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Sample records for content codes ch-trucon

  1. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-09-20

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  2. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-08-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  3. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-01-30

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  4. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-06-20

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  5. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-12-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  6. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-12-01

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  7. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-08-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  8. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-11-20

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  9. CH-TRU Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-10-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  10. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-06-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  11. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-03-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  12. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-02-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  13. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-09-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  14. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-05-01

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  15. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-12-20

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  16. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-01-18

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  17. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-08-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  18. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-06-20

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  19. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-10-01

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  20. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-01-15

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codesand corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  1. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-16

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  2. Content layer progressive coding of digital maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Jensen, Ole Riis

    2000-01-01

    A new lossless context based method is presented for content progressive coding of limited bits/pixel images, such as maps, company logos, etc., common on the WWW. Progressive encoding is achieved by separating the image into content layers based on other predefined information. Information from...... already coded layers are used when coding subsequent layers. This approach is combined with efficient template based context bi-level coding, context collapsing methods for multi-level images and arithmetic coding. Relative pixel patterns are used to collapse contexts. The number of contexts are analyzed....... The new methods outperform existing coding schemes coding digital maps and in addition provide progressive coding. Compared to the state-of-the-art PWC coder, the compressed size is reduced to 60-70% on our layered test images....

  3. Remote-Handled Transuranic Content Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2001-08-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document representsthe development of a uniform content code system for RH-TRU waste to be transported in the 72-Bcask. It will be used to convert existing waste form numbers, content codes, and site-specificidentification codes into a system that is uniform across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites.The existing waste codes at the sites can be grouped under uniform content codes without any lossof waste characterization information. The RH-TRUCON document provides an all-encompassing|description for each content code and compiles this information for all DOE sites. Compliance withwaste generation, processing, and certification procedures at the sites (outlined in this document foreach content code) ensures that prohibited waste forms are not present in the waste. The contentcode gives an overall description of the RH-TRU waste material in terms of processes and|packaging, as well as the generation location. This helps to provide cradle-to-grave traceability ofthe waste material so that the various actions required to assess its qualification as payload for the72-B cask can be performed. The content codes also impose restrictions and requirements on themanner in which a payload can be assembled.The RH-TRU Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC), Appendix 1.3.7of the 72-B Cask Safety Analysis Report (SAR), describes the current governing procedures|applicable for the qualification of waste as payload for the 72-B cask. The logic for this|classification is presented in the 72-B Cask SAR. Together, these documents (RH-TRUCON,|RH-TRAMPAC, and relevant sections of the 72-B Cask SAR) present the foundation and|justification for classifying RH-TRU waste into content codes. Only content codes described in thisdocument can be considered for transport in the 72-B cask. Revisions to this document will be madeas additional waste qualifies for transport. |Each content code uniquely

  4. Content Layer progressive Coding of Digital Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Jensen, Ole Riis

    2002-01-01

    A new lossless context based method is presented for content progressive coding of limited bits/pixel images, such as maps, company logos, etc., common on the World Wide Web. Progressive encoding is achieved by encoding the image in content layers based on color level or other predefined informat......A new lossless context based method is presented for content progressive coding of limited bits/pixel images, such as maps, company logos, etc., common on the World Wide Web. Progressive encoding is achieved by encoding the image in content layers based on color level or other predefined...... information. Information from already coded layers are used when coding subsequent layers. This approach is combined with efficient template based context bilevel coding, context collapsing methods for multilevel images and arithmetic coding. Relative pixel patterns are used to collapse contexts. Expressions...... for calculating the resulting number of contexts are given. The new methods outperform existing schemes coding digital maps and in addition provide progressive coding. Compared to the state-of-the-art PWC coder, the compressed size is reduced to 50-70% on our layered map test images....

  5. Content Progressive Coding of Limited Bits/pixel Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Riis; Forchhammer, Søren

    1999-01-01

    A new lossless context based method for content progressive coding of limited bits/pixel images is proposed. Progressive coding is achieved by separating the image into contelnt layers. Digital maps are compressed up to 3 times better than GIF.......A new lossless context based method for content progressive coding of limited bits/pixel images is proposed. Progressive coding is achieved by separating the image into contelnt layers. Digital maps are compressed up to 3 times better than GIF....

  6. A New Approach to Coding in Content Based MANETs

    OpenAIRE

    Joy, Joshua; Yu, Yu-Ting; Perez, Victor; Lu, Dennis; Gerla, Mario

    2015-01-01

    In content-based mobile ad hoc networks (CB-MANETs), random linear network coding (NC) can be used to reliably disseminate large files under intermittent connectivity. Conventional NC involves random unrestricted coding at intermediate nodes. This however is vulnerable to pollution attacks. To avoid attacks, a brute force approach is to restrict the mixing at the source. However, source restricted NC generally reduces the robustness of the code in the face of errors, losses and mobility induc...

  7. A Content-Centric Organization of the Genetic Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Yu

    2007-01-01

    The codon table for the canonical genetic code can be rearranged in such a way that the code is divided into four quarters and two halves according to the variability of their GC and purine contents, respectively. For prokaryotic genomes, when the genomic GC content increases, their amino acid contents tend to be restricted to the GC-rich quarter and the purine-content insensitive half, where all codons are fourfold degenerate and relatively mutation-tolerant. Conversely, when the genomic GC content decreases, most of the codons retract to the AU-rich quarter and the purine-content sensitive half; most of the codons not only remain encoding physicochemically diversified amino acids but also vary when transversion (between purine and pyrimidine) happens. Amino acids with sixfolddegenerate codons are distributed into all four quarters and across the two halves; their fourfold-degenerate codons are all partitioned into the purine-insensitive half in favorite of robustness against mutations. The features manifested in the rearranged codon table explain most of the intrinsic relationship between protein coding sequences (the informational content) and amino acid compositions (the functional content). The renovated codon table is useful in predicting abundant amino acids and positioning the amino acids with related or distinct physicochemical properties.

  8. Improved Lower Bounds for Constant GC-Content DNA Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Chee, Yeow Meng

    2008-01-01

    The design of large libraries of oligonucleotides having constant GC-content and satisfying Hamming distance constraints between oligonucleotides and their Watson-Crick complements is important in reducing hybridization errors in DNA computing, DNA microarray technologies, and molecular bar coding. Various techniques have been studied for the construction of such oligonucleotide libraries, ranging from algorithmic constructions via stochastic local search to theoretical constructions via coding theory. We introduce a new stochastic local search method which yields improvements up to more than one third of the benchmark lower bounds of Gaborit and King (2005) for n-mer oligonucleotide libraries when n <= 14. We also found several optimal libraries by computing maximum cliques on certain graphs.

  9. Peer-Assisted Content Distribution with Random Linear Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøll, Martin; Ledet-Pedersen, Jeppe; Sluyterman, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Peer-to-peer networks constitute a widely used, cost-effective and scalable technology to distribute bandwidth-intensive content. The technology forms a great platform to build distributed cloud storage without the need of a central provider. However, the majority of todays peer-to-peer systems r...

  10. The Use of Legal Terminology in Student Conduct Codes: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Janice E.; Janosik, Steven M.

    2004-01-01

    A content analysis of 20 student conduct codes identified through stratified random sampling was performed to determine the extent to which legal terminology had been eliminated, as suggested by judicial affairs experts. The results showed that 80% of the codes selected in this study still contained some legal terms. These words and phrases are…

  11. Minimum cost content distribution using network coding: Replication vs. coding at the source nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Shurui; Medard, Muriel

    2009-01-01

    Consider a large file that needs to be multicast over a network to a given set of terminals. Storing the file at a single server may result in server overload. Accordingly, there are distributed storage solutions that operate by dividing the file into pieces and placing copies of the pieces (replication) or coded versions of the pieces (coding) at multiple source nodes. Suppose that the cost of a given network coding based solution to this problem is defined as the sum of the storage cost and the cost of the flows required to support the multicast. In this work, we consider a network with a set of source nodes that can either contain subsets or coded versions of the pieces of the file and are interested in finding the storage capacities and flows at minimum cost. We provide succinct formulations of the corresponding optimization problems by using information measures. In particular, we show that when there are two source nodes, there is no loss in considering subset sources. For three source nodes, we derive ...

  12. Analysis and design of raptor codes for joint decoding using Information Content evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Venkiah, Auguste; Declercq, David

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present an analytical analysis of the convergence of raptor codes under joint decoding over the binary input additive white noise channel (BIAWGNC), and derive an optimization method. We use Information Content evolution under Gaussian approximation, and focus on a new decoding scheme that proves to be more efficient: the joint decoding of the two code components of the raptor code. In our general model, the classical tandem decoding scheme appears to be a subcase, and thus, the design of LT codes is also possible.

  13. Improved intra-block copy and motion search methods for screen content coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaka, Krishna; Pang, Chao; Sole, Joel; Karczewicz, Marta; Li, Bin; Xu, Jizheng

    2015-09-01

    Screen content video coding extension of HEVC (SCC) is being developed by Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC) of ISO/IEC MPEG and ITU-T VCEG. Screen content usually features a mix of camera captured content and a significant proportion of rendered graphics, text, or animation. These two types of content exhibit distinct characteristics requiring different compression scheme to achieve better coding efficiency. This paper presents an efficient block matching schemes for coding screen content to better capture the spatial and temporal characteristics. The proposed schemes are mainly categorized as a) hash based global region block matching for intra block copy b) selective search based local region block matching for inter frame prediction c) hash based global region block matching for inter frame prediction. In the first part, a hash-based full frame block matching algorithm is designed for intra block copy to handle the repeating patterns and large motions when the reference picture constituted already decoded samples of the current picture. In the second part, a selective local area block matching algorithm is designed for inter motion estimation to handle sharp edges, high spatial frequencies and non-monotonic error surface. In the third part, a hash based full frame block matching algorithm is designed for inter motion estimation to handle repeating patterns and large motions across the temporal reference picture. The proposed schemes are compared against HM-13.0+RExt-6.0, which is the state-of-art screen content coding. The first part provides a luma BD-rate gains of -26.6%, -15.6%, -11.4% for AI, RA and LD TGM configurations. The second part provides a luma BD-rate gains of -10.1%, -12.3% for RA and LD TGM configurations. The third part provides a luma BD-rate gains of -12.2%, -11.5% for RA and LD TGM configurations.

  14. Reliability of a rating procedure to monitor industry self-regulation codes governing alcohol advertising content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Thomas F; Xuan, Ziming; Proctor, Dwayne

    2008-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop reliable procedures to monitor the content of alcohol advertisements broadcast on television and in other media, and to detect violations of the content guidelines of the alcohol industry's self-regulation codes. A set of rating-scale items was developed to measure the content guidelines of the 1997 version of the U.S. Beer Institute Code. Six focus groups were conducted with 60 college students to evaluate the face validity of the items and the feasibility of the procedure. A test-retest reliability study was then conducted with 74 participants, who rated five alcohol advertisements on two occasions separated by 1 week. Average correlations across all advertisements using three reliability statistics (r, rho, and kappa) were almost all statistically significant and the kappas were good for most items, which indicated high test-retest agreement. We also found high interrater reliabilities (intraclass correlations) among raters for item-level and guideline-level violations, indicating that regardless of the specific item, raters were consistent in their general evaluations of the advertisements. Naïve (untrained) raters can provide consistent (reliable) ratings of the main content guidelines proposed in the U.S. Beer Institute Code. The rating procedure may have future applications for monitoring compliance with industry self-regulation codes and for conducting research on the ways in which alcohol advertisements are perceived by young adults and other vulnerable populations.

  15. Wurf.it: A Network Coding Reliable Multicast Content Streaming Solution - ns-3 Simulations and Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Nestor; Pihl, Jeppe; Heide, Janus

    One of the proven benets of Network Coding (NC) is to achieve the data capacity for multicast networks. However, even though there has been a signicant amount of research in this area, potentials demonstrators of these capabilities have not been widely shown or deployed. Thus, in this work we...... present a set of pre-computed ns-3 simulations to model the behaviour of Wurf.it, a Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC)-based reliable multicast solution for content distribution with cross-platform support. Wurf.it is based on Kodo, a C++11 network coding library that provides the primitive encoding...... demonstrator consists of stored simulations with ns-3 in a laptop and a Wurf.it implementation within a WiFi network. For the implementation, a video content from a mobile camera is distributed with low delay using SCORE to a set of heterogenous receivers (e.g. dierent platforms). Use cases of Wurf.it are mild...

  16. FFT-based Network Coding For Peer-To-Peer Content Delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Soro, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a structured peer-to-peer (P2P) distribution scheme based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) graphs. We build a peer-to-peer network that reproduces the FFT graph initially designed for hardware FFT codecs. This topology allows content delivery with a maximum diversity level for a minimum global complexity. The resulting FFTbased network is a structured architecture with an adapted network coding that brings flexibility upon content distribution and robustness upon the dynamic nature of the network. This structure can achieve optimal capacity in terms of content recovery while solving the problem of last remaining blocks, even for large networks.

  17. Embedding QR codes in tumor board presentations, enhancing educational content for oncology information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderits, Richard; Yates, Stacy; Rodriguez, Arelis; Lee, Tina; Rimmer, Cheryl; Roche, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Quick Response (QR) Codes are standard in supply management and seen with increasing frequency in advertisements. They are now present regularly in healthcare informatics and education. These 2-dimensional square bar codes, originally designed by the Toyota car company, are free of license and have a published international standard. The codes can be generated by free online software and the resulting images incorporated into presentations. The images can be scanned by "smart" phones and tablets using either the iOS or Android platforms, which link the device with the information represented by the QR code (uniform resource locator or URL, online video, text, v-calendar entries, short message service [SMS] and formatted text). Once linked to the device, the information can be viewed at any time after the original presentation, saved in the device or to a Web-based "cloud" repository, printed, or shared with others via email or Bluetooth file transfer. This paper describes how we use QR codes in our tumor board presentations, discusses the benefits, the different QR codes from Web links and how QR codes facilitate the distribution of educational content.

  18. Hop-by-hop Content Distribution with Network Coding in Multihop Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Halloush

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The predominant use of today's networks is content access and distribution. Network Coding (NC is an innovative technique that has potential to improve the efficiency of multicast content distribution over multihop Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs by allowing intermediate Forwarding Nodes (FNs to encode and then forward data packets. Practical protocols are needed to realize the benefits of the NC technique. However, the existing NC-based multicast protocols cannot accurately determine the minimum number of coded packets that a FN should send in order to ensure successful data delivery to the destinations, so that many redundant packets are injected into the network, leading to performance degradation. In this paper, we propose HopCaster, a novel reliable multicast protocol that incorporates network coding with hop-by-hop transport. HopCaster completely eliminates the need for estimating the number of coded packets to be transmitted by a FN, and avoids redundant packet transmissions. It also effectively addresses the challenges of heterogeneous multicast receivers. Moreover, a cross-layer multicast rate adaptation mechanism is proposed, which enables HopCaster to optimize multicast throughput by dynamically adjusting wireless transmission rate based on the changes in the receiver population and channel conditions during the course of multicasting a coded data chunk. Our evaluations show that HopCaster significantly outperforms the existing NC-based multicast protocols.

  19. Content-Based Multi-Channel Network Coding Algorithm in the Millimeter-Wave Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the development of wireless technology, the widespread use of 5G is already an irreversible trend, and millimeter-wave sensor networks are becoming more and more common. However, due to the high degree of complexity and bandwidth bottlenecks, the millimeter-wave sensor network still faces numerous problems. In this paper, we propose a novel content-based multi-channel network coding algorithm, which uses the functions of data fusion, multi-channel and network coding to improve the data transmission; the algorithm is referred to as content-based multi-channel network coding (CMNC. The CMNC algorithm provides a fusion-driven model based on the Dempster-Shafer (D-S evidence theory to classify the sensor nodes into different classes according to the data content. By using the result of the classification, the CMNC algorithm also provides the channel assignment strategy and uses network coding to further improve the quality of data transmission in the millimeter-wave sensor network. Extensive simulations are carried out and compared to other methods. Our simulation results show that the proposed CMNC algorithm can effectively improve the quality of data transmission and has better performance than the compared methods.

  20. Content-Based Multi-Channel Network Coding Algorithm in the Millimeter-Wave Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai; Wang, Di; Hu, Long

    2016-07-01

    With the development of wireless technology, the widespread use of 5G is already an irreversible trend, and millimeter-wave sensor networks are becoming more and more common. However, due to the high degree of complexity and bandwidth bottlenecks, the millimeter-wave sensor network still faces numerous problems. In this paper, we propose a novel content-based multi-channel network coding algorithm, which uses the functions of data fusion, multi-channel and network coding to improve the data transmission; the algorithm is referred to as content-based multi-channel network coding (CMNC). The CMNC algorithm provides a fusion-driven model based on the Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence theory to classify the sensor nodes into different classes according to the data content. By using the result of the classification, the CMNC algorithm also provides the channel assignment strategy and uses network coding to further improve the quality of data transmission in the millimeter-wave sensor network. Extensive simulations are carried out and compared to other methods. Our simulation results show that the proposed CMNC algorithm can effectively improve the quality of data transmission and has better performance than the compared methods.

  1. Wurf.it: A Network Coding Reliable Multicast Content Streaming Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Nestor; Pihl, Jeppe; Heide, Janus

    present a set of pre-computed ns-3 simulations to model the behaviour of Wurf.it, a Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC)-based reliable multicast solution for content distribution with cross-platform support. Wurf.it is based on Kodo, a C++11 network coding library that provides the primitive encoding...... demonstrator consists of stored simulations with ns-3 in a laptop and a Wurf.it implementation within a WiFi network. For the implementation, a video content from a mobile camera is distributed with low delay using SCORE to a set of heterogenous receivers (e.g. dierent platforms). Use cases of Wurf.it are mild...

  2. [Prediction of litter moisture content in Tahe Forestry Bureau of Northeast China based on FWI moisture codes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Jin, Sen; Di, Xue-Ying

    2014-07-01

    Canadian fire weather index system (FWI) is the most widely used fire weather index system in the world. Its fuel moisture prediction is also a very important research method. In this paper, litter moisture contents of typical forest types in Tahe Forestry Bureau of Northeast China were successively observed and the relationships between FWI codes (fine fuel moisture code FFMC, duff moisture code DMC and drought code DC) and fuel moisture were analyzed. Results showed that the mean absolute error and the mean relative error of models.established using FWI moisture code FFMC was 14.9% and 70.7%, respectively, being lower than those of meteorological elements regression model, which indicated that FWI codes had some advantage in predicting litter moisture contents and could be used to predict fuel moisture contents. But the advantage was limited, and further calibration was still needed, especially in modification of FWI codes after rainfall.

  3. A new method for evaluating compliance with industry self-regulation codes governing the content of alcohol advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Thomas F; Xuan, Ziming; Damon, Donna

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the use of a modified Delphi technique in combination with a previously developed alcohol advertising rating procedure to detect content violations in the U.S. Beer Institute Code. A related aim was to estimate the minimum number of raters needed to obtain reliable evaluations of code violations in television commercials. Six alcohol ads selected for their likelihood of having code violations were rated by community and expert participants (N = 286). Quantitative rating scales were used to measure the content of alcohol advertisements based on alcohol industry self-regulatory guidelines. The community group participants represented vulnerability characteristics that industry codes were designed to protect (e.g., age code violations. The Delphi technique facilitates consensus development around code violations in alcohol ad content and may enhance the ability of regulatory agencies to monitor the content of alcoholic beverage advertising when combined with psychometric-based rating procedures. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Comparison of protein coding gene contents of the fungal phyla Pezizomycotina and Saccharomycotina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvas, Mikko; Kivioja, Teemu; Mitchell, Alex

    2007-01-01

    wide comparison of protein coding gene content of Saccharomycotina and Pezizomycotina, which include industrially important yeasts and filamentous fungi, respectively. RESULTS: Our analysis shows that based on genome redundancy, the traditional model organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora......BACKGROUND: Several dozen fungi encompassing traditional model organisms, industrial production organisms and human and plant pathogens have been sequenced recently and their particular genomic features analysed in detail. In addition comparative genomics has been used to analyse specific sub...

  5. Modeling compositional dynamics based on GC and purine contents of protein-coding sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhang

    2010-11-08

    Background: Understanding the compositional dynamics of genomes and their coding sequences is of great significance in gaining clues into molecular evolution and a large number of publically-available genome sequences have allowed us to quantitatively predict deviations of empirical data from their theoretical counterparts. However, the quantification of theoretical compositional variations for a wide diversity of genomes remains a major challenge.Results: To model the compositional dynamics of protein-coding sequences, we propose two simple models that take into account both mutation and selection effects, which act differently at the three codon positions, and use both GC and purine contents as compositional parameters. The two models concern the theoretical composition of nucleotides, codons, and amino acids, with no prerequisite of homologous sequences or their alignments. We evaluated the two models by quantifying theoretical compositions of a large collection of protein-coding sequences (including 46 of Archaea, 686 of Bacteria, and 826 of Eukarya), yielding consistent theoretical compositions across all the collected sequences.Conclusions: We show that the compositions of nucleotides, codons, and amino acids are largely determined by both GC and purine contents and suggest that deviations of the observed from the expected compositions may reflect compositional signatures that arise from a complex interplay between mutation and selection via DNA replication and repair mechanisms.Reviewers: This article was reviewed by Zhaolei Zhang (nominated by Mark Gerstein), Guruprasad Ananda (nominated by Kateryna Makova), and Daniel Haft. 2010 Zhang and Yu; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  6. Improved inter-layer prediction for light field content coding with display scalability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Caroline; Ducla Soares, Luís.; Nunes, Paulo

    2016-09-01

    Light field imaging based on microlens arrays - also known as plenoptic, holoscopic and integral imaging - has recently risen up as feasible and prospective technology due to its ability to support functionalities not straightforwardly available in conventional imaging systems, such as: post-production refocusing and depth of field changing. However, to gradually reach the consumer market and to provide interoperability with current 2D and 3D representations, a display scalable coding solution is essential. In this context, this paper proposes an improved display scalable light field codec comprising a three-layer hierarchical coding architecture (previously proposed by the authors) that provides interoperability with 2D (Base Layer) and 3D stereo and multiview (First Layer) representations, while the Second Layer supports the complete light field content. For further improving the compression performance, novel exemplar-based inter-layer coding tools are proposed here for the Second Layer, namely: (i) an inter-layer reference picture construction relying on an exemplar-based optimization algorithm for texture synthesis, and (ii) a direct prediction mode based on exemplar texture samples from lower layers. Experimental results show that the proposed solution performs better than the tested benchmark solutions, including the authors' previous scalable codec.

  7. Plasmon resonant gold-coated liposomes for spectrally coded content release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Sarah J.; Troutman, Timothy S.; Romanowski, Marek

    2009-02-01

    We have recently introduced liposome-supported plasmon resonant gold nanoshells (Troutman et al., Adv. Mater. 2008, 20, 2604-2608). These plasmon resonant gold-coated liposomes are degradable into components of a size compatible with renal clearance, potentially enabling their use as multifunctional agents in applications in nanomedicine, including imaging, diagnostics, therapy, and drug delivery. The present research demonstrates that laser illumination at the wavelength matching the plasmon resonance band of a gold-coated liposome leads to the rapid release of encapsulated substances, which can include therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Leakage of encapsulated contents is monitored through the release of self-quenched fluorescein, which provides an increase in fluorescence emission upon release. Moreover, the resonant peak of these gold-coated liposomes is spectrally tunable in the near infrared range by varying the concentration of gold deposited on the surface of liposomes. Varying the plasmon resonant wavelengths of gold-coated liposomes can provide a method for spectrally-coding their light-mediated content release, so that the release event is initiated by the specific wavelength of light used to illuminate the liposomes. The development of spectrally-coded release can find applications in controlled delivery of multiple agents to support complex diagnostic tests and therapeutic interventions.

  8. The Constitutive Content of the Crime of Refusal or Evasion from Collecting Biological Samples According to the New Criminal Code

    OpenAIRE

    Minodora-Ioana BALAN-RUSU

    2014-01-01

    The purpose and the objectives of the research consist of examining the constitutive content of the crime of refusal or evasion from collecting biological samples according to the New Criminal Code, thus presenting some recent examples of judicial practice that may be applied in terms of new regulations imposed by the entry into force of the New Romanian Criminal Code. The research results consist of examining the constitutive content referring to judicial practice, and highlig...

  9. Biased gene conversion and GC-content evolution in the coding sequences of reptiles and vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuet, Emeric; Ballenghien, Marion; Romiguier, Jonathan; Galtier, Nicolas

    2014-12-19

    Mammalian and avian genomes are characterized by a substantial spatial heterogeneity of GC-content, which is often interpreted as reflecting the effect of local GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC), a meiotic repair bias that favors G and C over A and T alleles in high-recombining genomic regions. Surprisingly, the first fully sequenced nonavian sauropsid (i.e., reptile), the green anole Anolis carolinensis, revealed a highly homogeneous genomic GC-content landscape, suggesting the possibility that gBGC might not be at work in this lineage. Here, we analyze GC-content evolution at third-codon positions (GC3) in 44 vertebrates species, including eight newly sequenced transcriptomes, with a specific focus on nonavian sauropsids. We report that reptiles, including the green anole, have a genome-wide distribution of GC3 similar to that of mammals and birds, and we infer a strong GC3-heterogeneity to be already present in the tetrapod ancestor. We further show that the dynamic of coding sequence GC-content is largely governed by karyotypic features in vertebrates, notably in the green anole, in agreement with the gBGC hypothesis. The discrepancy between third-codon positions and noncoding DNA regarding GC-content dynamics in the green anole could not be explained by the activity of transposable elements or selection on codon usage. This analysis highlights the unique value of third-codon positions as an insertion/deletion-free marker of nucleotide substitution biases that ultimately affect the evolution of proteins.

  10. An Empirical Evaluation of the US Beer Institute’s Self-Regulation Code Governing the Content of Beer Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Ziming; Damon, Donna; Noel, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated advertising code violations using the US Beer Institute guidelines for responsible advertising. Methods. We applied the Delphi rating technique to all beer ads (n = 289) broadcast in national markets between 1999 and 2008 during the National Collegiate Athletic Association basketball tournament games. Fifteen public health professionals completed ratings using quantitative scales measuring the content of alcohol advertisements (e.g., perceived actor age, portrayal of excessive drinking) according to 1997 and 2006 versions of the Beer Institute Code. Results. Depending on the code version, exclusion criteria, and scoring method, expert raters found that between 35% and 74% of the ads had code violations. There were significant differences among producers in the frequency with which ads with violations were broadcast, but not in the proportions of unique ads with violations. Guidelines most likely to be violated included the association of beer drinking with social success and the use of content appealing to persons younger than 21 years. Conclusions. The alcohol industry’s current self-regulatory framework is ineffective at preventing content violations but could be improved by the use of new rating procedures designed to better detect content code violations. PMID:23947318

  11. Graphical Table of Contents for Library Collections: The Application of Universal Decimal Classification Codes to Subject Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Herrero-Solano

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The representation of information content by graphical maps is an extended ongoing research topic. The objective of this article consists in verifying whether it is possible to create map displays using Universal Decimal Classification (UDC codes (using co-classification analysis for the purpose of creating a graphical table of contents for a library collection. The application of UDC codes was introduced to subject maps development using the following graphic representation methods: (1 multidimensional scaling; (2 cluster analysis; and (3 neural networks (self-organizing maps. Finally, the authors conclude that the different kinds of maps have slightly different degrees of viability and types of application.

  12. The Constitutive Content of the Crime of Refusal or Evasion from Collecting Biological Samples According to the New Criminal Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora-Ioana BALAN-RUSU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and the objectives of the research consist of examining the constitutive content of the crime of refusal or evasion from collecting biological samples according to the New Criminal Code, thus presenting some recent examples of judicial practice that may be applied in terms of new regulations imposed by the entry into force of the New Romanian Criminal Code. The research results consist of examining the constitutive content referring to judicial practice, and highlighting the elements of distinction between the two regulations. The study can be useful for both theorists and practitioners of criminal law, and to any physical entity.

  13. Gene arrangement convergence, diverse intron content, and genetic code modifications in mitochondrial genomes of sphaeropleales (chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fučíková, Karolina; Lewis, Paul O; González-Halphen, Diego; Lewis, Louise A

    2014-08-08

    The majority of our knowledge about mitochondrial genomes of Viridiplantae comes from land plants, but much less is known about their green algal relatives. In the green algal order Sphaeropleales (Chlorophyta), only one representative mitochondrial genome is currently available-that of Acutodesmus obliquus. Our study adds nine completely sequenced and three partially sequenced mitochondrial genomes spanning the phylogenetic diversity of Sphaeropleales. We show not only a size range of 25-53 kb and variation in intron content (0-11) and gene order but also conservation of 13 core respiratory genes and fragmented ribosomal RNA genes. We also report an unusual case of gene arrangement convergence in Neochloris aquatica, where the two rns fragments were secondarily placed in close proximity. Finally, we report the unprecedented usage of UCG as stop codon in Pseudomuriella schumacherensis. In addition, phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes yield a fully resolved, well-supported phylogeny, showing promise for addressing systematic challenges in green algae. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. A proof of maximum contention-free property of interleavers for Turbo codes using permutation polynomials over integer rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xin-rui; XU You-yun; ZHANG Le

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that interleavers play a critical role in Turbo coding/decoding schemes, and contention-free interleaver design has become a serious problem in the parallelization of Turbo decoding, which is indispensable to meet the demands for high throughput and low latency in next generation mobile communication systems. This paper unveils the fact that interleavers based on permutation polynomials modulo N are contention-free for every window size W, a factor of the interleaver length N, which, also called maximum contention-free interleavers.

  15. Comparison of protein coding gene contents of the fungal phyla Pezizomycotina and Saccharomycotina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ussery David

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several dozen fungi encompassing traditional model organisms, industrial production organisms and human and plant pathogens have been sequenced recently and their particular genomic features analysed in detail. In addition comparative genomics has been used to analyse specific sub groups of fungi. Notably, analysis of the phylum Saccharomycotina has revealed major events of evolution such as the recent genome duplication and subsequent gene loss. However, little has been done to gain a comprehensive comparative view to the fungal kingdom. We have carried out a computational genome wide comparison of protein coding gene content of Saccharomycotina and Pezizomycotina, which include industrially important yeasts and filamentous fungi, respectively. Results Our analysis shows that based on genome redundancy, the traditional model organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa are exceptional among fungi. This can be explained by the recent genome duplication in S. cerevisiae and the repeat induced point mutation mechanism in N. crassa. Interestingly in Pezizomycotina a subset of protein families related to plant biomass degradation and secondary metabolism are the only ones showing signs of recent expansion. In addition, Pezizomycotina have a wealth of phylum specific poorly characterised genes with a wide variety of predicted functions. These genes are well conserved in Pezizomycotina, but show no signs of recent expansion. The genes found in all fungi except Saccharomycotina are slightly better characterised and predicted to encode mainly enzymes. The genes specific to Saccharomycotina are enriched in transcription and mitochondrion related functions. Especially mitochondrial ribosomal proteins seem to have diverged from those of Pezizomycotina. In addition, we highlight several individual gene families with interesting phylogenetic distributions. Conclusion Our analysis predicts that all Pezizomycotina unlike

  16. SACRD: a data base for fast reactor safety computer codes, contents and glossary of Version 1 of the system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, N.M.; Forsberg, V.M.; Raiford, G.B.; Arwood, J.W.; Flanagan, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    SACRD is a data base of material properties and other handbook data needed in computer codes used for fast reactor safety studies. This document lists the contents of Version 1 and also serves as a glossary of terminology used in the data base. Data are available in the thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, structural mechanics, aerosol transport, meteorology, neutronics and dosimetry areas. Tabular, graphical and parameterized data are provided in many cases.

  17. Development of a Coding Instrument to Assess the Quality and Content of Anti-Tobacco Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alber, Julia M.; Watson, Anna M.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Mercado, Rebeccah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous research has shown the use of electronic video games as an effective method for increasing content knowledge about the risks of drugs and alcohol use for adolescents. Although best practice suggests that theory, health communication strategies, and game appeal are important characteristics for developing games, no instruments are currently available to examine the quality and content of tobacco prevention and cessation electronic games. This study presents the systematic development of a coding instrument to measure the quality, use of theory, and health communication strategies of tobacco cessation and prevention electronic games. Using previous research and expert review, a content analysis coding instrument measuring 67 characteristics was developed with three overarching categories: type and quality of games, theory and approach, and type and format of messages. Two trained coders applied the instrument to 88 games on four platforms (personal computer, Nintendo DS, iPhone, and Android phone) to field test the instrument. Cohen's kappa for each item ranged from 0.66 to 1.00, with an average kappa value of 0.97. Future research can adapt this coding instrument to games addressing other health issues. In addition, the instrument questions can serve as a useful guide for evidence-based game development. PMID:26167842

  18. Development of a Coding Instrument to Assess the Quality and Content of Anti-Tobacco Video Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alber, Julia M; Watson, Anna M; Barnett, Tracey E; Mercado, Rebeccah; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has shown the use of electronic video games as an effective method for increasing content knowledge about the risks of drugs and alcohol use for adolescents. Although best practice suggests that theory, health communication strategies, and game appeal are important characteristics for developing games, no instruments are currently available to examine the quality and content of tobacco prevention and cessation electronic games. This study presents the systematic development of a coding instrument to measure the quality, use of theory, and health communication strategies of tobacco cessation and prevention electronic games. Using previous research and expert review, a content analysis coding instrument measuring 67 characteristics was developed with three overarching categories: type and quality of games, theory and approach, and type and format of messages. Two trained coders applied the instrument to 88 games on four platforms (personal computer, Nintendo DS, iPhone, and Android phone) to field test the instrument. Cohen's kappa for each item ranged from 0.66 to 1.00, with an average kappa value of 0.97. Future research can adapt this coding instrument to games addressing other health issues. In addition, the instrument questions can serve as a useful guide for evidence-based game development.

  19. Block truncation coding with color clumps:A novel feature extraction technique for content based image classification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUDEEP THEPADE; RIK DAS; SAURAV GHOSH

    2016-09-01

    The paper has explored principle of block truncation coding (BTC) as a means to perform feature extraction for content based image classification. A variation of block truncation coding, named BTC with color clumps has been implemented in this work to generate feature vectors. Classification performance with the proposed technique of feature extraction has been compared to existing techniques. Two widely used publicdataset named Wang dataset and Caltech dataset have been used for analyses and comparisons of classification performances based on four different metrics. The study has established BTC with color clumps as an effective alternative for feature extraction compared to existing methods. The experiments were carried out in RGB colorspace. Two different categories of classifiers viz. K Nearest Neighbor (KNN) Classifier and RIDOR Classifier were used to measure the classification performances. A paired t test was conducted to establish the statistical significance of the findings. Evaluation of classifier algorithms were done in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) space.

  20. Multimedia Cross–Platform Content Distribution for Mobile Peer–to–Peer Networks using Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Heide, Janus; Vingelmann, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    This paper is looking into the possibility of multimedia content distribution over multiple mobile platforms forming wireless peer–to–peer networks. State of the art mobile networks are centralized and base station or access point oriented. Current developments break ground for device to device...... communication. In this paper we will introduce a mobile application that runs on Symbian as well as iPhone/iPod de vices and is able to exchange multimedia content in a point to multipoint fashion. The mobile application coined PictureViewer can convey pictures from one source device to many neighboring devices...

  1. Associations Between Thematic Content and Industry Self-Regulation Code Violations in Beer Advertising Broadcast During the U.S. NCAA Basketball Tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jonathan K; Xuan, Ziming; Babor, Thomas F

    2017-07-03

    Beer marketing in the United States is controlled through self-regulation, whereby the beer industry has created a marketing code and enforces its use. We performed a thematic content analysis on beer ads broadcast during a U.S. college athletic event and determined which themes are associated with violations of a self-regulated alcohol marketing code. 289 beer ads broadcast during the U.S. NCAA Men's and Women's 1999-2008 basketball tournaments were assessed for the presence of 23 thematic content areas. Associations between themes and violations of the U.S. Beer Institute's Marketing and Advertising Code were determined using generalized linear models. Humor (61.3%), taste (61.0%), masculinity (49.2%), and enjoyment (36.5%) were the most prevalent content areas. Nine content areas (i.e., conformity, ethnicity, sensation seeking, sociability, romance, special occasions, text responsibility messages, tradition, and individuality) were positively associated with code violations (p code violations than content areas negatively associated with code violations (p code violations. The results can inform existing efforts to revise self-regulated alcohol marketing codes to ensure better protection of vulnerable populations. The use of several themes is concerning in relation to adolescent alcohol use and health disparities.

