2 mm, and then scanned by the spectrometer. Each sample was scanned 40 times and the data were averaged. About 60 samples were measured for each brand, and data for 409 samples were obtained. NIRS analysis was based on the range of 4 000 to 6 666 cm(-1), while MIRS analysis was between 400 and 4 000 cm(-1). The protein content was determined by kjeldahl method and the factor 6.38 was used to convert the nitrogen values to protein. The protein content value is the weight of protein per 100 g of milk powder. The NIR data of the milk powder exhibited slight differences. Univariate analysis was not really appropriate for analyzing the data sets. From NIRS region, it could be observed that the trend of different curves is similar. The one around 4 312 cm(-1) embodies the vibration of protein. From MIRS region, it could be determined that there are many differences between transmission value curves. Two troughs around 1 545 and 1 656 cm(-1) stand for the vibration of amide I and II bands of protein. The smoothing way of Savitzky-Golay with 3 segments and zero polynomials and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) were applied for denoising. First 8 important principle components (PCs), which were obtained from principle component analysis (PCA), were the optimal input feature subset. Least-squares support vector machines was applied to build the protein prediction model based on infrared spectral transmission value. The prediction result was better than that of traditional PLS regression model as the determination coefficient for prediction (R(p)2) is 0.951 7 and root mean square error for prediction (RMSEP) is 0.520 201. These indicate that LS-SVM is a powerful tool for

  18. Comparison of thermochemically calculated and measured dioxin contents in the off-gas of a sinter plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, P.; Eriksson, G.; Neuschuelz, D. [Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Huettenkunde, Aachen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    appears to be reasonable. The latter assumption has consequently been extended to the formation of dioxins from the off-gas. Making use of the calculated data for 700 deg C, it was found that for dioxins to form in the amounts observed in practice, three further assumptions must be made: The formation of solid carbon must be suppressed, the oxygen partial pressure must be set to very low values and the C/H ratio must be >2, which implies that a large part of the hydrogen present does not take part in the reaction. With these assumptions, the calculated dioxin concentrations are of the same order of magnitude as the measured values. Furthermore, the different dioxins appear with closely similar partial pressures. This is also in accordance with observation. The calculated TE concentrations increase along the length of the sinter strand in a similar manner to the observed values. Beyond Stage 10, the simulation reads to a further strong increase which is not found in reality. In the calculation, the oxygen and chlorine concentrations as well as the C/H ratio are kept constant along the length of the strand. What varies is the carbon content as given in the sum of CO{sub 2} + CO. It thus appears that the Cl/C ratio, which increases with strand length, strongly enhances the formation of dioxins. General conclusions which may be drawn from the present calculations with regard to restricting possible formation of dioxins are: increase the content of hydrogen-containing species in the system; decrease the chlorine content in the gas phase and if possible, avoid local extremely reducing conditions in the system. (author) 12 refs.

  19. Measuring User-Created Content: Implications for the ICT Access and Use by Households and Individuals Surveys. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 139

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beuzekom, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews recent measurement work on User-Created Content (UCC) undertaken in OECD countries. It shows that UCC is emerging as a significant area of economic and social activity worthy of consideration for official measurement and discusses the implications for the OECD Model Survey on ICT Access and Use by Households and Individuals.…

  20. Study of the moisture content gradient in a cementitious material by measuring its impedance and gamma-densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilbaud, J. P.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The local water content in cementitious material depends on the equilibrium between its atmospheric environment and its bulk properties. So, the moisture profile in material can vary with time. The object of this study is to follow the change of this profile by measuring the electrical impedance of the material with pairs of small wires embedded at different depths. This method was applied to young cement paste specimens. The results obtained show that this method is quite satisfactory. The best frequency to be applied, is about 50 or 100 Hz. These results were compared with those obtained with gamma-densitometry.

    El agua contenida en los materiales en base cemento depende del equilibrio entre la atmósfera que le rodea y las propiedades de la matriz sólida. Por lo tanto el perfil de humedad en los materiales puede variar con el tiempo. La finalidad de este estudio es seguir los cambios en dicho perfil, a través de la medición de la impedancia eléctrica del material con varios pares de pequeños conductores situados a diferentes profundidadades. Este sistema se aplicó a diversas muestras de pasta de cemento Jóvenes. Los resultados obtenidos nos hacen ver que el método es satisfactorio, debiendo aplicarse a una frecuencia de 50 a 100 Hz. Dichos resultados se compararon con los obtenidos a través de la gammadensitometría.

  1. A new airborne Ka-band double-antenna microwave radiometer for cloud liquid water content measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Tao; Gu, Lingjia

    2013-09-01

    A new type upward-looking airborne double-antenna microwave radiometer (ADAMR) system intended for detecting atmospheric cloud liquid water content (LWC) is developed in this paper. The frequency of this radiometer is 31.65 GHz. For the antenna elevation angle, one is 30°and the other is 90°. In order to detect the signals with low effective noise temperature (antenna ports respectively, the technique can elevate the small input noise signal power to the detectable range of the square-law detector and thus realize the weak signal detection. Moreover, in order to eliminate the impacts of the system gain fluctuations and obtain a higher sensitivity, an auto-gain compensation method based on the analog-to-digital converter, microcontroller and host computer software techniques is also proposed. Compared with the traditional radiometers, the radiometer topology is greatly simplified and the gain fluctuations can be readily realtime compensated using the compensation method. The laboratory test results show that radiometric sensitivity is better than 0.2 K for 300ms integration time and the instrument is conforming to specifications. Finally, the flight observation experiment results are presented to prove that the designed instrument is able to detect small changes of noise signal in a wide effective range of noise temperature (10-350K) and is a powerful tool for LWC measurement.

  2. Development of methods for determination of PAH based on measured CO-content; Metodutveckling foer indirekt bestaemning av PAH-halt utgaaende fraan maett momentan CO-halt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingman, Rolf; Schuster, Robert [AaF Energikonsult Stockholm AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    The aim of the project 'Development of methods for determination of PAH based on measured CO-content' is to investigate the possibility to develop a method for continuous optimisation of NO{sub x}-emissions by decreased air ratio, without significant increase of polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as PAH. The general idea has been to find a indirect online method to predict the emissions of heavier hydrocarbons by: - creating a correlation between the content of CO and PAH, - controlling the air ratio by the CO-content, and - integrating the calculated PAH-content from CO-content. Today many boilers are operated with a low air ratio to minimise the NO{sub x} content and the NO{sub x}-fee. A low ratio increases the risk of high CO contents in the flue gas as well as increased contents of VOC and PAH. Other boilers are operated with high air ratios in order to minimise the CO content, which in some cases will result in unnecessary high NO{sub x} emissions. One of the main difficulties in optimising the air ratio to the most environmental friendly level is the lack of a suitable and well proven PAH instrument. There are today no available instruments for instantaneous and continuous measurement of PAH. PAH is normally measured as an average value during a period of at least one hour. It is not possible to detect short peaks. The development of the CO-method has been based on data from a CFB-boiler in Korsta in Sundsvall (Vaermeforskrapport 541). The data shows a clear correlation between THC and CO. The correlation seems to be mostly dependent of moisture content and load. The development presented in the report shows that it is possible to find a method to predict the PAH content from the CO-content in the flue gas. The next phase aims to improve and implement the method, by measurements and adaptation in a plant. The practical use of the method is as a tool to optimise the emission of CO, NO{sub x}, THC and PAH and/or to predict the PAH-emission during

  3. A comparison of graphic and visual test accommodations in measuring urban fifth-grade English language learners' science content acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Therese Boulanger

    This randomized control-group posttest only experimental study investigated the effects of several kinds of test accommodations in measuring English Language Learners' (EL) science content acquisition. These accommodations included embedding contextual clues such as visuals and graphic organizers (i.e., graphs, charts, or tables) in a 20-question multiple choice life science test for 86 urban Fifth-grader English Language Learners. Each of the three randomly distributed parallel test forms contained the same text but each differed in their use of pictures and charts. The results demonstrated that there was no significant difference between the percentages of correct responses for the traditional, visual, and graphic organizer test items when English Learners and Native English Speakers were compared. However, there was a significant but moderate positive correlation between the percentages of visual responses and those of graphic organizers for these students. There was a significant but moderate correlation between the ability to read in another language and the percentage of correct visual responses and the ability to read in another language and the percentage of correct graphic organizer responses. The students' language proficiency level was significantly correlated to the total number of their correct responses as well as to their percentage of correct visual responses. Most students received science instruction in English. There was a significant correlation between the amount of time teachers spent teaching content related to that found on the examination and the percentage of total correct responses by their students regardless of the test accommodation. The results suggest that assessment designers include more questions with visuals to provide context. The results also imply that elementary teachers should incorporate visuals and graphic organizers in their instruction and their own classroom assessments. In addition, because students with higher

  4. Comparison of surface NMR with non-invasive and in-situ measurements of soil water content at a floodplain field site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werban, Ulrike; Schrön, Martin; Dietrich, Peter; Walsh, David; Grunewald, Elliot; Pohle, Marco; Kathage, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    Quantification of soil water content is a very relevant issue in soil and environmental studies. There is a broad spectrum of methods applied for measuring soil water content in the field either deployed in situ or non-invasively from the surface. For many reasons the latter is preferred in field studies. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is one of the rare methods that measure the water content directly. Whereas others, e.g. geophysical methods, make use of proximal relationships for determination of soil water content. We applied a new single-sided NMR sensor to non-invasively measure in-situ soil moisture profiles at several points along two transects in a floodplain. The field site exhibits variations in soil water content due to morphology, e.g. flood channels and alluvial fan structures. Furthermore we applied at the same transects (1) in situ methods: soil sampling for gravimetrical analysis and TDR and (2) non-invasive methods: electromagnetical induction, mobile cosmic-ray neutron sensing with a rover and gamma-ray spectrometry. We will present results that confirm agreement of NMR and gravimetrical analysis from soil sampling and discuss issues that arise when using non-unique proxy methods and relationships for determination of soil water content.

  5. Performances of the Electrical Spectroscopy employing a RESPER Probe for measuring the Salinity and Water Content of Concretes and Terrestrial Soils

    CERN Document Server

    Settimi, A; Zirizzotti, A; Marchetti, M; Sapia, V

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes to discuss the performances of the electrical spectroscopy employing a RESPER probe to measure the salinity s and volumetric content {\\theta}W of water in concretes and terrestrial soils. The RESPER probe is an induction device for spectroscopy which performs simultaneous and non invasive measurements on the electrical RESistivity 1/{\\sigma} and relative dielectric PERmittivity {\\epsilon}r of a subjacent medium. The RESPER measures {\\sigma} and {\\epsilon} with inaccuracies below a prefixed limit (10%) in the band of middle and high frequencies (MF-HF). The conductivity is related to salinity and the dielectric permittivity to volumetric water content by suitable refined theoretical models which are consistent with the predictions of two empirical laws, respectively Archie's and Topp's. The better agreement, the lower the hygroscopic water content and the higher s; so a better agreement occurs for concretes, containing almost no bound water molecules, provided that are characterized by an h...

  6. Accurate measurement of circulating mitochondrial DNA content from human blood samples using real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaz, Saima; Czajka, Anna; Malik, Afshan

    2015-01-01

    We describe a protocol to accurately measure the amount of human mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) in peripheral blood samples which can be modified to quantify MtDNA from other body fluids, human cells, and tissues. This protocol is based on the use of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to quantify the amount of MtDNA relative to nuclear DNA (designated the Mt/N ratio). In the last decade, there have been increasing numbers of studies describing altered MtDNA or Mt/N in circulation in common nongenetic diseases where mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role (for review see Malik and Czajka, Mitochondrion 13:481-492, 2013). These studies are distinct from those looking at genetic mitochondrial disease and are attempting to identify acquired changes in circulating MtDNA content as an indicator of mitochondrial function. However, the methodology being used is not always specific and reproducible. As more than 95 % of the human mitochondrial genome is duplicated in the human nuclear genome, it is important to avoid co-amplification of nuclear pseudogenes. Furthermore, template preparation protocols can also affect the results because of the size and structural differences between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Here we describe how to (1) prepare DNA from blood samples; (2) pretreat the DNA to prevent dilution bias; (3) prepare dilution standards for absolute quantification using the unique primers human mitochondrial genome forward primer (hMitoF3) and human mitochondrial genome reverse primer(hMitoR3) for the mitochondrial genome, and human nuclear genome forward primer (hB2MF1) and human nuclear genome reverse primer (hB2MR1) primers for the human nuclear genome; (4) carry out qPCR for either relative or absolute quantification from test samples; (5) analyze qPCR data; and (6) calculate the sample size to adequately power studies. The protocol presented here is suitable for high-throughput use.

  7. Isolation of the combined water content and salinity effects on ERT measurement to locate the preferential flow pathways in water repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindt, Naaran; Rahav, Matan; Furman, Alex; Wallach, Rony

    2016-04-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has been used for measuring the dynamics of water flow in soils without disturbing the soil, and recently for identifying the preferential flow pathways that are reported to develop in water repellent soils. Since electrical resistivity is affected mainly by soil saturation and salinity, and given that in many cases salinity in the root zone reaches high values, the isolation of spatial and temporal distribution of water content or salinity in the root zone from ERT scans is a challenge. A model for transient variation of soil water content and salinity within a well-mixed soil unit was developed in the frame of this challenge. The model aims to isolate the temporal changes in water content from subsequent ERT scans. The model assumes that four stages of water dynamics occur in the root zone during an irrigation cycle: 1) Soil water content decreases by evapotranspiration - no irrigation, 2) Irrigation with saline water begins, water content increases but remains below field capacity - negligible drainage, 3) Irrigation continues and drainage starts as the water content becomes higher than field capacity, and 4) Irrigation stops, water content is higher than field capacity, and water content decreases by drainage and evapotranspiration. These four stages restart when drainage stops and water content decreases solely by evapotranspiration. The model was solved analytically and successfully applied to a series of sequential ERT scans accomplished during and between subsequent irrigation events for a soil that was rendered hydrophobic by olive trees irrigated with saline water, and a soil in a citrus orchard that was rendered hydrophobic by prolonged effluent irrigation. The suggested model helps in distinguishing between the temporal changes in water content and salinity within a given soil volume, locating the preferential plow pathways, and tracking the spatial and temporal salinity variation within the root zone during and

  8. Cloud-based application for rice moisture content measurement using image processing technique and perceptron neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Febus Reidj G.; Padilla, Dionis A.; Hortinela, Carlos C.; Bucog, Krissel C.; Sarto, Mildred C.; Sia, Nirlu Sebastian A.; Chung, Wen-Yaw

    2017-02-01

    This study is about the determination of moisture content of milled rice using image processing technique and perceptron neural network algorithm. The algorithm involves several inputs that produces an output which is the moisture content of the milled rice. Several types of milled rice are used in this study, namely: Jasmine, Kokuyu, 5-Star, Ifugao, Malagkit, and NFA rice. The captured images are processed using MATLAB R2013a software. There is a USB dongle connected to the router which provided internet connection for online web access. The GizDuino IOT-644 is used for handling the temperature and humidity sensor, and for sending and receiving of data from computer to the cloud storage. The result is compared to the actual moisture content range using a moisture tester for milled rice. Based on results, this study provided accurate data in determining the moisture content of the milled rice.

  9. What Do You Think You Are Measuring? A Mixed-Methods Procedure for Assessing the Content Validity of Test Items and Theory-Based Scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Ingrid; Levenson, Michael R; Glück, Judith

    2017-01-01

    The valid measurement of latent constructs is crucial for psychological research. Here, we present a mixed-methods procedure for improving the precision of construct definitions, determining the content validity of items, evaluating the representativeness of items for the target construct, generating test items, and analyzing items on a theoretical basis. To illustrate the mixed-methods content-scaling-structure (CSS) procedure, we analyze the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory, a self-report measure of wisdom (ASTI, Levenson et al., 2005). A content-validity analysis of the ASTI items was used as the basis of psychometric analyses using multidimensional item response models (N = 1215). We found that the new procedure produced important suggestions concerning five subdimensions of the ASTI that were not identifiable using exploratory methods. The study shows that the application of the suggested procedure leads to a deeper understanding of latent constructs. It also demonstrates the advantages of theory-based item analysis.

  10. Estimating chlorophyll content and photochemical yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) using solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence measurements at different growing stages of attached leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubuxin, Bayaer; Rahimzadeh-Bajgiran, Parinaz; Ginnan, Yusaku; Hosoi, Fumiki; Omasa, Kenji

    2015-09-01

    This paper illustrates the possibility of measuring chlorophyll (Chl) content and Chl fluorescence parameters by the solar-induced Chl fluorescence (SIF) method using the Fraunhofer line depth (FLD) principle, and compares the results with the standard measurement methods. A high-spectral resolution HR2000+ and an ordinary USB4000 spectrometer were used to measure leaf reflectance under solar and artificial light, respectively, to estimate Chl fluorescence. Using leaves of Capsicum annuum cv. 'Sven' (paprika), the relationships between the Chl content and the steady-state Chl fluorescence near oxygen absorption bands of O2B (686nm) and O2A (760nm), measured under artificial and solar light at different growing stages of leaves, were evaluated. The Chl fluorescence yields of ΦF 686nm/ΦF 760nm ratios obtained from both methods correlated well with the Chl content (steady-state solar light: R(2) = 0.73; artificial light: R(2) = 0.94). The SIF method was less accurate for Chl content estimation when Chl content was high. The steady-state solar-induced Chl fluorescence yield ratio correlated very well with the artificial-light-induced one (R(2) = 0.84). A new methodology is then presented to estimate photochemical yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) from the SIF measurements, which was verified against the standard Chl fluorescence measurement method (pulse-amplitude modulated method). The high coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.74) between the ΦPSII of the two methods shows that photosynthesis process parameters can be successfully estimated using the presented methodology.

  11. Development, calibration, and performance of a novel biocrust wetness probe (BWP) measuring the water content of biological soil crusts and surface soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bettina; Berkemeier, Thomas; Ruckteschler, Nina; Caesar, Jennifer; Ritter, Holger; Heintz, Henno; Brass, Henning

    2015-04-01

    The surface layer of soils as transition zone between pedosphere and atmosphere plays a crucial role in exchange processes of nutrients, atmospheric gases and water. In arid and semiarid regions, this uppermost soil layer is commonly colonized by biological soil crusts (biocrusts), which cover about 46 million km2 worldwide being highly relevant in the global terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycles. Their water status is of major concern, as activity of these poikilohydric organisms is directly controlled by their water content. On-site analyses of both bare and crusted soils thus are urgently needed to correctly model exchange processes of water, nutrients and trace gases at the soil surface. In this study we present the biocrust wetness probe (BWP), which is the first low-cost sensor to reliably measure the water content within biocrusts or the uppermost 5 mm of the substrate. Using a weak alternating current, the electrical conductivity is assessed and an automatic calibration routine allows calculating the water content and precipitation equivalent of the surface layer over time. During one year of continuous field measurements, 60 BWPs were installed in different types of biocrusts and bare soil to measure at 5-minute intervals in the Succulent Karroo, South Africa. All sensors worked reliably and responded immediately and individually upon precipitation events. Upon completion of field measurements, soil and biocrust samples were collected from all measurement spots to compile calibration curves in the lab. In most soil and biocrust samples the water content rose linearly with increasing electrical conductivity values and only for few samples an exponential relationship was observed. Measurements revealed characteristic differences in biocrust and soil wetness patterns, which affect both the water regime and physiological processes in desert regions. Thus BWPs turned out to be well suited sensors for spatio-temporal monitoring of soil water content, allowing

  12. ESTIMATION OF MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY IN THE DETERMINATION OF Fe CONTENT IN POWDERED TONIC FOOD DRINK USING GRAPHITE FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Budiman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of uncertainty measurement in the determination of Fe content in powdered tonic food drink using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was carried out. The specification of measurand, source of uncertainty, standard uncertainty, combined uncertainty and expanded uncertainty from this measurement were evaluated and accounted. The measurement result showed that the Fe content in powdered tonic food drink sample was 569.32 µg/5g, with the expanded uncertainty measurement ± 178.20 µg/5g (coverage factor, k = 2, at confidende level 95%. The calibration curve gave the major contribution to the uncertainty of the final results.   Keywords: uncertainty, powdered tonic food drink, iron (Fe, graphite furnace AAS

  13. Relationship between wood color parameters measured by the CIELab system and extractive and phenol content in Acacia mangium and Vochysia guatemalensis from fast-growth plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Róger; Soto Fallas, Roy; Jiménez Bonilla, Pablo; Tenorio, Carolina

    2012-03-26

    The heterogeneity of color distribution between sapwood and heartwood limits the market for wood from fast-growth plantations of tropical species. Wood color is associated with wood extractives contents. This study presents the relationship between wood color parameters measured by the CIELab color system and total amount of extractives and phenolic-type extractives in ethanol-toluene and hot water extracts of wood from two fast-growth plantation species. The results demonstrated that the difference in sapwood and hardwood color in Vochysia guatemalensis and Acacia mangium is caused by lower concentrations of extractives in sapwood of both species. Additionally, variations in total extractive and phenolic content have different effects on the color parameters (L*, a* and b*) of both species studied. In Vochysia guatemalensis wood, parameter L* decreases as total extractive and phenolic content increases; however, parameter a* increases as the content of extractives and phenols increases. In Acacia mangium, the amount of phenols showed no relationship with the color parameters. The ethanol-toluene total extractive content, however, shows a relationship with several color parameters. An increase in the content of total extractives in water and ethanol-toluene increases parameter a*, but decreases parameter L*.

  14. Relationship Between Wood Color Parameters Measured by the CIELab System and Extractive and Phenol Content in Acacia mangium and Vochysia guatemalensis from Fast-Growth Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Tenorio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneity of color distribution between sapwood and heartwood limits the market for wood from fast-growth plantations of tropical species. Wood color is associated with wood extractives contents. This study presents the relationship between wood color parameters measured by the CIELab color system and total amount of extractives and phenolic-type extractives in ethanol-toluene and hot water extracts of wood from two fast-growth plantation species. The results demonstrated that the difference in sapwood and hardwood color in Vochysia guatemalensis and Acacia mangium is caused by lower concentrations of extractives in sapwood of both species. Additionally, variations in total extractive and phenolic content have different effects on the color parameters (L*, a* and b* of both species studied. In Vochysia guatemalensis wood, parameter L* decreases as total extractive and phenolic content increases; however, parameter a* increases as the content of extractives and phenols increases. In Acacia mangium, the amount of phenols showed no relationship with the color parameters. The ethanol-toluene total extractive content, however, shows a relationship with several color parameters. An increase in the content of total extractives in water and ethanol-toluene increases parameter a*, but decreases parameter L*.

  15. Use of Water Content Reflectometers in Bioinfiltration/Bioretention to Measure Water Movement and Estimate Evapotranspiration - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most bioinfiltration/bioretention models assume runoff is evenly distributed across the surface area and after the engineered fill media is no longer saturated, the volumetric water content (VWC) is constant throughout the media profile and at field capacity. Four to nine water ...

  16. Political leaders and the media: can we measure political leadership images in newspapers using computer-assisted content analysis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaldering, L.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large amount of research into both media coverage of politics as well as political leadership, surprisingly little research has been devoted to the ways political leaders are discussed in the media. This paper studies whether computer-aided content analysis can be applied in examining po

  17. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT "FIELD MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN SOIL" HORIBA INSTRUMENTS INCORPORATED OCMA-350 CONTENT ANALYZER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The OCMA-350 Oil Content Analyzer(OCMA-350) developed by Horiba Instruments Incorporated (Horiba), was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in June 2000 at the Navy Base Ventura County site in Port Huen...

  18. Analysing variance for determining humidity content and measuring directional effect on ultrasound speed in Pinus radiata D. Don wood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ortíz Mansilla

    2010-05-01

    0% and 15% moisture content, 1644 m/s and 2130 m/s, respectively. The results of this study showed that wave propagation direction is the most important factor during wood structure ultrasound evaluation. Future studies with combined planes are un- derway.

  19. Comparison of leaf color chart observations with digital photographs and spectral measurements for estimating maize leaf chlorophyll content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop nitrogen management is important world-wide, as much for small fields as it is for large operations. Developed as a non-destructive aid for estimating nitrogen content in rice crops, leaf color charts (LCC) are a numbered series of plastic panels that range from yellowgreen to dark green. By vi...

  20. Evaluating the Structure of the Mathematics Teacher Questionnaire: A Measure of Exposure to Mathematics Instructional Practices and Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottmar, Erin R.; Konold, Timothy R.; Berry, Robert Q.; Grissmer, David W.; Cameron, Claire E.

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric properties of 24 items from the fifth grade Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort Mathematics Teacher Questionnaire were investigated in a sample of 5,181 participants. These items asked teachers to report how often they had their classroom students engage in different mathematics content, skills and instructional…

  1. The impact of vertical measurement depth on the information content of soil moisture for latent heat flux estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using ground-based soil moisture and latent/sensible heat fluxes observations acquired from the Ameriflux Network, we calculate the mutual information (MI) content between multiple soil moisture variables and evaporative fraction (EF) to examine the existence of information in vertically-integrated ...

  2. Development of self-interrogation neutron resonance densitometry (SINRD) to measure U-235 and Pu-239 content in a PWR spent fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafleur, Adrienne M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Charlton, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The use of Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD) to measure the {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu content in a PWR spent fuel assembly was investigated via Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended transport code (MCNPX) simulations. The sensitivity of SINRD is based on using the same fissile materials in the fission chambers as are present in the fuel because the effect of resonance absorption lines in the transmitted flux is amplified by the corresponding (n, f) reaction peaks in fission chamber. These simulations utilize the {sup 244}Cm spontaneous fission neutrons to self-interrogate the fuel pins. The amount of resonance absorption of these neutrons in the fuel can be measured using {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu fission chambers placed adjacent to the assembly. We used ratios of different fission chambers to reduce the sensitivity of the measurements to extraneous material present in fuel. The development of SINRD to measure the fissile content in spent fuel is of great importance to the improvement of nuclear safeguards and material accountability. Future work includes the use of this technique to measure the fissile content in FBR spent fuel and heavy metal product from reprocessing methods.

