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Sample records for content affects traction

  1. Traction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BD, Jupiter JB, Krettek C, Anderson PA, eds. Skeletal Trauma: Basic Science, Management, and Reconstruction . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 33. Catapang G. Traction. In: Lennard TA, Walkowski S, Singla AK, Vivian DG, ...

  2. A mesenteric traction syndrome affects near-infrared spectroscopy evaluated cerebral oxygenation because skin blood flow increases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels D; Sørensen, Henrik; Ambrus, Rikard

    2017-01-01

    During abdominal surgery manipulation of internal organs may induce a "mesenteric traction syndrome" (MTS) including a triad of flushing, hypotension, and tachycardia that lasts for about 30 min. We evaluated whether MTS affects near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) assessed frontal lobe oxygenation......) was evaluated by pulse-contour analysis (Modelflow), and transcranial Doppler assessed middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA Vmean). MTS was identified by flushing within 60 min after start of surgery. MTS developed 20 min (12-24; median with range) after the start of surgery and heart rate (78 ± 16 vs...

  3. Preoperative traction for hip fracture: a randomized comparison between skin and skeletal traction in 78 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, S; Thorngren, K G

    1998-06-01

    153 consecutive patients with displaced cervical and trochanteric hip fractures were considered for inclusion in this study. 75 were excluded because of senile confusion and the remaining 78 were randomized to skeletal or skin traction preoperatively. The effect on pain alleviation was evaluated with a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and by the number of doses of analgesics administered. The processing time through the emergency department, radiographic department and to the ward, as well as time to operation, was registered. No significant difference in the VAS pain evaluation was found. There was a small significant increase in consumption of analgesics of no clinical importance in patients with skin traction, and no effect of traction type on the processing time or time to operation. Fracture type did not affect the outcome. Since half of the patients found the application of skeletal traction painful, compared to one fifth with skin traction, skeletal traction should not be routinely used to alleviate pain preoperatively in these patients.

  4. Regression analysis of traction characteristics of traction fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Rohn, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Traction data for Santotrac 50 and TDF-88 over a wide range of operating conditions were analyzed. An eight term correlation equation to predict the maximum traction coefficient and a six term correlation equation to predict the initial slope of the traction curve were developed. The slope correlation was corrected for size effect considering the compliance of the disks. The effects of different operating conditions on the traction performance of each traction fluid were studied. Both fluids exhibited a loss in traction with increases in spin, but the losses with the TDF-88 fluid were not as severe as those with Santotrac 50. Overall, both fluids exhibited similar performance, showing an increase in traction with contact pressure up to about 2.0 GPa, and a reduction in traction with higher surface speeds up to about 100 m/sec. The apparent stiffness of the traction contact, that is, film disk combination, increases with contact pressure and decreases with speed.

  5. Understanding the principles of traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, D

    As the use of traction has declined in recent years, nurses' skills in this area have consequently decreased. Standards of care for patients in traction might now be called into question. This article attempts to redress this imbalance by describing the principles behind safe and effective traction.

  6. Adaptive Vehicle Traction Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyeongcheol; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    1995-01-01

    This report presents two different control algorithms for adaptive vehicle traction control, which includes wheel slip control, optimal time control, anti-spin acceleration and anti-skid control, and longitudinal platoon control. The two control algorithms are respectively based on adaptive fuzzy logic control and sliding mode control with on-line road condition estimation. Simulations of the two control methods are conducted using a complex nonlinear vehicle model as well as a simple linear ...

  7. Mycorrhizal inoculation affects the phytochemical content in strawberry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Cecatto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the inoculation date of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the fruit quality and the content of phytochemicals in a strawberry soilless growing system. The experiment was performed in Huelva (Spain and was conducted in a greenhouse on the La Rábida Campus of Huelva University under natural light and temperature from October 2013 to June 2014. Three short-day strawberry cultivars (‘Splendor’, ‘Sabrina’ and ‘Fortuna’ were grown in polyethylene bags filled with coconut fibres. Randomized block design, with 3 repetitions and factorial arrangement (3 cultivars x 3 treatments, was established. Each replicate consisted of one bag with 12 plants supporting structures at 40 cm height. The treatments were: T1 = mycorrhizal inoculation in the transplantation; T2 = mycorrhizal inoculation 30 days after transplantation (DAT; and T0 = control treatment, without inoculation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation significantly affected the contents of anthocyanin and phenolics. When the inoculation is performed in the transplantation, the fruits showed a high content of anthocyanin and total phenolics. The mycorrhizal inoculation influences decreasing the acidity in fruit throughout the growing season and increase firmness only during the early stage of production.

  8. Vitreomacular Traction Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Bottós

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of new technologies such as high definition optical coherence tomography (OCT has not only provided unprecedented imaging capabilities, but also raised the need to define concepts not yet settled and often confusing such as the vitreomacular traction (VMT syndrome. While technological advances drive us into the future by clarifying the pathophysiology of many diseases and enabling novel therapeutic options, it is at the same time necessary to review basic disease concepts in addition to definitions and classifications. VMT syndrome is implicated in the pathophysiology of a number of macular disorders, translating into a variety of anatomical and functional consequences underscoring the complexity of the condition. These macular changes are closely related to the VMT configuration and have led to proposing classification of this syndrome based on OCT findings. The size and severity of the remaining vitreomacular attachment may define the specific maculopathy. Focal VMT usually leads to macular hole formation, tractional cystoid macular edema and foveal retinal detachment, while broad VMT is associated with epiretinal membranes, diffuse retinal thickening and impaired foveal depression recovery. Despite similar postoperative visual acuity (VA in focal and broad VMT subgroups, visual improvement is greater with focal VMT because preoperative VA is frequently lower. Surgical procedures are effective to relieve VMT and improve VA in most eyes; outcomes vary with VMT morphology and the duration of symptoms.

  9. Advanced Integrated Traction System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Smith; Charles Gough

    2011-08-31

    The United States Department of Energy elaborates the compelling need for a commercialized competitively priced electric traction drive system to proliferate the acceptance of HEVs, PHEVs, and FCVs in the market. The desired end result is a technically and commercially verified integrated ETS (Electric Traction System) product design that can be manufactured and distributed through a broad network of competitive suppliers to all auto manufacturers. The objectives of this FCVT program are to develop advanced technologies for an integrated ETS capable of 55kW peak power for 18 seconds and 30kW of continuous power. Additionally, to accommodate a variety of automotive platforms the ETS design should be scalable to 120kW peak power for 18 seconds and 65kW of continuous power. The ETS (exclusive of the DC/DC Converter) is to cost no more than $660 (55kW at $12/kW) to produce in quantities of 100,000 units per year, should have a total weight less than 46kg, and have a volume less than 16 liters. The cost target for the optional Bi-Directional DC/DC Converter is $375. The goal is to achieve these targets with the use of engine coolant at a nominal temperature of 105C. The system efficiency should exceed 90% at 20% of rated torque over 10% to 100% of maximum speed. The nominal operating system voltage is to be 325V, with consideration for higher voltages. This project investigated a wide range of technologies, including ETS topologies, components, and interconnects. Each technology and its validity for automotive use were verified and then these technologies were integrated into a high temperature ETS design that would support a wide variety of applications (fuel cell, hybrids, electrics, and plug-ins). This ETS met all the DOE 2010 objectives of cost, weight, volume and efficiency, and the specific power and power density 2015 objectives. Additionally a bi-directional converter was developed that provides charging and electric power take-off which is the first step

  10. Technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Gardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs are molecules which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in food is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BA accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity and other BAs, environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, pH. In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolising BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances are addressed.

  11. Gene duplication and divergence affecting drug content in Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiblen, George D; Wenger, Jonathan P; Craft, Kathleen J; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Mehmedic, Zlatko; Treiber, Erin L; Marks, M David

    2015-12-01

    Cannabis sativa is an economically important source of durable fibers, nutritious seeds, and psychoactive drugs but few economic plants are so poorly understood genetically. Marijuana and hemp were crossed to evaluate competing models of cannabinoid inheritance and to explain the predominance of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) in marijuana compared with cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) in hemp. Individuals in the resulting F2 population were assessed for differential expression of cannabinoid synthase genes and were used in linkage mapping. Genetic markers associated with divergent cannabinoid phenotypes were identified. Although phenotypic segregation and a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the THCA/CBDA ratio were consistent with a simple model of codominant alleles at a single locus, the diversity of THCA and CBDA synthase sequences observed in the mapping population, the position of enzyme coding loci on the map, and patterns of expression suggest multiple linked loci. Phylogenetic analysis further suggests a history of duplication and divergence affecting drug content. Marijuana is distinguished from hemp by a nonfunctional CBDA synthase that appears to have been positively selected to enhance psychoactivity. An unlinked QTL for cannabinoid quantity may also have played a role in the recent escalation of drug potency. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Footwear traction and lower extremity noncontact injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannop, John W; Luo, Geng; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2013-11-01

    Football is the most popular high school sport; however, it has the highest rate of injury. Speculation has been prevalent that foot fixation due to high footwear traction contributes to injury risk. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine whether a relationship exists between the athlete's specific footwear traction (measured with their own shoes on the field of play) and lower extremity noncontact injury in high school football. For 3 yr, 555 high school football athletes had their footwear traction measured on the actual field of play at the start of the season, and any injury the athletes suffered during a game was recorded. Lower extremity noncontact injury rates, grouped based on the athlete's specific footwear traction (both translational and rotational), were compared. For translational traction, injury rate reached a peak of 23.3 injuries/1000 game exposures within the midrange of translational traction, before decreasing to 5.0 injuries/1000 game exposures in the high range of traction. For rotational traction, there was a steady increase in injury rate as footwear traction increased, starting at 4.2 injuries/1000 game exposures at low traction and reaching 19.2 injuries/1000 game exposures at high traction. A relationship exists between footwear traction and noncontact lower extremity injury, with increases in rotational traction leading to a greater injury rate and increases in translational traction leading to a decrease in injury. It is recommended that athletes consider selecting footwear with the lowest rotational traction values for which no detriment in performance results.

  13. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  14. The effect of cavernous nerve traction on erectile function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Chen, Liping; Wang, Tao; Wang, Shaogang; Liu, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    We performed this study to evaluate the effect of cavernous nerve (CN) traction on erectile function in rats. Thirty-two 8- week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, 1-minute CN traction, 2-minute CN traction, and 2-minute CN crush. CN traction was performed using a glass hook with a tensile force of 0.2 Newton. One month later, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and intracavernosal pressure (ICP) in response to CN stimulation were measured to assess erectile function. The penis and major pelvic ganglion (MPG) were harvested to explore the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and neurofilament, fibrosis and apoptosis. The ICP/MAP ratio was reduced in the 2-minute CN traction group compared with the control group (P dorsal penile nerve was lower in the CN traction group than in the control group, but was higher than in the CN crush group (P Nerve fiber number in the dorsal penile nerve was reduced by 2-minute CN traction (P < 0.05). The ratios of collagen to smooth muscle content and the apoptosis were both increased the in 2-minute CN traction group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The findings indicate that CN traction is an effective CN injury model and the injury it caused is relatively mild compared with the CN crush model.

  15. Cadmium content of plants as affected by soil cadmium concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehoczky, E. [Pannon Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Keszthely (Hungary); Szabados, I.; Marth, P. [Plant Health and Soil Conservation Station, Higany (Hungary)

    1996-12-31

    Pot experiments were conducted in greenhouse conditions to study the effects of increasing cadmium (Cd) levels on biomass production and Cd contents in corn, (Zea mays L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Plants were grown in two soil types: Eutric cambisol soil and A gleyic luvisol soil. Spinach proved to be the most sensitive to Cd treatments as its biomass considerably decreased with the increasing Cd levels. Cadmium contents of the three crops increased with increasing levels of Cd applications. Statistical differences were observed in the Cd contents of crops depending on soil type. With the same Cd rates, Cd tissue concentration of test plants grown in the strongly acidic Gleyic luvisol soil were many times higher than that of plants grown in a neutral Eutric cambisol soil. 14 refs., 4 tabs.

  16. Flow mechanotransduction regulates traction forces, intercellular forces, and adherens junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Lucas H.; Jahn, Jessica R.; Jung, Joon I.; Shuman, Benjamin R.; Feghhi, Shirin; Han, Sangyoon J.; Rodriguez, Marita L.

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial cells respond to fluid shear stress through mechanotransduction responses that affect their cytoskeleton and cell-cell contacts. Here, endothelial cells were grown as monolayers on arrays of microposts and exposed to laminar or disturbed flow to examine the relationship among traction forces, intercellular forces, and cell-cell junctions. Cells under laminar flow had traction forces that were higher than those under static conditions, whereas cells under disturbed flow had lower traction forces. The response in adhesion junction assembly matched closely with changes in traction forces since adherens junctions were larger in size for laminar flow and smaller for disturbed flow. Treating the cells with calyculin-A to increase myosin phosphorylation and traction forces caused an increase in adherens junction size, whereas Y-27362 cause a decrease in their size. Since tugging forces across cell-cell junctions can promote junctional assembly, we developed a novel approach to measure intercellular forces and found that these forces were higher for laminar flow than for static or disturbed flow. The size of adherens junctions and tight junctions matched closely with intercellular forces for these flow conditions. These results indicate that laminar flow can increase cytoskeletal tension while disturbed flow decreases cytoskeletal tension. Consequently, we found that changes in cytoskeletal tension in response to shear flow conditions can affect intercellular tension, which in turn regulates the assembly of cell-cell junctions. PMID:22447948

  17. A porcelain gallbladder affecting the assessment of bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, J; Pouliart, C; Raeman, F; Williame, L; Vandevivere, J

    1990-10-01

    Dual-photon absorptiometry is a reliable method for the assessment of bone mineral content (BMC). The presence of focal bone disease, degenerative joint disease, or aortic calcifications may complicate the evaluation of BMC and may lead to erroneous findings. The misleading effect of a porcelain gallbladder is described.

  18. Does Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge Affect Their Fluency Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Hurk, H. T. G.; Houtveen, A. A. M.; Van de Grift, W. J. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    The relation is studied between teachers' pedagogical content knowledge of reading and the quality of their subsequent classroom behaviour in teaching fluent reading. A confirmatory factor analysis model with two latent variables is tested and shows adequate goodness-of-fit indices. Contrary to our expectations, the results of structural equation…

  19. Factors affecting the methanol content and yield of plum brandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Woodams, Edward E; Hang, Yong D

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the influence of plum cultivar, harvest year, and plum component on the methanol content and the yield of plum brandy. Seven plum cultivars (Geneva Mirabelle, French Damson, Pozegaca, Oblinaya, Early Golden, Lohr, and Rosy Gage) grown in the Finger Lakes fruit region of New York State were processed into mash and juice. The samples of plum mash or juice were fermented with commercial Red Star wine yeast Montrachet (Sachharomyces cerevisiae Davis 522) for 12 d. The fermented samples were distilled, and the distillates were analyzed for methanol, ethanol, and higher alcohols by high-performance liquid chromatography. Duncan's multiple range tests show significant differences in the methanol content and the yield of plum brandy made from 7 plum cultivars. The harvest year also had a significant effect on the methanol content and the yield of plum brandy. Student's t-test results indicate that plum juices gave a lower methanol content of brandy than plum mashes without significantly reducing the brandy yield. The results of the current research can be used by the industry to select the better plum cultivar and to adopt the process to improve the product yield and quality. The brandy industry can apply the results of the current research to improve product yield and to reduce the methanol content of plum brandy. The economic benefits to the brandy producers adopting the brandy production process will be significant due to the sales of new products with an acceptable level of methanol. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Bitemporal hair loss related to traction alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Moreno-Arrones, Oscar; Vañó-Galván, Sergio

    2016-09-15

    We present a 24-year-old woman that had received a diagnosis of alopecia areata in the past and was treated with topical 19 corticosteroids with little improvement. Instead, the patient exhibited bitemporal alopecia of one year of evolution related to 20 traction alopecia. Traction alopecia is characterized by localized hair loss related to persistent excessive traction. Although it is 21 initially a reversible condition, if this excessive traction is not removed permanent alopecia may develop.

  1. [Preoperative management with skeletal traction in distal tibial fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Otero, Alejandro; Mafara Flores, Gerardo; Rodríguez Ramírez, Sixto; Martínez Flores, Lucio

    2007-01-01

    To describe the immediate management of distal tibial fractures as well as the complications of soft and bony tissues. Prospective review of 45 patients with distal tibial fractures during an 8-month period (August 1st 2005 to March 31st 2006). They were classified according to Rüedi and Allgöwer. Seventy-one percent were managed with transcalcaneal skeletal traction and 28% with Jones bandage. The neovascular status of the affected anatomical segment was reviewed and analyzed before and after the surgical procedure. Type II distal fractures were the most frequent ones, with the left size and the male gender as predominant. Skeletal traction was used in 32 patients (71%); osteosynthesis was performed in all cases. When compared with Jones bandage, transcalcaneal skeletal traction improved the clinical conditions of the distal segment of the leg before and after the surgical procedure.

  2. How the emotional content of discourse affects language comprehension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jiménez-Ortega

    Full Text Available Emotion effects on cognition have often been reported. However, only few studies investigated emotional effects on subsequent language processing, and in most cases these effects were induced by non-linguistic stimuli such as films, faces, or pictures. Here, we investigated how a paragraph of positive, negative, or neutral emotional valence affects the processing of a subsequent emotionally neutral sentence, which contained either semantic, syntactic, or no violation, respectively, by means of event-related brain potentials (ERPs. Behavioral data revealed strong effects of emotion; error rates and reaction times increased significantly in sentences preceded by a positive paragraph relative to negative and neutral ones. In ERPs, the N400 to semantic violations was not affected by emotion. In the syntactic experiment, however, clear emotion effects were observed on ERPs. The left anterior negativity (LAN to syntactic violations, which was not visible in the neutral condition, was present in the negative and positive conditions. This is interpreted as reflecting modulatory effects of prior emotions on syntactic processing, which is discussed in the light of three alternative or complementary explanations based on emotion-induced cognitive styles, working memory, and arousal models. The present effects of emotion on the LAN are especially remarkable considering that syntactic processing has often been regarded as encapsulated and autonomous.

  3. Effect of lumbar traction on stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, R S; Ossey, S; Fourie, G

    1990-06-01

    Ten subjects were given lumbar traction for each of three time periods. Traction forces of one third of body weight were used. Stature was measured before and after traction and before and after three control periods of crook lying (lying supine with the knees flexed at 90 degrees and the feet resting on the traction table). ANOVA was used to test the hypotheses that traction and time in traction were significantly related to stature increase. Traction had significant effects on stature. The mean stature increase was 8.94 mm after 25 minutes traction compared with 3.33 mm after 25 minutes crook lying. Time in traction also had significant effects on stature increase which was most rapid during the first 15 minutes of traction. These findings can be related to the use of stature measurement as an index of spinal loading and the possible implications for treatment. However, since only healthy, young subjects were used and only one magnitude of traction was applied, the findings should be interpreted with caution. Further investigations would overcome these limitations.

  4. Plica neuropathica causing traction alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pavithran

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A middle aged woman developed matting of the hairs of the scalp following use of a home made shampoo that contained leaves of Hibiscus rosasiensis. The entangled and matted hair mass in the occipital region pulled hairs of the vertex region of the scalp, resulting in a patch of traction alopecia. Release of tension on the hairs by cutting them with scissors prevented further extension of alopecia.

  5. A joint protocol for home skeletal traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, C R; McBryde, A M

    1997-01-01

    Cost-effective delivery of quality patient care is a major focus of the orthopaedic advanced practice nurse's practice. Long-term skeletal traction therapy for select fractures of the pelvis remains a treatment option for certain patients. The purposes of this article are to describe the development of a joint proposal for home skeletal traction therapy and to analyze the cost savings involved by reviewing a case study of a home traction patient.

  6. Traction Control System for Motorcycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardinale Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Traction control is a widely used control system to increase stability and safety of four wheel vehicles. Automatic stability control is used in the BMW K1200R motorcycle and in motoGP competition, but not in other motorcycles. This paper presents an algorithm and a low-cost real-time hardware implementation for motorcycles. A prototype has been developed, applied on a commercial motorcycle, and tested in a real track. The control system that can be tuned by the driver during the race has been appreciated by the test driver.

  7. Review of Lower Extremity Traction in Current Orthopaedic Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matullo, Kristofer S; Gangavalli, Anup; Nwachuku, Chinenye

    2016-09-01

    Although methods of traction for temporizing and definitive treatment of orthopaedic injuries are described in dated textbooks, current literature and recommendations on the use of skin and skeletal traction in orthopaedic trauma are lacking. Elaborate traction schemas have been described, but few of them have been retained in practice and even fewer have been supported by scientific data. Several options exist for traction modalities that involve the pelvis and lower extremities, including portable traction devices and traction pins.

  8. The effect of cavernous nerve traction on erectile function in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    Full Text Available We performed this study to evaluate the effect of cavernous nerve (CN traction on erectile function in rats. Thirty-two 8- week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, 1-minute CN traction, 2-minute CN traction, and 2-minute CN crush. CN traction was performed using a glass hook with a tensile force of 0.2 Newton. One month later, the mean arterial pressure (MAP and intracavernosal pressure (ICP in response to CN stimulation were measured to assess erectile function. The penis and major pelvic ganglion (MPG were harvested to explore the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS and neurofilament, fibrosis and apoptosis. The ICP/MAP ratio was reduced in the 2-minute CN traction group compared with the control group (P < 0.05. The ICP/MAP ratio in the CN crush group was lower than in the other three groups (P < 0.05, for each. Expression of nNOS in both MPG and dorsal penile nerve was lower in the CN traction group than in the control group, but was higher than in the CN crush group (P < 0.05. Nerve fiber number in the dorsal penile nerve was reduced by 2-minute CN traction (P < 0.05. The ratios of collagen to smooth muscle content and the apoptosis were both increased the in 2-minute CN traction group compared with the control group (P < 0.05. The findings indicate that CN traction is an effective CN injury model and the injury it caused is relatively mild compared with the CN crush model.