  2. Analysis of image content recognition algorithm based on sparse coding and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yu

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an image classification algorithm based on spatial sparse coding model and random forest. Firstly, SIFT feature extraction of the image; and then use the sparse encoding theory to generate visual vocabulary based on SIFT features, and using the visual vocabulary of SIFT features into a sparse vector; through the combination of regional integration and spatial sparse vector, the sparse vector gets a fixed dimension is used to represent the image; at last random forest classifier for image sparse vectors for training and testing, using the experimental data set for standard test Caltech-101 and Scene-15. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively represent the features of the image and improve the classification accuracy. In this paper, we propose an innovative image recognition algorithm based on image segmentation, sparse coding and multi instance learning. This algorithm introduces the concept of multi instance learning, the image as a multi instance bag, sparse feature transformation by SIFT images as instances, sparse encoding model generation visual vocabulary as the feature space is mapped to the feature space through the statistics on the number of instances in bags, and then use the 1-norm SVM to classify images and generate sample weights to select important image features.

  3. Network-Coded Content Delivery in Femtocaching-Assisted Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shnaiwer, Yousef N.

    2015-12-06

    Next-generation cellular networks are expected to be assisted by femtocaches (FCs), which collectively store the most popular files for the clients. Given any arbitrary non-fragmented placement of such files, a strict no-latency constraint, and clients\\' prior knowledge, new file download requests could be efficiently handled by both the FCs and the macrocell base station (MBS) using opportunistic network coding (ONC). In this paper, we aim to find the best allocation of coded file downloads to the FCs so as to minimize the MBS involvement in this download process. We first formulate this optimization problem over an ONC graph, and show that it is NP-hard. We then propose a greedy approach that maximizes the number of files downloaded by the FCs, with the goal to reduce the download share of the MBS. This allocation is performed using a dual conflict ONC graph to avoid conflicts among the FC downloads. Simulations show that our proposed scheme almost achieves the optimal performance and significantly saves on the MBS bandwidth.

  4. Research and Trends in the Field of Technology-Enhanced Learning from 2006 to 2011: A Content Analysis of Quick Response Code (QR-Code) and Its Application in Selected Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Goh Bak; Siraj, Saedah; Alias, Norlidah; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd.; Zakaria, Abd. Razak; Darusalam, Ghazali

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a content analysis of selected articles in the field of QR code and its application in educational context that were published in journals and proceedings of international conferences and workshops from 2006 to 2011. These articles were cross analysed by published years, journal, and research topics. Further analysis was…

  5. The small RNA content of human sperm reveals pseudogene-derived piRNAs complementary to protein-coding genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantano, Lorena; Jodar, Meritxell; Bak, Mads; Ballescà, Josep Lluís; Tommerup, Niels; Oliva, Rafael; Vavouri, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    At the end of mammalian sperm development, sperm cells expel most of their cytoplasm and dispose of the majority of their RNA. Yet, hundreds of RNA molecules remain in mature sperm. The biological significance of the vast majority of these molecules is unclear. To better understand the processes that generate sperm small RNAs and what roles they may have, we sequenced and characterized the small RNA content of sperm samples from two human fertile individuals. We detected 182 microRNAs, some of which are highly abundant. The most abundant microRNA in sperm is miR-1246 with predicted targets among sperm-specific genes. The most abundant class of small noncoding RNAs in sperm are PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Surprisingly, we found that human sperm cells contain piRNAs processed from pseudogenes. Clusters of piRNAs from human testes contain pseudogenes transcribed in the antisense strand and processed into small RNAs. Several human protein-coding genes contain antisense predicted targets of pseudogene-derived piRNAs in the male germline and these piRNAs are still found in mature sperm. Our study provides the most extensive data set and annotation of human sperm small RNAs to date and is a resource for further functional studies on the roles of sperm small RNAs. In addition, we propose that some of the pseudogene-derived human piRNAs may regulate expression of their parent gene in the male germline. PMID:25904136

  6. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......; Race, 2001; Ramsden, 2003). This trend appears closely related to the ‘from-teaching-to-learning’ movement, which has had a strong influence on pedagogy since the early nineties (Keiding, 2007; Terhart, 2003). Another interpretation of the current interest in methodology can be derived from...... for selection of content (Klafki, 1985, 2000; Myhre, 1961; Nielsen, 2006). These attempts all share one feature, which is that criteria for selection of content appear very general and often, more or less explicitly, deal with teaching at the first Bologna-cycle; i.e. schooling at the primary and lower...

  7. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  8. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  9. Infocast: A New Paradigm for Collaborative Content Distribution from Roadside Units to Vehicular Networks Using Rateless Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Sardari, Mohsen; Fekri, Faramarz; 10.1109/SAHCN.2009.5168939

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of distributing a large amount of bulk data to a sparse vehicular network from roadside infostations, using efficient vehicle-to-vehicle collaboration. Due to the highly dynamic nature of the underlying vehicular network topology, we depart from architectures requiring centralized coordination, reliable MAC scheduling, or global network state knowledge, and instead adopt a distributed paradigm with simple protocols. In other words, we investigate the problem of reliable dissemination from multiple sources when each node in the network shares a limited amount of its resources for cooperating with others. By using \\emph{rateless} coding at the Road Side Unit (RSU) and using vehicles as data carriers, we describe an efficient way to achieve reliable dissemination to all nodes (even disconnected clusters in the network). In the nutshell, we explore vehicles as mobile storage devices. We then develop a method to keep the density of the rateless codes packets as a function of d...

  10. A versatile, bar-coded nuclear marker/reporter for live cell fluorescent and multiplexed high content imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Krylova

    Full Text Available The screening of large numbers of compounds or siRNAs is a mainstay of both academic and pharmaceutical research. Most screens test those interventions against a single biochemical or cellular output whereas recording multiple complementary outputs may be more biologically relevant. High throughput, multi-channel fluorescence microscopy permits multiple outputs to be quantified in specific cellular subcompartments. However, the number of distinct fluorescent outputs available remains limited. Here, we describe a cellular bar-code technology in which multiple cell-based assays are combined in one well after which each assay is distinguished by fluorescence microscopy. The technology uses the unique fluorescent properties of assay-specific markers comprised of distinct combinations of different 'red' fluorescent proteins sandwiched around a nuclear localization signal. The bar-code markers are excited by a common wavelength of light but distinguished ratiometrically by their differing relative fluorescence in two emission channels. Targeting the bar-code to cell nuclei enables individual cells expressing distinguishable markers to be readily separated by standard image analysis programs. We validated the method by showing that the unique responses of different cell-based assays to specific drugs are retained when three assays are co-plated and separated by the bar-code. Based upon those studies, we discuss a roadmap in which even more assays may be combined in a well. The ability to analyze multiple assays simultaneously will enable screens that better identify, characterize and distinguish hits according to multiple biologically or clinically relevant criteria. These capabilities also enable the re-creation of complex mixtures of cell types that is emerging as a central area of interest in many fields.

  11. The small RNA content of human sperm reveals pseudogene-derived piRNAs complementary to protein-coding genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantano, Lorena; Jodar, Meritxell; Bak, Mads

    2015-01-01

    At the end of mammalian sperm development, sperm cells expel most of their cytoplasm and dispose of the majority of their RNA. Yet, hundreds of RNA molecules remain in mature sperm. The biological significance of the vast majority of these molecules is unclear. To better understand the processes......-specific genes. The most abundant class of small noncoding RNAs in sperm are PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Surprisingly, we found that human sperm cells contain piRNAs processed from pseudogenes. Clusters of piRNAs from human testes contain pseudogenes transcribed in the antisense strand and processed...... that generate sperm small RNAs and what roles they may have, we sequenced and characterized the small RNA content of sperm samples from two human fertile individuals. We detected 182 microRNAs, some of which are highly abundant. The most abundant microRNA in sperm is miR-1246 with predicted targets among sperm...

  12. A “GC-rich” method for mammalian gene expression:A dominant role of non-coding DNA GC content in the regulation of mammalian gene expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gilbert; Rishton; Matthew; (Mizhou); HUI

    2010-01-01

    High mammalian gene expression was obtained for more than twenty different proteins in different cell types by just a few laboratory scale stable gene transfections for each protein.The stable expression vectors were constructed by inserting a naturally-occurring 1.006 kb or a synthetic 0.733 kb DNA fragment(including intron) of extremely GC-rich at the 5’ or/and 3’ flanking regions of these protein genes or their gene promoters.This experiment is the first experimental evidence showing that a non-coding extremely GC-rich DNA fragment is a super "chromatin opening element" and plays an important role in mammalian gene expression.This experiment has further indicated that chromatin-based regulation of mammalian gene expression is at least partially embedded in DNA primary structure,namely DNA GC-content.

  13. Development of a technique using MCNPX code for determination of nitrogen content of explosive materials using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasrabadi, M.N., E-mail: mnnasrabadi@ast.ui.ac.ir [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bakhshi, F.; Jalali, M.; Mohammadi, A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-11

    Nuclear-based explosive detection methods can detect explosives by identifying their elemental components, especially nitrogen. Thermal neutron capture reactions have been used for detecting prompt gamma 10.8 MeV following radioactive neutron capture by {sup 14}N nuclei. We aimed to study the feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) along with improved nuclear equipment to detect and identify explosives, illicit substances or landmines. A {sup 252}Cf radio-isotopic source was embedded in a cylinder made of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and the cylinder was then placed in another cylindrical container filled with water. Measurements were performed on high nitrogen content compounds such as melamine (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}N{sub 6}). Melamine powder in a HDPE bottle was placed underneath the vessel containing water and the neutron source. Gamma rays were detected using two NaI(Tl) crystals. The results were simulated with MCNP4c code calculations. The theoretical calculations and experimental measurements were in good agreement indicating that this method can be used for detection of explosives and illicit drugs.

  14. 融合全色度LZMA与色度子采样HEVC的屏幕图像编码%Screen Content Coding by Combined Full-chroma LZMA and Subsampled-chroma HEVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张培君; 王淑慧; 周开伦; 林涛

    2013-01-01

    Considering the anisotropic characteristics of screen content, satisfactory coding efficiency cannot be achieved when screen content is coded only by traditional image/video coding tools. A new Dual-coder Mixed Chroma-sampling-rate (DMC) technique is proposed for full-chroma (YUV4:4:4) screen content coding by adding a dictionary-entropy based coder which extracted from Lempel-Ziv-Markov chain Algorithm (LZMA) to existing High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) SDK tools for better coding efficiency of discontinues-tone portion of screen content. Two coders are seamlessly unified and the optimal coder is selected adaptively macroblock-by-macroblock to fit the characteristics of the macroblock content. A mixed chroma-sample-rate method is also proposed for reducing distortions to convert YUV4:4:4 to YUV4:2:0. Coding experimental results show that DMC coding can achieve much higher PSNR than the current HEVC. There are also obvious improvements on the subjective visual quality differences between them.%  由于屏幕图像的各向异性特点,使用传统的图像/视频编码算法不能得到理想的编码效率。该文提出一种双编码器方案,在保留HEVC(High Efficiency Video Coding)对连续色调区域的优秀性能的同时,加入了从LZMA (Lempel-Ziv-Markov chain Algorithm) SDK中提取出来的对非连续色调区域编码性能更优的字典-熵编码模块。两种编码器以宏块级自适应的方式有机融合,可适应不同的视频源特性。为了减少YUV4:4:4格式转换到YUV4:2:0对图像造成的失真,该文还提出了混合色度采样率的设计,可在保留传统色度子采样编解码器和其低码率低成本优势特性的前提下,有效提高编码效率。实验结果表明,该文提出的方案,比单纯使用HEVC的性能提高约10~30 dB,其主观性能改善也非常明显。

  15. QR codes for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Waters, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Find out how to effectively create, use, and track QR codes QR (Quick Response) codes are popping up everywhere, and businesses are reaping the rewards. Get in on the action with the no-nonsense advice in this streamlined, portable guide. You'll find out how to get started, plan your strategy, and actually create the codes. Then you'll learn to link codes to mobile-friendly content, track your results, and develop ways to give your customers value that will keep them coming back. It's all presented in the straightforward style you've come to know and love, with a dash of humor thrown

  16. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  17. Regional vertical total electron content (VTEC) modeling together with satellite and receiver differential code biases (DCBs) using semi-parametric multivariate adaptive regression B-splines (SP-BMARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, Murat; Karslioglu, Mahmut Onur

    2015-04-01

    There are various global and regional methods that have been proposed for the modeling of ionospheric vertical total electron content (VTEC). Global distribution of VTEC is usually modeled by spherical harmonic expansions, while tensor products of compactly supported univariate B-splines can be used for regional modeling. In these empirical parametric models, the coefficients of the basis functions as well as differential code biases (DCBs) of satellites and receivers can be treated as unknown parameters which can be estimated from geometry-free linear combinations of global positioning system observables. In this work we propose a new semi-parametric multivariate adaptive regression B-splines (SP-BMARS) method for the regional modeling of VTEC together with satellite and receiver DCBs, where the parametric part of the model is related to the DCBs as fixed parameters and the non-parametric part adaptively models the spatio-temporal distribution of VTEC. The latter is based on multivariate adaptive regression B-splines which is a non-parametric modeling technique making use of compactly supported B-spline basis functions that are generated from the observations automatically. This algorithm takes advantage of an adaptive scale-by-scale model building strategy that searches for best-fitting B-splines to the data at each scale. The VTEC maps generated from the proposed method are compared numerically and visually with the global ionosphere maps (GIMs) which are provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE). The VTEC values from SP-BMARS and CODE GIMs are also compared with VTEC values obtained through calibration using local ionospheric model. The estimated satellite and receiver DCBs from the SP-BMARS model are compared with the CODE distributed DCBs. The results show that the SP-BMARS algorithm can be used to estimate satellite and receiver DCBs while adaptively and flexibly modeling the daily regional VTEC.

  18. Holographic codes

    CERN Document Server

    Latorre, Jose I

    2015-01-01

    There exists a remarkable four-qutrit state that carries absolute maximal entanglement in all its partitions. Employing this state, we construct a tensor network that delivers a holographic many body state, the H-code, where the physical properties of the boundary determine those of the bulk. This H-code is made of an even superposition of states whose relative Hamming distances are exponentially large with the size of the boundary. This property makes H-codes natural states for a quantum memory. H-codes exist on tori of definite sizes and get classified in three different sectors characterized by the sum of their qutrits on cycles wrapped through the boundaries of the system. We construct a parent Hamiltonian for the H-code which is highly non local and finally we compute the topological entanglement entropy of the H-code.

  19. Sharing code

    OpenAIRE

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  20. Decoding the codes: A content analysis of the news coverage of genetic cloning by three online news sites and three national daily newspapers, 1996 through 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Jon E.

    This study compared news coverage of genetic cloning research in three online news sites (CNN.com, ABC.com, and MSNBC.com) and three national daily newspapers (The New York Times, The Washington Post, and USA Today). The study involved the analysis of 230 online and print news articles concerning genetic cloning published from 1996 through 1998. Articles were examined with respect to formats, sources, focus, tone, and assessments about the impact of cloning research. Findings indicated that while print news formats remained relatively constant for the duration of this study, online news formats changed significantly with respect to the kinds of media used to represent the news, the layouts used to represent cloning news, and the emphasis placed on audio-visual content. Online stories were as much as 20 to 70% shorter than print stories. More than 50% of the articles appearing online were composed by outside sources (wire services, guest columnists, etc.). By comparison, nearly 90% of the articles published by print newspapers were written "in-house" by science reporters. Online news sites cited fewer sources and cited a smaller variety of sources than the newspapers examined here. In both news outlets, however, the sources most frequently cited were those with vested interests in furthering cloning research. Both online and print news coverage of cloning tends to focus principally on the technical procedures and on the future benefits of cloning. More than 60% of the articles focused on the techniques and technologies of cloning. Less than 25% of the articles focused on social, ethical, or legal issues associated with cloning. Similarly, articles from all six sources (75%) tended to be both positive and future-oriented. Less than 5% of the total articles examined here had a strongly negative or critical tone. Moreover, both online and print news sources increasingly conveyed a strong sense of acceptance about the possibility of human cloning. Data from this study

  1. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...

  2. Polar Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    QPSK Gaussian channels . .......................................................................... 39 vi 1. INTRODUCTION Forward error correction (FEC...Capacity of BSC. 7 Figure 5. Capacity of AWGN channel . 8 4. INTRODUCTION TO POLAR CODES Polar codes were introduced by E. Arikan in [1]. This paper...Under authority of C. A. Wilgenbusch, Head ISR Division EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report describes the results of the project “More reliable wireless

  3. Accelerator Physics Code Web Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, F.; Basset, R.; Bellodi, G.; Benedetto, E.; Dorda, U.; Giovannozzi, M.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pieloni, T.; Ruggiero, F.; Rumolo, G.; Schmidt, F.; Todesco, E.; Zotter, B.W.; /CERN; Payet, J.; /Saclay; Bartolini, R.; /RAL, Diamond; Farvacque, L.; /ESRF, Grenoble; Sen, T.; /Fermilab; Chin, Y.H.; Ohmi, K.; Oide, K.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Furman, M.; /LBL, Berkeley /Oak Ridge /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /SLAC /TRIUMF /Tech-X, Boulder /UC, San Diego /Darmstadt, GSI /Rutherford /Brookhaven

    2006-10-24

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  4. ACCELERATION PHYSICS CODE WEB REPOSITORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  5. Robust Nonlinear Neural Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qianli; Pitkow, Xaq

    2015-03-01

    Most interesting natural sensory stimuli are encoded in the brain in a form that can only be decoded nonlinearly. But despite being a core function of the brain, nonlinear population codes are rarely studied and poorly understood. Interestingly, the few existing models of nonlinear codes are inconsistent with known architectural features of the brain. In particular, these codes have information content that scales with the size of the cortical population, even if that violates the data processing inequality by exceeding the amount of information entering the sensory system. Here we provide a valid theory of nonlinear population codes by generalizing recent work on information-limiting correlations in linear population codes. Although these generalized, nonlinear information-limiting correlations bound the performance of any decoder, they also make decoding more robust to suboptimal computation, allowing many suboptimal decoders to achieve nearly the same efficiency as an optimal decoder. Although these correlations are extremely difficult to measure directly, particularly for nonlinear codes, we provide a simple, practical test by which one can use choice-related activity in small populations of neurons to determine whether decoding is suboptimal or optimal and limited by correlated noise. We conclude by describing an example computation in the vestibular system where this theory applies. QY and XP was supported by a grant from the McNair foundation.

  6. Progressive Coding and Presentation of Maps for Internet Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Riis; Forchhammer, Søren Otto

    1999-01-01

    A new lossless context based method for content progressive coding of images as maps is proposed.......A new lossless context based method for content progressive coding of images as maps is proposed....

  7. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  8. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    ; alternatives to mainstream development, from performances of the live-coding scene to the organizational forms of commons-based peer production; the democratic promise of social media and their paradoxical role in suppressing political expression; and the market’s emptying out of possibilities for free...... development, Speaking Code unfolds an argument to undermine the distinctions between criticism and practice, and to emphasize the aesthetic and political aspects of software studies. Not reducible to its functional aspects, program code mirrors the instability inherent in the relationship of speech...... expression in the public realm. The book’s line of argument defends language against its invasion by economics, arguing that speech continues to underscore the human condition, however paradoxical this may seem in an era of pervasive computing....

  9. Content Analysis: Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tannis MacBeth; And Others

    Content analyses of the depiction of aggression and images of reality on Canadian television were performed on 109 program tapes of top-rated Toronto programs. Content was coded in terms of global messages communicated, character portrayals, context and setting of the program, amount and nature of conflict portrayed, and detailed information on…

  10. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  11. Optimal codes as Tanner codes with cyclic component codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando; Zeng, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study a class of graph codes with cyclic code component codes as affine variety codes. Within this class of Tanner codes we find some optimal binary codes. We use a particular subgraph of the point-line incidence plane of A(2,q) as the Tanner graph, and we are able to describe...... the codes succinctly using Gröbner bases....

  12. NOVEL BIPHASE CODE -INTEGRATED SIDELOBE SUPPRESSION CODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Feixue; Ou Gang; Zhuang Zhaowen

    2004-01-01

    A kind of novel binary phase code named sidelobe suppression code is proposed in this paper. It is defined to be the code whose corresponding optimal sidelobe suppression filter outputs the minimum sidelobes. It is shown that there do exist sidelobe suppression codes better than the conventional optimal codes-Barker codes. For example, the sidelobe suppression code of length 11 with filter of length 39 has better sidelobe level up to 17dB than that of Barker code with the same code length and filter length.

  13. Portable code development in C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.A.

    1990-11-06

    With a new generation of high performance computers appearing around us on a time scale of months, a new challenge for developers of simulation codes is to write and maintain production codes that are both highly portable and maximally efficient. My contention is that C is the language that is both best suited to that goal and is widely available today. GLF is a new code written mainly in C which is intended to have all of the XRASER physics and run on any platform of interest. It demonstrates the power of the C paradigm for code developers and flexibility and ease of use for the users. Three fundamental problems are discussed: the C/UNIX development environment; the supporting tools and libraries which handle data and graphics portability issues; and the advantages of C in numerical simulation code development.

  14. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing...

  15. Good Codes From Generalised Algebraic Geometry Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Jibril, Mubarak; Ahmed, Mohammed Zaki; Tjhai, Cen

    2010-01-01

    Algebraic geometry codes or Goppa codes are defined with places of degree one. In constructing generalised algebraic geometry codes places of higher degree are used. In this paper we present 41 new codes over GF(16) which improve on the best known codes of the same length and rate. The construction method uses places of small degree with a technique originally published over 10 years ago for the construction of generalised algebraic geometry codes.

  16. Space Time Codes from Permutation Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Henkel, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    A new class of space time codes with high performance is presented. The code design utilizes tailor-made permutation codes, which are known to have large minimal distances as spherical codes. A geometric connection between spherical and space time codes has been used to translate them into the final space time codes. Simulations demonstrate that the performance increases with the block lengths, a result that has been conjectured already in previous work. Further, the connection to permutation codes allows for moderate complex en-/decoding algorithms.

  17. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  18. [Bioethics in the new Argentinian Civil and Commercial Code].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergel, Salvador Darío

    2015-01-01

    Argentine has a new Civil and Commercial Code that will enter into force in August. This Code contains a series of rules relating to bioethics that have served to illustrate a brief comment on its contents.

  19. Strong Trinucleotide Circular Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Michel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we identified a hierarchy relation between trinucleotide comma-free codes and trinucleotide circular codes (see our previous works. Here, we extend our hierarchy with two new classes of codes, called DLD and LDL codes, which are stronger than the comma-free codes. We also prove that no circular code with 20 trinucleotides is a DLD code and that a circular code with 20 trinucleotides is comma-free if and only if it is a LDL code. Finally, we point out the possible role of the symmetric group ∑4 in the mathematical study of trinucleotide circular codes.

  20. Joint source channel coding using arithmetic codes

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Dongsheng

    2009-01-01

    Based on the encoding process, arithmetic codes can be viewed as tree codes and current proposals for decoding arithmetic codes with forbidden symbols belong to sequential decoding algorithms and their variants. In this monograph, we propose a new way of looking at arithmetic codes with forbidden symbols. If a limit is imposed on the maximum value of a key parameter in the encoder, this modified arithmetic encoder can also be modeled as a finite state machine and the code generated can be treated as a variable-length trellis code. The number of states used can be reduced and techniques used fo

  1. Model Children's Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  2. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both...... the coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  3. Coding for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on exercises help you learn to code like a pro No coding experience is required for Coding For Dummies,your one-stop guide to building a foundation of knowledge inwriting computer code for web, application, and softwaredevelopment. It doesn't matter if you've dabbled in coding or neverwritten a line of code, this book guides you through the basics.Using foundational web development languages like HTML, CSS, andJavaScript, it explains in plain English how coding works and whyit's needed. Online exercises developed by Codecademy, a leading online codetraining site, help hone coding skill

  4. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  5. JPIC & How to make a PIC code

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Hui-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Author developed the parallel fully kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) code JPIC based on updated and advanced algorithms (e.g. numerical-dispersion-free electromagnetic field solver) for simulating laser plasma interactions. Basic technical points and hints of PIC programming and parallel programming by message passing interface (MPI) are reviewed. Most of contents come from Author's notes when writing up JPIC and experiences when using the code to solve different problems. Enough "how-to-do-it" information should help a new beginner to effectively build up his/her own PIC code. General advices on how to use a PIC code are also given.

  6. Locally Orderless Registration Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  7. Locally orderless registration code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  8. QR Codes 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  9. Constructing quantum codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Quantum error correcting codes are indispensable for quantum information processing and quantum computation.In 1995 and 1996,Shor and Steane gave first several examples of quantum codes from classical error correcting codes.The construction of efficient quantum codes is now an active multi-discipline research field.In this paper we review the known several constructions of quantum codes and present some examples.

  10. Analysis of an accident type sbloca in reactor contention AP1000 with 8.0 Gothic code; Analisis de un accidente tipo Sbloca en la contencion del reactor AP1000 con el codigo Gothic 8.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goni, Z.; Jimenez Varas, G.; Fernandez, K.; Queral, C.; Montero, J.

    2016-08-01

    The analysis is based on the simulation of a Small Break Loss-of-Coolant-Accident in the AP1000 nuclear reactor using a Gothic 8.0 tri dimensional model created in the Science and Technology Group of Nuclear Fision Advanced Systems of the UPM. The SBLOCA has been simulated with TRACE 5.0 code. The main purpose of this work is the study of the thermo-hydraulic behaviour of the AP1000 containment during a SBLOCA. The transients simulated reveal close results to the realistic behaviour in case of an accident with similar characteristics. The pressure and temperature evolution enables the identification of the accident phases from the RCS point of view. Compared to the licensing calculations included in the AP1000 Safety Analysis, it has been proved that the average pressure and temperature evolution is similar, yet lower than the licensing calculations. However, the temperature and inventory distribution are significantly heterogeneous. (Author)

  11. Perceptions of teamwork among code team members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahramus, Tara; Frewin, Sarah; Penoyer, Daleen Aragon; Sole, Mary Lou

    2013-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) teams, known as code teams, provide coordinated and evidenced-based interventions by various disciplines during a CPA. Teamwork behaviors are essential during CPA resuscitation and may have an impact on patient outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of teamwork during CPA events among code team members and to determine if differences in perception existed between disciplines within the code team. A prospective, descriptive, comparative design using the Code Teamwork Perception Tool online survey was used to assess the perception of teamwork during CPA events by medical residents, critical care nurses, and respiratory therapists. Sixty-six code team members completed the Code Teamwork Perception Tool. Mean teamwork scores were 2.63 on a 5-point scale (0-4). No significant differences were found in mean scores among disciplines. Significant differences among scores were found on 7 items related to code leadership, roles and responsibilities between disciplines, and in those who had participated on a code team for less than 2 years and certified in Advanced Cardiac Life Support for less than 4 years. Teamwork perception among members of the code team was average. Teamwork training for resuscitation with all disciplines on the code team may promote more effective teamwork during actual CPA events. Clinical nurse specialists can aid in resuscitation efforts by actively participating on committees, identifying opportunities for improvement, being content experts, leading the development of team training programs, and conducting research in areas lacking evidence.

  12. Challenge: Code of environmental law; Herausforderung Umweltgesetzbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    Within the meeting ''Challenge: Code of environmental law'' at 16th February, 2007, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) and organized by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) the new code of environmental law as a contribution to more modernness and efficiency in the environmental politics (Sigmar Gabriel); (b) The code of environmental law from the view of the economy (Martin Wansleben); (c) Significance of the code of environmental law from the view of jurisprudence (Michael Kloepfer); (d) Targets, content and utility of the code of environmental law: Summary of the panel discussion (Tanja Goenner, Klaus Mittelbach, Juergen Resch, Hans-Joachim Koch, Alfred Wirtz, Andreas Troge (moderator)); (e) Considerations to the coding of water law in the code of environmental law (Helge Wendenburg); (f) Considerations to the coding of water law: Summary of te discussion; (g) Considerations to the coding of nature conservation law (Jochen Flasbarth); (h) Considerations to the coding of nature conservation law: Summary of the discussion.

  13. Turbo Codes Extended with Outer BCH Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1996-01-01

    The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is proposed...

  14. Hybrid Noncoherent Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Skachek, Vitaly; Nedic, Angelia

    2011-01-01

    We describe a novel extension of subspace codes for noncoherent networks, suitable for use when the network is viewed as a communication system that introduces both dimension and symbol errors. We show that when symbol erasures occur in a significantly large number of different basis vectors transmitted through the network and when the min-cut of the networks is much smaller then the length of the transmitted codewords, the new family of codes outperforms their subspace code counterparts. For the proposed coding scheme, termed hybrid network coding, we derive two upper bounds on the size of the codes. These bounds represent a variation of the Singleton and of the sphere-packing bound. We show that a simple concatenated scheme that represents a combination of subspace codes and Reed-Solomon codes is asymptotically optimal with respect to the Singleton bound. Finally, we describe two efficient decoding algorithms for concatenated subspace codes that in certain cases have smaller complexity than subspace decoder...

  15. An Outline of the New Norwegian Criminal Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørn Jacobsen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of the new criminal code, its background and content. It maps out the code’s background, the legislative process and central ideas. Furthermore, the article gives an outline of the general criteria for criminal responsibility according to the code, the offences and forms of punishment and other reactions. The article emphasises the most important changes from the previous code of 1902. To some degree, strengths and weaknesses of the new code are addressed.

  16. Network coding for computing: Linear codes

    CERN Document Server

    Appuswamy, Rathinakumar; Karamchandani, Nikhil; Zeger, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    In network coding it is known that linear codes are sufficient to achieve the coding capacity in multicast networks and that they are not sufficient in general to achieve the coding capacity in non-multicast networks. In network computing, Rai, Dey, and Shenvi have recently shown that linear codes are not sufficient in general for solvability of multi-receiver networks with scalar linear target functions. We study single receiver networks where the receiver node demands a target function of the source messages. We show that linear codes may provide a computing capacity advantage over routing only when the receiver demands a `linearly-reducible' target function. % Many known target functions including the arithmetic sum, minimum, and maximum are not linearly-reducible. Thus, the use of non-linear codes is essential in order to obtain a computing capacity advantage over routing if the receiver demands a target function that is not linearly-reducible. We also show that if a target function is linearly-reducible,...

  17. Emerging principles of population coding: in search for the neural code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Maoz

    2014-04-01

    Population coding theory aims to provide quantitative tests for hypotheses concerning the neural code. Over the last two decades theory has focused on analyzing the ways in which various parameters that characterize neuronal responses to external stimuli affect the information content of these responses. This article reviews and provides an intuitive explanation for the major effects of noise correlations and neuronal heterogeneity, and discusses their implications for our ability to investigate the neural code. It is argued that to test neural code hypotheses further, additional constraints are required, including relating trial-to-trial variation in neuronal population responses to behavioral decisions and specifying how information is decoded by downstream networks.

  18. Arabic Natural Language Processing System Code Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 This technical note provides a brief description of a Java library for Arabic natural language processing ( NLP ) containing code...for training and applying the Arabic NLP system described in the paper "A Cross-Task Flexible Transition Model for Arabic Tokenization, Affix...processing, NLP , Java, code 14 Stephen C. Tratz (301) 394-2305Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified UU ii Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. File Overview 1 3

  19. Practices in Code Discoverability

    CERN Document Server

    Teuben, Peter; Nemiroff, Robert J; Shamir, Lior

    2012-01-01

    Much of scientific progress now hinges on the reliability, falsifiability and reproducibility of computer source codes. Astrophysics in particular is a discipline that today leads other sciences in making useful scientific components freely available online, including data, abstracts, preprints, and fully published papers, yet even today many astrophysics source codes remain hidden from public view. We review the importance and history of source codes in astrophysics and previous efforts to develop ways in which information about astrophysics codes can be shared. We also discuss why some scientist coders resist sharing or publishing their codes, the reasons for and importance of overcoming this resistance, and alert the community to a reworking of one of the first attempts for sharing codes, the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL). We discuss the implementation of the ASCL in an accompanying poster paper. We suggest that code could be given a similar level of referencing as data gets in repositories such ...

  20. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  1. Enhancing QR Code Security

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Linfan; Zheng, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Quick Response code opens possibility to convey data in a unique way yet insufficient prevention and protection might lead into QR code being exploited on behalf of attackers. This thesis starts by presenting a general introduction of background and stating two problems regarding QR code security, which followed by a comprehensive research on both QR code itself and related issues. From the research a solution taking advantages of cloud and cryptography together with an implementation come af...

  2. Refactoring test code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon); A. van den Bergh; G. Kok

    2001-01-01

    textabstractTwo key aspects of extreme programming (XP) are unit testing and merciless refactoring. Given the fact that the ideal test code / production code ratio approaches 1:1, it is not surprising that unit tests are being refactored. We found that refactoring test code is different from

  3. Informal Control code logic

    CERN Document Server

    Bergstra, Jan A

    2010-01-01

    General definitions as well as rules of reasoning regarding control code production, distribution, deployment, and usage are described. The role of testing, trust, confidence and risk analysis is considered. A rationale for control code testing is sought and found for the case of safety critical embedded control code.

  4. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow...

  5. Refactoring test code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, A. van; Moonen, L.M.F.; Bergh, A. van den; Kok, G.

    2001-01-01

    Two key aspects of extreme programming (XP) are unit testing and merciless refactoring. Given the fact that the ideal test code / production code ratio approaches 1:1, it is not surprising that unit tests are being refactored. We found that refactoring test code is different from refactoring product

  6. ARC Code TI: CODE Software Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CODE is a software framework for control and observation in distributed environments. The basic functionality of the framework allows a user to observe a distributed...

  7. ARC Code TI: ROC Curve Code Augmentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve Code Augmentation was written by Rodney Martin and John Stutz at NASA Ames Research Center and is a modification of ROC...

  8. Fountain Codes: LT And Raptor Codes Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bazzi, Hiba Harb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital fountain codes are a new class of random error correcting codes designed for efficient and reliable data delivery over erasure channels such as internet. These codes were developed to provide robustness against erasures in a way that resembles a fountain of water. A digital fountain is rateless in a way that sender can send limitless number of encoded packets. The receiver doesn’t care which packets are received or lost as long as the receiver gets enough packets to recover original data. In this paper, the design of the fountain codes is explored with its implementation of the encoding and decoding algorithm so that the performance in terms of encoding/decoding symbols, reception overhead, data length, and failure probability is studied.

  9. Universal Rateless Codes From Coupled LT Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Aref, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    It was recently shown that spatial coupling of individual low-density parity-check codes improves the belief-propagation threshold of the coupled ensemble essentially to the maximum a posteriori threshold of the underlying ensemble. We study the performance of spatially coupled low-density generator-matrix ensembles when used for transmission over binary-input memoryless output-symmetric channels. We show by means of density evolution that the threshold saturation phenomenon also takes place in this setting. Our motivation for studying low-density generator-matrix codes is that they can easily be converted into rateless codes. Although there are already several classes of excellent rateless codes known to date, rateless codes constructed via spatial coupling might offer some additional advantages. In particular, by the very nature of the threshold phenomenon one expects that codes constructed on this principle can be made to be universal, i.e., a single construction can uniformly approach capacity over the cl...

  10. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  11. Quantum internet using code division multiple access

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jing; Ozdemir, Sahin Kaya; Wu, Re-Bing; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Nori, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a spread-spectrum technology, in which a code is used to spread the spectral content of information to achieve larger network capacity. It has been widely used in classical communication and wireless networks. Here, we extend CDMA to the quantum case, where many pairs of nodes can transmit quantum information through a shared channel. This can be achieved by chaotic encoding of quantum information to spread its spectral content and by chaos synchronization, to separate different sender-receiver pairs. The proposed method is robust to low-frequency noise, and achieves faithful transmission with fidelities of up to 0.99.