  3. A HIGH SENSITIVE MICROWAVE MEASURING DEVICE OF THE MOISTURE CONTENT IN THE NON-POLAR DIELECTRIC LIQUIDS BASED ON AN INHOMOGENEOUS STEP COAXIAL RESONATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Rudakov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Objective is to create a moisture meter for non-polar liquid dielectrics with low volumetric moisture content of more than 10‑3 %. Methodology. Moisture measuring is based on dielcometric method. It is implemented as a resonant method of determining a capacitance measuring transducer. Measuring transducer capacitive type has a working and parasitic capacitance. It was suggested the definition of moisture on four of resonance frequencies: when the measuring transducer is turned off, one by one filled with air, «dry» and investigated liquid, to determine the parasitic capacitance of the measuring generator, and the parasitic capacitance of the measuring transducer and humidity. Measurement frequency was increased up to microwave range to increase the sensitivity. Measuring transducer with distributed parameters representing a step heterogeneous coaxial resonator is used by. This measuring transducer has a zero stray capacitance, because the potential electrode has a galvanic connection with an external coaxial electrode. Inductive ties loop is used to neglect parasitic capacitance of the measuring generator, and to increase the quality factor of the system. Measuring moisture is reduced to measuring the two frequencies of resonance frequency and «dry» and investigated liquid. Resonant characteristics transducer in a step inhomogeneous coaxial resonator have been investigated to determine the quality factor of filled with air and transformer oil, and experiments to measure the moisture content in transformer oil have been conducted. Results. Measuring transducer of distributed type is developed and researched – it is step inhomogeneous coaxial resonator. It has a smaller geometric length and larger scatter of the first and second resonant frequencies. Expression is obtained for determination of moisture on the basis of two resonant frequencies. The formula of the two frequencies to determine the moisture is correct. Resonant

  4. Using the refined ICF Linking Rules to compare the content of existing instruments and assessments: a systematic review and exemplary analysis of instruments measuring participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballert, Carolina S; Hopfe, Maren; Kus, Sandra; Mader, Luzius; Prodinger, Birgit

    2016-07-14

    Existing instruments measuring participation may vary with respect to various aspects. This study aimed to examine the comparability of existing instruments measuring participation based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) by considering aspects of content, the perspective adopted and the categorization of response options. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify instruments that have been commonly used to measure participation. Concepts of identified instruments were then linked to the ICF following the refined ICF Linking Rules. Aspects of content, perspective adopted and categorization of response options were documented. Out of 315 instruments identified in the full-text screening, 41 instruments were included. Concepts of six instruments were linked entirely to the ICF component Activities and Participation; of 10 instruments still 80% of their concepts. A descriptive perspective was adopted in most items across instruments (75%), mostly in combination with an intensity rating. An appraisal perspective was found in 18% and questions from a need or dependency perspective were least frequent (7%). Accounting for aspects of content, perspective and categorization of responses in the linking of instruments to the ICF provides detailed information for the comparison of instruments and guidance on narrowing down the choices of suitable instruments from a content point of view. Implications for Rehabilitation For clinicians and researchers who need to identify a specific instrument for a given purpose, the findings of this review can serve as a screening tool for instruments measuring participation in terms of the following: • Their content covered based on the ICF. • The perspective adopted in the instrument (e.g., descriptive, need/dependency or appraisal). • The categorization of their response options (e.g., intensity or frequency).

  5. Simultaneous Measurement of the Galacturonate and Neutral Sugar Contents of Pectic Substances by an Enzymic-HPLC Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhashi, S; Inoue, S; Hatanaka, C

    1992-01-01

    An enzymic-HPLC method was successfully applied to the simultaneous analysis of the galacturonate and neutral sugar contents of pectic substances. A mixture of seven neutral sugars that are present in oridnary pectins was eluted as one peak on a Shodex SUGAR SH1821 column, using 0.001 N sulfuric acid as the eluent; the peak was completely separated from that of galacturonate. No difference in the peak-area ratios of individual neutral sugars to glycerol (internal standard) was found among the seven; the relationship between the peak response and concentration was strictly linear throughout the entire concentration range studied. Seventeen pectic samples, including pectins, pectates, and rhamnogalacturonan fragments, were completely prehydrolyzed by Driselase, an industrial enzyme product from Irpex lacteus, and then analyzed for their constituent sugar contents. The enzymic-HPLC method was simple, accurate, and particularly useful for routine pectin analyses.

  6. Cloud effective particle size and water content profile retrievals using combined lidar and radar observations: 2. Comparison with IR radiometer and in situ measurements of ice clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, D. P.; van Lammeren, A. C. A. P.; Hogan, R. J.; Russchenberg, H. W. J.; Apituley, A.; Francis, P.; Testud, J.; Pelon, J.; Quante, M.; Goddard, J.

    2001-11-01

    A new combined iidar/radar inversion procedure has been developed for cloud effective radius and water content retrievals. The algorithm treats the lidar extinction, derived effective particle size, and multiple-scattering effects together in a consistent fashion. This procedure has been applied to data taken during the Netherlands Cloud and Radiation (CLARA) campaign and the Cloud Lidar and Radar Experiment (CLARE'98) multisensor cloud measurement campaign. The results of the algorithm compare well with simultaneous IR radiometer cloud measurements as well as with measurements made by using aircraft-mounted two-dimensional probe particle-sizing instruments.

  7. Processes and Pathways: How Do Mathematics and Science Partnerships Measure and Promote Growth in Teacher Content Knowledge?

    OpenAIRE

    Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.; Westenskow, A.

    2012-01-01

    Intense focus on student achievement results in mathematics and science has brought about claims that K-12 teachers should be better prepared to teach basic concepts in these disciplines. The focus on teachers' mathematics and science content knowledge has been met by efforts to increase teacher knowledge through funded national initiatives focusing on mathematics and science. The purpose of the present study was to look across projects in the National Science Foundation's Math and Science Pa...

  8. Rapid Discrimination of Chlorpheniramine Maleate and Assessment of Its Surface Content Uniformity in a Pharmaceutical Formulation by NIR-CI Coupled with Statistical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luwei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrated that near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI was a rapid and nondestructive technique for discrimination of chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM and assessment of its surface content uniformity (SCU in a pharmaceutical formulation. The characteristic wavenumber method was used for discriminating CPM distribution on the tablet surface. To assess the surface content uniformity of CPM, binary image and statistical measurement were proposed. Furthermore, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used as reference method for accurately determining volume content of CPM in the sample. Moreover, HPLC was performed to assess volume content uniformity (VCU of CPM in whole region and part region of the tablets. The NIR-CI result showed that the spatial distribution of CPM was heterogeneous on the tablet surface. Through the comparison of content uniformity of CPM determined by NIR-CI and HPLC, respectively, it demonstrated that a high degree of VCU did not imply a high degree of SCU of the samples. These results indicate that HPLC method is not suitable for testing SCU, and this has been verified by NIR-CI. This study proves the feasibility of NIR-CI for rapid discrimination of CPM and assessment of its SCU, which is helpful for the quality control of commercial CPM tablets.

  9. Evaluation of nickel tolerance in Amaranthus paniculatus L. plants by measuring photosynthesis, oxidative status, antioxidative response and metal-binding molecule content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrini, Fabrizio; Iori, Valentina; Cheremisina, Alexandra; Shevyakova, Nina I; Radyukina, Nataliya; Kuznetsov, Vladimir V; Zacchini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Among metals, Ni has been indicated as one of the most dangerous for the environment, and plants exposed to this metal are frequently reported to undergo a severe stress condition. In this work, the tolerance responses to different Ni concentrations at physiological and biochemical levels were evaluated in Amaranthus paniculatus L., a plant species previously characterised for their ability to phytoremove Ni from metal-spiked water. Results indicated a good metal tolerance of this plant species at environmentally relevant Ni concentrations, while clear symptoms of oxidative damages were detected at higher Ni concentrations, both in roots and leaves, by measuring lipid peroxide content. At the photosynthetic level, pigment content determination, chlorophyll fluorescence image analysis and gas-exchange parameter measurements revealed a progressive impairment of the photosynthetic machinery at increasing Ni concentrations in the solution. Regarding biochemical mechanisms involved in antioxidative defence and metal binding, antioxidative enzyme (ascorbate peroxidase, APX; catalase, CAT; guaiacol peroxidase, GPX; superoxide dismutase, SOD) activity, polyamine (PA) content, polyamine oxidase (PAO) activity and organic acid (OA) content were differently affected by Ni concentration in the growth solution. A role for GPX, SOD, PAs, and oxalic and citric acid in Ni detoxification is suggested. These results can contribute to elucidate the tolerance mechanisms carried out by plants when facing environmentally relevant Ni concentrations and to identify some traits characterising the physiological and biochemical responses of Amaranthus plants to the presence and bioaccumulation of Ni.

  10. Longterm analysis of measured and simulated evapotranspiration and soil water contents of a period from 2003 to 2012 at the grass covered boundary layer field site Falkenberg, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegehenkel, Martin; Rummel, Udo; Beyrich, Frank

    2016-04-01

    In our study, we analysed a 10-years period with hourly rates of real evapotranspiration (ETr) measured by Eddy-Covariance (EC) and hourly soil water contents at depths from 8 cm down to 90 cm monitored by Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR)-probes at the grass-covered boundary layer field site Falkenberg operated by the Lindenberg Meteorological Observatory - Richard-Aßmann-Observatory of the German Meteorological Service (DWD). These ETr-rates and soil water contents were compared with the results of a modelling approach consisting of the FAO56-Penman-Monteith equation and of the soil water balance model Hydrus-1D using uncompensatory and a compensatory root water uptake (RWU) model with different parameters. Simulated and measured soil water contents above 90 cm depth and ETr-rates calculated by using uncompensatory RWU showed a good agreement. Compared to that, the application of a compensatory RWU-model led to a decrease in the simulation quality for ETr and soil water contents due to some mismatches between measured and simulated soil moisture values and ETr-rates particularly during dry summer periods. In spite of these mismatches, the results indicated that the modelling approaches used in our study enabled an adequate simulation of hourly ETr-rates and soil water contents. However, all RWU-approaches used in our study showed some limitations in dry years. Measured soil water contents at 90 cm depth indicated increased root growth and corresponding RWU in deeper and wetter soil layers of the perennial grass cover especially in the dry years 2003 and 2006. This impact of drought stress in dry years and the corresponding adaption mechanism of perennial grass cover can be simulated only with some limitations by assuming a given static root density distribution and a maximum rooting depth even if RWU-compensation is used. In general, this substantiated the necessity of the measurement of spatial root density distribution in the soil profile and maximum rooting

  11. Analysis of the Application of the Optical Method to the Measurements of the Water Vapor Content in the Atmosphere. I. Basic Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Galkin, V D; Alekseeva, G A; Berger, F -H; Leiterer, U; Naebert, T; Nikanorova, I N; Novikov, V V; Pakhomov, V P; Sal'nikov, I B

    2010-01-01

    We retrieved the total content of the atmospheric water vapor from extensive sets of photometric data obtained since 1995 at Lindenberg Meteorological Observatory with star and sun photometers. Different methods of determination of the empirical parameters that are necessary for the retrieval are discussed. The instruments were independently calibrated using laboratory measurements made at Pulkovo Observatory with the VKM-100 multi-pass vacuum cell. The empirical parameters were also calculated by the simulation of the atmospheric absorption by water vapor, using the MODRAN-4 program package for different model atmospheres. The results are compared to those presented in the literature, obtained with different instruments and methods of the retrieval. The accuracy of the empirical parameters used for the power approximation that links the water vapor content with the observed absorption is analyzed. Currently, the calibration and measurement errors yield the uncertainty of about 10% in the total column water v...

  12. Comparative research on engagement in social media platforms : Using multiple measurements to analyse the attractiveness of content on social media platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Smura, Minja

    2016-01-01

    The research was conducted in order to analyse the engagement on social media platforms for artist with similar demographic followers. The research is conducted by quantitative research and is analysed by using the suitable marketing theories, such as the marketing mix. The main measurements used to analyse the engagement in social media platforms are the engagement rate, 1: ratio and average new followers/subscribers per posted content.

  13. Comparative research on engagement in social media platforms : Using multiple measurements to analyse the attractiveness of content on social media platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Smura, Minja

    2016-01-01

    The research was conducted in order to analyse the engagement on social media platforms for artist with similar demographic followers. The research is conducted by quantitative research and is analysed by using the suitable marketing theories, such as the marketing mix. The main measurements used to analyse the engagement in social media platforms are the engagement rate, 1: ratio and average new followers/subscribers per posted content.

  14. Content Validity and Inter-Rater Reliability of the Halliwick-Concept-Based Instrument "Swimming with Independent Measure"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srsen, Katja Groleger; Vidmar, Gaj; Pikl, Masa; Vrecar, Irena; Burja, Cirila; Krusec, Klavdija

    2012-01-01

    The Halliwick concept is widely used in different settings to promote joyful movement in water and swimming. To assess the swimming skills and progression of an individual swimmer, a valid and reliable measure should be used. The Halliwick-concept-based Swimming with Independent Measure (SWIM) was introduced for this purpose. We aimed to determine…

  15. Pilot study to visualise and measure skin tissue oxygenation, erythema, total haemoglobin and melanin content using index maps in healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poxon, Ian; Wilkinson, Jack; Herrick, Ariane; Dickinson, Mark; Murray, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    We report on a method for analysing multispectral images of skin in vivo for the measurement and visualisation of skin characteristics. Four different indices were used to characterise skin tissue oxygenation, erythema, total haemoglobin and melanin content. Index values were calculated pixel-wise and combined to create index maps to visualise skin properties. Quantitative measurement of tissue oxygenation saturation was possible by calibrating the oxygenation index using a commercial, calibrated oximeter. Index maps were tested by arterial occlusion of the index finger with multispectral images taken before, during and after occlusion in a pilot study with 10 healthy controls.

  16. Determination of Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Total Neutron count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-13

    Inspired by approach of Bignan and Martin-Didier (ESARDA 1991) we introduce novel (instrument independent) approach based on multiplication and passive neutron. Based on simulations of SFL-1 the accuracy of determination of {sup tot}Pu content with new approach is {approx}1.3-1.5%. Method applicable for DDA instrument, since it can measure both multiplication and passive neutron count rate. Comparison of pro's & con's of measuring/determining of {sup 239}Pu{sub eff} and {sup tot}Pu suggests a potential for enhanced diversion detection sensitivity.

  17. Measurement of low amounts of amorphous content in hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients with dynamic organic vapor sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thorsten; Schiewe, Jörg; Smal, Rüdiger; Weiler, Claudius; Wolkenhauer, Markus; Steckel, Hartwig

    2015-05-01

    Today, a variety of devices for dry powder inhalers (DPIs) is available and many different formulations for optimized deposition in the lung are developed. However, during the production of powder inhalers, processing steps may induce changes to both, the carrier and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). It is well known that standard pharmaceutical operations may lead to structural changes, crystal defects and amorphous regions. Especially operations such as milling, blending and even sieving generate these effects. These disorders may induce re-crystallization and particle size changes post-production which have a huge influence on drug delivery and product stability. In this study, pilot tests with a polar solvent (water) and hydrophilic drug (Salbutamol sulfate) were performed to receive a first impression on further possible implementation of hydrophobic samples with organic solvents. Thereafter, a reliable method for the accurate detection of low amounts of amorphous content is described up to a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.5% for a hydrophobic model API (Ciclesonide). The organic vapor sorption method which is a gravimetric method quantifies exactly these low amounts of amorphous content in the hydrophobic powder once the suitable solvent (isopropanol), the correct p/p0 value (0.1) and the exact temperature (25°C) have been found. Afterward it was possible to quantitate low amorphous amounts in jet-milled powders (0.5-17.0%). In summary, the data of the study led to a clearer understanding in what quantity amorphous parts were generated in single production steps and how variable these parts behave to fully crystalline material. Nevertheless it showed how difficult it was to re-crystallize hydrophobic material with water vapor over a short period. For the individual samples it was possible to determine the single humidity at which the material starts to re-crystallize, the behavior against different nonpolar solvents and the calculation of the

  18. Comparing data obtained from ground-based measurements of the total contents of O3, HNO3,HCl, and NO2 and from their numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virolainen, Ya. A.; Timofeyev, Yu. M.; Polyakov, A. V.; Ionov, D. V.; Kirner, O.; Poberovskii, A. V.; Imhasin, H. Kh.

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry climate models of the gas composition of the atmosphere make it possible to simulate both space and time variations in atmospheric trace-gas components (TGCs) and predict their changes. Both verification and improvement of such models on the basis of a comparison with experimental data are of great importance. Data obtained from the 2009-2012 ground-based spectrometric measurements of the total contents (TCs) of a number of TGCs (ozone, HNO3, HCl, and NO2) in the atmosphere over the St. Petersburg region (Petergof station, St. Petersburg State University) have been compared to analogous EMAC model data. Both daily and monthly means of their TCs for this period have been analyzed in detail. The seasonal dependences of the TCs of the gases under study are shown to be adequately reproduced by the EMAC model. At the same time, a number of disagreements (including systematic ones) have been revealed between model and measurement data. Thus, for example, the EMAC model underestimates the TCs of NO2, HCl, and HNO3, when compared to measurement data, on average, by 14, 22, and 35%, respectively. However, the TC of ozone is overestimated by the EMAC model (on average, by 12%) when compared to measurement data. In order to reveal the reasons for such disagreements between simulated and measured data on the TCs of TGCs, it is necessary to continue studies on comparisons of the contents of TGCs in different atmospheric layers.

  19. Simultaneous measurement of total water content and myelin water fraction in brain at 3T using a T2 relaxation based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Sandra M; Kolind, Shannon H; MacKay, Alex L

    2017-04-01

    This work demonstrates the in vivo application of a T2 relaxation based total water content (TWC) measurement technique at 3T in healthy human brain, and evaluates accuracy using simulations that model brain tissue. The benefit of using T2 relaxation is that it provides simultaneous measurements of myelin water fraction, which correlates to myelin content. T2 relaxation data was collected from 10 healthy human subjects with a gradient and spin echo (GRASE) sequence, along with inversion recovery for T1 mapping. Voxel-wise T2 distributions were calculated by fitting the T2 relaxation data with a non-negative least squares algorithm incorporating B1(+) inhomogeneity corrections. TWC was the sum of the signals in the T2 distribution, corrected for T1 relaxation and receiver coil inhomogeneity, relative to either an external water standard or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Simulations were performed to determine theoretical errors in TWC. TWC values measured in healthy human brain relative to both external and CSF standards agreed with literature values. Simulations demonstrated that TWC could be measured to within 3-4% accuracy. In vivo TWC measurement using T2 relaxation at 3T works well and provides a valuable tool for studying neurological diseases with both myelin and water changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Thomas E.; Miller, Michael A.

    2007-03-13

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  1. Measuring the DNA Content of Cells in Apoptosis and at Different Cell-Cycle Stages by Propidium Iodide Staining and Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Lisa C; Chojnowski, Grace; Waterhouse, Nigel J

    2016-10-03

    All cells are created from preexisting cells. This involves complete duplication of the parent cell to create two daughter cells by a process known as the cell cycle. For this process to be successful, the DNA of the parent cell must be faithfully replicated so that each daughter cell receives a full copy of the genetic information. During the cell cycle, the DNA content of the parent cell increases as new DNA is synthesized (S phase). When there are two full copies of the DNA (G2/M phase), the cell splits to form two new cells (G0/G1 phase). As such, cells in different stages of the cell cycle have different DNA contents. The cell cycle is tightly regulated to safeguard the integrity of the cell and any cell that is defective or unable to complete the cell cycle is programmed to die by apoptosis. When this occurs, the DNA is fragmented into oligonucleosomal-sized fragments that are disposed of when the dead cell is removed by phagocytosis. Consequently apoptotic cells have reduced DNA content compared with living cells. This can be measured by staining cells with propidium iodide (PI), a fluorescent molecule that intercalates with DNA at a specific ratio. The level of PI fluorescence in a cell is, therefore, directly proportional to the DNA content of that cell. This protocol describes the use of PI staining to determine the percentage of cells in each phase of the cell cycle and the percentage of apoptotic cells in a sample.

  2. Effects of metal implants on whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mineral content and body composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangregorio, L.M. [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Kinesiology, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Webber, C.E. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: webber@hhsc.ca

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of metal implants on measurements of bone mineral content and body composition by x-ray-based dual-photon absorptiometry. Four whole-body dual-photon absorptiometry scans were performed on 13 participants with metal rods either present or absent during the scans. The influence of the amount of metal (50 g, 100 g and 150 g), the proximity of the metal rod to the x-ray source and the reproducibility of any metal-induced effects were evaluated by altering the position or the size of the metal rod used, or both. The presence of metal rods weighing 100 g or 150 g significantly increased reported total body mass and bone mineral content (p < 0.034). Soft-tissue mass was increased when the scan included the 100-g rod (p < 0.003). The proximity of the metal to the x-ray source did not have a significant influence on the body composition changes induced by the metal. The effects of the metal rods on body composition variables were reproducible. The presence of metal rods inflated body composition variables measured by dual-photon absorptiometry; however, the effects are reproducible during repeat scans of an individual patient. Metal had the largest impact on whole-body bone mineral content, causing errors of 1.5%-3%. (author)

  3. Rapid measurement and evaluation of the effect of drying conditions on harpagoside content in Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw) root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Elizabeth; Manley, Marena; Gray, Brian R; Schulz, Hartwig

    2005-05-04

    The effect of drying conditions on harpagoside (HS) retention, as well as the use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for rapid quantification of the iridoids, HS, and 8-rho-coumaroyl harpagide (8rhoCHG) and moisture, in dried Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw) root was investigated. HS retention was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in sun-dried samples as compared to tunnel-dried (60 degrees C, 30% relative humidity) and freeze-dried samples. The best retention of HS was obtained at 50 degrees C when evaluating tunnel drying at dry bulb temperatures of 40, 50, and 60 degrees C and 30% relative humidity. NIRS can effectively predict moisture content with a standard error of prediction (SEP) and correlation coefficient (r) of 0.24% and 0.99, respectively. The HS and 8rhoCHG NIRS calibration models established for both iridoid glucosides can be used for screening purposes to get a semiquantitative classification of devil's claw roots (for HS: SEP = 0.236%, r = 0.64; for 8rhoCHG: SEP = 0.048%, r = 0.73).

  4. Characterizing the information content of cloud thermodynamic phase retrievals from the notional PACE OCI shortwave reflectance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddington, O. M.; Vukicevic, T.; Schmidt, K. S.; Platnick, S.

    2017-08-01

    We rigorously quantify the probability of liquid or ice thermodynamic phase using only shortwave spectral channels specific to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite, and the notional future Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem imager. The results show that two shortwave-infrared channels (2135 and 2250 nm) provide more information on cloud thermodynamic phase than either channel alone; in one case, the probability of ice phase retrieval increases from 65 to 82% by combining 2135 and 2250 nm channels. The analysis is performed with a nonlinear statistical estimation approach, the GEneralized Nonlinear Retrieval Analysis (GENRA). The GENRA technique has previously been used to quantify the retrieval of cloud optical properties from passive shortwave observations, for an assumed thermodynamic phase. Here we present the methodology needed to extend the utility of GENRA to a binary thermodynamic phase space (i.e., liquid or ice). We apply formal information content metrics to quantify our results; two of these (mutual and conditional information) have not previously been used in the field of cloud studies.

  5. Measuring Mobility Limitations in Children with Cerebral Palsy: Content and Construct Validity of a Mobility Questionnaire (MobQues)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T.; Scholtes, Vanessa A.; Becher, Jules G.; Roorda, Leo D.; Verschuren, Olaf; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to assess the validity of a mobility questionnaire (MobQues) that was developed to measure parent-reported mobility limitations in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: The parents of 439 children with CP (256 males and 183 females; age range 2-18y; Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels…

  6. Measurements Of The Cp Content And Cp Violating Asymmetries In Neutral B Decays To Two Dmesons With The Babar Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lillard, V A

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation presents a measurement of time- dependent CP -violating asymmetries and a measurement of the CP-odd parity fraction in the decay B0 → D*+D*−. The measurements are derived from a data sample of 88 × 106 BB¯ pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. A one- dimensional angular analysis of the decay products measures the CP-odd fraction to be 0.063 ± 0.055(stat) ± 0.009(syst), indicating that the D* +D*− final state is mostly CP-even. The time- dependent CP asymmetry parameters Iml+ and | l+ | are determined from an analysis of the time-dependence of flavor-tagged B decays. One neutral B meson is fully reconstructed in a D*+D* − final state, while the other B is inclusively reconstructed in order to determine its flavor. The Standard Model predicts the CP asymmetry parameters Iml+ and | l+ | to be −sin2&...

  7. Measurements of the CP content and CP violating asymmetries in neutral B decays to two Dmesons with the BABAR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Vincent A.

    This dissertation presents a measurement of time-dependent CP -violating asymmetries and a measurement of the CP-odd parity fraction in the decay B0 → D*+D*-. The measurements are derived from a data sample of 88 x 106 BB¯ pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. A one-dimensional angular analysis of the decay products measures the CP-odd fraction to be 0.063 +/- 0.055(stat) +/- 0.009(syst), indicating that the D* +D*- final state is mostly CP-even. The time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters Iml+ and | l+ | are determined from an analysis of the time-dependence of flavor-tagged B decays. One neutral B meson is fully reconstructed in a D*+D* - final state, while the other B is inclusively reconstructed in order to determine its flavor. The Standard Model predicts the CP asymmetry parameters Iml+ and | l+ | to be -sin2beta and 1, respectively, in the absence of penguin diagram contributions. They are determined to be 0.05 +/- 0.29(stat) +/- 0.10(syst) and 0.75 +/- 0.19(stat) +/- 0.02(syst), respectively, which corresponds to a 2.5 sigma deviation from Standard Model predictions with penguin contributions ignored.

  8. Multiplicity factor and diffraction geometry factor for single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and measurement of phase content in cubic GaN/GaAs(001) epilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of integrated intensity of rocking curves, the multiplicity factor and the diffraction geometry factor for single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were proposed and a general formula for calculating the content of mixed phases was obtained. With a multifunction four-circle X-ray double-crystal diffractometer, pole figures of cubic (002), {111} and hexagonal {1010} and reciprocal space mapping were measured to investigate the distributive character of mixed phases and to obtain their multiplicity factors and diffraction geometry factors. The contents of cubic twins and hexagonal inclusions were calculated by the integrated intensities of rocking curves of cubic (002), cubic twin {111}, hexagonal {1010} and {1011}.

  9. Determination of total Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Neutron Count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-18

    A key objective of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is to evaluate and develop non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques to determine the elemental plutonium content in a commercial-grade nuclear spent fuel assembly (SFA) [1]. Within this framework, we investigate by simulation a novel analytical approach based on combined information from passive measurement of the total neutron count rate of a SFA and its multiplication determined by the active interrogation using an instrument based on a Differential Die-Away technique (DDA). We use detailed MCNPX simulations across an extensive set of SFA characteristics to establish the approach and demonstrate its robustness. It is predicted that Pu content can be determined by the proposed method to a few %.