  9. skeletal traction and intramedullary nailing cost-effectiveness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    form of tables, and figures. Results: Males were more affected than females, with a mean age of 31.5 years. The mean length of hospital stay was 11.48 days for the operative group and 66.7 days for the skeletal traction group. The average total hospital cost for the operative group was Kshs 54, 380.44 (US$640) compared ...

  10. Thermal properties of ration components as affected by moisture content and water activity during freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Chinachoti, P; Wang, D; Hallberg, L M; Sun, X S

    2008-11-01

    Beef roast with vegetables is an example of a meal, ready-to-eat (MRE) ration entrée. It is a mixture of meat, potato, mushroom, and carrot with a gravy sauce. The thermal properties of each component were characterized in terms of freezing point, latent heat, freezable and unfreezable water contents, and enthalpy during freezing using differential scanning calorimetry. Freezing and thawing curves and the effect of freezing and thawing cycles on thermal properties were also evaluated. The freezing points of beef, potato, mushroom, and sauce were all in the range of -5.1 to -5.6 degrees C, but moisture content, water activity, latent heat, freezable and unfreezable water contents, and enthalpy varied among these components. Freezing temperature greatly affected the unfrozen water fraction. The unfreezable water content (unfrozen water fraction at -50 degrees C) of ration components was in the range of 8.2% to 9.7%. The freezing and thawing curves of vegetables with sauce differed from those of beef but took similar time to freeze or thaw. Freezing and thawing cycles did not greatly affect the thermal properties of each component. Freezing point and latent heat were reduced by decreasing moisture content and water activity of each component. Water activity was proportionally linear to freezing point at a(w) > 0.88, and moisture content was proportionally linear to freezable water content in all ration components. Water was not available for freezing when moisture content was reduced to 28.8% or less. This study indicates that moisture content and water activity are critical factors affecting thermal behavior of ration components during freezing.

  11. Distraction of lumbar vertebrae in gravitational traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekeoglu, I; Adak, B; Bozkurt, M; Gürbüzoglu, N

    1998-05-01

    Experimental study of 30 patients diagnosed with low back pain resulting from lumbar disc herniation, disc degeneration, and segmental instability. Patients underwent gravitational traction, and widening of the intervertebral space and posterior facets was measured on radiographs. This same procedure was performed with a group of 30 healthy individuals. To determine the effect of gravitational traction on the widening of the intervertebral space and the other vertebral structures in patients with low back pain and in healthy individuals. Gravitational traction is performed by suspending the patient in a hanging, upright position for an extended period of time. In spite of disagreement among authors about the effect of lumbar traction, recent innovations have enabled the distraction of vertebrae. A specially designed apparatus was used to apply gravitational traction. Pre- and post-traction radiographs were obtained to study the changes in the L2-L3, L3-L4, L4-L5, and L5-S1 intervertebral spaces; Ferguson's angle; L1-S1 total distance; and blood pressure. Distraction was more than approximately 3 mm in each intervertebral space in both groups. Gravitational traction had a very apparent effect on intervertebral space and was found to be an effective method to distract lumbar vertebrae. Discomfort experienced by the patient during suspension may be overcome by making biomedical changes to the suspension corset.

  12. Variability in the contents of pork meat nutrients and how it may affect food composition databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Milagro; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel

    2013-10-01

    Pork meat is generally recognised as a food with relevant nutritional properties because of its content in high biological value proteins, group B vitamins, minerals especially heme iron, trace elements and other bioactive compounds. But pork meat also contributes to the intake of fat, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and other substances that, in inappropriate amounts, may result in negative physiologically effects. However, there are relevant factors affecting the content of many of these substances and somehow such variability should be taken into consideration. So, genetics, age and even type of muscle have a relevant influence on the amount of fat and the contents in heme iron. Also the composition in fatty acids of triacylglycerols is very sensitive to the contents of cereals in the feed; for instance, polyunsaturated fatty acids may range from 10% to 22% in pork meat. The content of other nutrients, like vitamins E and A, are also depending on the type of feed. Some bioactive substances like coenzyme Q10, taurine, glutamine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine and anserine show a large dependence on the type of muscle. This manuscript describes the main factors affecting the composition of pork meat nutrients and how these changes may affect the general food composition databases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Affect, Verbal Content, and Psychophysiology in the Arguments of Couples with a Violent Husband.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Neil S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Studied affect, psychophysiology, and verbal content of arguments in 60 couples with violent husband. Found that no wife behaviors successfully suppressed husband violence once it began; husband violence escalated in response to nonviolent and violent wife behaviors. Both battering husbands and their wives were angrier than their maritally…

  14. The thiamine content of phytoplankton cells is affected by abiotic stress and growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvander, Peter; Häubner, Norbert; Snoeijs, Pauline

    2013-04-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) is produced by many plants, algae and bacteria, but by higher trophic levels, it must be acquired through the diet. We experimentally investigated how the thiamine content of six phytoplankton species belonging to five different phyla is affected by abiotic stress caused by changes in temperature, salinity and photon flux density. Correlations between growth rate and thiamine content per cell were negative for the five eukaryotic species, but not for the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena. We demonstrate a high variability in thiamine content among phytoplankton species, with the highest content in N. spumigena. Salinity was the factor with the strongest effect, followed by temperature and photon flux density, although the responses varied between the investigated phytoplankton species. Our results suggest that regime shifts in phytoplankton community composition through large-scale environmental changes has the potential to alter the thiamine availability for higher trophic levels. A decreased access to this essential vitamin may have serious consequences for aquatic food webs.

  15. Growth rate and medium composition strongly affect folate content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortmo, Sofia; Patring, Johan; Andlid, Thomas

    2008-03-31

    Folate content in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was monitored during aerobic batch fermentation in synthetic growth medium, yeast peptone dextrose medium, and a molasses based medium. During growth in the synthetic medium large differences in intracellular folate content was observed at different phases. Specific folate levels, expressed per unit biomass, were highest during respiro-fermentative growth (120 microg/g) and decreased during the respiratory and stationary phases. Thus, the physiological state of the cells clearly affects the folate content. This was confirmed in chemostat cultures where total intracellular folate content increased linearly with increasing growth rate (r(2)=0.998), indicating high growth rate i.e. respiro-fermentative growth to be most favourable to obtain high specific folate content. In complex media however, much lower folate content (15-40 microg/g) was found throughout the batch growth. Only minor growth-phase related differences were detected. This shows the impact of cultivation medium on folate content in yeast. To further investigate which components that influence folate content, batch experiments in synthetic medium with addition of specific components were performed. Adding a raw mixture of peptides and amino acids (peptone) decreased folate levels extensively (90%) whereas adding amino acids one-by-one only had minor effects on the intracellular folate content. Furthermore, supplementing synthetic medium with pABA, folate or nucleotides did not change the intracellular folate content. This work constitutes the first steps towards an optimised process for production of natural folates for fortification purposes, as well as an effort to gain fundamental understanding of folate requirements in yeast in relation to environmental conditions.

  16. Traction Forces exerted by crawling cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Latorre, Baldomero; Del Alamo, Juan C.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Aliseda, Alberto; Meili, Rudolph; Firtel, Richard; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2006-11-01

    We measure the forces exerted by Dictyostelium discoideum cells crawling over a deformable substrate from the displacements of fluorescent beads embedded in it. A particle tracking technique similar to PIV is used to obtain the displacements. From them, forces are computed by solving the elasto-static equation in a finite thickness slab. We will show that the finite thickness of the substrate and the distance of the beads to its surface affect substantially the results, although previous traction cytometry techniques neglected them. The measured forces are correlated to the different stages of the crawling cycle for various cell strains. It has been observed that a large fraction of the forces measured on the substrate are originated by the cell's internal tension through all the stages of motion, including the protrusion of pseudopods. This result suggests that the viscous drag exerted by the fluid in which the cells are immersed is very small compared to the forces applied by the cytoskeleton on the substrate.

  17. Does overhead irrigation with salt affect growth, yield, and phenolic content of lentil plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannakoula Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Overhead irrigation of lentil plants with salt (100 mM NaCl did not have any significant impact on plant growth, while chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm were affected. Under such poor irrigation water quality, the malondialdehyde content in leaves was increased due to the lipid peroxidation of membranes. In seeds, the total phenolic content (TPC was correlated to their total antioxidant capacity (TAC. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS detection showed that flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, rutin, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid and resveratrol appear to be the compounds with the greatest influence on the TAC values. Catechin is the most abundant phenolic compound in lentil seeds. Overhead irrigation with salt reduced the concentration of almost all phenolic compounds analyzed from lentil seed extracts.

  18. User-directed Sentiment Analysis: Visualizing the Affective Content of Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Chinchor, Nancy; Whitney, Paul D.; Carter, Richard J.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-07-01

    Recent advances in text analysis have led to finer-grained semantic analysis, including automatic sentiment analysis—the task of measuring documents, or chunks of text, based on emotive categories, such as positive or negative. However, considerably less progress has been made on efficient ways of exploring these measurements. This paper discusses approaches for visualizing the affective content of documents and describes an interactive capability for exploring emotion in a large document collection

  19. Local production of skeletal traction pins to improve access to skeletal traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhum, Murtaza; Mannion, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    Femoral fractures represent a substantial orthopaedic injury. In the developed world, closed reduction and locked intramedullary nailing is recognized as the optimal treatment. In the less developed world, the use of skeletal traction remains limited by cost and availability of traction pins, which are obtained from orthopaedic companies in the UK or Indian subcontinent. This study aimed to establish whether traction pins may be manufactured locally in resource-limited countries from cut down stainless steel rods. The overall costs for traction pins were obtained from five UK, Indian subcontinent-based companies and metal fabrication shops in Africa. Strict design specifications were provided. The mean price for 100 Steinmann pins was$428 in the Indian subcontinent,$96 in Malawi,$105 in Kenya and$244 in Tanzania. Our results indicate that Steinmann pins may be manufactured locally in resource-limited countries at a significantly cheaper price, which may increase the access to skeletal traction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Biases for affective versus sexual content in multidimensional scaling analysis: an individual difference perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prause, Nicole; Moholy, Maxwell; Staley, Cameron

    2014-04-01

    Visual sexual stimuli can motivate sexual behaviors that can risk or enhance health. How one allocates attention to a sexually motivating stimulus may be important for predicting its effect on sexual feelings, sexual risk behaviors, and sexual problems. A large sample (N = 157) of men and women rated the similarity of all possible pairs of photographs of women, which had been pretested to vary in their sexual and affective content. Multidimensional scaling was used to extract two dimensions of sex and affect, including the extent to which each person relied on each dimension in making their similarity judgments. These individual weights were then used to predict sexual variables of interest. Participants who relied more on the affect information judging photograph similarity were more likely to be female, viewed erotica less frequently, reported fewer sexual partners, reported less sexual desire, and more sexual problems. Those who relied more on the erotic content in making their similarity judgments were more likely to be male, viewed more erotica weekly, experienced higher sexual desire, and were more likely to have taken an HIV test. The "double edge sword" of attention weight to affect in sexual cues is discussed for its potential to both enhance and harm sexual health.

  1. Affect, Behavior, Cognition, and Desire in the Big Five: An Analysis of Item Content and Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Joshua; Revelle, William

    2015-01-01

    Personality psychology is concerned with affect (A), behavior (B), cognition (C) and desire (D), and personality traits have been defined conceptually as abstractions used to either explain or summarize coherent ABC (and sometimes D) patterns over time and space. However, this conceptual definition of traits has not been reflected in their operationalization, possibly resulting in theoretical and practical limitations to current trait inventories. Thus, the goal of this project was to determine the affective, behavioral, cognitive and desire (ABCD) components of Big-Five personality traits. The first study assessed the ABCD content of items measuring Big-Five traits in order to determine the ABCD composition of traits and identify items measuring relatively high amounts of only one ABCD content. The second study examined the correlational structure of scales constructed from items assessing ABCD content via a large, web-based study. An assessment of Big-Five traits that delineates ABCD components of each trait is presented, and the discussion focuses on how this assessment builds upon current approaches of assessing personality.

  2. Vertical instability in spondylolisthesis: a traction radiographic assessment technique and the principle of management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Keith D K; Chow, Daniel H K; Holmes, Andrew

    2003-04-15

    correlated with the change in normalized olisthesis and disc area. Erect flexion and prone traction radiographs represent the extremes of subluxation and reduction of the olisthesis, respectively, and the change in olisthesis seen between these extremes is correlated with the change in disc area and the intervertebral slip angle. Vertical laxity of the affected functional spinal unit resulting from disc degeneration produces laxity in the ligaments and disc anulus, allowing olisthetic motion. Restoration of disc height in turn restores tension to the soft tissues around the disc and results in a spontaneous reduction of the subluxation. Restoration and maintenance of disc height with a spacer or interbody fusion therefore is recommended as a goal in the treatment of spondylolisthesis. When spondylolytic spondylolisthesis involves a posterior column deficiency, additional reconstruction of this column with posterior instrumentation is recommended. Application of the traction radiographic technique in planning for spondylolisthesis reduction is discussed along with the technique of stabilization.

  3. Inverted Nipple Correction with Selective Dissection of Lactiferous Ducts Using an Operative Microscope and a Traction Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, Yoshihiro; Itsukage, Sizu; Morita, Daiki; Numajiri, Toshiaki

    2017-10-01

    An inverted nipple is a common congenital condition in young women that may cause breastfeeding difficulty, psychological distress, repeated inflammation, and loss of sensation. Various surgical techniques have been reported for correction of inverted nipples, and all have advantages and disadvantages. Here, we report a new technique for correction of an inverted nipple using an operative microscope and traction that results in low recurrence and preserves lactation function and sensation. Between January 2010 and January 2013, we treated eight inverted nipples in seven patients with selective lactiferous duct dissection using an operative microscope. An opposite Z-plasty was added at the junction of the nipple and areola. Postoperatively, traction was applied through an apparatus made from a rubber gasket attached to a sterile syringe. Patients were followed up for 15-48 months. Adequate projection was achieved in all patients, and there was no wound dehiscence or complications such as infection. Three patients had successful pregnancies and subsequent breastfeeding that was not adversely affected by the treatment. There was no loss of sensation in any patient during the postoperative period. Our technique for treating an inverted nipple is effective and preserves lactation function and nipple sensation. The method maintains traction for a longer period, which we believe increases the success rate of the surgery for correction of severely inverted nipples. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  4. Classifying the wandering mind: revealing the affective content of thoughts during task-free rest periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusche, Anita; Smallwood, Jonathan; Bernhardt, Boris C; Singer, Tania

    2014-08-15

    Many powerful human emotional thoughts are generated in the absence of a precipitating event in the environment. Here, we tested whether we can decode the valence of internally driven, self-generated thoughts during task-free rest based on neural similarities with task-related affective mental states. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while participants generated positive and negative thoughts as part of an attribution task (Session A) and while they reported the occurrence of comparable mental states during task-free rest periods (Session B). With the use of multivariate pattern analyses (MVPA), we identified response patterns in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) that encode the affective content of thoughts that are generated in response to an external experimental cue. Importantly, these task driven response patterns reliably predicted the occurrence of affective thoughts generated during unconstrained rest periods recorded one week apart. This demonstrates that at least certain elements of task-cued and task-free affective experiences rely on a common neural code. Furthermore, our findings reveal the role that the mOFC plays in determining the affective tone of unconstrained thoughts. More generally, our results suggest that MVPA is an important methodological tool for attempts to understand unguided subject driven mental states such as mind-wandering and daydreaming based on neural similarities with task-based experiences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. F-deformations and f-tractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, M

    1973-06-01

    Let M(n) be a compact, connected topological manifold and F a continuous mapping of M(n) into R that is "topologically nondegenerate" in the sense of (Morse, M. (1959) J. d'Analyse Math., 7, 189-208). Let c be a value of F and set F(c) = {pinM(n)|F(p) differentiable case. F-Deformations and F-tractions make this possible. F-Tractions are here defined and replace retracting deformations used in the differentiable case. The final relations will serve as a model for similar relations between critical extremals of Weierstrass integrals on Riemannian manifolds.

  6. Trauma-related dreams of Australian veterans with PTSD: content, affect and phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Andrea J; Forbes, David; Hopwood, Malcolm; Creamer, Mark

    2011-10-01

    Consensus on the parameters of trauma-related dreams required to meet criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is critical when: (i) the diagnosis requires a single re-experiencing symptom; and (ii) trauma dreams are prevalent in survivors without PTSD. This study investigated the phenomenology of PTSD dreams in 40 veterans, using structured interview and self-report measures. Dream content varied between replay, non-replay, and mixed, but affect was largely the same as that experienced at the time of trauma across all dream types. ANOVA indicated no difference between dream types on PTSD severity or nightmare distress. The findings provide preliminary support for non-replay dreams to satisfy the DSM B2 diagnostic criterion when the affect associated with those dreams is the same as that experienced at the time of the traumatic event.

  7. The setup and care of a patient in Buck's traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, T

    1999-01-01

    Buck's traction is certainly one of the more common traction setups seen in orthopaedic patient care today. However, just because it is common doesn't mean we can take it for granted. Specific setup techniques as well as patient evaluation methods must be understood if the traction is to accomplish its task. The goal of this article is to go through some of the basics in techniques and perhaps explain why this traction is so commonly used.

  8. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CONVERTER STRUCTURES OF THE TRACTION DRIVE PROSPECTIVE MULTI-SYSTEM ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES WITH DC TRACTION MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Muha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the structured schemes of steady-state converter are offered for traction drive of promising multisystem electric locomotives with traction engines of direct current and their comparative analysis is conducted.

  9. Facial nerve paralysis after cervical traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Edmund Cheung

    2010-10-01

    Cervical traction is a frequently used treatment in rehabilitation clinics for cervical spine problems. This modality works, in principle, by decompressing the spinal cord or its nerve roots by applying traction on the cervical spine through a harness placed over the mandible (Olivero et al., Neurosurg Focus 2002;12:ECP1). Previous reports on treatment complications include lumbar radicular discomfort, muscle injury, neck soreness, and posttraction pain (LaBan et al., Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992;73:295-6; Lee et al., J Biomech Eng 1996;118:597-600). Here, we report the first case of unilateral facial nerve paralysis developed after 4 wks of intermittent cervical traction therapy. Nerve conduction velocity examination revealed a peripheral-type facial nerve paralysis. Symptoms of facial nerve paralysis subsided after prednisolone treatment and suspension of traction therapy. It is suspected that a misplaced or an overstrained harness may have been the cause of facial nerve paralysis in this patient. Possible causes were (1) direct compression by the harness on the right facial nerve near its exit through the stylomastoid foramen; (2) compression of the right external carotid artery by the harness, causing transient ischemic injury at the geniculate ganglion; or (3) coincidental herpes zoster virus infection or idiopathic Bell's palsy involving the facial nerve.

  10. Reducing Shoulder by Vertical Traction: A One-Man Method for Shoulder Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Ahmad Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty percent of joint dislocations reported to the emergency department are of shoulder joint. Various techniques are used to reduce the shoulder and Spaso technique is the least known to the orthopaedic residents which is a simple one-man vertical traction method of shoulder reduction. We evaluated the effectiveness of vertical traction method for anterior shoulder dislocation by orthopaedic residents. Sixty consecutive patients of anterior glenohumeral dislocation attending the emergency department of our hospital were taken up for the study. The reduction was done using Spaso technique. Right shoulder was dislocated in 40 patients and 31 patients had recurrent shoulder dislocation. In 55 patients, shoulder was reduced without the use of any anaesthesia. In patients where no anaesthesia was used, the time of traction ranged from 45 seconds to 5 minutes, while under anaesthesia the time of traction ranged from 1 to 4 minutes. Twenty-one patients had associated greater tuberosity fracture which did not affect the method of reduction and all of them were reducible. No complication was reported, and all the patients were satisfied with the method. In conclusion vertical traction method is a good technique for reducing anterior shoulder dislocation with an easy learning curve among the residents and no complication has been reported so far.