  12. Coding for Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  13. 核安全法的指导思想、体系与内容%The Guiding Ideology,System and Content of Code of Safety for nucleus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟

    2011-01-01

    在我国,核能利用是大势所趋,核安全立法则势在必行。核安全立法应贯彻以人为本、预防为主、全程管控的立法指导思想,其体系内容应该包括审批管理制度、常规运行管理制度、风险监测和风险评估制度、核安全信息发布制度、核安全事故处置制度、核安全事故责任承担制度等。%The use of nuclear energy is the trend of The Times and the nuclear safety legislation is imperative.The nuclear safety legislation should implement the thought of people-oriented,prevention-oriented and full control.The system and content should include the examination and approval administration system,routine operation management system,risk monitoring and risk assessment system,nuclear safety information release system,nuclear safety accidents disposal system,Nuclear safety accident liability system,and so on.

  14. Noisy Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Sung Hoon; Gamal, Abbas El; Chung, Sae-Young

    2010-01-01

    A noisy network coding scheme for sending multiple sources over a general noisy network is presented. For multi-source multicast networks, the scheme naturally extends both network coding over noiseless networks by Ahlswede, Cai, Li, and Yeung, and compress-forward coding for the relay channel by Cover and El Gamal to general discrete memoryless and Gaussian networks. The scheme also recovers as special cases the results on coding for wireless relay networks and deterministic networks by Avestimehr, Diggavi, and Tse, and coding for wireless erasure networks by Dana, Gowaikar, Palanki, Hassibi, and Effros. The scheme involves message repetition coding, relay signal compression, and simultaneous decoding. Unlike previous compress--forward schemes, where independent messages are sent over multiple blocks, the same message is sent multiple times using independent codebooks as in the network coding scheme for cyclic networks. Furthermore, the relays do not use Wyner--Ziv binning as in previous compress-forward sch...

  15. Testing algebraic geometric codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao

    2009-01-01

    Property testing was initially studied from various motivations in 1990's.A code C (∩)GF(r)n is locally testable if there is a randomized algorithm which can distinguish with high possibility the codewords from a vector essentially far from the code by only accessing a very small (typically constant) number of the vector's coordinates.The problem of testing codes was firstly studied by Blum,Luby and Rubinfeld and closely related to probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs).How to characterize locally testable codes is a complex and challenge problem.The local tests have been studied for Reed-Solomon (RS),Reed-Muller (RM),cyclic,dual of BCH and the trace subcode of algebraicgeometric codes.In this paper we give testers for algebraic geometric codes with linear parameters (as functions of dimensions).We also give a moderate condition under which the family of algebraic geometric codes cannot be locally testable.

  16. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  17. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  18. Code of Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelstein, Jennifer; Clegg, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Ethical codes have been hailed as an explicit vehicle for achieving more sustainable and defensible organizational practice. Nonetheless, when legal compliance and corporate governance codes are conflated, codes can be used to define organizational interests ostentatiously by stipulating norms...... for employee ethics. Such codes have a largely cosmetic and insurance function, acting subtly and strategically to control organizational risk management and protection. In this paper, we conduct a genealogical discourse analysis of a representative code of ethics from an international corporation...... to understand how management frames expectations of compliance. Our contribution is to articulate the problems inherent in codes of ethics, and we make some recommendations to address these to benefit both an organization and its employees. In this way, we show how a code of ethics can provide a foundation...

  19. Defeating the coding monsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colt, Ross

    2007-02-01

    Accuracy in coding is rapidly becoming a required skill for military health care providers. Clinic staffing, equipment purchase decisions, and even reimbursement will soon be based on the coding data that we provide. Learning the complicated myriad of rules to code accurately can seem overwhelming. However, the majority of clinic visits in a typical outpatient clinic generally fall into two major evaluation and management codes, 99213 and 99214. If health care providers can learn the rules required to code a 99214 visit, then this will provide a 90% solution that can enable them to accurately code the majority of their clinic visits. This article demonstrates a step-by-step method to code a 99214 visit, by viewing each of the three requirements as a monster to be defeated.

  20. Testing algebraic geometric codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Property testing was initially studied from various motivations in 1990’s. A code C  GF (r)n is locally testable if there is a randomized algorithm which can distinguish with high possibility the codewords from a vector essentially far from the code by only accessing a very small (typically constant) number of the vector’s coordinates. The problem of testing codes was firstly studied by Blum, Luby and Rubinfeld and closely related to probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs). How to characterize locally testable codes is a complex and challenge problem. The local tests have been studied for Reed-Solomon (RS), Reed-Muller (RM), cyclic, dual of BCH and the trace subcode of algebraicgeometric codes. In this paper we give testers for algebraic geometric codes with linear parameters (as functions of dimensions). We also give a moderate condition under which the family of algebraic geometric codes cannot be locally testable.

  1. Serially Concatenated IRA Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Taikun; Belzer, Benjamin J

    2007-01-01

    We address the error floor problem of low-density parity check (LDPC) codes on the binary-input additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, by constructing a serially concatenated code consisting of two systematic irregular repeat accumulate (IRA) component codes connected by an interleaver. The interleaver is designed to prevent stopping-set error events in one of the IRA codes from propagating into stopping set events of the other code. Simulations with two 128-bit rate 0.707 IRA component codes show that the proposed architecture achieves a much lower error floor at higher SNRs, compared to a 16384-bit rate 1/2 IRA code, but incurs an SNR penalty of about 2 dB at low to medium SNRs. Experiments indicate that the SNR penalty can be reduced at larger blocklengths.

  2. From Symbolic to Substantive Documents: When Business Codes of Ethics Impact Unethical Behavior in the Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Kaptein, Muel

    2009-01-01

    textabstractA business code of ethics is widely regarded as an important instrument to curb unethical behavior in the workplace. However, little is empirically known about the factors that determine the impact of a code on unethical behavior. Besides the existence of a code, this study proposes five determining factors: the content of the code, the frequency of communication activities surrounding the code, the quality of the communication activities, and the embedment of the code in the orga...

  3. QR CODES IN EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurhan DURAK

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances brought applications of innovations to education. Conventional education increasingly flourishes with new technologies accompanied by more learner active environments. In this continuum, there are learners preferring self-learning. Traditional learning materials yield attractive, motivating and technologically enhanced learning materials. The QR (Quick Response Codes are one of these innovations. The aim of this study is to redesign a lesson unit supported with QR Codes and to get the learner views about the redesigned material. For this purpose, the redesigned lesson unit was delivered to 15 learners in Balıkesir University in the academic year of 2013-2014. The learners were asked to study the material. The learners who had smart phones and Internet access were chosen for the study. To provide sectional diversity, three groups were created. The group learners were from Faculty of Education, Faculty of Science and Literature and Faculty of Engineering. After the semi-structured interviews were held, the learners were asked about their pre-knowledge about QR Codes, QR Codes’ contribution to learning, difficulties with using QR Codes about and design issues. Descriptive data analysis was used in the study. The findings were interpreted on the basis of Theory of Diffusion of Innovations and Theory of Uses and Gratifications. After the research, the themes found were awareness of QR Code, types of QR Codes and applications, contributions to learning, and proliferation of QR Codes. Generally, the learners participating in the study reported that they were aware of QR Codes; that they could use the QR Codes; and that using QR Codes in education was useful. They also expressed that such features as visual elements, attractiveness and direct routing had positive impact on learning. In addition, they generally mentioned that they did not have any difficulty using QR Codes; that they liked the design; and that the content should

  4. Content Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rossi, George Bedinelli; Serralvo, Francisco Antonio; João, Belmiro Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    This study introduces the various definitions and types of content analysis. This type of analysis historically presents itself as a quantitative approach to data analysis and currently shows up as a qualitative approach...

  5. Content Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    LE, DUC

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce the new trend in today’s marketing world: content marketing. It has been employed by many companies and organizations in the world and has been proven success even when it is still a fairly new topic. Five carefully selected theories of content marketing proposed by experts in the field has been collected, compared and displayed as originally and scientifically as possible in this thesis. The chosen theories provide a diversified perspectives of...

  6. Rewriting the Genetic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Takahito; Lajoie, Marc J; Englert, Markus; Söll, Dieter

    2017-09-08

    The genetic code-the language used by cells to translate their genomes into proteins that perform many cellular functions-is highly conserved throughout natural life. Rewriting the genetic code could lead to new biological functions such as expanding protein chemistries with noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) and genetically isolating synthetic organisms from natural organisms and viruses. It has long been possible to transiently produce proteins bearing ncAAs, but stabilizing an expanded genetic code for sustained function in vivo requires an integrated approach: creating recoded genomes and introducing new translation machinery that function together without compromising viability or clashing with endogenous pathways. In this review, we discuss design considerations and technologies for expanding the genetic code. The knowledge obtained by rewriting the genetic code will deepen our understanding of how genomes are designed and how the canonical genetic code evolved.

  7. On Polynomial Remainder Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jiun-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Polynomial remainder codes are a large class of codes derived from the Chinese remainder theorem that includes Reed-Solomon codes as a special case. In this paper, we revisit these codes and study them more carefully than in previous work. We explicitly allow the code symbols to be polynomials of different degrees, which leads to two different notions of weight and distance. Algebraic decoding is studied in detail. If the moduli are not irreducible, the notion of an error locator polynomial is replaced by an error factor polynomial. We then obtain a collection of gcd-based decoding algorithms, some of which are not quite standard even when specialized to Reed-Solomon codes.

  8. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  9. The aeroelastic code FLEXLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, B. [Stork Product Eng., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    To support the discussion on aeroelastic codes, a description of the code FLEXLAST was given and experiences within benchmarks and measurement programmes were summarized. The code FLEXLAST has been developed since 1982 at Stork Product Engineering (SPE). Since 1992 FLEXLAST has been used by Dutch industries for wind turbine and rotor design. Based on the comparison with measurements, it can be concluded that the main shortcomings of wind turbine modelling lie in the field of aerodynamics, wind field and wake modelling. (au)

  10. Opening up codings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensig, Jakob; Heinemann, Trine

    2015-01-01

    We welcome Tanya Stivers’s discussion (Stivers, 2015/this issue) of coding social interaction and find that her descriptions of the processes of coding open up important avenues for discussion, among other things of the precise ad hoc considerations that researchers need to bear in mind, both when....... Instead we propose that the promise of coding-based research lies in its ability to open up new qualitative questions....

  11. Industrial Computer Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1996-01-01

    This is an overview of new and updated industrial codes for seal design and testing. GCYLT (gas cylindrical seals -- turbulent), SPIRALI (spiral-groove seals -- incompressible), KTK (knife to knife) Labyrinth Seal Code, and DYSEAL (dynamic seal analysis) are covered. CGYLT uses G-factors for Poiseuille and Couette turbulence coefficients. SPIRALI is updated to include turbulence and inertia, but maintains the narrow groove theory. KTK labyrinth seal code handles straight or stepped seals. And DYSEAL provides dynamics for the seal geometry.

  12. ARC Code TI: ACCEPT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACCEPT consists of an overall software infrastructure framework and two main software components. The software infrastructure framework consists of code written to...

  13. Tokamak Systems Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.; Gorker, G.E.; Hooper, R.J.; Kalsi, S.S.; Metzler, D.H.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Roth, K.E.; Spampinato, P.T.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged.

  14. MORSE Monte Carlo code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described.

  15. Totally Coded Method for Signal Flow Graph Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-bo; ZHOU Mei-hua

    2002-01-01

    After a code-table has been established by means of node association information from signal flow graph, the totally coded method (TCM) is applied merely in the domain of code operation beyond any figure-earching algorithm. The code-series (CS) have the holoinformation nature, so that both the content and the sign of each gain- term can be determined via the coded method. The principle of this method is simple and it is suited for computer programming. The capability of the computer-aided analysis for switched current network(SIN) can be enhanced.

  16. An introduction to using QR codes in scholarly journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hwa Chang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Quick Response (QR code was first developed in 1994 by Denso Wave Incorporated, Japan. From that point on, it came into general use as an identification mark for all kinds of commercial products, advertisements, and other public announcements. In scholarly journals, the QR code is used to provide immediate direction to the journal homepage or specific content such as figures or videos. To produce a QR code and print it in the print version or upload to the web is very simple. Using a QR code producing program, an editor can add simple information to a website. After that, a QR code is produced. A QR code is very stable, such that it can be used for a long time without loss of quality. Producing and adding QR codes to a journal costs nothing; therefore, to increase the visibility of their journals, it is time for editors to add QR codes to their journals.

  17. Research on universal combinatorial coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Zhang, Zhuo; Mo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The conception of universal combinatorial coding is proposed. Relations exist more or less in many coding methods. It means that a kind of universal coding method is objectively existent. It can be a bridge connecting many coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding is lossless and it is based on the combinatorics theory. The combinational and exhaustive property make it closely related with the existing code methods. Universal combinatorial coding does not depend on the probability statistic characteristic of information source, and it has the characteristics across three coding branches. It has analyzed the relationship between the universal combinatorial coding and the variety of coding method and has researched many applications technologies of this coding method. In addition, the efficiency of universal combinatorial coding is analyzed theoretically. The multicharacteristic and multiapplication of universal combinatorial coding are unique in the existing coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding has theoretical research and practical application value.

  18. The EGS5 Code System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, Hideo; Namito, Yoshihito; /KEK, Tsukuba; Bielajew, Alex F.; Wilderman, Scott J.; U., Michigan; Nelson, Walter R.; /SLAC

    2005-12-20

    In the nineteen years since EGS4 was released, it has been used in a wide variety of applications, particularly in medical physics, radiation measurement studies, and industrial development. Every new user and every new application bring new challenges for Monte Carlo code designers, and code refinements and bug fixes eventually result in a code that becomes difficult to maintain. Several of the code modifications represented significant advances in electron and photon transport physics, and required a more substantial invocation than code patching. Moreover, the arcane MORTRAN3[48] computer language of EGS4, was highest on the complaint list of the users of EGS4. The size of the EGS4 user base is difficult to measure, as there never existed a formal user registration process. However, some idea of the numbers may be gleaned from the number of EGS4 manuals that were produced and distributed at SLAC: almost three thousand. Consequently, the EGS5 project was undertaken. It was decided to employ the FORTRAN 77 compiler, yet include as much as possible, the structural beauty and power of MORTRAN3. This report consists of four chapters and several appendices. Chapter 1 is an introduction to EGS5 and to this report in general. We suggest that you read it. Chapter 2 is a major update of similar chapters in the old EGS4 report[126] (SLAC-265) and the old EGS3 report[61] (SLAC-210), in which all the details of the old physics (i.e., models which were carried over from EGS4) and the new physics are gathered together. The descriptions of the new physics are extensive, and not for the faint of heart. Detailed knowledge of the contents of Chapter 2 is not essential in order to use EGS, but sophisticated users should be aware of its contents. In particular, details of the restrictions on the range of applicability of EGS are dispersed throughout the chapter. First-time users of EGS should skip Chapter 2 and come back to it later if necessary. With the release of the EGS4 version

  19. Safety Code A12

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat

    2005-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Code A12 (Code A12) entitled "THE SAFETY COMMISSION (SC)" is available on the web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/479423/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC Unit Secretariat, e-mail: sc.secretariat@cern.ch SC Secretariat

  20. Dress Codes for Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses an e-mail survey of principals from across the country regarding whether or not their school had a formal staff dress code. The results indicate that most did not have a formal dress code, but agreed that professional dress for teachers was not only necessary, but showed respect for the school and had a…

  1. Nuremberg code turns 60

    OpenAIRE

    Thieren, Michel; Mauron, Alex

    2007-01-01

    This month marks sixty years since the Nuremberg code – the basic text of modern medical ethics – was issued. The principles in this code were articulated in the context of the Nuremberg trials in 1947. We would like to use this anniversary to examine its ability to address the ethical challenges of our time.

  2. Pseudonoise code tracking loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflame, D. T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A delay-locked loop is presented for tracking a pseudonoise (PN) reference code in an incoming communication signal. The loop is less sensitive to gain imbalances, which can otherwise introduce timing errors in the PN reference code formed by the loop.

  3. Scrum Code Camps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene; Dahlgaard, Bente

    2013-01-01

    is required. In this paper we present the design of such a new approach, the Scrum Code Camp, which can be used to assess agile team capability in a transparent and consistent way. A design science research approach is used to analyze properties of two instances of the Scrum Code Camp where seven agile teams...

  4. Scrum Code Camps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene; Dahlgaard, Bente

    2013-01-01

    is required. In this paper we present the design of such a new approach, the Scrum Code Camp, which can be used to assess agile team capability in a transparent and consistent way. A design science research approach is used to analyze properties of two instances of the Scrum Code Camp where seven agile teams...

  5. READING A NEURAL CODE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BIALEK, W; RIEKE, F; VANSTEVENINCK, RRD; WARLAND, D

    1991-01-01

    Traditional approaches to neural coding characterize the encoding of known stimuli in average neural responses. Organisms face nearly the opposite task - extracting information about an unknown time-dependent stimulus from short segments of a spike train. Here the neural code was characterized from

  6. The materiality of Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    , Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the program level of code in order to trace the use of various technological methods such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. These are important...

  7. Transformation invariant sparse coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    Sparse coding is a well established principle for unsupervised learning. Traditionally, features are extracted in sparse coding in specific locations, however, often we would prefer invariant representation. This paper introduces a general transformation invariant sparse coding (TISC) model....... The model decomposes images into features invariant to location and general transformation by a set of specified operators as well as a sparse coding matrix indicating where and to what degree in the original image these features are present. The TISC model is in general overcomplete and we therefore invoke...... sparse coding to estimate its parameters. We demonstrate how the model can correctly identify components of non-trivial artificial as well as real image data. Thus, the model is capable of reducing feature redundancies in terms of pre-specified transformations improving the component identification....

  8. The SIFT Code Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The specification of Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT) consists of two parts, the specifications of the SIFT models and the specifications of the SIFT PASCAL program which actually implements the SIFT system. The code specifications are the last of a hierarchy of models describing the operation of the SIFT system and are related to the SIFT models as well as the PASCAL program. These Specifications serve to link the SIFT models to the running program. The specifications are very large and detailed and closely follow the form and organization of the PASCAL code. In addition to describing each of the components of the SIFT code, the code specifications describe the assumptions of the upper SIFT models which are required to actually prove that the code will work as specified. These constraints are imposed primarily on the schedule tables.

  9. The Aesthetics of Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    discusses code as the artist’s material and, further, formulates a critique of Cramer. The seductive magic in computer-generated art does not lie in the magical expression, but nor does it lie in the code/material/text itself. It lies in the nature of code to do something – as if it was magic......Computer art is often associated with computer-generated expressions (digitally manipulated audio/images in music, video, stage design, media facades, etc.). In recent computer art, however, the code-text itself – not the generated output – has become the artwork (Perl Poetry, ASCII Art, obfuscated...... avant-garde’. In line with Cramer, the artists Alex McLean and Adrian Ward (aka Slub) declare: “art-oriented programming needs to acknowledge the conditions of its own making – its poesis.” By analysing the Live Coding performances of Slub (where they program computer music live), the presentation...

  10. Combustion chamber analysis code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekwas, A. J.; Lai, Y. G.; Krishnan, A.; Avva, R. K.; Giridharan, M. G.

    1993-05-01

    A three-dimensional, time dependent, Favre averaged, finite volume Navier-Stokes code has been developed to model compressible and incompressible flows (with and without chemical reactions) in liquid rocket engines. The code has a non-staggered formulation with generalized body-fitted-coordinates (BFC) capability. Higher order differencing methodologies such as MUSCL and Osher-Chakravarthy schemes are available. Turbulent flows can be modeled using any of the five turbulent models present in the code. A two-phase, two-liquid, Lagrangian spray model has been incorporated into the code. Chemical equilibrium and finite rate reaction models are available to model chemically reacting flows. The discrete ordinate method is used to model effects of thermal radiation. The code has been validated extensively against benchmark experimental data and has been applied to model flows in several propulsion system components of the SSME and the STME.

  11. Astrophysics Source Code Library

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Alice; Berriman, Bruce; Hanisch, Robert J; Mink, Jessica; Teuben, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), founded in 1999, is a free on-line registry for source codes of interest to astronomers and astrophysicists. The library is housed on the discussion forum for Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) and can be accessed at http://ascl.net. The ASCL has a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used to generate results published in or submitted to refereed journals and continues to grow. The ASCL currently has entries for over 500 codes; its records are citable and are indexed by ADS. The editors of the ASCL and members of its Advisory Committee were on hand at a demonstration table in the ADASS poster room to present the ASCL, accept code submissions, show how the ASCL is starting to be used by the astrophysics community, and take questions on and suggestions for improving the resource.

  12. Application of T-Code, Turbo Codes and Pseudo-Random Sequence for Steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose new technique that will address the problem of robustness and data safety in steganography. The steganography consists of techniques to allow the communication between two persons, hiding not only the contents but also the very existence of the communication in the eyes of any observer. T-Codes used with Turbo Codes generates cryptic and error-coded data stream, which is hidden in the stego-object using Pseudo-Random sequence. This technique makes our processed data stream non-vulnerable to the attack of an active intruder, or due to noise in the transmission link.

  13. Embedded foveation image coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Bovik, A C

    2001-01-01

    The human visual system (HVS) is highly space-variant in sampling, coding, processing, and understanding. The spatial resolution of the HVS is highest around the point of fixation (foveation point) and decreases rapidly with increasing eccentricity. By taking advantage of this fact, it is possible to remove considerable high-frequency information redundancy from the peripheral regions and still reconstruct a perceptually good quality image. Great success has been obtained previously by a class of embedded wavelet image coding algorithms, such as the embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) and the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithms. Embedded wavelet coding not only provides very good compression performance, but also has the property that the bitstream can be truncated at any point and still be decoded to recreate a reasonably good quality image. In this paper, we propose an embedded foveation image coding (EFIC) algorithm, which orders the encoded bitstream to optimize foveated visual quality at arbitrary bit-rates. A foveation-based image quality metric, namely, foveated wavelet image quality index (FWQI), plays an important role in the EFIC system. We also developed a modified SPIHT algorithm to improve the coding efficiency. Experiments show that EFIC integrates foveation filtering with foveated image coding and demonstrates very good coding performance and scalability in terms of foveated image quality measurement.

  14. Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity in the net...... the number of dimensions seen by the network using a linear mapping. Receivers can tradeoff computational effort with network delay, decoding in the high field size, the low field size, or a combination thereof.......Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity...... in the network; and (iii) to deliver an end-to-end performance that is close to that of a high field size network coding system for high-end receivers while simultaneously catering to low-end ones that can only decode in a lower field size. Sources may encode using a high field size expansion to increase...

  15. Report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  16. Codes of conduct and copyright enforcement in Cyberspace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, P.B.; Stamatoudi, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter critically examines the rise of codes of conduct that deal with copyright enforcement. Its focus will be on codes binding ISPs and other online intermediaries offering similar services, such as providers of user-generated content (UGC) platforms. While solutions in the United States and

  17. Codes of conduct and copyright enforcement in Cyberspace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, P.B.; Stamatoudi, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter critically examines the rise of codes of conduct that deal with copyright enforcement. Its focus will be on codes binding ISPs and other online intermediaries offering similar services, such as providers of user-generated content (UGC) platforms. While solutions in the United States and

  18. Application of RS Codes in Decoding QR Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Suxia(朱素霞); Ji Zhenzhou; Cao Zhiyan

    2003-01-01

    The QR Code is a 2-dimensional matrix code with high error correction capability. It employs RS codes to generate error correction codewords in encoding and recover errors and damages in decoding. This paper presents several QR Code's virtues, analyzes RS decoding algorithm and gives a software flow chart of decoding the QR Code with RS decoding algorithm.

  19. Evaluation Codes from an Affine Veriety Code Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation codes (also called order domain codes) are traditionally introduced as generalized one-point geometric Goppa codes. In the present paper we will give a new point of view on evaluation codes by introducing them instead as particular nice examples of affine variety codes. Our study...

  20. Open Code - Open Content - Open Law. Building a Digital Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    keep porn away from kids. And while I’m all for defeating COPA or the CDA, or whatever “C” word they come up with the next time around, I am...completely baffled about the priorities. Sure, civil liberties will be compromised if COPA stands; sure, cyberspace will be different if porn is not available

  1. Distributed multiple description coding

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Huihui; Zhao, Yao

    2011-01-01

    This book examines distributed video coding (DVC) and multiple description coding (MDC), two novel techniques designed to address the problems of conventional image and video compression coding. Covering all fundamental concepts and core technologies, the chapters can also be read as independent and self-sufficient, describing each methodology in sufficient detail to enable readers to repeat the corresponding experiments easily. Topics and features: provides a broad overview of DVC and MDC, from the basic principles to the latest research; covers sub-sampling based MDC, quantization based MDC,

  2. Cryptography cracking codes

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    While cracking a code might seem like something few of us would encounter in our daily lives, it is actually far more prevalent than we may realize. Anyone who has had personal information taken because of a hacked email account can understand the need for cryptography and the importance of encryption-essentially the need to code information to keep it safe. This detailed volume examines the logic and science behind various ciphers, their real world uses, how codes can be broken, and the use of technology in this oft-overlooked field.

  3. Coded MapReduce

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Songze; Maddah-Ali, Mohammad Ali; Avestimehr, A. Salman

    2015-01-01

    MapReduce is a commonly used framework for executing data-intensive jobs on distributed server clusters. We introduce a variant implementation of MapReduce, namely "Coded MapReduce", to substantially reduce the inter-server communication load for the shuffling phase of MapReduce, and thus accelerating its execution. The proposed Coded MapReduce exploits the repetitive mapping of data blocks at different servers to create coding opportunities in the shuffling phase to exchange (key,value) pair...

  4. Classical Holographic Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Brehm, Enrico M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce classical holographic codes. These can be understood as concatenated probabilistic codes and can be represented as networks uniformly covering hyperbolic space. In particular, classical holographic codes can be interpreted as maps from bulk degrees of freedom to boundary degrees of freedom. Interestingly, they are shown to exhibit features similar to those expected from the AdS/CFT correspondence. Among these are a version of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula and intriguing properties regarding bulk reconstruction and boundary representations of bulk operations. We discuss the relation of our findings with expectations from AdS/CFT and, in particular, with recent results from quantum error correction.

  5. The natural variation of a neural code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfir, Yoav; Renan, Ittai; Schneidman, Elad; Segev, Ronen

    2012-01-01

    The way information is represented by sequences of action potentials of spiking neurons is determined by the input each neuron receives, but also by its biophysics, and the specifics of the circuit in which it is embedded. Even the "code" of identified neurons can vary considerably from individual to individual. Here we compared the neural codes of the identified H1 neuron in the visual systems of two families of flies, blow flies and flesh flies, and explored the effect of the sensory environment that the flies were exposed to during development on the H1 code. We found that the two families differed considerably in the temporal structure of the code, its content and energetic efficiency, as well as the temporal delay of neural response. The differences in the environmental conditions during the flies' development had no significant effect. Our results may thus reflect an instance of a family-specific design of the neural code. They may also suggest that individual variability in information processing by this specific neuron, in terms of both form and content, is regulated genetically.

  6. Developing a code of ethics for academics. Commentary on 'Ethics for all: differences across scientific society codes' (Bullock and Panicker).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Celia B

    2003-04-01

    This article discusses the possibilities and pitfalls of constructing a code of ethics for university professors. Professional, educational, legal, and policy questions regarding the goals, format, and content of an academic ethics code are raised and a series of aspirational principles and enforceable standards that might be included in such a document are presented for discussion and debate.

  7. The fast code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, L.N.; Wilson, R.E. [Oregon State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The FAST Code which is capable of determining structural loads on a flexible, teetering, horizontal axis wind turbine is described and comparisons of calculated loads with test data are given at two wind speeds for the ESI-80. The FAST Code models a two-bladed HAWT with degrees of freedom for blade bending, teeter, drive train flexibility, yaw, and windwise and crosswind tower motion. The code allows blade dimensions, stiffnesses, and weights to differ and models tower shadow, wind shear, and turbulence. Additionally, dynamic stall is included as are delta-3 and an underslung rotor. Load comparisons are made with ESI-80 test data in the form of power spectral density, rainflow counting, occurrence histograms, and azimuth averaged bin plots. It is concluded that agreement between the FAST Code and test results is good. (au)

  8. VT ZIP Code Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) A ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) is a statistical geographic entity that approximates the delivery area for a U.S. Postal Service five-digit...

  9. Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity...... in the network; and (iii) to deliver an end-to-end performance that is close to that of a high field size network coding system for high-end receivers while simultaneously catering to low-end ones that can only decode in a lower field size. Sources may encode using a high field size expansion to increase...... the number of dimensions seen by the network using a linear mapping. Receivers can tradeoff computational effort with network delay, decoding in the high field size, the low field size, or a combination thereof....

  10. GOOGLE SUMMER OF CODE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leslie Hawthorn

    2008-01-01

      This article examines the Google Summer of Code (GSoC) program, the world's first global initiative to introduce College and University students to free/libre open source software (F/LOSS) development...

  11. Importance of Building Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Banerjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum standards for constructed objects such as buildings and non building structures. The main purpose of building codes are to protect public health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures. The building code becomes law of a particular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate governmental or private authority. Building codes are generally intended to be applied by architects, engineers, constructors and regulators but are also used for various purposes by safety inspectors, environmental scientists, real estate developers, subcontractors, manufacturers of building products and materials, insurance companies, facility managers, tenants and others.

  12. Bandwidth efficient coding

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, John B

    2017-01-01

    Bandwidth Efficient Coding addresses the major challenge in communication engineering today: how to communicate more bits of information in the same radio spectrum. Energy and bandwidth are needed to transmit bits, and bandwidth affects capacity the most. Methods have been developed that are ten times as energy efficient at a given bandwidth consumption as simple methods. These employ signals with very complex patterns and are called "coding" solutions. The book begins with classical theory before introducing new techniques that combine older methods of error correction coding and radio transmission in order to create narrowband methods that are as efficient in both spectrum and energy as nature allows. Other topics covered include modulation techniques such as CPM, coded QAM and pulse design.

  13. Coded Random Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paolini, Enrico; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Liva, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    , in which the structure of the access protocol can be mapped to a structure of an erasure-correcting code defined on graph. This opens the possibility to use coding theory and tools for designing efficient random access protocols, offering markedly better performance than ALOHA. Several instances of coded......The rise of machine-to-machine communications has rekindled the interest in random access protocols as a support for a massive number of uncoordinatedly transmitting devices. The legacy ALOHA approach is developed under a collision model, where slots containing collided packets are considered...... as waste. However, if the common receiver (e.g., base station) is capable to store the collision slots and use them in a transmission recovery process based on successive interference cancellation, the design space for access protocols is radically expanded. We present the paradigm of coded random access...

  14. Code Disentanglement: Initial Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlbier, John Greaton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelley, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockefeller, Gabriel M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Calef, Matthew Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-27

    The first step to making more ambitious changes in the EAP code base is to disentangle the code into a set of independent, levelized packages. We define a package as a collection of code, most often across a set of files, that provides a defined set of functionality; a package a) can be built and tested as an entity and b) fits within an overall levelization design. Each package contributes one or more libraries, or an application that uses the other libraries. A package set is levelized if the relationships between packages form a directed, acyclic graph and each package uses only packages at lower levels of the diagram (in Fortran this relationship is often describable by the use relationship between modules). Independent packages permit independent- and therefore parallel|development. The packages form separable units for the purposes of development and testing. This is a proven path for enabling finer-grained changes to a complex code.

  15. Annotated Raptor Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Mahdaviani, Kaveh; Tellambura, Chintha

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an extension of raptor codes is introduced which keeps all the desirable properties of raptor codes, including the linear complexity of encoding and decoding per information bit, unchanged. The new design, however, improves the performance in terms of the reception rate. Our simulations show a 10% reduction in the needed overhead at the benchmark block length of 64,520 bits and with the same complexity per information bit.

  16. Scalable motion vector coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarien, Joeri; Munteanu, Adrian; Verdicchio, Fabio; Andreopoulos, Yiannis; Cornelis, Jan P.; Schelkens, Peter

    2004-11-01

    Modern video coding applications require transmission of video data over variable-bandwidth channels to a variety of terminals with different screen resolutions and available computational power. Scalable video coding is needed to optimally support these applications. Recently proposed wavelet-based video codecs employing spatial domain motion compensated temporal filtering (SDMCTF) provide quality, resolution and frame-rate scalability while delivering compression performance comparable to that of the state-of-the-art non-scalable H.264-codec. These codecs require scalable coding of the motion vectors in order to support a large range of bit-rates with optimal compression efficiency. Scalable motion vector coding algorithms based on the integer wavelet transform followed by embedded coding of the wavelet coefficients were recently proposed. In this paper, a new and fundamentally different scalable motion vector codec (MVC) using median-based motion vector prediction is proposed. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed MVC systematically outperforms the wavelet-based state-of-the-art solutions. To be able to take advantage of the proposed scalable MVC, a rate allocation mechanism capable of optimally dividing the available rate among texture and motion information is required. Two rate allocation strategies are proposed and compared. The proposed MVC and rate allocation schemes are incorporated into an SDMCTF-based video codec and the benefits of scalable motion vector coding are experimentally demonstrated.

  17. On Expanded Cyclic Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yingquan

    2008-01-01

    The paper has a threefold purpose. The first purpose is to present an explicit description of expanded cyclic codes defined in $\\GF(q^m)$. The proposed explicit construction of expanded generator matrix and expanded parity check matrix maintains the symbol-wise algebraic structure and thus keeps many important original characteristics. The second purpose of this paper is to identify a class of constant-weight cyclic codes. Specifically, we show that a well-known class of $q$-ary BCH codes excluding the all-zero codeword are constant-weight cyclic codes. Moreover, we show this class of codes achieve the Plotkin bound. The last purpose of the paper is to characterize expanded cyclic codes utilizing the proposed expanded generator matrix and parity check matrix. We analyze the properties of component codewords of a codeword and particularly establish the precise conditions under which a codeword can be represented by a subbasis. With the new insights, we present an improved lower bound on the minimum distance of...

  18. MAIN CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Discussion on the Modern Agriculture Management Mode and its Innovation in China Mode of agricultural management is organic unify between form of agriculture management and way of agriculture management. Changes of agricultural management form are the content of system innovation;Transformation of agricultural management way belongs to the category of technical progress. We found that, precision agriculture with the moderate scale by professional farmers is the dominant mode of agricultural management. Coexisting of multiple modes is the pattern and evolution trend of modern agriculture management mode. The precision agriculture based on household business of moderate scale mode, we needs of rural economd socialization of

  19. Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Bedinelli Rossi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the various definitions and types of content analysis. This type of analysis historically presents itself as a quantitative approach to data analysis and currently shows up as a qualitative approach. The most common types are the conceptual and relational analysis. The latter receives influences of linguistic, cognitive and mental models and it is subdivided in affective extraction, analysis of proximity and cognitive mapping. Regarding the importance of this type of analysis, we have quantitative and qualitative character and the latter approach can be used to identify hypotheses, theoretical constructs or even models that can be tested by multivariate statistical techniques or even by experiments. 

  20. Non-Binary Polar Codes using Reed-Solomon Codes and Algebraic Geometry Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Ryuhei

    2010-01-01

    Polar codes, introduced by Arikan, achieve symmetric capacity of any discrete memoryless channels under low encoding and decoding complexity. Recently, non-binary polar codes have been investigated. In this paper, we calculate error probability of non-binary polar codes constructed on the basis of Reed-Solomon matrices by numerical simulations. It is confirmed that 4-ary polar codes have significantly better performance than binary polar codes on binary-input AWGN channel. We also discuss an interpretation of polar codes in terms of algebraic geometry codes, and further show that polar codes using Hermitian codes have asymptotically good performance.

  1. Distributed Video Coding: Iterative Improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van

    Nowadays, emerging applications such as wireless visual sensor networks and wireless video surveillance are requiring lightweight video encoding with high coding efficiency and error-resilience. Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a new coding paradigm which exploits the source statistics...