  10. Narrow-band multi-filter radiometer for total ozone content measurements: Mario Zucchelli Station (Antarctica) campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, Salvatore; Zola, Danilo; Menchini, Francesca; Sarcina, Ilaria Di

    2017-02-01

    The importance of ground-based measurements of ultraviolet radiation has increased since the discovery of the stratospheric ozone layer depletion. Spectroradiometers are the most widely used class of instruments, although the requirement to work in attended stations is sometimes limiting. In this work we present a filter radiometer, named F-RAD, with good optical stability, very short sampling time (1 min), and proven reliability. The instrument is based on a stand-alone functioning, making it suitable for operation in hostile environments. The total ozone column (TOC) was estimated by the irradiance ratio at wavelengths where the ozone absorbs the solar radiation and where the radiation is not absorbed. Direct correlation between the TOC values estimated by F-RAD and by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) was found, and the standard deviations of the ratios between such values were calculated. Three wavelength ratios were identified to take into account the dependence of the measurements from the Solar Zenith Angle, AF-RAD (306.0 nm/325.3 nm) for SZAF-RAD (309.9 nm/325.3 nm) and CF-RAD (317.5 nm/325.3 nm) for SZA>50°. Considering the OMI ozone data as the reference values, the accuracy of the filter radiometer is estimated to be ±4%. The data collected during the calibration campaign in Lampedusa (June-July 2009, Italy) and during the first Antarctica winter of the 2009-2013 measurement campaign at Mario Zucchelli Station (MZS) are reported. The TOC measured by the F-RAD instrument, by the OMI on board of EOS-Aura satellite (NASA), and by the NOAA UV Monitoring Station in McMurdo (USA) are compared to assess the appropriateness of F-RAD for a long-term measurement campaign.

  11. Cloud information content analysis of multi-angular measurements in the oxygen A-band: application to 3MI and MSPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Guillaume; Riedi, Jérôme; Labonnote, Laurent C.; Cornet, Céline; Davis, Anthony B.; Dubuisson, Phillipe; Desmons, Marine; Ferlay, Nicolas; Parol, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    Information content analyses on cloud top altitude (CTOP) and geometrical thickness (CGT) from multi-angular A-band measurements in the case of monolayer homogeneous clouds are conducted. In the framework of future multi-angular radiometer development, we compared the potential performances of the 3MI (Multi-viewing, Multi-channel and Multi-polarization Imaging) instrument developed by EUMETSAT, which is an extension of POLDER/PARASOL instrument and MSPI (Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager) developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Quantitative information content estimates were realized for thin, moderately opaque and opaque clouds for different surface albedo and viewing geometry configurations. Analyses show that retrieval of CTOP is possible with a high accuracy in most of the cases investigated. Retrieval of CGT is also possible for optically thick clouds above a black surface, at least when CGT > 1-2 km and for thin clouds for CGT > 2-3 km. However, for intermediate optical thicknesses (COT ≃ 4), we show that the retrieval of CGT is not simultaneously possible with CTOP. A comparison between 3MI and MSPI shows a higher information content for MSPI's measurements, traceable to a thinner filter inside the oxygen A-band, yielding higher signal-to-noise ratio for absorption estimation. Cases of cloud scenes above bright surfaces are more complex but it is shown that the retrieval of CTOP remains possible in almost all situations while the information content on CGT appears to be insufficient in many cases, particularly for COT < 4 and CGT < 2-3 km.

  12. Measuring the Dynamics of Climate Change Communication in Mass Media and Social Networks with Computer-Assisted Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, A.; Stepchenkova, S.

    2012-12-01

    To date, multiple authors have examined media representations of and public attitudes towards climate change, as well as how these representations and attitudes differ from scientific knowledge on the issue of climate change. Content analysis of newspaper publications, TV news, and, recently, Internet blogs has allowed for identification of major discussion themes within the climate change domain (e.g., newspaper trends, comparison of climate change discourse in different countries, contrasting liberal vs. conservative press). The majority of these studies, however, have processed texts manually, limiting textual population size, restricting the analysis to a relatively small number of themes, and using time-expensive coding procedures. The use of computer-assisted text analysis (CATA) software is important because the difficulties with manual processing become more severe with an increased volume of data. We developed a CATA approach that allows a large body of text materials to be surveyed in a quantifiable, objective, transparent, and time-efficient manner. While staying within the quantitative tradition of content analysis, the approach allows for an interpretation of the public discourse closer to one of more qualitatively oriented methods. The methodology used in this study contains several steps: (1) sample selection; (2) data preparation for computer processing and obtaining a matrix of keyword frequencies; (3) identification of themes in the texts using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA); (4) combining identified themes into higher order themes using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA); (5) interpretation of obtained public discourse themes using factor scores; and (6) tracking the development of the main themes of the climate change discourse through time. In the report, we concentrate on two examples of CATA applied to study public perception of climate change. First example is an analysis of temporal change in public discourse on climate change. Applying

  13. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopic Measurements of Sexithiophene-Effect of the Electrode Nature and the Dopant (CuCl2) Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NESSARK,Belkacem; MAOUCHE,Na(i)ma

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) measurements of sexithiophene (6T) were carried out according to the Pt/6T/M sandwich structure configuration,for various electrode materials (M=GC,ITO,Ag,Cu,AI) and for different doping levels of copper chloride (CuCl2).The results demonstrate that two types of charge transport are involved in the redox process at the electrode/6T interface and inside the bulk oligomer.The complex-plane impedance plots obtained for various doping levels of CuCl2 exhibit arc shapes.The charge-transfer resistance measured from the diagrams decreases systematically with the addition of the salt,leading to an increase of the oligothiophene conductivity.

  14. Measurement of the Branching Fraction and CP Content for the Decay B o yields D (sup asterisk +) D (sup asterisk -)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D.

    2002-03-01

    We report a measurement of the branching fraction of the decay B o yields D (sup asterisk +) D (sup asterisk -) and of the CP-odd component of its final state using the BABAR detector. With data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.4 fb to the minus 1 power collected at the gamma(4S) resonance during 1999-2000, we have reconstructed 38 candidate signal events in the mode B o yields D (sup asterisk +) D (sup asterisk -) with an estimated background of 6.2 + or - 0.5 events. From these events, we determine the branching fraction to be beta B o yields D (sup asterisk +) D (sup asterisk -) = (8.3+ or -1.6(stat) + or - 1.2(syst)) X 10 to the minus 4th power. The measured CP-odd fraction of the final state is 0.22 + or - 0.18(stat) + or - 0.03(syst).

  15. Single-frequency GNSS retrieval of vertical total electron content (VTEC) with GPS L1 and Galileo E5 measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Torben; Abel Oladipo, Olushola

    2013-03-01

    The European Galileo satellite navigation system offers a signal in space that will enable us to deduce range measurements of unprecedented precision: the E5 broadband signal. These new code range measurements would be up to three or four times more accurate compared to nowadays GPS L1. However, E5 will be the only Galileo signal of that outstanding performance. For this reason, a single-frequency single-site ionospheric delay estimator is experimented with to retrieve absolute VTEC data. A single-frequency VTEC retrieval algorithm was developed and tested. It is following the principles published in Xia (1992), Issler et al. (2004), and Leick (1995, 2004). During the validation phase, we devoted considerable time to process GPS L1 measurements in order to assess the level of precision obtainable with current real-world GNSS measurements. We found the global average RMS to be close to 4 TECU (1.5-2.5 TECU at mid- and higher latitude stations) what is considered to be a promising result. The very limited Galileo satellite constellation present during the time of this study did not allow us to run the absolute VTEC retrieval algorithm with real Galileo data. However, we can demonstrate the significant improvements related to the Galileo E5 signal with the help of satellite-specific ionosphere retrieval results from the Galileo experimental satellite GIOVE-B, although only a limited set of data was available for that purpose. In addition, we are presenting a test case based on simulated data that also underlines that the precision figures will clearly improve when using Galileo E5 data. This could make single-frequency ionosphere retrieval more attractive in the future.

  16. Similarity of Fibroglandular Breast Tissue Content Measured from Magnetic Resonance and Mammographic Images and by a Mathematical Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Nayeem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Women with high breast density (BD have a 4- to 6-fold greater risk for breast cancer than women with low BD. We found that BD can be easily computed from a mathematical algorithm using routine mammographic imaging data or by a curve-fitting algorithm using fat and nonfat suppression magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data. These BD measures in a strictly defined group of premenopausal women providing both mammographic and breast MRI images were predicted as well by the same set of strong predictor variables as were measures from a published laborious histogram segmentation method and a full field digital mammographic unit in multivariate regression models. We also found that the number of completed pregnancies, C-reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase, and progesterone were more strongly associated with amounts of glandular tissue than adipose tissue, while fat body mass, alanine aminotransferase, and insulin like growth factor-II appear to be more associated with the amount of breast adipose tissue. Our results show that methods of breast imaging and modalities for estimating the amount of glandular tissue have no effects on the strength of these predictors of BD. Thus, the more convenient mathematical algorithm and the safer MRI protocols may facilitate prospective measurements of BD.

  17. Analyzer for measurement of nitrogen oxide concentration by ozone content reduction in gas using solid state chemiluminescent sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.; Isaev, L. N.

    2014-05-01

    Role of nitrogen oxide in ambient air is described and analyzed. New method of nitrogen oxide concentration measurement in gas phase is suggested based on ozone concentration measurement with titration by nitrogen oxide. Research of chemiluminescent sensor composition is carried out on experimental stand. The sensor produced on the base of solid state non-activated chemiluminescent composition is applied as ozone sensor. Composition is put on the surface of polymer matrix with developed surface. Sensor compositions includes gallic acid with addition of rodamine-6G. Model of interaction process between sensor composition and ozone has been developed, main products appeared during reaction are identified. The product determining the speed of luminescense appearance is found. This product belongs to quinone class. Then new structure of chemiluminescent composition was suggested, with absence of activation period and with high stability of operation. Experimental model of gas analyzer was constructed and operation algorithm was developed. It was demonstrated that developed NO measuring instrument would be applied for monitoring purposes of ambient air. This work was partially financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 074-U01

  18. Body measures and milk production, milk fat globules granulometry and milk fatty acid content in Cabannina cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Communod

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to achieve scientific information about body measures and milk production of Cabannina cattle, a local breed reared in northern Italy. Fourteen body measures and five morphologic indexes were recorded from 86 heads enrolled in the herd book. Low differences between males and females of the same age-class were shown. Body measures were generally greater than those reported in previous studies, probably due to recent crosses. With reference to milk production, 991 test-day records from 128 lactations of 59 cows were analysed. Average milk daily production was 8 kg/d in 1st lactation to 10.61 in 3rd (P<0.05; the parameters of the Wood equation draw atypical curves with the exception of curves from spring calving cows. Only 74.5% of lactations with an adjusted R2 >0.75 showed a standard curve, with low persistence (7.7%, high value of d at peak (103 d and peak production of 20.18 kg of milk. Moreover, 100 milk samples (40 to 220 d of lactation were submitted to a granulometric survey by laser scatter technique in order to evaluate the dimensions of fat globules; then milk fat was analyzed by gas chromatography, and desaturase indexes were determined. Cabannina cows showed small fat globules with high specific surface. Furthermore mean diameter of milk fat globules decreased during lactation then rose. Milk fat contained high levels of cis-MUFA, and high desaturase indexes. In conclusion, the low size of Cabannina cattle orients for a limited meat production. Instead milk production has a higher economic potential, aimed at cheese production and human nutrition.

  19. Measurement of muon content in inclined air showers above 4 x 10{sup 18} eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, Hans; Roth, Markus [IKP, Karlsruhe Institut of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Collaboration: Pierre-Auger-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory in Malarguee, Argentina, is sensitive to air showers up to almost horizontal angles of incidence. Air showers with zenith angles between 60 and 80 degrees are suited to measure the muon component of the shower with the Auger Surface Detector since the primary electromagnetic component gets absorbed in the atmosphere before the shower reaches ground. Some of those events are also observed by the Fluorescence Detector which allows us to determine the total energy of the shower independent of the Surface Detector. Based on these hybrids events the size of muon component for a given cosmic ray energy is determined, which can then be compared to model predictions. We present an update of this analysis.

  20. Cloud information content analysis of multi-angular measurements in the oxygen A-band: application to 3MI and MSPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Merlin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The vertical distribution of cloud cover has a significant impact on a large number of meteorological and climatic processes. Cloud top altitude and cloud geometrical thickness are then essential. Previous studies established the possibility of retrieving those parameters from multi-angular oxygen A-band measurements. Here we perform a study and comparison of the performances of future instruments. The 3MI (Multi-angle, Multi-channel and Multi-polarization Imager instrument developed by EUMETSAT, which is an extension of the POLDER/PARASOL instrument, and MSPI (Multi-angles Spectro-Polarimetric Imager develoloped by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory will measure total and polarized light reflected by the Earth's atmosphere–surface system in several spectral bands (from UV to SWIR and several viewing geometries. Those instruments should provide opportunities to observe the links between the cloud structures and the anisotropy of the reflected solar radiation into space. Specific algorithms will need be developed in order to take advantage of the new capabilities of this instrument. However, prior to this effort, we need to understand, through a theoretical Shannon information content analysis, the limits and advantages of these new instruments for retrieving liquid and ice cloud properties, and especially, in this study, the amount of information coming from the A-Band channel on the cloud top altitude (CTOP and geometrical thickness (CGT. We compare the information content of 3MI A-Band in two configurations and that of MSPI. Quantitative information content estimates show that the retrieval of CTOP with a high accuracy is possible in almost all cases investigated. The retrieval of CGT seems less easy but possible for optically thick clouds above a black surface, at least when CGT > 1–2 km.

  1. 亭子口测量中心工作质量控制%The Job Content Control of Tingzikou Measurement Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾丙普; 彭喜林

    2013-01-01

    Based on the working practice, the paper describes the organization, the main work content, management system and the owner, supervision, working relationship of construction unit and the working process of Tingzikou measurement center, and provides the beneficial reference for operation management of the same kind owner measuring center.%根据工作实践,叙述了亭子口测量中心的组织机构、主要工作内容、管理体制和业主、监理、施工单位的工作关系以及工作流程,为同类业主测量中心的运行管理提供了有益的借鉴。

  2. Insulating and sheathing materials of electric and optical cables: common test methods part 4-1: methods specific to polyethylene and polypropylene compounds – resistance to environmental stress cracking – measurement of the melt flow index – carbon black and/or mineral filler content measurement in polyethylene by direct combustion – measurement of carbon black content by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) – assessment of carbon black dispersion in polyethylene using a microscope

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Specifies the test methods to be used for testing polymeric insulating and sheathing materials of electric cables for power distribution and telecommunications including cables used on ships. Gives the methods for measurements of the resistance to environmental stress cracking, for wrapping test after thermal ageing in air, for measurement of melt flow index and for measurement of carbon black and/or mineral filler content, which apply to PE and PP coumpounds, including cellular compounds and foam skin for insulation.

  3. A Self-Powered and Autonomous Fringing Field Capacitive Sensor Integrated into a Micro Sprinkler Spinner to Measure Soil Water Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ferreira da Costa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We present here the design and fabrication of a self-powered and autonomous fringing field capacitive sensor to measure soil water content. The sensor is manufactured using a conventional printed circuit board and includes a porous ceramic. To read the sensor, we use a circuit that includes a 10 kHz triangle wave generator, an AC amplifier, a precision rectifier and a microcontroller. In terms of performance, the sensor’s capacitance (measured in a laboratory prototype increases up to 5% when the volumetric water content of the porous ceramic changed from 3% to 36%, resulting in a sensitivity of S = 15.5 pF per unity change. Repeatability tests for capacitance measurement showed that the θ v sensor’s root mean square error is 0.13%. The average current consumption of the system (sensor and signal conditioning circuit is less than 1.5 μ A, which demonstrates its suitability for being powered by energy harvesting systems. We developed a complete irrigation control system that integrates the sensor, an energy harvesting module composed of a microgenerator installed on the top of a micro sprinkler spinner, and a DC/DC converter circuit that charges a 1 F supercapacitor. The energy harvesting module operates only when the micro sprinkler spinner is irrigating the soil, and the supercapacitor is fully charged to 5 V in about 3 h during the first irrigation. After the first irrigation, with the supercap fully charged, the system can operate powered only by the supercapacitor for approximately 23 days, without any energy being harvested.

  4. A Self-Powered and Autonomous Fringing Field Capacitive Sensor Integrated into a Micro Sprinkler Spinner to Measure Soil Water Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Eduardo Ferreira; de Oliveira, Nestor E.; Morais, Flávio J. O.; Carvalhaes-Dias, Pedro; Duarte, Luis Fernando C.; Cabot, Andreu; Siqueira Dias, J. A.

    2017-01-01

    We present here the design and fabrication of a self-powered and autonomous fringing field capacitive sensor to measure soil water content. The sensor is manufactured using a conventional printed circuit board and includes a porous ceramic. To read the sensor, we use a circuit that includes a 10 kHz triangle wave generator, an AC amplifier, a precision rectifier and a microcontroller. In terms of performance, the sensor’s capacitance (measured in a laboratory prototype) increases up to 5% when the volumetric water content of the porous ceramic changed from 3% to 36%, resulting in a sensitivity of S=15.5 pF per unity change. Repeatability tests for capacitance measurement showed that the θv sensor’s root mean square error is 0.13%. The average current consumption of the system (sensor and signal conditioning circuit) is less than 1.5 μA, which demonstrates its suitability for being powered by energy harvesting systems. We developed a complete irrigation control system that integrates the sensor, an energy harvesting module composed of a microgenerator installed on the top of a micro sprinkler spinner, and a DC/DC converter circuit that charges a 1 F supercapacitor. The energy harvesting module operates only when the micro sprinkler spinner is irrigating the soil, and the supercapacitor is fully charged to 5 V in about 3 h during the first irrigation. After the first irrigation, with the supercap fully charged, the system can operate powered only by the supercapacitor for approximately 23 days, without any energy being harvested. PMID:28287495

  5. Development of capacitive sensor for measuring soil water content Desenvolvimento de sensor capacitivo para a medição do teor de água do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan K. Rêgo Segundo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The irrigation management based on the monitoring of the soil water content allows for the minimization of the amount of water applied, making its use more efficient. Taking into account these aspects, in this work, a sensor for measuring the soil water content was developed to allow real time automation of irrigation systems. This way, problems affecting crop yielding such as irregularities in the time to turn on or turn off the pump, and excess or deficit of water can be solved. To develop the sensors were used stainless steel rods, resin, and insulating varnish. The sensors measuring circuit was based on a microcontroller, which gives its output signal in the digital format. The sensors were calibrated using soil of the type “Quartzarenic Neosoil”. A third order polynomial model was fitted to the experimental data between the values of water content corresponding to the field capacity and the wilting point to correlate the soil water content obtained by the oven standard method with those measured by the electronic circuit, with a coefficient of determination of 93.17%, and an accuracy in the measures of ±0.010 kg kg-1. Based on the results, it was concluded that the sensor and its implemented measuring circuit can be used in the automation process of irrigation systems.O manejo da irrigação, com base no monitoramento do teor de água do solo, permite racionalizar a quantidade de água aplicada, tornando o seu uso mais eficiente. Levando-se em conta esses aspectos, foi desenvolvido um sensor capacitivo de teor de água do solo e seu circuito de medição para que sistemas de irrigação possam ser automatizados. Desta forma, problemas que afetam a produtividade, tais como irregularidades no acionamento e aplicação de água de maneira excessiva ou deficiente, podem ser contornados. No desenvolvimento dos sensores, foram utilizadas hastes de aço inoxidável, resina e verniz isolante. O circuito de medição foi baseado em um

  6. Similarity Measure of Content Based Image Retrieval%基于内容图像检索的相似性度量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左玉龙

    2012-01-01

    图像的相似性度量是基于内容的图像检索技术中的一个非常关键的问题。理想的图像相似性度量方法应该能满足人的视觉特性,能够使得视觉上相似的图像间具有较小的距离,也就是说二者的相似度越大,其距离就越小。很显然,选择的相似性度量方法对图像检索结果的影响很大,相似性度量方法的好坏会直接影响到图像检索的性能。所以对常用的相似性度量的方法进行分析,并提出将来相似性度量的研究方向很有必要。%Image similarity measure is the content based image retrieval technology is a very key problem. The ideal method for image similarity measure should be able to meet the human visual characteristics, can make the visually similar images with the smaller distance, that is to say the two similarity is greater, the distance is smaller. Obviously, selection of similarity measurement method for image retrieval resuhs are greatly influenced. By the method of similarity measure, directly affects the performanee of image retrieval. In this paper the similarity measurement method are analyzed, and puts forward the future study direction of similarity measure.

  7. Content comparison of haemophilia specific patient-rated outcome measures with the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF, ICF-CY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs) are considered important outcomes because they reflect the patient's experience in clinical trials. PROs have been included in the field of haemophilia only recently. Purpose Comparing the contents of PROs measures used in haemophilia, based on the ICF/ICF-CY as frame of reference. Methods Haemophilia-specific PROs for adults and children were selected on the grounds of international accessibility. The content of the selected instruments were examined by linking the concepts within the items of these instruments to the ICF/ICF-CY. Results Within the 5 selected instruments 365 concepts were identified, of which 283 concepts were linked to the ICF/ICF CY and mapped into 70 different categories. The most frequently used categories were "b152: Emotional functions" and "e1101: Drugs". Conclusions The present paper provides an overview on current PROs in haemophilia and facilitates the selection of appropriate instruments for specific purposes in clinical and research settings. This work was made possible by the grant of the European Murinet Project (Multidisciplinary Research Network on Health and Disability in Europe). PMID:21108796

  8. 含氢硅油活泼氢含量的测定%Measurement of the active hydrogen content of hydrosilicone oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方芳; 高慧莲; 张海婴

    2013-01-01

    The measurement method of active hydrogen content of hydrosilicone oil was established through the reaction of hydrosilicone oil with bromine under acidic condition to generate hydrogen bromide, and the excess bromine reacted with potassium iodide, then the salting out iodine was measured with stan-dard titration of sodium thiosulfate solution. The effects of solvent types, the weight of sample, the amount of bromoacetic acid solution and potassium iodide and the reaction time on the measurement result were investi-gated.%将含氢硅油与溴在酸性条件下反应生成溴化氢,过量的溴与碘化钾反应,析出的碘用硫代硫酸钠标准溶液滴定,建立了含氢硅油活泼氢含量的测定方法。考察了溶剂种类、称样量、溴-乙酸溶液用量、碘化钾用量、反应时间对测试结果的影响。

  9. Chemical composition of scales generated from oil industry and correlation to radionuclide contents and gamma-ray measurements of (210)Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Attar, Lina; Safia, Bassam; Abdul Ghani, Basem

    2016-03-01

    Scale generated from the maintenance of equipment contaminated by naturally occurring radioactive materials may contain also chemical components that cause hazardous pollution to human health and the environment. This study spotlights the characterisation of chemical pollutants in scales in relation to home-made comparison samples as no reference material for such waste exists. Analysis by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence, with accuracy and precision better than 90%, revealed that barium was the most abundant element in scale samples, ranging from 1.4 to 38.2%. The concentrations of the toxic elements such as lead and chromium were as high as 2.5 and 1.2% respectively. Statistically, high correlation was observed between the concentration of Ba and Sr, sample density, radionuclide contents ((210)Pb and (226)Ra) and self-attenuation factor used for the radio-measurements. However, iron showed a reverse correlation. Interpretation of data with regards to the mineralogical components indicated that (226)Ra and (210)Pb co-precipitated with the insoluble salt Ba0.75Sr0.25SO4. Since both Ba and Sr have high Z, samples of high density (ρ) were accompanied with high values of self-attenuation correction factors (Cf) for the emitted radiation; correlation matrix of Pearson reached 0.935 between ρ and Cf. An attempt to eliminate the effect of the elemental composition and improve gamma measurements of (210)Pb activity concentration in scale samples was made, which showed no correction for self-attenuation was needed when sample densities were in the range 1.0-1.4 g cm(-3). For denser samples, a mathematical model was developed. Accurate determinations of radionuclide and chemical contents of scale would facilitate future Environmental Impact Assessment for the petroleum industry.

  10. Testing of an automated online EA-IRMS method for fast and simultaneous carbon content and stable isotope measurement of aerosol samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, István; Gyökös, Brigitta; Túri, Marianna; Futó, István; Filep, Ágnes; Hoffer, András; Molnár, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    Comprehensive atmospheric studies have demonstrated that carbonaceous aerosol is one of the main components of atmospheric particulate matter over Europe. Various methods, considering optical or thermal properties, have been developed for quantification of the accurate amount of both organic and elemental carbon constituents of atmospheric aerosol. The aim of our work was to develop an alternative fast and easy method for determination of the total carbon content of individual aerosol samples collected on prebaked quartz filters whereby the mass and surface concentration becomes simply computable. We applied the conventional "elemental analyzer (EA) coupled online with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS)" technique which is ubiquitously used in mass spectrometry. Using this technique we are able to measure simultaneously the carbon stable isotope ratio of the samples, as well. During the developing process, we compared the EA-IRMS technique with an off-line catalytic combustion method worked out previously at Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies (HEKAL). We tested the combined online total carbon content and stable isotope ratio measurement both on standard materials and real aerosol samples. Regarding the test results the novel method assures, on the one hand, at least 95% of carbon recovery yield in a broad total carbon mass range (between 100 and 3000 ug) and, on the other hand, a good reproducibility of stable isotope measurements with an uncertainty of ± 0.2 per mill. Comparing the total carbon results obtained by the EA-IRMS and the off-line catalytic combustion method we found a very good correlation (R2=0.94) that proves the applicability of both preparation method. Advantages of the novel method are the fast and simplified sample preparation steps and the fully automated, simultaneous carbon stable isotope ratio measurement processes. Furthermore stable isotope ratio results can effectively be applied in the source apportionment

  11. Scalable Content Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Krishna S, Jayant Dani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Immense growth in the volume of contents every day demands more scalable system to handle and overcome difficulties in capture, storage, transform, search, sharing and visualization of data, where the data can be a structured or unstructured data of any type. A system to manage the growing contents and overcome the issues and complexity faced using appropriate technologies would advantage over measurable qualities like flexibility, interoperability, customizability, security, auditability, quality, community support, options and cost of licensing. So architecting aContent Management System in terms of enterprise needs and a scalable solution to manage the huge data growth necessitates a Scalable Content Management System.

  12. The cosmic-ray and gas content of the Cygnus region as measured in gamma rays by the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The Cygnus region hosts a giant molecular-cloud complex which actively forms massive stars. Interactions of cosmic rays with interstellar gas and radiation fields make it shine at gamma-ray energies. Several gamma-ray pulsars and other energetic sources are seen in this direction. In this paper we analyse the gamma-ray emission measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope in the energy range from 100 MeV to 100 GeV in order to probe the gas and cosmic-ray content over the scale of the whole Cygnus complex. The signal from bright pulsars is largely reduced by selecting photons in their off-pulse phase intervals. We compare the diffuse gamma-ray emission with interstellar gas maps derived from radio/mm-wave lines and visual extinction data, and a global model of the region, including other pulsars and gamma-ray sources, is sought. The integral HI emissivity and its spectral energy distribution are both consistent within the systematics with LAT measurements in the interstellar space near the solar system. The ave...