  11. Surgical Management of Symptomatic Olecranon Traction Spurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, Hasham M; Kalainov, David M; Biswas, Debdut; Soneru, Alexander P; Cohen, Mark S

    2014-07-01

    There is a paucity of information pertaining to the pathoanatomy and treatment of symptomatic olecranon traction spurs. To describe the pathoanatomy of olecranon traction spur formation, a technique for spur resection, and a series of patients who failed conservative care and underwent operative treatment. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Eleven patients (12 elbows) with a mean age of 42 years (range, 27-62 years) underwent excision of a painful olecranon traction spur after failing conservative care. Charts and imaging studies were reviewed. All patients returned for evaluation and new elbow radiographs at an average of 34 months (range, 10-78 months). Outcome measures included the Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaire; the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS); visual analog scales (VAS) for pain and patient satisfaction; elbow motion; elbow strength; and elbow stability. The traction spur was found in the superficial fibers of the distal triceps tendon in all cases. The mean QuickDASH score was 3 (range, 0-23), the mean MEPS score was 96 (range, 80-100), the mean VAS pain score was 0.8 (range, 0-3), and the mean VAS satisfaction score was 9.6 (range, 7-10). Average elbow motion measured 3° to 138° (preoperative average, 5°-139°). All patients exhibited normal elbow flexion and extension strength, and all elbows were deemed stable. Early postoperative complications involved a wound seroma in 1 case and olecranon bursitis in 1 case: both problems resolved without additional surgery. Two patients eventually developed a recurrent traction spur, 1 of whom underwent successful repeat spur excision 48 months after the index operation. Short- to mid-term patient and examiner-determined outcomes after olecranon traction spur resection were acceptable in our experience. Early postoperative complications and recurrent enthesophyte formation were uncommon. This study provides the treating physician with an improved understanding of

  12. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...... a theoretical approach, which takes complexity as fundamental premise for modern society (Luhmann, 1985, 2002). In educational situations conditionally valuable content generally will exceed what can actually be taught within the frames of an education. In pedagogy this situation is often referred...... to as ‘abundance of material’, and in many cases it is not obvious, how the line between actually chosen and conditionally relevant content can be draw. Difficulties in drawing the line between actual educational content and conditionally relevant content can be handled in different way. One way, quite efficient...

  13. Procyanidin content of grape seed and pomace, and total anthocyanin content of grape pomace as affected by extrusion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, R C; Howard, L R; Prior, R L

    2009-08-01

    Grape juice processing by-products, grape seed and pomace are a rich source of procyanidins, compounds that may afford protection against chronic disease. This study was undertaken to identify optimal extrusion conditions to enhance the contents of monomers and dimers at the expense of large molecular weight procyanidin oligomers and polymers in grape seed and pomace. Extrusion variables, temperature (160, 170, and 180 degrees C in grape seed, and 160, 170, 180, and 190 degrees C in pomace) and screw speed (100, 150, and 200 rpm in both) were tested using mixtures of grape seed as well as pomace with decorticated white sorghum flour at a ratio of 30 : 70 and moisture content of 45%. Samples of grape seed and pomace were analyzed for procyanidin composition before and after extrusion, and total anthocyanins were determined in pomace. Additionally, chromatograms from diol and normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography were compared for the separation of procyanidins. Extrusion of both grape by-products increased the biologically important monomer and dimers considerably across all temperature and screw speeds. Highest monomer content resulted when extruded at a temperature of 170 degrees C and screw speed of 200 rpm, which were 120% and 80% higher than the unextruded grape seed and pomace, respectively. Increases in monomer and dimer contents were apparently the result of reduced polymer contents, which declined by 27% to 54%, or enhanced extraction facilitated by disruption of the food matrix during extrusion. Extrusion processing reduced total anthocyanins in pomace by 18% to 53%. Extrusion processing can be used to increase procyanidin monomer and dimer contents in grape seed and pomace. Procyanidins in grape by-products have many health benefits, but most are present as large molecular weight compounds, which are poorly absorbed. Extrusion processing appears to be a promising technology to increase levels of the bioactive low molecular weight

  14. Singing "the baby blues": a content analysis of popular press articles about postpartum affective disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, R; Johnston-Robledo, I; Ulsh, H M; Chrisler, J C

    2000-01-01

    A content analysis was conducted to evaluate the description of postpartum mood disturbances in magazine articles that appeared during the years 1980-1998. Nineteen articles about postpartum depression and eight articles about "the baby blues" were identified and analyzed for their discussion of etiologies, symptoms, treatments, resources, and demographic assumptions about their readers. The results indicate a strong bias in favor of the medical model of postpartum affective disorders. The articles contained contradictory information about the definition, prevalence, onset, duration, symptoms, and treatment of postpartum disorders, and the authors generally assumed that their readers were heterosexual, married, and middle class. Although the purpose of the articles was to educate readers about an important topic in women's health, they failed to provide accurate information, and thus are not a sufficient resource for new mothers who are seeking to learn about psychosocial aspects of the postpartum period.

  15. The nutritional content of prey affects the foraging of a generalist arthropod predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Schmidt

    Full Text Available While foraging theory predicts that predatory responses should be determined by the energy content and size of prey, it is becoming increasingly clear that carnivores regulate their intake of specific nutrients. We tested the hypothesis that prey nutrient composition and predator nutritional history affects foraging intensity, consumption, and prey selection by the wolf spider, Pardosa milvina. By altering the rearing environment for fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, we produced high quality flies containing more nitrogen and protein and less lipid than low quality fruit flies. In one experiment, we quantified the proportion of flies taken and consumption across a range of densities of either high or low quality flies and, in a second experiment, we determined the prey capture and consumption of spiders that had been maintained on contrasting diets prior to testing. In both cases, the proportion of prey captured declined with increasing prey density, which characterizes the Type II functional response that is typical of wolf spiders. Spiders with similar nutritional histories killed similar numbers of each prey type but consumed more of the low quality prey. Spiders provided high quality prey in the weeks prior to testing killed more prey than those on the low quality diet but there was no effect of prior diet on consumption. In the third experiment, spiders were maintained on contrasting diets for three weeks and then allowed to select from a mixture of high and low quality prey. Interestingly, feeding history affected prey preferences: spiders that had been on a low quality diet showed no preference but those on the high quality diet selected high quality flies from the mixture. Our results suggest that, even when prey size and species identity are controlled, the nutritional experience of the predator as well as the specific content of the prey shapes predator-prey interactions.

  16. Factors affecting the aluminium content of human femoral head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Dąbrowski, Mikołaj; Kubaszewski, Łukasz; Rogala, Piotr; Frankowski, Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Tissues for the study were obtained intraoperatively during hip replacement procedures from 96 patients. In all the cases, the indication for this treatment was primary or secondary degenerative changes in the hip joint. The subject of the study was the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ. Aluminium concentrations measured in femoral head and neck samples from patients aged between 25 and 91 were varied. Statistical methods were applied to determine the variations in relation to the parameters from the background survey. Significant differences in the aluminium content of femoral head samples were observed between patients under and over 60 years of age. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the aluminium accumulates in bones over a lifetime. The study showed that the content of aluminium in the head and neck of the femur depends on the factors such as: type of medicines taken, contact with chemicals at work, differences in body anatomy and sex. The study on the levels of aluminium in bones and the factors affecting its concentration is a valuable source of information for further research on the role of aluminium in bone diseases. Based on the investigations, it was found that the GF-AAS technique is the best analytical tool for routine analysis of aluminium in complex matrix samples. The use of femoral heads in the investigations was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the University of Medical Sciences in Poznań (Poland). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol content of chicken egg yolk as affected by the cholecalciferol content of feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, P; Lehikoinen, K; Kiiskinen, T; Piironen, V

    1999-10-01

    The predominant source of vitamin D is the synthesis of cholecalciferol in the skin by the action of sunlight; however, due to the relative lack of sunlight, the intake of vitamin D from food is emphasized during winter, especially in the northern countries. Only a few foods (fish, eggs, wild mushrooms, meat, and milk) are natural sources of vitamin D. In addition, the content of vitamin D in foods is generally low, and some groups of people obtain amounts of vitamin D that are too small from their diet. The present study was designed to determine whether it is possible to increase the vitamin D content of egg yolk by giving hens feed containing elevated levels of cholecalciferol. Three cholecalciferol levels were tested: 26.6 (1064), 62.4 (2496), and 216 microgram (8640 IU)/kg feed. Egg yolk samples were taken after 0, 4, 5, and 6 weeks and were assayed for the presence of cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol using an HPLC method. According to the present study, there was strong positive correlation between cholecalciferol content in poultry feed and cholecalciferol (r = 0. 995) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (r = 0.941) content in egg yolk.

  18. Reduced nicotine content cigarette advertising: How false beliefs and subjective ratings affect smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercincavage, Melissa; Saddleson, Megan L; Gup, Emily; Halstead, Angela; Mays, Darren; Strasser, Andrew A

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco advertising can create false beliefs about health harms that are reinforced by product design features. Reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes may reduce harm, but research has not addressed advertising influences. This study examined RNC cigarette advertising effects on false harm beliefs, and how these beliefs - along with initial subjective ratings of RNC cigarettes - affect subsequent smoking behaviors. We further explored whether subjective ratings moderate associations between false beliefs and behavior. Seventy-seven daily, non-treatment-seeking smokers (66.2% male) participated in the first 15days of a randomized, controlled, open-label RNC cigarette trial. Participants viewed an RNC cigarette advertisement at baseline before completing a 5-day period of preferred brand cigarette use, followed by a 10-day period of RNC cigarette use (0.6mg nicotine yield). Participants provided pre- and post-advertisement beliefs, and subjective ratings and smoking behaviors for cigarettes smoked during laboratory visits. Viewing the advertisement increased beliefs that RNC cigarettes contain less nicotine and are healthier than regular cigarettes (p'sbelief that they are less likely to cause cancer (p=0.046). Neither false beliefs nor subjective ratings directly affected smoking behaviors. Significant interactions of strength and taste ratings with beliefs (p'sbeliefs were associated with greater RNC cigarette consumption. Smokers may misconstrue RNC cigarettes as less harmful than regular cigarettes. These beliefs, in conjunction with favorable subjective ratings, may increase product use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Precarious employment conditions affect work content in education and social work: results of work analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Ana Maria; Messing, Karen; Riel, Jessica; Chatigny, Céline

    2007-01-01

    Work content is adversely affected by precarious employment conditions, with consequences for workers and clients/customers. Three examples are taken from professions involving long-term relations between workers and clients. Adult education teachers hired on short-term contracts to teach primarily immigrant populations prepare their courses under less favorable conditions than regular teachers and their employment context foments hostility among teachers. Special education technicians are hired on a seasonal basis which interferes with their ability to coordinate and plan their efforts in collaboration with teachers. Workers in shelters for women suffering conjugal violence who were hired on a casual or on-call basis were unable to follow up with women they helped during their shifts and more rarely engaged in one-on-one counseling. Precarious work contracts can affect mental health not only through employment insecurity but also through negative effects on the ability to do one's job and take pride in one's work, as well as weakening the interpersonal relationships on which successful, productive work depends.

  20. Alterations in lignin content and phenylpropanoids pathway in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) tissues affected by brittle leaf disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Mohammed Najib; Bouaziz, Donia; Hammami, Ines; Namsi, Ahmed; Drira, Noureddine; Gargouri-Bouzid, Radhia

    2013-10-01

    Brittle leaf disease or Maladie de la Feuille Cassante (MFC) is a lethal disorder of date palm that has assumed epidemic proportions in the oases of Tunisia and Algeria. No pathogen could ever be associated with the disease, while leaflets of affected palms have been previously shown to be deficient in manganese. The work reported here aims to understand the biochemical basis of the date palm response to this disorder. Since the typical disease symptom is the leaf fragility, we have investigated lignin content in leaves and roots. Strong decrease in total lignin content was observed in affected leaves, while lignin content increased in affected roots. Histochemical analyses showed hyperlignification thicker suberin layer in roots cortical cells. The phenylpropanoids pathway was also disrupted in leaves and roots, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression was affected by the disease which severely affects the cell wall integrity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear DNA content affects the productivity of conifer forests by altering hydraulic architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday, Josu; Resco de Dios, Víctor

    2014-05-01

    Predictions of future global climate rely on feedbacks between terrestrial vegetation and the global carbon cycle, but the exact mechanisms underlying this relationship are still being discussed. One of the key knowledge gaps lies on the scaling of cellular processes to the ecosystem level. Here we examine whether an under-explored plant trait, inter-specific variation in the bulk amount of DNA in unreplicated somatic cells (2C DNA content), can explain inter-specific variation in the maximum productivity of conifer forests. We expected 2C DNA content to be negatively related to conifer productivity because: 1) it is positively correlated with cell volume (which, in turn, potentially affects structural features such as leaf mass area, a strong predictor of photosynthetic capacity); 2) it is positively correlated with stomatal size (with larger stomata leading to lower overall stomatal conductance and, by extension, lower CO2 uptake); and 3) larger genome sizes may reduce P availability in RNA (which has been hypothesized to slow growth). We present the results of regression and independent contrasts in different monospecific forests encompassing a 52º latitudinal gradient, each being dominated by 1 of 35 different conifer species. Contrary to expectations, we observed a positive correlation between genome size and maximum Gross Primary Productivity (R2 = 0.47) and also between genome size maximum tree height (R2 = 0.27). This correlation was apparently driven by the effects of genome size on stem hydraulics, since 2C DNA was positively correlated with wood density (R2 = 0.40) and also with resistance to cavitation (P50, R2 = 0.28). That is, increased genome sizes have a positive effect on the productivity of conifer forests by affecting the vascular tissues to increase their capacity for water transport. Our results shed a new light on the evolution of the vascular system of conifer forests and how they affect ecosystem productivity, and indicate the potential to

  2. Odebode-Agaja adult cervical traction device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odebode, T O; Agaja, S B

    2011-01-01

    This technical note describes a new simple, cheap and affordable adult cervical traction device that is especially suitable for use in resource-poor third world countries because of its cost-effectiveness. While the widely used imported Gardner-Wells tongs cost over N250,000 (Nigerian) naira (approximately $1630 USD), the new equally effective, durable and locally readily available Odebode-Agaja traction device sells for N35,000 naira (approximately $220 USD). The device does not require scalp incision or skull drilling. It is designed for bedside application in patients with cervical spine injuries, including subluxation and fracture-dislocation of the cervical spine from the atlanto-occipital joint to T1.

  3. Confocal reference free traction force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Bergert, Martin; Lendenmann, Tobias; Z?ndel, Manuel; Ehret, Alexander E.; Panozzo, Daniele; Richner, Patrizia; Kim, David K.; Kress, Stephan J. P.; Norris, David J.; Sorkine-Hornung, Olga; Mazza, Edoardo; Poulikakos, Dimos; Ferrari, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical wiring between cells and their surroundings is fundamental to the regulation of complex biological processes during tissue development, repair or pathology. Traction force microscopy (TFM) enables determination of the actuating forces. Despite progress, important limitations with intrusion effects in low resolution 2D pillar-based methods or disruptive intermediate steps of cell removal and substrate relaxation in high-resolution continuum TFM methods need to be overcome. Here ...

  4. DEVELOPMENT TRENDS FOR ROLLING STOCK TRACTION MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Pasko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rolling stock on the railways of Ukraine has not been updated for many years, which has led to significant wear of the country electric and diesel locomotive fleet. A way out of the existing situation is execution of major overhaul with extension of locomotive life to allow their operation for several more years. Repair or upgrading as well as putting new rolling stock into operation must be accompanied by implementation of state-of-the-art traction electric drives.

  5. Nursing care about child with traction

    OpenAIRE

    HEIMLICHOVÁ, Blanka

    2010-01-01

    This bachleor work being titled ?Nursing care of children with traction? consists of two sections. The first section deals with theory, i.e. it represents a theoretical part which focuses on anatomy of bones, specific fractures of children?s fractures, children's accident frequency rate, diagnostics and fracture therapy, nursing process, hospital schools and volunteers at children?s wards. The second section deals with research. For the purpose of the research two goals have been established ...

  6. Instrumental evaluation of traction machines sparking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolobashkin Nikita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors considered the possibility of the sparking monitoring at a commutator of a traction motor under operating conditions. The authors developed a method for the evaluation of sparking level at the commutator by means of the current flowing through separate, isolated parts of the split brush recording. The relationship between an auxiliary commutation current and the sparkling level is revealed.

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of myopic traction maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Bo Ouyang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the broad application of optical coherence tomography and vitrectomy, combined with research efforts in maculopathy in high myopia have provided many achievements, such as the new classification of myopic traction maculopathy (MTM. Here, we review the latest developments in the diagnosis and treatment of MTM, including its conception, clinical characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical stages, and the options for surgical treatment.

  8. Traction in smooth muscle cells varies with cell spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolic-Norrelykke, Iva Marija; Wang, Ning

    2005-01-01

    Changes in cell shape regulate cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. It has been suggested that the regulation of cell function by the cell shape is a result of the tension in the cytoskeleton and the distortion of the cell. Here we explore the association between cell-generated mechanical forces and the cell morphology. We hypothesized that the cell contractile force is associated with the degree of cell spreading, in particular with the cell length. We measured traction fields of single human airway smooth muscle cells plated on a polyacrylamide gel, in which fluorescent microbeads were embedded to serve as markers of gel deformation. The traction exerted by the cells at the cell-substrate interface was determined from the measured deformation of the gel. The traction was measured before and after treatment with the contractile agonist histamine, or the relaxing agonist isoproterenol. The relative increase in traction induced by histamine was negatively correlated with the baseline traction. On the contrary, the relative decrease in traction due to isoproterenol was independent of the baseline traction, but it was associated with cell shape: traction decreased more in elongated than in round cells. Maximum cell width, mean cell width, and projected area of the cell were the parameters most tightly coupled to both baseline and histamine-induced traction in this study. Wide and well-spread cells exerted larger traction than slim cells. These results suggest that cell contractility is controlled by cell spreading.

  9. Pre-operative traction for fractures of the proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M J; Handoll, H H G

    2003-01-01

    Pre-operative traction following an acute hip fracture remains standard practice in some hospitals. To evaluate the effects of traction applied to the injured limb prior to surgery for a fractured hip. Different methods of applying traction (skin or skeletal) were considered. We searched the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group's specialised register (February 2003), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2003), MEDLINE (1966 to February 2003), EMBASE (1988 to 2003 Week 8), CINAHL (1982 to February 2003), the National Research Register Issue 1, 2003, conference proceedings and reference lists of articles. Date of most recent search: February 2003. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials comparing either skin or skeletal traction with no traction, or skin with skeletal traction for patients with an acute hip fracture prior to surgery. Both reviewers independently assessed trial quality, using a nine item scale, and extracted data. Additional information was sought from all trialists. Wherever appropriate and possible, the data are presented graphically. Eight randomised trials, mainly of moderate quality, involving a total of 1349 predominantly elderly patients, were identified and included in the review. The inclusion in this review update of a newly available trial resulted in no important change in the results or conclusions. Seven trials compared traction with no traction. Although no data pooling was possible, overall these provided no evidence of benefit from traction, either in the relief of pain, ease of fracture reduction or quality of fracture reduction at time of surgery. One of these trials included both skin and skeletal traction groups. This trial and one other compared skeletal traction with skin traction and found no important differences between these two methods, although the initial application of skeletal traction was noted as being more painful and more costly. From the evidence available, the routine use of

  10. Water color affects the stratification, surface temperature, heat content, and mean epilimnetic irradiance of small lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, J.N.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of water color on lake stratification, mean epilimnetic irradiance, and lake temperature dynamics were examined in small, north-temperate lakes that differed widely in water color (1.5-19.8 m -1). Among these lakes, colored lakes differed from clear lakes in the following ways: (i) the epilimnia were shallower and colder, and mean epilimnetic irradiance was reduced; (ii) the diel temperature cycles were more pronounced; (iii) whole-lake heat accumulation during stratification was reduced. The depth of the epilimnion ranged from 2.5 m in the clearest lake to 0.75 m in the most colored lake, and 91% of the variation in epilimnetic depth was explained by water color. Summer mean morning epilimnetic temperature was ???2??C cooler in the most colored lake compared with the clearest lake. In clear lakes, the diel temperature range (1.4 ?? 0.7??C) was significantly (p = 0.01) less than that in the most colored lake (2.1 ?? 1.0??C). Change in whole-lake heat content was negatively correlated with water color. Increasing water color decreased light penetration more than thermocline depth, leading to reduced mean epilimnetic irradiance in the colored lakes. Thus, in these small lakes, water color significantly affected temperature, thermocline depth, and light climate. ?? 2006 NRC.

  11. Traction forces at solid-lubricated rolling/sliding contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, B. B.; Bovenkerk, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    A single-element traction rig was used to measure the traction forces at a solid-lubricated contact of a ball against a flat disk at room temperature under combine rolling and sliding. The load and speed conditions were selected to match those anticipated for bearing applications in adiabatic diesel engines. Traction vs slide/roll ratio curves were similar to those for liquid lubricants but the traction forces were an order of magnitude higher. The test data were used to derive equations to predict traction force as a function of contact stress and rolling speed. The data showed that the magnitude of traction forces were almost the same for all the lubricants tested. The lubricants, should, therefore, be selected on the basis of their ability to limit the wear of contact surfaces.

  12. TRACTION-EXTENDED THERAPY OF PATIENTS WITH LUMBAR DEGENERATIVE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zhirnov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the survey of 148 patients with an lumbar degenerative disease, there have been studied immediate and medium-term results of the comprehensive conservative treatment of the patients with and without application of traction exposure on the spine. It was found out that the traction of the spine leads to a quicker and more durable relief of symptoms in comparison with the control groups where traction therapy wasn't carried out. Application of the traction-extended therapy in three planes with a usage of robotized set for dry skeletal traction of a new generation KinetracKNX-7000 is proved to increase the effectiveness of treatment for the patients with stated pathology, fasten regress of the pain syndrome and clinical symptomatology, lead to more durable and lasting remission of the desease, in comparison with the patients that had traction of the spine in one plane only during the treatment.

  13. Research of the multipolar induction traction frequency regulated motor

    OpenAIRE

    V. Ia. Bespalov; A. B. Krasovskii; M. V. Panihin; V. G. Fisenko

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers the application features of traction induction electric motors in transmissions of vehicles. It shows that one of important stages in their designing is to choose the number of poles. In traction electric drives engines with the raised number of poles without comprehensive assessment of such solution are often applied. The paper investigates dynamic and power characteristics of the multi-polar traction asynchronous engine (TAE) designed and made for using in the individual...