  2. Polynomial weights and code constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massey, J; Costello, D; Justesen, Jørn

    1973-01-01

    polynomial included. This fundamental property is then used as the key to a variety of code constructions including 1) a simplified derivation of the binary Reed-Muller codes and, for any primepgreater than 2, a new extensive class ofp-ary "Reed-Muller codes," 2) a new class of "repeated-root" cyclic codes...... that are subcodes of the binary Reed-Muller codes and can be very simply instrumented, 3) a new class of constacyclic codes that are subcodes of thep-ary "Reed-Muller codes," 4) two new classes of binary convolutional codes with large "free distance" derived from known binary cyclic codes, 5) two new classes...... of long constraint length binary convolutional codes derived from2^r-ary Reed-Solomon codes, and 6) a new class ofq-ary "repeated-root" constacyclic codes with an algebraic decoding algorithm....

  3. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm....... The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, which may also incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the upcoming 5G networks. This article not only proposes the fundamentals...

  4. Product Codes for Optical Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    2002-01-01

    Many optical communicaton systems might benefit from forward-error-correction. We present a hard-decision decoding algorithm for the "Block Turbo Codes", suitable for optical communication, which makes this coding-scheme an alternative to Reed-Solomon codes.......Many optical communicaton systems might benefit from forward-error-correction. We present a hard-decision decoding algorithm for the "Block Turbo Codes", suitable for optical communication, which makes this coding-scheme an alternative to Reed-Solomon codes....

  5. Some new ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].

  6. Algebraic geometric codes with applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao

    2007-01-01

    The theory of linear error-correcting codes from algebraic geomet-ric curves (algebraic geometric (AG) codes or geometric Goppa codes) has been well-developed since the work of Goppa and Tsfasman, Vladut, and Zink in 1981-1982. In this paper we introduce to readers some recent progress in algebraic geometric codes and their applications in quantum error-correcting codes, secure multi-party computation and the construction of good binary codes.

  7. Optical coding theory with Prime

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, Wing C

    2013-01-01

    Although several books cover the coding theory of wireless communications and the hardware technologies and coding techniques of optical CDMA, no book has been specifically dedicated to optical coding theory-until now. Written by renowned authorities in the field, Optical Coding Theory with Prime gathers together in one volume the fundamentals and developments of optical coding theory, with a focus on families of prime codes, supplemented with several families of non-prime codes. The book also explores potential applications to coding-based optical systems and networks. Learn How to Construct

  8. Algebraic and stochastic coding theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kythe, Dave K

    2012-01-01

    Using a simple yet rigorous approach, Algebraic and Stochastic Coding Theory makes the subject of coding theory easy to understand for readers with a thorough knowledge of digital arithmetic, Boolean and modern algebra, and probability theory. It explains the underlying principles of coding theory and offers a clear, detailed description of each code. More advanced readers will appreciate its coverage of recent developments in coding theory and stochastic processes. After a brief review of coding history and Boolean algebra, the book introduces linear codes, including Hamming and Golay codes.

  9. Golden Coded Multiple Beamforming

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Boyu

    2010-01-01

    The Golden Code is a full-rate full-diversity space-time code, which achieves maximum coding gain for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems with two transmit and two receive antennas. Since four information symbols taken from an M-QAM constellation are selected to construct one Golden Code codeword, a maximum likelihood decoder using sphere decoding has the worst-case complexity of O(M^4), when the Channel State Information (CSI) is available at the receiver. Previously, this worst-case complexity was reduced to O(M^(2.5)) without performance degradation. When the CSI is known by the transmitter as well as the receiver, beamforming techniques that employ singular value decomposition are commonly used in MIMO systems. In the absence of channel coding, when a single symbol is transmitted, these systems achieve the full diversity order provided by the channel. Whereas this property is lost when multiple symbols are simultaneously transmitted. However, uncoded multiple beamforming can achieve the full div...

  10. Coded source neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100 m) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100um and 10um aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

  11. Coded source neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Philip; Santos-Villalobos, Hector; Tobin, Ken

    2011-03-01

    Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100μm) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100μm and 10μm aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

  12. Speech coding code- excited linear prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Bäckström, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This book provides scientific understanding of the most central techniques used in speech coding both for advanced students as well as professionals with a background in speech audio and or digital signal processing. It provides a clear connection between the whys hows and whats thus enabling a clear view of the necessity purpose and solutions provided by various tools as well as their strengths and weaknesses in each respect Equivalently this book sheds light on the following perspectives for each technology presented Objective What do we want to achieve and especially why is this goal important Resource Information What information is available and how can it be useful and Resource Platform What kind of platforms are we working with and what are their capabilities restrictions This includes computational memory and acoustic properties and the transmission capacity of devices used. The book goes on to address Solutions Which solutions have been proposed and how can they be used to reach the stated goals and ...

  13. Vision-based reading system for color-coded bar codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Erhard; Schroeder, Axel

    1996-02-01

    Barcode systems are used to mark commodities, articles and products with price and article numbers. The advantage of the barcode systems is the safe and rapid availability of the information about the product. The size of the barcode depends on the used barcode system and the resolution of the barcode scanner. Nevertheless, there is a strong correlation between the information content and the length of the barcode. To increase the information content, new 2D-barcode systems like CodaBlock or PDF-417 are introduced. In this paper we present a different way to increase the information content of a barcode and we would like to introduce the color coded barcode. The new color coded barcode is created by offset printing of the three colored barcodes, each barcode with different information. Therefore, three times more information content can be accommodated in the area of a black printed barcode. This kind of color coding is usable in case of the standard 1D- and 2D-barcodes. We developed two reading devices for the color coded barcodes. First, there is a vision based system, consisting of a standard color camera and a PC-based color frame grabber. Omnidirectional barcode decoding is possible with this reading device. Second, a bi-directional handscanner was developed. Both systems use a color separation process to separate the color image of the barcodes into three independent grayscale images. In the case of the handscanner the image consists of one line only. After the color separation the three grayscale barcodes can be decoded with standard image processing methods. In principle, the color coded barcode can be used everywhere instead of the standard barcode. Typical applications with the color coded barcodes are found in the medicine technique, stock running and identification of electronic modules.

  14. Network coding for multi-resolution multicast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A method, apparatus and computer program product for utilizing network coding for multi-resolution multicast is presented. A network source partitions source content into a base layer and one or more refinement layers. The network source receives a respective one or more push-back messages from one...... or more network destination receivers, the push-back messages identifying the one or more refinement layers suited for each one of the one or more network destination receivers. The network source computes a network code involving the base layer and the one or more refinement layers for at least one...... of the one or more network destination receivers, and transmits the network code to the one or more network destination receivers in accordance with the push-back messages....

  15. Phase-coded pulse aperiodic transmitter coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Virtanen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Both ionospheric and weather radar communities have already adopted the method of transmitting radar pulses in an aperiodic manner when measuring moderately overspread targets. Among the users of the ionospheric radars, this method is called Aperiodic Transmitter Coding (ATC, whereas the weather radar users have adopted the term Simultaneous Multiple Pulse-Repetition Frequency (SMPRF. When probing the ionosphere at the carrier frequencies of the EISCAT Incoherent Scatter Radar facilities, the range extent of the detectable target is typically of the order of one thousand kilometers – about seven milliseconds – whereas the characteristic correlation time of the scattered signal varies from a few milliseconds in the D-region to only tens of microseconds in the F-region. If one is interested in estimating the scattering autocorrelation function (ACF at time lags shorter than the F-region correlation time, the D-region must be considered as a moderately overspread target, whereas the F-region is a severely overspread one. Given the technical restrictions of the radar hardware, a combination of ATC and phase-coded long pulses is advantageous for this kind of target. We evaluate such an experiment under infinitely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR conditions using lag profile inversion. In addition, a qualitative evaluation under high-SNR conditions is performed by analysing simulated data. The results show that an acceptable estimation accuracy and a very good lag resolution in the D-region can be achieved with a pulse length long enough for simultaneous E- and F-region measurements with a reasonable lag extent. The new experiment design is tested with the EISCAT Tromsø VHF (224 MHz radar. An example of a full D/E/F-region ACF from the test run is shown at the end of the paper.

  16. Nested Quantum Error Correction Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhuo; Fan, Hen; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-01-01

    The theory of quantum error correction was established more than a decade ago as the primary tool for fighting decoherence in quantum information processing. Although great progress has already been made in this field, limited methods are available in constructing new quantum error correction codes from old codes. Here we exhibit a simple and general method to construct new quantum error correction codes by nesting certain quantum codes together. The problem of finding long quantum error correction codes is reduced to that of searching several short length quantum codes with certain properties. Our method works for all length and all distance codes, and is quite efficient to construct optimal or near optimal codes. Two main known methods in constructing new codes from old codes in quantum error-correction theory, the concatenating and pasting, can be understood in the framework of nested quantum error correction codes.

  17. MHD Generation Code

    CERN Document Server

    Frutos-Alfaro, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full Magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program used the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the MHD equations to obtain a code that can be used as a seed for a MHD code for numerical applications. As an example, we present part of output of our programs for Cartesian coordinates and how to do the discretization.

  18. Autocatalysis, information and coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, P R

    2001-01-01

    Autocatalytic self-construction in macromolecular systems requires the existence of a reflexive relationship between structural components and the functional operations they perform to synthesise themselves. The possibility of reflexivity depends on formal, semiotic features of the catalytic structure-function relationship, that is, the embedding of catalytic functions in the space of polymeric structures. Reflexivity is a semiotic property of some genetic sequences. Such sequences may serve as the basis for the evolution of coding as a result of autocatalytic self-organisation in a population of assignment catalysts. Autocatalytic selection is a mechanism whereby matter becomes differentiated in primitive biochemical systems. In the case of coding self-organisation, it corresponds to the creation of symbolic information. Prions are present-day entities whose replication through autocatalysis reflects aspects of biological semiotics less obvious than genetic coding.

  19. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  20. Adjoint code generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Qiang; CAO JianWen; WANG Bin; ZHANG HaiBin

    2009-01-01

    The adjoint code generator (ADG) is developed to produce the adjoint codes, which are used to analytically calculate gradients and the Hessian-vector products with the costs independent of the number of the independent variables. Different from other automatic differentiation tools, the implementation of ADG has advantages of using the least program behavior decomposition method and several static dependence analysis techniques. In this paper we first address the concerned concepts and fundamentals, and then introduce the functionality and the features of ADG. In particular, we also discuss the design architecture of ADG and implementation details including the recomputation and storing strategy and several techniques for code optimization. Some experimental results in several applications are presented at the end.

  1. Code query by example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  2. Spread codes and spread decoding in network coding

    OpenAIRE

    Manganiello, F; Gorla, E.; Rosenthal, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the class of spread codes for the use in random network coding. Spread codes are based on the construction of spreads in finite projective geometry. The major contribution of the paper is an efficient decoding algorithm of spread codes up to half the minimum distance.

  3. Graph Codes with Reed-Solomon Component Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    We treat a specific case of codes based on bipartite expander graphs coming from finite geometries. The code symbols are associated with the branches and the symbols connected to a given node are restricted to be codewords in a Reed-Solomon code. We give results on the parameters of the codes...

  4. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  5. Securing mobile code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

    2004-10-01

    If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called &apos

  6. Codes Can Reduce Queueing Delay in Data Centers

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Longbo; Zhang, Hao; Ramchandran, Kannan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we quantify how much codes can reduce the data retrieval latency in storage systems. By combining a simple linear code with a novel request scheduling algorithm, which we call Blocking-one Scheduling (BoS), we show analytically that it is possible to reduce data retrieval delay by up to 17% over currently popular replication-based strategies. Although in this work we focus on a simplified setting where the storage system stores a single content, the methodology developed can be applied to more general settings with multiple contents. The results also offer insightful guidance to the design of storage systems in data centers and content distribution networks.

  7. Embedding QR Codes in Education Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Bobeva, Milena; Hopkins, David

    2012-01-01

    Enabling a fast, flexible, convenient, and user-friendly way for students to access content and learning materials online is recognised as an important agenda item for educational institutions. In the case of Higher Education (HE) this is becoming all the more important due to the increase in student ownership of advanced mobile technology (smart phones and tablet devices).\\ud Quick Response (QR) codes are 2-dimensional barcodes introduced in 1994. Over the last five years they have gained re...

  8. [Preliminarily application of content analysis to qualitative nursing data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shu-Yuan; Chuang, Yeu-Hui; Wu, Shu-Fang

    2012-10-01

    Content analysis is a methodology for objectively and systematically studying the content of communication in various formats. Content analysis in nursing research and nursing education is called qualitative content analysis. Qualitative content analysis is frequently applied to nursing research, as it allows researchers to determine categories inductively and deductively. This article examines qualitative content analysis in nursing research from theoretical and practical perspectives. We first describe how content analysis concepts such as unit of analysis, meaning unit, code, category, and theme are used. Next, we describe the basic steps involved in using content analysis, including data preparation, data familiarization, analysis unit identification, creating tentative coding categories, category refinement, and establishing category integrity. Finally, this paper introduces the concept of content analysis rigor, including dependability, confirmability, credibility, and transferability. This article elucidates the content analysis method in order to help professionals conduct systematic research that generates data that are informative and useful in practical application.

  9. New code match strategy for wideband code division multiple access code tree management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Orthogonal variable spreading factor channelization codes are widely used to provide variable data rates for supporting different bandwidth requirements in wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) systems. A new code match scheme for WCDMA code tree management was proposed. The code match scheme is similar to the existing crowed-first scheme. When choosing a code for a user, the code match scheme only compares the one up layer of the allocated codes, unlike the crowed-first scheme which perhaps compares all up layers. So the operation of code match scheme is simple, and the average time delay is decreased by 5.1%. The simulation results also show that the code match strategy can decrease the average code blocking probability by 8.4%.

  10. Reed-Solomon convolutional codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gluesing-Luerssen, H; Schmale, W

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we will introduce a specific class of cyclic convolutional codes. The construction is based on Reed-Solomon block codes. The algebraic parameters as well as the distance of these codes are determined. This shows that some of these codes are optimal or near optimal.

  11. Measuring the implementation of codes of conduct. An assessment method based on a process approach of the responsible organisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, André; Cludts, Stephan; Fisscher, Olaf; Laan, Albertus

    2003-01-01

    More and more organisations formulate a code of conduct in order to stimulate responsible behaviour among their members. Much time and energy is usually spent fixing the content of the code but many organisations get stuck in the challenge of implementing and maintaining the code. The code then turn

  12. Lossless quantum coding in many-letter spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Boström, K J

    2000-01-01

    Based on the concept of many-letter theory a general characterization of quantum codes using the Kraus representation is given. Compression codes are defined by their property of decreasing the average information content of a given a priori message ensemble. Lossless quantum codes, in contrast to lossy codes, provide the retrieval of the original input states with perfect fidelity. A general lossless coding scheme is given that translates between two quantum alphabets. It is shown that this scheme is never compressive. Furthermore, a lossless quantum coding scheme, analog to the classical Huffman scheme but different from the Braunstein scheme, is implemented, which provides optimal compression. Motivated by the concept of lossless quantum compression, an observable is defined that measures the amount of compressible quantum information contained in a particular message with respect to a given \\emph{a priori} message ensemble. The average of this observable yields the von Neumann entropy, which is finally es...

  13. New code of conduct

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    During his talk to the staff at the beginning of the year, the Director-General mentioned that a new code of conduct was being drawn up. What exactly is it and what is its purpose? Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources (HR) Department, talked to us about the whys and wherefores of the project.   Drawing by Georges Boixader from the cartoon strip “The World of Particles” by Brian Southworth. A code of conduct is a general framework laying down the behaviour expected of all members of an organisation's personnel. “CERN is one of the very few international organisations that don’t yet have one", explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin. “We have been thinking about introducing a code of conduct for a long time but lacked the necessary resources until now”. The call for a code of conduct has come from different sources within the Laboratory. “The Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel (read also the "Equal opportuni...

  14. Physical layer network coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Popovski, Petar; Yomo, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has been proposed to improve throughput of the two-way relay channel, where two nodes communicate with each other, being assisted by a relay node. Most of the works related to PLNC are focused on a simple three-node model and they do not take into account...

  15. Corporate governance through codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhi, I.; Aguilera, R.V.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The UK's 1992 Cadbury Report defines corporate governance (CG) as the system by which businesses are directed and controlled. CG codes are a set of best practices designed to address deficiencies in the formal contracts and institutions by suggesting prescriptions on the preferred role and compositi

  16. Polar Code Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-30

    SUMMARY OF POLAR ACHIEVEMENTS ..... .......... 3 3. POLAR CODE PHYSICAL MODELS ..... ............. 5 3.1 PL- ASMA Su ^"ru5 I1LS SH A...of this problem. 1.1. The Charge-2 Rocket The Charge-2 payload was launched on a Black Brant VB from White Sands Mis- sile Range in New Mexico in

  17. Corporate governance through codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhi, I.; Aguilera, R.V.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The UK's 1992 Cadbury Report defines corporate governance (CG) as the system by which businesses are directed and controlled. CG codes are a set of best practices designed to address deficiencies in the formal contracts and institutions by suggesting prescriptions on the preferred role and

  18. (Almost) practical tree codes

    KAUST Repository

    Khina, Anatoly

    2016-08-15

    We consider the problem of stabilizing an unstable plant driven by bounded noise over a digital noisy communication link, a scenario at the heart of networked control. To stabilize such a plant, one needs real-time encoding and decoding with an error probability profile that decays exponentially with the decoding delay. The works of Schulman and Sahai over the past two decades have developed the notions of tree codes and anytime capacity, and provided the theoretical framework for studying such problems. Nonetheless, there has been little practical progress in this area due to the absence of explicit constructions of tree codes with efficient encoding and decoding algorithms. Recently, linear time-invariant tree codes were proposed to achieve the desired result under maximum-likelihood decoding. In this work, we take one more step towards practicality, by showing that these codes can be efficiently decoded using sequential decoding algorithms, up to some loss in performance (and with some practical complexity caveats). We supplement our theoretical results with numerical simulations that demonstrate the effectiveness of the decoder in a control system setting.

  19. Corner neutronic code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Bereznev

    2015-10-01

    An iterative solution process is used, including external iterations for the fission source and internal iterations for the scattering source. The paper presents the results of a cross-verification against the Monte Carlo MMK code [3] and on a model of the BN-800 reactor core.

  20. Ready, steady… Code!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    This summer, CERN took part in the Google Summer of Code programme for the third year in succession. Open to students from all over the world, this programme leads to very successful collaborations for open source software projects.   Image: GSoC 2013. Google Summer of Code (GSoC) is a global programme that offers student developers grants to write code for open-source software projects. Since its creation in 2005, the programme has brought together some 6,000 students from over 100 countries worldwide. The students selected by Google are paired with a mentor from one of the participating projects, which can be led by institutes, organisations, companies, etc. This year, CERN PH Department’s SFT (Software Development for Experiments) Group took part in the GSoC programme for the third time, submitting 15 open-source projects. “Once published on the Google Summer for Code website (in April), the projects are open to applications,” says Jakob Blomer, one of the o...

  1. Focusing Automatic Code Inspections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Automatic Code Inspection tools help developers in early detection of defects in software. A well-known drawback of many automatic inspection approaches is that they yield too many warnings and require a clearer focus. In this thesis, we provide such focus by proposing two methods to prioritize

  2. Fundamentals of coding and reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Paula

    2002-01-01

    After completing this introduction to radiology coding and reimbursement, readers will: Understand how health care reimbursement evolved over the past 50 years. Know the importance of documenting the patient's history. Have an overall picture of the standardized numerical coding system. Understand how accurate coding affects reimbursement. Understand coding functions as they pertain to regulatory compliance in the radiology department. Be familiar with the U.S. Justice Department's use of coding in tracking health care fraud.

  3. On Asymmetric Quantum MDS Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Ezerman, Martianus Frederic; Ling, San

    2010-01-01

    Assuming the validity of the MDS Conjecture, the weight distribution of all MDS codes is known. Using a recently-established characterization of asymmetric quantum error-correcting codes, linear MDS codes can be used to construct asymmetric quantum MDS codes with $d_{z} \\geq d_{x}\\geq 2$ for all possible values of length $n$ for which linear MDS codes over $\\F_{q}$ are known to exist.

  4. Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekar, Kursat B.

    This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the

  5. Rate-adaptive BCH codes for distributed source coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Larsen, Knud J.; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes for distributed source coding. A feedback channel is employed to adapt the rate of the code during the decoding process. The focus is on codes with short block lengths for independently coding a binary source X and decoding it given its...... strategies for improving the reliability of the decoded result are analyzed, and methods for estimating the performance are proposed. In the analysis, noiseless feedback and noiseless communication are assumed. Simulation results show that rate-adaptive BCH codes achieve better performance than low...... correlated side information Y. The proposed codes have been analyzed in a high-correlation scenario, where the marginal probability of each symbol, Xi in X, given Y is highly skewed (unbalanced). Rate-adaptive BCH codes are presented and applied to distributed source coding. Adaptive and fixed checking...

  6. Distinguishing protein-coding from non-coding RNAs through support vector machines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Liu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available RIKEN's FANTOM project has revealed many previously unknown coding sequences, as well as an unexpected degree of variation in transcripts resulting from alternative promoter usage and splicing. Ever more transcripts that do not code for proteins have been identified by transcriptome studies, in general. Increasing evidence points to the important cellular roles of such non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs. The distinction of protein-coding RNA transcripts from ncRNA transcripts is therefore an important problem in understanding the transcriptome and carrying out its annotation. Very few in silico methods have specifically addressed this problem. Here, we introduce CONC (for "coding or non-coding", a novel method based on support vector machines that classifies transcripts according to features they would have if they were coding for proteins. These features include peptide length, amino acid composition, predicted secondary structure content, predicted percentage of exposed residues, compositional entropy, number of homologs from database searches, and alignment entropy. Nucleotide frequencies are also incorporated into the method. Confirmed coding cDNAs for eukaryotic proteins from the Swiss-Prot database constituted the set of true positives, ncRNAs from RNAdb and NONCODE the true negatives. Ten-fold cross-validation suggested that CONC distinguished coding RNAs from ncRNAs at about 97% specificity and 98% sensitivity. Applied to 102,801 mouse cDNAs from the FANTOM3 dataset, our method reliably identified over 14,000 ncRNAs and estimated the total number of ncRNAs to be about 28,000.

  7. On the Organizational Dynamics of the Genetic Code

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhang

    2011-06-07

    The organization of the canonical genetic code needs to be thoroughly illuminated. Here we reorder the four nucleotides—adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine—according to their emergence in evolution, and apply the organizational rules to devising an algebraic representation for the canonical genetic code. Under a framework of the devised code, we quantify codon and amino acid usages from a large collection of 917 prokaryotic genome sequences, and associate the usages with its intrinsic structure and classification schemes as well as amino acid physicochemical properties. Our results show that the algebraic representation of the code is structurally equivalent to a content-centric organization of the code and that codon and amino acid usages under different classification schemes were correlated closely with GC content, implying a set of rules governing composition dynamics across a wide variety of prokaryotic genome sequences. These results also indicate that codons and amino acids are not randomly allocated in the code, where the six-fold degenerate codons and their amino acids have important balancing roles for error minimization. Therefore, the content-centric code is of great usefulness in deciphering its hitherto unknown regularities as well as the dynamics of nucleotide, codon, and amino acid compositions.

  8. On the organizational dynamics of the genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Jun

    2011-04-01

    The organization of the canonical genetic code needs to be thoroughly illuminated. Here we reorder the four nucleotides-adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine-according to their emergence in evolution, and apply the organizational rules to devising an algebraic representation for the canonical genetic code. Under a framework of the devised code, we quantify codon and amino acid usages from a large collection of 917 prokaryotic genome sequences, and associate the usages with its intrinsic structure and classification schemes as well as amino acid physicochemical properties. Our results show that the algebraic representation of the code is structurally equivalent to a content-centric organization of the code and that codon and amino acid usages under different classification schemes were correlated closely with GC content, implying a set of rules governing composition dynamics across a wide variety of prokaryotic genome sequences. These results also indicate that codons and amino acids are not randomly allocated in the code, where the six-fold degenerate codons and their amino acids have important balancing roles for error minimization. Therefore, the content-centric code is of great usefulness in deciphering its hitherto unknown regularities as well as the dynamics of nucleotide, codon, and amino acid compositions.

  9. Fountain Codes with Multiplicatively Repeated Non-Binary LDPC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Kasai, Kenta

    2010-01-01

    We study fountain codes transmitted over the binary-input symmetric-output channel. For channels with small capacity, receivers needs to collects many channel outputs to recover information bits. Since a collected channel output yields a check node in the decoding Tanner graph, the channel with small capacity leads to large decoding complexity. In this paper, we introduce a novel fountain coding scheme with non-binary LDPC codes. The decoding complexity of the proposed fountain code does not depend on the channel. Numerical experiments show that the proposed codes exhibit better performance than conventional fountain codes, especially for small number of information bits.

  10. Quantum codes from linear codes over finite chain rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiusheng; Liu, Hualu

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we provide two methods of constructing quantum codes from linear codes over finite chain rings. The first one is derived from the Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) construction applied to self-dual codes over finite chain rings. The second construction is derived from the CSS construction applied to Gray images of the linear codes over finite chain ring {\\mathbb {F}}_{p^{2m}}+u{\\mathbb {F}}_{p^{2m}}. The good parameters of quantum codes from cyclic codes over finite chain rings are obtained.

  11. Reserved-Length Prefix Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Michael B

    2008-01-01

    Huffman coding finds an optimal prefix code for a given probability mass function. Consider situations in which one wishes to find an optimal code with the restriction that all codewords have lengths that lie in a user-specified set of lengths (or, equivalently, no codewords have lengths that lie in a complementary set). This paper introduces a polynomial-time dynamic programming algorithm that finds optimal codes for this reserved-length prefix coding problem. This has applications to quickly encoding and decoding lossless codes. In addition, one modification of the approach solves any quasiarithmetic prefix coding problem, while another finds optimal codes restricted to the set of codes with g codeword lengths for user-specified g (e.g., g=2).

  12. Decoding Generalized Concatenated Codes Using Interleaved Reed-Solomon Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Senger, Christian; Bossert, Martin; Zyablov, Victor

    2008-01-01

    Generalized Concatenated codes are a code construction consisting of a number of outer codes whose code symbols are protected by an inner code. As outer codes, we assume the most frequently used Reed-Solomon codes; as inner code, we assume some linear block code which can be decoded up to half its minimum distance. Decoding up to half the minimum distance of Generalized Concatenated codes is classically achieved by the Blokh-Zyablov-Dumer algorithm, which iteratively decodes by first using the inner decoder to get an estimate of the outer code words and then using an outer error/erasure decoder with a varying number of erasures determined by a set of pre-calculated thresholds. In this paper, a modified version of the Blokh-Zyablov-Dumer algorithm is proposed, which exploits the fact that a number of outer Reed-Solomon codes with average minimum distance d can be grouped into one single Interleaved Reed-Solomon code which can be decoded beyond d/2. This allows to skip a number of decoding iterations on the one...

  13. The NIMROD Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, D. D.; Glasser, A. H.

    1996-11-01

    NIMROD is a new code system that is being developed for the analysis of modern fusion experiments. It is being designed from the beginning to make the maximum use of massively parallel computer architectures and computer graphics. The NIMROD physics kernel solves the three-dimensional, time-dependent two-fluid equations with neo-classical effects in toroidal geometry of arbitrary poloidal cross section. The NIMROD system also includes a pre-processor, a grid generator, and a post processor. User interaction with NIMROD is facilitated by a modern graphical user interface (GUI). The NIMROD project is using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) team management techniques to minimize re-engineering and reduce code development time. This paper gives an overview of the NIMROD project. Operation of the GUI is demonstrated, and the first results from the physics kernel are given.

  14. Epetra developers coding guidelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heroux, Michael Allen; Sexton, Paul Michael

    2003-12-01

    Epetra is a package of classes for the construction and use of serial and distributed parallel linear algebra objects. It is one of the base packages in Trilinos. This document describes guidelines for Epetra coding style. The issues discussed here go beyond correct C++ syntax to address issues that make code more readable and self-consistent. The guidelines presented here are intended to aid current and future development of Epetra specifically. They reflect design decisions that were made in the early development stages of Epetra. Some of the guidelines are contrary to more commonly used conventions, but we choose to continue these practices for the purposes of self-consistency. These guidelines are intended to be complimentary to policies established in the Trilinos Developers Guide.

  15. Efficient convolutional sparse coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlberg, Brendt

    2017-06-20

    Computationally efficient algorithms may be applied for fast dictionary learning solving the convolutional sparse coding problem in the Fourier domain. More specifically, efficient convolutional sparse coding may be derived within an alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) framework that utilizes fast Fourier transforms (FFT) to solve the main linear system in the frequency domain. Such algorithms may enable a significant reduction in computational cost over conventional approaches by implementing a linear solver for the most critical and computationally expensive component of the conventional iterative algorithm. The theoretical computational cost of the algorithm may be reduced from O(M.sup.3N) to O(MN log N), where N is the dimensionality of the data and M is the number of elements in the dictionary. This significant improvement in efficiency may greatly increase the range of problems that can practically be addressed via convolutional sparse representations.

  16. Decoding the productivity code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David

    .e., to be prepared to initiate improvement. The study shows how the effectiveness of the improvement system depends on the congruent fit between the five elements as well as the bridging coherence between the improvement system and the work system. The bridging coherence depends on how improvements are activated...... approach often ends up with demanding intense employee focus to sustain improvement and engagement. Likewise, a single-minded employee development approach often ends up demanding rationalization to achieve the desired financial results. These ineffective approaches make organizations react like pendulums...... that swing between rationalization and employee development. The productivity code is the lack of alternatives to this ineffective approach. This thesis decodes the productivity code based on the results from a 3-year action research study at a medium-sized manufacturing facility. During the project period...

  17. Codes of Good Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene

    2013-01-01

    Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely......, however, that national views of good governance reflect different political cultures and institutional heritages. Fourteen national codes of conduct are analyzed. The findings suggest that public values converge and that they match model codes from the United Nations and the European Council as well...... as conceptions of good governance from other international organizations. While values converge, they are balanced and communicated differently, and seem to some extent to be translated into the national cultures. The set of global public values derived from this analysis include public interest, regime dignity...

  18. Confocal coded aperture imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

  19. The Phantom SPH code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Daniel; Wurster, James; Nixon, Chris

    2016-05-01

    I will present the capabilities of the Phantom SPH code for global simulations of dust and gas in protoplanetary discs. I will present our new algorithms for simulating both small and large grains in discs, as well as our progress towards simulating evolving grain populations and coupling with radiation. Finally, I will discuss our recent applications to HL Tau and the physics of dust gap opening.

  20. The Liege Oscillation Code

    CERN Document Server

    Scuflaire, R; Théado, S; Bourge, P -O; Miglio, A; Godart, M; Thoul, A; Noels, A

    2007-01-01

    The Liege Oscillation code can be used as a stand-alone program or as a library of subroutines that the user calls from a Fortran main program of his own to compute radial and non-radial adiabatic oscillations of stellar models. We describe the variables and the equations used by the program and the methods used to solve them. A brief account is given of the use and the output of the program.

  1. Status of MARS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.V. Mokhov

    2003-04-09

    Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

  2. ARQ for Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Sundararajan, Jay Kumar; Médard, Muriel

    2008-01-01

    A new coding and queue management algorithm is proposed for communication networks that employ linear network coding. The algorithm has the feature that the encoding process is truly online, as opposed to a block-by-block approach. The setup assumes a packet erasure broadcast channel with stochastic arrivals and full feedback, but the proposed scheme is potentially applicable to more general lossy networks with link-by-link feedback. The algorithm guarantees that the physical queue size at the sender tracks the backlog in degrees of freedom (also called the virtual queue size). The new notion of a node "seeing" a packet is introduced. In terms of this idea, our algorithm may be viewed as a natural extension of ARQ schemes to coded networks. Our approach, known as the drop-when-seen algorithm, is compared with a baseline queuing approach called drop-when-decoded. It is shown that the expected queue size for our approach is $O(\\frac1{1-\\rho})$ as opposed to $\\Omega(\\frac1{(1-\\rho)^2})$ for the baseline approach...

  3. MELCOR computer code manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  4. low bit rate video coding low bit rate video coding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    ariable length bit rate (VLBR) broadly encompasses video coding which broadly encompasses ... for motion estimation and compensation to reduce the prediction sation to reduce the ... a special interest among the video coding community ...

  5. Decoding of concatenated codes with interleaved outer codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Thommesen, Christian; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved Reed/Solomon codes, which allows close to errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes. (NK) N-K...

  6. Random linear codes in steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kaczyński

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Syndrome coding using linear codes is a technique that allows improvement in the steganographic algorithms parameters. The use of random linear codes gives a great flexibility in choosing the parameters of the linear code. In parallel, it offers easy generation of parity check matrix. In this paper, the modification of LSB algorithm is presented. A random linear code [8, 2] was used as a base for algorithm modification. The implementation of the proposed algorithm, along with practical evaluation of algorithms’ parameters based on the test images was made.[b]Keywords:[/b] steganography, random linear codes, RLC, LSB

  7. Development of Teaching Materials for a Physical Chemistry Experiment Using the QR Code

    OpenAIRE

    吉村, 忠与志

    2008-01-01

    The development of teaching materials with the QR code was attempted in an educational environment using a mobile telephone. The QR code is not sufficiently utilized in education, and the current study is one of the first in the field. The QR code is encrypted. However, the QR code can be deciphered by mobile telephones, thus enabling the expression of text in a small space.Contents of "Physical Chemistry Experiment" which are available on the Internet are briefly summarized and simplified. T...

  8. Convolutional coding techniques for data protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results of research on the use of convolutional codes in data communications are presented. Convolutional coding fundamentals are discussed along with modulation and coding interaction. Concatenated coding systems and data compression with convolutional codes are described.

  9. Code Flows : Visualizing Structural Evolution of Source Code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Auber, David

    2008-01-01

    Understanding detailed changes done to source code is of great importance in software maintenance. We present Code Flows, a method to visualize the evolution of source code geared to the understanding of fine and mid-level scale changes across several file versions. We enhance an existing visual met

  10. Code flows : Visualizing structural evolution of source code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Auber, David

    2008-01-01

    Understanding detailed changes done to source code is of great importance in software maintenance. We present Code Flows, a method to visualize the evolution of source code geared to the understanding of fine and mid-level scale changes across several file versions. We enhance an existing visual met

  11. A New Video Coding Method Based on Improving Detail Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Moving Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) and H.263 standard coding method is widely used in video compression. However, the visual quality of detail regions such as eyes and mouth is not content in people at the decoder, as far as the conference telephone or videophone is concerned. A new coding method based on improving detail regions is presented in this paper. Experimental results show that this method can improve the visual quality at the decoder.

  12. What Froze the Genetic Code?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lluís Ribas de Pouplana; Adrian Gabriel Torres; albert Rafels-Ybern

    2017-01-01

    The frozen accident theory of the Genetic Code was a proposal by Francis Crick that attempted to explain the universal nature of the Genetic Code and the fact that it only contains information for twenty amino acids...

  13. Order of the 29. of January 2010 approving the decision n. 2009-DC-0148 made on the 16. of July 2009 by the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) related to the detailed content of information which must be attached to declarations of nuclear activities being applied by paragraphs 1 and 3 of the R. 1333-19 of the Public Health Code; Arrete du 29 janvier 2010 portant homologation de la decision no 2009-DC-0148 de l'Autorite de surete nucleaire du 16 juillet 2009 relative au contenu detaille des informations qui doivent etre jointes aux declarations des activites nucleaires visees aux 1o et 3o de l'article R. 1333-19 du code de la sante publique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This legal text defines the detailed content of information which must be attached to declarations required on the account of an article of the French Public Health Code. This information comprises a specific form and a file, the content of which is specified in appendix and may depend on whether it concerns a first declaration or a new declaration after modification. Another appendix defines the documents and information which must be kept at the disposal of authorities and organisations in charge of radioprotection controls and of nuclear safety

  14. Improvement of QR Code Recognition Based on Pillbox Filter Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shing Sheu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to perform the innovation design for improving the recognition of a captured QR code image with blur through the Pillbox filter analysis. QR code images can be captured by digital video cameras. Many factors contribute to QR code decoding failure, such as the low quality of the image. Focus is an important factor that affects the quality of the image. This study discusses the out-of-focus QR code image and aims to improve the recognition of the contents in the QR code image. Many studies have used the pillbox filter (circular averaging filter method to simulate an out-of-focus image. This method is also used in this investigation to improve the recognition of a captured QR code image. A blurred QR code image is separated into nine levels. In the experiment, four different quantitative approaches are used to reconstruct and decode an out-of-focus QR code image. These nine reconstructed QR code images using methods are then compared. The final experimental results indicate improvements in identification.