  13. Comparison of macronutrient contents in human milk measured using mid-infrared human milk analyser in a field study vs. chemical reference methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mei; Yang, Zhenyu; Ren, Yiping; Duan, Yifan; Gao, Huiyu; Liu, Biao; Ye, Wenhui; Wang, Jie; Yin, Shian

    2017-01-01

    Macronutrient contents in human milk are the common basis for estimating these nutrient requirements for both infants and lactating women. A mid-infrared human milk analyser (HMA, Miris, Sweden) was recently developed for determining macronutrient levels. The purpose of the study is to compare the accuracy and precision of HMA method with fresh milk samples in the field studies with chemical methods with frozen samples in the lab. Full breast milk was collected using electric pumps and fresh milk was analyzed in the field studies using HMA. All human milk samples were thawed and analyzed with chemical reference methods in the lab. The protein, fat and total solid levels were significantly correlated between the two methods and the correlation coefficient was 0.88, 0.93 and 0.78, respectively (p  protein content was significantly lower and the mean fat level was significantly greater when measured using HMA method (1.0 g 100 mL(-1) vs 1.2 g 100 mL(-1) and 3. 7 g 100 mL(-1) vs 3.2 g 100 mL(-1) , respectively, p  protein and fat. There was no significant correlation for lactose between the two methods (p  >  0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean total solid concentration (12.2 g 100 mL(-1) vs 12.3 g 100 mL(-1) , p  >  0.05). Overall, HMA might be used to analyze macronutrients in fresh human milk with acceptable accuracy and precision after recalibrating fat and protein levels of field samples.

  14. A comparison and survey of the measured cloud liquid water content and an analysis of the bimodal droplet spectra observed during COPE-MED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Jeffrey Alan

    The primary objective of the COnvective Precipitation Experiment - Microphysics and Entrainment Dependencies (COPE-MED) was part of a larger field campaign undertaken during July and August 2013 with the primary goal of improving quantitative precipitation forecasts for summertime convection over SW England, with a special emphasis on understanding microphysical processes that impact hydrometeor development. Understanding the interplay between the warm rain and ice processes is necessary to lead to better parameterizations for precipitation rates in numerical simulations so, to that end, a detailed survey of the liquid water content and total cloud droplet number concentrations measured during COPE-MED is undertaken. Additionally, a probe-by-probe comparison of the liquid water content was performed in order to ascertain their relative performance and consistency during COPE-MED and under certain conditions. These comparisons reveal generally good agreement between the in situ probes used during COPE-MED, but also reveals that there may be potential issues with certain probes under certain conditions. Secondly, observations from the University of Wyoming King Air research aircraft show occurrences of bimodal cloud droplet spectra, where there exist two distinct droplet diameter populations. An analysis of several COPE-MED cases, based on observations from in situ cloud microphysical probes, is presented. Several environmental factors are examined to look for evidence of entrainment events within regions containing bimodal spectra. Correlations between the adiabaticity and concentration in each mode are examined. While some of these analyses indicate evidence of entrainment, others are less clear. The theoretical super-saturation a parcel would experience when neglecting the small mode and the updraft speed required to achieve various levels of super-saturation are also calculated. Initial results show evidence that secondary activation could potentially explain the

  15. Content Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rossi, George Bedinelli; Serralvo, Francisco Antonio; João, Belmiro Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    This study introduces the various definitions and types of content analysis. This type of analysis historically presents itself as a quantitative approach to data analysis and currently shows up as a qualitative approach...

  16. Content Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    LE, DUC

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce the new trend in today’s marketing world: content marketing. It has been employed by many companies and organizations in the world and has been proven success even when it is still a fairly new topic. Five carefully selected theories of content marketing proposed by experts in the field has been collected, compared and displayed as originally and scientifically as possible in this thesis. The chosen theories provide a diversified perspectives of...

  17. Adding content to contacts: measurement of high quality contacts for maternal and newborn health in Ethiopia, north east Nigeria, and Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Marchant

    Full Text Available Families in high mortality settings need regular contact with high quality services, but existing population-based measurements of contacts do not reflect quality. To address this, in 2012, we designed linked household and frontline worker surveys for Gombe State, Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Uttar Pradesh, India. Using reported frequency and content of contacts, we present a method for estimating the population level coverage of high quality contacts.Linked cluster-based household and frontline health worker surveys were performed. Interviews were conducted in 40, 80 and 80 clusters in Gombe, Ethiopia, and Uttar Pradesh, respectively, including 348, 533, and 604 eligible women and 20, 76, and 55 skilled birth attendants. High quality contacts were defined as contacts during which recommended set of processes for routine health care were met. In Gombe, 61% (95% confidence interval 50-72 of women had at least one antenatal contact, 22% (14-29 delivered with a skilled birth attendant, 7% (4-9 had a post-partum check and 4% (2-8 of newborns had a post-natal check. Coverage of high quality contacts was reduced to 11% (6-16, 8% (5-11, 0%, and 0% respectively. In Ethiopia, 56% (49-63 had at least one antenatal contact, 15% (11-22 delivered with a skilled birth attendant, 3% (2-6 had a post-partum check and 4% (2-6 of newborns had a post-natal check. Coverage of high quality contacts was 4% (2-6, 4% (2-6, 0%, and 0%, respectively. In Uttar Pradesh 74% (69-79 had at least one antenatal contact, 76% (71-80 delivered with a skilled birth attendant, 54% (48-59 had a post-partum check and 19% (15-23 of newborns had a post-natal check. Coverage of high quality contacts was 6% (4-8, 4% (2-6, 0%, and 0% respectively.Measuring content of care to reflect the quality of contacts can reveal missed opportunities to deliver best possible health care.

  18. Adding Content to Contacts: Measurement of High Quality Contacts for Maternal and Newborn Health in Ethiopia, North East Nigeria, and Uttar Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Tanya; Tilley-Gyado, Ritgak Dimka; Tessema, Tsegahun; Singh, Kultar; Gautham, Meenakshi; Umar, Nasir; Berhanu, Della; Cousens, Simon; Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna RM

    2015-01-01

    Background Families in high mortality settings need regular contact with high quality services, but existing population-based measurements of contacts do not reflect quality. To address this, in 2012, we designed linked household and frontline worker surveys for Gombe State, Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Uttar Pradesh, India. Using reported frequency and content of contacts, we present a method for estimating the population level coverage of high quality contacts. Methods and Findings Linked cluster-based household and frontline health worker surveys were performed. Interviews were conducted in 40, 80 and 80 clusters in Gombe, Ethiopia, and Uttar Pradesh, respectively, including 348, 533, and 604 eligible women and 20, 76, and 55 skilled birth attendants. High quality contacts were defined as contacts during which recommended set of processes for routine health care were met. In Gombe, 61% (95% confidence interval 50-72) of women had at least one antenatal contact, 22% (14-29) delivered with a skilled birth attendant, 7% (4-9) had a post-partum check and 4% (2-8) of newborns had a post-natal check. Coverage of high quality contacts was reduced to 11% (6-16), 8% (5-11), 0%, and 0% respectively. In Ethiopia, 56% (49-63) had at least one antenatal contact, 15% (11-22) delivered with a skilled birth attendant, 3% (2-6) had a post-partum check and 4% (2-6) of newborns had a post-natal check. Coverage of high quality contacts was 4% (2-6), 4% (2-6), 0%, and 0%, respectively. In Uttar Pradesh 74% (69-79) had at least one antenatal contact, 76% (71-80) delivered with a skilled birth attendant, 54% (48-59) had a post-partum check and 19% (15-23) of newborns had a post-natal check. Coverage of high quality contacts was 6% (4-8), 4% (2-6), 0%, and 0% respectively. Conclusions Measuring content of care to reflect the quality of contacts can reveal missed opportunities to deliver best possible health care. PMID:26000829

  19. CANONICAL CORRELATION OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus saligna CLONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of canonical correlation measures the existence and the intensity of the association between two groups of variables. The research objectified to evaluate thecanonical correlation between chemical and physical characteristics and fiber dimensional ofwood of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna clones, verifying the interdependenceamong the groups of studied variables. The analysis indicated that the canonical correlationswere high and that in two cases the first and second pair were significant at the level of 1% ofprobability. The analysis of canonical correlation showed that the groups are notindependent. The intergroup associations indicated that the wood of high insoluble lignin contentand low ash content is associated with the high radial and tangential contraction and highbasic density wood.

  20. A prospective study of the effects of the progestagen content of oral contraceptives on measures of affect, automatization, and perceptual restructuring ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, A

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-five young women completed the Profile of Mood States and tests of automatization and perceptual restructuring ability before and after commencing one of three forms or oral contraception (OC) or one form of intrauterine contraception (the loop). For each subject on each experimental variable the difference between the first and second tests was computed. These data were then analysed by covariance and discriminant function analyses. Two sets of functions were derived. The first distinguished the loop users from the OC users. The latter exhibited significantly greater increases in anger and significantly greater reductions in vigor than the former. The second set of discriminant functions distinguished users of Neogynon from the women in the other three groups. Neogynon users' performances on the Color Words Test (a measure of automatization ability) worsened and their anger, vigor and tension scores had decreased to a greater extent than was the case for members of the other groups. It is suggested that the changes in affect demonstrated by the first discriminant function were related to personal and attitudinal variables associated with the Loop users. The second discriminant function was interpreted as an indication that the varying progestagen content of OC may have differential effects upon both affect and automatization ability.

  1. On the application of differential phase measurements to study the zonal large scale wave structure (LSWS) in the ionospheric electron content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulasi Ram, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Tsunoda, R. T.; Thampi, S. V.; Gurubaran, S.

    2012-04-01

    The GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) Network has been recently established to provide coverage of Southeast Asia and Pacific low-latitude regions, with planned extensions into the Indian and African longitude sectors. With the availability of CERTO (Coherent Electromagnetic Radio Tomography) beacon transmissions from Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, which is in a unique low-inclination (13°) orbit, it is now possible to study zonal large scale wave structure (LSWS) in ionospheric total electron content (TEC) with fine spatial resolution over a wide longitudinal region. An automated procedure to determine absolute TEC from relative TEC measurements for low inclination CNOFS orbits has been implemented through a simple single station procedure for initial offset estimation, which is shown to be consistent with the better established two station method and with observations from a Digisonde. The LSWS is extracted by subtracting the background variation from longitudinal variation of TEC. The upwellings of LSWS manifest as depletions in the residual TEC variations. Further, these zonal structures have been found, in general, to be aligned with geomagnetic field lines, and the scintillation patches have been found to align with the west walls of TEC depletions. This spatial alignment recapitulates the premise that the observed zonal wave-like structures in TEC are the manifestations of bottom side LSWS. Hence, the methodology presented in this paper, would prove useful in future, to study the characteristics of LSWS on a regular basis.

  2. Decaffeination and measurement of caffeine content by addicted Escherichia coli with a refactored N-demethylation operon from Pseudomonas putida CBB5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Erik M; Hammerling, Michael J; Summers, Ryan M; Otoupal, Peter B; Slater, Ben; Alnahhas, Razan N; Dasgupta, Aurko; Bachman, James L; Subramanian, Mani V; Barrick, Jeffrey E

    2013-06-21

    The widespread use of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) and other methylxanthines in beverages and pharmaceuticals has led to significant environmental pollution. We have developed a portable caffeine degradation operon by refactoring the alkylxanthine degradation (Alx) gene cluster from Pseudomonas putida CBB5 to function in Escherichia coli. In the process, we discovered that adding a glutathione S-transferase from Janthinobacterium sp. Marseille was necessary to achieve N 7 -demethylation activity. E. coli cells with the synthetic operon degrade caffeine to the guanine precursor, xanthine. Cells deficient in de novo guanine biosynthesis that contain the refactored operon are ″addicted″ to caffeine: their growth density is limited by the availability of caffeine or other xanthines. We show that the addicted strain can be used as a biosensor to measure the caffeine content of common beverages. The synthetic N-demethylation operon could be useful for reclaiming nutrient-rich byproducts of coffee bean processing and for the cost-effective bioproduction of methylxanthine drugs.

  3. The Research of Measurement Method of Boron Elementary Content in Silicon Materials%硅质材料中硼含量测定方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡俊峰; 杨秋菊; 孔凡茂

    2011-01-01

    本文建立了采用铍试剂Ⅲ分光光度法测定硅质硅质nationertometry材料中硼元素的含量的方法,该方法可用于多种硅酸盐材料中硼含量的分析,测定值符合标准要求值。通过对硅质土壤标准物质中硼含量的测定,方法具有准确度爵、检出限低、分析速度快、操作方便等优点,加标回收率95%~102%,相对标准偏差小于3.8%。%This paper establishes the measurement method of boron elementary content in silicon materials by beryllium reagents Ⅲ spectrophotometric method. The method can be used for variety silicon materials. The mesurement values accord with required values. This method has high accuracy, low detection limit,quick analysis speed and conrenient operation. Its marked recovery rate is 95%~102%, and relative standard deviation is less than 3.8%.

  4. Direct Measuring Methods of Water Vapor Content and Air Velocity at High Temperature using ZrO2-MgO Gas Chemisorption Type Ceramic Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tomohiro; Nishimura, Nobuya; Shiba, Tooru; Hyodo, Tsutomu

    The control of humidity or air velocity as well as temperature is imperative for industrial process equipment such as air conditioners, dryers. At present, much about humidity sensors has been reported, and recently, ceramic sensors have been used with improved results. However, the effective operating temperature of these sensors for a direct measurement of the humidity is about 423 K at the highest. From the various ceramic sensors so far investigated, the authors selected composite ceramics ZrO2-MgO with porous structure and n-type semiconductor for humidity sensing at high temperature. This is because, when the working temperature of the ceramic sensor is between 673 and 973K, the sensor detects the presence of water vapor and gas velocity by the variations in the electronic condition caused by the reversible of the water vapor. From the test, the sensor that use a single sensing ceramic element can detect directly both the water vapor content in a mixed gas of air and superheated vapor in the temperature range 373-773 K and the air velocity(O.5-4m/s) in the range 373-573K.

  5. Language of motivation and emotion in an internet support group for smoking cessation: explorative use of automated content analysis to measure regulatory focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Jan-Are K; Vambheim, Sara M; Wynn, Rolf; Wangberg, Silje C

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes a novel approach to the identification of the motivational processes in text data extracted from an Internet support group (ISG) for smoking cessation. Based on the previous findings that a "prevention" focus might be more relevant for maintaining behavior change, it was hypothesized that 1) language use (ie, the use of emotional words) signaling a "promotion" focus would be dominant in the initiating stages of the ISG, and 2) that the proportion of words signaling a prevention focus would increase over time. The data were collected from the ISG site, spanning 4 years of forum activity. The data were analyzed using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count application. The first hypothesis - of promotion focus dominance in the initiating stages - was not supported during year 1. However, for all the other years measured, the data showed that a prevention failure was more dominant compared with a promotion failure. The results indicate that content analysis could be used to investigate motivational and language-driven processes in ISGs. Understanding the interplay between self-regulation, lifestyle change, and modern communication channels could be of vital importance in providing the public with better health care services and interventions.

  6. Affordable Open-Source Data Loggers for Distributed Measurements of Sap-Flux, Stem Growth, Relative Humidity, Temperature, and Soil Water Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T.; Jencso, K. G.; Hoylman, Z. H.; Hu, J.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing the mechanisms that lead to differences in forest ecosystem productivity across complex terrain remains a challenge. This difficulty can be partially attributed to the cost of installing networks of proprietary data loggers that monitor differences in the biophysical factors contributing to tree growth. Here, we describe the development and initial application of a network of open source data loggers. These data loggers are based on the Arduino platform, but were refined into a custom printed circuit board (PCB). This reduced the cost and complexity of the data loggers, which made them cheap to reproduce and reliable enough to withstand the harsh environmental conditions experienced in Ecohydrology studies. We demonstrate the utility of these loggers for high frequency, spatially-distributed measurements of sap-flux, stem growth, relative humidity, temperature, and soil water content across 36 landscape positions in the Lubrecht Experimental Forest, MT, USA. This new data logging technology made it possible to develop a spatially distributed monitoring network within the constraints of our research budget and may provide new insights into factors affecting forest productivity across complex terrain.

  7. Design and Fabrication of a Real-Time Measurement System for the Capsaicinoid Content of Korean Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Powder by Visible and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongguk Lim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to design and fabricate a system to measure the capsaicinoid content of red pepper powder in a non-destructive and rapid method using visible and near infrared spectroscopy (VNIR. The developed system scans a well-leveled powder surface continuously to minimize the influence of the placenta distribution, thus acquiring stable and representative reflectance spectra. The system incorporates flat belts driven by a sample input hopper and stepping motor, a powder surface leveler, charge-coupled device (CCD image sensor-embedded VNIR spectrometer, fiber optic probe, and tungsten halogen lamp, and an automated reference measuring unit with a reference panel to measure the standard spectrum. The operation program includes device interface, standard reflectivity measurement, and a graphical user interface to measure the capsaicinoid content. A partial least square regression (PLSR model was developed to predict the capsaicinoid content; 44 red pepper powder samples whose measured capsaicinoid content ranged 13.45–159.48 mg/100 g by per high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and 1242 VNIR absorbance spectra acquired by the pungency measurement system were used. The determination coefficient of validation (RV2 and standard error of prediction (SEP for the model with the first-order derivative pretreatment method for Korean red pepper powder were 0.8484 and ±13.6388 mg/100 g, respectively.

  8. Design and Fabrication of a Real-Time Measurement System for the Capsaicinoid Content of Korean Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Powder by Visible and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jongguk; Kim, Giyoung; Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Moon S.

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to design and fabricate a system to measure the capsaicinoid content of red pepper powder in a non-destructive and rapid method using visible and near infrared spectroscopy (VNIR). The developed system scans a well-leveled powder surface continuously to minimize the influence of the placenta distribution, thus acquiring stable and representative reflectance spectra. The system incorporates flat belts driven by a sample input hopper and stepping motor, a powder surface leveler, charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensor-embedded VNIR spectrometer, fiber optic probe, and tungsten halogen lamp, and an automated reference measuring unit with a reference panel to measure the standard spectrum. The operation program includes device interface, standard reflectivity measurement, and a graphical user interface to measure the capsaicinoid content. A partial least square regression (PLSR) model was developed to predict the capsaicinoid content; 44 red pepper powder samples whose measured capsaicinoid content ranged 13.45–159.48 mg/100 g by per high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 1242 VNIR absorbance spectra acquired by the pungency measurement system were used. The determination coefficient of validation (RV2) and standard error of prediction (SEP) for the model with the first-order derivative pretreatment method for Korean red pepper powder were 0.8484 and ±13.6388 mg/100 g, respectively. PMID:26528973

  9. Objectively measured physical activity predicts hip and spine bone mineral content in children and adolescents ages 5 - 15 years: Iowa Bone Development Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen F Janz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between physical activity (PA and bone mineral content (BMC; g from middle childhood to middle adolescence and compared the impact of vigorous-intensity PA (VPA over moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA. Participants from the Iowa Bone Development Study were examined at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, and 15 yr (n=369, 449, 452, 410, 307, respectively. MVPA and VPA (min/day were measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Anthropometry was used to measure body size and somatic maturity. Spine BMC and hip BMC were measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Sex-specific multi-level linear models were fit for spine BMC and hip BMC, adjusted for weight (kg, height (cm, linear age (yr, non-linear age (yr2, and maturity (pre peak height velocity vs. at/post peak height velocity. The interaction effects of PA×maturity and PA×age were tested. We also examined differences in spine BMC and hip BMC between the least (10th percentile and most (90th percentile active participants at each examination period. Results indicated that PA added to prediction of BMC throughout the 10-year follow-up, except MVPA did not predict spine BMC in females. Maturity and age did not modify the PA effect for males nor females. At age 5, the males at the 90th percentile for VPA had 8.5% more hip BMC than males in the 10th percentile for VPA. At age 15, this difference was 2.0%. Females at age 5 in the 90th percentile for VPA had 6.1% more hip BMC than those in the 10th percentile for VPA. The age 15 difference was 1.8%. VPA was associated with BMC at weight-bearing skeletal sites from childhood to adolescence, and the effect was not modified by maturity or age. Our findings indicate the importance of early and sustained interventions that focus on VPA. Approaches focused on MVPA may be inadequate for optimal bone health, particularly for females.

  10. Scalable Content Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Krishna S, Jayant Dani

    2013-01-01

    Immense growth in the volume of contents every day demands more scalable system to handle and overcome difficulties in capture, storage, transform, search, sharing and visualization of data, where the data can be a structured or unstructured data of any type. A system to manage the growing contents and overcome the issues and complexity faced using appropriate technologies would advantage over measurable qualities like flexibility, interoperability, customizabi...

  11. Language of motivation and emotion in an Internet support group for smoking cessation: explorative use of automated content analysis to measure regulatory focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnsen JAK

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jan-Are K Johnsen,1 Sara M Vambheim,2 Rolf Wynn,3,4 Silje C Wangberg3,51Department of Clinical Dentistry, University of Tromsø, 2Department of Psychology, University of Tromsø, 3Division of Addiction and Specialized Psychiatry, University Hospital of North-Norway, 4Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, 5Narvik University College, Narvik, NorwayAbstract: The present study describes a novel approach to the identification of the motivational processes in text data extracted from an Internet support group (ISG for smoking cessation. Based on the previous findings that a “prevention” focus might be more relevant for maintaining behavior change, it was hypothesized that 1 language use (ie, the use of emotional words signaling a “promotion” focus would be dominant in the initiating stages of the ISG, and 2 that the proportion of words signaling a prevention focus would increase over time. The data were collected from the ISG site, spanning 4 years of forum activity. The data were analyzed using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count application. The first hypothesis – of promotion focus dominance in the initiating stages – was not supported during year 1. However, for all the other years measured, the data showed that a prevention failure was more dominant compared with a promotion failure. The results indicate that content analysis could be used to investigate motivational and language-driven processes in ISGs. Understanding the interplay between self-regulation, lifestyle change, and modern communication channels could be of vital importance in providing the public with better health care services and interventions.Keywords: self-regulation, behavior change, emotion, prevention

  12. Comparison of total-body calcium with radiographic and photon absorptiometry measurement of appendicular bone mineral content. [Comparison of findings in patients with primary osteoporosis and healthy marathon runners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanzi, I; Colbert, C; Bachtell, R; Thompson, K; Aloia, J; Cohn, S

    1978-01-01

    Two groups of investigators utilized three techniques for evaluating bone mineral mass. In one institution, total-body calcium by total body neutron activation analysis, and bone mineral content of the radius by photon absorptiometry were measured concomitantly. In the other institution, the mean bone mineral content of the three inner phalanges of the left hand was measured by radiographic absorptiometry. These techniques were applied to two groups of subjects: 16 patients with primary osteoporosis and 14 healthy marathon runners. The higher correlation found in osteoporotic patients may be related to the diffuse nature of this condition and to differences in the distribution of skeletal mass in the marathon runners.

  13. Effect of glucose stimulation on /sup 45/calcium uptake of rat pancreatic islets and their total calcium content as measured by a fluorometric micro-method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolters, G.H.J.; Wiegman, J.B.; Konijnendijk, W.

    1982-02-01

    Glucose-stimulated /sup 45/calcium uptake and total calcium content of rat pancreatic islets has been studied, using a new fluorometric micro-method to estimate total calcium. Extracellular calcium was separated from incubated tissue by a rapid micro-filtration procedure. Islets incubated up to 60 min with calcium chloride 2.5 mmol/l and glucose 2.5 mmol/l maintained the same calcium content (670 +- 7.5 pmol/..mu..g DNA). When the glucose concentration was raised to 15 mmol/l no change in the total calcium content could be detected. On incubation with glucose 2.5 mmol/l in the absence of calcium, the calcium content decreased to 488 +- 27 pmol/..mu..g DNA. On incubation with /sup 45/calcium chloride 2.5 mmol/l for 5 or 30 min at 2.5 mmol/l glucose, islets exchanged 21 +- 2 and 28 +- 1% of their total calcium content and, at 15 mmol/l glucose, 30 +- 3 and 45 +- 2%, respectively. Thus, islet calcium has a high turn-over rate. Glucose stimulation results in an increase of the calcium uptake without enhancing the total calcium content and hence must increase the calcium-exchangeable pool.

  14. Measurement of Content and Activity of Lysozyme in Serum of Piglets%仔猪血清中溶菌酶含量和活力的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海霞; 迟瑞宾

    2011-01-01

    溶菌酶参与机体内多种免疫反应,测定它在血清中的含量可作为了解机体免疫功能的一个重要指标.试验用36头22日龄仔猪血清为试验样本,利用比浊法和ELISA两种方法测定血清中的溶菌酶.结果表明:ELISA测定法对同一样本3次测定值间的变异系数和对36个仔猪血清样本溶菌酶测定值变异系数均极显著(P<0.01)小于比浊法测定结果的变异系数,表明ELISA方法比比浊法的精确度高.两种方法测定结果间的Pearson相关系数为0.33,未达到显著差异水平(P>0.05).比浊法测定的是溶菌酶的活性,ELISA测定的是血清中溶菌酶的净含量,两种溶菌酶测定方法具有不同的测定原理,导致二者测定结果之间的相关系数很低.ELISA受血清的颜色影响程度低,易于实现批量检测,但是需要酶标仪、洗板机等较昂贵设备.在实际研究中,研究者应该根据自己的试验目的、样本量以及价格等因素综合考虑溶菌酶的最佳测定方法.%Lysozyme participates in many immune responses, and its content in serum is an important indicator of immune function of the animal. In the study,the lysozyme in serum of 36 piglets(20 day after birth) was measured with two methods, nephelometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that both the coefficients of variance (C. V. ) among the three tests of the same samples of ELISA and that of the testing results of 36 samples were significantly lower than those of nephelometry, indicating the higher testing precision of ELISA than nephelometry. The coefficient of correlation between the results of two methods was 0. 33, which was not significantly correlated (P>0. 05). Nephelometry tests the enzyme activity of lysozyme, and ELISA tests the actual net content in serum. Hence, the two methods have different testing principles, which lead to their low coefficient of correlation. Additionally, ELISA was less affected by the color of

  15. Comparison between Double Crystals X-ray Diffraction and Micro-Raman Measurement on Composition Determination of High Ge Content Si1-xGex Layer Epitaxied on Si Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei ZHAO; Yuhua ZUO; Buwen CHENG; Jinzhong YU; Qiming WANG

    2006-01-01

    It is important to acquire the composition of Si1-xGex layer, especially that with high Ge content, epitaxied on Si substrate. Two nondestructive examination methods, double crystals X-ray diffraction(DCXRD)and micro-Raman measurement, were introduced comparatively to determine x value in Si1-xGex layer, which show that while the two methods are consistent with each other when x is low, the results obtained from double crystals X-ray diffraction are not credible due to the large strain relaxation occurring in Si1-xGex layers when Ge content is higher than about 20%. Micro-Raman measurement is more appropriate for determining high Ge content than DCXRD.