  14. [Potentialities of traction therapy for diskogenic compressive radicular syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziniakov, N N; Ziniakov, N T

    2009-01-01

    This study included 78 patients with lumbar subligamentary herniation. Based on their clinical and functional examination, several variants of diskogenic radiculopathies were distinguished. Special emphasis was laid on the evaluation of efficiency of underwater vertical traction in these patients. The proposed method was shown to produce better effect than underwater horizontal traction when used for the treatment of both axonopathies and axonomyelinopathies. The efficiency of underwater vertical traction applied to the treatment of axonopathies appears to be higher than in patients with axonomyelinopathies.

  15. Modernised DC traction substation recuperating energy of braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdowski Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traction substation composed of the 3-phase transformer and the output diode rectifier is still the fundamental device for DC traction supply. In this paper two technical solutions (power electronic converters allowing for braking energy recuperation to the AC mains are discussed. This has been thought as the modernisation of the existing traction substations allowing for high speed trains regenerative braking and braking of heavy train hollers. Such a solution brings some profits: energy recuperation, mechanical brakes saving and enhanced quality of traction vehicle control. For the proposed converters technical and economical advantages and drawbacks are indicated.

  16. TRACTION-EXTENDED THERAPY OF PATIENTS WITH LUMBAR DEGENERATIVE DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Zhirnov; D. P. Krest'yanov; A. K. Vasil'kin

    2013-01-01

    Based on the survey of 148 patients with an lumbar degenerative disease, there have been studied immediate and medium-term results of the comprehensive conservative treatment of the patients with and without application of traction exposure on the spine. It was found out that the traction of the spine leads to a quicker and more durable relief of symptoms in comparison with the control groups where traction therapy wasn't carried out. Application of the traction-extended therapy in three plan...

  17. Intraoperative skeletal traction in the dog: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovesti, G L; Margini, A; Cappellari, F; Peirone, B

    2006-01-01

    A standard skeletal traction technique was applied to each major segment of the appendicular skeleton of ten fresh dog cadavers. Opposition points and anchorage points for the application of traction were determined for each skeletal segment. Traction was exerted by means of a micrometric traction stand, connected to the limb by bands or a stirrup. Traction was applied to the antebrachium and the tibia through nylon traction bands anchored to the metacarpus and metatarsus, respectively. A traction stirrup applied to the condylar region was used as the anchorage point to load the humerus and femur. Once a peak force of 25 kg weight was achieved, the load was monitored for half an hour to check for any variation. After that, each skeletal segment was osteotomized in the mid-diaphyseal region, and evaluated for any angular malalignment due to a mismatch between the axis of the bone and the applied loading. Any ensuing angular malalignment was successfully corrected by manoeuvres using the traction stand. The technique used in this study to perform intraoperative skeletal traction proved to be reliable and consistent for each segment of the appendicular skeleton.

  18. Severe Intraoperative Shock Related to Mesenteric Traction Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Alfredo Haack; Siqueira, Hugo; Brasileiro, Pablo Pulcheira; Cavalcanti, Ismar Lima; Videira, Rogério Luiz da Rocha

    2017-02-01

    Mesenteric traction syndrome is defined as arterial hypotension, facial flushing, and tachycardia related to mesenteric traction. We describe a case of mesenteric traction syndrome refractory to catecholamine and vasopressin infusions. The patient, who had Crohn disease, developed severe distributive shock after mesenteric traction while undergoing resection of an intestinal inflammatory mass, accompanied by facial flushing and unaltered readings for pulse oximetry, capnography, and bispectral index monitoring. The absence of tachycardia in this case was attributed to long-term use of timolol. Arterial pressure returned to baseline level after approximately 30 minutes, and the postoperative period was uneventful.

  19. Mathematical framework for traction force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Traction Force Microscopy (TFM problem. It consists in obtaining stresses by solving an inverse problem in an elastic medium, from known experimentally measured displacements. In this article, the application is the determination of the stresses exerted by a living cell at the surface of an elastic gel. We propose an abstract framework which formulates this inverse problem as a constrained minimization one. The mathematical constraints express the biomechanical conditions that the stress field must satisfy. From this framework, two methods currently used can be derived, the adjoint method (AM and the Fourier Transform Traction Cytometry (FTTC method. An improvement of the FTTC method is also derived using this framework. The numerical results are compared and show the advantage of the AM, in particular its ability to capture details more accurately. Cet article est consacré au problème de la Microscopie à Force de Traction (TFM. Ce problème consiste à déterminer les contraintes exercées par une cellule lors de sa migration sur un substrat élastique à partir d’une mesure expérimentale des déplacements induits dans ce substrat. Mathématiquement, il s’agit de résoudre un problème inverse pour lequel nous proposons une formulation abstraite de type optimisation sous contraintes. Les contraintes mathématiques expriment les constraintes biomécaniques que doit satisfaire le champ de contraintes exercé par la cellule. Ce cadre abstrait permet de retrouver deux des méthodes de résolution utilisées en pratique, à savoir la méthode adjointe (AM et la méthode de Cytométrie de Traction par Transformée de Fourier (FTTC. Il permet aussi d’ameliorer la méthode FTTC. Les résultats numériques obtenus sont ensuite comparés et démontrent l’avantage de la méthode adjointe, en particulier par sa capacité à capturer des détails avec une meilleure précision.

  20. Traction force microscopy in physics and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Style, Robert W; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; German, Guy K; Hyland, Callen; MacMinn, Christopher W; Mertz, Aaron F; Wilen, Larry A; Xu, Ye; Dufresne, Eric R

    2014-06-21

    Adherent cells, crawling slugs, peeling paint, sessile liquid drops, bearings and many other living and non-living systems apply forces to solid substrates. Traction force microscopy (TFM) provides spatially-resolved measurements of interfacial forces through the quantification and analysis of the deformation of an elastic substrate. Although originally developed for adherent cells, TFM has no inherent size or force scale, and can be applied to a much broader range of mechanical systems across physics and biology. In this paper, we showcase the wide range of applicability of TFM, describe the theory, and provide experimental details and code so that experimentalists can rapidly adopt this powerful technique.

  1. Content and distribution of phytanic acid diastereomers in organic milk as affected by feed composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Che, Brita Ngum; Kristensen, Troels; Nebel, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Phytanic acid (PA) is a bioactive compound found in milk that is derived from the phytol chain of chlorophyll, and the content of PA in milk fat depends on the availability of phytol from feed. In this study, the content of PA diastereomers was analyzed in milk sampled from five organic herds twice...

  2. Consideration of factors affecting strip effluent pH and sodium content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  3. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  4. Dietary fructooligosaccharides and transgalactooligosaccharides can affect fermentation characteristics in gut contents and portal plasma of growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdijk, J.G.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Bosch, M.W.; Laere, van K.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    We studied whether dietary non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDOs) affected pH and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in gastrointestinal contents and in portal plasma of young pigs. Five groups of five 57-day-old pigs received for 44 days either a corn-based control diet or this diet with 7.5 or 15 g/kg

  5. Music and Affective Phenomena: A 20-Year Content and Bibliometric Analysis of Research in Three Eminent Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Frank M.; Silveira, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish trends in the study of music and affective phenomena through a content and bibliometric analysis of three eminent music research journals, the "Journal of Research in Music Education", "Psychology of Music", and "Music Perception", for the years 1990 through 2009. Excluding…

  6. Rectus femoris muscle atrophy and recovery caused by preoperative pretibial traction in femoral shaft fractures-comparison between traction period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, D-G; Kwon, T-Y; Lee, K-B

    2017-09-01

    Skeletal traction is performed to temporarily stabilize fracture sites before surgery in patients with femoral fracture. To date, however, there is no study evaluating the difference in the degree of the recovery, of the muscle strength, as well as muscle atrophy following skeletal traction. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of recovery of rectus femoris muscle strength after surgery in association with muscle atrophy by analyzing the duration of preoperative tibial traction, age and sex in patients with femoral fracture. Rectus femoris muscle atrophy will progress depending on the duration of preoperative tibial traction, age and sex in patients with femoral fracture. Thirty-one patients who underwent preoperative pretibial skeletal traction and intramedullary nailing were divided into two groups according to the traction period: group A (n=12) with a duration of traction of traction using ultrasound. The degree of muscle recovery was evaluated by the Q-setting and heel off time. Clinical outcome was evaluated by the non-union rate and Lysholm score. The degree of muscle atrophy was 0.99±0.14mm in group A and 2.22±0.11mm in group B (Pskeletal traction indicates not only that the resulting disuse atrophy would progress further but also that the muscle atrophy would be accelerated more rapidly for shorter periods of time, based on a cut-off value of 7 days. In addition, the rate of rectus femoris muscle recovery and clinical outcomes were lower in patients undergoing traction for longer periods of time. This indicates that it would be effective for increasing the rate of the recovery and minimizing the occurrence of post surgical complications if surgeons could perform surgery at the earliest possible opportunity following traction, within seven days after the onset of trauma. IV, retrospective cohort study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Improvised Bryant's traction in the treatment of neonatal femoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Femoral fractures in the neonatal period could occur in vaginal or caesarean deliveries. Options of treatment in the neonate include hip spica cast application, use of Pavlik harness and Bryant's traction. Aim: To report our experience utilizing improvised Bryant's traction in the treatment of neonatal femoral ...

  8. Development of 12-Pulse Regulated Rectifier Circuit for Traction Substation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. N. Nasirov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a power circuit of a regulated 12-pulse direct current converter and a thyristor control impulse diagram for traction substations providing the best electric power supply of a rolling stock, train traction efficiency,  smooth direction regulation.

  9. Microtubule depolymerization induces traction force increase through two distinct pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rape, Andrew; Guo, Wei-hui; Wang, Yu-li

    2011-01-01

    Traction forces increase after microtubule depolymerization; however, the signaling mechanisms underlying this, in particular the dependence upon myosin II, remain unclear. We investigated the mechanism of traction force increase after nocodazole-induced microtubule depolymerization by applying traction force microscopy to cells cultured on micropatterned polyacrylamide hydrogels to obtain samples of homogeneous shape and size. Control cells and cells treated with a focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor showed similar increases in traction forces, indicating that the response is independent of FAK. Surprisingly, pharmacological inhibition of myosin II did not prevent the increase of residual traction forces upon nocodazole treatment. This increase was abolished upon pharmacological inhibition of FAK. These results suggest two distinct pathways for the regulation of traction forces. First, microtubule depolymerization activates a myosin-II-dependent mechanism through a FAK-independent pathway. Second, microtubule depolymerization also enhances traction forces through a myosin-II-independent, FAK-regulated pathway. Traction forces are therefore regulated by a complex network of complementary signals and force-generating mechanisms. PMID:22193960

  10. The Effect of Cervical Traction on the Cardiovascular System in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings suggest that clinicians should monitor the blood pressure of patients during cervical traction rehabilitation especially those with unstable cardiorespiratory system. KEY WORDS: Cervical traction, blood pressure, ECG, mean arterial pressure, rate pressure product. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical ...

  11. Comparison of closed femur fracture: Skeletal traction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the operative group 24 patients had union with one delayed union while in the traction group 12 patients had union, 9 with mal union and 4 delayed union. Conclusion: Intramedullary nailing is more cost-effective than skeletal traction. It met the dominant strategy, because it was significantly less costly than skeletal ...

  12. Traction in elastohydrodynamic line contacts for two synthesized hydrocarbon fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachman, E. G.; Cheng, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    The paper describes the disk machine designed and constructed for the investigation of the traction in elastohydrodynamic line contacts for two synthesized hydrocarbon fluids. The results of this experimental study are presented and compared with the theoretical predictions of traction according to the thermal and non-Newtonian theory recently presented by the authors.

  13. Feature-based memory-driven attentional capture: Visual working memory content affects visual attention.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivers, C.N.L.; Meijer, F.; Theeuwes, J.

    2006-01-01

    In 7 experiments, the authors explored whether visual attention (the ability to select relevant visual information) and visual working memory (the ability to retain relevant visual information) share the same content representations. The presence of singleton distractors interfered more strongly

  14. The measurement, modelling and prediction of traction forces in a rocket propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevaarwerk, J. L.; Woods, C.

    1990-01-01

    Traction tests were performed on RPI, a common kerosene-based rocket propellant. Traction data on this fluid are required for purposes of turbopump bearing design, using such codes as SHABERTH. To obtain the traction data, an existing twin disk machine was used, operating under the side slip mode and using elliptical contacts. The resulting traction curves were reduced to fundamental fluid property parameters using the Johnson and Tevaarwerk traction model. Theoretical traction predictions were performed by back substitution of the fundamental properties into the traction model. Comparison of the predicted with the measured curves gives a high degree of confidence in the correctness of the traction model.

  15. Traction for low-back pain with or without sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Inge; Widyahening, Indah S; van Tulder, Maurits W; Blomberg, Stefan E I; de Vet, Henrica Cw; Brønfort, Gert; Bouter, Lex M; van der Heijden, Geert J

    2013-08-19

    Traction has been used to treat low-back pain (LBP), often in combination with other treatments. We included both manual and machine-delivered traction in this review. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1995, and previously updated in 2006. To assess the effects of traction compared to placebo, sham traction, reference treatments and no treatment in people with LBP. We searched the Cochrane Back Review Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2012, Issue 8), MEDLINE (January 2006 to August 2012), EMBASE (January 2006 to August 2012), CINAHL (January 2006 to August 2012), and reference lists of articles and personal files. The review authors are not aware of any important new randomized controlled trial (RCTs) on this topic since the date of the last search. RCTs involving traction to treat acute (less than four weeks' duration), subacute (four to 12 weeks' duration) or chronic (more than 12 weeks' duration) non-specific LBP with or without sciatica. Two review authors independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. As there were insufficient data for statistical pooling, we performed a descriptive analysis. We did not find any case series that identified adverse effects, therefore we evaluated adverse effects that were reported in the included studies. We included 32 RCTs involving 2762 participants in this review. We considered 16 trials, representing 57% of all participants, to have a low risk of bias based on the Cochrane Back Review Group's 'Risk of bias' tool.For people with mixed symptom patterns (acute, subacute and chronic LBP with and without sciatica), there was low- to moderate-quality evidence that traction may make little or no difference in pain intensity, functional status, global improvement or return to work when compared to placebo, sham traction or no treatment. Similarly, when comparing the combination of physiotherapy plus traction with

  16. Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, Susan R.

    1995-01-01

    An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydrualic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

  17. [Correction of claw hand deformity after burns by elastic traction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chun-Sheng; Hao, Zhen-Ming; Lei, Jin

    2011-03-01

    To investigate a new method for correction of claw hand deformity after burns. From May 2006 to Jul. 2010, 12 patients with claw hands deformities after burns were treated with skin grafts (11 hands) and skin flap (1 hand) with unsatisfactory results. Then elastic traction (skin traction or skeletal traction) were performed with individual functional brace. All patients were followed up for 0.5 to 2 years. Elastic traction was effective in the correction of metacarpophalangeal joint deformity, buttonhole deformity, thumb-in-palm deformity, scar contracture, and palmar arch deformity. Elastic traction is a simple and effective way for the correction of claw hand deformity after burns with less morbidity and stable results.

  18. [Courses of affects in an internet-based writing therapy for elderly war trauma survivors. A content analytic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttche, M; Berth, H; Knaevelsrud, C; Kuwert, P

    2014-04-01

    The proven efficacy of the therapeutic approach of writing therapy for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) allows a broadening focus and an examination of therapeutic components as well as the written realisation of these on the word level. Prior content analyses showed that these primary data analyses provided valuable new findings allowing insights into the therapeutic process in addition to questionnaires. Therapeutic texts from 51 patients were analysed using content analysis (Affective Dictionary Ulm). The aim of this work is to show differences in therapeutic components on a textual basis. There were differences in the frequency of use of emotions in the therapeutic components. In texts of trauma exposure, a significant increase of use of stressful word categories (fear, depression, and anxiousness) has been identified compared to biographical reconstruction texts. In texts of cognitive restructuring, the highest affective density is found in comparison to biographic reconstruction but also compared to trauma exposure, based on negative (depression, anxiousness, and fear) and positive (love, satisfaction, pleasure) affects equally. Patient characteristics (gender, education, age, partnership) had no influence on the expression of the affective density. Quantitative content analysis seems to be a promising approach in identifying and distinguishing components of writing therapy on the affective vocabulary level. The presented approach represents a possible extension of current practice and research.

  19. Computed tomographic evaluation of lumbar spinal structures during traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Hidayet; Akarirmak, Ulkü; Karacan, Ilhan; Akman, Haluk

    2005-01-01

    In the previous studies, it is reported that traction diminishes the compressive load on intervertebral discs, reduces herniation, stretches lumbar spinal muscle and ligaments, decreases muscle spasm, and widens intervertebral foramina. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of horizontal motorized static traction on spinal anatomic structures (herniated area, spinal canal area, intervertebral disc heights, neural foraminal diameter, and m.psoas diameter) by quantitative measures in patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH). At the same time the effect of traction in different localizations (median and posterolateral herniation) and at different levels (L4-L5 and L5-S1) was assessed. Thirty two patients with acute LDH participated in the study. A special traction system was used to apply horizontally-motorized static lumbar traction. Before and during traction a CT- scan was made to observe the changes in the area of spinal canal and herniated disc material, in the width of neural foramina, intervertebral disc heights, and in the thickness of psoas muscle. During traction, the area of protruded disc area, and the thickness of psoas muscle decreased 24.5% (p = 0.0001), and 5.7% (p = 0.0001), respectively. The area of the spinal canal and the width of the neural foramen increased 21.6% (p = 0.0001) and 26.7% (p = 0.0001), respectively. The anterior intervertebral disc height remained unchanged with traction however the posterior intervertebral disc height was significantly expanded. This study is the first to evaluated in detail and quantitatively the effect of motorized horizontal lumbar spinal traction on spinal structures and herniated area. According to detailed measures it was concluded that during traction of individuals with acute LDH there was a reduction of the size of the herniation, increased space within the spinal canal, widening of the neural foramina, and decreased thickness of the psoas muscle.

  20. An analysis of factors affecting the mercury content in the human femoral bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, A; Dąbrowski, M; Kubaszewski, Ł; Rogala, P; Kowalski, A; Frankowski, M

    2017-01-01

    The study was carried out to determine the content of mercury in bone tissue of the proximal femur (head and neck bone) of 95 patients undergoing total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis, using CF-AFS analytical technique. Furthermore, the investigations were aimed at assessing the impact of selected factors, such as age, gender, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to chemical substance at work, type of degenerative changes, clinical evaluation and radiological parameters, type of medications, on the concentration of mercury in the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ. Mercury was obtained in all samples of the head and neck of the femur (n = 190) in patients aged 25-91 years. The mean content of mercury for the whole group of patients was as follows: 37.1 ± 35.0 ng/g for the femoral neck and 24.2 ± 19.5 ng/g for the femoral head. The highest Hg contents were found in femoral neck samples, both in women and men, and they amounted to 169.6 and 176.5 ng/g, respectively. The research showed that the mercury content of bones can be associated with body mass index, differences in body anatomy, and gender. The uses of statistical analysis gave the possibility to define the influence of factors on mercury content in human femoral bones.

  1. Water scarcity conditions affect peach fruit size and polyphenol contents more severely than other fruit quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Mitra; Vercambre, Gilles; Davarynejad, Gholamhossein; Bannayan, Mohammad; Azizi, Majid; Génard, Michel

    2015-03-30

    The literature abounds with the impacts of drought conditions on the concentration of non-structural compounds (NSC) in peach fruits without distinction as to the direct effect of drought on fruit metabolism and its indirect effect through dilution. Moreover, there is a need to investigate the sensitivity of the fruit composition to progressive water deficit in semi-arid conditions, as well as the origin of variations in fruit composition - not only in carbohydrates and organic acids, but also in secondary metabolites such as polyphenols. The increase in stress intensity resulted in smaller fruits and a reduction in yield. Drought increased fruit dry matter content, structural dry matter (SDM) content and firmness due to lower water import to fruits, although drought reduced fruit surface conductance and its transpiration. Drought significantly affected the concentrations of each NSC either through the decrease in dilution and/or modifications of their metabolism. The increase in hexoses and sorbitol concentrations of fruits grown under drought conditions resulted in an increase in the sweetness index but not near harvest. Malic acid concentration and content:SDM ratio increased as drought intensified, whereas those of citric and quinic acids decreased. Polyphenol concentration and content increased under severe drought. The increase in stress intensity strongly affected fruit mass. The concentration of total carbohydrates and organic acid at harvest increased mainly through a decrease in fruit dilution, whereas the concentrations of polyphenols were also strongly affected through an impact on their metabolism. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Pre-operative traction for hip fractures in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoll, Helen Hg; Queally, Joseph M; Parker, Martyn J

    2011-12-07

    Following a hip fracture, traction may be applied to the injured limb before surgery. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1997, and previously updated in 2006. To evaluate the effects of traction applied to the injured limb prior to surgery for a fractured hip. Different methods of applying traction (skin or skeletal) were considered. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (April 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (in The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1948 to April week 2 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 week 16), and CINAHL (1982 to 1 April 2011), conference proceedings, trials registries and reference lists of articles. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials comparing either skin or skeletal traction with no traction, or skin with skeletal traction for patients with an acute hip fracture prior to surgery. At least two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Additional information was sought from all trialists. Wherever appropriate and possible, data were pooled. One new trial was included in this update. In all, 11 trials (six were randomised and five were quasi-randomised), involving a total of 1654 predominantly elderly patients with hip fractures, are included in the review. Most trials were at risk of bias, particularly that resulting from inadequate allocation concealment, lack of assessor blinding and incomplete outcome assessment. Only very limited data pooling was possible.Ten trials compared predominantly skin traction with no traction. The available data provided no evidence of benefit from traction either in the relief of pain (pain soon after immobilisation (visual analogue score 0: none to 10: worst pain): mean difference 0.11, 95% CI -0.27 to 0.50; 3 trials), ease of fracture reduction or quality of fracture reduction at time of surgery. There were inconclusive data for pressures sores and other complications, including fracture

  3. Factors affecting fat content in mottled ducks on the Upper Texas Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Brian; Haukos, David A.; Walther, Patrick; Conway, Warren C.