  15. Decoding Xing-Ling codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient decoding method for a recent construction of good linear codes as well as an extension to the construction. Furthermore, asymptotic properties and list decoding of the codes are discussed.......This paper describes an efficient decoding method for a recent construction of good linear codes as well as an extension to the construction. Furthermore, asymptotic properties and list decoding of the codes are discussed....

  16. The path of code linting

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Join the path of code linting and discover how it can help you reach higher levels of programming enlightenment. Today we will cover how to embrace code linters to offload cognitive strain on preserving style standards in your code base as well as avoiding error-prone constructs. Additionally, I will show you the journey ahead for integrating several code linters in the programming tools your already use with very little effort.

  17. Multiple LDPC decoding for distributed source coding and video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Luong, Huynh Van; Huang, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Distributed source coding (DSC) is a coding paradigm for systems which fully or partly exploit the source statistics at the decoder to reduce the computational burden at the encoder. Distributed video coding (DVC) is one example. This paper considers the use of Low Density Parity Check Accumulate...... (LDPCA) codes in a DSC scheme with feed-back. To improve the LDPC coding performance in the context of DSC and DVC, while retaining short encoder blocks, this paper proposes multiple parallel LDPC decoding. The proposed scheme passes soft information between decoders to enhance performance. Experimental...

  18. Code stroke in Asturias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente, L; Villanueva, M J; Vega, P; Casado, I; Vidal, J A; Castaño, B; Amorín, M; de la Vega, V; Santos, H; Trigo, A; Gómez, M B; Larrosa, D; Temprano, T; González, M; Murias, E; Calleja, S

    2016-04-01

    Intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase is an effective treatment for ischaemic stroke when applied during the first 4.5 hours, but less than 15% of patients have access to this technique. Mechanical thrombectomy is more frequently able to recanalise proximal occlusions in large vessels, but the infrastructure it requires makes it even less available. We describe the implementation of code stroke in Asturias, as well as the process of adapting various existing resources for urgent stroke care in the region. By considering these resources, and the demographic and geographic circumstances of our region, we examine ways of reorganising the code stroke protocol that would optimise treatment times and provide the most appropriate treatment for each patient. We distributed the 8 health districts in Asturias so as to permit referral of candidates for reperfusion therapies to either of the 2 hospitals with 24-hour stroke units and on-call neurologists and providing IV fibrinolysis. Hospitals were assigned according to proximity and stroke severity; the most severe cases were immediately referred to the hospital with on-call interventional neurology care. Patient triage was provided by pre-hospital emergency services according to the NIHSS score. Modifications to code stroke in Asturias have allowed us to apply reperfusion therapies with good results, while emphasising equitable care and managing the severity-time ratio to offer the best and safest treatment for each patient as soon as possible. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. MHD Generation Code

    OpenAIRE

    Frutos-Alfaro, Francisco; Carboni-Mendez, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full Magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program used the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the MHD equations to obtain a c...

  20. Cinder begin creative coding

    CERN Document Server

    Rijnieks, Krisjanis

    2013-01-01

    Presented in an easy to follow, tutorial-style format, this book will lead you step-by-step through the multi-faceted uses of Cinder.""Cinder: Begin Creative Coding"" is for people who already have experience in programming. It can serve as a transition from a previous background in Processing, Java in general, JavaScript, openFrameworks, C++ in general or ActionScript to the framework covered in this book, namely Cinder. If you like quick and easy to follow tutorials that will let yousee progress in less than an hour - this book is for you. If you are searching for a book that will explain al

  1. Code Optimization in FORM

    CERN Document Server

    Kuipers, J; Vermaseren, J A M

    2013-01-01

    We describe the implementation of output code optimization in the open source computer algebra system FORM. This implementation is based on recently discovered techniques of Monte Carlo tree search to find efficient multivariate Horner schemes, in combination with other optimization algorithms, such as common subexpression elimination. For systems for which no specific knowledge is provided it performs significantly better than other methods we could compare with. Because the method has a number of free parameters, we also show some methods by which to tune them to different types of problems.

  2. Topological code Autotune

    CERN Document Server

    Fowler, Austin G; McInnes, Angus L; Rabbani, Alimohammad

    2012-01-01

    Tailoring a fault-tolerant quantum error correction scheme to a specific physical architecture can be a laborious task. We describe a tool Autotune capable of analyzing and optimizing the classical processing for an arbitrary 2-D qubit architecture making use of arbitrary circuits implementing either the surface code or progressively generated slices of a 3-D topological cluster state with arbitrary stochastic error models for each quantum gate. Autotune is designed to facilitate precise study of the performance of real hardware running topological quantum error correction.

  3. Code Generation with Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Arnoldus, Jeroen; Serebrenik, A

    2012-01-01

    Templates are used to generate all kinds of text, including computer code. The last decade, the use of templates gained a lot of popularity due to the increase of dynamic web applications. Templates are a tool for programmers, and implementations of template engines are most times based on practical experience rather than based on a theoretical background. This book reveals the mathematical background of templates and shows interesting findings for improving the practical use of templates. First, a framework to determine the necessary computational power for the template metalanguage is presen

  4. Memory Code©

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Londoño, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    El proyecto Memory Code© pertenece al ámbito de las cosmopolíticas del arte contemporáneo porque se ocupa de una relación singular de lo humano (mujer) con lo no-humano (caballo y técnicas)5. Específicamente enmarca el estudio del Binomio Ecuestre: caballo-jinete en el marco de una relación afectiva y de adiestramiento (doma clásica). Dicha relación estuvo compuesta por los siguientes operadores : a) Elementos de con-tacto entre jinete-caballo: espuelas, estribus, fustas b) Sistemas rítmicos ...

  5. Wavefront coding with adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbana, Temitope E.; Soloviev, Oleg; Bezzubik, Vitalii; Patlan, Vsevolod; Verhaegen, Michel; Vdovin, Gleb

    2015-03-01

    We have implemented an extended depth of field optical system by wavefront coding with a micromachined membrane deformable mirror. This approach provides a versatile extension to standard wavefront coding based on fixed phase mask. First experimental results validate the feasibility of the use of adaptive optics for variable depth wavefront coding in imaging optical systems.

  6. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  7. Strongly-MDS convolutional codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gluesing-Luerssen, H; Rosenthal, J; Smarandache, R

    2006-01-01

    Maximum-distance separable (MDS) convolutional codes have the property that their free distance is maximal among all codes of the same rate and the same degree. In this paper, a class of MDS convolutional codes is introduced whose column distances reach the generalized Singleton bound at the earlies

  8. Improved code-tracking loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflame, D. T.

    1980-01-01

    Delay-locked loop tracks pseudonoise codes without introducing dc timing errors, because it is not sensitive to gain imbalance between signal processing arms. "Early" and "late" reference codes pass in combined form through both arms, and each arm acts on both codes. Circuit accomodates 1 dB weaker input signals with tracking ability equal to that of tau-dither loops.

  9. On Maximum Lee Distance Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Alderson, Tim L.; Svenja Huntemann

    2013-01-01

    Singleton-type upper bounds on the minimum Lee distance of general (not necessarily linear) Lee codes over ℤq are discussed. Two bounds known for linear codes are shown to also hold in the general case, and several new bounds are established. Codes meeting these bounds are investigated and in some cases characterised.

  10. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  11. The Weights in MDS Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Ezerman, Martianus Frederic; Sole, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The weights in MDS codes of length n and dimension k over the finite field GF(q) are studied. Up to some explicit exceptional cases, the MDS codes with parameters given by the MDS conjecture are shown to contain all k weights in the range n-k+1 to n. The proof uses the covering radius of the dual code

  12. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  13. Order functions and evaluation codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pellikaan, Ruud; van Lint, Jack

    1997-01-01

    Based on the notion of an order function we construct and determine the parameters of a class of error-correcting evaluation codes. This class includes the one-point algebraic geometry codes as wella s the generalized Reed-Muller codes and the parameters are detremined without using the heavy...

  14. Order functions and evaluation codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pellikaan, Ruud; van Lint, Jack

    1997-01-01

    Based on the notion of an order function we construct and determine the parameters of a class of error-correcting evaluation codes. This class includes the one-point algebraic geometry codes as wella s the generalized Reed-Muller codes and the parameters are detremined without using the heavy...... machinery of algebraic geometry....

  15. A class of constacyclic BCH codes and new quantum codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    liu, Yang; Li, Ruihu; Lv, Liangdong; Ma, Yuena

    2017-03-01

    Constacyclic BCH codes have been widely studied in the literature and have been used to construct quantum codes in latest years. However, for the class of quantum codes of length n=q^{2m}+1 over F_{q^2} with q an odd prime power, there are only the ones of distance δ ≤ 2q^2 are obtained in the literature. In this paper, by a detailed analysis of properties of q2-ary cyclotomic cosets, maximum designed distance δ _{max} of a class of Hermitian dual-containing constacyclic BCH codes with length n=q^{2m}+1 are determined, this class of constacyclic codes has some characteristic analog to that of primitive BCH codes over F_{q^2}. Then we can obtain a sequence of dual-containing constacyclic codes of designed distances 2q^2 2q^2 can be constructed from these dual-containing codes via Hermitian Construction. These newly obtained quantum codes have better code rate compared with those constructed from primitive BCH codes.

  16. A Reading of the Code of Content Profundity for Working Drawing Design for 1 000 kV Substation of State Grid%国家电网公司1000 kV变电站施工图设计内容深度规定解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石改萍; 闫培丽; 张军; 胡君慧; 谷松林

    2016-01-01

    以规范1000 kV变电站施工图设计文件为基本目标,对电气一次、二次、土建等专业的主要技术原则进行解读。电气一次部分,对电气主接线图、电气总平面图、配电装置等施工图内容深度规定进行解读;二次部分,对系统继电保护及安全自动装置、系统调度自动化、系统及站内通信、计算机监控系统、元件保护及自动装置、直流及交流不停电电源系统和其他二次系统等施工图内容深度规定进行解读;土建部分,对总布置、建筑、结构、水工、暖通、消防等施工图内容深度规定进行解读。施工图内容深度规定对指导特高压后续工程设计、规范设计文件、提高变电站建设质量和水平、合理控制造价提供重要支撑,深度规定解读便于设计、咨询等相关单位更好理解和应用深度规定。%With the goal of standardizing working drawing design of 1 000 kV substation, a detailed reading about the main technical principles of electrical primary design, electrical secondary design and civil construction design is given. In electrical primary design aspect, the reading includes the diagrams of main electrical wiring, electrical general layout and distribution equipment, etc. In electrical secondary design aspect, the reading includes the relaying protection and security automatic equipment, dispatching automation, communication network, computerized monitoring and control system, components protection and automatic equipment and DC and AC UPS system, etc. In civil construction design aspect, the reading includes the general arrangements, constructions, structures, hydraulic engineering, heating, ventilating and air conditioning and fire protection, etc. The code of content profundity for working drawing design for 1 000 kV substation provides an important support in guiding the engineering design of ultra high voltage project (UHV), specification design of documents

  17. ON CLASSICAL BCH CODES AND QUANTUM BCH CODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yajie; Ma Zhi; Zhang Chunyuan

    2009-01-01

    It is a regular way of constructing quantum error-correcting codes via codes with self-orthogonal property, and whether a classical Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) code is self-orthogonal can be determined by its designed distance. In this paper, we give the sufficient and necessary condition for arbitrary classical BCH codes with self-orthogonal property through algorithms. We also give a better upper bound of the designed distance of a classical narrow-sense BCH code which contains its Euclidean dual. Besides these, we also give one algorithm to compute the dimension of these codes. The complexity of all algorithms is analyzed. Then the results can be applied to construct a series of quantum BCH codes via the famous CSS constructions.

  18. New quantum codes constructed from quaternary BCH codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gen; Li, Ruihu; Guo, Luobin; Ma, Yuena

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we firstly study construction of new quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) from three classes of quaternary imprimitive BCH codes. As a result, the improved maximal designed distance of these narrow-sense imprimitive Hermitian dual-containing quaternary BCH codes are determined to be much larger than the result given according to Aly et al. (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 53:1183-1188, 2007) for each different code length. Thus, families of new QECCs are newly obtained, and the constructed QECCs have larger distance than those in the previous literature. Secondly, we apply a combinatorial construction to the imprimitive BCH codes with their corresponding primitive counterpart and construct many new linear quantum codes with good parameters, some of which have parameters exceeding the finite Gilbert-Varshamov bound for linear quantum codes.

  19. Structured error recovery for code-word-stabilized quantum codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunfan; Dumer, Ilya; Grassl, Markus; Pryadko, Leonid P.

    2010-05-01

    Code-word-stabilized (CWS) codes are, in general, nonadditive quantum codes that can correct errors by an exhaustive search of different error patterns, similar to the way that we decode classical nonlinear codes. For an n-qubit quantum code correcting errors on up to t qubits, this brute-force approach consecutively tests different errors of weight t or less and employs a separate n-qubit measurement in each test. In this article, we suggest an error grouping technique that allows one to simultaneously test large groups of errors in a single measurement. This structured error recovery technique exponentially reduces the number of measurements by about 3t times. While it still leaves exponentially many measurements for a generic CWS code, the technique is equivalent to syndrome-based recovery for the special case of additive CWS codes.

  20. On (Partial) Unit Memory Codes Based on Gabidulin Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, Antonia; Bossert, Martin; Zyablov, Victor

    2011-01-01

    (Partial) Unit Memory ((P)UM) codes provide a powerful possibility to construct convolutional codes based on block codes in order to achieve a high decoding performance. In this contribution, a construction based on Gabidulin codes is considered. This construction requires a modified rank metric, the so-called sum rank metric. For the sum rank metric, the free rank distance, the extended row rank distance and its slope are defined analogous to the extended row distance in Hamming metric. Upper bounds for the free rank distance and the slope of (P)UM codes in the sum rank metric are derived and an explicit construction of (P)UM codes based on Gabidulin codes is given, achieving the upper bound for the free rank distance.

  1. Information preserved guided scan pixel difference coding for medical images

    CERN Document Server

    Takaya, K; Yuan, L; Takaya, Kunio; Yuan, Li

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the information content of medical images, with 3-D MRI images as an example, in terms of information entropy. The results of the analysis justify the use of Pixel Difference Coding for preserving all information contained in the original pictures, lossless coding in other words. The experimental results also indicate that the compression ratio CR=2:1 can be achieved under the lossless constraints. A pratical implementation of Pixel Difference Coding which allows interactive retrieval of local ROI (Region of Interest), while maintaining the near low bound information entropy, is discussed.

  2. Code CoAN 2010: The first Code of Audiovisual Media Co-regulation in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Muñoz-Saldaña, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On 17 November 2009 the first co-regulation code for the audiovisual media sector was established in Spain: “2010 Co-regulation Code for the Quality of Audiovisual Contents in Navarra”. This Code is pioneering in the field and, taking into account the content of the recently approved General Law on Audiovisual Communication, is an example of the kind of work that shall be carried out in the future by Spain’s National Media Council (Consejo Estatal de Medios Audiovisuales, aka, CEMA or the corresponding regulatory body. This initiative shows the need to apply co-regulatory codes to the national systems of regulation in the audiovisual sector, as the European institutions urged in their latest Directive in 2010. This article addresses three issues that demonstrate the need for and advantages of applying co-regulation practices to guarantee the protection of minors, pluralism, and the promotion of media literacy: the failure of traditional regulatory instruments and the inefficiency of self-regulation; the conceptual definition of co-regulation as an instrument separated from self-regulation and regulation; and the added value of co-regulation in its application to concrete areas.

  3. Coding and Allocation for Distributed Data Storage: Fundamental Tradeoffs, Coding Schemes and Allocation Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Andriyanova, Iryna

    2013-01-01

    Doctoral; Distributed storage is one of the most actively developing topics nowadays, thanks to the growing need of storing more and more large amounts of data and to new distributed applications as cloud computing, multimedia content delivery etc. The core of each distributed storage system (DSS) is its erasure-correcting code; the core of the DSS networking protocol is its allocation pattern.With new aforementioned storage applications we are about to attain the limit of well-developed codi...

  4. Physical Layer Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Yomo, Hironori; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has the potential to improve throughput of multi-hop networks. However, most of the works are focused on the simple, three-node model with two-way relaying, not taking into account the fact that there can be other neighboring nodes that can cause/receive inter......Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has the potential to improve throughput of multi-hop networks. However, most of the works are focused on the simple, three-node model with two-way relaying, not taking into account the fact that there can be other neighboring nodes that can cause....../receive interference. The way to deal with this problem in distributed wireless networks is usage of MAC-layer mechanisms that make a spatial reservation of the shared wireless medium, similar to the well-known RTS/CTS in IEEE 802.11 wireless networks. In this paper, we investigate two-way relaying in presence...

  5. Security Embedding Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Ly, Hung D; Blankenship, Yufei

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of simultaneously communicating two messages, a high-security message and a low-security message, to a legitimate receiver, referred to as the security embedding problem. An information-theoretic formulation of the problem is presented. A coding scheme that combines rate splitting, superposition coding, nested binning and channel prefixing is considered and is shown to achieve the secrecy capacity region of the channel in several scenarios. Specifying these results to both scalar and independent parallel Gaussian channels (under an average individual per-subchannel power constraint), it is shown that the high-security message can be embedded into the low-security message at full rate (as if the low-security message does not exist) without incurring any loss on the overall rate of communication (as if both messages are low-security messages). Extensions to the wiretap channel II setting of Ozarow and Wyner are also considered, where it is shown that "perfect" security embedding...

  6. Supervised Transfer Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan

    2014-07-27

    A combination of the sparse coding and transfer learn- ing techniques was shown to be accurate and robust in classification tasks where training and testing objects have a shared feature space but are sampled from differ- ent underlying distributions, i.e., belong to different do- mains. The key assumption in such case is that in spite of the domain disparity, samples from different domains share some common hidden factors. Previous methods often assumed that all the objects in the target domain are unlabeled, and thus the training set solely comprised objects from the source domain. However, in real world applications, the target domain often has some labeled objects, or one can always manually label a small num- ber of them. In this paper, we explore such possibil- ity and show how a small number of labeled data in the target domain can significantly leverage classifica- tion accuracy of the state-of-the-art transfer sparse cod- ing methods. We further propose a unified framework named supervised transfer sparse coding (STSC) which simultaneously optimizes sparse representation, domain transfer and classification. Experimental results on three applications demonstrate that a little manual labeling and then learning the model in a supervised fashion can significantly improve classification accuracy.

  7. Sub-Transport Layer Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Krigslund, Jeppe; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    Packet losses in wireless networks dramatically curbs the performance of TCP. This paper introduces a simple coding shim that aids IP-layer traffic in lossy environments while being transparent to transport layer protocols. The proposed coding approach enables erasure correction while being...... oblivious to the congestion control algorithms of the utilised transport layer protocol. Although our coding shim is indifferent towards the transport layer protocol, we focus on the performance of TCP when ran on top of our proposed coding mechanism due to its widespread use. The coding shim provides gains...

  8. The Art of Readable Code

    CERN Document Server

    Boswell, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    As programmers, we've all seen source code that's so ugly and buggy it makes our brain ache. Over the past five years, authors Dustin Boswell and Trevor Foucher have analyzed hundreds of examples of "bad code" (much of it their own) to determine why they're bad and how they could be improved. Their conclusion? You need to write code that minimizes the time it would take someone else to understand it-even if that someone else is you. This book focuses on basic principles and practical techniques you can apply every time you write code. Using easy-to-digest code examples from different languag

  9. Three Paradigms for Mixing Coding and Games: Coding in a Game, Coding as a Game, and Coding for a Game

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Games for teaching coding have been an educational holy grail since at least the early 1980s. Yet for decades, with games more popular than ever and with the need to teach kids coding having been well-recognized, no blockbuster coding games have arisen (see Chapter 2). Over the years, the research community has made various games for teaching computer science: a survey made by shows that most do not teach coding, and of the ones that do teach coding, most are research prototypes (not produc...

  10. Remarks on generalized toric codes

    CERN Document Server

    Little, John B

    2011-01-01

    This note presents some new information on how the minimum distance of the generalized toric code corresponding to a fixed set of integer lattice points S in R^2 varies with the base field. The main results show that in some cases, over sufficiently large fields, the minimum distance of the code corresponding to a set S will be the same as that of the code corresponding to the convex hull of S. In an example, we will also discuss a [49,12,28] generalized toric code over GF(8), better than any previously known code according to M. Grassl's online tables, as of July 2011.

  11. Rotated and Scaled Alamouti Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Willems, Frans M J

    2008-01-01

    Repetition-based retransmission is used in Alamouti-modulation [1998] for $2\\times 2$ MIMO systems. We propose to use instead of ordinary repetition so-called "scaled repetition" together with rotation. It is shown that the rotated and scaled Alamouti code has a hard-decision performance which is only slightly worse than that of the Golden code [2005], the best known $2\\times 2$ space-time code. Decoding the Golden code requires an exhaustive search over all codewords, while our rotated and scaled Alamouti code can be decoded with an acceptable complexity however.

  12. On constructing disjoint linear codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Weiguo; CAI Mian; XIAO Guozhen

    2007-01-01

    To produce a highly nonlinear resilient function,the disjoint linear codes were originally proposed by Johansson and Pasalic in IEEE Trans.Inform.Theory,2003,49(2):494-501.In this paper,an effective method for finding a set of such disjoint linear codes is presented.When n≥2k,we can find a set of[n,k] disjoint linear codes with joint linear codes exists with cardinality at least 2.We also describe a result on constructing a set of [n,k] disjoint linear codes with minimum distance at least some fixed positive integer.

  13. Content Analysis of Block Play Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Annabel

    This study examined research on children's block play, using content analysis to review 75 documents that focused on such play. Each document was coded by type (empirical study or nonempirical article) and by 15 topics and 76 subtopics grouped into 4 broad categories: (1) environment/ecology; (2) block play and the school curriculum; (3) block…

  14. Princess Picture Books: Content and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Lourdes P.; Higgins, Brittany E.; Pinkerton, Nick; Couto, Michelle; Mansolillo, Victoria; Weisinger, Nica; Flores, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Because many girls develop their understanding of what it means to be a girl from books about princesses, the researchers coded the messages and content in 58 princess books (picture, fairy tales, and fractured fairy tales). Results indicate that gender stereotypes are present in the books--the princesses were more likely to be nurturing, in…

  15. Orthogonal coding of object location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Per Magne; Ahissar, Ehud

    2009-02-01

    It has been argued whether internal representations are encoded using a universal ('the neural code') or multiple codes. Here, we review a series of experiments that demonstrate that tactile encoding of object location via whisking employs an orthogonal, triple-code scheme. Rats, and other rodents, actively move the whiskers back and forth to localize and identify objects. Neural recordings from primary sensory afferents, along with behavioral observations, demonstrate that vertical coordinates of contacted objects are encoded by the identity of activated afferents, horizontal coordinates by the timing of activation and radial coordinates by the intensity of activation. Because these codes are mutually independent, the three-dimensional location of an object could, in principle, be encoded by individual afferents during single whisker-object contacts. One advantage of such a same-neuron-different-codes scheme over the traditionally assumed same-code-different-neurons scheme is a reduction of code ambiguity that, in turn, simplifies decoding circuits.

  16. New Codes for Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Yousif Ahmed

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new code structure with zero in-phase cross correlation for spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA system is proposed, and called zero vectors combinatorial (ZVC. This code is constructed in a simple algebraic way using Euclidean vectors and combinatorial theories based on the relationship between the number of users N and the weight W. One of the important properties of this code is that the maximum cross correlation (CC is always zero, which means that multi-user interference (MUI and phase induced intensity noise (PIIN are reduced. Bit error rate (BER performance is compared with previous reported codes. Therefore, theoretically, we demonstrate the performance of ZVC code with the related equations. In addition, the structure of the encoder/decoder based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs and the proposed system have been analyzed theoretically by taking into consideration the effects of some noises. The results characterizing BER with respect to the total number of active users show that ZVC code offers a significantly improved performance over previous reported codes by supporting large numbers of users at BER≥ 10-9. A comprehensive simulation study has been carried out using a commercial optical system simulator “VPI™”. Moreover, it was shown that the proposed code managed to reduce the hardware complexity and eventually the cost.

  17. Making your code citable with the Astrophysics Source Code Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alice; DuPrie, Kimberly; Schmidt, Judy; Berriman, G. Bruce; Hanisch, Robert J.; Mink, Jessica D.; Nemiroff, Robert J.; Shamir, Lior; Shortridge, Keith; Taylor, Mark B.; Teuben, Peter J.; Wallin, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL, ascl.net) is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research. With nearly 1,200 codes, it is the largest indexed resource for astronomy codes in existence. Established in 1999, it offers software authors a path to citation of their research codes even without publication of a paper describing the software, and offers scientists a way to find codes used in refereed publications, thus improving the transparency of the research. It also provides a method to quantify the impact of source codes in a fashion similar to the science metrics of journal articles. Citations using ASCL IDs are accepted by major astronomy journals and if formatted properly are tracked by ADS and other indexing services. The number of citations to ASCL entries increased sharply from 110 citations in January 2014 to 456 citations in September 2015. The percentage of code entries in ASCL that were cited at least once rose from 7.5% in January 2014 to 17.4% in September 2015. The ASCL's mid-2014 infrastructure upgrade added an easy entry submission form, more flexible browsing, search capabilities, and an RSS feeder for updates. A Changes/Additions form added this past fall lets authors submit links for papers that use their codes for addition to the ASCL entry even if those papers don't formally cite the codes, thus increasing the transparency of that research and capturing the value of their software to the community.

  18. On Bounded Weight Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Bachoc, Christine; Cohen, Gerard; Sole, Patrick; Tchamkerten, Aslan

    2010-01-01

    The maximum size of a binary code is studied as a function of its length N, minimum distance D, and minimum codeword weight W. This function B(N,D,W) is first characterized in terms of its exponential growth rate in the limit as N tends to infinity for fixed d=D/N and w=W/N. The exponential growth rate of B(N,D,W) is shown to be equal to the exponential growth rate of A(N,D) for w <= 1/2, and equal to the exponential growth rate of A(N,D,W) for 1/2< w <= 1. Second, analytic and numerical upper bounds on B(N,D,W) are derived using the semidefinite programming (SDP) method. These bounds yield a non-asymptotic improvement of the second Johnson bound and are tight for certain values of the parameters.

  19. Homomorphic encryption from codes

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanov, Andrej

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new homomorphic encryption scheme based on the hardness of decoding under independent random noise from certain affine families of codes. Unlike in previous lattice-based homomorphic encryption schemes, where the message is hidden in the noisy part of the ciphertext, our scheme carries the message in the affine part of the transformation and applies noise only to achieve security. Our scheme can tolerate noise of arbitrary magnitude, as long as the noise vector has sufficiently small hamming weight (and its entries are independent). Our design achieves "proto-homomorphic" properties in an elementary manner: message addition and multiplication are emulated by pointwise addition and multiplication of the ciphertext vectors. Moreover, the extremely simple nature of our decryption makes the scheme easily amenable to bootstrapping. However, some complications are caused by the inherent presence of noticeable encryption error. Our main technical contribution is the development of two new techniques for...

  20. LDGM Codes for Channel Coding and Joint Source-Channel Coding of Correlated Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Garcia-Frias

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a coding scheme based on the use of systematic linear codes with low-density generator matrix (LDGM codes for channel coding and joint source-channel coding of multiterminal correlated binary sources. In both cases, the structures of the LDGM encoder and decoder are shown, and a concatenated scheme aimed at reducing the error floor is proposed. Several decoding possibilities are investigated, compared, and evaluated. For different types of noisy channels and correlation models, the resulting performance is very close to the theoretical limits.

  1. Quantum internet using code division multiple access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yu-xi; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Wu, Re-Bing; Gao, Feifei; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Yang, Lan; Nori, Franco

    2013-01-01

    A crucial open problem inS large-scale quantum networks is how to efficiently transmit quantum data among many pairs of users via a common data-transmission medium. We propose a solution by developing a quantum code division multiple access (q-CDMA) approach in which quantum information is chaotically encoded to spread its spectral content, and then decoded via chaos synchronization to separate different sender-receiver pairs. In comparison to other existing approaches, such as frequency division multiple access (FDMA), the proposed q-CDMA can greatly increase the information rates per channel used, especially for very noisy quantum channels. PMID:23860488

  2. Improved lossless intra coding for next generation video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanam, Rahul; He, Yuwen; Ye, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Recently, there have been efforts by the ITU-T VCEG and ISO/IEC MPEG to further improve the compression performance of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard for developing a potential next generation video coding standard. The exploratory codec software of this potential standard includes new coding tools for inter and intra coding. In this paper, we present a new intra prediction mode for lossless intra coding. Our new intra mode derives a prediction filter for each input pixel using its neighboring reconstructed pixels, and applies this filter to the nearest neighboring reconstructed pixels to generate a prediction pixel. The proposed intra mode is demonstrated to improve the performance of the exploratory software for lossless intra coding, yielding a maximum and average bitrate savings of 4.4% and 2.11%, respectively.

  3. Selection of Code and Interleaver for Turbo Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1998-01-01

    The selection of component codes for turbo coding has often been based on the performance at high SNR's. However, we will argue that the selection mainly should be based on the performance at low SNR's, i.e. the convergence properties. Further, we will present a way to construct interleavers...... that significantly improve the performance of the turbo coding scheme at high SNR's, i.e. lowers the error floor...

  4. Superimposed Code Theorectic Analysis of DNA Codes and DNA Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Bounds for DNA Codes Based on Fibonacci Ensembles of DNA Sequences ”, 2008 IEEE Proceedings of International Symposium on Information Theory, pp. 2292...5, June 2008, pp. 525-34. 32 28. A. Macula, et al., “Random Coding Bounds for DNA Codes Based on Fibonacci Ensembles of DNA Sequences ”, 2008...combinatorial method of bio-memory design and detection that encodes item or process information as numerical sequences represented in DNA. ComDMem is a

  5. Bit-Interleaved Coded Multiple Beamforming with Perfect Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Boyu

    2010-01-01

    When the channel state information is known by the transmitter as well as the receiver, beamforming techniques that employ Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) are commonly used in Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems. Without channel coding, when a single symbol is transmitted, these systems achieve the full diversity order. Whereas, this property is lost when multiple symbols are simultaneously transmitted. Full diversity can be restored when channel coding is added, as long as the code rate Rc and the number of employed subchannels S satisfy the condition RcS =< 1. Moreover, by adding a proper constellation precoder, full diversity can be achieved for both uncoded and coded SVD systems, e.g., Fully Precoded Multiple Beamforming (FPMB) and Bit-Interleaved Coded Multiple Beamforming with Full Precoding (BICMB-FP). Perfect Space-Time Block Code (PSTBC) is a full-rate full-diversity space-time code, which achieves maximum coding gain for MIMO systems. Previously, Perfect Coded Multiple Beamforming (P...

  6. Practices in Code Discoverability: Astrophysics Source Code Library

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Alice; Nemiroff, Robert J; Shamir, Lior

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), which takes an active approach to sharing astrophysical source code. ASCL's editor seeks out both new and old peer-reviewed papers that describe methods or experiments that involve the development or use of source code, and adds entries for the found codes to the library. This approach ensures that source codes are added without requiring authors to actively submit them, resulting in a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used in peer-reviewed studies. The ASCL now has over 340 codes in it and continues to grow. In 2011, the ASCL (http://ascl.net) has on average added 19 new codes per month. An advisory committee has been established to provide input and guide the development and expansion of the new site, and a marketing plan has been developed and is being executed. All ASCL source codes have been used to generate results published in or submitted to a refereed journal and are freely available ei...

  7. Elements of algebraic coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso da Rocha, Jr, Valdemar

    2014-01-01

    Elements of Algebraic Coding Systems is an introductory textto algebraic coding theory. In the first chapter, you'll gain insideknowledge of coding fundamentals, which is essential for a deeperunderstanding of state-of-the-art coding systems.This book is a quick reference for those who are unfamiliar withthis topic, as well as for use with specific applications such as cryptographyand communication. Linear error-correcting block codesthrough elementary principles span eleven chapters of the text.Cyclic codes, some finite field algebra, Goppa codes, algebraic decodingalgorithms, and applications in public-key cryptography andsecret-key cryptography are discussed, including problems and solutionsat the end of each chapter. Three appendices cover the Gilbertbound and some related derivations, a derivation of the Mac-Williams' identities based on the probability of undetected error,and two important tools for algebraic decoding-namely, the finitefield Fourier transform and the Euclidean algorithm for polynomials.

  8. BILINEAR FORMS AND LINEAR CODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高莹

    2004-01-01

    Abraham Lempel et al[1] made a connection between linear codes and systems of bilinear forms over finite fields. In this correspondence, a new simple proof of a theorem in [1] is presented; in addition, the encoding process and the decoding procedure of RS codes are simplified via circulant matrices. Finally, the results show that the correspondence between bilinear forms and linear codes is not unique.

  9. Error correcting coding for OTN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.; Pedersen, Lars A.

    2010-01-01

    Forward error correction codes for 100 Gb/s optical transmission are currently receiving much attention from transport network operators and technology providers. We discuss the performance of hard decision decoding using product type codes that cover a single OTN frame or a small number...... of such frames. In particular we argue that a three-error correcting BCH is the best choice for the component code in such systems....

  10. High performance scalable image coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan Tao; He Yanmin; Zhu Weile

    2007-01-01

    A high performance scalable image coding algorithm is proposed. The salient features of this algorithm are the ways to form and locate the significant clusters. Thanks to the list structure, the new coding algorithm achieves fine fractional bit-plane coding with negligible additional complexity. Experiments show that it performs comparably or better than the state-of-the-art coders. Furthermore, the flexible codec supports both quality and resolution scalability, which is very attractive in many network applications.

  11. Code Speed Measuring for VC++

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 688 Technical Report ARWSE-TR-14025 CODE SPEED MEASURING FOR VC++ Tom Nealis...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CODE SPEED MEASURING FOR VC++ 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...ABSTRACT It’s often important to know how fast a snippet of code executes. This information allows the coder to make important decisions

  12. ACE spectrum of LDPC codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukobratović Dejan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction of short-length LDPC codes with good, both waterfall and error-floor, behavior is still an attractive research problem. Recently proposed construction algorithms in this field are based on remarkably simple ideas, but yet, their effectiveness can still be questioned. In this paper we investigate a novel measure of goodness of a given LDPC code namely its ACE spectrum, based on a previously introduced ACE metrics associated with each cycle in LDPC code graph.

  13. QR code for medical information uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Ducut, Erick G

    2008-11-06

    We developed QR code online tools, simulated and tested QR code applications for medical information uses including scanning QR code labels, URLs and authentication. Our results show possible applications for QR code in medicine.

  14. Astrophysics Source Code Library Enhancements

    CERN Document Server

    Hanisch, Robert J; Berriman, G Bruce; DuPrie, Kimberly; Mink, Jessica; Nemiroff, Robert J; Schmidt, Judy; Shamir, Lior; Shortridge, Keith; Taylor, Mark; Teuben, Peter J; Wallin, John

    2014-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL; ascl.net) is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research; it currently contains over 900 codes and is indexed by ADS. The ASCL has recently moved a new infrastructure into production. The new site provides a true database for the code entries and integrates the WordPress news and information pages and the discussion forum into one site. Previous capabilities are retained and permalinks to ascl.net continue to work. This improvement offers more functionality and flexibility than the previous site, is easier to maintain, and offers new possibilities for collaboration. This presentation covers these recent changes to the ASCL.