  16. Bone mineral content measurement in 255 old patients with diabetes mellitus%老年糖尿病255例骨矿含量测定分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡万春; 张凡; 李晓卫

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the incidence of osteoporosis and influential factors of bone mineral content(BMC)in old diabetic patients. Methods BMC was measured in 255 old diabetic patients, using mode l SD-1000 single photoabsorptiometer. Results ①BMC was signific an tly higher in males than in females and decreased with increasing ages in males and femmales.②BMC decreased with lengthening medical history. ③In male diabeti c patients BMC correlated positively with the body mass indices (BMI), but there was no significant difference between the group with BMI 20-25 kg/m2 and the group with BMI over 25 kg/m2 in female patients. ④The incidence of osteoporo sis in this group was 38.04%(32.45% for male:46.15% for female) Conclusion Combined osteoporosis is a common chronic complication in old patients with diabetes mellitus.%目的 探讨老年糖尿病患者合并骨质疏松的发病率及骨矿含量的影响因素。  方法使用SD-1000型骨矿物仪测量255例老年糖尿病患者。结果 ①男性糖尿病患者BMC显著高于女性,男、女性BMC均随年龄的增高 而降低;②随着病程的增加BMC降低,呈显著负相关;③男性糖尿病患者BMC与体重指数(BMI)呈显著正相关,女性患者BMI20~25 kg/m2组与大 于25 kg/m2组之间BMC相差不显著;④本组糖尿病合并骨质疏松发病率为38.04%,其中男 性为32.45%,女性为46.15%。结论 糖尿病合并骨质疏松是糖尿病的一种常见慢性并发症。

  17. The application of carpal tunnel contents of measuring in the clinic%腕管内容物测量在临床中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙权; 张道卓; 张宇; 李海航; 田心; 朱悦汀; 杨丽丽; 宋微微; 李艳鑫; 孙世杰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the carpal tunnel contents and describe their relationship. Methods Stainless steel vernier caliper was used to measure carpal tunnel contents, carpal canal morphology, carpal tunnel contents, the transverse carpal ligament thickness of 22 cases ( male 16, female 6 ), 44 specimens of adult cadaveric. Results Carpal tunnel was the fibrous tube, which was slightly flat, cylindrical. Male: internal and external diameter of Stenosis was (25 ±2.6) mm, anteroposterior diameter was ( 10.2 ±1.1) mm. Female: internal and external diameter of stenosis was ( 17 ±2. 5 ) mm, anteroposterior diameter was ( 10. 4 ± 1. 5 ) mm. The transverse carpal ligament of male: ( 25.5 ±4.7 ) mm long, ( 22. 1 ±2.2 ) mm wide, 2.3 mm thick, the lower bound from the distal wrist crease was ( 28.4 ±2.6 ) mm. The first carpal tunnel section of male was ( 189. 7 ± 17. 5 ) mm2 ,the second section was ( 182. 1 ± 13. 7 ) mm2 ,the third section was ( 223.4 ±29. 8 ) mm2. The first section of female was ( 172.4 ± 15. 2 ) mm2, the second section was ( 153. 1 ± 17. 3 ) mm2, the third section was( 178. 1 ±11.6 )mm2. Conclusion The carpal tunnel of male was wide and short, the carpal tunnel of female was narrow, the top half of transverse carpal ligament was thin, lower half was thick, tough and inelastic. Female carpal tunnel is the narrower than men, which was the cause of diseases.%目的 观测腕管内容物并描述其相互间关系,为临床手外科学和显微外科学中的应用提供参考.方法 采用游标卡尺对22具本成人尸体(男16具,女6具),44侧标本成人尸体标本腕管内容物测量,腕管解剖学观察、腕管内容物、腕横韧带的厚度测量等.结果 腕管为纤维性骨管,略呈扁圆柱形,男性:狭窄部内外径(25.0±2.6)mm,前后径(10.2±1.l)mm;女性:狭窄部内外径(17.0±2.5)mm,前后(10.4±1.5)mm.腕横韧带男性:长(25.5±4.7)mm,宽(22.1±2.2)mm,厚2.3 mm,下界距腕远纹(28.4±2.6)mm;女性:长(22.7±3.3)mm

  18. MAIN CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Discussion on the Modern Agriculture Management Mode and its Innovation in China Mode of agricultural management is organic unify between form of agriculture management and way of agriculture management. Changes of agricultural management form are the content of system innovation;Transformation of agricultural management way belongs to the category of technical progress. We found that, precision agriculture with the moderate scale by professional farmers is the dominant mode of agricultural management. Coexisting of multiple modes is the pattern and evolution trend of modern agriculture management mode. The precision agriculture based on household business of moderate scale mode, we needs of rural economd socialization of

  19. Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Bedinelli Rossi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the various definitions and types of content analysis. This type of analysis historically presents itself as a quantitative approach to data analysis and currently shows up as a qualitative approach. The most common types are the conceptual and relational analysis. The latter receives influences of linguistic, cognitive and mental models and it is subdivided in affective extraction, analysis of proximity and cognitive mapping. Regarding the importance of this type of analysis, we have quantitative and qualitative character and the latter approach can be used to identify hypotheses, theoretical constructs or even models that can be tested by multivariate statistical techniques or even by experiments. 

  20. Design and fabrication of a real-time measurement system for the capsaicinoid content of Korean red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) powder by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research aims to design and fabricate a system to measure the capsaicinoid content of red pepper powder in a non-destructive and rapid method through visible and near infrared spectroscopy (VNIR). The developed system scans a well-leveled powder surface continuously to minimize the influence of...

  1. Stability and reproducibility of ADVIA 120-measured red blood cell and platelet parameters in dogs, cats, and horses, and the use of reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CH(R)) in the diagnosis of iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; van Leeuwen, M.W.; Teske, E.

    2009-01-01

    Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2009 Apr 1;134(7):272-8. Stability and reproducibility of ADVIA 120-measured red blood cell and platelet parameters in dogs, cats, and horses, and the use of reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CH(R)) in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. Prins M, van Leeuwen MW, Teske E. Departm

  2. 原子荧光法测汞含量过程中汞污染预防措施%Study on the preventive measures of mercury pollution in the process of mercury content measuring atomic lfuorescence spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晶晶; 张毅; 沈君璐

    2013-01-01

    A mercury pollution detection of mercury content in the samples of preventive measures. In the process of testing samples of mercury by atomic fluorescence method, due to mercury accumulation, affect the detection results. This experiment adopts the cleaning treatment reduced sample volume, change frequently wash pipe, reagent screening and for digestion tube, tube, bottle, utensils and other methods, and by atomic fluorescence spectrometry for the test, test results can effectively prevent mercury pollution, ensure the accuracy of experimental results. The preventive measure is simple and effective, can satisfy the need of conventional detection and food safety monitoring.%建立了样品汞含量检测中汞污染的预防措施。在原子荧光法检测样品汞含量过程中,由于汞蓄积性,影响检测结果。实验采用减少进样量、勤换勤洗管路、试剂筛选及对消解管、试管、容量瓶等器皿的清洗处理等方法,并用原子荧光法进行上机测试实验,检测结果数据表明可以有效地防止汞污染,保证实验检测结果的准确性。所述预防措施简单有效,能满足常规检测及食品安全监控的需要。

  3. Relationships between GPP, Satellite Measures of Greenness and Canopy Water Content with Soil Moisture in Mediterranean-Climate Grassland and Oak Savanna

    OpenAIRE

    Shishi Liu; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Roberts,Dar.A.; Chris J. Still

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the impact of soil moisture on gross primary production (GPP), chlorophyll content, and canopy water content represented by remotely sensed vegetation indices (VIs) in an open grassland and an oak savanna in California. We found for the annual grassland that GPP late in the growing season was controlled by the declining soil moisture, but there was a 10–20-day lag in the response of GPP to soil moisture. However, during the early and middle part of the growing season, solar ra...

  4. Cellular effect of high doses of silica-coated quantum dot profiled with high throughput gene expression analysis and high content cellomics measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Stilwell, Jackie L; Gerion, Daniele; Ding, Lianghao; Elboudwarej, Omeed; Cooke, Patrick A; Gray, Joe W; Alivisatos, A Paul; Chen, Fanqing Frank

    2006-04-01

    Quantum dots (Qdots) are now used extensively for labeling in biomedical research, and this use is predicted to grow because of their many advantages over alternative labeling methods. Uncoated Qdots made of core/shell CdSe/ZnS are toxic to cells because of the release of Cd2+ ions into the cellular environment. This problem has been partially overcome by coating Qdots with polymers, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), or other inert molecules. The most promising coating to date, for reducing toxicity, appears to be PEG. When PEG-coated silanized Qdots (PEG-silane-Qdots) are used to treat cells, toxicity is not observed, even at dosages above 10-20 nM, a concentration inducing death when cells are treated with polymer or mercaptoacid coated Qdots. Because of the importance of Qdots in current and future biomedical and clinical applications, we believe it is essential to more completely understand and verify this negative global response from cells treated with PEG-silane-Qdots. Consequently, we examined the molecular and cellular response of cells treated with two different dosages of PEG-silane-Qdots. Human fibroblasts were exposed to 8 and 80 nM of these Qdots, and both phenotypic as well as whole genome expression measurements were made. PEG-silane-Qdots did not induce any statistically significant cell cycle changes and minimal apoptosis/necrosis in lung fibroblasts (IMR-90) as measured by high content image analysis, regardless of the treatment dosage. A slight increase in apoptosis/necrosis was observed in treated human skin fibroblasts (HSF-42) at both the low and the high dosages. We performed genome-wide expression array analysis of HSF-42 exposed to doses 8 and 80 nM to link the global cell response to a molecular and genetic phenotype. We used a gene array containing approximately 22,000 total probe sets, containing 18,400 probe sets from known genes. Only approximately 50 genes (approximately 0.2% of all the genes tested) exhibited a statistically significant

  5. Development, Evaluation, and Validation of a Paper-and-Pencil Test for Measuring Two Components of Biology Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge Concerning the "Cardiovascular System"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzing, Stephan; van Driel, Jan H.; Jüttner, Melanie; Brandenbusch, Stefanie; Sandmann, Angela; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2013-01-01

    One main focus of teacher education research concentrates on teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). It has been shown that teachers' PCK correlates with teaching effectiveness as well as with students' achievement gains. Teachers' PCK should be analyzed as one of the main important components to evaluate professional…

  6. Gradual Reduction in Sodium Content in Cooked Ham, with Corresponding Change in Sensorial Properties Measured by Sensory Evaluation and a Multimodal Machine Vision System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiff, Kirsti; Mathiassen, John Reidar; Misimi, Ekrem; Hersleth, Margrethe; Aursand, Ida G

    2015-01-01

    The European diet today generally contains too much sodium (Na(+)). A partial substitution of NaCl by KCl has shown to be a promising method for reducing sodium content. The aim of this work was to investigate the sensorial changes of cooked ham with reduced sodium content. Traditional sensorial evaluation and objective multimodal machine vision were used. The salt content in the hams was decreased from 3.4% to 1.4%, and 25% of the Na(+) was replaced by K(+). The salt reduction had highest influence on the sensory attributes salty taste, after taste, tenderness, hardness and color hue. The multimodal machine vision system showed changes in lightness, as a function of reduced salt content. Compared to the reference ham (3.4% salt), a replacement of Na(+)-ions by K(+)-ions of 25% gave no significant changes in WHC, moisture, pH, expressed moisture, the sensory profile attributes or the surface lightness and shininess. A further reduction of salt down to 1.7-1.4% salt, led to a decrease in WHC and an increase in expressible moisture.

  7. Developing an Instrument for Measuring Teachers' Mathematics Content Knowledge on Ratio and Proportion: A Case of Indonesian Primary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekawati, Rooselyna; Lin, Fou-Lai; Yang, Kai-Lin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we developed an instrument for assessing teachers' mathematics content knowledge (MCK) on ratio and proportion and examined the profile of Indonesian primary teacher's MCK on this topic. The MCK items were administered to 271 Indonesian in-service primary teachers with a variety of educational backgrounds and teaching…

  8. Gradual Reduction in Sodium Content in Cooked Ham, with Corresponding Change in Sensorial Properties Measured by Sensory Evaluation and a Multimodal Machine Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiff, Kirsti; Mathiassen, John Reidar; Misimi, Ekrem; Hersleth, Margrethe; Aursand, Ida G.

    2015-01-01

    The European diet today generally contains too much sodium (Na+). A partial substitution of NaCl by KCl has shown to be a promising method for reducing sodium content. The aim of this work was to investigate the sensorial changes of cooked ham with reduced sodium content. Traditional sensorial evaluation and objective multimodal machine vision were used. The salt content in the hams was decreased from 3.4% to 1.4%, and 25% of the Na+ was replaced by K+. The salt reduction had highest influence on the sensory attributes salty taste, after taste, tenderness, hardness and color hue. The multimodal machine vision system showed changes in lightness, as a function of reduced salt content. Compared to the reference ham (3.4% salt), a replacement of Na+-ions by K+-ions of 25% gave no significant changes in WHC, moisture, pH, expressed moisture, the sensory profile attributes or the surface lightness and shininess. A further reduction of salt down to 1.7–1.4% salt, led to a decrease in WHC and an increase in expressible moisture. PMID:26422367

  9. Ensuring freedoms and protecting rights in the governance of the Internet : a comparative analysis of blocking measures and Internet Providers’ Removal of Illegal Internet Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parti, K.; Marin, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Removing illegal or harmful material from the internet has been pursued for more than two decades. The advent of Web 2.0, with the prominent increase and diffusion of user-generated content, amplifies the necessity for technical and legal frameworks enabling the removal of illegal material from the

  10. Measurement of moisture, soluble solids, and sucrose content and mechanical properties in sugar beet using portable visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy, coupled with partial least squares regression, was used to predict the moisture, soluble solids and sucrose content and mechanical properties of sugar beet. Interactance spectra were acquired from both intact and sliced beets, using two portable spectrometers ...

  11. Cause and Measures of High Copper Content in Electrolyzing Manganese Dioxide Process%电解二氧化锰生产中铜含量偏高的原因分析及措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁延庚

    2014-01-01

    针对电解二氧化锰生产中产品和电解废液中铜含量偏高的问题,分析其原因,提出相应的改进措施,使铜含量控制在一个较低的水平,产品质量大大提高。%Analyze the cause of the high copper content in both the product and the electrolysis waste water in the electrolyzing manganese dioxide process ,propose the improvement measures .The copper content is controlled to a lower level ,the product quality is greatly improved .

  12. Water Content in Crude Oil Online Measurement System Based on Radio Fre-quency Method%基于射频法的原油含水率在线测量系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺国强; 党瑞荣; 雷蕾; 高国旺

    2016-01-01

    Water content measurement technology based on radio frequency method is an effective method during crude oil production. Measurement system is designed for water content in crude oil. On the basis of the measurement system, experimental program is de-signed to execute the static and dynamic testing that is almost close to the actual production status. According to the experimental results from two different testing conditions, the error range and consistency of the measurement system based radio frequency method are identified. Experimental results show that the nonlinear error of the system is less than 0.5% and water content measurement system based on radio frequency method meets the requirement of oil field application.%射频法是测量原油含水率的一种有效方法,为此设计了射频法原油含水率测量系统,并建立了接近于产油现场的动、静态原油含水测试试验平台.通过对比两种不同状态下的原油含水率测量结果,确定了射频法测量系统的误差范围和一致性.试验结果表明:射频法含水率测量系统的非线性误差在0.5%以内,满足现场应用的需求.

  13. 浅析降低剩余氨水含油的措施%Some measures on reducing the content of tar in coal water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少源; 孙宝东

    2013-01-01

    剩余氨水焦油含量高影响了蒸氨系统及污水处理系统的正常运行,在引进微孔陶瓷过滤器后,针对除焦油器存在的问题,通过工艺优化和设备改进,降低了剩余氨水焦油含量,保证了生产正常运行。%High content of tar in coal water effects normal operations of ammonia distillation system and waste water treatment system .After microporous ceramic filter is introduced ,some shortcomings of coal tar remover are proved through process optimization and equipment improvement to reduce the content of tar in coal water and ensure normal operation .

  14. Feasibility of measuring the bioavailability of topical betamethasone dipropionate in commercial formulations using drug content in skin and a skin blanching bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershing, L K; Silver, B S; Krueger, G G; Shah, V P; Skelley, J P

    1992-01-01

    An in vivo technique has been developed which simultaneously compares a skin blanching bioassay with drug content in human stratum corneum following topical application of four 0.05% betamethasone dipropionate formulations. Bioavailability of drug from commercial cream and ointment formulations was assessed by quantification of drug content in tape-stripped stratum corneum and skin blanching in the treated skin site under occluded conditions. Tape-stripping removed stratum corneum to a varying degree between individuals but was consistent (35%) within an individual with all formulations, day to day. A correlation (r = 0.9935) between the amount of drug in the treated stratum corneum normalized for surface area and the corresponding skin blanching score was observed with four 0.05% betamethasone dipropionate formulations. Increasing the amount of drug in the tape-stripped stratum corneum correlated with an increased skin blanching score. Ointment formulations delivered more drug to the skin and produced greater blanching scores than the cream formulations. Topical corticosteroid content in the treated skin site can therefore be quantified and correlates well with the resulting pharmacodynamic activity.

  15. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford`s underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford`s organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes` future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as @ ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures.

  16. Factors Influencing Air Content of Pavement Concrete for Plateau Airport and Its Control Measures%高原机场道面混凝土含气量的影响因素及控制措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑国平; 洪刚; 王金华; 杨文科; 谭晓刚

    2012-01-01

    通过室内和现场试验,研究了青藏高原地区环境气压、拌合水温和细骨料含泥量对机场道面混凝土含气量的影响.结果表明,相同的配合比,高原地区混凝土含气量明显小于平原地区,引入的气泡数量少、消退快.砂子 含泥量对混凝土含气量和强度均有显著影响,拌合水温对含气量也有一定影响.为保证混凝土含气量,结合玉树机场实际情况,提出了相应的技术措施.%By indoor and in-situ experiments, the influences of environmental air pressure, temperature of mixing water and mud content of fine aggregate on the air content of airport pavement concrete were studied for Qinghai-Tibet plateau region. The results showed that the air content of concrete in plateau is much less than that in plain area at the same mix proportion. Number of air bubbles is less and the bubbles fade faster in plateau. The mud content of sand has a strong influence on both the air content and concrete strength. The temperature of mixing water also affects the air content of concrete. In order to ensure enough air content, some technique measures were put forward in the construction of Yushu Airport.

  17. Nondestructive measurement of moisture content of peanut kernels based on concentric cylindrical capacitance%基于同心轴圆筒式电容传感器的花生仁水分无损检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽清; 尚书旗; 高连兴; 胡修慧; 殷元元; 龚丽农

    2016-01-01

    Peanut is an important oil and economic crop, and also a major export product in China. Peanut industries manufacture many types of peanut-based products for human’s life. The moisture content of peanuts is in the range of 45%-50% when peanuts are freshly harvested, and the moisture content has to be below 10.5% in storage. High moisture content in peanut kernels can make them moldy, which mainly produces the toxic aflatoxins and causes huge waste and jeopardizes human’s health. Therefore it is necessary to keep proper moisture content in every treating process of peanuts. The detection of moisture content plays an important role in harvesting, drying, storage and trade of peanuts. Although the traditional oven-drying method has high precision, it is cumbersome and takes a lot of time. In addition to the oven-drying method and the microwave method, the near infrared method and the capacitance method are also common methods of moisture content detection. Comparing to other methods, the capacitance method has advantages of simple structure and low cost. In order to develop a rapid and accurate moisture content detection method for peanut kernels, the capacitance method was adopted to measure moisture content by using dielectric properties of grain. A peanut kernel moisture content detector was designed; MSP430 single chip microcomputer was taken as its control chip, and cylindrical capacitance sensor, temperature sensor and weighing sensor were used to detect capacitance, temperature and bulk density of peanut kernels respectively. Capacitance was converted to frequency through the signal detection and conditioning circuit, and frequency was detected when the capacitance sensor was empty or full of peanut kernels samples. The difference frequency values were processed and calculated by the single chip microcomputer. Subsequently an equation of measured difference frequency, temperature and moisture content values was established by the oven-drying method, and the

  18. A Mini NMR Sensor for Measuring Water Content inside Large Timber%一种测量大型原木内部水分的微型NMR传感器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭盼; 籍勇亮; 何为; 徐征

    2015-01-01

    The content and distribution of water in wood affect its performance. So far, most technologies to measure water content/distribution can only be applied to small wood samples. A method to measure the water content inside large timber is urgently needed, given that information on water content/distribution inside the harvested timber is often required before the timber can be processed to products. In this work, a mini cylindrical NMR sensor (i.e., 28 mm in diameter and 60 mm in length) for measuring water content inside large timber was designed. The sensitive volume is a coaxial ring just outside of the sensor. For measurement, the sensor needs to be placed inside a hole drilled on the timber, which has a similar diameter with the sensor. By moving the sensor around the wall of the hole, the NMR parameters of the timber could be measured. Preliminary experimental results showed that the sensor can detect signals from both free water and the bound water in large timber, and such signals can be used to calculate relative water contents.%木材中的水分对木材的性能有着决定性的影响,目前测量木材水分的方法多适用于小型木材的检测。然而,当树木被砍伐后,在加工前希望了解其内部水分状态,因此需要一种方法来检测大型原木的水分。该文设计了一种微型核磁共振(NMR)传感器,该传感器为圆柱型结构(直径为28 mm,长度为60 mm),测量区域位于传感器外侧,形成与传感器同轴的圆环。测量前,需在被测部位凿一个与传感器直径相当的孔。测量时传感器沿着孔壁测量即可获得对应位置的 NMR 参数信息。初步实验结果表明,该传感器可以分辨被测木材中自由水和束缚水的分布以及各部位水分的相对含量。

  19. 透平油微水含量在线检测方法研究综述%A Survey on the Method of the On-line Measurement of the Water Content in the Turbine Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭洪波; 张志强; 于达仁; 徐基豫

    2001-01-01

    论述了透平油中的水分对机组产生的危害,综述了国内外微水含量检测方法的现状,指出了目前开展透平油含水量在线检测研究的必要性及发展方向。%This paper discussed the imperiling of the water in the turbine oil, introduced the present status of the water content measurement method,pointed out the necessity and the way of developing the method of the on-line measurement of the water content in the turbine oil.

  20. 男性人体测量指标与体脂含量相关性分析%Analysis of the Relationship Between Anthropometric Measurements and Body Fat Content in Men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立军; 陆强; 孟令刚; 焦俊凤; 王锐; 刘波; 尹福在; 马春明; 秦春梅

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨男性人体测量指标与体脂含量的相关性.[方法]选取 20~50岁男性 89例为研究对象,根据体重指数分为 3组.应用双能X线进行体脂含量测定.[结果]超重组和肥胖组体脂含量,总体脂肪质量和躯干脂肪质量均高于对照组(P<0.05).体脂含量与体重指数(r =0.765),腰围(r =0.798),腰围身高比(r =0.809)和腰臀比(r =0.665)均呈正相关(P<0.01).以体脂含量为因变量,行多元线性回归显示,腰围身高比(β=93.983,P=0.000,R2=0.654)被引入方程.[结论]男性人体测量指标与体脂含量密切相关,利用简单的人体测量指标推算体脂含量是可行的,但有待流行病学研究进一步证实.%[Objective]To explore the relationship between anthropometric measurements and body fat content in men.[Methods]Totally 89 men aged 20~50 years old were enrolled in this study.According to body mass index, these men were assigned to 3 groups.Body fat content was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.[Results]Body fat content, total body fat mass and trunk fat mass in overweight and obese group were higher than those in control group( P <0.05).Body fat content was positively correlated with body mass index(r=0.765), waist circumference(r=0.798), waist to height ratio(r=0.809) and waist to hip ratio(r=0.665) ( P <0.01).Multiple linear regression analysis showed that waist to height ratio(β= 93.983, P= 0.000, R2=0.654) was the independent predictor for body fat content.[Conclusion]Anthropo metric measurements in men are closely correlated with body fat content in men.Simple anthropometric meas urement for estimating body fat content is feasible, but should be further confirmed by epidemiological studies.

  1. 玉米杆灰中全钾量的快速测定方法的研究%THE STUDY FAST-SPEED TO TAKE MEASURES OF POTASSIUM-CONTENT IN MAIZE ASH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴凤山; 冯桂荷

    2001-01-01

    钾是农作物所必需的三大营养元素之一,本文叙述了快速测定玉米杆灰中钾含量的方法.%Potassium is one of the element in the three essential nutrients for growth of the ugriclitural produce.In this articles,give a description of way on fast-speed to take measures of potassium-content in maize ash.

  2. Changes in G+C content of a neutrally evolving gene under a non-reversible dynamics measured by computer simulations based on experimental evolution data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Brunstein

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of non-reversibility on compositional base changes and the distribution of branch lengths along a phylogeny, we extended, by means of computer simulations, our previous sequential PCR in vitro evolution experiment. In that study a 18S rRNA gene evolved neutrally for 280 generations and a homogeneous non-stationary model of base substitution based on a non-reversible dynamics was built from the in vitro evolution data to describe the observed pattern of nucleotide substitutions. Here, the process was extended to 840 generations without selection, using the model parameters calculated from the in vitro evolution experiment. We observed that under a non-reversible model the G+C content of the sequences significantly increases when compared to simulations with a reversible model. The values of mean and variance of the branch lengths are reduced under a non-reversible dynamics although they follow a Poisson distribution. We conclude that the major implication of non-reversibility is the overall decrease of branch lengths, although no transition from a stochastic to an ordered process is observed. According to our model the result of this neutral process will be the increase in the G+C content of the descendant sequences with an overall decrease in the frequency of substitutions.

  3. Measuring various anions content in water with ion chromatography method%离子色谱法测定水中多种阴离子的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐胜

    2014-01-01

    介绍了离子色谱仪的工作原理与工作流程,对离子色谱法测定水中多种阴离子含量的试验方法进行了论述,通过试验得到了水中各离子的标准物质色谱图、标准曲线及标准溶液度的偏差等,指出运用离子色谱法测定水中阴离子含量操作方便,效率高。%The paper introduces the working principles and working procedures of ion chromatography, discusses various anions content testing method with ion chromatography method, and achieves their standard chromatogram, standard curve and standard solution errors and so on, and finally points out advantages of applying ion chromatography method to test anions content, such as convenient operation and high efficiency.

  4. 顾及空间相关性的遥感影像信息量的度量方法%Measure of Information Content of Remotely Sensed Images Accounting for Spati al Correl ation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张盈; 张景雄

    2015-01-01

    A measure is proposed based on the information theory and geostatistics to evaluate information content in remotely sensed images .The method is based on the additive noise model and maximum mutual information T.hese factors affecting the information content have been taken into account ,such as noise , spatial correlation and so on .It is suitable for measuring the information content in optical images that have robust spati al correl ation with different l and cover types .An experiment was performed on a Landsat TM image with three different kinds of l and cover types (city ,farml and and mountain) .The result shows that city has the most information content .It also proves that there is a log positive correl ation between information content and the vari ance of the images .%提出了一种结合信息论与地学统计法的遥感影像信息量计算的方法。此方法基于遥感影像加性噪声模型和互信息上界的计算原理,同时考虑了噪声和空间相关性等影响遥感影像信息量的因素,适于计算具有稳健空间相关性、不同地物类型的光学影像的信息含量。利用Landsat TM影像子集,分别计算了城市、农田、山地3种不同地物类型的影像信息量。结果表明,城市含有最大的信息量,同时影像信息量与影像方差呈对数正相关关系。

  5. 百草枯水剂中百草枯含量测量不确定度评估%Evaluation of Measurement Uncertainty in Determination of Paraquat Content in Paraquat Water Aqua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱利利; 裴亭; 包素萍

    2013-01-01

    测定农药百草枯水剂中百草枯的含量,分析评定测量过程的不确定度来源,计算合成不确定度,并给出百草枯测量不确定度表达式.%Content of the herbicide paraquat in Paraquat Water Aqua was determined,sources of uncertainty in the measurement process were identified and evaluated,compound uncertainty was calculated,and a formula for estimating uncertainty in the the measurement of paraquat is provided.