    2014-01-01

    Body condition, or an individual's ability to address metabolic needs, is an important measure of organism health. For waterfowl, body condition, usually some measure of fat, provides a useful proxy for assessing energy budgets during different life history periods and potentially is a measure of response to ecosystem changes. The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is relatively poorly studied in respect to these dynamics and presents a unique case because its non-migratory life-history strategy releases it from metabolic costs experienced by many related migratory waterfowl species. Additionally, as a species in decline and of conservation concern in many parts of its range, traditional methods of fat content estimation that involve destructive sampling are less viable. The goal of this study was to produce an equation for estimating fat content in mottled ducks using birds (n = 24) donated at hunter-check stations or collected by law enforcement efforts on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge Complex from 2005 - 2007. Morphometric measurements were taken, and ether extraction and fat removal was used to estimate percent body fat content and abdominal fat mass, respectively. A hierarchical simple linear regression modeling approach was used to determine external morphometrics that best predicted abdominal fat content. A ratio model based on body mass and a length metric (keel and wing chord length possessed equal model support) provided the best relationship with abdominal fat in sampled individuals. We then applied the regression equation to historical check station data to examine fluctuations in fat content over time; fat content or condition varied relatively little with the exception of years characterized by major disturbances. The mottled duck condition model created here can be used to better monitor population status and health without destructively sampling individuals.

  4. Factors affecting the content of pentacyclic triterpenes in Centella asiatica raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttarak, P; Panichayupakaranant, P

    2012-12-01

    Pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly, asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside, and madecassoside are the active constituents of Centella asitica (L.) Urban. (Apiaceae). These compounds possess various pharmacological activities that have been shown to assist with wound healing and brain enrichment. Determination of these active pentacyclic triterpenes in extracts from the various parts of C. asiatica plants harvested at different times of the year and grown in different environments. The separate plant parts selected were leaves, stolons, petioles, flowers, fruits, and nodes with roots. Dried powder from each part was extracted with ethanol by microwave-assisted extraction and subjected to determination of their content of the four pentacyclic triterpenes using a HPLC method. The effects of the places of cultivation as well as harvesting periods on the content of the four pentacyclic triterpenes in the extracts were also determined. Among the various parts of C. asiatica, the leaves contained the highest amount of pentacyclic triterpenes with a total content of pentacyclic triterpenes of 19.5 mg/g dry powder. However, the contents of the pentacyclic triterpenes in C. asiatica varied according to the place of cultivation and the harvesting period. C. asiatica collected from Trang, Thailand gave the highest content of total pentacyclic triterpenes (37.2 mg/g dry powder) when harvested in March, while those collected from Songkhla, Thailand gave the highest value (37.4 mg/g dry powder) when collected in December. C. asiatica collected from Nakornsrithammarat and Ratchaburi, Thailand gave the lowest content of total pentacyclic triterpenes in all experimental harvesting periods.

  5. Comparative study between lateral decubitus and traction table for treatment of pertrochanteric fractures with cephalomedullary nails ☆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Fernando de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To perform a retrospective radiographic assessment of the reduction and implant position in the femoral head in patients with pertrochanteric fractures treated with cephalomedullary nailing in the lateral position versus traction table. METHODS: Radiographs of patients with pertrochanteric fracture of the femur treated with cephalomedullary nailing in the lateral position and traction table were retrospectively evaluated. For the evaluation we used the anteroposterior radiographic view of the pelvis and the lateral view of the affected side. The cervicodiaphyseal angle, the tip-apex distance (TAD, and the spatial position of the cephalic component in the head were measured. Two patient groups were created, one group operated on the traction table and another group operated in the lateral position. RESULTS: Regarding the cervicodiaphyseal angle observed in the traction table group, the results of 11 patients (61.1% were outside the acceptable parameters proposed in the present study. Both groups were equivalent regarding TAD and the position of the cephalic component in the head. CONCLUSION: A difference in the cervicodiaphyseal angle was observed; the group operated on the traction table had 11 patients (61.1% whose measurements were outside the acceptable parameters.

  6. Factors Affecting the Content of Ergosterol and Zearalenone in Selected Grass Species at the End of the Growing Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Skládanka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess the safety of forage prepared from selected grass species by means of the analysis of ergosterol and zearalenone. Graminaceous plants studied at the end of their growing season were Festulolium, Dactylis glomerata and Arrhenatherum elatius. Other indicators assessed were the content of ergosterol and zearalenone during the autumn and the intensity of grassland use in the summer season as related to the studied contents of metabolites. Grasslands were harvested either in October, November or December. The secondary metabolites were analyzed by means of high performance liquid chromatography. At the end of the growing season, the ergosterol content was the lowest in the Festulolium forage (110.04 mg kg-1, the highest contents were observed in the Dactylis glomerata and Arrhenatherum elatius forages (145.73 mg kg-1 and 139.55 mg kg-1, respectively. The safety of Festulolium was also corroborated by the low zearalenone content (0.357 mg kg-1. On the other hand, the high ergosterol content in Arrhenatherum elatius was combined with a high content of zearalenone (1.554 mg kg-1. Although Dactylis glomerata exhibited an ergosterol content comparable with that of Arrhenatherum elatius forage, its zearalenone content was comparable to the Festulolium forage. Among the three species under study we found a significant difference (P P -1. The higher (P -1 was caused by the Arrhenatherum elatius forage. Moreover, the contents of ergosterol and zearalenone were affected (P < 0.01 also by the number of cuts in summer. The higher ergosterol content indicated a higher forage infestation by fungi and the inherent risk of the occurrence of mycotoxins. However, the high ergosterol content not always correlated with the high content of zearalenone. When cattle is grazing in winter, a higher occurrence of mycotoxins in the feed may be expected and the related damage to animal metabolism may increase the number of diseased

  7. Maintenance of working capacity of movement mechanism of load trolley with linear traction electric drive of bridge type crane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, K. A.; Denisov, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the influence of the air gap size between the linear motor elements on the stability of the traction drive of the movement mechanism of the trolley of the bridge type crane. The main factors affecting the air gap size and the causes of their occurrence are described. The technique of calculating the magnitude of air gap variation is described in relation to the general deformation of the crane metal structure. Recommendations on the need for installation of additional equipment for load trolleys of various designs are given. The optimal values of the length of the trolley base are proposed. Observance of these values ensures normal operation of the traction drive.

  8. Intrapersonal Factors Affecting Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Agricultural Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jessica; Antonenko, Pavlo D.; Robinson, J. Shane; Mwavita, Mwarumba

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this exploratory study was to examine levels of technology integration, self-efficacy, and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) in preservice and inservice agricultural education teachers in Oklahoma. The findings of this study suggest that intrapersonal factors, such as self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and…

  9. Identification of QTL Affecting Protein and Amino Acid Contents in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming ZHONG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The phenotypes of protein and amino acid contents were measured in an F9 recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between Zhenshan 97B and Delong 208. A total of 48 and 64 QTLs were identified in 2004 and 2005, respectively. The contribution of each QTL to the phenotypic variation ranged from 4.0% to 43.7%. Most QTLs co-localized, forming 29 QTL clusters on the chromosomes with three major ones detected in both years, which were mapped on chromosomes 1, 7 and 9, respectively. The two QTL clusters for amino acid content, qAa1 and qAa7, influenced almost all the traits with the allele from Zhenshan 97B, and the third QTL cluster for amino acid content, qAa9, increased the lysine content with the allele from Delong 208. A wide coincidence was found between the QTL detected under this study and the loci involved in amino acid metabolism pathways in nitrogen assimilation and transport, or protein biosynthesis. The results would facilitate the identification of candidate genes and could be used in marker-assisted selection for the favorable allele in rice quality improvement.

  10. A high-content subtractive screen for selecting small molecules affecting internalization of GPCRs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kwon, Y-J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available transduction to physiology. Here, the authors demonstrate a high-content screen using a panel of GPCR assays to identify receptor selective molecules acting within the kinase/phosphatase inhibitor family. A collection of 88 kinase and phosphatase inhibitors...

  11. Feature-Based Memory-Driven Attentional Capture: Visual Working Memory Content Affects Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivers, Christian N. L.; Meijer, Frank; Theeuwes, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In 7 experiments, the authors explored whether visual attention (the ability to select relevant visual information) and visual working memory (the ability to retain relevant visual information) share the same content representations. The presence of singleton distractors interfered more strongly with a visual search task when it was accompanied by…

  12. Identification of epistatic interaction affecting glycoalkalid content in tubers of tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.; Levin, I.; Struik, P.C.; Levy, D.

    2003-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites characterised by an undesirable taste, and known to be toxic when consumed in large quantities. Their content in potato tubers should therefore be selected against and DNA markers can significantly facilitate such a process. This study was designed to

  13. Wheel Slip Control for Improving Traction-Ability and Energy Efficiency of a Personal Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanghyun Nam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a robust wheel slip control system based on a sliding mode controller is proposed for improving traction-ability and reducing energy consumption during sudden acceleration for a personal electric vehicle. Sliding mode control techniques have been employed widely in the development of a robust wheel slip controller of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles due to their application effectiveness in nonlinear systems and robustness against model uncertainties and disturbances. A practical slip control system which takes advantage of the features of electric motors is proposed and an algorithm for vehicle velocity estimation is also introduced. The vehicle velocity estimator was designed based on rotational wheel dynamics, measurable motor torque, and wheel velocity as well as rule-based logic. The simulations and experiments were carried out using both CarSim software and an experimental electric vehicle equipped with in-wheel-motors. Through field tests, traction performance and effectiveness in terms of energy saving were all verified. Comparative experiments with variations of control variables proved the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed control design.

  14. Factors that affect leaf extracellular ascorbic acid content and redox status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkey, K.O.; Fiscus, E.L. [North Carolina State Univ., United States dept. og Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service and Dept. of Crop Science, Raleigh, NC (United States); Eason, G. [North Carolina, State Univ., United States Dept. of Plant Pathology, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Leaf ascorbic acid content and redox status were compared in ozone-tolerant (Provider) and ozone-sensitive (S156) genotypes of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Plants were grown in pots for 24 days under charcoal-filtered air (CF) conditions in open-top field chambers and then maintained as CF controls (29 nmol mol{sup 1} ozone) or exposed to elevated ozone (71 nmol mol{sup 1} ozone). Following a 10-day treatment, mature leaves of the same age were harvested early in the morning (06:00-08:00 h) or in the afternoon (13:00-15:00 h) for analysis of ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA). Vacuum infiltration methods were used to separate leaf AA into apoplast and symplast fractions. The total ascorbate content [AA + DHA] of leaf tissue averaged 28% higher in Provider relative to S156, and Provider exhibited a greater capacity to maintain [AA + DHA] content under ozone stress. Apoplast [AA + DHA] content was 2-fold higher in tolerant Provider (360 nmol g{sup 1} FW maximum) relative to sensitive S156 (160 nmol g1 FW maximum) regardless of sampling period or treatment, supporting the hypothesis that extracellular AA is a factor in ozone tolerance. Apoplast [AA + DHA] levels were significantly higher in the afternoon than early morning for both genotypes, evidence for short-term regulation of extracellular ascorbate content. Total leaf ascorbate was primarily reduced with AA/[AA + DHA] ratios of 0.81-0.90. In contrast, apoplast AA/[AA + DHA] ratios were 0.01-0.60 and depended on genotype and ozone treatment. Provider exhibited a greater capacity to maintain extracellular AA/[AA + DHA] ratios under ozone stress, suggesting that ozone tolerance is associated with apoplast ascorbate redox status. (au)

  15. Factors affecting the cholesterol content of milk of cows fed conserved feeds in a TMR system throughout the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Strzałkowska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the cholesterol content in the milk of high yielding cows fed a uniform diet composed of conserved feeds over the whole year. The investigationswere conducted on 124 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, selected fromherd yielding 8457 kg milk with 4,58 % and 3,56 % of fat and protein content, respectively. The cows were maintained in a loose barn and fed ad libitum with TMR (total mixed ration throughout the year. The diets consisted of corn silage and grass silage (at 50:50 ration on dry matter basis and concentrates with mineral-vitaminmixture additives. Samples of milk were collected individually from each cow at monthly intervals during the whole year. The cholesterol content in milk (mg/dL and in milk fat (mg/g was related to the stage of lactation, season of the year, somatic cell count and fat content, but was not affected by the parity. The cholesterol content in daily milk yield (mg/cow/day depended also on parity. Even though the cows were fed a uniform diet throughout the year according to the TMR system the cholesterol content in milk differed among seasons.

  16. Loads in the lumbar spine during traction therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R Y; Evans, J H

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the loads acting on the lumbar spine when traction therapy was given in the Fowler's position. The study had two parts: a theoretical analysis which showed that traction produced a flexion moment on the spine as well as axial distraction; and an experimental study which measured the flexion moment induced by the adoption of the Fowler's position. The Fowler's position is clinically essential in that it flexes the spine and takes up the slack of the posterior tissues before the traction force is applied. Hence the axial tension and flexion moment generated by the traction force are more effective in stretching the posterior tissues. The angle of pull on the traction harness influences the friction between the body and the couch. However, this consideration is not necessary if a split traction table is used. The mechanical effects of traction are compared with those produced by postero-anterior mobilisation. The relative magnitude and direction of loads produced, and their variation with segmental level should be considered by therapists when choosing a technique for treating low back pain.

  17. Soil clay content and fire frequency affect clustering in savanna trees in South African savannas

    OpenAIRE

    Groen, T.A.; Langevelde, van, F.; Vijver, van de, L.P.L.; N. Govender; Prins, H.H.T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate which factors determine tree clustering in Southern African savannas. This was tested by measuring clustering of trees using the T-squared sampling method in plots of the Kruger National Park experimental burning programme in South Africa. Fire return interval is the main treatment in these plots, but also several auxiliary determining parameters like clay content in the soil, diameter of tree canopies, understorey composition, tree species diversity and average ...

  18. GC content around splice sites affects splicing through pre-mRNA secondary structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing increases protein diversity by generating multiple transcript isoforms from a single gene through different combinations of exons or through different selections of splice sites. It has been reported that RNA secondary structures are involved in alternative splicing. Here we perform a genomic study of RNA secondary structures around splice sites in humans (Homo sapiens, mice (Mus musculus, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster, and nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans to further investigate this phenomenon. Results We observe that GC content around splice sites is closely associated with the splice site usage in multiple species. RNA secondary structure is the possible explanation, because the structural stability difference among alternative splice sites, constitutive splice sites, and skipped splice sites can be explained by the GC content difference. Alternative splice sites tend to be GC-enriched and exhibit more stable RNA secondary structures in all of the considered species. In humans and mice, splice sites of first exons and long exons tend to be GC-enriched and hence form more stable structures, indicating the special role of RNA secondary structures in promoter proximal splicing events and the splicing of long exons. In addition, GC-enriched exon-intron junctions tend to be overrepresented in tissue-specific alternative splice sites, indicating the functional consequence of the GC effect. Compared with regions far from splice sites and decoy splice sites, real splice sites are GC-enriched. We also found that the GC-content effect is much stronger than the nucleotide-order effect to form stable secondary structures. Conclusion All of these results indicate that GC content is related to splice site usage and it may mediate the splicing process through RNA secondary structures.

  19. Alterations in seed development gene expression affect size and oil content of Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihi, Abdelhak; Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Dörmann, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE). The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e.g. Pheres1 (PHE1), by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion. Another endosperm development pathway depends on MINISEED3 (a WRKY10 transcription factor) and HAIKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase). While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Analysis of oil, protein, and sucrose accumulation in mutants and overexpression plants of the four seed development genes revealed that (1) seeds carrying a maternal fie allele accumulate low oil with an altered composition of triacylglycerol molecular species; (2) homozygous mutant seeds of phe1, mini3, and iku2, which are smaller, accumulate less oil and slightly less protein, and starch, which accumulates early during seed development, remains elevated in mutant seeds; (3) embryo-specific overexpression of FIE, PHE1, and MINI3 has no influence on seed size and weight, nor on oil, protein, or sucrose content; and (4) overexpression of IKU2 results in seeds with increased size and weight, and oil content of overexpressed IKU2 seeds is increased by 35%. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds.

  20. The password is praise: content of feedback affects categorization of feedback sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Anna; Morton, Thomas A; Landon, Emily; Neill, Caitlin; Mason-Brown, Sapphire; Burdett, Lucie

    2014-09-01

    In three experimental studies, we investigated the effect of the content of group-directed feedback on categorization of the feedback source as an ingroup or an outgroup member. In all studies, feedback valence (criticism vs. praise) and the attributional content of feedback (attributing outcomes to internal properties of the group vs. external circumstances) were experimentally manipulated. The results demonstrated that anonymous (Study 1) and ambiguous (Studies 2 and 3) sources of feedback are more likely to be seen as (typical) ingroup members when they provide praise rather than criticism. In addition, in all studies there was a significant interaction between valence and the attributional content of feedback, such that sources of praise were more likely to be seen as ingroup members when they attributed the group's success to internal (rather than external) causes, while the opposite was observed for critics. These effects were mediated by perceived group image threat. Implications for research on group-based feedback and social categorization are discussed. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  2. Trauma and autobiographical memory: contents and determinants of earliest memories among war-affected Palestinian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltonen, Kirsi; Kangaslampi, Samuli; Qouta, Samir; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-11-01

    The contents of earliest memories (EM), as part of autobiographical memory, continue to fascinate scientists and therapists. However, research is scarce on the determinants of EM, especially among children. This study aims, first, to identify contents of EM of children living in war conditions, and, second, to analyse child gender, traumatic events and mental health as determinants of the contents of EM. The participants were 240 Palestinian schoolchildren from the Gaza Strip (10-12 years, M = 11.35, SD = 0.57; 49.4% girls). They responded to an open-ended EM question, and reported their trauma exposures (war trauma, losses and current traumatic events), posttraumatic stress, depressive symptoms and psychosocial well-being, indicating mental health. The EM coding involved nature, social orientation, emotional tone and specificity. Results showed, first, that 43% reported playing or visiting a nice place as EM, and about a third (30%) traumatic events or accidents (30%) or miscellaneous events (27%). The individual and social orientation were almost equally common, the emotional tone mainly neutral (45.5%), and 60% remembered a specific event. Second, boys remembered more EM involving traumatic events or accidents, and girls more social events. Third, war trauma was associated with less positive emotional tone and with more specific memories.

  3. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content in Olive Leaf Tisane as Affected by Boiling Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia AOUIDI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of preparation method on the quality of olive leaf tisane. Secondly, it aimed at evaluating and understanding the effect of boiling treatment on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves. The Phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by ABTS+ method. The Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity depended on extraction procedure of olive leaf tisane. It was found that boiling leads to a decrease in the phenolic content and a rise of antioxidant capacity of aqueous extract from olive leaves. The mass molecular distribution of the polymeric aromatic fraction was analyzed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G50. Results suggested the hydrolysis of phenolic polymers following boiling. Moreover, HPLC analyses showed an increase in rutin, oleuropein and caffeic acid levels in treated sample. As a conclusion, thermal processing could be useful for enhancing the antioxidant capacity and the extractability of phenolic compounds in olive leaf tisane.

  4. Challenges of traction in critical care: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, C V

    1998-08-01

    Traction can sometimes seem like an overwhelming challenge in the critical care setting not only to the patient and family, but also to the nurse. Critical care nurses must know the principles, purposes, methods, and patient care considerations necessary to be able to provide appropriate care and teaching for the patient in traction. This article describes these principles and then illustrates them through a case study. The case describes a patient who experiences multiple trauma and focuses on the nurse's role in the care of this patient in traction.

  5. Targeted traction of impacted teeth with C-tube miniplates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim, Yong; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Lee, Dongjoo; Yang, Dong-Min; Kim, Seong-Hun; Nelson, Gerald

    2014-09-01

    Orthodontic traction of impacted teeth has typically been performed using full fixed appliance as anchorage against the traction force. This conventional approach can be difficult to apply in the mixed dentition if the partial fixed appliance offers an insufficient anchor unit. In addition, full fixed appliance can induce unwanted movement of adjacent teeth. This clinical report presents 3 cases where impacted teeth were recovered in the mixed or transitional dentition with skeletal anchorage on the opposite arch without full fixed appliance. Instead, intermaxillary traction was used to bring the impacted teeth into position. With this approach, side effects on teeth and periodontal tissues adjacent to the impaction were minimized.