  15. Multiple Beamforming with Perfect Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Boyu

    2011-01-01

    In Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) beamforming, without channel coding, there is a trade-off between full diversity and full multiplexing. Adding channel coding, full diversity and full multiplexing can be both achieved, as long as the code rate Rc and the number of subchannels S satisfy RcS1. Recently discovered Perfect Space-Time Block Codes (PSTBCs) are full-rate full-diversity space-time codes, achieving maximum coding gain. In this paper, two novel techniques, Perfect Coded Multiple Beamforming (PCMB) and Bit-Interleaved Coded Multiple Beamforming with Perfect Coding (BICMB-PC), are proposed, employing PSTBCs. PCMB achieves full diversity, full multiplexing, and full rate simultaneously, and its performance is close to PSTBC and FPMB, while the decoding complexity is significantly less than PSTBC and much lower than FPMB of dimensions 2 and 4. On the other hand, BICMB-PC achieves both full diversity and full multiplexing, and its performance is similar to BICMB-FP, but provides much lower decoding com...

  16. Automatic code generation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Marian Sorin; Kuhrmann, Marco; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2016-01-01

    -specific language to specify those requirements and to allow for generating a safety-enforcing layer of code, which is deployed to the robot. The paper at hand reports experiences in practically applying code generation to mobile robots. For two cases, we discuss how we addressed challenges, e.g., regarding weaving...... code generation into proprietary development environments and testing of manually written code. We find that a DSL based on the same conceptual model can be used across different kinds of hardware modules, but a significant adaptation effort is required in practical scenarios involving different kinds...

  17. Should you learn to code?

    CERN Document Server

    Team, The Hyperink

    2013-01-01

    On May 15, 2012 Jeff Atwood (co-founder of Stack Overflow) published a blog post titled "Please Don't Learn to Code" in response to Mayor Mike Bloomberg's resolution to learn how to code in 2012. In that post he argues against "learning to code just for the sake of learning how to code," a sentiment that sparked an active online debate. This book is a compilation of several different perspectives on that debate. Should programming be taught to every student as part of their core curriculum, similar to mathematics, reading, and writing? Should every working professional take time to learn a

  18. Grassmann codes and Schubert unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, Trygve; Ranestad, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    We study subsets of Grassmann varieties over a field , such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study such sets in detail, and give applications to coding theory, in particular for Grassmann codes. For much is known about such Schubert unions...... with a maximal number of -rational points for a given spanning dimension. We study the case and give a conjecture for general . We also define Schubert union codes in general, and study the parameters and support weights of these codes....

  19. Semi-supervised sparse coding

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-07-06

    Sparse coding approximates the data sample as a sparse linear combination of some basic codewords and uses the sparse codes as new presentations. In this paper, we investigate learning discriminative sparse codes by sparse coding in a semi-supervised manner, where only a few training samples are labeled. By using the manifold structure spanned by the data set of both labeled and unlabeled samples and the constraints provided by the labels of the labeled samples, we learn the variable class labels for all the samples. Furthermore, to improve the discriminative ability of the learned sparse codes, we assume that the class labels could be predicted from the sparse codes directly using a linear classifier. By solving the codebook, sparse codes, class labels and classifier parameters simultaneously in a unified objective function, we develop a semi-supervised sparse coding algorithm. Experiments on two real-world pattern recognition problems demonstrate the advantage of the proposed methods over supervised sparse coding methods on partially labeled data sets.

  20. Coding, cryptography and combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald; Xing, Chaoping

    2004-01-01

    It has long been recognized that there are fascinating connections between cod­ ing theory, cryptology, and combinatorics. Therefore it seemed desirable to us to organize a conference that brings together experts from these three areas for a fruitful exchange of ideas. We decided on a venue in the Huang Shan (Yellow Mountain) region, one of the most scenic areas of China, so as to provide the additional inducement of an attractive location. The conference was planned for June 2003 with the official title Workshop on Coding, Cryptography and Combi­ natorics (CCC 2003). Those who are familiar with events in East Asia in the first half of 2003 can guess what happened in the end, namely the conference had to be cancelled in the interest of the health of the participants. The SARS epidemic posed too serious a threat. At the time of the cancellation, the organization of the conference was at an advanced stage: all invited speakers had been selected and all abstracts of contributed talks had been screened by the p...

  1. Polymatroids with Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Te Sun

    2010-01-01

    The problem of network coding for multicasting a single source to multiple sinks has first been studied by Ahlswede, Cai, Li and Yeung in 2000, in which they have established the celebrated max-flow mini-cut theorem on non-physical information flow over a network of independent channels. On the other hand, in 1980, Han has studied the case with correlated multiple sources and a single sink from the viewpoint of polymatroidal functions in which a necessary and sufficient condition has been demonstrated for reliable transmission over the network. This paper presents an attempt to unify both cases, which leads to establish a necessary and sufficient condition for reliable transmission over a noisy network for multicasting all the correlated multiple sources to all the multiple sinks. Furthermore, we address also the problem of transmitting "independent" sources over a multiple-access-type of network as well as over a broadcast-type of network, which reveals that the (co-) polymatroidal structures are intrinsical...

  2. Consensus Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Biswarup

    2017-04-11

    Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) is a promising direction for unsupervised learning in computer vision. In contrast to recent supervised methods, CSC allows for convolutional image representations to be learned that are equally useful for high-level vision tasks and low-level image reconstruction and can be applied to a wide range of tasks without problem-specific retraining. Due to their extreme memory requirements, however, existing CSC solvers have so far been limited to low-dimensional problems and datasets using a handful of low-resolution example images at a time. In this paper, we propose a new approach to solving CSC as a consensus optimization problem, which lifts these limitations. By learning CSC features from large-scale image datasets for the first time, we achieve significant quality improvements in a number of imaging tasks. Moreover, the proposed method enables new applications in high dimensional feature learning that has been intractable using existing CSC methods. This is demonstrated for a variety of reconstruction problems across diverse problem domains, including 3D multispectral demosaickingand 4D light field view synthesis.

  3. Decoding of concatenated codes with interleaved outer codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom; Thommesen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved (N, K) Reed-Solomon codes, which allows close to N-K errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes....

  4. The KIDTALK Behavior and Language Code: Manual and Coding Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Elizabeth M.; Ezell, Sara S.; Solomon, Ned A.; Hancock, Terry B.; Kaiser, Ann P.

    Developed as part of the Milieu Language Teaching Project at the John F. Kennedy Center at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, this KIDTALK Behavior-Language Coding Protocol and manual measures behavior occurring during adult-child interactions. The manual is divided into 5 distinct sections: (1) the adult behavior codes describe…

  5. Resources for Governing Board on Codes of Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community College League of California, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Reprinted herein is Chapter 14 of the "2007 Trustee Handbook," published by the Community College League of California. Contents include: (1) Ethics and Laws; (2) Sample Statements: Codes of Ethics and Standards for Practice; (3) Association of Community College Trustees Models; and (4) Upholding Board Ethics.

  6. Sanctions Connected to Dress Code Violations in Secondary School Handbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Jane E.; Freeburg, Elizabeth W.; Lentz-Hees, Elizabeth S.

    2004-01-01

    This study identifies and evaluates sanctions for dress code violations in secondary school handbooks. Sanctions, or consequences for breaking rules, vary along seven interrelated dimensions: source, formality, retribution, obtrusiveness, magnitude, severity, and pervasiveness. A content analysis of handbooks from 155 public secondary schools…

  7. Sanctions Connected to Dress Code Violations in Secondary School Handbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Jane E.; Freeburg, Elizabeth W.; Lentz-Hees, Elizabeth S.

    2004-01-01

    This study identifies and evaluates sanctions for dress code violations in secondary school handbooks. Sanctions, or consequences for breaking rules, vary along seven interrelated dimensions: source, formality, retribution, obtrusiveness, magnitude, severity, and pervasiveness. A content analysis of handbooks from 155 public secondary schools…

  8. SRAC95; general purpose neutronics code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, Keisuke; Tsuchihashi, Keichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kaneko, Kunio

    1996-03-01

    SRAC is a general purpose neutronics code system applicable to core analyses of various types of reactors. Since the publication of JAERI-1302 for the revised SRAC in 1986, a number of additions and modifications have been made for nuclear data libraries and programs. Thus, the new version SRAC95 has been completed. The system consists of six kinds of nuclear data libraries(ENDF/B-IV, -V, -VI, JENDL-2, -3.1, -3.2), five modular codes integrated into SRAC95; collision probability calculation module (PIJ) for 16 types of lattice geometries, Sn transport calculation modules(ANISN, TWOTRAN), diffusion calculation modules(TUD, CITATION) and two optional codes for fuel assembly and core burn-up calculations(newly developed ASMBURN, revised COREBN). In this version, many new functions and data are implemented to support nuclear design studies of advanced reactors, especially for burn-up calculations. SRAC95 is available not only on conventional IBM-compatible computers but also on scalar or vector computers with the UNIX operating system. This report is the SRAC95 users manual which contains general description, contents of revisions, input data requirements, detail information on usage, sample input data and list of available libraries. (author).

  9. Coded Path Protection: Efficient Conversion of Sharing to Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Avci, Serhat Nazim

    2011-01-01

    Link failures in wide area networks are common and cause significant data losses. Mesh-based protection schemes offer high capacity efficiency but they are slow and require complex signaling. Additionally, real-time reconfiguration of a cross-connect threatens their transmission integrity. On the other hand, coding-based protection schemes are proactive. Therefore, they have higher restoration speed, lower signaling complexity, and higher transmission integrity. This paper introduces a coding-based protection scheme, named Coded Path Protection (CPP). In CPP, a backup copy of the primary data is encoded with other data streams, resulting in capacity savings. This paper presents an optimal and simple capacity placement and coding group formation algorithm. The algorithm converts the sharing structure of any solution of a Shared Path Protection (SPP) technique into a coding structure with minimum extra capacity. We conducted quantitative and qualitative comparisons of our technique with the SPP and, another tec...

  10. Allele coding in genomic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Ole F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic data are used in animal breeding to assist genetic evaluation. Several models to estimate genomic breeding values have been studied. In general, two approaches have been used. One approach estimates the marker effects first and then, genomic breeding values are obtained by summing marker effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous genotype of the first allele, one for the heterozygote, and two for the homozygous genotype for the other allele. Another common allele coding changes these regression coefficients by subtracting a value from each marker such that the mean of regression coefficients is zero within each marker. We call this centered allele coding. This study considered effects of different allele coding methods on inference. Both marker-based and equivalent models were considered, and restricted maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were used in inference. Results Theoretical derivations showed that parameter estimates and estimated marker effects in marker-based models are the same irrespective of the allele coding, provided that the model has a fixed general mean. For the equivalent models, the same results hold, even though different allele coding methods lead to different genomic relationship matrices. Calculated genomic breeding values are independent of allele coding when the estimate of the general mean is included into the values. Reliabilities of estimated genomic breeding values calculated using elements of the inverse of the coefficient matrix depend on the allele coding because different allele coding methods imply different models. Finally, allele coding affects the mixing of Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, with the centered coding being

  11. Civil Code, 11 December 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Article 162 of this Mexican Code provides, among other things, that "Every person has the right freely, responsibly, and in an informed fashion to determine the number and spacing of his or her children." When a marriage is involved, this right is to be observed by the spouses "in agreement with each other." The civil codes of the following states contain the same provisions: 1) Baja California (Art. 159 of the Civil Code of 28 April 1972 as revised in Decree No. 167 of 31 January 1974); 2) Morelos (Art. 255 of the Civil Code of 26 September 1949 as revised in Decree No. 135 of 29 December 1981); 3) Queretaro (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 29 December 1950 as revised in the Act of 9 January 1981); 4) San Luis Potosi (Art. 147 of the Civil Code of 24 March 1946 as revised in 13 June 1978); Sinaloa (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 18 June 1940 as revised in Decree No. 28 of 14 October 1975); 5) Tamaulipas (Art. 146 of the Civil Code of 21 November 1960 as revised in Decree No. 20 of 30 April 1975); 6) Veracruz-Llave (Art. 98 of the Civil Code of 1 September 1932 as revised in the Act of 30 December 1975); and 7) Zacatecas (Art. 253 of the Civil Code of 9 February 1965 as revised in Decree No. 104 of 13 August 1975). The Civil Codes of Puebla and Tlaxcala provide for this right only in the context of marriage with the spouses in agreement. See Art. 317 of the Civil Code of Puebla of 15 April 1985 and Article 52 of the Civil Code of Tlaxcala of 31 August 1976 as revised in Decree No. 23 of 2 April 1984. The Family Code of Hidalgo requires as a formality of marriage a certification that the spouses are aware of methods of controlling fertility, responsible parenthood, and family planning. In addition, Article 22 the Civil Code of the Federal District provides that the legal capacity of natural persons is acquired at birth and lost at death; however, from the moment of conception the individual comes under the protection of the law, which is valid with respect to the

  12. Color-Coding Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Gross

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During the 2000 Presidential election between George H. W. Bush and Al Gore, journalists often used the terms blue states and red states to describe the political landscape within the United States. This article studies the framing of these terms during the years 2004 through 2007. Using latent and manifest qualitative content analyses, six different news media frames were found in a sample of 337 newspaper articles. Two hypotheses were also tested indicating that framing patterns varied slightly by time period and article types. However, the argument that increased levels of political polarization in the United States have been created by predominantly conflict-oriented coverage may not be true. Instead, these terms became journalistic heuristics that were used to organize how people think about politics in a way that fit with contemporary media practices, and there is no single agreed upon interpretation of these terms within this reporting.

  13. An algebraic approach to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinero, Fernando

    theory as evaluation codes. Chapter three consists of the introduction to graph based codes, such as Tanner codes and graph codes. In Chapter four, we compute the dimension of some graph based codes with a result combining graph based codes and subfield subcodes. Moreover, some codes in chapter four......This thesis consists of six chapters. The first chapter, contains a short introduction to coding theory in which we explain the coding theory concepts we use. In the second chapter, we present the required theory for evaluation codes and also give an example of some fundamental codes in coding...... are optimal or best known for their parameters. In chapter five we study some graph codes with Reed–Solomon component codes. The underlying graph is well known and widely used for its good characteristics. This helps us to compute the dimension of the graph codes. We also introduce a combinatorial concept...

  14. Calculation of the information content of retrieval procedures applied to mass spectral data bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marlen, G. van; Dijkstra, Auke; Klooster, H.A. van 't

    1979-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for estimating the information content of retrieval systems with binary-coded mass spectra, as well as mass spectra coded by other methods, from the statistical properties of a reference file. For a reference file, binary-coded with a threshold of 1% of the intensity o

  15. Changing the Latitudes and Attitudes about Content Analysis Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brank, Eve M.; Fox, Kathleen A.; Youstin, Tasha J.; Boeppler, Lee C.

    2009-01-01

    The current research employs the use of content analysis to teach research methods concepts among students enrolled in an upper division research methods course. Students coded and analyzed Jimmy Buffett song lyrics rather than using a downloadable database or collecting survey data. Students' knowledge of content analysis concepts increased after…

  16. Revised Safety Code A2

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat

    2005-01-01

    Please note that the revised Safety Code A2 (Code A2 rev.) entitled "REPORTING OF ACCIDENTS AND NEAR MISSES" is available on the web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/335502/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC Unit Secretariat, e-mail: sc.secretariat@cern.ch SC Secretariat

  17. Flow Analysis of Code Customizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessellund, Anders; Sestoft, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Inconsistency between metadata and code customizations is a major concern in modern, configurable enterprise systems. The increasing reliance on metadata, in the form of XML files, and code customizations, in the form of Java files, has led to a hybrid development platform. The expected consisten...

  18. NETWORK CODING BY BEAM FORMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Network coding by beam forming in networks, for example, in single frequency networks, can provide aid in increasing spectral efficiency. When network coding by beam forming and user cooperation are combined, spectral efficiency gains may be achieved. According to certain embodiments, a method...... cooperating with the plurality of user equipment to decode the received data....

  19. Grassmann codes and Schubert unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, Trygve; Ranestad, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    We study subsets of Grassmann varieties over a field , such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study such sets in detail, and give applications to coding theory, in particular for Grassmann codes. For much is known about such Schubert unions...

  20. Code breaking in the pacific

    CERN Document Server

    Donovan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Covers the historical context and the evolution of the technically complex Allied Signals Intelligence (Sigint) activity against Japan from 1920 to 1945 Describes, explains and analyzes the code breaking techniques developed during the war in the Pacific Exposes the blunders (in code construction and use) made by the Japanese Navy that led to significant US Naval victories

  1. Distributed space-time coding

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, Yindi

    2014-01-01

    Distributed Space-Time Coding (DSTC) is a cooperative relaying scheme that enables high reliability in wireless networks. This brief presents the basic concept of DSTC, its achievable performance, generalizations, code design, and differential use. Recent results on training design and channel estimation for DSTC and the performance of training-based DSTC are also discussed.

  2. Recommendations for ECG diagnostic coding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonner, R.E.; Caceres, C.A.; Cuddy, T.E.; Meijler, F.L.; Milliken, J.A.; Rautaharju, P.M.; Robles de Medina, E.O.; Willems, J.L.; Wolf, H.K.; Working Group 'Diagnostic Codes'

    1978-01-01

    The Oxford dictionary defines code as "a body of laws so related to each other as to avoid inconsistency and overlapping". It is obvious that natural language with its high degree of ambiguity does not qualify as a code in the sense of this definition. Everyday experiences provide ample evidence tha

  3. Bounds on Generalized Huffman Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Michael B

    2007-01-01

    New lower and upper bounds are obtained for the compression of optimal binary prefix codes according to various nonlinear codeword length objectives. Like the coding bounds for Huffman coding - which concern the traditional linear code objective of minimizing average codeword length -- these are in terms of a form of entropy and the probability of the most probable input symbol. As in Huffman coding, some upper bounds can be found using sufficient conditions for the codeword corresponding to the most probable symbol being one bit long. Whereas having probability no less than 0.4 is a tight sufficient condition for this to be the case in Huffman coding, other penalties differ, some having a tighter condition, some a looser condition, and others having no such sufficient condition. The objectives explored here are ones for which optimal codes can be found using a generalized form of Huffman coding. These objectives include one related to queueing (an increasing exponential average), one related to single-shot c...

  4. LFSC - Linac Feedback Simulation Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Valentin; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    The computer program LFSC (Code>) is a numerical tool for simulation beam based feedback in high performance linacs. The code LFSC is based on the earlier version developed by a collective of authors at SLAC (L.Hendrickson, R. McEwen, T. Himel, H. Shoaee, S. Shah, P. Emma, P. Schultz) during 1990-2005. That code was successively used in simulation of SLC, TESLA, CLIC and NLC projects. It can simulate as pulse-to-pulse feedback on timescale corresponding to 5-100 Hz, as slower feedbacks, operating in the 0.1-1 Hz range in the Main Linac and Beam Delivery System. The code LFSC is running under Matlab for MS Windows operating system. It contains about 30,000 lines of source code in more than 260 subroutines. The code uses the LIAR ('Linear Accelerator Research code') for particle tracking under ground motion and technical noise perturbations. It uses the Guinea Pig code to simulate the luminosity performance. A set of input files includes the lattice description (XSIF format), and plane text files with numerical parameters, wake fields, ground motion data etc. The Matlab environment provides a flexible system for graphical output.

  5. Recommendations for ECG diagnostic coding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonner, R.E.; Caceres, C.A.; Cuddy, T.E.; Meijler, F.L.; Milliken, J.A.; Rautaharju, P.M.; Robles de Medina, E.O.; Willems, J.L.; Wolf, H.K.; Working Group 'Diagnostic Codes'

    1978-01-01

    The Oxford dictionary defines code as "a body of laws so related to each other as to avoid inconsistency and overlapping". It is obvious that natural language with its high degree of ambiguity does not qualify as a code in the sense of this definition. Everyday experiences provide ample evidence tha

  6. Cyclic Codes of Length 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manju Pruthi

    2001-11-01

    In this paper explicit expressions of + 1 idempotents in the ring $R = F_q[X]/\\langle X^{2^m}-1\\rangle$ are given. Cyclic codes of length 2 over the finite field , of odd characteristic, are defined in terms of their generator polynomials. The exact minimum distance and the dimension of the codes are obtained.

  7. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The concept of coded continuous wave meteor radar is introduced. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudo-random waveform, which has several advantages: coding avoids range aliased echoes, which are often seen with commonly used pulsed specular meteor radars (SMRs); continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation with significantly lower peak transmit power; the temporal resolution can be changed after ...

  8. Guidelines for Sandia ASCI Verification and Validation Plans - Content and Format: Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TRUCANO,TIMOTHY G.; MOYA,JAIME L.

    1999-12-01

    This report summarizes general guidelines for the development of Verification and Validation (V and V) plans for ASCI code projects at Sandia National Laboratories. The main content categories recommended by these guidelines for explicit treatment in Sandia V and V plans are (1) stockpile drivers influencing the code development project (2) the key phenomena to be modeled by the individual code; (3) software verification strategy and test plan; and (4) code validation strategy and test plans. The authors of this document anticipate that the needed content of the V and V plans for the Sandia ASCI codes will evolve as time passes. These needs will be reflected by future versions of this document.

  9. Distributed source coding of video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Van Luong, Huynh

    2015-01-01

    A foundation for distributed source coding was established in the classic papers of Slepian-Wolf (SW) [1] and Wyner-Ziv (WZ) [2]. This has provided a starting point for work on Distributed Video Coding (DVC), which exploits the source statistics at the decoder side offering shifting processing...... steps, conventionally performed at the video encoder side, to the decoder side. Emerging applications such as wireless visual sensor networks and wireless video surveillance all require lightweight video encoding with high coding efficiency and error-resilience. The video data of DVC schemes differ from...... the assumptions of SW and WZ distributed coding, e.g. by being correlated in time and nonstationary. Improving the efficiency of DVC coding is challenging. This paper presents some selected techniques to address the DVC challenges. Focus is put on pin-pointing how the decoder steps are modified to provide...

  10. Quantum source-channel codes

    CERN Document Server

    Pastawski, Fernando; Wilming, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Approximate quantum error-correcting codes are codes with "soft recovery guarantees" wherein information can be approximately recovered. In this article, we propose a complementary "soft code-spaces" wherein a weighted prior distribution is assumed over the possible logical input states. The performance for protecting information from noise is then evaluated in terms of entanglement fidelity. We apply a recent construction for approximate recovery maps, which come with a guaranteed lower-bounds on the decoding performance. These lower bound are straightforwardly obtained by evaluating entropies on marginals of the mixed state which represents the "soft code-space". As an example, we consider thermal states of the transverse field Ising model at criticality and provide numerical evidence that the entanglement fidelity admits non-trivial recoverability from local errors. This provides the first concrete interpretation of a bonafide conformal field theory as a quantum error-correcting code. We further suggest, t...

  11. Distributed source coding of video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Van Luong, Huynh

    2015-01-01

    steps, conventionally performed at the video encoder side, to the decoder side. Emerging applications such as wireless visual sensor networks and wireless video surveillance all require lightweight video encoding with high coding efficiency and error-resilience. The video data of DVC schemes differ from......A foundation for distributed source coding was established in the classic papers of Slepian-Wolf (SW) [1] and Wyner-Ziv (WZ) [2]. This has provided a starting point for work on Distributed Video Coding (DVC), which exploits the source statistics at the decoder side offering shifting processing...... the assumptions of SW and WZ distributed coding, e.g. by being correlated in time and nonstationary. Improving the efficiency of DVC coding is challenging. This paper presents some selected techniques to address the DVC challenges. Focus is put on pin-pointing how the decoder steps are modified to provide...

  12. Writing the Live Coding Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackwell, Alan; Cox, Geoff; Lee, Sang Wong

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a speculation on the relationship between coding and writing, and the ways in which technical innovations and capabilities enable us to rethink each in terms of the other. As a case study, we draw on recent experiences of preparing a book on live coding, which integrates a wide rang...... of personal, historical, technical and critical perspectives. This book project has been both experimental and reflective, in a manner that allows us to draw on critical understanding of both code and writing, and point to the potential for new practices in the future.......This paper is a speculation on the relationship between coding and writing, and the ways in which technical innovations and capabilities enable us to rethink each in terms of the other. As a case study, we draw on recent experiences of preparing a book on live coding, which integrates a wide range...

  13. Binary Error Correcting Network Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qiwen; Li, Shuo-Yen Robert

    2011-01-01

    We consider network coding for networks experiencing worst-case bit-flip errors, and argue that this is a reasonable model for highly dynamic wireless network transmissions. We demonstrate that in this setup prior network error-correcting schemes can be arbitrarily far from achieving the optimal network throughput. We propose a new metric for errors under this model. Using this metric, we prove a new Hamming-type upper bound on the network capacity. We also show a commensurate lower bound based on GV-type codes that can be used for error-correction. The codes used to attain the lower bound are non-coherent (do not require prior knowledge of network topology). The end-to-end nature of our design enables our codes to be overlaid on classical distributed random linear network codes. Further, we free internal nodes from having to implement potentially computationally intensive link-by-link error-correction.

  14. What Froze the Genetic Code?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas de Pouplana, Lluís; Torres, Adrian Gabriel; Rafels-Ybern, Àlbert

    2017-04-05

    The frozen accident theory of the Genetic Code was a proposal by Francis Crick that attempted to explain the universal nature of the Genetic Code and the fact that it only contains information for twenty amino acids. Fifty years later, it is clear that variations to the universal Genetic Code exist in nature and that translation is not limited to twenty amino acids. However, given the astonishing diversity of life on earth, and the extended evolutionary time that has taken place since the emergence of the extant Genetic Code, the idea that the translation apparatus is for the most part immobile remains true. Here, we will offer a potential explanation to the reason why the code has remained mostly stable for over three billion years, and discuss some of the mechanisms that allow species to overcome the intrinsic functional limitations of the protein synthesis machinery.

  15. Reliability-Based Code Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M.H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2003-01-01

    The present paper addresses fundamental concepts of reliability based code calibration. First basic principles of structural reliability theory are introduced and it is shown how the results of FORM based reliability analysis may be related to partial safety factors and characteristic values....... Thereafter the code calibration problem is presented in its principal decision theoretical form and it is discussed how acceptable levels of failure probability (or target reliabilities) may be established. Furthermore suggested values for acceptable annual failure probabilities are given for ultimate...... and serviceability limit states. Finally the paper describes the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) recommended procedure - CodeCal - for the practical implementation of reliability based code calibration of LRFD based design codes....

  16. P-adic arithmetic coding

    CERN Document Server

    Rodionov, Anatoly

    2007-01-01

    A new incremental algorithm for data compression is presented. For a sequence of input symbols algorithm incrementally constructs a p-adic integer number as an output. Decoding process starts with less significant part of a p-adic integer and incrementally reconstructs a sequence of input symbols. Algorithm is based on certain features of p-adic numbers and p-adic norm. p-adic coding algorithm may be considered as of generalization a popular compression technique - arithmetic coding algorithms. It is shown that for p = 2 the algorithm works as integer variant of arithmetic coding; for a special class of models it gives exactly the same codes as Huffman's algorithm, for another special model and a specific alphabet it gives Golomb-Rice codes.

  17. PARAVT: Parallel Voronoi tessellation code

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R. E.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we present a new open source code for massive parallel computation of Voronoi tessellations (VT hereafter) in large data sets. The code is focused for astrophysical purposes where VT densities and neighbors are widely used. There are several serial Voronoi tessellation codes, however no open source and parallel implementations are available to handle the large number of particles/galaxies in current N-body simulations and sky surveys. Parallelization is implemented under MPI and VT using Qhull library. Domain decomposition takes into account consistent boundary computation between tasks, and includes periodic conditions. In addition, the code computes neighbors list, Voronoi density, Voronoi cell volume, density gradient for each particle, and densities on a regular grid. Code implementation and user guide are publicly available at https://github.com/regonzar/paravt.

  18. Medical coding in clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deven Babre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Data generated in all clinical trial are recorded on the data collection instrument Case report Form / Electronic Case Report Form by investigators located at various sites in various countries. In multicentric clinical trials since different investigator or medically qualified experts are from different sites / centers recording the medical term(s uniformly is a big challenge. Medical coders from clinical data management team process these terms and perform medical coding. Medical coding is performed to categorize the medical terms reported appropriately so that they can be analyzed/reviewed. This article describes process which is used for medical coding in clinical data management and two most commonly used medical dictionaries MedDRA and WHO-DDE in brief. It is expected to help medical coders to understand the process of medical coding in clinical data management. Few common issues which the medical coder faces while performing medical coding, are also highlighted.

  19. Non-Protein Coding RNAs

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Nils G; Batey, Robert T

    2009-01-01

    This book assembles chapters from experts in the Biophysics of RNA to provide a broadly accessible snapshot of the current status of this rapidly expanding field. The 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to the discoverers of RNA interference, highlighting just one example of a large number of non-protein coding RNAs. Because non-protein coding RNAs outnumber protein coding genes in mammals and other higher eukaryotes, it is now thought that the complexity of organisms is correlated with the fraction of their genome that encodes non-protein coding RNAs. Essential biological processes as diverse as cell differentiation, suppression of infecting viruses and parasitic transposons, higher-level organization of eukaryotic chromosomes, and gene expression itself are found to largely be directed by non-protein coding RNAs. The biophysical study of these RNAs employs X-ray crystallography, NMR, ensemble and single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, optical tweezers, cryo-electron microscopy, and ot...

  20. Super Special Codes using Super Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha; Ilanthenral, K

    2010-01-01

    The new classes of super special codes are constructed in this book using the specially constructed super special vector spaces. These codes mainly use the super matrices. These codes can be realized as a special type of concatenated codes. This book has four chapters. In chapter one basic properties of codes and super matrices are given. A new type of super special vector space is constructed in chapter two of this book. Three new classes of super special codes namely, super special row code, super special column code and super special codes are introduced in chapter three. Applications of these codes are given in the final chapter.

  1. Detecting non-coding selective pressure in coding regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchette Mathieu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics approaches, where orthologous DNA regions are compared and inter-species conserved regions are identified, have proven extremely powerful for identifying non-coding regulatory regions located in intergenic or intronic regions. However, non-coding functional elements can also be located within coding region, as is common for exonic splicing enhancers, some transcription factor binding sites, and RNA secondary structure elements affecting mRNA stability, localization, or translation. Since these functional elements are located in regions that are themselves highly conserved because they are coding for a protein, they generally escaped detection by comparative genomics approaches. Results We introduce a comparative genomics approach for detecting non-coding functional elements located within coding regions. Codon evolution is modeled as a mixture of codon substitution models, where each component of the mixture describes the evolution of codons under a specific type of coding selective pressure. We show how to compute the posterior distribution of the entropy and parsimony scores under this null model of codon evolution. The method is applied to a set of growth hormone 1 orthologous mRNA sequences and a known exonic splicing elements is detected. The analysis of a set of CORTBP2 orthologous genes reveals a region of several hundred base pairs under strong non-coding selective pressure whose function remains unknown. Conclusion Non-coding functional elements, in particular those involved in post-transcriptional regulation, are likely to be much more prevalent than is currently known. With the numerous genome sequencing projects underway, comparative genomics approaches like that proposed here are likely to become increasingly powerful at detecting such elements.

  2. Digital Content Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Halbheer; Florian Stahl; Oded Koenigsberg; Lehmann, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies content strategies for online publishers of digital information goods. It examines sampling strategies and compares their performance to paid content and free content strategies. A sampling strategy, where some of the content is offered for free and consumers are charged for access to the rest, is known as a "metered model" in the newspaper industry. We analyze optimal decisions concerning the size of the sample and the price of the paid content when sampling serves the dua...

  3. Multinationality and Corporate Ethics: Codes of Conduct in the Sporting Goods Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rob van Tulder; Ans Kolk

    2001-01-01

    The international operations of firms have substantial impact on the formulation and implementation of business ethical principles such as codes of conduct. The international sporting goods industry has been a pioneer in setting up codes and thus provides much relevant experience. Different sourcing strategies, degrees of multinationality and national backgrounds affect the contents of codes. Moreover, international (non-governmental) organizations prove equally effective in triggering sophis...

  4. Social media messaging in pregnancy: comparing content of Text4baby to content of free smart phone applications of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowitz, Adam K; O'Donnell, Betsy E; Nakagawa, Sanae; Vargas, Juan E; Zlatnik, Marya G

    2016-03-01

    Text4baby is the only free text-message program for pregnancy available. Our objective was to determine whether content differed between Text4baby and popular pregnancy smart phone applications (apps). Researchers enrolled in Text4baby in 2012 and downloaded the four most-popular free pregnancy smart phone apps in July 2013; content was re-extracted in February 2014. Messages were assigned thematic codes. Two researchers coded messages independently before reviewing all the codes jointly to ensure consistency. Logistic regression modeling determined statistical differences between Text4baby and smart phone apps. About 1399 messages were delivered. Of these, 333 messages had content related to more than one theme and were coded as such, resulting in 1820 codes analyzed. Compared to smart phone apps, Text4baby was significantly more likely to have content regarding Postpartum Planning, Seeking Care, Recruitment and Prevention and significantly less likely to mention Normal Pregnancy Symptoms. No messaging program included content regarding postpartum contraception. To improve content without increasing text message number, Text4baby could replace messages on recruitment with messages regarding normal pregnancy symptoms, fetal development and postpartum contraception.

  5. CYCLIC CODES OVER FORMAL POWER SERIES RINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dougherty Steven T.; Liu Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    In this article, cyclic codes and negacyclic codes over formal power series rings are studied. The structure of cyclic codes over this class of rings is given, and the relationship between these codes and cyclic codes over finite chain rings is obtained. Using an isomorphism between cyclic and negacyclic codes over formal power series rings, the structure of negacyclic codes over the formal power series rings is obtained.

  6. Non-Pauli observables for CWS codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Douglas F. G.; Portugal, Renato; Melo, Nolmar

    2013-05-01

    It is known that nonadditive quantum codes can have higher code dimensions than stabilizer codes for the same length and minimum distance. The class of codeword stabilized codes (CWS) provides tools to obtain new nonadditive quantum codes by reducing the problem to finding nonlinear classical codes. In this work, we establish some results on the kind of non-Pauli operators that can be used as observables in the decoding scheme of CWS codes and propose a procedure to obtain those observables.

  7. The Flutter Shutter Code Calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohann Tendero

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the flutter shutter is to make uniform motion blur invertible, by a"fluttering" shutter that opens and closes on a sequence of well chosen sub-intervals of the exposure time interval. In other words, the photon flux is modulated according to a well chosen sequence calledflutter shutter code. This article provides a numerical method that computes optimal flutter shutter codes in terms of mean square error (MSE. We assume that the observed objects follow a known (or learned random velocity distribution. In this paper, Gaussian and uniform velocity distributions are considered. Snapshots are also optimized taking the velocity distribution into account. For each velocity distribution, the gain of the optimal flutter shutter code with respectto the optimal snapshot in terms of MSE is computed. This symmetric optimization of theflutter shutter and of the snapshot allows to compare on an equal footing both solutions, i.e. camera designs. Optimal flutter shutter codes are demonstrated to improve substantially the MSE compared to classic (patented or not codes. A numerical method that permits to perform a reverse engineering of any existing (patented or not flutter shutter codes is also describedand an implementation is given. In this case we give the underlying velocity distribution fromwhich a given optimal flutter shutter code comes from. The combination of these two numerical methods furnishes a comprehensive study of the optimization of a flutter shutter that includes a forward and a backward numerical solution.

  8. Constructions of Rank Modulation Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Mazumdar, Arya; Zémor, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Rank modulation is a way of encoding information to correct errors in flash memory devices as well as impulse noise in transmission lines. Modeling rank modulation involves construction of packings of the space of permutations equipped with the Kendall tau distance. We present several general constructions of codes in permutations that cover a broad range of code parameters. In particular, we show a number of ways in which conventional error-correcting codes can be modified to correct errors in the Kendall space. Codes that we construct afford simple encoding and decoding algorithms of essentially the same complexity as required to correct errors in the Hamming metric. For instance, from binary BCH codes we obtain codes correcting $t$ Kendall errors in $n$ memory cells that support the order of $n!/(\\log_2n!)^t$ messages, for any constant $t= 1,2,...$ We also construct families of codes that correct a number of errors that grows with $n$ at varying rates, from $\\Theta(n)$ to $\\Theta(n^{2})$. One of our constr...