  6. 基于温湿度传感器测量织物含水率%Measuring Moisture Content of Fabric with Temperature and Humidity Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    来顺昌; 李霆

    2013-01-01

    Moisture content is a significant parameter throughout almost every process of textile industry. In this article, an online monitoring system was proposed based on temperature and humidity sensors for detecting fabric moisture according to ambient requirements. The results show that the system is easy to use, high precision, and suitable for process monitoring and scientific research.%含水率是纺织行业中一项重要参数,几乎贯穿于每一个工艺过程。本文根据现场环境要求,设计了一套基于温湿度传感器的在线检测系统,以实现对布匹含水率的检测。实验结果表明,该系统使用方便、精度高,适合于生产检测及科学研究。

  7. EDTA Complexometric Titration Measuring Aluminum Content of Propellant%EDTA络合滴定法测定推进剂中铝含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧云; 王金英; 吴宏杰; 闫利东; 刘丽

    2016-01-01

    A method for the determination of aluminum content in solid propellant with fluoride replacement-ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid(EDTA) titrimetry was reported in this paper. An excess EDTA solution was added to aluminum solution and completed the complexation with aluminum ions, with xylenol orange as indicator, the excess of EDTA was dropped back with a standard solution of Pb2+, then, fluoride was added and boiled, which released the same amount of EDTA as aluminum, through the titration of the Pb2+ standard solution, the mass fraction of aluminum was calculated. This method can be used to analyze the aluminum content in gunpowder, explosive, propellant, solid propellant and others, the relative standard deviation is 0.1%~0.2%(n=6),the accuracy up to 98%.%采用乙二胺四乙酸二钠(EDTA)络合-氟盐取代滴定法测定固体推进剂中的铝含量.向铝溶液中加入过量的EDTA溶液,使其与溶液中的铝离子完全络合,以二甲酚橙为指示剂,用铅的标准溶液回滴过量EDTA,加入氟化物并煮沸,释放出与铝等量的EDTA,再用铅的标准溶液滴定,由此计算铝的质量分数.该方法可用于分析火炸药、发射药、固体推进剂等中的铝含量,其相对标准偏差在0.1%~0.2%之间(n=6),准确度达98%以上.

  8. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  9. A simplified traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) specification model based on TID Detector Built In Texas (TIDDBIT) and GPS total electron content (TEC) measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duly, T. M.; Crowley, G.; Azeem, I.

    2015-12-01

    There is currently a great deal of interest in Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs) from both an observational and modeling perspective, especially as they apply to operational systems that rely on nowcasting the ionospheric state. ASTRA has developed a new observational system to measure TID characteristics called TIDDBIT (TID Detector Built in Texas). TIDDBIT is a fully digital HF Doppler sounder that uses CW signals across a spaced array. TIDDBIT systems have been deployed in Texas, Virginia, Florida, Hawaii, and Peru. TIDDBIT measures the entire wave packet, including the horizontal and vertical phase propagation speeds as a function of TID period from the acoustic (1-min) to the gravity wave (10-90 min) part of the spectrum. It is desirable to be able to use these data to specify the TID structure not only at the measurement height, but to extend it in 3D to greater and lower heights, and beyond the immediate vicinity of the TIDDBIT system. We present a simplified model to specify TIDs based on the ion continuity equation for plasma density (Hooke 1970). Linearity of the neutral wind perturbations is assumed, and the different spectral components of the measured TID perturbations are added linearly. We use TID observations from the TIDDBIT sounder in Virginia and Peru as input into the model, and develop a 4D regional specification (spanning ~500 x 500 km in the horizontal direction and 90-1000 km altitude range) of both the perturbed electron density and the perturbed neutral wind from the corresponding atmospheric gravity wave (AGW). The model is also applied to TID measurements derived by GPS TEC measurements from the continental United States during the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Earthquake to study the theoretical launch angle of AGWs from the west coast of the United States.

  10. Measuring the ash content of coal using natural gamma radiation. Medida del contenido de cenizas de carbones mediante radioactividad gamma natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legazpi, P.V.

    1990-10-01

    The receipt of consignments of coal at a power station can present serious problems. These concern not only the vast quantities of material involved and the associated problem of analysis, but also the decision as to whether the consignment is acceptable or not. A method based on natural radioactivity can provide an approximate analysis of ash content in under five minutes. In discussing approximate values it must be remembered that about 5% of the consignment is analysed, which implies some minimal sampling errors. This is also a technique which can be readily automated and adapted for use on lorries, rail cars and conveyors to provide a complete sampling system. It does not require special certification for the use of radiation equipment or any form of special protection. The accumulated error when using this method is amply compensated for by manpower costs and other expenditure resulting from sampling errors and the ease with which other methods may be fixed. The system yields very favourable economic benefits in the short term. 7 figs.

  11. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) measurement by GC-MS in blood, urine and gastric contents, following an acute intoxication in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodson, Q; Denooz, R; Serpe, P; Charlier, C

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB, sodium oxybate) is a compound related to neuromodulator gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), emerging as a recreational drug of abuse and as a rape drug. GHB-related emergencies have dramatically increased in the 1990s, but a decrease is observed since 2000. We describe the case of an acute GHB intoxication in a 28-year-old male who fell unconscious after ingestion of a mouthful of an unknown beverage, and required medical support for 2 days. A cocaine abuse was also detected by preliminary toxicological screening, but the clinical presentation was not typical of cocaine intoxication. A simple liquid-liquid extraction was used for quantitation of GHB, followed by disilyl-derivatization and analysis in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using GHB-d6 as internal standard. High concentrations of GHB were detected in urine (3020 mg/L) and gastric contents (71487 mg/L) at admission. After a 6-hours delay, GHB was still present in urine at 2324 mg/L and in blood at 43 mg/L. The clinical symptoms of cocaine intoxication were diminished by GHB consumption, and the cerebral scan was modified. Attention must thus be paid to acute intoxications with surprising clinical symptoms, and GHB has probably to be added to the preliminary toxicological screening. Data available regarding GHB are briefly reviewed, and our results are compared with previously published reports of non-fatal GHB intoxication.

  12. A high-throughput and solvent-free method for measurement of natural polyisoprene content in leaves by Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeno, Shinya; Bamba, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Yoshihisa; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Okazawa, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Akio

    2008-12-01

    Commercial development of natural polyisoprene from polyisoprene-producing plants requires detailed knowledge on how to select high-polyisoprene-content lines and establish agronomic cultivation methods for achieving maximum polyisoprene yield. This development can be facilitated by a high-throughput quantification method for natural polyisoprene. In this paper, we describe the Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) technique coupled with a partial least squares (PLS) regression model to quantify natural polyisoprene in Eucommia ulmoides leaves. PLS regression models are discussed with respect to linearity, root-mean-square error of estimation (RMSEE), and root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP). The best PLS regression model was obtained with second derivative NIR spectra in the region between 4000-6000 cm(-1) (R2Y, 0.95; RMSEE, 0.25; RMSEP, 0.37). This is the first report to employ FT-NIR analysis for high throughput and solvent-free quantification of natural polyisoprene in leaves.

  13. Influencing Factor Analysis and Control Measures of Concrete Air Content%混凝土含气量影响因素分析及控制措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春明

    2015-01-01

    结合现场监控试验,从混凝土的各个阶段着重对混凝土含气量的影响因素进行分析.通过对混凝土坍落度、砂率及砂细度模数、胶凝材料总量、混凝土运输车转速、引气剂掺量、布料振捣过程中的多种对比试验,得出相关数据说明影响的程度.%The field monitoring test has been adopted to analyze the influencing factors on air content of concrete at different stages. In addition, the influencing extent is explained on the basis of relevant data which are obtained through various contrast tests on concrete slump constant, modulus of grain ratio and grain fineness number, amount of gelling materials, rotate speed of concrete truck, amount of concrete air-entraining agent, materials distribution and vibration.

  14. 酶水解法测定玉米中淀粉含量方法的探讨%The Measurement of Starch Content in Corn by Enzyme Hydrolysis Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄景禄; 刘海明; 王旭艳; 高凤宇

    2015-01-01

    玉米中淀粉含量的测定方法有很多,GB/T 5514—2008标准中规定采用酶水解法对玉米中的淀粉含量进行测定,但该方法存在结果偏低、偏差较大的缺点。本实验对标准中的实验方法及相关条件,如玉米称样量、加水量、液化酶用量、液化温度、液化时间、水浴条件、过滤方式、加酸量等,进行了优化并对实验中存在的问题进行了分析和探讨,优化后的方法适合玉米中淀粉含量的测定,具有实用、准确、稳定性好的特点。%There are many methods for the measurement of starch content in corn. GB/T 5514-2008 provides that enzyme hydrolysis method is adopted for the measurement of starch content in corn. However, such method has the disadvantages such as comparatively low measuring re-sults and comparatively high deviations. In this study, the related technical parameters in enzyme hydrolysis method (sample weight, water add-ing level, the use level of liquefied enzyme, liquefying temperature, liquefying time, water bathing conditions, filtration modes, acid adding lev-el etc.) were explored and further optimized. After technical optimization, enzyme hydrolysis method was suitable for the measurement of starch content in corn and it had the features such as practical, high-accuracy, and good stability.

  15. Measurement of temperature conditions in grate zone of a 1 MW wood-pellets boiler fired with high ash content wood-pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Skotland, Christer Heen

    2009-01-01

    The combustion of biomass could in some cases lead to ash problems induced by high temperatures such as ash sintering, agglomeration and melting. The degrees of these problems depend on the fuel feedstock and are highly dependent on the amount of potassium, sodium and chlorine in the biomass. Straw, grass, bark, branches and wood residues are typical examples of biomass fuels that are connected to the mentioned ash problems.Addition of additives in the problematic fuels is a possible measure ...

  16. Measurement of the CP Content and CP Violating Asymmetries in Neutral B Decays to Two D Mesons with the BaBar Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lillard, V.

    2005-04-25

    This dissertation presents a measurement of time-dependent CP-violating asymmetries and a measurement of the CP-odd parity fraction in the decay B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +} D*{sup -}. The measurements are derived from a data sample of 88 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. A one-dimensional angular analysis of the decay products measures the CP-odd fraction to be 0.063 {+-} 0.055(stat) {+-} 0.009(syst), indicating that the D*{sup +}D*{sup -} final state is mostly CP-even. The time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters Im({lambda}{sub +}) and |{lambda}{sub +}| are determined from an analysis of the time-dependence of flavor-tagged B decays. One neutral B meson is fully reconstructed in a D*{sup +} D*{sup -} final state, while the other B is inclusively reconstructed in order to determine its flavor. The Standard Model predicts the CP asymmetry parameters Im({lambda}{sub +}) and |{lambda}{sub +}| to be sin2{beta} and 1, respectively, in the absence of penguin diagram contributions. They are determined to be 0.05 {+-} 0.29(stat) {+-} 0.10(syst) and 0.75 {+-} 0.19(stat) {+-} 0.02(syst), respectively, which corresponds to a 2.5 sigma deviation from Standard Model predictions with penguin contributions ignored.

  17. An experimental evaluation of the State Adult Attachment Measure: the influence of attachment primes on the content of state attachment representations

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Guy; Bowles, David P.; Dewitte, Marieke; Winter, Simon; Braet, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory predicts cross-contextual stability of attachment representations, but research findings are rather mixed. Recently, it has been suggested that these mixed findings reflect the existence of both state and trait attachment components. The development of the State Adult Attachment Measure (SAAM) has enabled an investigation of this hypothesis. The current study aimed to evaluate the extent to which the SAAM is a useful instrument for studying such state attachment hypotheses. ...

  18. Patient-reported outcome measures for systemic lupus erythematosus clinical trials: a review of content validity, face validity and psychometric performance

    OpenAIRE

    Holloway, Laura; Humphrey, Louise; Heron, Louise; Pilling, Claire; Kitchen, Helen; Højbjerre, Lise; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Hansen, Brian Bekker

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite overall progress in treatment of autoimmune diseases, patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) experience many inflammatory symptoms representing an unmet medical need. This study aimed to create a conceptual model of the humanistic and economic burden of SLE, and review the patient-reported outcomes (PROs) used to measure such concepts in SLE clinical trials. Methods A conceptual model for SLE was developed from structured review of published articles from 2007 to ...

  19. An experimental evaluation of the State Adult Attachment Measure: The Influence of Attachment Primes on the Content of State Attachment Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Guy; Bowles, David; Dewitte, Marieke; Winter, Simon; Braet, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory predicts cross-contextual stability of attachment representations, but research findings are rather mixed. Recently, it has been suggested that these mixed findings reflect the existence of both state and trait attachment components. The development of the State Adult Attachment Measure (SAAM) has enabled an investigation of this hypothesis. The current study aimed to evaluate the extent to which the SAAM is a useful instrument for studying such state attachment hypotheses. ...

  20. Measurement of the strange quark content of nucleon: G{sup 0} experiment; Mesure du contenu etrange du nucleon: experience G{sup 0}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batigne, G

    2003-12-01

    The G{sup 0} project is a parity violation experiment dedicated to the measurement of the proton weak and axial form factors by means of electron-proton scattering. Combining these weak form factors with the electromagnetic ones makes possible the extraction of the contribution of strange quarks to the charge and magnetization distribution in the nucleon. This thesis presents the strategy used for the G{sup 0} experiment, the different subsystems and the first results from its engineering run. The counting rate asymmetries, at the order of 10-5, are measured over a large range in transferred momentum (Q{sup 2} = 0.1 to 1 (GeV/c){sup 2}) with expected precision at the level of 10{sup -7}. A deadtime correction program has been developed which allows to correct 90% of the counting losses and to reduce associated false asymmetries at the level of 10-8. A method has been defined to extract the measured values of Q{sup 2} with a precision of 1%. The first preliminary results of G{sup 0} on parity violation asymmetries are also shown. (author)

  1. Use of three new SSNTD methods for evaluating thorium contents in different building materials and measuring thoron and its progeny concentrations inside dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misdaq, M A

    2002-08-01

    Three new methods based on using CR-39 and LR- 115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) were used for measuring thorium concentrations (in 10(-6)g/g (ppm)) inside different building materials and evaluating the resulting concentrations of thoron and its progenies in dwellings built by the studied materials. The first technique consists of determining the probabilities for alpha-particles emitted by the uranium and thorium series inside the building materials or by the radon and thoron groups inside the dwelling atmosphere to reach and be registered as tracks on the SSNTD utilized and exploiting the resulting track density rates. The second method consists of evaluating the mean critical angles of etching of the CR-39 and LR-115 II SSNTD and measuring the resulting track densities registered on the detectors utilized. The third technique is based on calculating the detection efficiencies of the CR-39 and LR-115 II SSNTD for a-particles emitted by the uranium and thorium series in the building materials or by the radon and thoron groups in air and measuring track density rates registered on these detectors. The influence of the building material's nature and ventilation rate on the thoron and its decay products inside the dwelling rooms studied has been investigated.

  2. Redução da influência da massa específica na determinação do teor de umidade de sementes de trigo Density-independent moisture content measurement of wheat seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Amorim Berbert

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A medição da capacitância e da condutância de um capacitor contendo amostras de trigo permite a determinação de duas de suas propriedades dielétricas: a permissividade relativa (épsilon' e o fator de perda dielétrica (épsilon". A utilização dessas propriedades, medidas simultaneamente em duas freqüências de oscilação do campo elétrico, permite reduzir ou eliminar o efeito da massa específica aparente na determinação do teor de umidade do trigo. Tal procedimento torna possível o monitoramento contínuo e em tempo real, sem a necessidade de retirar amostras, do teor de umidade de uma coluna de grãos em movimento, situação em que ocorrem as maiores variações na massa específica do produto. O objetivo deste trabalho consistiu na obtenção de equações que permitam reduzir ou eliminar o efeito da massa específica na determinação em linha do teor de umidade do trigo. Foram utilizadas amostras das variedades Hussar, Mercia e Hereward com teor de umidade entre 11% e 22% b.u. e massa específica no intervalo 666 kg m-3 Measurement of the capacitance and conductance of a capacitor filled with samples of wheat allows the determination of two dielectric properties of the material: the relative permissivity (epsilon', and the dielectric loss factor (epsilon". The use of these two properties, measured simultaneously at two different frequencies of the electric field, permits bulk density-independent measurement of moisture content of wheat. This procedure makes it possible to monitor moisture content continuously, and on-line, of a moving column of grain, a situation where the greatest variations in bulk density are to be expected. The objective of the present research was the derivation of density-independent equations for the determination of moisture content of wheat. Samples of varieties Hussar, Mercia and Hereward at moisture contents ranging from 11% to 22% w.b., and bulk densities ranging from 666 to 873 kg m-3 have been

  3. Bulk measurement of copper and sodium content in CuIn(0.7)Ga(0.3)Se(2) (CIGS) solar cells with nanosecond pulse length laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalczyk, Jeremy M D; DeAngelis, Alexander; Kaneshiro, Jess; Mallory, Stewart A; Chang, Yuancheng; Gaillard, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we show that laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with a nanosecond pulse laser can be used to measure the copper and sodium content of CuIn(0.7)Ga(0.3)Se(2) (CIGS) thin film solar cells on molybdenum. This method has four significant advantages over methods currently being employed: the method is inexpensive, measurements can be taken in times on the order of one second, without high vacuum, and at distances up to 5 meters or more. The final two points allow for in-line monitoring of device fabrication in laboratory or industrial environments. Specifically, we report a linear relationship between the copper and sodium spectral lines from LIBS and the atomic fraction of copper and sodium measured via secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), discuss the ablation process of this material with a nanosecond pulse laser compared to shorter pulse duration lasers, and examine the depth resolution of nanosecond pulse LIBS.

  4. Content Based Video Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Patel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Content based video retrieval is an approach for facilitating the searching and browsing of large image collections over World Wide Web. In this approach, video analysis is conducted on low level visual properties extracted from video frame. We believed that in order to create an effective video retrieval system, visual perception must be taken into account. We conjectured that a technique which employs multiple features for indexing and retrieval would be more effective in the discrimination and search tasks of videos. In order to validate this claim, content based indexing and retrieval systems were implemented using color histogram, various texture features and other approaches. Videos were stored in Oracle 9i Database and a user study measured correctness of response.

  5. Measurement of CP Content and Time-Dependent CP Violation in B0 → D*+D*- Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Jacob M. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2008-12-01

    This dissertation presents the measurement of the Cp-odd fraction and time-dependent CP violation parameters for the B0 → D*+ D*- decay. These results are based on the full BABAR dataset of (467 ± 5) x 106 B$\\bar{B}$ pairs collected at the PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. An angular analysis finds that the CP-odd fraction of the B0 →D*+ D*- decay is Rperpendicular = 0.158 ± 0.028 ± 0.006, where the first uncertainty is statistical, and the second is systematic. A fit to the flavor-tagged, time-dependent, angular decay rate yields C+ = 0.02 ± 0.12 ± 0.02; Cperpendicular = 0.41 ± 0.50 ± 0.08; S+ = -0.76 ± 0.16 ± 0.04; S perpendicular = -1.81 ± 0.71 ± 0.16, for the CP-odd (perpendicular) and CP-even (plus) contributions. Constraining these two contributions to be the same results in C = 0.047 ± 0.091 ± 0.019; S = -0.71 ± 0.16 ± 0.03. These measurements are consistent with the Standard Model and with measurements of sin2β from B0 → (c$\\bar{c}$)K0 decays.

  6. Interferometric measurements of dry mass content in nuclei and cytoplasm in the life cycle of antheridial filaments cells of Chara vulgaris L. in their successive developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kuran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric measurements of the nucleus and cytoplasm dry mass during interphase in the successive stages of development of antheridial filaments of Chara vulgaris demonstrated that the dry mass and surface area of cell nuclei double in size in each of the successive generations of the filaments, whereas neither the surface nor the dry mass of the cytoplasm increase in such proportion in the same period. In the successive stages of development of the antheridial filaments the dry mass and surface area of the nuclei and cytoplasm gradually diminish.

  7. 原料乳中苯甲酸质量分数控制措施的研究进展%Research advance in the control measures of the content of benzoic acid in raw milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晰晖; 任国谱

    2013-01-01

    对苯甲酸对人体的危害、在原料乳中的主要来源以及原料乳的卫生质量、马尿酸的质量分数和人为添加等因素对原料乳中苯甲酸质量分数的影响进行了综述,对提高原料乳的卫生质量、安全无毒的防腐措施和快速高效的检测手段等控制原料乳中苯甲酸质量分数的方法进行了讨论..%The research advance in the harm of benzoic acid to the body ,the source of it in raw milk and in factors influencing the content of benzoic acid such as hygienic quality of raw milk.the content of hippuric acid,anthropic addition were summarized in the paper.In addition,this paper discussed the methods how to cntrol the content of benzoic acid in raw milk including improving the hygienic quality of raw milk,se-cure and nontoxic antiseptic measures, fast and effective detecting methods.

  8. Measurement of Nitrogen Content in Nitrocellulose of Gunpowder by Runger’s Method%龙格氮量计法测定火药中硝化棉含氮量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永士; 张彬; 魏晗

    2016-01-01

    Energy from the gunpowder has a direct relationship with the nitrogen content of nitrocellulose. Nitrocellulose is one of the main sources of energy in the powder. With the continuous decomposition of gunpowder in the process of storage, the nitrogen content of nitrocellulose reduces gradually, the energy declines, the mechanical strength reduces, and the ballistic performance deteriorates. So it is very important to measure nitrogen content in nitrocellulose of gunpowder by Runger’s method.%火药能量的大小与硝化棉含氮量的高低有着直接关系。硝化棉是火药中的主要能量来源之一。由于火药在贮存过程中的不断分解,使硝化棉含氮量逐渐减少,能量下降,机械强度降低和弹道性能变坏,用龙格氮量计法测定库存火药中硝化棉的含氮量具有重要意义。

  9. A Comparison of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Muscle Fat Content in the Lumbar Paraspinal Muscles with Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Patients with Lumbar Degenerative Disk Disease and Focal Disk Prolapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadresha, Ashwin; Lawrence, Owen John; McCarthy, Michael J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Objectives To assess the fatty atrophy of the lumbar paraspinal muscles (LPMs) as determined using magnetic resonance imaging in patients with lumbar degenerative disk disease (DDD) and focal disk herniation and to determine if fatty atrophy is associated with patient-reported outcome measures (PROMS). Methods One hundred sixty-five patients with lumbar DDD were identified from a PROMS database of >1,500 patients. These patients were divided into two study groups: DDD alone (n = 58) and DDD with disk herniation (n = 107). A grid was randomly applied to the axial scans at the L3–L4, L4–L5, and L5–S1 levels. The muscle-to-fat ratio of the LPMs was recorded and compared with PROMS data. Subcutaneous fat thickness at each level was also measured. Results This study found no difference in the muscle-to-fat ratio between the DDD and disk herniation groups. There was no association between the muscle-to-fat ratio and PROMS data in either group. There was significantly more subcutaneous fat at all levels in the DDD group as compared with the disk prolapse group. In DDD and disk prolapses, subcutaneous fat was thicker in women (p = 0.013 and 0.001). In patients with DDD, more subcutaneous fat was associated with disability (p Muscle content of erector spinae and multifidus negatively correlated with increasing age in both groups at the L3–L4 level. Conclusions Muscle fat content in the LPM does not appear to relate to PROMS. Muscle content decreases with age. Those with low back pain (DDD) have greater subcutaneous fat thickness. PMID:27190744

  10. A New Spectral Measurement Method of Oil Content in Sewage%污水含油量光谱测量新方法及其实验对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕妍

    2016-01-01

    Sewage with oil has great harm to water environment. It is a fast and easy way to obtain oil content in sewage with oil by using absorbance. In this paper, crude oil from oil field was dissolved in water with KQ-250DB numerical controlled ultrasonic cleaner, and the hydrochloric acid and petroleum ether were added for extraction of sewage water samples, oil contents in oily water samples wasrespectively measured by using traditional method and improved methods. At last, the measured results were analyzed contrastively.%含油污水对良好的水环境来说是一种极大的危害,应用吸光度获取含油污水中含油量是一种快捷、简便的方法。应用KQ-250DB型数控超声波清洗器将油田原油溶于水中,加入盐酸和石油醚对污水水样进行萃取,同时应用传统方法和改进方法对含油污水样品进行含油量测量,最后将测量结果进行对比分析。

  11. Variability of blood alcohol content (BAC) determinations: the role of measurement uncertainty, significant figures, and decision rules for compliance assessment in the frame of a multiple BAC threshold law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Tedeschi, Gianpaola; Frasson, Samuela; Zancanaro, Flavio; Sciarrone, Rocco

    2014-10-01

    The measurement of blood-alcohol content (BAC) is a crucial analytical determination required to assess if an offence (e.g. driving under the influence of alcohol) has been committed. For various reasons, results of forensic alcohol analysis are often challenged by the defence. As a consequence, measurement uncertainty becomes a critical topic when assessing compliance with specification limits for forensic purposes. The aims of this study were: (1) to investigate major sources of variability for BAC determinations; (2) to estimate measurement uncertainty for routine BAC determinations; (3) to discuss the role of measurement uncertainty in compliance assessment; (4) to set decision rules for a multiple BAC threshold law, as provided in the Italian Highway Code; (5) to address the topic of the zero-alcohol limit from the forensic toxicology point of view; and (6) to discuss the role of significant figures and rounding errors on measurement uncertainty and compliance assessment. Measurement variability was investigated by the analysis of data collected from real cases and internal quality control. The contribution of both pre-analytical and analytical processes to measurement variability was considered. The resulting expanded measurement uncertainty was 8.0%. Decision rules for the multiple BAC threshold Italian law were set by adopting a guard-banding approach. 0.1 g/L was chosen as cut-off level to assess compliance with the zero-alcohol limit. The role of significant figures and rounding errors in compliance assessment was discussed by providing examples which stressed the importance of these topics for forensic purposes.

  12. Monitoring the bio-stimulation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by measurements of soil electrical properties, and CO2 content and its 13C/12C isotopic signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, C.; Gourry, J.; Ignatiadis, I.; Colombano, S.; Dictor, M.; Guimbaud, C.; Chartier, M.; Dumestre, A.; Dehez, S.; Naudet, V.

    2013-12-01

    IP surveys are performed regularly to monitor the stimulated biodegradation and progress of remediation until soil cleanup. Microbial activity is characterized by CO2 production increase and δ13C isotopic deviation, in the produced CO2 measured by infrared laser spectroscopy, and by an evolution of electrical conductivity and IP responses in correlation with microbiological and chemical analyses.