  6. A survey of Senecio spp. affecting livestock in Uruguay and their associated pyrrolizidine alkaloid content

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Eastern Uruguay there has been a significant increase of seneciosis in grazing livestock with most affected localities related to counties neighboring the Brazilian border. A survey in 28 farms associated with poisoning outbreaks in grazing cattle in Eastern Uruguay was carried out. Fifty populat...

  7. Technological steps and yeast biomass as factors affecting the lipid content of beer during the brewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Perretti, Giuseppe; Buzzini, Pietro; Della Sera, Rolando; Fantozzi, Paolo

    2009-07-22

    Knowledge of lipid content and composition in the brewing process enables the quality control of the final product. Lipids have a beneficial effect on yeast growth during fermentation as well as deleterious effects on end-product quality. The lipid content of a beer affects its ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Lipid oxidation during wort production is of great interest because of its effect on beer quality: both lipids and their oxidation products are known to have adverse effects on beer flavor, whereas interactions between lipids and protein films stabilizing the gas bubbles are thought to cause the collapse of foam. In this background, the aim of this research was the characterization of the lipid content during a brewing process for evaluating the influence of both technological steps and yeast biomass in the lipid composition of beer. Lipid contents and their fatty acid profile were evaluated in brewing raw materials, wort, and beer. A high-resolution gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (HRGC-FID) system was used for fatty acid determination in lipid extracts. The results of the present study highlighted that the main technological steps influencing the lipid content in brewing byproduct and beer were clarification in a whirlpool and filtration. Moreover, the presence of metabolically active yeast cells (used as starter culture) were found to have a great influence on the fatty acids composition of lipids.

  8. Dietary protein content affects evolution for body size, body fat and viability in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten N; Overgaard, Johannes; Loeschcke, Volker

    2011-01-01

    composition and developmental success in Drosophila melanogaster. We reared flies on either a standard diet or a protein-enriched diet for 17 generations before testing them on both diet types. Flies from lines selected on protein-rich diet produced phenotypes with higher total body mass and relative lipid...... content when compared with those selected on a standard diet, irrespective of which of the two diets they were tested on. However, selection on protein-rich diet incurred a cost as flies reared on this diet had markedly lower developmental success in terms of egg-to-adult viability on both medium types...

  9. Microwave and micronization treatments affect dehulling characteristics and bioactive contents of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomah, B Dave; Kotzeva, Lily; Allen, Meghan; Bassinello, Priscila Zaczuk

    2014-05-01

    Heat pretreatment is considered the first step in grain milling. This study therefore evaluated microwave and micronization heat treatments in improving the dehulling characteristics, phenolic composition and antioxidant and α-amylase activities of bean cultivars from three market classes. Heat treatments improved dehulling characteristics (hull yield, rate coefficient and reduced abrasive hardness index) depending on bean cultivar, whereas treatment effects increased with dehulling time. Micronization increased minor phenolic components (tartaric esters, flavonols and anthocyanins) of all beans but had variable effects on total phenolic content depending on market class. Microwave treatment increased α-amylase inhibitor concentration, activity and potency, which were strongly correlated (r²  = 0.71, P < 0.0001) with the flavonol content of beans. Heat treatment had variable effects on the phenolic composition of bean hulls obtained by abrasive dehulling without significantly altering the antioxidant activity of black and pinto bean hulls. Principal component analysis on 22 constituents analyzed in this study demonstrated the differences in dehulling characteristics and phenolic components of beans and hulls as major factors in segregating the beneficial heat treatment effects. Heat treatment may be useful in developing novel dietary fibers from beans with variable composition and bioactivity with a considerable range of applications as functional food ingredients. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Differences in the contents of two randomized surveys of GPs' prescribing intentions affected response rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Arash; van der Meulen, Jan; Russell, Ian

    2008-07-01

    We investigated the differences in response rates and the presence of response bias in two randomized surveys of prescribing intentions for statins and asthma. We conducted the surveys of British general practitioners (GPs) in 2002. The two surveys had similar designs, formats, administration time, administration methods, and target populations. We compared the response rates to the two surveys while controlling for the characteristics of respondents with nonrespondents. We also compared early respondents with late respondents and assessed heterogeneity in the answers of early and late respondents to two key questions. The response rates to the two surveys were significantly different (statins: 27%; asthma: 19%; P=0.002). We found no interaction between the survey type and any of the GP and practice characteristics we examined. The GPs' answers to the key questions did not differ regardless of the timing of the responses. We demonstrated that the surveys' contents significantly influenced the response rates. We found no evidence that the nonrespondents would have answered the key questions differently. Future studies should investigate the mechanisms by which contents of surveys may influence response rate.

  11. Antioxidant Properties of Mushroom Mycelia Obtained by Batch Cultivation and Tocopherol Content Affected by Extraction Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Vamanu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the antioxidant potential of lyophilized mushroom mycelia from 5 strains of the species Pleurotus ostreatus and Coprinus comatus (obtained by submerged cultivation in batch system was analyzed as ethanolic extracts by evaluating ABTS and the hydroxyl scavenging activity, FRAP method, the chelating capacity, the inhibition of human erythrocyte hemolysis, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. The main compounds present in all extracts were determined by HPLC chromatography. Overall, results demonstrated that the biologically active substances content is modulated by the extraction method used. The most beneficial extract, characterized by determining the EC50 value, was that of C. comatus M8102, followed by P. ostreatus PQMZ91109. Significant amount of α-tocopherol (179.51 ± 1.51 mg/100 g extract was determined as well as flavones such as rutin and apigenin. In the P. ostreatus PQMZ91109 extract, 4.8 ± 0.05 mg/100 g extract of tocopherol acetate known to play a significant role as an antioxidant in skin protection against oxidative stress generated by UV rays was determined. The various correlations (r2=0.7665–0.9426 for tocopherol content assessed and the composition of extracts in fluidized bed from the mycelia of the tested species depicted a significant pharmacological potential as well as the possibility of usage in the development of new functional products.

  12. Antioxidant properties of mushroom mycelia obtained by batch cultivation and tocopherol content affected by extraction procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamanu, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    The determination of the antioxidant potential of lyophilized mushroom mycelia from 5 strains of the species Pleurotus ostreatus and Coprinus comatus (obtained by submerged cultivation in batch system) was analyzed as ethanolic extracts by evaluating ABTS and the hydroxyl scavenging activity, FRAP method, the chelating capacity, the inhibition of human erythrocyte hemolysis, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. The main compounds present in all extracts were determined by HPLC chromatography. Overall, results demonstrated that the biologically active substances content is modulated by the extraction method used. The most beneficial extract, characterized by determining the EC50 value, was that of C. comatus M8102, followed by P. ostreatus PQMZ91109. Significant amount of α-tocopherol (179.51 ± 1.51 mg/100 g extract) was determined as well as flavones such as rutin and apigenin. In the P. ostreatus PQMZ91109 extract, 4.8 ± 0.05 mg/100 g extract of tocopherol acetate known to play a significant role as an antioxidant in skin protection against oxidative stress generated by UV rays was determined. The various correlations (r (2) = 0.7665-0.9426 for tocopherol content) assessed and the composition of extracts in fluidized bed from the mycelia of the tested species depicted a significant pharmacological potential as well as the possibility of usage in the development of new functional products.

  13. How 'ground-picked' olive fruits affect virgin olive oil ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Aguilera, Maria P; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground-picked olives, tree-picked fruits and their mixture. Ground-picked olives produced 'Lampante' virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree-picked olives gave oils classified as 'virgin' because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the 'extra' category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground- picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree-picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Ground-picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low-quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground-picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Perceptions of portion size and energy content: implications for strategies to affect behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindal, Emily; Wilson, Carlene; Mohr, Philip; Wittert, Gary

    2012-02-01

    To assess Australian consumers' perception of portion size of fast-food items and their ability to estimate energy content. Cross-sectional computer-based survey. Australia. Fast-food consumers (168 male, 324 female) were asked to recall the items eaten at the most recent visit to a fast-food restaurant, rate the prospective satiety and estimate the energy content of seven fast-food or 'standard' meals relative to a 9000 kJ Guideline Daily Amount. Nine dietitians also completed the energy estimation task. Ratings of prospective satiety generally aligned with the actual size of the meals and indicated that consumers perceived all meals to provide an adequate amount of food, although this differed by gender. The magnitude of the error in energy estimation by consumers was three to ten times that of the dietitians. In both males and females, the average error in energy estimation for the fast-food meals (females: mean 3911 (sd 1998) kJ; males: mean 3382 (sd 1957) kJ) was significantly (P fast-food items predicted actual energy intake from fast-food items (β = 0·16, P fast-food meals in fast-food consumers in Australia is poor. Awareness of dietary energy should be a focus of health promotion if nutrition information, in its current format, is going to alter behaviour.

  15. Sociopolitical events and technical innovations may affect the content of delusions and the course of psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, L

    2000-12-01

    The influence of culture on patients with psychiatric disorders has been well documented in the psychiatric literature. The unique emphasis of this paper is the influence of current social and political events on psychotic patients. Current events can be classified into two groups: (1) Communal stressful events that affect everyone (shared stressors), such as earthquakes, wars, etc.; and (2) Public events, highly reported by mass media, but not personally stressful, e.g., elections. This article is devoted to the discussion about the effect of sociopolitical non-traumatic events on persons with psychotic disorders. The author reviewed evidence that sociopolitical events and technical innovations affect patients with psychotic disorders. The author suggests that social events and scientific innovations may change the content of delusions and affect the course of psychotic disorders. The author also suggests that physicians should be sensitive to the clinical impact of sociopolitical events. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  16. Intravitreal injection of perfluoropropane for the treatment of vitreomacular traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Wan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the efficacy of a single intravitreal injection of perfluoropropane(C3F8in releasing vitreomacular traction. METHODS: Twelve eyes of 12 consecutive patients with vitreomacular traction received a single intravitreal injection of 0.3mL 100%(C3F8were retrospectively analyzed. The best corrected vision acuity and the neural epithelium thickness of central macular were observed. RESULTS: One month following treatment, vitreomacular traction was released in 5 eyes(42%, mean final visual acuity(VAimproved 0.04 and mean central foveal thickness decreased by 69μm. The vision acuity before and after treatment were 0.20±0.07, 0.25±0.04 respectively.CONCLUSION: Intravitreal C3F8 injection could offer a minimally invasive alternative to pars plana vitrectomy in patients with vitreomacular traction.

  17. Mechanical Lumbar Traction: What Is Its Place in Clinical Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Summary evidence concludes that mechanical lumbar traction is not effective for treating acute or chronic nonspecific low back pain (LBP). However, many physical therapists continue to use it, primarily as an additional modality. Indeed, expert clinical opinion, theoretical models, and some research evidence suggest that certain patients with LBP respond positively to traction. A study published in the March 2016 issue of JOSPT investigates the effectiveness of traction in prone as an adjunct to an extension-oriented exercise program in patients with LBP and leg pain and explores whether a previously identified set of patient characteristics is associated with better outcomes from traction. In this Perspectives for Practice, the authors explain the impact of their findings for clinicians treating these patients.

  18. INTELLIGENT DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM OF EMERGENCY SITUATIONS IN TRACTION SUBSTATIONS DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. N. Nasyrov

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the architecture and algorithm of operating an expert system providing the efficiency of functioning the electric equipment for traction substation as well as the four-parameter belonging function are determined.

  19. Improvised skeletal traction in the management of ballistic femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, M C; Mountain, A J C; Clasper, J C

    2009-09-01

    Penetrating limb injuries are common during conflict, and in many there will be an associated fracture. Treatment of ballistic femoral fractures would usually be with by intramedullary nail; however, within the resource-constrained environment during conflict this is rarely possible. This report illustrates what can be achieved at a Role 2 facility to provide skeletal traction with the equipment and skills available. We discuss the history of skeletal traction and its use in ballistic femoral fractures, and believe that skeletal traction is still a valuable technique that we shouldn't ignore. Military surgeons should be able to use skeletal traction to manage ballistic femoral fractures in the spartan environment of a deployed forward hospital.

  20. Genu recurvatum: a complication of prolonged femoral skeletal traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, H; Abrahan, L M; Hirohata, K

    1984-01-01

    Genu recurvatum is a rare complication of prolonged skeletal traction. The literature reports very few cases, the majority secondary to wire traction applied to the tibia in the treatment of femoral shaft fractures. A case of genu recurvatum in a 12-year-old girl as a complication of prolonged femoral skeletal traction was treated at the Kobe University Hospital. A proximal open wedge tibial osteotomy using iliac bone grafts was the surgical treatment initiated at the time of diagnosis. Follow-up after 1 year showed recurrence of the genu recurvatum. Early surgical intervention, prolonged casting and application of knee orthosis were all contributory factors in the recurrence of genu recurvatum in our patient. It should be emphasized that extreme care should be taken in treating femoral shaft fractures in children, especially those requiring wire traction in the tibia or femur, in order to prevent genu recurvatum.

  1. The sorption characteristics of mercury as affected by organic matter content and/or soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šípková, Adéla; Šillerová, Hana; Száková, Jiřina

    2014-05-01

    The determination and description of the mercury sorption extend on soil is significant for potential environmental toxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of mercury sorption at different soil samples and vermicomposts. Mercury interactions with soil organic matter were studied using three soils with different physical-chemical properties - fluvisol, cambisol, and chernozem. Moreover, three different vermicomposts based on various bio-waste materials with high organic matter content were prepared in special fermentors. First was a digestate, second was represented by a mixture of bio-waste from housing estate and woodchips, and third was a garden bio-waste. In the case of vermicompost, the fractionation of organic matter was executed primarily using the resin SuperliteTM DAX-8. Therefore, the representation of individual fractions (humic acid, fulvic acid, hydrophilic compounds, and hydrophobic neutral organic matter) was known. The kinetics of mercury sorption onto materials of interest was studied by static sorption experiments. Samples were exposed to the solution with known Hg concentration of 12 mg kg-1 for the time from 10 minutes to 24 hours. Mercury content in the solutions was measured by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Based on this data, the optimum conditions for following sorption experiments were chosen. Subsequently, the batch sorption tests for all soil types and vermicomposts were performed in solution containing variable mercury concentrations between 1 and 12 mg kg-1. Equilibrium concentration values measured in the solution after sorption and calculated mercury content per kilogram of the soil or the vermi-compost were plotted. Two basic models of sorption isotherm - Langmuir and Freundlich, were used for the evaluation of the mercury sorption properties. The results showed that the best sorption properties from studied soil were identified in chernozem with highest cation exchange

  2. Extrusion Conditions and Amylose Content Affect Physicochemical Properties of Extrudates Obtained from Brown Rice Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando José González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of whole grains in food formulations is nowadays recommended. Extrusion cooking allows obtaining precooked cereal products and a wide range of ready-to-eat foods. Two rice varieties having different amylose content (Fortuna 16% and Paso 144, 27% were extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Factorial experimental design was used to study the effects of extrusion temperature (160, 175, and 190°C and grits moisture content (14%, 16.5%, and 19% on extrudate properties. Specific mechanical energy consumption (SMEC, radial expansion (E, specific volume (SV, water absorption (WA, and solubility (S were determined on each extrudate sample. In general, Fortuna variety showed higher values of SMEC and S (703–409 versus 637–407 J/g; 33.0–21.0 versus 20.1–11.0%, resp. than those of Paso 144; on the contrary SV (8.64–3.47 versus 8.27–4.53 mL/g and WA tended to be lower (7.7–5.1 versus 8.4–6.6 mL/g. Both varieties showed similar values of expansion rate (3.60–2.18. Physical characteristics depended on extrusion conditions and rice variety used. The degree of cooking reached by Paso rice samples was lower than that obtained for Fortuna. It is suggested that the presence of germ and bran interfered with the cooking process, decreasing friction level and broadening residence time distribution.

  3. Adhesion energy, surface traction and surface tension in liquid xenon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We calculated the adhesion energy, the surface traction and the surface energy of liquid xenon using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The value of the adhesion energy for liquid xenon at a reduced density of 0.630 was found to be 0.591 J/m2 and the surface traction has a peak at z = 3.32 Å. It was observed ...

  4. Macronutrient content of plant-based food affects growth of a carnivorous arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Shawn M; Holway, David A; Suarez, Andrew V; Eubanks, Micky D

    2011-02-01

    Many arthropods engage in mutualisms in which they consume plant-based foods including nectar, extrafloral nectar, and honeydew. However, relatively little is known about the manner in which the specific macronutrients in these plant-based resources affect growth, especially for carnivorous arthropods. Using a combination of laboratory and field experiments, we tested (1) how plant-based foods, together with ad libitum insect prey, affect the growth of a carnivorous ant, Solenopsis invicta, and (2) which macronutrients in these resources (i.e., carbohydrates, amino acids, or both) contribute to higher colony growth. Access to honeydew increased the production of workers and brood in experimental colonies. This growth effect appeared to be due to carbohydrates alone as colonies provided with the carbohydrate component of artificial extrafloral nectar had greater worker and brood production compared to colonies deprived of carbohydrates. Surprisingly, amino acids only had a slight interactive effect on the proportion of a colony composed of brood and negatively affected worker survival. Diet choice in the laboratory and field matched performance in the laboratory with high recruitment to carbohydrate baits and only slight recruitment to amino acids. The strong, positive effects of carbohydrates on colony growth and the low cost of producing this macronutrient for plants and hemipterans may have aided the evolution of food-for-protection mutualisms and help explain why these interactions are so common in ants. In addition, greater access to plant-based resources in the introduced range of S. invicta may help to explain the high densities achieved by this species throughout the southeastern United States.

  5. Rare-Earth-Free Traction Motor: Rare Earth-Free Traction Motor for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Baldor will develop a new type of traction motor with the potential to efficiently power future generations of EVs. Unlike today’s large, bulky EV motors which use expensive, imported rare-earth-based magnets, Baldor’s motor could be light, compact, contain no rare earth materials, and have the potential to deliver more torque at a substantially lower cost. Key innovations in this project include the use of a unique motor design, incorporation of an improved cooling system, and the development of advanced materials manufacturing techniques. These innovations could significantly reduce the cost of an electric motor.

  6. TRACTION RESISTANCE IN CHITOSAN TREATED COTTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOX Wouter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays natural products interest has increased. However, when some products are included on textile fibers, they have no affinity and need some binders or other kind of auxiliaries to improve the yeld of the process, and some of them are not so natural as the product which are binding and consequently the “bio” definition is missed as some of them can be considered as highly pollutant. Chitosan is a common used bonding agent for cotton. It improves the antimicrobial and antifungal activity, improves wound healing and is a non-toxic bonding agent. The biopolymer used in this work is chitosan, which is a deacetylated derivative of chitin. These properties depend on the amount of deacetylation (DD and the Molecular weight (MW. Along with these improving properties, as it requires some acid pH to ve solved the treatment with chitosan can have some decreasing mechanical properties. The aim of that paper is to evaluate the change in breaking force of the treated samples and a change in elongation of those samples. It compared different amounts of concentration of chitosan with non treated cotton. The traction resistance test were performed on a dynamometer. The test was conducted according to the UNE EN ISO 13934-1 standard.

  7. Direct skeletal traction for Le Fort I halo distraction replacing an intraoral dental splint and connecting traction hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Kaneshige; Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Kadomatsu, Kohichi; Tosa, Yasuyoshi; Hosaka, Yoshiaki

    2004-10-01

    To obviate dental inconveniences after Le Fort I halo distraction using an intraoral dental splint and connecting traction hook, the authors initiated direct skeletal traction using an traction wire at the parapyriformis buttress area. Halo distraction using this procedure was conducted for 11 cleft lip and palate patients (age range, 13-21 years; 6 females and 5 males). Distraction amount ranged from 11 to 15 mm. A satisfactory occlusion was obtained in all patients. All 11 patients complained of pain during the distraction period, but it was controlled by regular oral intake of the usual amount of analgesics. No other particular complications were encountered during the postoperative follow-up of 8 to 18 months. This form of direct skeletal traction proves effective for Le Fort I halo distraction.

  8. Lateral traction of laminar flow between sliding pair with heterogeneous slip/no-slip surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenpeng; Zeng, Liangcai; Chen, Xiaolan; Chen, Keying; Ding, Xianzhong

    2017-11-01

    The problem of shaft axial motion which significantly affects the lubrication performance has been a common phenomenon in journal bearing systems. The existing work involved in the solution of shaft axial motion is also very rare. In this study, we choose to examine the flow between sliding pair in which regard we present a unique heterogeneous surface consisting of a slip zone and a no-slip zone. The results reveal the following points: 1) By appropriately arranging the slip zone to change the angle between the borderline and the moving direction of the upper plate, it is possible to control the direction of the lateral traction in which the liquid film acts on the upper plate. 2) Exponent of the power function of the borderline and aspect ratio of the computational domain are large or small are not conducive to increasing the effect of lateral traction. For the object of this study, the final results of the optimization are shown that the lateral traction can account for 20% of the resistance.