  9. Trajectory Codes for Flash Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Anxiao,; Langberg, Michael; Schwartz, Moshe; Bruck, Jehoshua

    2010-01-01

    Flash memory is well-known for its inherent asymmetry: the flash-cell charge levels are easy to increase but are hard to decrease. In a general rewriting model, the stored data changes its value with certain patterns. The patterns of data updates are determined by the data structure and the application, and are independent of the constraints imposed by the storage medium. Thus, an appropriate coding scheme is needed so that the data changes can be updated and stored efficiently under the storage-medium's constraints. In this paper, we define the general rewriting problem using a graph model. It extends many known rewriting models such as floating codes, WOM codes, buffer codes, etc. We present a new rewriting scheme for flash memories, called the trajectory code, for rewriting the stored data as many times as possible without block erasures. We prove that the trajectory code is asymptotically optimal in a wide range of scenarios. We also present randomized rewriting codes optimized for expected performance (g...

  10. ETR/ITER systems code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, W.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Brooks, J.N.; Bulmer, R.H.; Busigin, A.; DuBois, P.F.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Fink, J.; Finn, P.A.; Galambos, J.D.; Gohar, Y.; Gorker, G.E.; Haines, J.R.; Hassanein, A.M.; Hicks, D.R.; Ho, S.K.; Kalsi, S.S.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Kerns, J.A.; Lee, J.D.; Miller, J.R.; Miller, R.L.; Myall, J.O.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Perkins, L.J.; Spampinato, P.T.; Strickler, D.J.; Thomson, S.L.; Wagner, C.E.; Willms, R.S.; Reid, R.L. (ed.)

    1988-04-01

    A tokamak systems code capable of modeling experimental test reactors has been developed and is described in this document. The code, named TETRA (for Tokamak Engineering Test Reactor Analysis), consists of a series of modules, each describing a tokamak system or component, controlled by an optimizer/driver. This code development was a national effort in that the modules were contributed by members of the fusion community and integrated into a code by the Fusion Engineering Design Center. The code has been checked out on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center and has satisfactorily simulated the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor II (TIBER) design. A feature of this code is the ability to perform optimization studies through the use of a numerical software package, which iterates prescribed variables to satisfy a set of prescribed equations or constraints. This code will be used to perform sensitivity studies for the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). 22 figs., 29 tabs.

  11. Associative recall in a volume holographic storage system based on phase-code multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, G.; Denz, C.; Orlov, S. S.; Phillips, B.; Hesselink, L.

    2001-12-01

    We present two different techniques on how to realize a content-addressed holographic memory when using phase-code multiplexing, relying on simple intensity measurements rather than phase distributions. Theoretical and experimental results of associative recall in a phase-coded system designed for digital data storage will be presented and compared to the corresponding method when using angular multiplexing.

  12. NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct. Revised = Codigo de Conducta Etica. Revisada

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP), 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a code of ethics for early childhood educators that offers guidelines for responsible behavior and sets forth a common basis for resolving ethical dilemmas encountered in early education. It represents the English and Spanish versions of the revised code. Its contents were approved by the NAEYC Governing Board in April 2005…

  13. NODC Standard Product: NODC Taxonomic Code on CD-ROM (NODC Accession 0050418)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The content of the NODC Taxonomic Code, Version 8 CD-ROM (CD-ROM NODC-68) distributed by NODC is archived in this accession. Version 7 of the NODC Taxonomic Code...

  14. NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct. Revised = Codigo de Conducta Etica. Revisada

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP), 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a code of ethics for early childhood educators that offers guidelines for responsible behavior and sets forth a common basis for resolving ethical dilemmas encountered in early education. It represents the English and Spanish versions of the revised code. Its contents were approved by the NAEYC Governing Board in April 2005…

  15. Addressing Hate Speech and Hate Behaviors in Codes of Conduct: A Model for Public Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiger, Jan Alan; Palmer, Carolyn; Penney, Sophie; Gehring, Donald D.

    1998-01-01

    As part of a larger study, researchers collected campus codes prohibiting hate crimes, which were then reviewed to determine whether the codes presented constitutional problems. Based on this review, the authors develop and present a model policy that is content neutral and does not use language that could be viewed as unconstitutionally vague or…

  16. CodedStream: live media streaming with overlay coded multicast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiang; Zhu, Ying; Li, Baochun

    2003-12-01

    Multicasting is a natural paradigm for streaming live multimedia to multiple end receivers. Since IP multicast is not widely deployed, many application-layer multicast protocols have been proposed. However, all of these schemes focus on the construction of multicast trees, where a relatively small number of links carry the multicast streaming load, while the capacity of most of the other links in the overlay network remain unused. In this paper, we propose CodedStream, a high-bandwidth live media distribution system based on end-system overlay multicast. In CodedStream, we construct a k-redundant multicast graph (a directed acyclic graph) as the multicast topology, on which network coding is applied to work around bottlenecks. Simulation results have shown that the combination of k-redundant multicast graph and network coding may indeed bring significant benefits with respect to improving the quality of live media at the end receivers.

  17. Surface code implementation of block code state distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Austin G.; Devitt, Simon J.; Jones, Cody

    2013-01-01

    State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states produced a single improved |A〉 state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A〉 states given 3k + 8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three. PMID:23736868

  18. Coding and decoding for code division multiple user communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    A new algorithm is introduced which decodes code division multiple user communication signals. The algorithm makes use of the distinctive form or pattern of each signal to separate it from the composite signal created by the multiple users. Although the algorithm is presented in terms of frequency-hopped signals, the actual transmitter modulator can use any of the existing digital modulation techniques. The algorithm is applicable to error-free codes or to codes where controlled interference is permitted. It can be used when block synchronization is assumed, and in some cases when it is not. The paper also discusses briefly some of the codes which can be used in connection with the algorithm, and relates the algorithm to past studies which use other approaches to the same problem.

  19. Code-Mixing and Code Switchingin The Process of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diyah Atiek Mustikawati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe a form of code switching and code mixing specific form found in the teaching and learning activities in the classroom as well as determining factors influencing events stand out that form of code switching and code mixing in question.Form of this research is descriptive qualitative case study which took place in Al Mawaddah Boarding School Ponorogo. Based on the analysis and discussion that has been stated in the previous chapter that the form of code mixing and code switching learning activities in Al Mawaddah Boarding School is in between the use of either language Java language, Arabic, English and Indonesian, on the use of insertion of words, phrases, idioms, use of nouns, adjectives, clauses, and sentences. Code mixing deciding factor in the learning process include: Identification of the role, the desire to explain and interpret, sourced from the original language and its variations, is sourced from a foreign language. While deciding factor in the learning process of code, includes: speakers (O1, partners speakers (O2, the presence of a third person (O3, the topic of conversation, evoke a sense of humour, and just prestige. The significance of this study is to allow readers to see the use of language in a multilingual society, especially in AL Mawaddah boarding school about the rules and characteristics variation in the language of teaching and learning activities in the classroom. Furthermore, the results of this research will provide input to the ustadz / ustadzah and students in developing oral communication skills and the effectiveness of teaching and learning strategies in boarding schools.

  20. Network Coding Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Medard, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    Network coding is a field of information and coding theory and is a method of attaining maximum information flow in a network. This book is an ideal introduction for the communications and network engineer, working in research and development, who needs an intuitive introduction to network coding and to the increased performance and reliability it offers in many applications. This book is an ideal introduction for the research and development communications and network engineer who needs an intuitive introduction to the theory and wishes to understand the increased performance and reliabil

  1. State building energy codes status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This document contains the State Building Energy Codes Status prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RL01830 and dated September 1996. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards has developed this document to provide an information resource for individuals interested in energy efficiency of buildings and the relevant building energy codes in each state and U.S. territory. This is considered to be an evolving document and will be updated twice a year. In addition, special state updates will be issued as warranted.

  2. Neural Decoder for Topological Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlai, Giacomo; Melko, Roger G.

    2017-07-01

    We present an algorithm for error correction in topological codes that exploits modern machine learning techniques. Our decoder is constructed from a stochastic neural network called a Boltzmann machine, of the type extensively used in deep learning. We provide a general prescription for the training of the network and a decoding strategy that is applicable to a wide variety of stabilizer codes with very little specialization. We demonstrate the neural decoder numerically on the well-known two-dimensional toric code with phase-flip errors.

  3. Atlas C++ Coding Standard Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Albrand, S; Barberis, D; Bosman, M; Jones, B; Stavrianakou, M; Arnault, C; Candlin, D; Candlin, R; Franck, E; Hansl-Kozanecka, Traudl; Malon, D; Qian, S; Quarrie, D; Schaffer, R D

    2001-01-01

    This document defines the ATLAS C++ coding standard, that should be adhered to when writing C++ code. It has been adapted from the original "PST Coding Standard" document (http://pst.cern.ch/HandBookWorkBook/Handbook/Programming/programming.html) CERN-UCO/1999/207. The "ATLAS standard" comprises modifications, further justification and examples for some of the rules in the original PST document. All changes were discussed in the ATLAS Offline Software Quality Control Group and feedback from the collaboration was taken into account in the "current" version.

  4. Nonlocally Centralized Simultaneous Sparse Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷阳; 宋占杰

    2016-01-01

    The concept of structured sparse coding noise is introduced to exploit the spatial correlations and nonlo-cal constraint of the local structure. Then the model of nonlocally centralized simultaneous sparse coding(NC-SSC)is proposed for reconstructing the original image, and an algorithm is proposed to transform the simultaneous sparse coding into reweighted low-rank approximation. Experimental results on image denoisng, deblurring and super-resolution demonstrate the advantage of the proposed NC-SSC method over the state-of-the-art image resto-ration methods.

  5. LiveCode mobile development

    CERN Document Server

    Lavieri, Edward D

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide written in a tutorial-style, ""LiveCode Mobile Development Hotshot"" walks you step-by-step through 10 individual projects. Every project is divided into sub tasks to make learning more organized and easy to follow along with explanations, diagrams, screenshots, and downloadable material.This book is great for anyone who wants to develop mobile applications using LiveCode. You should be familiar with LiveCode and have access to a smartphone. You are not expected to know how to create graphics or audio clips.

  6. PRACTICAL ALGORITHMS FOR TORNADO CODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Tornado codes have been used in the error control of data transmission in IP network. The efficiency of this erasure codes is critically affected by the short cycles in its bipartite graph. To remove this effect,two algorithms are introduced: (1) while generating the graph, the cycle eliminating algorithm is used to reduce the number of the short cycles in it; (2) in the decoding algorithm, cycles that are inevitably in the graph are used to remove decoding efficiency degradation. The simulation results show that they have a better performance than that of general tornado codes.

  7. i-Review: Sharing Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Kubilius

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF. GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  8. The "Wow! signal" of the terrestrial genetic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    shCherbak, Vladimir I.; Makukov, Maxim A.

    2013-05-01

    It has been repeatedly proposed to expand the scope for SETI, and one of the suggested alternatives to radio is the biological media. Genomic DNA is already used on Earth to store non-biological information. Though smaller in capacity, but stronger in noise immunity is the genetic code. The code is a flexible mapping between codons and amino acids, and this flexibility allows modifying the code artificially. But once fixed, the code might stay unchanged over cosmological timescales; in fact, it is the most durable construct known. Therefore it represents an exceptionally reliable storage for an intelligent signature, if that conforms to biological and thermodynamic requirements. As the actual scenario for the origin of terrestrial life is far from being settled, the proposal that it might have been seeded intentionally cannot be ruled out. A statistically strong intelligent-like "signal" in the genetic code is then a testable consequence of such scenario. Here we show that the terrestrial code displays a thorough precision-type orderliness matching the criteria to be considered an informational signal. Simple arrangements of the code reveal an ensemble of arithmetical and ideographical patterns of the same symbolic language. Accurate and systematic, these underlying patterns appear as a product of precision logic and nontrivial computing rather than of stochastic processes (the null hypothesis that they are due to chance coupled with presumable evolutionary pathways is rejected with P-value artificiality, among which are the symbol of zero, the privileged decimal syntax and semantical symmetries. Besides, extraction of the signal involves logically straightforward but abstract operations, making the patterns essentially irreducible to any natural origin. Plausible ways of embedding the signal into the code and possible interpretation of its content are discussed. Overall, while the code is nearly optimized biologically, its limited capacity is used extremely

  9. The impact of the nucleosome code on protein-coding sequence evolution in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Warnecke

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Coding sequence evolution was once thought to be the result of selection on optimal protein function alone. Selection can, however, also act at the RNA level, for example, to facilitate rapid translation or ensure correct splicing. Here, we ask whether the way DNA works also imposes constraints on coding sequence evolution. We identify nucleosome positioning as a likely candidate to set up such a DNA-level selective regime and use high-resolution microarray data in yeast to compare the evolution of coding sequence bound to or free from nucleosomes. Controlling for gene expression and intra-gene location, we find a nucleosome-free "linker" sequence to evolve on average 5-6% slower at synonymous sites. A reduced rate of evolution in linker is especially evident at the 5' end of genes, where the effect extends to non-synonymous substitution rates. This is consistent with regular nucleosome architecture in this region being important in the context of gene expression control. As predicted, codons likely to generate a sequence unfavourable to nucleosome formation are enriched in linker sequence. Amino acid content is likewise skewed as a function of nucleosome occupancy. We conclude that selection operating on DNA to maintain correct positioning of nucleosomes impacts codon choice, amino acid choice, and synonymous and non-synonymous rates of evolution in coding sequence. The results support the exclusion model for nucleosome positioning and provide an alternative interpretation for runs of rare codons. As the intimate association of histones and DNA is a universal characteristic of genic sequence in eukaryotes, selection on coding sequence composition imposed by nucleosome positioning should be phylogenetically widespread.

  10. Introduction to coding and information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    1997-01-01

    This book is intended to introduce coding theory and information theory to undergraduate students of mathematics and computer science. It begins with a review of probablity theory as applied to finite sample spaces and a general introduction to the nature and types of codes. The two subsequent chapters discuss information theory: efficiency of codes, the entropy of information sources, and Shannon's Noiseless Coding Theorem. The remaining three chapters deal with coding theory: communication channels, decoding in the presence of errors, the general theory of linear codes, and such specific codes as Hamming codes, the simplex codes, and many others.

  11. Beam-dynamics codes used at DARHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Jr., Carl August [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Several beam simulation codes are used to help gain a better understanding of beam dynamics in the DARHT LIAs. The most notable of these fall into the following categories: for beam production – Tricomp Trak orbit tracking code, LSP Particle in cell (PIC) code, for beam transport and acceleration – XTR static envelope and centroid code, LAMDA time-resolved envelope and centroid code, LSP-Slice PIC code, for coasting-beam transport to target – LAMDA time-resolved envelope code, LSP-Slice PIC code. These codes are also being used to inform the design of Scorpius.

  12. Scheduling Linearly Indexed Assignment Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailath, Thomas; Roychowdhury, Vwani P.

    1989-05-01

    It has been recently shown that linearly indexed Assignment Codes can be efficiently used for coding several problems especially in signal processing and matrix algebra. In fact, mathematical expressions for many algorithms are directly in the form of linearly indexed codes, and examples include the formulas for matrix multiplication, any m-dimensional convolution/correlation, matrix transposition, and solving matrix Lyapunov's equation. Systematic procedures for converting linearly indexed Assignment Codes to localized algorithms that are closely related to Regular Iterative Algorithms (RIAs) have also been developed. These localized algorithms can be often efficiently scheduled by modeling them as RIAs; however, it is not always efficient to do so. In this paper we shall analyze and develop systematic procedures for determining efficient schedules directly for the linearly indexed ACs and the localized algorithms. We shall also illustrate our procedures by determining schedules for examples such as matrix transposition and Gauss-Jordan elimination algorithm.

  13. Upper Air Observations - Synoptic Code

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily radiosonde and rawinsonde observations at standard and significant levels, recorded in synoptic code. Period of record 1950-1951.

  14. Multimedia signal coding and transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Ohm, Jens-Rainer

    2015-01-01

    This textbook covers the theoretical background of one- and multidimensional signal processing, statistical analysis and modelling, coding and information theory with regard to the principles and design of image, video and audio compression systems. The theoretical concepts are augmented by practical examples of algorithms for multimedia signal coding technology, and related transmission aspects. On this basis, principles behind multimedia coding standards, including most recent developments like High Efficiency Video Coding, can be well understood. Furthermore, potential advances in future development are pointed out. Numerous figures and examples help to illustrate the concepts covered. The book was developed on the basis of a graduate-level university course, and most chapters are supplemented by exercises. The book is also a self-contained introduction both for researchers and developers of multimedia compression systems in industry.

  15. Zip Code Level Enrollment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The dataset includes is the number of Qualified Health Plan selections by ZIP code for 36 states that are participating in the Federally-facilitated Marketplace or...

  16. Forms and Linear Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan P.

    spaces of Veronese varieties. Linear network coding transmits information in terms of a basis of a vector space and the information is received as a basis of a possibly altered vector space. Ralf Koetter and Frank R. Kschischang introduced a metric on the set af vector spaces and showed that a minimal......We present a general theory to obtain linear network codes utilizing forms and obtain explicit families of equidimensional vector spaces, in which any pair of distinct vector spaces intersect in the same small dimension. The theory is inspired by the methods of the author utilizing the osculating...... them suitable for linear network coding. The parameters of the resulting linear network codes are determined....

  17. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive...

  18. FLYCHK Collisional-Radiative Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 160 FLYCHK Collisional-Radiative Code (Web, free access)   FLYCHK provides a capability to generate atomic level populations and charge state distributions for low-Z to mid-Z elements under NLTE conditions.

  19. Allegheny County Zip Code Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the zip code boundaries that lie within Allegheny County. These are not clipped to the Allgeheny County boundary. If viewing this...

  20. Squares of Random Linear Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascudo Pueyo, Ignacio; Cramer, Ronald; Mirandola, Diego

    2015-01-01

    a positive answer, for codes of dimension $k$ and length roughly $\\frac{1}{2}k^2$ or smaller. Moreover, the convergence speed is exponential if the difference $k(k+1)/2-n$ is at least linear in $k$. The proof uses random coding and combinatorial arguments, together with algebraic tools involving the precise......Given a linear code $C$, one can define the $d$-th power of $C$ as the span of all componentwise products of $d$ elements of $C$. A power of $C$ may quickly fill the whole space. Our purpose is to answer the following question: does the square of a code ``typically'' fill the whole space? We give...

  1. The Serializability of Network Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Blasiak, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Network coding theory studies the transmission of information in networks whose vertices may perform nontrivial encoding and decoding operations on data as it passes through the network. The main approach to deciding the feasibility of network coding problems aims to reduce the problem to optimization over a polytope of entropic vectors subject to constraints imposed by the network structure. In the case of directed acyclic graphs, these constraints are completely understood, but for general graphs the problem of enumerating them remains open: it is not known how to classify the constraints implied by a property that we call serializability, which refers to the absence of paradoxical circular dependencies in a network code. In this work we initiate the first systematic study of the constraints imposed on a network code by serializability. We find that serializability cannot be detected solely by evaluating the Shannon entropy of edge sets in the graph, but nevertheless, we give a polynomial-time algorithm tha...

  2. On Reed-Solomon Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qunying LIAO

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of decoding the standard Reed-Solomon code is a well-known open problem in coding theory. The main problem is to compute the error distance of a received word.Using the Weil bound for character sum estimate,Li and Wan showed that the error distance can be determined when the degree of the received word as a polynomial is small.In the first part,the result of Li and Wan is improved.On the other hand,one of the important parameters of an error-correcting code is the dimension.In most cases,one can only get bounds for the dinension.In the second part,a formula for the dimension of the generalized trace Reed-Solonon codes in some cases is obtained.

  3. Code properties from holographic geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Pastawski, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Almheiri, Dong, and Harlow [hep-th/1411.7041] proposed a highly illuminating connection between the AdS/CFT holographic correspondence and operator algebra quantum error correction (OAQEC). Here we explore this connection further. We derive some general results about OAQEC, as well as results that apply specifically to quantum codes which admit a holographic interpretation. We introduce a new quantity called `price', which characterizes the support of a protected logical system, and find constraints on the price and the distance for logical subalgebras of quantum codes. We show that holographic codes defined on bulk manifolds with asymptotically negative curvature exhibit `uberholography', meaning that a bulk logical algebra can be supported on a boundary region with a fractal structure. We argue that, for holographic codes defined on bulk manifolds with asymptotically flat or positive curvature, the boundary physics must be highly nonlocal, an observation with potential implications for black holes and for q...

  4. Efficient codes and balanced networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denève, Sophie; Machens, Christian K

    2016-03-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in inhibitory interneurons and their circuits. A striking property of cortical inhibition is how tightly it balances excitation. Inhibitory currents not only match excitatory currents on average, but track them on a millisecond time scale, whether they are caused by external stimuli or spontaneous fluctuations. We review, together with experimental evidence, recent theoretical approaches that investigate the advantages of such tight balance for coding and computation. These studies suggest a possible revision of the dominant view that neurons represent information with firing rates corrupted by Poisson noise. Instead, tight excitatory/inhibitory balance may be a signature of a highly cooperative code, orders of magnitude more precise than a Poisson rate code. Moreover, tight balance may provide a template that allows cortical neurons to construct high-dimensional population codes and learn complex functions of their inputs.

  5. Zip Codes - MDC_WCSZipcode

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — The WCSZipcode polygon feature class was created by Miami-Dade Enterprise Technology Department to be used in the WCS batch jobs to assign the actual zip code of...

  6. The moving mesh code Shadowfax

    CERN Document Server

    Vandenbroucke, Bert

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the moving mesh code Shadowfax, which can be used to evolve a mixture of gas, subject to the laws of hydrodynamics and gravity, and any collisionless fluid only subject to gravity, such as cold dark matter or stars. The code is written in C++ and its source code is made available to the scientific community under the GNU Affero General Public License. We outline the algorithm and the design of our implementation, and demonstrate its validity through the results of a set of basic test problems, which are also part of the public version. We also compare Shadowfax with a number of other publicly available codes using different hydrodynamical integration schemes, illustrating the advantages and disadvantages of the moving mesh technique.

  7. The moving mesh code SHADOWFAX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, B.; De Rijcke, S.

    2016-07-01

    We introduce the moving mesh code SHADOWFAX, which can be used to evolve a mixture of gas, subject to the laws of hydrodynamics and gravity, and any collisionless fluid only subject to gravity, such as cold dark matter or stars. The code is written in C++ and its source code is made available to the scientific community under the GNU Affero General Public Licence. We outline the algorithm and the design of our implementation, and demonstrate its validity through the results of a set of basic test problems, which are also part of the public version. We also compare SHADOWFAX with a number of other publicly available codes using different hydrodynamical integration schemes, illustrating the advantages and disadvantages of the moving mesh technique.

  8. Ultrasound imaging using coded signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Athanasios

    Modulated (or coded) excitation signals can potentially improve the quality and increase the frame rate in medical ultrasound scanners. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate systematically the applicability of modulated signals in medical ultrasound imaging and to suggest appropriate...... methods for coded imaging, with the goal of making better anatomic and flow images and three-dimensional images. On the first stage, it investigates techniques for doing high-resolution coded imaging with improved signal-to-noise ratio compared to conventional imaging. Subsequently it investigates how...... coded excitation can be used for increasing the frame rate. The work includes both simulated results using Field II, and experimental results based on measurements on phantoms as well as clinical images. Initially a mathematical foundation of signal modulation is given. Pulse compression based...

  9. Facilitating Internet-Scale Code Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, Sushil Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Internet-Scale code retrieval deals with the representation, storage, and access of relevant source code from a large amount of source code available on the Internet. Internet-Scale code retrieval systems support common emerging practices among software developers related to finding and reusing source code. In this dissertation we focus on some…

  10. Decoder for Nonbinary CWS Quantum Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Melo, Nolmar; Portugal, Renato

    2012-01-01

    We present a decoder for nonbinary CWS quantum codes using the structure of union codes. The decoder runs in two steps: first we use a union of stabilizer codes to detect a sequence of errors, and second we build a new code, called union code, that allows to correct the errors.

  11. Piecewise Mapping in HEVC Lossless Intra-prediction Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Victor; Auli-Llinas, Francesc; Serra-Sagrista, Joan

    2016-05-19

    The lossless intra-prediction coding modality of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard provides high coding performance while allowing frame-by-frame basis access to the coded data. This is of interest in many professional applications such as medical imaging, automotive vision and digital preservation in libraries and archives. Various improvements to lossless intra-prediction coding have been proposed recently, most of them based on sample-wise prediction using Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM). Other recent proposals aim at further reducing the energy of intra-predicted residual blocks. However, the energy reduction achieved is frequently minimal due to the difficulty of correctly predicting the sign and magnitude of residual values. In this paper, we pursue a novel approach to this energy-reduction problem using piecewise mapping (pwm) functions. Specifically, we analyze the range of values in residual blocks and apply accordingly a pwm function to map specific residual values to unique lower values. We encode appropriate parameters associated with the pwm functions at the encoder, so that the corresponding inverse pwm functions at the decoder can map values back to the same residual values. These residual values are then used to reconstruct the original signal. This mapping is, therefore, reversible and introduces no losses. We evaluate the pwm functions on 4×4 residual blocks computed after DPCM-based prediction for lossless coding of a variety of camera-captured and screen content sequences. Evaluation results show that the pwm functions can attain maximum bit-rate reductions of 5.54% and 28.33% for screen content material compared to DPCM-based and block-wise intra-prediction, respectively. Compared to Intra- Block Copy, piecewise mapping can attain maximum bit-rate reductions of 11.48% for camera-captured material.

  12. Recent improvements to Thor with emphasis on perceptual coding tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Thomas; Bjøntegaard, Gisle; Fuldseth, Arild; Midtskogen, Steinar

    2016-09-01

    Thor supports a number of coding tools that have the potential to improve perceptual as well as objective quality. Synthetic reference frames may be used to support high frame rate applications in circumstances where encoders might typically transmit reduced frame rate content. Quantization matrices can be used to give improved visual quality by allocating bits more closely according to perceptual significance. Thor's Constrained Low Pass Loop Filter provides significant subjective benefit in removing coding artefacts such as ringing. Improved colour fidelity can also be obtained by leveraging luma information. This paper discusses developments in these tools and their objective and subjective performance.

  13. A New Simple Ultrahigh Speed Decoding Algorithm for BCH Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐建军; 纪越峰

    2002-01-01

    In order to content with forward error correction (FEC) technology of the high-speed optical communication system, a new simple decoding algorithm for triple-error correcting Bose, Chaudhuri, and Hocquenghem (BCH) code is proposed. Without complicated matrix-operation or division-operation or intricate iterative algorithm, the algorithm is high efficient and high-speed because of its simplicity in structure. The result of hardware emulation confirms that the algorithm is feasible completely. Introduction of the parallel structure increases the speed of coding greatly. The algorithm can be used in the high-speed optical communication system and other fields.

  14. Horizontal symmetry in the algebraic approach of genetic code

    CERN Document Server

    Godina-Nava, J J

    2013-01-01

    Using concepts of physics of elementary particles concerning the breaking of symmetry and grannd unified theory we propose to study with the algebraic approximation the degeneracy finded in the genetic code with the incorporation of a horizontal symmetry used in gauge theories to fit the contents of the multiplets of the genetic code. It is used the algebraic approch of Hornos et. al. \\cite{main,PRL71,PRE,MPLB}. We propose an example for the incorporation of horizontal symmetry to study mixtures of elements of the multiplets.

  15. Horizontal symmetry in the algebraic approach of genetic code

    OpenAIRE

    Godina-Nava, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Using concepts of physics of elementary particles concerning the breaking of symmetry and grannd unified theory we propose to study with the algebraic approximation the degeneracy finded in the genetic code with the incorporation of a horizontal symmetry used in gauge theories to fit the contents of the multiplets of the genetic code. It is used the algebraic approch of Hornos et. al. \\cite{main,PRL71,PRE,MPLB}. We propose an example for the incorporation of horizontal symmetry to study mixtu...

  16. Simulation of Water Chemistry using and Geochemistry Code, PHREEQE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, J.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    This report introduces principles and procedures of simulation for water chemistry using a geochemistry code, PHREEQE. As and example of the application of this code, we described the simulation procedure for titration of an aquatic sample with strong acid to investigate the state of Carbonates in aquatic solution. Major contents of this report are as follows; Concepts and principles of PHREEQE, Kinds of chemical reactions which may be properly simulated by PHREEQE, The definition and meaning of each input data, An example of simulation using PHREEQE. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Parametric Coding of Stereo Audio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Schuijers

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Parametric-stereo coding is a technique to efficiently code a stereo audio signal as a monaural signal plus a small amount of parametric overhead to describe the stereo image. The stereo properties are analyzed, encoded, and reinstated in a decoder according to spatial psychoacoustical principles. The monaural signal can be encoded using any (conventional audio coder. Experiments show that the parameterized description of spatial properties enables a highly efficient, high-quality stereo audio representation.

  18. Interleaver Design for Turbo Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl; Zyablov, Viktor

    1997-01-01

    By a combination of construction and random search based on a careful analysis of the low weight words and the distance properties of the component codes, it is possible to find interleavers for turbo coding with a high minimum distance. We have designed a block interleaver with permutations...... of each row, and found a combination of permutations where a tight upper bound to the minimum distance of the complete turbo scheme is 108....

  19. Summary of Code of Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Kerri

    2016-01-01

    The Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses is an excellent guideline for all nurses regardless of their area of practice. I greatly enjoyed reading the revisions in place within the 2015 edition and refreshing my nursing conscience. I plan to always keep my Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses near in order to keep my moral compass from veering off the path of quality care.

  20. Coded nanoscale self-assembly

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prathyush Samineni; Debabrata Goswami

    2008-12-01

    We demonstrate coded self-assembly in nanostructures using the code seeded at the component level through computer simulations. Defects or cavities occur in all natural assembly processes including crystallization and our simulations capture this essential aspect under surface minimization constraints for self-assembly. Our bottom-up approach to nanostructures would provide a new dimension towards nanofabrication and better understanding of defects and crystallization process.

  1. Verification of ONED90 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jong Hwa; Lee, Ki Bog; Zee, Sung Kyun; Lee, Chang Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-01

    ONED90 developed by KAERI is a 1-dimensional 2-group diffusion theory code. For nuclear design and reactor simulation, the usage of ONED90 encompasses core follow calculation, load follow calculation, plant power control simulation, xenon oscillation simulation and control rod maneuvering, etc. In order to verify the validity of ONED90 code, two well-known benchmark problems are solved by ONED90 shows very similar result to reference solution. (Author) 11 refs., 5 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Product Work Classification and Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    detail is much more useful in planning steel welding processes. In this regard remember that mild steel , HSLA steel , and high-yield steel (e.g. HY80 ...manufacturing facility. In Figure 2.3-2, a classification and coding system for steel parts is shown. This classification and coding system sorts steel parts...system would provide a shop which produced steel parts with a means of organizing parts. Rather than attempting to manage all of its parts as a single

  3. A Pixel Domain Video Coding based on Turbo code and Arithmetic code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrine Lahsini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with emerging applications such as multimedia sensors networks, wirelesslow-power surveillance and mobile camera phones, the traditional video coding architecture in beingchallenged. In fact, these applications have different requirements than those of the broadcast videodelivery systems: a low power consumption at the encoder side is essential.In this context, we propose a pixel-domain video coding scheme which fits well in these senarios.In this system, both the arithmetic and turbo codes are used to encode the video sequence's frames.Simulations results show significant gains over Pixel-domain Wyner-Ziv video codeingr.

  4. CFD analysis for the hydrogen transport in the primary contention of a BWR using the codes OpenFOAM and Gas-Flow; Analisis CFD para el transporte de hidrogeno en la contencion primaria de un reactor BWR usando los codigos OpenFOAM y GasFlow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez P, D. A.

    2014-07-01

    The accidents in Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in the United States (March 28{sup th}, 1979), the one in Unit 4 of the NPP Chernobyl in Ukraine (April 26{sup th}, 1986) and the explosions in some units of Fukushima NPP in Japan (March 11{sup th}, 2011) boosted the investigations on severe accidents with core damage and, in particular, the threat to the ultimate barrier by an eventual explosion from uncontrolled Hydrogen combustion within the containment was considered of particular relevance. Research programs for analyzing Hydrogen behavior and control during this kind of accidents were early initiated by research and regulatory bodies. Assessment on Hydrogen behavior once it has been postulated to be released on the containment system can be divided into two phases, in the first one, transport and the concentrations of the gas mixtures and steam in each volume or area comprised between the structures of the containment are calculated, in the second one, the propagation of the detonation of the Hydrogen is calculated if there are the conditions to occur. Currently, there are computer programs that can be used in one, or both stages of computation, and they are based on one of the two solution methods in current use, one of them are integrated codes (e.g. MELCOR), which consists in assuming the containment as a network composed of hydraulic tanks or nodes on which the balance equations of mass and energy have to be solved, the network is connected by ducts or connections where the momentum balance equation arise. This methodology relies on the use of semi-empirical relationships and the criteria used to define a geometric pattern, are subjective. The second method, which is having relevance due to the large computing power of modern computers, is the numerical solution of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in complex geometries. This method of solution is known as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), and offers the advantage of

  5. The Proteomic Code: a molecular recognition code for proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Jan C

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Proteomic Code is a set of rules by which information in genetic material is transferred into the physico-chemical properties of amino acids. It determines how individual amino acids interact with each other during folding and in specific protein-protein interactions. The Proteomic Code is part of the redundant Genetic Code. Review The 25-year-old history of this concept is reviewed from the first independent suggestions by Biro and Mekler, through the works of Blalock, Root-Bernstein, Siemion, Miller and others, followed by the discovery of a Common Periodic Table of Codons and Nucleic Acids in 2003 and culminating in the recent conceptualization of partial complementary coding of interacting amino acids as well as the theory of the nucleic acid-assisted protein folding. Methods and conclusions A novel cloning method for the design and production of specific, high-affinity-reacting proteins (SHARP is presented. This method is based on the concept of proteomic codes and is suitable for large-scale, industrial production of specifically interacting peptides.

  6. A Contents Encryption Mechanism Using Reused Key in IPTV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yoon-Su; Kim, Yong-Tae; Cho, Young-Bok; Lee, Ki-Jeong; Park, Gil-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Ho

    Recently IPTV is being spotlighted as a new stream service to stably provide video, audio and control signals to subscribers through the application of IP protocol. However, the IPTV system is facing more security threats than the traditional TV. This study proposes a multicasting encryption mechanism for secure transmission of the contents of IPTV by which the content provider encrypts their contents and send the encrypted contents and the key used for encryption of the contents to the user. In order to reduce the time and cost of Head-End, the proposed mechanism encrypts the media contents at the Head-End, embeds the code of the IPTV terminal used at the Head-End in the media contents for user tracking, and performs desynchronization for protection of the media contents from various attacks.

  7. Convolutional Goppa codes defined on fibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Curto, J I Iglesias; Martín, F J Plaza; Sotelo, G Serrano

    2010-01-01

    We define a new class of Convolutional Codes in terms of fibrations of algebraic varieties generalizaing our previous constructions of Convolutional Goppa Codes. Using this general construction we can give several examples of Maximum Distance Separable (MDS) Convolutional Codes.

  8. Analysis of quantum error-correcting codes: Symplectic lattice codes and toric codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James William

    Quantum information theory is concerned with identifying how quantum mechanical resources (such as entangled quantum states) can be utilized for a number of information processing tasks, including data storage, computation, communication, and cryptography. Efficient quantum algorithms and protocols have been developed for performing some tasks (e.g. , factoring large numbers, securely communicating over a public channel, and simulating quantum mechanical systems) that appear to be very difficult with just classical resources. In addition to identifying the separation between classical and quantum computational power, much of the theoretical focus in this field over the last decade has been concerned with finding novel ways of encoding quantum information that are robust against errors, which is an important step toward building practical quantum information processing devices. In this thesis I present some results on the quantum error-correcting properties of oscillator codes (also described as symplectic lattice codes) and toric codes. Any harmonic oscillator system (such as a mode of light) can be encoded with quantum information via symplectic lattice codes that are robust against shifts in the system's continuous quantum variables. I show the existence of lattice codes whose achievable rates match the one-shot coherent information over the Gaussian quantum channel. Also, I construct a family of symplectic self-dual lattices and search for optimal encodings of quantum information distributed between several oscillators. Toric codes provide encodings of quantum information into two-dimensional spin lattices that are robust against local clusters of errors and which require only local quantum operations for error correction. Numerical simulations of this system under various error models provide a calculation of the accuracy threshold for quantum memory using toric codes, which can be related to phase transitions in certain condensed matter models. I also present

  9. Blind recognition of punctured convolutional codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Peizhong; LI Shen; ZOU Yan; LUO Xiangyang

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for blind recognition of punctured convolutional codes which is an important problem in adaptive modulation and coding. For a given finite sequence of convolutional code, the parity check matrix of the convolutional code is first computed by solving a linear system with adequate error tolerance. Then a minimal basic encoding matrix of the original convolutional code and its puncturing pattern are determined according to the known parity check matrix of the punctured convolutional code.