  13. Fluoride Content in Alcoholic Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Goschorska, Marta; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Ra?, Monika Ewa; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of alcoholic drinks as a potential source of dietary fluoride by means of measuring fluoride levels in selected alcoholic drinks available on the Polish market that are also diverse in terms of the percentage content of ethanol. The study was conducted on 48 types of drinks with low, medium, and high alcohol content available on the Polish market and offered by various manufacturers, both Polish and foreign. Fluoride concentrations in individual ...

  14. Validade de conteúdo nos processos de construção e adaptação de instrumentos de medidas Content validity in the development and adaptation processes of measurement instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Maria Costa Alexandre

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo realizar uma revisão sobre validade de conteúdo, fase importante nos processos de construção e adaptação de instrumentos de medida. Foi realizada pesquisa bibliográfica definida como integrativa, por meio de pesquisa a bases de dados nacionais e internacionais. Iniciou-se a descrição das bases conceituais e os métodos de medidas usados em validade de conteúdo, com ênfase na área da saúde. Verificou-se que existem controvérsias na literatura sobre a terminologia e o conceito da validade de conteúdo. Foram descritos os procedimentos recomendados para realizar a validade de conteúdo durante os processos de construção e de adaptação de instrumentos, particularmente a avaliação por juízes, o que pode envolver procedimentos qualitativos e quantitativos. Descreveu-se número, seleção e qualificação desses juízes. Os diferentes métodos para quantificar o grau de concordância entre os especialistas foram analisados, principalmente o Índice de Validade de Conteúdo (IVC. Este estudo descreveu aspectos do processo de realização da validade de conteúdo, um dos procedimentos a serem considerados por pesquisadores e profissionais da área de saúde preocupados em utilizarem medidas e instrumentos confiáveis e apropriados para determinada população.This study sought to conduct a review of content validity, which is an important phase of processes of construction and adaptation of measurement instruments. Research of comprehensive literature was conducted by means of a review of national and international databases. Initially, a description of the conceptual basis and the measurement methods used in content validity was made, with emphasis on its application in the healthcare area. It was seen that controversy exists in the literature on the terminology and concept of content validity. The recommended procedures used to check content validity during the construction and adaptation processes of

  15. 不同耕作措施对玉米植株磷含量的影响%Effect of Different Farming Measures on Phosphorus Content of Corn Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春虎; 杨文平

    2011-01-01

    The effect of different cultivation measures on phosphorus content of corn plant and its dynamic change were explored under the wheat-corn annual double cropping farming systems, to find the best cultivation measures. The randomized block arrangement was applied, with 4 treatments and 8 replications. The test results indicated that the difference of corn plant phosphorus content reached to significant level under the different disposals and different periods. With the comparison of the average phosphorus content of different organs by various processing on maize plants,the processing ① (wheat straw returning to field + deep plough) was the highest. The phosphorus content of root, stem, leaves and male ear was separately 0. 46, 0. 43, 0.27 and 0. 43 g/kg higher than the processing ④(wheat straw not returning to field + no-tillage), improving 10. 72%, 12. 72%, 6.43% and 15. 58%. At the filling-mature stage, the comparison of phosphorus content of female ear showed that the processing③(wheat straw returning to field + no-tillage) was 0. 70 g/kg higher than the processing ④,improving 16. 02 %.Through comprehensive analysis and comparison, the processing ③ was not only had high phosphorus content of female ear, but also had most total phosphorus uptake in the whole growth period, so it was beneficial to the reproductive growth and grain filling of com. It was easy for getting high yield and could economize the labor quantity and time. It was advantageous to earlier development of the corn plants and enhanced their lodging-resistance. Thus, the cultivation measures of processing ③ should be extended in production.%在小麦一玉米一年两熟农作制度下进行了不同耕作措施对玉米植株磷含量的影响及其动态变化规律研究,以寻求最佳耕作措施.采用随机区组排列,设4个处理,8次重复.结果表明,各处理玉米植株不同器官含磷量以处理①(麦秸还田+深旋耕)较高,根系含磷量比

  16. Measurement of Chlorophyll Content and Distribution in Tea Plant's Leaf Using Hyperspectral Imaging Technique%高光谱技术分析茶树叶片中叶绿素含量及分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杰文; 王开亮; 欧阳琴; 陈全胜

    2011-01-01

    植物叶片叶绿素含量及分布是植物营养信息表达的一个重要指标.以茶树为研究对象,利用高光谱技术分析茶树叶片中叶绿素含量及其分布.通过采集茶树鲜叶的高光谱图像,利用7种不同的算法从高光谱数据中提取相应的特征参数,并根据特征参数和叶绿素含量的参考测量值分别拟合出相应的预测模型.结果显示,二次土壤调节植被指数算法提取的特征参数最佳,预测模型校正集和预测集的相关系数R分别为0.843 3和0.832 3,最小均方根误差分别为9.918和8.601.最后根据预测模型估计叶片上任意像素下叶绿素的含量,并通过伪彩手段描述叶片中叶绿素含量的分布.研究结果表明,利用高光谱成像技术分析茶树叶片中叶绿素含量及其分布是可行的.%Chlorophyll content and distribution in plant's leaves is an important index in estimation of plant nutrition information. In the present work, chlorophyll content and distribution in tea plant's leaves were measured by hyperspectral imaging technique. First, hyperspectral image data were captured from tea plant's leaves; then seven kinds of algorithms were used to extract the characteristic parameters from hyperspeetral image; finally, seven fitted models were developed using the characteristics vectors and the reference measurements of chlorophyll contents respectively. Experimental results showed that the MSAVI2 model is superior to other models, and the results of the MSAVI2 model was achieved as follows: R=0. 843 3 and RMSE=9. 918 in the calibration set; R=0. 832 3 and RMSE=8. 601 in the prediction set. Finally, the chlorophyll content of each pixel in image was estimated by the fitted model, and the distribution of chlorophyll content in the tea plant's leaf was described by pseudo-color map. This study sufficiently demonstrated that the chlorophyll content and distribution in tea leaf can be measured by hyperspectral imaging technique.

  17. 原子荧光光谱仪测定底泥中砷含量的不确定度评定%The Uncertainty Assessment of Measuring the Arsenic Content in Sludge with Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the uncertainty assessment in measuring the arsenic content in sludge with the atomic fluorescence spectrometer. The factors of uncertainty during the measurement are analyzed and identified. It presents a relatively comprehensive assessment of measurement uncertainty. According to the standard uncertainty of least squares method fitting calculation working curve, the standard uncertainty resulted from less measurements is assessed with the range method.%介绍了原子荧光光谱仪测定底泥中砷含量的不确定度评定方法,分析和识别测量过程中不确定度的来源,较为全面地评定了测量不确定度。根据最小二乘法拟合计算工作曲线的标准不确定度,采用极差法评定测量次数较少时引起的标准不确定度。

  18. 用高光谱成像技术检测柑橘红蜘蛛为害叶片的色素含量%Pigment content measurement for citrus red mite infected leaf using hyper-spectral imaging technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李震; 洪添胜; 倪慧娜; 李楠; 王建; 郑建宝; 林瀚

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the high workload and low efficiency problems while measuring the pigment content variation of citrus red mite infested leaves using the traditional physical and chemical methods, a novel pigment content measurement method for citrus red mite infested leaf using the hyper-spectral imaging technology was studied in this paper. In the research, 400 healthy leaves and 400 sick leaves were included as the test samples in which 350 healthy leaves and 350 sick leaves were utilized for model establishment and the other 50 leaves of each type were used for a model test. Each leaf’s original spectrum and its first order deviation in its particular healthy and sick area were acquired to investigate the characteristic spectrum bands which could mostly reflect the variation of leaf pigment content. The correlation between characteristic spectrum band ratios and pigment content was analyzed. An univariate linear regression method was applied to analyze the pigment content prediction effect using the common vegetation indexes. A leaf pigment content prediction model was established, using the stepwise regression method, and the model’s prediction ability was tested using the F test. Experimental results indicated that it is not satisfactory using the common vegetation indexes to predict leaf pigment content since they are not specially selected for citrus trees. The selected three characteristic spectrum band ratios of 667/522, 667/647, and 522/647 nm, each of which has a high correlation with a leaf’s three types of pigment content, were applied in the stepwise regression method to establish pigment content prediction models. Two out of three of the characteristic spectrum band ratios of 667/522 and 667/647 nm, which gave the best performance, were used as independent values for model establishment. The F test results indicated that the established models could preferably predict both healthy and sick leaves chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid

  19. Uncertainty Evaluation in Measurement of Sulfur Trioxide Content in Cement Chemical Analysis%水泥化学分析三氧化硫含量的测量不确定度评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕

    2015-01-01

    本文依据GB/T 176-2008《水泥化学分析方法》硫酸钡重量法基准法测量水泥的三氧化硫含量,分析了操作要点,并依据JJF 1059.1-2012《测量不确定度评定与表示》和CNAS-GL06《化学分析中不确定度的评估指南》,对硫酸钡重量法测量水泥中三氧化硫含量的不确定度进行评定。%According to the barium sulphate gravimetry method which is described in GB /T 176-2008 “Methods for Chemical Analysis of Cement” for chemical analysis of sulfur trioxide content of cement , the operating procedure is analyzed.And according to JJF 1059.1-2012 “Evaluation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement” and CNAS-GL06“Guidance on Evaluating the Uncertainty in Chemical Analysis”, the uncertainty in measurement of the barium sulphate gravimetry method for chemical analysis of sulfur trioxide content of ce -ment is evaluated.

  20. Information Content Analysis for the Multi-Viewing, Multi-Channel, Multi-Polarization Imaging (3MI) Instrument : Toward Retrieval of Vertically Resolved Cloud Properties from Passive Only Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedi, J.; Merlin, G.; Labonnote, L.; Cornet, C.; Ferlay, N.; Desmons, M.; Dubuisson, P.; Parol, F.; Davis, A. B.; Marbach, T.

    2014-12-01

    The EUMETSAT Polar System- Second Generation (EPS-SG) is currently under development to take over the current EUMETSAT Polar System at the 2020 horizon. As part of it, the Multi-Viewing Multi-Channel Multi-Polarization Imaging mission (3MI) will be dedicated to the operational monitoring of aerosols but will also provide unique observations for characterization of cloud properties building on the legacy of POLDER and particularly of its 3rd mission (PARASOL) within the A-Train. Through the synergy of POLDER3/PARASOL and MODIS/AQUA several studies have demonstrated the great interest of combining multispectral, multiangle and polarization measurements in the visible, near and shortwave infrared to better constrain retrieval of clouds microphysical and macrophysical properties. Remote-sensing of cloud thermodynamic phase (Riedi et al, 2010), liquid (Bréon and Doutriaux-Boucher, 2005) or ice clouds microphysics (Zhang et al, 2009; Cole et al, 2012), cloud radiative (Zeng et al, 2012) or macrophysical properties (Ferlay et al, 2010; Desmons et al, 2013) can unarguably benefit from the additional information content brought by polarization and multiangle measurements. At the same time, retrieval algorithms are gaining further complexity and skills. Thanks to availability of computational resources, practical implementation of optimal estimation or related optimization techniques (Delanoe & Hogan, 2008; Dubovik et al, 2013) have appeared that allow simultaneous and consistent retrieval of larger sets of parameters from constantly growing observations vectors. Therefore 3MI observations will not only allow to improve accuracy of future cloud products but also opens perspectives for the development of new retrieval algorithms. A major challenge for cloud remote-sensing from passive measurements is to obtain information on clouds properties vertical distribution and structure. Through results of a comprehensive information content analysis we will illustrate our current

  1. Evaluation of the Measurement Uncertainty for the Determination of Nitrogen Content in the Fertilizer by Kjeldahl Apparatus%定氮仪测定化肥中总氮含量不确定度评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国雄; 林兴发; 魏苗; 黎薇薇

    2011-01-01

    对使用凯氏定氮仪测定肥料中总氮含量方法进行不确定度评定,分析该测定方法中不确定度的来源,通过数字模型对各不确定度分量进行评定,并给出了结果的报告形式。%The uncertainty of measurement for the determination of nitrogen content in the fertilizer by Kjeldahl apparatus was evaluated in the paper.The determination of the sources of uncertainty for the method was analyzed.Through the digital model of the uncertainty components were assessed,and gives the results of the report form.

  2. Digital Content Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Halbheer; Florian Stahl; Oded Koenigsberg; Lehmann, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies content strategies for online publishers of digital information goods. It examines sampling strategies and compares their performance to paid content and free content strategies. A sampling strategy, where some of the content is offered for free and consumers are charged for access to the rest, is known as a "metered model" in the newspaper industry. We analyze optimal decisions concerning the size of the sample and the price of the paid content when sampling serves the dua...

  3. Preliminary Study on Regulating Measures for Increasing Potassium Content for Tobacco Leaves Ⅱ.Effects of the chemical and physiological regulation measures on the increase of potassium content of tobacco leaves%提高烟叶含钾量调控措施的研究初报 Ⅱ. 化学、生理调控对提高烟叶含钾量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪丽芳; 赵宗胜; 袁新民; 陈鹏

    2001-01-01

    在大田生产条件下,采用单株挂牌设置处理的研究方法,研究了强化施钾、打顶 抹杈以及喷施生长素等化学、生理调控措施对烤烟钾吸收及其在库源中再分配的影响。结果表明,打顶后根际集中补施K2SO4 和KNO3可以提高腰叶及其以上叶片含钾量,而补施KCl主要提高脚叶及下二棚叶片含钾量,现蕾后不打顶或打顶结合生长素处理茎断面有利于不同部位叶片含钾量的提高。%The effects of the chemical and physiological regulation measures such as adding potassium fertilizer by central dressing, removing the top and the branch from the plant and spraying IAA to the cut on potassium uptake and redistribution in sink and source in tobacco were studied under the field conditions. The results indicated that adding K2SO4 and KNO3 by central dressing to soil could increase potassium content of the leaves in and above the middle. Adding KCl mainly raised the potassium content of the tobacco leaves between the bottom and the middle. Remaining the tobacco top was advantageous to the increase of potassium content of all tobacco leaves after squaring, so was removing the tobacc o top and spraying IAA to the cut at the same time.

  4. Global Content in Global Coursebooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimoun Melliti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at exploring the issue of “globality” in global coursebooks as manifested in investing features of connectedness, avoiding inappropriacy, and preserving inclusivity. To do this exploration, two research methods, content analysis and the questionnaire, were adopted. The content of an example of global coursebooks, Headway Intermediate (H/I, in addition to the perception of 251 of its users at Institute Bourguiba for Living Languages (IBLV were investigated. The results obtained revealed that “globality,” in terms of connectedness, inappropriacy, and inclusivity is partial in H/I as learners’ perceptions of it do not map with the content in the coursebook. This study raises questions about the suitability of global coursebooks to globally diverse learners and reveals the necessity of taking measures in the direction of localizing the content of English as a foreign language (EFL coursebooks.

  5. Effect of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in Measuring the Contents of Lead, Cadmium and Copper in Honeysuckle%原子吸收光谱法测定金银花中铅、镉、铜的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢凤晶; 郭琳; 常乐; 刘影

    2016-01-01

    Objective To adopt the atomic absorption spectrometry to measure the contents of lead, cadmium and copper in honeysuckle and provide data support for the objective evaluation of retail medicinal material quality in the present market. Methods After the microwave resolution of samples with concentrated nitric acid, the lead and cadmium were measured by the graphite stove method (GF-AAS), and the copper was measured by the flame method (F-AAS). Results The recovery rates of methods were respectively 104.2%, 105.4% and 114.5% and RSD were respectively 1.8%, 1.6% and 1.8%(n=6). Conclusion The measurement shows that the contents of lead, cadmium and copper in samples are lower than the limits in the current Chinese pharmacopoeia, and the method is simple and accurate with strong practicability, which can be used for the evaluation examination of medicinal materials and cut crude drugs.%目的:采用原子吸收光谱法((Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy)测定市售金银花饮片中铅、镉、铜的含量,为客观评价当前市面上零售的药材质量提供数据支持。方法样品加浓硝酸经微波消解后,用石墨炉法( GF-AAS)测定铅和镉,用火焰法( F-AAS)测定铜。结果方法的回收率分别为104.2%、105.4%、114.5%,RSD分别为1.8%、1.6%、1.8%(n=6)。结论测定样品中铅、镉、铜含量低于现行《中国药典》中的限度;该文方法简便、准确、实用性强,可用于该药材及饮片的评价性检查。

  6. A study of real-time content marketing : formulating real-time content marketing based on content, search and social media

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Kim Duyen

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this research is to understand profoundly the new concept of content marketing – real-time content marketing on the aspect of the digital marketing experts. Particularly, the research will focus on the real-time content marketing theories and how to build real-time content marketing strategy based on content, search and social media. It also finds out how marketers measure and keep track of conversion rates of their real-time content marketing plan. Practically, th...

  7. Optimization of a flow cytometric method for the simultaneous measurement of cell surface antigen, DNA content, and in vitro BrdUrd incorporation into normal and malignant hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, M; Thomsen, M; Høyer, M; Hokland, P

    1998-05-01

    We have designed an assay for the simultaneous measurement of cell surface phenotype, S-phase fraction, and DNA content by single laser instrumentation for the purpose of determining the labeling index (LI), duration of S-phase (Ts), and the potential doubling time (Tpot) of leukocyte subpopulations. The procedure was optimized with regard to: mode of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) incorporation, selection of suitable leukocyte differentiation antigens (LDAs) as well as PE-conjugated monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against myeloid cells, overnight permeabilization and fixation (paraformaldehyde 1% and 0.05% Nonidet P40), DNase I treatment (250 Kunitz units), concentration of FITC-conjugated anti-BrdUrd MoAb (dilution 1:5), and DNA staining with 7-amino-actinomycin (7-AAD) (10 microg/ml). We validated this assay by measuring LI, Ts, and Tpot repeatedly in four leukemic cell lines and found these to be stable (coefficients of variation (CV): 0.06, 0.13, and 0.08, respectively). Finally, we employed the assay on different leukocyte preparations from normal donors (including purified CD34 + cells) and patients with malignant myeloid disorders, and we concluded that it will yield valuable data regarding the cell cycle kinetics of subsets of leukocytes in heterogeneous mixtures of hematopoietic cells.

  8. 柑橘叶片叶绿素含量高光谱无损检测模型%Non-destructive hyperspectral measurement model of chlorophyll content for citrus leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳学军; 全东平; 洪添胜; 王健; 瞿祥明; 甘海明

    2015-01-01

    conducted on 117 planted Luogang citrus trees in the Crab Village of Luogang District, Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province. Hyperspectral reflectance and chlorophyll content of citrus leaves were measured by spectrometer (ASD FieldSpec 3) and traditional spectrophotometry, respectively, during four different growth periods corresponding to germination period, stability period, bloom period and harvesting period. In this way, each sample was presented as an instance-labeled pair, where a high-dimensional vector was regarded as the descriptor along with the measured value of chlorophyll content. All the collected samples constituted a large-scale dataset with totally 468 tuples, 80% of which were utilized as the training set and remaining 20% as the testing set. The model constructed relied on the training set and the testing set was evaluated respectively. Using original spectrum and its transformations as input vector, two models, support vector regression (SVR) based on principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least square regression (PLSR) based on the wavelet denoising were adopted, where PCA was adopted for dimension reduction and the wavelet denoising technique removed high-frequency noise. The two models (SVR and PLSR) were then applied to the final regression analysis for predicting chlorophyll content. The best coefficient of determination (R2) of the calibration set and a validation set of the entire growth period were up to 0.8713 and 0.8670, the root-mean-square error (RMSE) was 0.1517 and 0.1544 respectively. Some main conclusions were obtained:first, when the original reflectance spectrum was used as the input vector and the energy ratio remained 96% for PCA in germination period and stability period, 99% for PCA in bloom period, harvesting period and the whole growth period, SVR with the radial basis function (RBF) as the kernel function achieved the best performance. Second, the wavelet denoising for hyperspectrum data could improve the model performance

  9. Improvement of Measurement of Silicon Content in Zinc and Zinc Alloy by Molybdenum Blue Spectrophotometric Method%钼蓝分光光度法测锌及锌合金中硅量方法改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦影

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes molybdenum blue spectrophotometric method that is used to measure silicon content in zinc and zinc alloy, meanwhile, researches some shortcomings and gives some supplements and advices. The new method uses matrix matching to correct standard curve and the blank by eliminating the matrix interference. Color range pH5.6 ~ 7.6 is used on nitrophenol to adjust pH. Experiments show that silicon and ammonium molybdate react to generate silicon molybdenum heteropoly acid in sulfuric acid medium by using ascorbic acid as reducing agent. The concentration of silicon standard solution within 0 ~ 1.0 μg/mL conforms to beer's law, standard recovery is 98% ~ 101%, which is better than the national standard method and broaden the scope of determination of silicon content.%对国标中用于测定锌及锌合金中硅含量的钼蓝光度法进行了分析,研究了其中的不足,并作出了几点补充和建议.新方法采用基体匹配方式校正标准曲线及空白,消除基体干扰;使用变色范围pH5.6~7.6的对硝基苯酚调pH.实验表明:在硫酸介质中,硅与钼酸铵生成硅钼杂多酸,用抗坏血酸作还原剂,硅标准溶液浓度在0~1.0 μg/mL范围内符合比尔定律,标准回收率为98%~101%,较国标方法更理想,拓宽了硅量测定范围.

  10. Research on control measures for water content in sand product of Dagangshan aggregate processing system%大岗山大坝砂石系统成品砂含水率控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴楠; 李宜红; 严君汉

    2014-01-01

    从2012年5月开始,大岗山水电站大坝人工骨料加工系统生产的成品砂含水率一直偏高,现场采取了加密盲沟、完善截排水系统和防雨棚、适当降低石粉含量等措施之后,效果仍不明显。为此,大岗山公司组织对料源质量进行了分析研究,并开展了相应的试验。结果发现含水率偏高的主要原因是大量细颗粒表面裹有保水物质,而第三筛分车间为干法生产,无法去掉保水物质。根据含水率偏高的原因,对砂石系统进行了改造,解决了成品砂含水率偏高的问题。%The production of artificial aggregate processing system for dam construction of Dagangshan hydropower station star-ted in May, 2012. Due to strong water-retaining property of sand product, the water content is higher. The measures of increas-ing blind ditches, perfecting water intercepting and drainage system, properly reducing stone powder content etc. , were adopted but failed. For this reason, Dagangshan company analyzed the material sources and carried out some related tests. The analysis results showed that the main cause was hydrophilic substance on the sand product that was difficult to remove due to dry process production in No. 3 screening plant. In view of the cause, the aggregate processing system was improved and satisfied effect was obtained.

  11. Changes in Hydrogen Content During Steelmaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrbek K.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Štore Steel produces steel grades for spring, forging and engineering industry applications. Steelmaking technology consists of scrap melting in Electric Arc Furnace (EAF, secondary metallurgy in Ladle Furnace (LF and continuous casting of billets (CC. Hydrogen content during steelmaking of various steel grades and steelmaking technologies was measured. Samples of steel melt from EAF, LF and CC were collected and investigated. Sampling from Electric Arc Furnace and Ladle Furnace was carried out using vacuum pin tubes. Regular measurements of hydrogen content in steel melt were made using Hydris device. Hydrogen content results measured in tundish by Hydris device were compared with results from pin tube samples. Based on the measurement results it was established that hydrogen content during steelmaking increases. The highest values were determined in tundish during casting. Factors that influence the hydrogen content in liquid steel the most were steelmaking technology and alloying elements.

  12. 激光在线分析系统在煤气氧含量检测中的应用%Application of laser on-line analyzing system in measurement of oxygen content in gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏爱国

    2013-01-01

    利用LGA-4130分析仪对电捕焦油器后煤气中的氧含量进行在线检测,并通过DCS控制系统设置含氧量的上限值对电捕焦油器实行连锁停机,确保电捕焦油器连续安全运行。对该系统进行分析后,在肯定其技术优点的同时指出其缺陷,并提出了改进建议。%Oxygen analyzer LGA-4130 is used for on-line measurement of oxygen content in gas after electro-static tar precipitator ( ETP ) and for interlock shutdown of the ETP in case of reaching the HH limit of the oxygen value preset on DCS aiming at a safe and stable running of the ETP .The ad-vantages and disadvantages of this analyzing system are studied in this paper ,suggestions for improve-ment are also given .

  13. Bone mineral content in the spongiosa of the lumbar spine of healthy perimenopausal women measured by QCT. Normal values and their relationship to mechanical stress of the vertebral column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montag, M.; Meyer-Galander, H.M.; Peters, P.E.; Doeren, M.; Montag, T.

    1988-04-01

    Healthy perimenopausal women (152) were examined by QCT to quantify the mineral content of the axial skeleton. The density was measured in the spongiosa of the L 2-4, using single energy technique and the Cann-Genant calibration phantom. The women, aged 37 to 64, had no history of pathological fractures, ovariectomy, metabolic disease, or hormone therapy. The age-related mean values were 25 mg K2HP04cm/sup 3/ lower than the normal values reported by Genant et al. for 203 healthy American women. The 95% confidence interval was distinctly narrower (+-40 mgcm/sup 3/) than the American confidence interval (+-60 mgcm/sup 3/). To evaluate the relationship of the BMC to mechanical stress, the BMC was compared with body weight, body mass index (weightheight/sup 2/), and the lumbar muscle mass was estimated from cross sections of the paravertebral muscles in the CT images. The assumption that higher mechanical stress results in higher bone mineralization could not be confirmed.

  14. Chloride Ion Critical Content in Reinforced Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chloride ion critical content was studied under soaking and cycle of dry and wet conditions,with three electrochemical nondestructive measuring techniques, i e, half-cell potential, A C impedance, and time potential. The experimental results show that chloride ion critical content is primarily determined by the water cement ratio, while for the same concrete mixture the chloride ion critical content in soaking conditions is larger than that in a cycle of dry and wet conditions.

  15. Muscone Content was Measured by Ultrasonic Extraction / Mass Spectrometry in Musk%超声萃取/气相色谱法测定麝香中的麝香酮含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏晓田; 孟凡丽

    2011-01-01

    利用气相色谱法-氢火焰离子化检测器(GC/FID)快速测定麝香中麝香酮含量。样品经乙醇-超声波提取、过滤后,直接利用GC/FID测定,外标法定量。实验测定麝香酮回收率大于95%;定量限为0.80μg.mL-1;校准曲线线性范围为0-320μg.mL-1,线性相关系数r为0.9995;三次高、中、低浓度(50、150、300μg.mL-1)测定峰面积RSD%分别为1.08、0.89、0.55。本实验表明,乙醇超声波提取-GC/FID测定麝香中的麝香酮含量是一种简单、快速、准确的方法。%Muscone content was quickly measured by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) in musk.. Samples were extracted by ethanol-ultrasonic, and filtered, directly determined by GC/FID, Recovery rate of Museone was more than 95% in experiment, quantify was limited 0.80 u g·mL-1 ; calibration curve linear range was 0-320 u g·mL-1, Linear correlation coefficient (r) was 0.9995; Peak area RSD of which three high-lever, medium, low concentration respectively were 50, 150, 300 ug·mL-1 were respectively determined 1.08,0.89,0.55.The result was showed that Muscone content was determined by ethanol-ultrasonic extraction and GC/FID was a simple, rapid, accurate method.