  9. Distinct impacts of substrate elasticity and ligand affinity on traction force evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christina; Pompe, Tilo

    2016-01-07

    Cell adhesion is regulated by the mechanical characteristics of the cell environment. The influences of different parameters of the adhesive substrates are convoluted in the cell response leading to questions on the underlying mechanisms, like biochemical signaling on the level of adhesion molecules, or viscoelastic properties of substrates and cell. By a time-resolved analysis of traction force generation during early cell adhesion, we wanted to elucidate the contributions of substrate mechanics to the adhesion process, in particular the impact of substrate elasticity and the molecular friction of adhesion ligands on the substrate surface. Both parameters were independently adjusted by (i) an elastic polyacrylamide hydrogel of variable crosslinking degree and (ii) a thin polymer coating of the hydrogel surface controlling the affinity (and the correlated substrate-ligand friction) of the adhesion ligand fibronectin. Our analysis showed two sequential regimes of considerable force generation, whose occurrence was found to be independent of substrate properties. The first regime is characterized by spreading of the cell and a succeeding force increase. After spreading cells enter the second regime with saturated forces. Substrate elasticity and viscosity, namely hydrogel elasticity and ligand affinity, were both found to affect the kinetics and absolute levels of traction force quantities. A faster increase and a higher saturation level of traction forces were observed for a higher substrate stiffness and a higher ligand affinity. The results complement recent modeling approaches on the evolution of forces in cell spreading and contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of cell adhesion on viscoelastic substrates.

  10. Characteristics of chicken nuggets as affected by added fat and variable salt contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogesh, K; Ahmad, T; Manpreet, G; Mangesh, K; Das, P

    2013-02-01

    Several studies have been conducted in many countries on how to increase the per capita consumption of poultry meat. With the growing demand for poultry meat, the development of value added product, such as chicken nuggets has been identified as the best way to increase poultry meat consumption. Apart from this allowing for the flourishing growth of fast food industries; chicken nuggets needs to be produced in higher quantity and to reduce cost, there is increasing interest in using of various meat additives. Though, chicken fat are edible, it is important to evolve production processes for gainful utilization of this part. So the main objective of this work was to study the effect of the addition of chicken fat and various salt contents on the physicochemical, proximate composition and sensory characteristics of chicken nuggets. Based on the results it is concluded that, even up to 5% level of chicken fat with 1.5-2% added salt there is no adverse effect in terms of physico-chemical, proximate composition and sensory qualities of cooked chicken nuggets. Even, at this fat and salt level product was more preferred by panellist than no fat-no salt chicken nuggets.

  11. [Inhibitory effect of DMPP on soil nitrification as affected by soil moisture content, pH and organic matter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yan; Wu, Zhi-Jie; Zhang, Li-Li; Gong, Ping; Dong, Xin-Xin; Nie, Yan-Xia

    2012-10-01

    A laboratory incubation test with meadow brown soil was conducted to study the inhibitory effect of 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on soil nitrification as affected by soil moisture content (40%, 60% and 80% of the maximum field capacity), pH (4, 7 and 10), and organic matter (retained and removal). With the decrease of soil moisture content, the degradation of DMPP in soil tended to slow down, and the oxidation of soil NH4+ was more inhibited. At pH 10, more DMPP was remained in soil, and had the greatest inhibitory effect; at pH 7 and pH 4, the DMPP was lesser remained, with a smaller inhibitory effect. The removal of organic matter prolonged the remaining time of DMPP in soil, and decreased the apparent soil nitrification rate significantly.

  12. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity.

  13. A decrease in phytic acid content substantially affects the distribution of mineral elements within rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Iwai, Toru; Matsubara, Chie; Usui, Yuto; Okamura, Masaki; Yatou, Osamu; Terada, Yasuko; Aoki, Naohiro; Nishida, Sho; Yoshida, Kaoru T

    2015-09-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate; InsP6) is the storage compound of phosphorus and many mineral elements in seeds. To determine the role of InsP6 in the accumulation and distribution of mineral elements in seeds, we performed fine mappings of mineral elements through synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence analysis using developing seeds from two independent low phytic acid (lpa) mutants of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The reduced InsP6 in lpa seeds did not affect the translocation of mineral elements from vegetative organs into seeds, because the total amounts of phosphorus and the other mineral elements in lpa seeds were identical to those in the wild type (WT). However, the reduced InsP6 caused large changes in mineral localization within lpa seeds. Phosphorus and potassium in the aleurone layer of lpa greatly decreased and diffused into the endosperm. Zinc and copper, which were broadly distributed from the aleurone layer to the inner endosperm in the WT, were localized in the narrower space around the aleurone layer in lpa mutants. We also confirmed that similar distribution changes occurred in transgenic rice with the lpa phenotype. Using these results, we discussed the role of InsP6 in the dynamic accumulation and distribution patterns of mineral elements during seed development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Variation of Hydroxyapatite Content in Soft Gelatin Affects Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahsai Kantawong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin is a common material used in tissue engineering and hydroxyapatite (HA has a composition and structure similar to natural bone mineral. HA is also used to increase the adhesion ability of scaffolds. The physical and mechanical properties of gelatin, together with the chemical properties of HA, can affect cell differentiation. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the gene expression of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs upon culturing on gelatin composite with HA. Low amounts of HA were introduced into the gelatin in order to modulate properties of gelatin. Three types of hydrogel were fabricated by glutaraldehyde crosslinking before lyophilization to produce the porous 3D structure: (1 pure gelatin, (2 0.5 mg/ml HA in gelatin, and (3 1 mg/ml HA in gelatin. The fabricated hydrogels were used as scaffolds to cultivate HMSCs for two periods - 24 hours and 3 weeks. The results showed that all types of fabricated hydrogels could be used to cultivate HMSCs. Changes of gene expressions indicated that the HMSCs cultured on the 1 mg/ml HA in gelatin showed neuronal lineage-specific differentiation.

  15. Does a traction-internal rotation radiograph help to better evaluate fractures of the proximal femur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Kenneth J; Oh, Chong K; Egol, Kenneth A

    2008-01-01

    The standard radiographic series for evaluation of a suspected hip fracture in most centers includes an anteroposterior (AP) radiograph of the pelvis, as well AP and cross-table lateral views of the hip. The natural femoral neck anteversion, as well as the fracture deformity, however, may make accurate fracture classification difficult. We have noted that inexperienced physicians sometimes misclassify hip fractures based on the initial radiographic series, which may lead to errors both in surgical planning and implant choice. At our institution, we routinely obtain a physician-assisted traction-internal rotation radiograph of the affected hip in all fractures of the proximal femur. The purpose of the current study was to examine the usefulness of the traction-internal rotation radiograph for the classification of hip fractures by junior residents in our department. Forty-seven sets of complete radiographs (AP pelvis, AP hip, cross-table lateral, traction- internal rotation views) of patients who sustained a proximal femur fracture were identified. Fifteen first year orthopaedic residents (PGY2) individually reviewed the cases and classified them as one of six possible choices: 1. nondisplaced femoral neck fracture, 2. displaced femoral neck fracture, 3. stable intertrochanteric fracture, 4. unstable intertrochanteric fracture, 5. intertrochanteric fracture with subtrochanteric extension, or 6. subtrochanteric fracture. Each fracture case was classified after first reviewing the standard hip series (AP pelvis, AP hip, and cross-table lateral). A traction-internal rotation radiograph was then added to each case, and any changes in the initial classification were noted. The resident's classification was then compared with those of the senior investigators (KJK, KAE), who used all four views for classification. Reviewing a traction-internal rotation radiograph led to a statistically significant increase in agreement between the resident and senior investigators

  16. A pressure-affected headspace-gas chromatography method for determining calcium carbonate content in paper sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yi; Yu, Zhen-Hua; Zhan, Jian-Bo; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhang, Shu-Xin; Xie, Wei-Qi; He, Liang

    2017-07-21

    The present work reports on the development of a pressure-affected based headspace (HS) analytical technique for the determination of calcium carbonate content in paper samples. By the acidification, the carbonate in the sample was converted to CO2 and released into the headspace of a closed vial and then measured by gas chromatography (GC). When the amount of carbonate in the sample is significant, the pressure created by the CO2 affects the accuracy of the method. However, the pressure also causes a change in the O2 signal in the HS-GC measurement, which is a change that can be used as an indirect measure of the carbonate in the sample. The results show that the present method has a good precision (the relative standard deviation<2.32%), and good accuracy (the relative differences compared to a reference method was<5.76%). Coupled with the fact that the method is simple, rapid, and accurate, it is suitable for a variety of applications that call for the analysis of high carbonate content in paper samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Simulation of the Traction Drive with Middle-Frequency Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Drabek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research motivated by industrial demand for special traction drive topology devoted to minimization of traction transformer weight against topology with classical 50Hz traction transformer. The special traction drive topology for AC power systems consists of input high voltage trolley converter (single phase matrix converter –middle frequency transformer - output converter - traction motor has been described. The main attention has been given tothe control algorithm of the traction topology (inserting of NULL vector of matrix converter and Two-value control ofsecondary active rectifier.

  18. Axial traction magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the glenohumeral joint in healthy volunteers: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Elisabeth R; Souza, Richard B; Zhang, Amy; Zhang, Alan L; Ma, C Benjamin; Link, Thomas M; Motamedi, Daria

    Evaluate technical feasibility and potential applications of glenohumeral (GH) joint axial traction magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in healthy volunteers. Eleven shoulders were imaged in neutral and with 4kg axial traction at 3T. Quantitative measurements were assessed. Axial traction was well tolerated. There was statistically significant widening of the superior GH joint space (p=0.002) and acromial angle (p=0.017) with traction. Inter-rater agreement was high. GH joint axial traction MRI is technically feasible and well tolerated in volunteers. Traction of the capsule, widening of the superior GH joint space and acromial angle were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Traction reveals mechanisms of wall effects for microswimmers near boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xinhui; Marcos, Fu, Henry C.

    2017-03-01

    The influence of a plane boundary on low-Reynolds-number swimmers has frequently been studied using image systems for flow singularities. However, the boundary effect can also be expressed using a boundary integral representation over the traction on the boundary. We show that examining the traction pattern on the boundary caused by a swimmer can yield physical insights into determining when far-field multipole models are accurate. We investigate the swimming velocities and the traction of a three-sphere swimmer initially placed parallel to an infinite planar wall. In the far field, the instantaneous effect of the wall on the swimmer is well approximated by that of a multipole expansion consisting of a force dipole and a force quadrupole. On the other hand, the swimmer close to the wall must be described by a system of singularities reflecting its internal structure. We show that these limits and the transition between them can be independently identified by examining the traction pattern on the wall, either using a quantitative correlation coefficient or by visual inspection. Last, we find that for nonconstant propulsion, correlations between swimming stroke motions and internal positions are important and not captured by time-averaged traction on the wall, indicating that care must be taken when applying multipole expansions to study boundary effects in cases of nonconstant propulsion.

  20. Maximum Safety Regenerative Power Tracking for DC Traction Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guifu Du

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Direct current (DC traction power systems are widely used in metro transport systems, with running rails usually being used as return conductors. When traction current flows through the running rails, a potential voltage known as “rail potential” is generated between the rails and ground. Currently, abnormal rises of rail potential exist in many railway lines during the operation of railway systems. Excessively high rail potentials pose a threat to human life and to devices connected to the rails. In this paper, the effect of regenerative power distribution on rail potential is analyzed. Maximum safety regenerative power tracking is proposed for the control of maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption during the operation of DC traction power systems. The dwell time of multiple trains at each station and the trigger voltage of the regenerative energy absorbing device (READ are optimized based on an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to manage the distribution of regenerative power. In this way, the maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption of DC traction power systems can be reduced. The operation data of Guangzhou Metro Line 2 are used in the simulations, and the results show that the scheme can reduce the maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption effectively and guarantee the safety in energy saving of DC traction power systems.

  1. Trunk muscle response to various protocols of lumbar traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewicki, Jacek; Lee, Angela S; Reeves, N Peter; Calle, Elizabeth A

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare trunk muscle activity, spinal decompression force, and trunk flexibility resulting from various protocols of spinal traction. Four experiments explored the effects of (1) sinusoidal, triangular, square, and continuous distraction-force waveforms, (2) 0, 10, 20, and 30 degrees of pull angle, (3) superimposed low, medium and high frequency force oscillations, and (4) sham traction. Nineteen healthy subjects volunteered for this study. Surface EMG was recorded during traction and later used in a biomechanical model to estimate spine decompression force. Trunk flexibility was measured before and after each treatment. There were no differences in muscle activity between any of the experimental conditions except the thoracic erector spinae muscle, which had lower EMG during continuous compared to sinusoidal distraction-force waveform (p=0.02). Thoracic and lumbar erector spinae muscles were significantly less active during sham than real traction (p=0.01 and p=0.04, respectively). The estimated L4-L5 spine compression force was 25N. Trunk flexibility decreased after each experimental session (p=0.01), and there were no differences between sessions. Our results suggest that the trunk muscle activity is minimal and point toward fluid exchange in the disc as one of the key biomechanical effects of spinal traction.

  2. Clinical application of intraoperative skeletal traction in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovesti, G L; Margini, A; Cappellari, F; Peirone, B

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of a method for pre-operative and intra-operative traction for reduction of fractures of the appendicular skeleton. Traction was used in 24 diaphyseal fractures in 21 dogs. For each dog, the data pertaining to signalment, limb circumference, fracture type, interval between fracture and surgery, and the traction modalities were recorded. In patients with a latency between trauma and surgery of less than three days, the duration of traction required to realign the bone segments was shorter than that required for older fractures (P = 0.02). Intraoperative malalignments were corrected by manoeuvres performed with the traction stand. Once realigned, fracture segments were kept stable for prolonged periods, without the need for a surgical assistant. Postoperative radiographs were evaluated for fracture reduction and axial alignment. Postoperative alignment was judged excellent in 21 fractures and good in three fractures. Fractures were stabilized using external skeletal fixation (n = 10), plates (n = 11) or locked nails (n = 3), depending on the fracture type. The use of the technique was straight-forward and easily applied in a surgical setting. However, its use requires careful application because of the potential for iatrogenic tissue damage.

  3. [Acute effects of mechanical lumbar traction with different intensities on stature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, S; Ribeiro, F

    2011-01-01

    to compare the efficacy of mechanical lumbar traction with low (10% of body weight) and high traction force (50% of body weight) on the separation of the vertebrae in vivo using stature variations as criterion. Additionally, we aimed to determine the time that the effects of traction last. Thirty apparently healthy subjects (age: 20.9 ± 1.7 years old), 14 male and 16 female, were submitted to two protocols of 15 minutes of continuous traction (with intensity of 10% and 50% of body weight), in two sessions one week apart. The protocol order was determined randomly. Stature was assessed before and immediately after the traction and every five minutes for 30 minutes after traction ceased. Immediately after the traction both protocols induced a significant increase in stature, however the magnitude of the increase was significantly superior in the traction with 50% of body weight (0.567 ± 0.049 vs. 0.298 ± 0.041 cm, p>0.001). After the traction with 50% of body weight the increase in the stature was maintained until ten minutes after the end of the traction, while after the traction with 10% of body weight the effects on stature disappeared after five minutes. The mechanical vertebral traction of the lumbar region performed continuously with 50% of body weight during 15 minutes induced an increase in stature superior and longer in time than that observed with a traction force of 10% of body weight.

  4. Traction sheave elevator, hoisting unit and machine space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Harri; Mustalahti, Jorma; Aulanko, Esko

    2000-01-01

    Traction sheave elevator consisting of an elevator car moving along elevator guide rails, a counterweight moving along counterweight guide rails, a set of hoisting ropes (3) on which the elevator car and counterweight are suspended, and a drive machine unit (6) driving a traction sheave (7) acting on the hoisting ropes (3) and placed in the elevator shaft. The drive machine unit (6) is of a flat construction. A wall of the elevator shaft is provided with a machine space with its open side facing towards the shaft, the essential parts of the drive machine unit (6) being placed in the space. The hoisting unit (9) of the traction sheave elevator consists of a substantially discoidal drive machine unit (6) and an instrument panel (8) mounted on the frame (20) of the hoisting unit.

  5. Optical Coherence Tomography in Spontaneous Resolution of Vitreomacular Traction Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsuan Hung

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitreomacular traction syndrome (VTS is a vitreoretinal interface abnormality. The disorder is caused by incomplete posterior vitreous detachment with persistent traction on the macula that produces symptoms and decreased vision. Most symptomatic eyes with VTS undergo a further decrease in visual acuity. Spontaneous complete vitreomacular separation occurs infrequently in eyes with VTS. Surgical intervention may be considered if severe metamorphopsia and decreased visual quality occur. Herein, we report 2 typical cases of idiopathic VTS with spontaneous resolution of vitreo-retinal traction demonstrated by optical coherence tomography. Optical coherence tomography is a sensitive and useful tool for the confirmation of diagnosis and for the serial anatomical evaluation of patients with VTS.

  6. Local antibiotics: panacea for long term skeletal traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Vishal; Jaiswal, Anuj; Dhaon, B K

    2005-01-01

    Long periods of skeletal traction are frequently needed in busy tertiary centres due to long waiting lists for surgery. A frequent complication is pin track infection, which leads to revision of pin insertion or switching over to skin traction. A prospective study was conducted on sixty patients with upper tibial pin insertion for various causes. Antibiotic (injection Cephazolin 0.5 g after sensitivity testing--250 mg on each side) was injected on thirty patients at the site of pin insertion and no antibiotic was injected in 30 controls. Only one stage one pin track infection was seen in the study group (3% cases), where as six cases had stage 1 infection, one case had stage 2 infection and two cases had stage 3 infections in the control group (30% cases). This study showed the usefulness of this modification in preventing morbidity in patients who are planned for long-term skeletal traction by temporarily suppressing the local flora.

  7. Substrate utilization during brisk walking is affected by glycemic index and fructose content of a pre-exercise meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng-Hua; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Huang, Ya-Jun; Chen, Ya-Jun; Tsang, Ka-Fai

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether both glycemic index (GI) and fructose content of a pre-exercise meal would affect substrate utilization during subsequent brisk walking. Ten healthy young males completed 60 min of 46% [Formula: see text] brisk walking 2 h after they consumed one of three breakfasts: a low-GI meal without fructose (LGI), a low-GI meal including fructose (LGIF), and a high-GI meal without fructose (HGI). The calculated GI values for the three meals were 41, 39, and 72, respectively. Substrate utilization was measured using indirect respiratory calorimetry method. During the postprandial period, the incremental area under the blood response curve values of glucose and insulin were higher in the HGI trial, compared with those in the LGI and LGIF trials (HGI vs. LGI and LGIF: Glucose 223.6 ± 19.1 vs. 70.2 ± 7.4 and 114.1 ± 16.4 mmol min L(-1); Insulin 4257 ± 932 vs. 920 ± 319 and 1487 ± 348 mU min L(-1)). During exercise, substrate preference was distinct based on different pre-exercise carbohydrate meals. Higher fat and lower carbohydrate oxidation was observed in the LGI trial, whereas both the HGI and LGIF trials were characterized by higher carbohydrate and lower fat oxidation (LGI vs. LGIF and HGI: Carbohydrate 59.3 ± 2.4 vs. 69.8 ± 3.9 and 72.7 ± 3.9 g; Fat 22.7 ± 2.0 vs. 18.5 ± 1.7 and 17.6 ± 1.3 g; P brisk walking with that induced by a HGI breakfast. It appears that both the GI and fructose content in a breakfast individually affect substrate utilization during subsequent moderate intensity exercise.

  8. Gas Gangrene as a Result of Femoral Traction Pin Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of adult femoral shaft fractures typically involves operative stabilization with intramedullary implants, external fixation, or a plate and screw construct. However, when stabilization is delayed for any reason, use of a traction pin is recommended to stabilize the fracture, prevent significant shortening, as well as to help with pain control. In this paper, we present the rare complication of a severe gas gangrene infection caused by Clostridium perfringens that led to several amputations and ultimately death. We also discuss risks of temporary skeletal traction and techniques to overcome the morbidity of such a procedure.

  9. Traction as conservative management of lower back pain: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Al-Sadek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of traction on lower back pain. METHODS: a prospective study of 100 patients with lower back pain with straight leg raising test positive and with decrease in disc space on X-ray. RESULTS: 83.6% of the patients got relief. Patients who got relief were evaluated radiologically and clinically. CONCLUSION: We conclude that traction is cost effective and very effective method for relieving low back pain due to disc pathology and stable lumbar fractures.

  10. Fault Location in Power Electrical Traction Line System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin Zhou

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, methods of fault location are discussed in electrical traction single-end direct power supply network systems. Based on the distributed parameter model of the system, the position of the short-circuit fault can be located with the aid of the current and voltage value at the measurement end of the electrical traction line. Furthermore, the influence of the transient resistance, the position of the locomotive, locomotive load for fault location are also discussed. MATLAB simulation tool is used for the simulation experiments. Simulation results are proved the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  11. Vitreopapillary Traction in Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Soltan Sanjari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To describe the association between vitreous traction on the optic disc and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION. METHODS: Eighty three eyes of 83 patients with NAION were evaluated by optical coherence tomography (OCT for detecting vitreous adhesion to the optic nerve head with separation from the adjacent retina (partial posterior vitreous detachment. Eyes which were negative for such adhesion underwent ultrasonography to detect complete posterior vitreous detachment (PVD. RESULTS: Fifty male and 33 female subjects with mean age of 51.9±10 years were studied. Partial PVD with optic nerve head adhesion was found in 54 patients (65.1% using OCT. Ultrasonography detected complete PVD in all other eyes with optically empty spaces on OCT. CONCLUSION: Vitreous traction on the optic nerve head from partial PVD may play a causative role in some cases of NAION. This traction may impair vascular supply and/or axoplasmic flow leading to signs and symptoms of NAION.

  1. COMPROMISE, OPTIMAL AND TRACTIONAL ACCOUNTS ON PARETO SET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Lahuta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of optimum traction calculations is considered as a problem about optimum distribution of a resource. The dynamic programming solution is based on a step-by-step calculation of set of points of Pareto-optimum values of a criterion function (energy expenses and a resource (time.