  10. Wireless Network Coding with Local Network Views: Coded Layer Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Vahid, Alireza; Avestimehr, A Salman; Sabharwal, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01

    One of the fundamental challenges in the design of distributed wireless networks is the large dynamic range of network state. Since continuous tracking of global network state at all nodes is practically impossible, nodes can only acquire limited local views of the whole network to design their transmission strategies. In this paper, we study multi-layer wireless networks and assume that each node has only a limited knowledge, namely 1-local view, where each S-D pair has enough information to perform optimally when other pairs do not interfere, along with connectivity information for rest of the network. We investigate the information-theoretic limits of communication with such limited knowledge at the nodes. We develop a novel transmission strategy, namely Coded Layer Scheduling, that solely relies on 1-local view at the nodes and incorporates three different techniques: (1) per layer interference avoidance, (2) repetition coding to allow overhearing of the interference, and (3) network coding to allow inter...

  11. Coding with Side Information for Radiation-Tolerant Memory Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, E.; Jeon, S.; Negi, R.; Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.; Cheng, M. K.

    2011-11-01

    Memory devices aboard spacecraft experience radiation-induced errors either in the form of temporary upsets (soft errors) or permanent defects (hard or stuck-at errors). Error-correcting codes (ECCs) are used to recover memory content from errors where defective cells are either regarded as erasures by the decoder or entire blocks containing defective cells are marked as unusable. In this article, alternative coding schemes are investigated for memory devices in space, where the encoder is provided with the locations of the defective cells, denoted by side information. This coding approach has the potential to improve the overall storage capacity of memory devices, since the information theoretic capacity of a channel where side information is only available at the encoder is the same as the capacity where side information is available at both the encoder and decoder. Spacecraft memory controllers typically scrub memory devices periodically for errors. Partial side information can be obtained during this scrubbing process by comparing the ECC decoder output with its input and thereby avoid the need for additional cell tests or storage overhead. In between scrubbings, the encoder can use this partial side information to account for permanent defects to improve reliability or to increase the storage capacity of onboard memory devices. In order to achieve performance gains for practical memory systems, several coding schemes that adaptively incorporate the codeword with the known side information are proposed in this article. The proposed coding schemes are evaluated by numerical simulations on a memory channel model characterized by soft and hard errors. Simulation results show that while coding with complete side information at the encoder offers the most performance gain compared to when coding without side information is used, coding with partial side information can close the gap between the optimal and current approach without incurring much additional overhead

  12. Requirements of a Better Secure Program Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius POPA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Secure program coding refers to how manage the risks determined by the security breaches because of the program source code. The papers reviews the best practices must be doing during the software development life cycle for secure software assurance, the methods and techniques used for a secure coding assurance, the most known and common vulnerabilities determined by a bad coding process and how the security risks are managed and mitigated. As a tool of the better secure program coding, the code review process is presented, together with objective measures for code review assurance and estimation of the effort for the code improvement.

  13. Multiplicatively Repeated Non-Binary LDPC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Kasai, Kenta; Poulliat, Charly; Sakaniwa, Kohichi

    2010-01-01

    We propose non-binary LDPC codes concatenated with multiplicative repetition codes. By multiplicatively repeating the (2,3)-regular non-binary LDPC mother code of rate 1/3, we construct rate-compatible codes of lower rates 1/6, 1/9, 1/12,... Surprisingly, such simple low-rate non-binary LDPC codes outperform the best low-rate binary LDPC codes so far. Moreover, we propose the decoding algorithm for the proposed codes, which can be decoded with almost the same computational complexity as that of the mother code.

  14. New multilevel codes over GF(q)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiantian; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Set partitioning to multi-dimensional signal spaces over GF(q), particularly GF sup q-1(q) and GF sup q (q), and show how to construct both multi-level block codes and multi-level trellis codes over GF(q). Two classes of multi-level (n, k, d) block codes over GF(q) with block length n, number of information symbols k, and minimum distance d sub min greater than or = d, are presented. These two classes of codes use Reed-Solomon codes as component codes. They can be easily decoded as block length q-1 Reed-Solomon codes or block length q or q + 1 extended Reed-Solomon codes using multi-stage decoding. Many of these codes have larger distances than comparable q-ary block codes, as component codes. Low rate q-ary convolutional codes, work error correcting convolutional codes, and binary-to-q-ary convolutional codes can also be used to construct multi-level trellis codes over GF(q) or binary-to-q-ary trellis codes, some of which have better performance than the above block codes. All of the new codes have simple decoding algorithms based on hard decision multi-stage decoding.

  15. Combinatorial polarization, code loops, and codes of high level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vojtěchovský

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available We first find the combinatorial degree of any map f:V→F, where F is a finite field and V is a finite-dimensional vector space over F. We then simplify and generalize a certain construction, due to Chein and Goodaire, that was used in characterizing code loops as finite Moufang loops that possess at most two squares. The construction yields binary codes of high divisibility level with prescribed Hamming weights of intersections of codewords.

  16. Bioethical and deontological approaches of the new occupational therapy code of ethics in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Correa Figueiredo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Currently, conflicts found in the health field bring new discussions on ethical and bioethical issues also in the Occupational Therapy domain. As noted in previous studies, the codes of professional ethics are not sufficient to face the current challenges daily experienced during professional practice. Objective: The present study aimed to find documental evidence of deontological and bioethical approaches in the new Brazilian code for Occupational Therapists through content analysis compared with the same analysis conducted in the preceding code. Method: Content analysis methods were applied to written documents to reveal deontological and bioethical approaches among textual fragments obtained from the new code of ethics. Results: The bioethical approaches found in the totality of the new code were increased in content and number (53.6% proportionally compared with those found in the former code. It seems that this increase was a result of the number of fragments classified in the justice-related category (22.6% - one of the most evident differences observed. Considering the ratio between the total number of fragments classified as professional autonomy and client autonomy in the new code - although the number of professional-related fragments have remained higher in comparison with client-related fragments - a significant decrease in the percentages of this ratio was detected. Conclusion: In conclusion, comparison between the codes revealed a bioethical embedding accompanied by a more client-centered practice, which reflects the way professionals have always conducted Occupational Therapy practice.

  17. On the Dimension of Graph Codes with Reed–Solomon Component Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Peter; Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    We study a class of graph based codes with Reed-Solomon component codes as affine variety codes. We give a formulation of the exact dimension of graph codes in general. We give an algebraic description of these codes which makes the exact computation of the dimension of the graph codes easier....

  18. 76 FR 77549 - Lummi Nation-Title 20-Code of Laws-Liquor Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Lummi Nation--Title 20--Code of Laws--Liquor Code AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...--Code of Laws--Liquor Code. The Code regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of... this Code allows for the possession and sale of alcoholic beverages within the Lummi...

  19. Health and nutrition content claims on websites advertising infant formula available in Australia: A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Nina J; Gribble, Karleen D

    2017-10-01

    The use of health and nutrition content claims in infant formula advertising is restricted by many governments in response to WHO policies and WHA resolutions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such prohibited claims could be observed in Australian websites that advertise infant formula products. A comprehensive internet search was conducted to identify websites that advertise infant formula available for purchase in Australia. Content analysis was used to identify prohibited claims. The coding frame was closely aligned with the provisions of the Australian and New Zealand Food Standard Code, which prohibits these claims. The outcome measures were the presence of health claims, nutrition content claims, or references to the nutritional content of human milk. Web pages advertising 25 unique infant formula products available for purchase in Australia were identified. Every advertisement (100%) contained at least one health claim. Eighteen (72%) also contained at least one nutrition content claim. Three web pages (12%) advertising brands associated with infant formula products referenced the nutritional content of human milk. All of these claims appear in spite of national regulations prohibiting them indicating a failure of monitoring and/or enforcement. Where countries have enacted instruments to prohibit health and other claims in infant formula advertising, the marketing of infant formula must be actively monitored to be effective. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Index coding via linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Blasiak, Anna; Lubetzky, Eyal

    2010-01-01

    Index Coding has received considerable attention recently motivated in part by applications such as fast video-on-demand and efficient communication in wireless networks and in part by its connection to Network Coding. The basic setting of Index Coding encodes the side-information relation, the problem input, as an undirected graph and the fundamental parameter is the broadcast rate $\\beta$, the average communication cost per bit for sufficiently long messages (i.e. the non-linear vector capacity). Recent nontrivial bounds on $\\beta$ were derived from the study of other Index Coding capacities (e.g. the scalar capacity $\\beta_1$) by Bar-Yossef et al (FOCS'06), Lubetzky and Stav (FOCS'07) and Alon et al (FOCS'08). However, these indirect bounds shed little light on the behavior of $\\beta$ and its exact value remained unknown for \\emph{any graph} where Index Coding is nontrivial. Our main contribution is a hierarchy of linear programs whose solutions trap $\\beta$ between them. This enables a direct information-...

  1. Driver Code for Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shanti

    2007-01-01

    A special-purpose computer code for a deformable-mirror adaptive-optics control system transmits pixel-registered control from (1) a personal computer running software that generates the control data to (2) a circuit board with 128 digital-to-analog converters (DACs) that generate voltages to drive the deformable-mirror actuators. This program reads control-voltage codes from a text file, then sends them, via the computer s parallel port, to a circuit board with four AD5535 (or equivalent) chips. Whereas a similar prior computer program was capable of transmitting data to only one chip at a time, this program can send data to four chips simultaneously. This program is in the form of C-language code that can be compiled and linked into an adaptive-optics software system. The program as supplied includes source code for integration into the adaptive-optics software, documentation, and a component that provides a demonstration of loading DAC codes from a text file. On a standard Windows desktop computer, the software can update 128 channels in 10 ms. On Real-Time Linux with a digital I/O card, the software can update 1024 channels (8 boards in parallel) every 8 ms.

  2. LDPC Codes for Compressed Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Dimakis, Alexandros G; Vontobel, Pascal O

    2010-01-01

    We present a mathematical connection between channel coding and compressed sensing. In particular, we link, on the one hand, \\emph{channel coding linear programming decoding (CC-LPD)}, which is a well-known relaxation of maximum-likelihood channel decoding for binary linear codes, and, on the other hand, \\emph{compressed sensing linear programming decoding (CS-LPD)}, also known as basis pursuit, which is a widely used linear programming relaxation for the problem of finding the sparsest solution of an under-determined system of linear equations. More specifically, we establish a tight connection between CS-LPD based on a zero-one measurement matrix over the reals and CC-LPD of the binary linear channel code that is obtained by viewing this measurement matrix as a binary parity-check matrix. This connection allows the translation of performance guarantees from one setup to the other. The main message of this paper is that parity-check matrices of "good" channel codes can be used as provably "good" measurement ...

  3. Sample-adaptive-prediction for HEVC SCC intra coding with ridge estimation from spatially neighboring samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Je-Won; Ryu, Soo-Kyung

    2017-02-01

    In this paper a sample-adaptive prediction technique is proposed to yield efficient coding performance in an intracoding for screen content video coding. The sample-based prediction is to reduce spatial redundancies in neighboring samples. To this aim, the proposed technique uses a weighted linear combination of neighboring samples and applies the robust optimization technique, namely, ridge estimation to derive the weights in a decoder side. The ridge estimation uses L2 norm based regularization term, and, thus the solution is more robust to high variance samples such as in sharp edges and high color contrasts exhibited in screen content videos. It is demonstrated with the experimental results that the proposed technique provides an improved coding gain as compared to the HEVC screen content video coding reference software.

  4. Computer code selection criteria for flow and transport code(s) to be used in undisturbed vadose zone calculations for TWRS environmental analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F.M.

    1998-01-26

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is responsible for the safe storage, retrieval, and disposal of waste currently being held in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. In order to successfully carry out its mission, TWRS must perform environmental analyses describing the consequences of tank contents leaking from tanks and associated facilities during the storage, retrieval, or closure periods and immobilized low-activity tank waste contaminants leaving disposal facilities. Because of the large size of the facilities and the great depth of the dry zone (known as the vadose zone) underneath the facilities, sophisticated computer codes are needed to model the transport of the tank contents or contaminants. This document presents the code selection criteria for those vadose zone analyses (a subset of the above analyses) where the hydraulic properties of the vadose zone are constant in time the geochemical behavior of the contaminant-soil interaction can be described by simple models, and the geologic or engineered structures are complicated enough to require a two-or three dimensional model. Thus, simple analyses would not need to use the fairly sophisticated codes which would meet the selection criteria in this document. Similarly, those analyses which involve complex chemical modeling (such as those analyses involving large tank leaks or those analyses involving the modeling of contaminant release from glass waste forms) are excluded. The analyses covered here are those where the movement of contaminants can be relatively simply calculated from the moisture flow. These code selection criteria are based on the information from the low-level waste programs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission as well as experience gained in the DOE Complex in applying these criteria. Appendix table A-1 provides a comparison between the criteria in these documents and those used here. This document does not define the models (that

  5. Television Violence Content Analysis and Respond Strategies:A Research Based on the Coding Technique%电视暴力内容分析及应对策略:一项基于编码技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宣文; 张英萍; 种聪

    2015-01-01

    For the increasingly powerful force in the media today ,the effects of television violence is widely discussed in various fields .Basing on the existing television violence study ,this paper adapts coding technology which is more advanced abroad to compile the first coding table about TV violence in Chinese version .And the samples of 376 hours of TV program from the CCTV and the local station TV are encoded by the coding table about TV violence to analyze the status of domestic violence in television .The results show that children’s programs contain large number of violence with high strength .The paper conducts an intervention on children’s aggression through the anti‐violence video ,and finds there is a quick effect on reducing children’s aggression just after a short term intervention . But the stable effect requires more long‐term intervention .%在媒体力量日益强大的今天,电视暴力的影响在各领域广泛探讨。采用国外较为先进的编码技术,依据现有的电视暴力研究编制了第一个中文版的电视暴力编码表,并从中央台和地方台抽取376 h的电视节目样本进行电视暴力编码,分析国内电视暴力的现状。结果发现少儿节目中的暴力次数和强度较高。据此作者通过反暴力视频对儿童的攻击倾向进行干预研究,发现短期的反暴力视频可很快降低儿童的攻击性,但要保持此效果还须更长期的干预。

  6. Code and codeless ionospheric measurements with NASA's Rogue GPS Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Jeff M.; Meehan, Tom K.; Young, Lawrence E.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA/JPL Rogue Receiver is an 8-satellite, non-multiplexed, highly digital global positioning system (GPS) receiver that can obtain dual frequency data either with or without knowledge of the P-code. In addition to its applications for high accuracy geodesy and orbit determination, the Rogue uses GPS satellite signals to measure the total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere along the lines of sight from the receiver to the satellites. These measurements are used by JPL's Deep Space Network (DSN) for calibrating radiometric data. This paper will discuss Rogue TEC measurements, emphasizing the advantages of a receiver that can use the P-code, when available, but can also obtain reliable dual frequency data when the code is encrypted.

  7. A Radiation Shielding Code for Spacecraft and Its Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, J. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Singleterry, R. C.; Wilson, J. W.; Badavi, F. F.; Badhwar, G. D.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.; Tripathi, R. K.

    2000-01-01

    The HZETRN code, which uses a deterministic approach pioneered at NASA Langley Research Center, has been developed over the past decade to evaluate the local radiation fields within sensitive materials (electronic devices and human tissue) on spacecraft in the space environment. The code describes the interactions of shield materials with the incident galactic cosmic rays, trapped protons, or energetic protons from solar particle events in free space and low Earth orbit. The content of incident radiations is modified by atomic and nuclear reactions with the spacecraft and radiation shield materials. High-energy heavy ions are fragmented into less massive reaction products, and reaction products are produced by direct knockout of shield constituents or from de-excitation products. An overview of the computational procedures and database which describe these interactions is given. Validation of the code with recent Monte Carlo benchmarks, and laboratory and flight measurement is also included.

  8. Subspace Properties of Network Coding and their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Siavoshani, Mahdi Jafari; Diggavi, Suhas

    2011-01-01

    Systems that employ network coding for content distribution convey to the receivers linear combinations of the source packets. If we assume randomized network coding, during this process the network nodes collect random subspaces of the space spanned by the source packets. We establish several fundamental properties of the random subspaces induced in such a system, and show that these subspaces implicitly carry topological information about the network and its state that can be passively collected and inferred. We leverage this information towards a number of applications that are interesting in their own right, such as topology inference, bottleneck discovery in peer-to-peer systems and locating Byzantine attackers. We thus argue that, randomized network coding, apart from its better known properties for improving information delivery rate, can additionally facilitate network management and control.

  9. Quantum secure direct communication with frequency coding scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue-Liang; Ruan, Dong

    2016-11-01

    Quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) is an important branch of quantum cryptography. It can transmit secret information directly without establishing a key first, unlike quantum key distribution which requires this precursive event. One of the most highlighted QSDC protocol is the Two-step protocol. This paper will focus on proposing a frequency coding scheme in the Two-step protocol, while retaining other contents of the QSDC protocol. This new coding scheme will significantly increase the protocol's ability against channel noise and loss, and provides an efficient protocol for secure direct quantum communication in a noisy environment. Besides, the frequency coding technology is also easy to understand and highly practical. After numerically simulating the performance of the protocol in a noisy channel, the results showed that the scheme was robust against channel noise and loss.

  10. Quantifying the Performance of Quantum Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Cafaro, C; Lupo, C; Mancini, S

    2011-01-01

    We study the properties of error correcting codes for noise models in the presence of asymmetries and/or correlations by means of the entanglement fidelity and the code entropy. First, we consider a dephasing Markovian memory channel and characterize the performance of both a repetition code and an error avoiding code in terms of the entanglement fidelity. We also consider the concatenation of such codes and show that it is especially advantageous in the regime of partial correlations. Finally, we characterize the effectiveness of the codes and their concatenation by means of the code entropy and find, in particular, that the effort required for recovering such codes decreases when the error probability decreases and the memory parameter increases. Second, we consider both symmetric and asymmetric depolarizing noisy quantum memory channels and perform quantum error correction via the five qubit stabilizer code. We characterize this code by means of the entanglement fidelity and the code entropy as function of...

  11. Halftone Coding with JBIG2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    2000-01-01

    of a halftone pattern dictionary.The decoder first decodes the gray-scale image. Then for each gray-scale pixel looks up the corresponding halftonepattern in the dictionary and places it in the reconstruction bitmap at the position corresponding to the gray-scale pixel. The coding method is inherently lossy......The emerging international standard for compression of bilevel images and bi-level documents, JBIG2,provides a mode dedicated for lossy coding of halftones. The encoding procedure involves descreening of the bi-levelimage into gray-scale, encoding of the gray-scale image, and construction...... and care must be taken to avoid introducing artifacts in the reconstructed image. We describe how to apply this coding method for halftones created by periodic ordered dithering, by clustered dot screening (offset printing), and by techniques which in effect dithers with blue noise, e.g., error diffusion...

  12. Roadmap to Majorana surface codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plugge, S.; Landau, L. A.; Sela, E.; Altland, A.; Flensberg, K.; Egger, R.

    2016-11-01

    Surface codes offer a very promising avenue towards fault-tolerant quantum computation. We argue that two-dimensional interacting networks of Majorana bound states in topological superconductor/semiconductor heterostructures hold several key advantages in that direction, concerning both the hardware realization and the actual operation of the code. We here discuss how topologically protected logical qubits in this Majorana surface code architecture can be defined, initialized, manipulated, and read out. All physical ingredients needed to implement these operations are routinely used in topologically trivial quantum devices. By means of quantum interference terms in linear conductance measurements, single-electron pumping protocols, and gate-tunable tunnel barriers, the full set of quantum gates required for universal quantum computation can be achieved. In particular, we show that designated multistep pumping sequences via tunnel-coupled quantum dots realize high-fidelity ancilla states for phase gates.

  13. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  14. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  15. Allele coding in genomic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standen, Ismo; Christensen, Ole Fredslund

    2011-01-01

    Genomic data are used in animal breeding to assist genetic evaluation. Several models to estimate genomic breeding values have been studied. In general, two approaches have been used. One approach estimates the marker effects first and then, genomic breeding values are obtained by summing marker...... effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous...... genotype of the first allele, one for the heterozygote, and two for the homozygous genotype for the other allele. Another common allele coding changes these regression coefficients by subtracting a value from each marker such that the mean of regression coefficients is zero within each marker. We call...

  16. Tree Coding of Bilevel Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Presently, sequential tree coders are the best general purpose bilevel image coders and the best coders of halftoned images. The current ISO standard, Joint Bilevel Image Experts Group (JBIG), is a good example. A sequential tree coder encodes the data by feeding estimates of conditional...... probabilities to an arithmetic coder. The conditional probabilities are estimated from co-occurrence statistics of past pixels, the statistics are stored in a tree. By organizing the code length calculations properly, a vast number of possible models (trees) reflecting different pixel orderings can...... is one order of magnitude slower than JBIG, obtains excellent and highly robust compression performance. A multipass free tree coding scheme produces superior compression results for all test images. A multipass free template coding scheme produces significantly better results than JBIG for difficult...

  17. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC EQUATIONS (MHD GENERATION CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Frutos Alfaro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program uses the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the magnetohydrodynamic equations to obtain a code that can be used as a seed for a magnetohydrodynamic code for numerical applications. As an example, we present part of the output of our programs for Cartesian coordinates and how to do the discretization.

  18. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  19. Zigzag Codes: MDS Array Codes with Optimal Rebuilding

    CERN Document Server

    Tamo, Itzhak; Bruck, Jehoshua

    2011-01-01

    MDS array codes are widely used in storage systems to protect data against erasures. We address the \\emph{rebuilding ratio} problem, namely, in the case of erasures, what is the fraction of the remaining information that needs to be accessed in order to rebuild \\emph{exactly} the lost information? It is clear that when the number of erasures equals the maximum number of erasures that an MDS code can correct then the rebuilding ratio is 1 (access all the remaining information). However, the interesting and more practical case is when the number of erasures is smaller than the erasure correcting capability of the code. For example, consider an MDS code that can correct two erasures: What is the smallest amount of information that one needs to access in order to correct a single erasure? Previous work showed that the rebuilding ratio is bounded between 1/2 and 3/4, however, the exact value was left as an open problem. In this paper, we solve this open problem and prove that for the case of a single erasure with ...

  20. Signal Constellations for Multilevel Coded Modulation with Sparse Graph Codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cronie, Harm S.

    2005-01-01

    A method to combine error-correction coding and spectral efficient modulation for transmission over channels with Gaussian noise is presented. The method of modulation leads to a signal constellation in which the constellation symbols have a nonuniform distribution. This gives a so-called shape gain

  1. The stellar atmosphere simulation code Bifrost. Code description and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiksen, B. V.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V. H.; Hayek, W.; Leenaarts, J.; Martínez-Sykora, J.

    2011-07-01

    Context. Numerical simulations of stellar convection and photospheres have been developed to the point where detailed shapes of observed spectral lines can be explained. Stellar atmospheres are very complex, and very different physical regimes are present in the convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere, transition region and corona. To understand the details of the atmosphere it is necessary to simulate the whole atmosphere since the different layers interact strongly. These physical regimes are very diverse and it takes a highly efficient massively parallel numerical code to solve the associated equations. Aims: The design, implementation and validation of the massively parallel numerical code Bifrost for simulating stellar atmospheres from the convection zone to the corona. Methods: The code is subjected to a number of validation tests, among them the Sod shock tube test, the Orzag-Tang colliding shock test, boundary condition tests and tests of how the code treats magnetic field advection, chromospheric radiation, radiative transfer in an isothermal scattering atmosphere, hydrogen ionization and thermal conduction. Results.Bifrost completes the tests with good results and shows near linear efficiency scaling to thousands of computing cores.

  2. Development of Advanced In core Management Codes for Ulchin Unit 1, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hee; Park, Moon Gyu [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the first case of FRAMATOME`s plants, Ulchin Unit 1 Cycle 8 core was loaded with V5H fuel. Because of the heterogeneity in the axial enrichment of the V5H fuel, FRAMATOME`s 2-D in core management codes, CEDRIC-CARIN-ESTHER, are no longer valid to be used for in core management. In order to analyze Ulchin Unit 1 an 2 cores loaded with V5H fuel exactly, this study substituted them with WH`s In core-3D and Tote code. The previous IN CORE-Tote codes have been utilized on the HP workstation or the IBM mainframe which are not easily accessible by the site engineers and require the complicated manipulation in the computer network system. This study developed the PC-version of IN CORE-3D and Tote codes available in plants, including an interface code linking the data measured by the in core instrument system (RIC-KIT system) to IN CORE code. These codes reduce the time to manage in core and increase the economic benefits. We installed the developed codes in Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 and actually applied them to the core power distribution measurement performed during Cycle 8 power escalation tests. The results satisfied all limits of Technical Specification very well. The major contents of this study can be categorized as follows. 1. Analysis of the in core management codes. (a) Analysis of flux mapping system and measurement reduction algorithm. (b) Analysis of the methodology of in core management codes. 2. Development and verification of PC-version in core management codes. (a) Development of the measured-data processing code (C2I). (b) Development of PC-version IN CORE code. (c) Development of PC-version Tote code (d) Verification of the developed codes. 3. Application to core physics test of Ulchin until cycle 8. (a) Power distribution measurement at 75% and 100%. (author). 14 refs., figs., tabs.

  3. Halftone Coding with JBIG2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    2000-01-01

    The emerging international standard for compression of bilevel images and bi-level documents, JBIG2,provides a mode dedicated for lossy coding of halftones. The encoding procedure involves descreening of the bi-levelimage into gray-scale, encoding of the gray-scale image, and construction...... and care must be taken to avoid introducing artifacts in the reconstructed image. We describe how to apply this coding method for halftones created by periodic ordered dithering, by clustered dot screening (offset printing), and by techniques which in effect dithers with blue noise, e.g., error diffusion....... Besides descreening and construction of the dictionary, we address graceful degradationand artifact removal....

  4. Hybrid codes: Methods and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winske, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Omidi, N. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss hybrid'' algorithms used in the study of low frequency electromagnetic phenomena, where one or more ion species are treated kinetically via standard PIC methods used in particle codes and the electrons are treated as a single charge neutralizing massless fluid. Other types of hybrid models are possible, as discussed in Winske and Quest, but hybrid codes with particle ions and massless fluid electrons have become the most common for simulating space plasma physics phenomena in the last decade, as we discuss in this paper.

  5. An Analysis of Syndrome Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiruzzaman, Md; Abdullah-Al-Wadud, M.; Chung, Yoojin

    In this paper a detail analysis is presented based on BCH syndrome coding for covert channel data hiding methods. The experimented technique is nothing but a syndrome coding algorithm with a coset based approach, analyzed results are showing that the examined method has more flexibility to choose coset, also providing less modification distortion caused by data hiding. Analyzed method presented by clear mathematical way. As it is mathematical equation dependent, hence analyzed results are showing that the analyzed method has fast computation ability and find perfect roots for modification.

  6. List Decoding of Matrix-Product Codes from nested codes: an application to Quasi-Cyclic codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernando, Fernando; Høholdt, Tom; Ruano, Diego

    2012-01-01

    A list decoding algorithm for matrix-product codes is provided when $C_1,..., C_s$ are nested linear codes and $A$ is a non-singular by columns matrix. We estimate the probability of getting more than one codeword as output when the constituent codes are Reed-Solomon codes. We extend this list...... decoding algorithm for matrix-product codes with polynomial units, which are quasi-cyclic codes. Furthermore, it allows us to consider unique decoding for matrix-product codes with polynomial units....

  7. List Decoding of Matrix-Product Codes from nested codes: an application to Quasi-Cyclic codes

    OpenAIRE

    Hernando, Fernando; Høholdt, Tom; Ruano, Diego

    2012-01-01

    A list decoding algorithm for matrix-product codes is provided when $C_1,..., C_s$ are nested linear codes and $A$ is a non-singular by columns matrix. We estimate the probability of getting more than one codeword as output when the constituent codes are Reed-Solomon codes. We extend this list decoding algorithm for matrix-product codes with polynomial units, which are quasi-cyclic codes. Furthermore, it allows us to consider unique decoding for matrix-product codes with polynomial units.

  8. Global ISR: Toward a Comprehensive Defense Against Unauthorized Code Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    implementations of ISR, we could also use AES encryption with 128-bit blocks of code. We adopt a different approach to protect against key guessing...when downloading content. An attacker can perform SQL- injection using this variable, to retrieve all user passwords (e.g., by appending select pass...this problem by us- ing a stronger encryption algorithm such as AES or bit transposition for the randomization, possibly taking a performance hit. As we

  9. Inter-subject neural code converter for visual image representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kentaro; Miyawaki, Yoichi; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2015-06-01

    Brain activity patterns differ from person to person, even for an identical stimulus. In functional brain mapping studies, it is important to align brain activity patterns between subjects for group statistical analyses. While anatomical templates are widely used for inter-subject alignment in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, they are not sufficient to identify the mapping between voxel-level functional responses representing specific mental contents. Recent work has suggested that statistical learning methods could be used to transform individual brain activity patterns into a common space while preserving representational contents. Here, we propose a flexible method for functional alignment, "neural code converter," which converts one subject's brain activity pattern into another's representing the same content. The neural code converter was designed to learn statistical relationships between fMRI activity patterns of paired subjects obtained while they saw an identical series of stimuli. It predicts the signal intensity of individual voxels of one subject from a pattern of multiple voxels of the other subject. To test this method, we used fMRI activity patterns measured while subjects observed visual images consisting of random and structured patches. We show that fMRI activity patterns for visual images not used for training the converter could be predicted from those of another subject where brain activity was recorded for the same stimuli. This confirms that visual images can be accurately reconstructed from the predicted activity patterns alone. Furthermore, we show that a classifier trained only on predicted fMRI activity patterns could accurately classify measured fMRI activity patterns. These results demonstrate that the neural code converter can translate neural codes between subjects while preserving contents related to visual images. While this method is useful for functional alignment and decoding, it may also provide a basis for

  10. Privacy with Public Access: Digital Memorials on QR Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotved, Stine

    2015-01-01

    takes the departure in gravestones with QR-codes; objects at once physical and digital, underhandedly putting presumably private content within public reach. A plethora of issues of privacy and publicness are at play within the study's two connected but rather different empirical spaces: the physical...... in the borderland between private and public is exemplified, and with the presentation, we are ensuring a continued discussion on privacy as well as legacy in our digital society....

  11. A framework for evaluating wavelet based watermarking for scalable coded digital item adaptation attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Deepayan; Abhayaratne, Charith

    2009-02-01

    A framework for evaluating wavelet based watermarking schemes against scalable coded visual media content adaptation attacks is presented. The framework, Watermark Evaluation Bench for Content Adaptation Modes (WEBCAM), aims to facilitate controlled evaluation of wavelet based watermarking schemes under MPEG-21 part-7 digital item adaptations (DIA). WEBCAM accommodates all major wavelet based watermarking in single generalised framework by considering a global parameter space, from which the optimum parameters for a specific algorithm may be chosen. WEBCAM considers the traversing of media content along various links and required content adaptations at various nodes of media supply chains. In this paper, the content adaptation is emulated by the JPEG2000 coded bit stream extraction for various spatial resolution and quality levels of the content. The proposed framework is beneficial not only as an evaluation tool but also as design tool for new wavelet based watermark algorithms by picking and mixing of available tools and finding the optimum design parameters.

  12. Streaming Virtual Reality Content

    OpenAIRE

    El-Ganainy, Tarek; Hefeeda, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The recent rise of interest in Virtual Reality (VR) came with the availability of commodity commercial VR prod- ucts, such as the Head Mounted Displays (HMD) created by Oculus and other vendors. To accelerate the user adoption of VR headsets, content providers should focus on producing high quality immersive content for these devices. Similarly, multimedia streaming service providers should enable the means to stream 360 VR content on their platforms. In this study, we try to cover different ...

  13. Content management systems (CMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Oriahi, Harrison

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the three most common and widely used content management systems (CMS) used to power several millions of business websites on the internet. Since there are many other content managements systems online, this report provides some helpful guides on each of the three most used systems and the web design projects that each of them maybe most suitable. There are plenty of options when it comes to selecting a content management system for a development project and this the...

  14. Scalable Content Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Krishna S, Jayant Dani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Immense growth in the volume of contents every day demands more scalable system to handle and overcome difficulties in capture, storage, transform, search, sharing and visualization of data, where the data can be a structured or unstructured data of any type. A system to manage the growing contents and overcome the issues and complexity faced using appropriate technologies would advantage over measurable qualities like flexibility, interoperability, customizability, security, auditability, quality, community support, options and cost of licensing. So architecting aContent Management System in terms of enterprise needs and a scalable solution to manage the huge data growth necessitates a Scalable Content Management System.

  15. An Interactive Concatenated Turbo Coding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Tang, Heng; Lin, Shu; Fossorier, Marc

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a concatenated turbo coding system in which a Reed-Solomon outer code is concatenated with a binary turbo inner code. In the proposed system, the outer code decoder and the inner turbo code decoder interact to achieve both good bit error and frame error performances. The outer code decoder helps the inner turbo code decoder to terminate its decoding iteration while the inner turbo code decoder provides soft-output information to the outer code decoder to carry out a reliability-based soft- decision decoding. In the case that the outer code decoding fails, the outer code decoder instructs the inner code decoder to continue its decoding iterations until the outer code decoding is successful or a preset maximum number of decoding iterations is reached. This interaction between outer and inner code decoders reduces decoding delay. Also presented in the paper are an effective criterion for stopping the iteration process of the inner code decoder and a new reliability-based decoding algorithm for nonbinary codes.

  16. Type Ⅱ codes over finite rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOUGHERTY; Steven; T

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we generalize the concept of Type Ⅱ codes to arbitrary finite rings. We focus on Type Ⅱ codes over finite chain rings and use the Chinese Remainder Theorem on these codes to study Type Ⅱ codes over principal ideal rings.

  17. SPARSE SEQUENCE CONSTRUCTION OF LDPC CODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This letter proposes a novel and simple construction of regular Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes using sparse binary sequences. It utilizes the cyclic cross correlation function of sparse sequences to generate codes with girth8. The new codes perform well using the sumproduct decoding. Low encodingcomplexity can also be achieved due to the inherent quasi-cyclic structure of the codes.

  18. TOCAR: a code to interface FOURACES - CARNAVAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panini, G.C.; Vaccari, M.

    1981-08-01

    The TOCAR code, written in FORTRAN-IV for IBM-370 computers, is an interface between the output of the FOURACES code and the CARNAVAL binary format for the multigroup neutron cross-sections, scattering matrices and related quantities. Besides the description of the code and the how to use, the report contains the code listing.

  19. The Minimum Distance of Graph Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    We study codes constructed from graphs where the code symbols are associated with the edges and the symbols connected to a given vertex are restricted to be codewords in a component code. In particular we treat such codes from bipartite expander graphs coming from Euclidean planes and other...

  20. Channel coding techniques for wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Deergha Rao, K

    2015-01-01

    The book discusses modern channel coding techniques for wireless communications such as turbo codes, low-density parity check (LDPC) codes, space–time (ST) coding, RS (or Reed–Solomon) codes and convolutional codes. Many illustrative examples are included in each chapter for easy understanding of the coding techniques. The text is integrated with MATLAB-based programs to enhance the understanding of the subject’s underlying theories. It includes current topics of increasing importance such as turbo codes, LDPC codes, Luby transform (LT) codes, Raptor codes, and ST coding in detail, in addition to the traditional codes such as cyclic codes, BCH (or Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem) and RS codes and convolutional codes. Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) communications is a multiple antenna technology, which is an effective method for high-speed or high-reliability wireless communications. PC-based MATLAB m-files for the illustrative examples are provided on the book page on Springer.com for free dow...