  16. 利用光折射法的牛乳乳糖质量分数测量技术%Measurement technology of the content of milk lactose by laser refraction method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢家兴; 王建; 刘洪山; 刘江; 张宇; 于助

    2011-01-01

    The detection method of lactose mass fraction based on the laser refraction was adopted for quick and accurate determination of lactose content in the milk. The key points of the method were the sample of milk lactose, the temperature effect and the shape of the sample cases. According to determination requirements and principles, hardware design, fabrication and debugging of determination system were carried out. Different contents meaned different refractive indexes that was determined by different exiting beams' positions, which could be determinately recorded by CCD. A series of experiments were done using the proposed determination system and the results proved the correctness of the detection method. The actual experiments through "A" type sample case's determination method proved that this method turns out to be accurate and fulfils our goal, up to 0.1% accuracy in line with the national measurement standards of dairy industry.%为了快速准确测量牛乳乳糖成分,依据光折射理论,提出了牛乳乳糖质量分数的快速准确测量方法.牛乳乳糖溶液样品的获取、温度的影响、试样盒的形状是该测试方法的关键,根据测试要求和测量原理,进行了测试系统的硬件设计、制作和调试,依据乳糖溶液的浓度与CCD上记录的光斑位置存在唯一确定的函数关系,并利用测试系统进行了实验测量,证明了测试方法的正确性,达到了测量目的,即通过“△”形试样盒测试法测量牛乳乳糖的质量分数达到了0.1%的精确度要求,符合国家乳品业测量标准.

  17. Streaming Virtual Reality Content

    OpenAIRE

    El-Ganainy, Tarek; Hefeeda, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The recent rise of interest in Virtual Reality (VR) came with the availability of commodity commercial VR prod- ucts, such as the Head Mounted Displays (HMD) created by Oculus and other vendors. To accelerate the user adoption of VR headsets, content providers should focus on producing high quality immersive content for these devices. Similarly, multimedia streaming service providers should enable the means to stream 360 VR content on their platforms. In this study, we try to cover different ...

  18. Content management systems (CMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Oriahi, Harrison

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the three most common and widely used content management systems (CMS) used to power several millions of business websites on the internet. Since there are many other content managements systems online, this report provides some helpful guides on each of the three most used systems and the web design projects that each of them maybe most suitable. There are plenty of options when it comes to selecting a content management system for a development project and this the...

  19. Investigating the Measurement of Grammatical Knowledge and Civics Content Knowledge in the Context of an English-for Specific-Purposes Program Designed for Adult Learners with Low English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Jee Wha

    2010-01-01

    In the context of adult learners with low English proficiency enrolled in an organization offering instruction in both language and civics content, the purpose of the study was to determine. (1) the nature of grammatical knowledge in the context in the learners' second language (L2) and the nature of civics content knowledge in the learners' first…

  20. Content-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelliCarpini, M.; Alonso, O.

    2013-01-01

    DelliCarpini and Alonso's book "Content-Based Instruction" explores different approaches to teaching content-based instruction (CBI) in the English language classroom. They provide a comprehensive overview of how to teach CBI in an easy-to-follow guide that language teachers will find very practical for their own contexts. Topics…

  1. Branded content infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl RODRÍGUEZ-FERRÁNDIZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del libro Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes. Review of the book Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes.

  2. Content Analysis: Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tannis MacBeth; And Others

    Content analyses of the depiction of aggression and images of reality on Canadian television were performed on 109 program tapes of top-rated Toronto programs. Content was coded in terms of global messages communicated, character portrayals, context and setting of the program, amount and nature of conflict portrayed, and detailed information on…

  3. Print advertising : Vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.H.H.J.; Fransen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in rep

  4. Print advertising: vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.; Fransen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in rep

  5. Hydroponics: Content and Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Busby, Joe R.

    2009-01-01

    Technology education has the means of becoming the catalyst for integrated content and curricula, especially in core academic areas, such as science and mathematics, where it has been found difficult to incorporate other subject matter. Technology is diverse enough in nature that it can be addressed by a variety of content areas, serving as a true…

  6. Content-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelliCarpini, M.; Alonso, O.

    2013-01-01

    DelliCarpini and Alonso's book "Content-Based Instruction" explores different approaches to teaching content-based instruction (CBI) in the English language classroom. They provide a comprehensive overview of how to teach CBI in an easy-to-follow guide that language teachers will find very practical for their own contexts. Topics…

  7. Hydroponics: Content and Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Busby, Joe R.

    2009-01-01

    Technology education has the means of becoming the catalyst for integrated content and curricula, especially in core academic areas, such as science and mathematics, where it has been found difficult to incorporate other subject matter. Technology is diverse enough in nature that it can be addressed by a variety of content areas, serving as a true…

  8. Measuring of moisture content in biofuel with on-line NIR, for forward control of a fluidized boiler; On-line NIR-fukthaltsmaetning foer styrning av panna i vaermekraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestander, Torbjoern; Hedman, Bjoern (Enheten foer biomassateknologi och kemi (BTK), SLU (Sweden)); Funkquist, Jonas; Lennartsson, Andreas; Svanberg, Marcus (Vattenfall Research and Development (VRD), Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    Feedback control of the bed temperature in a fluidized bed boiler can be insufficient and give rise to large variations in operation parameters. This project evaluated the potential for feed forward control of the bed temperature using an online moisture measurement signal of the fuel. The target group is fluidized bed boilers using both fossil and renewable fuels. A NIR spectrometer was installed on the fuel-feed to a 47 MW circulating fluidized bed (CFB) biofuel boiler. Calibration of the signal was performed by extracting fuel samples, drying them and comparing the results with the corresponding spectra. Step tests were performed when steps in fuel moisture were implemented by spraying the fuel with water. Steps in fuel feeding, primary air, secondary air and re-circulated air were also tested. A control model of the process was constructed using the software Matlab. The potential with feed forward control of the bed temperature compared to feedback control was evaluated using the model. The possibility to improve the control of the bed temperature with respect to rapidity from changes in moisture content is considered large. The limiting factor is the reliability and sampling time of the online moisture signal. In laboratory-scale and theoretically, the importance of other fuel parameters on the combustion has also been examined. These parameters are temperature and proportions of free and bound water in frozen and non-frozen material. These studies show that local calibration models may be necessary for proper prediction of moisture in temperatures below 0 deg C. (author)

  9. Social video content delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Wenwu

    2016-01-01

    This brief presents new architecture and strategies for distribution of social video content. A primary framework for socially-aware video delivery and a thorough overview of the possible approaches is provided. The book identifies the unique characteristics of socially-aware video access and social content propagation, revealing the design and integration of individual modules that are aimed at enhancing user experience in the social network context. The change in video content generation, propagation, and consumption for online social networks, has significantly challenged the traditional video delivery paradigm. Given the massive amount of user-generated content shared in online social networks, users are now engaged as active participants in the social ecosystem rather than as passive receivers of media content. This revolution is being driven further by the deep penetration of 3G/4G wireless networks and smart mobile devices that are seamlessly integrated with online social networking and media-sharing s...

  10. Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mayring

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an approach of systematic, rule guided qualitative text analysis, which tries to preserve some methodological strengths of quantitative content analysis and widen them to a concept of qualitative procedure. First the development of content analysis is delineated and the basic principles are explained (units of analysis, step models, working with categories, validity and reliability. Then the central procedures of qualitative content analysis, inductive development of categories and deductive application of categories, are worked out. The possibilities of computer programs in supporting those qualitative steps of analysis are shown and the possibilities and limits of the approach are discussed. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002204

  11. Encryption for digital content

    CERN Document Server

    Kiayias, Aggelos

    2010-01-01

    Encryption for Digital Content is an area in cryptography that is widely used in commercial productions (e.g., Blu-Ray and HD-DVDs). This book provides a comprehensive mathematical treatment of combinatorial encryption techniques used in digital content distribution systems and related attack models. A complete description of broadcast encryption with various revocation and tracing functionalities is included. ""Encryption for Digital Content"" introduces the subset cover framework (currently used in AACS, Blu-Ray and HD-DVDs,) and tracking/revocation mechanisms in various attack models. Pirat

  12. Learning Content Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache JURUBESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the evolution of e-Learning and related concepts and tools and its connection with other concepts such as Knowledge Management, Human Resources Management, Enterprise Resource Planning, and Information Technology. The paper also distinguished Learning Content Management Systems from Learning Management Systems and Content Management Systems used for general web-based content. The newest Learning Content Management System, very expensive and yet very little implemented is one of the best tools that helps us to cope with the realities of the 21st Century in what learning concerns. The debates over how beneficial one or another system is for an organization, can be driven by costs involved, efficiency envisaged, and availability of the product on the market.

  13. Fannish form and content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TWC Editor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This issue showcases a variety of investigations into a myriad of platforms, featuring several essays that switch the focus from content to form and illustrate the importance of a range of different fan engagements.

  14. Application of Microwaves for Binder Content Assessment in Moulding Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of preliminary examinations on possibility of determining binder content in traditional moulding sands with the microwave method. The presented measurements were carried-out using a special stand, the so-called slot line. Binder content in the sandmix was determined by measurements of absorption damping Ad and insertion losses IL of electromagnetic wave. One of main advantages of the suggested new method of binder content measurement is short measuring time.

  15. Quantification of Cannabinoid Content in Cannabis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Zhang, F.; Jia, K.; Wen, M.; Yuan, Ch.

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis is an economically important plant that is used in many fields, in addition to being the most commonly consumed illicit drug worldwide. Monitoring the spatial distribution of cannabis cultivation and judging whether it is drug- or fiber-type cannabis is critical for governments and international communities to understand the scale of the illegal drug trade. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cannabinoids content in cannabis could be spectrally quantified using a spectrometer and to identify the optimal wavebands for quantifying the cannabinoid content. Spectral reflectance data of dried cannabis leaf samples and the cannabis canopy were measured in the laboratory and in the field, respectively. Correlation analysis and the stepwise multivariate regression method were used to select the optimal wavebands for cannabinoid content quantification based on the laboratory-measured spectral data. The results indicated that the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in cannabis leaves could be quantified using laboratory-measured spectral reflectance data and that the 695 nm band is the optimal band for THC content quantification. This study provides prerequisite information for designing spectral equipment to enable immediate quantification of THC content in cannabis and to discriminate drug- from fiber-type cannabis based on THC content quantification in the field.

  16. Relative performance evaluation of a custom-made near infrared reflectance instrument and two commercial instruments (Foss and ASD) in the nondestructive moisture content measurement of in-shell peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A custom made Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) spectroscope was used to determine the moisture content of in-shell peanuts of Virginia type peanuts. Peanuts were conditioned to different moisture levels between 6 and 26 % (wet basis) and samples from different moisture levels were separated into two...

  17. 重量法和电导法测定无机盐含盐量的比较%Measure the Salt Content of Inorganic Salts Using Gravimetric Method and Conductivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘盼盼; 白玲

    2015-01-01

    Analyzed the relationship between electrical conductivity and salt content of inorganic salts and the relationship between gravimetric method salinity and salt content. The result showed:( a) Both the EC of single salts and mixed salts were linearly related to their respective salt contents. (b) Gravimetric method salinity had large error when high salt water contained MgCl2 or Na3PO4. Therefore, for complex industry wastewater, electrical conductance method was better to reflect the actual salt content than gravimetric method.%笔者分析了各类无机盐电导率以及重量法含盐量与实际含盐量的关系,结果表明,单一无机盐及混合无机盐电导率与实际含盐量都呈显著线性相关关系。当高盐水中含有MgCl2或 Na3PO4时,用重量法测其含盐量误差较大。因此,针对复杂的行业废水监测,相比重量法,电导法更能反映实际含盐量。

  18. Study on the measure and Influence factors of domestic technological contents of Chinese exports%中国货物出口国内技术含量水平测算及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祺

    2012-01-01

    利用2001年至2010年中国制造业20个行业的数据,计算了中国出口制造业产品的国内技术含量和影响因素。研究发现,随着中国出口规模的上升,出口的技术含量和国内技术含量都出现了显著的变化,但出口技术含量与出口的国内技术含量之间的差距越来越大。从行业分布上看,所有行业的出口国内技术含量都在增加,但传统的资本密集型行业程度较高,高科技行业表现较差。从出口国内技术含量的影响因素回归结果可以看出,影响程度大小的顺序依次是国内企业的研发投入、中间产品进口和外商直接投资。因此,应该加强自主创新,同时提高高科技含量产品的进口。%Use the data of China manufacturing industry between 2001 and 2010,,calculate the domestic technological contents of Chinese exports and influencing factors.The study shows that the levels of export technology content and domestic technical content raised significant with the increasing of Chinese export scale,but the gap between the export technology content and the domestic technical content is more and more big.From the perspective of industry distribution,domestic technical content is increasing to all the industry.But the traditional capital intensive degree is higher;the high technology industry has poor performance.From the regression results of influence factors,the order of influence degree is domestic enterprise development investment,intermediate products import and foreign direct investment.Therefore,we should strengthen the independent innovation,at the same time;improve the imports of high-tech content product.

  19. Influence of moisture content on the rheological properties measurement of polyester chips%水分对 PET 聚酯切片流变性能测试的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高仪祥

    2015-01-01

    The rheological properties of polyester melt with different moisture content were comparatively stud-ied by capillary rheometer,and the influence of charging apparatus on the moisture content of dry polyester chips and the influence of moisture content on the apparent viscosity,non -Newtonian index,and viscous flow activation energy were discussed.The results showed that the apparent viscosity of polyester melt decrease with the increasing of moisture content.At the same temperature,the non-Newtonian index and the viscous flow activation energy of pol-yester melt increased with the increasing of moisture content due to hydrolysis reaction.%利用毛细管流变仪对不同水分聚酯熔体的流变性能进行了对比研究,讨论储料装置对干燥后聚酯切片吸水性的影响,以及水分对表观粘度、非牛顿指数及粘流活化能的影响。结果表明:由于发生了水解反应,在相同温度下,聚酯熔体的表观粘度随着水分的增加而降低,非牛顿指数随着水分的增加而增大,粘流活化能随着水分的增加而增大。

  20. The Measurement of Heavy Metal Element Content of Zn, Hg, Cu in Fruits and Vegetables Soil%果蔬土壤中重金属元素Zn, Hg, Cu含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恒文; 董会平

    2015-01-01

    以甘肃省天水市麦积区花牛镇花牛村苹果种植地区土壤为研究对象采用火焰原子吸收光谱仪对土壤中的重金属元素Zn, Hg, Cu的含量进行了测定,各重金属元素的平均含量分别为: Zn的平均含量为26.27 mg/kg、 Hg的平均含量为0.617 mg/kg、 Cu的平均含量为11.67 mg/kg。结果表明,该地区的土壤可以安全的进行农业生产,土壤中的重金属不会通过食物链的作用对人类健康形成威胁和危害。%The soil of apple planting area in Tianshui, Gansu Province michael plot Huaniu town village as the research object, the content of heavy metal element Zn, Hg, Cu in soil was determined by air-acetylene flame FAAS.The average contents of all kinds of heavy metal elements were:the average content of zinc was 26.27 mg/kg, the average content of mercury was 0.617 mg/kg, the average content of coppe was 11.67 mg/kg. The results showed that the region's soil could be safe for agricultural production, heavy metals in the soil didn't threat and harm to human health through the food chain.

  1. Loser Generated Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Mørk

    2008-01-01

    , is that the Internet functions as a double–edged sword; the infrastructure does foster democracy, participation, joy, creativity and sometimes creates zones of piracy. But, at the same time, it has become evident how this same infrastructure also enables companies easily to piggyback on user generated content......In this article [ 1 ] some of the critical aspects of Web 2.0 are mapped in relation to labor and the production of user generated content. For many years the Internet was considered an apt technology for subversion of capitalism by the Italian post–Marxists. What we have witnessed, however...

  2. Factors stimulating content marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine factors influencing on content marketing in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 40 questions in Likert scale and distributes it among 550 randomly selected regular customers of Bank Mellat in city of Tehran, Iran and 400 properly filled questionnaires are collected. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey are well above desirable level. Using principle component analysis with Varimax rotation, the study has determined six factors influencing the most on content marketing including organization, details, having new ideas, quality, sensitivity and power while the last component contains only two subcomponents and is removed from the study.

  3. 基于多种度量的电离层TEC混沌预测分析%Analysis of chaotic properties and prediction of ionospheric total electron content based on different measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙佳龙; 郭金运; 郭淑艳

    2013-01-01

    The chaotic properties of ionospheric total electron content based on the 600 TEC data from 101 to 150 day of 2008 over 45°N,120°E are analyzed in the paper.Calculation results show that the correlation dimension is 2.2632,embedding is 5 and largest Lyapunov exponent is 0.0833.The weighted one-rank local-region forecasting method is used triumphantly to forecast the time series of TEC in the paper.The forecasting results show that the standard deviations are more with the accretion of forecasting scale while relative errors fluctuating in certain scope range.The forecasting mean standard deviations and mean relative errors are unsatisfactory using four distance measurements,Pearson correlation coefficient and Jaccard similarity coefficient.In general,the max mean standard deviation is 5.107 TECU which is computed by standardized Euclidean distance while the min mean standard deviation is 5.078 TECU computed by Pearson correlation coefficient.For mean relative errors,the max value is 0.185 computed by Chebyshev distance while the min value is 0.166 computed by Jaccard similarity coefficient.However,It is comforting that cosine similarity has a better precision of forecasting,the mean standard deviation and mean relative error respectively are 5.079 TECU and 0.167.So cosine similarity can measure accurately the phase space of the different tracks and is a better measurement using weighted one-rank local-region method to forecast time series.%利用东经120°,北纬45°上空的2008年年积日101~150 d时间段内共600个电离层格网TEC数据为时间序列样本,分析了该点上空电离层TEC参数的混沌特性,发现其关联维数为2.2632,嵌入维数为5,最大Lyapunov指数为λ=0.0833,表明该点上空电离层TEC时间序列具有混沌的特征,存在混沌现象.采用加权一阶局域法对TEC时间序列进行预测时,在有效预报尺度内,利用各种度量进行预报得到的中误差都随着预报天数的增加而逐渐增大,

  4. Tourist-created Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munar, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between tourists' user-generated content on the web and destination branding, as well as to discuss the online strategies used by destination management organizations. Design/methodology/approach – The research adopts an explorato...

  5. Where's the Content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, Will

    2006-01-01

    Although teachers focus on style, fluency, tone, and correct grammar in writing, they rarely emphasize the importance of content. Both the National Commission on Writing in America's Schools and Colleges and the NAEP seem to favor emotional and personal writing, at least at the high school level. Judging from their guidelines, both the SAT and the…

  6. Content Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Jeff; Stenstrom, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a guide in acquiring content management system. They conducted a vendor survey that covers four areas: (1) general information about the product (including standards supported); (2) administration of the product; (3) functionality; and (4) contact information for readers who want to know more. A list of product…

  7. Contents & Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Does Globalization Widen or Narrow the Income Inequality in China?Knowledge Composition, Emigration and Economic Growth,China's Status in Division of Labor in the World: A Multinational Analysis based on the Whole and Domestic Technological Contents of Exports

  8. Table of contents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. S. Nyombo Luboya

    C. Drying with salt results in a nutritionally and organoleptically good product, ... studies are recommended to assess whether there is variation in nutrient and ... Though nutritious, SPL have been considered a poor man's salad [2,4]. ... The vegetables were mixed every minute and a small amount .... Iron content was much.

  9. Mathematics: Content and Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2009-01-01

    The debate has gone on for some time in terms of which is more salient for the teacher to be well versed in, mathematical content versus methods and approaches in teaching. Both are salient. They cannot be separated from each other. The mathematics teacher must indeed have broad, in-depth knowledge of subject matter as well as in teaching and…

  10. Integrating Language and Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmeyer, Jon, Ed.; Barduhn, Susan, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The definition of "English language classroom" is changing. When students have the opportunity to learn content and language at the same time, disciplinary boundaries overlap. Teachers are rethinking how they design courses, plan lessons, assess students, and collaborate with colleagues to support student learning and facilitate their…

  11. Content Area Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

  12. Contents & Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical Behavior and Corrosion Resistance of Electroplated Nickel- Phosphorus/Nanometer Silicon Carbide Composite Coating;Effect of Curing Temperature on Corrosion Resistance of Sodium Silicate Conversion Antirust Coating;Effect of Silicon Content on Solidified Structure and Corrosion Resistance of Hot - Dipped Zinc - 40% Aluminum Alloy Coating

  13. The model of content management system

    OpenAIRE

    Ridlauskas, Renaldas

    2006-01-01

    The content management system is a tool which is essential to load and administrate information that is in the net site. The main CMS purpose is money and time saving which is committed for the site care. To look after the site and freshen it could an employee not having specific news. Content management system is analyzing Lithuania��s and the world’s measure in this work. Their basal internal are reviewing and specifying requests for content management system’s model. So, there is ana...

  14. Characterization of Cloud Water-Content Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon

    2010-01-01

    The development of realistic cloud parameterizations for climate models requires accurate characterizations of subgrid distributions of thermodynamic variables. To this end, a software tool was developed to characterize cloud water-content distributions in climate-model sub-grid scales. This software characterizes distributions of cloud water content with respect to cloud phase, cloud type, precipitation occurrence, and geo-location using CloudSat radar measurements. It uses a statistical method called maximum likelihood estimation to estimate the probability density function of the cloud water content.

  15. Prediction of clay content from water vapour sorption isotherms considering hysteresis and soil organic matter content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    for estimating clay content from hygroscopic water at different relative humidity (RH) levels while considering hysteresis and organic matter content. Continuous adsorption/desorption vapour sorption isotherm loops were measured for 150 differently textured soils with a state-of-the-art vapour sorption analyser......Soil texture, in particular the clay fraction, governs numerous environmental, agricultural and engineering soil processes. Traditional measurement methods for clay content are laborious and impractical for large-scale soil surveys. Consequently, clay prediction models that are based on water...... vapour sorption, which can be measured within a shorter period of time, have recently been developed. Such models are often based on single-point measurements of water adsorption and do not account for sorption hysteresis or organic matter content. The present study introduces regression relationships...

  16. Parameters measurement transport hydrogen in Fe alloys with low contents of C through the technique of permeation; Medida de los Parametros de Transporte de Hidrogeno en Aleaciones de Fe con Bajo Contenidos de C mediante la Tecnica de Permeacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penalva, I.; Alberro, G.; Legarda, F.; Vila, R.; Ortiz, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    The characterization of the candidates materials to be part of a fusion reactor implies interaction with hydrogen isotopes. Their transport parameters will affect the inventory of hydrogen retained in components of the fusion reactor and permeation of these isotopes through the materials structure can affect areas of human work. Therefore, the analysis of any concept related to fusion reactors, the plasma stability or radiation safety, lies in the knowledge of these parameters. The main objective of this work was to determine the influence of the C content of the iron alloys in the transport parameters of hydrogen using the technique of permeation. Six samples were analyzed experimentally by EFDA (European Fusion Development Agreement) with microstructure and chemical content of alloys controlled. Three of them, Fe pure, FeP y Fe10%Cr, contained insignificant amounts of C, while the other three, FeC, FePC y Fe10%CrC, had the same metallurgical composition as its corresponding pair, with the exception of the content of C.

  17. Content-aware objective video quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Jaramillo, Benhur; Niño-Castañeda, Jorge; Platiša, Ljiljana; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Since the end-user of video-based systems is often a human observer, prediction of user-perceived video quality (PVQ) is an important task for increasing the user satisfaction. Despite the large variety of objective video quality measures (VQMs), their lack of generalizability remains a problem. This is mainly due to the strong dependency between PVQ and video content. Although this problem is well known, few existing VQMs directly account for the influence of video content on PVQ. Recently, we proposed a method to predict PVQ by introducing relevant video content features in the computation of video distortion measures. The method is based on analyzing the level of spatiotemporal activity in the video and using those as parameters of the anthropomorphic video distortion models. We focus on the experimental evaluation of the proposed methodology based on a total of five public databases, four different objective VQMs, and 105 content related indexes. Additionally, relying on the proposed method, we introduce an approach for selecting the levels of video distortions for the purpose of subjective quality assessment studies. Our results suggest that when adequately combined with content related indexes, even very simple distortion measures (e.g., peak signal to noise ratio) are able to achieve high performance, i.e., high correlation between the VQM and the PVQ. In particular, we have found that by incorporating video content features, it is possible to increase the performance of the VQM by up to 20% relative to its noncontent-aware baseline.

  18. Fluoride Content in Alcoholic Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goschorska, Marta; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Rać, Monika Ewa; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of alcoholic drinks as a potential source of dietary fluoride by means of measuring fluoride levels in selected alcoholic drinks available on the Polish market that are also diverse in terms of the percentage content of ethanol. The study was conducted on 48 types of drinks with low, medium, and high alcohol content available on the Polish market and offered by various manufacturers, both Polish and foreign. Fluoride concentrations in individual samples were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. The highest fluoride levels were determined in the lowest percentage drinks (less than 10 % v/v ethanol), with the lowest fluoride levels observed in the highest percentage drinks (above 40 % v/v ethanol). In terms of types of alcoholic drinks, the highest fluoride levels were determined in beers and wines, while the lowest levels were observed in vodkas. These data confirm the fact that alcoholic beverages need to be considered as a significant source of fluoride delivered into the body.

  19. Towards Multimodal Content Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Bunt, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Multimodal interfaces, combining the use of speech, graphics, gestures, and facial expressions in input and output, promise to provide new possibilities to deal with information in more effective and efficient ways, supporting for instance: - the understanding of possibly imprecise, partial or ambiguous multimodal input; - the generation of coordinated, cohesive, and coherent multimodal presentations; - the management of multimodal interaction (e.g., task completion, adapting the interface, error prevention) by representing and exploiting models of the user, the domain, the task, the interactive context, and the media (e.g. text, audio, video). The present document is intended to support the discussion on multimodal content representation, its possible objectives and basic constraints, and how the definition of a generic representation framework for multimodal content representation may be approached. It takes into account the results of the Dagstuhl workshop, in particular those of the informal working group...

  20. Web Content Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Hidalgo, José María; Puertas Sanz, Enrique; Carrero García, Francisco Manuel; Buenaga Rodríguez, Manuel de

    2009-01-01

    Across the years, Internet has evolved from an academic network to a truly communication medium, reaching impressive levels of audience and becoming a billionaire business. Many of our working, studying, and entertainment activities are nowadays overwhelmingly limited if we get disconnected from the net of networks. And of course, with the use comes abuse. The World Wide Web features a wide variety of content that are harmful for children or just inappropriate in the workplace. Web filtering ...