  2. Quality electricity lines of external power systems electric traction DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Petrov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies that compare and analyze the numerical values of some key indicators quality electricity in the lines of the external power supply system the electric traction DC. As a supplement are additional and fundamental values of energy losses in them.

  3. Therapeutic Efficacy of Cervical Traction in the Management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participants in both groups received massage, cryotherapy and active exercises. Cervical traction was administered to experimental group for 15 minutes, thrice per week for four weeks while the other group served as control. Verbal rating scale (VRS) and Neck Disability Pain Index (NDI) were used as outcome measures.

  4. Cost effectiveness of using surgery versus skeletal traction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: A prospective quasi experimental study was undertaken at the Thika level 5 hospital. The study aimed to compare the costs of managing femoral shaft fracture by surgery as compared to skeletal traction. Methods: sixty nine (46.6%) patients were enrolled in group A and managed surgically by intramedullary ...

  5. MODELING OF TRACTION SYNCHRONOUS PERMANENT MAGNET MOTOR MODES

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    Y.N. Vas’kovsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of electromagnetic field for simulating operational modes of traction synchronous motors with permanent magnets intended for electric vehicles is developed. The mathematical model takes into account real-time rotor rotation and allows calculating and analyzing the motor basic running characteristics as time functions.

  6. Physical and electrocardiographic evaluation of horses used for wagon traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Bomfim

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to evaluate the electrocardiogram (ECG of horses used for wagon traction and to compare the results with the parameters obtained from inactive horses or horses submitted to a training routine. Fifty-six 3-15-year-old healthy horses (22 females and 34 males were divided into three groups: control (without a work routine; N=21, wagon traction (N=25 and athlete (N=10 and submitted to physical examination and ECG (at rest. The rhythm, heart rate (HR, amplitude and duration of ECG waveforms and intervals were obtained from the frontal plane and base-apex leads. Heart score (HS was calculated using the arithmetic mean of QRS duration in LI, LII and LIII. Measurements of ECG waves were smaller in control group, in comparison with wagon traction and athlete groups, suggesting that exercise can change ECG. Similar results were observed in the wagon traction and athlete groups, but the electrophysiological adjustments to exercise were not the same for these groups.

  7. Report: Factors affecting the content of potentially toxic elements in the biodegradable fraction of autoclaved household waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Efstathios K; Barton, John R

    2009-10-01

    A total of 3.4 tonnes of household waste (HW) that had a controlled composition were autoclaved in the presence of saturated steam for 1 h at the nominal temperature levels of 130, 160 and 200 degrees C. The levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, and Zn were examined in samples of the fibrous, predominantly-biodegradable fraction (floc) derived from the autoclaved HW, aqueous extracts from floc, and the condensate from steam that was released from the reactor. This data was used to study the impact of the overall levels of potential toxic elements (PTEs) in HW feed and autoclaving process parameters on the levels of PTEs in floc. No consistent correlation was found to exist between the levels of PTEs in HW feed and those in the produced floc. This was primarily attributed in the inherent variability of PTEs in waste materials. Autoclaving temperature, pressure and mixing were all found to affect the mobilization and removal of PTEs from HW and their presence in floc. Temperature/pressure appeared to increase PTE removal through the condensate path, although that removal had only a negligible impact on the contents of PTEs in floc. Autoclaving temperature correlated positively, although not significantly at a 95% confidence level, with the levels of Pb and Zn in floc. On the other hand, it correlated negatively with the Hg content in floc. Increasing temperature/pressure also increased the water extraction of PTEs from floc, with the exception of Cr. However, in the context of producing high quality compost, the extraction rates were too low to bring about a substantial decrease of PTEs in floc.

  8. CONSTRUCTIVE MODELLING FOR ZONE OF RECOVERY ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF DC TRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Shynkarenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The article is aimed to develop the means and methods of forming a plurality of real and potential structural diagrams for zones of energy recovery and different locations of trains for further training neuro-fuzzy networks on the basis of expert solutions and also for the formation of good control. Methodology. Methodology of mathematical and algorithmic constructivism for modeling the structural diagrams of the electric supply system and modes of traction power consumption and the train’s locations in zones of energy recovery was applied. This approach involves the development of constructive-synthesizing structures (CSS with transformation by specialization, interpretation, specification and implementation. Development CSS provides an extensible definition media, relations and the signature of operations and constructive axiomatic. The most complex and essential part of the axioms is the set formed by the substitution rules defining the process of withdrawal of the corresponding structures. Findings. A specialized and specified CSS, which allows considering all the possibilities and features, that supply power traction systems with modern equipment, stations and trains location was designed. Its feature: the semantic content of the terminal alphabet images of electrical traction network and power consumers with relevant attributes. A special case of the formation of the structural diagram shows the possibilities CSS in relation to this problem. Originality. A new approach to solving the problem of rational use of energy recovery, which consists in application of the methods and means of artificial neural networks, expert systems, fuzzy logic and mathematical and algorithmic constructivism. This paper presents the methods of constructive simulation of a production-distribution of energy recovery zone structure in the system of the DC traction. Practical value. The tasks decision of the rational use of energy recovery can

  9. Lumbar Traction for Managing Low Back Pain: A Survey of Physical Therapists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madson, Timothy J; Hollman, John H

    2015-08-01

    Cross-sectional survey. To examine how many physical therapists use traction, the patients for whom traction is used, the preferred delivery modes/parameters of traction, the supplemental interventions used with traction, and whether professional characteristics influence traction usage. Several systematic reviews and clinical guidelines have questioned the effectiveness of traction for managing low back pain, yet some patients may benefit from lumbar traction. While traction usage among physical therapists in other countries has been described, usage among physical therapists in the United States has not been examined. We surveyed a random sample of 4000 Orthopaedic Section members of the American Physical Therapy Association. Associations among respondents' professional characteristics and survey responses were explored with chi-square analyses (α = .05). The response rate was 25.5% (n = 1001), and 76.6% (n = 767) of respondents reported using traction. Most (58.4%) of the respondents used traction for patients with signs of nerve root compression, though many (31.4%) did not. Common delivery modes included manual methods (68.3%) and mechanical tables (44.9%), most often supplemental to other interventions (eg, stabilization exercises, postural education). Levels of professional preparation (doctoral/masters level versus bachelors/certificate level) were associated with many variables, as was attainment of an orthopaedic specialist certification. Most of the orthopaedic physical therapists in the United States who responded to our survey reported that they used lumbar traction, though not necessarily consistent with proposed criteria that identify patients most likely to benefit from traction. They used various traction delivery modes/parameters and used traction within comprehensive plans of care incorporating multiple interventions. Professional characteristics (education levels and clinical specialist credentialing) were associated with traction usage.

  10. Influences of Traction Load Shock on Artificial Partial Discharge Faults within Traction Transformer—Experimental Test for Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaibing Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Partial discharge (PD measurement and its pattern recognition are vital to fault diagnosis of transformers, especially to those traction substation transformers undergoing repetitive traction load shocks. This paper presents the primary factors induced by traction load shocks including high total harmonics distortion (THD, transient voltage impulse and high-temperature rise, and their effects on the feature parameters of PD. Experimental tests are conducted on six artificial PD models with these factors introduced one by one. Results reveal that the maximum PD quantity and the PD repetitive rate are favorable to be enlarged when the oil temperature exceeds 80 °C or the THD is higher than 16% with certain orders of harmonic. The decline in PD inception voltage can mainly be attributed to the transient voltage impulse. The variation in central frequency of the fast Fourier transformation (FFT spectra transformed from ultra-high frequency signals can mainly be attributed to high THD, especially when it exceeds 20%. The temperature rise has no significant influence on the FFT spectra; the transient voltage impulse, however, can result in a central frequency shift of the floating particle discharge. With the rapid development of high-speed railways, the study presented in this paper will be helpful for field PD detection and recognition of traction substation transformers in the future.

  11. Severe Postoperative Complications may be Related to Mesenteric Traction Syndrome during Open Esophagectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrus, R; Svendsen, L B; Secher, N H

    2017-01-01

    .036). For patients who developed flushing, heart rate and plasma 6-keto-PGF1α also increased ( p = 0.001 and p severe postoperative complications were related to Grade II flushing ( p = 0.037). CONCLUSION: Mesenteric traction syndrome manifests more frequently during open than...... robotically assisted esophagectomy, and postoperative complications appear to be associated with severe mesenteric traction syndrome.......BACKGROUND: During abdominal surgery, traction of the mesenterium provokes mesenteric traction syndrome, including hypotension, tachycardia, and flushing, along with an increase in plasma prostacyclin (PGI2). We evaluated whether postoperative complications are related to mesenteric traction...

  12. Structural strength analysis and fatigue life prediction of traction converter box in high-speed EMU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qin; Li, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The method of building the FEA model of traction converter box in high-speed EMU and analyzing the static strength and fatigue strength of traction converter box based on IEC 61373-2010 and EN 12663 standards is presented in this paper. The load-stress correlation coefficients of weak points is obtained by FEA model, applied to transfer the load history of traction converter box to stress history of each point. The fatigue damage is calculated based on Miner's rule and the fatigue life of traction converter box is predicted. According to study, the structural strength of traction converter box meets design requirements.

  13. Down-Regulation of Small Rubber Particle Protein Expression Affects Integrity of Rubber Particles and Rubber Content in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Andrea; Post, Janina J.; Wurbs, David; Wahler, Daniela; Lenders, Malte; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Prüfer, Dirk; Gronover, Christian Schulze

    2012-01-01

    The biosynthesis of rubber is thought to take place on the surface of rubber particles in laticifers, highly specialized cells that are present in more than 40 plant families. The small rubber particle protein (SRPP) has been supposed to be involved in rubber biosynthesis, and recently five SRPPs (TbSRPP1–5) were identified in the rubber-producing dandelion species Taraxacum brevicorniculatum. Here, we demonstrate by immunogold labeling that TbSRPPs are localized to rubber particles, and that rubber particles mainly consist of TbSRPP3, 4 and 5 as shown by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis. We also carried out an RNA-interference approach in transgenic plants to address the function of TbSRPPs in rubber biosynthesis as well as rubber particle morphology and stability. TbSRPP-RNAi transgenic T. brevicorniculatum plants showed a 40–50% reduction in the dry rubber content, but neither the rubber weight average molecular mass nor the polydispersity of the rubber were affected. Although no phenotypical differences to wild-type particles could be observed in vivo, rubber particles from the TbSRPP-RNAi transgenic lines were less stable and tend to rapidly aggregate in expelling latex after wounding of laticifers. Our results prove that TbSRPPs are very crucial for rubber production in T. brevicorniculatum, probably by contributing to a most favourable and stable rubber particle architecture for efficient rubber biosynthesis and eventually storage. PMID:22911861

  14. Down-regulation of small rubber particle protein expression affects integrity of rubber particles and rubber content in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hillebrand

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis of rubber is thought to take place on the surface of rubber particles in laticifers, highly specialized cells that are present in more than 40 plant families. The small rubber particle protein (SRPP has been supposed to be involved in rubber biosynthesis, and recently five SRPPs (TbSRPP1-5 were identified in the rubber-producing dandelion species Taraxacum brevicorniculatum. Here, we demonstrate by immunogold labeling that TbSRPPs are localized to rubber particles, and that rubber particles mainly consist of TbSRPP3, 4 and 5 as shown by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis. We also carried out an RNA-interference approach in transgenic plants to address the function of TbSRPPs in rubber biosynthesis as well as rubber particle morphology and stability. TbSRPP-RNAi transgenic T. brevicorniculatum plants showed a 40-50% reduction in the dry rubber content, but neither the rubber weight average molecular mass nor the polydispersity of the rubber were affected. Although no phenotypical differences to wild-type particles could be observed in vivo, rubber particles from the TbSRPP-RNAi transgenic lines were less stable and tend to rapidly aggregate in expelling latex after wounding of laticifers. Our results prove that TbSRPPs are very crucial for rubber production in T. brevicorniculatum, probably by contributing to a most favourable and stable rubber particle architecture for efficient rubber biosynthesis and eventually storage.

  15. Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolB gene affects photosynthesis and chlorophyll content in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Priscilla P; Marvasi, Massimiliano; Fani, Fabiola; Lazzara, Luigi; Cosi, Elena; Melani, Lorenzo; Mauro, Maria Luisa

    2016-10-01

    Insertion of Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolB gene into plant genome affects plant development, hormone balance and defence. However, beside the current research, the overall transcriptional response and gene expression of rolB as a modulator in plant is unknown. Transformed rolB tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivar Tondino has been used to investigate the differential expression profile. Tomato is a well-known model organism both at the genetic and molecular level, and one of the most important commercial food crops in the world. Through the construction and characterization of a cDNA subtracted library, we have investigated the differential gene expression between transgenic clones of rolB and control tomato and have evaluated genes specifically transcribed in transgenic rolB plants. Among the selected genes, five genes encoding for chlorophyll a/b binding protein, carbonic anhydrase, cytochrome b6/f complex Fe-S subunit, potassium efflux antiporter 3, and chloroplast small heat-shock protein, all involved in chloroplast function, were identified. Measurement of photosynthesis efficiency by the level of three different photosynthetic parameters (Fv/Fm, rETR, NPQ) showed rolB significant increase in non-photochemical quenching and a, b chlorophyll content. Our results point to highlight the role of rolB on plant fitness by improving photosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. [Effect of preoperative skeletal traction and skin traction on operative indicators and functional outcome of patients with femur fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiao-hui; Yan, Jie

    2014-10-01

    To compare the effect on surgical indicators and functional outcome between preoperative skeletal traction and skin traction for adult femoral fracture and guide the choice of preoperative traction method of adult femoral fractures. From February 2008 to September 2012, 68 patients aged greater than 18-year-old with femoral fractures were treated and randomly divided into two groups according hospitalization order,the odd with skeletal traction of tibial tubercle (group A) and the even with skin traction (group B). In group A, there were 25 males and 9 females with an average age of (36.3±9.9) years old,including 11 cases with transverse fracture, 15 cases with oblique fracture, 8 cases with spiral fracture. In group B, there 26 males and 8 females with an average age of (37.1±11.0) years old,including 10 cases with transverse fracture, 13 cases with oblique fracture,11 cases with spiral fracture. The operative time,blood loss,the number and amount of blood transfusion ,fracture healing time, hemoglobin, pain scores and functional scores between two groups were analyzed and compared. Results:All patients were followed up, the follow-up time was (33.5±6.5) months in group A, (31.3±7.5) months in groupB. In group A,the operation time was (108.8±14.2) min and the intraoperative blood loss was (383.1±117.1) ml and the postoperative blood transfusion was 14 cases and the blood transfusion was (350.0±122.5) ml and the average bone healing time was(15.0±3.3) weeks. In group B, the operation time was (111.6±12.7) min and the intraoperative blood loss was (392.0± 116.7) ml and the blood transfusion was 11 cases and the blood transfusion was(327.3±129.1) ml and the average healing time was (15.5±3.4) weeks. These obseration indicators had no significant difference between two groups. There was no significant difference between two groups in terms of Hemoglobin, the pain scores before and after traction, the femoral fractures efficacy score,knee function score and

  17. The effect of intraoperative traction during posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Labelle, Hubert; Poitras, Benoit; Rivard, Charles-Hilaire; Joncas, Julie

    2004-07-15

    A retrospective study comparing patients having traction and a control group not having traction during posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion (PSIF) for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To evaluate the effect of intraoperative traction on surgical correction of AIS. When the Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation system was introduced, the use of intraoperative traction was advocated. However, there is no specific report documenting the effect of intraoperative traction on the correction of AIS. The medical and radiologic records of 140 AIS patients treated by PSIF were reviewed. Forty of these patients had intraoperative traction using a head halter associated with lower extremity skin traction. The radiologic outcome was compared between the two groups intraoperatively (before instrumentation with the first rod) and after surgery using Student t tests (level of significance = 0.05). The intraoperative and postoperative corrections of the coronal primary Cobb angle were similar for both groups, although the patients in the traction group had smaller preoperative Cobb angles and more flexible curves and were instrumented with more screws. The postoperative thoracic kyphosis was significantly increased in both groups. The lumbar lordosis at the 1-year follow-up was maintained in the control group, but it was significantly decreased in the traction group. The authors do not recommend the routine use of intraoperative traction using a head halter combined with skin traction for all AIS patients undergoing PSIF. However, it could be helpful in selected cases, such as in patients having pelvic obliquity and requiring instrumentation of the pelvis.

  18. Herniated Lumbar Disks: Real-time MR Imaging Evaluation during Continuous Traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae-Sub; Yang, Hea-Eun; Ahn, Sung Jun; Park, Jung Hyun

    2015-06-01

    To assess the morphologic changes in herniated lumbar intervertebral disks and surrounding structures during lumbar traction by using real-time magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Forty-eight consecutive patients with lumbar disk herniation (13 men and 35 women) were treated with continuous lumbar traction by using a nonmagnetic traction device. Real-time MR imaging of the lumbar spine was performed before the initiation of traction and at 10-minute intervals during 30 minutes of 30 kg of continuous traction. Sagittal and axial MR images were analyzed to determine qualitative changes during lumbar traction. Quantitative changes caused by traction on the lumbar spine were determined by measurement of lumbar vertebral column elongation and the disk reduction ratio. Continuous traction on herniated lumbar disks and surrounding structures resulted in change in disk shape, disk reduction with opening in the intervertebral disk, reduction of herniated disk volume, separation of the disk and adjoining nerve root, and widening of the facet joint. Both the mean lumbar vertebral column length (elongation of 1.45% after 30 minutes, P traction, respectively) increased with time of traction. The results of this study demonstrated that the real-time effects of continuous traction on herniated lumbar intervertebral disks and their surrounding structures can be visualized by using MR imaging. RSNA, 2015

  19. Increasing the stearate content in seed oil of Brassica juncea by heterologous expression of MlFatB affects lipid content and germination frequency of transgenic seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Sinha, Saheli; Das, Natasha; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2015-11-01

    Fatty acids from dietary lipids can impart both beneficial and harmful health effects. The compositional balance between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids plays a decisive role in maintaining the physiological harmony, proper growth and development in the human system. In case of Brassica juncea seed oil, the level of saturated fatty acid, especially desirable stearate is very much lower than the recommended value, along with a high content of nutritionally undesirable erucic acid. Therefore, in order to shift the carbon flux towards the production of stearate at the expense of erucate, the MlFatB gene encoding a FatB thioesterase from Madhuca longifolia (latifolia) was expressed heterologously in seed tissues of B. juncea. The functional MlFatB competed with the highly active endogenous BjFatA thioesterase, and the transgenic B. juncea lines showed noteworthy changes in their seed fatty acid profiles. The proportion of stearate increased up to 16-fold, constituting almost 31% of the total fatty acids along with the production of arachidic acid in significant amount (up to ∼11%). Moreover, the content of erucate was reduced up to 71% in the seed oils of transgenic lines. Although a nutritionally desirable fatty acid profile was achieved, the transgenic seeds exhibit reduction or abolition of seed germination in addition to a decrease in seed lipid content. The findings of the present study revealing the stearoyl-ACP thioesterase-mediated enhancement of the stearate content that is associated with reduced germination frequency of transgenic B. juncea seeds, may explain why no natural or induced stearate-rich Brassica has been found or developed. Furthermore, this study also suggests that the newly characterized MlFatB is a potential candidate gene for refined metabolic engineering strategy in B. juncea or other plant species for increasing stearate content in seed oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Rare codon content affects the solubility of recombinant proteins in a codon bias-adjusted Escherichia coli strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceccarelli Eduardo A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of heterologous proteins in Escherichia coli is strongly affected by codon bias. This phenomenon occurs when the codon usage of the mRNA coding for the foreign protein differs from that of the bacterium. The ribosome pauses upon encountering a rare codon and may detach from the mRNA, thereby the yield of protein expression is reduced. Several bacterial strains have been engineered to overcome this effect. However, the increased rate of translation may lead to protein misfolding and insolubilization. In order to prove this assumption, the solubility of several recombinant proteins from plants was studied in a codon bias-adjusted E. coli strain. Results The expression of eight plant proteins in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3-pLysS and BL21(DE3-CodonPlus-pRIL was systematically studied. The CodonPlus strain contains extra copies of the argU, ileY, and leuW tRNA genes, which encode tRNAs that recognize the codons AGA/AGG, AUA and CUA, respectively (RIL codons. The level of expression and solubility of the recombinant proteins were analyzed by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. We found that for all proteins the solubility was at least 25% in the BL21(DE3-pLysS strain. However, when expressed in the BL21(DE3-CodonPlus-pRIL strain, proteins having more than 5% of amino acids coded by RIL codons were localized mainly in the insoluble fraction. Also, their expression caused retarded growth and low cell yield in the codon bias-adjusted strain at all temperatures tested. On the contrary, the solubility of proteins containing less than 5% of amino acids coded by RIL codons remained unchanged in both strains and their expression caused no effect on cell growth. Conclusion Our results show that the expression of heterologous proteins coded by high RIL codon content coding sequences in a codon bias-adjusted strain is detrimental for their solubility. Our data support the

  1. Research of the multipolar induction traction frequency regulated motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ia. Bespalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the application features of traction induction electric motors in transmissions of vehicles. It shows that one of important stages in their designing is to choose the number of poles. In traction electric drives engines with the raised number of poles without comprehensive assessment of such solution are often applied. The paper investigates dynamic and power characteristics of the multi-polar traction asynchronous engine (TAE designed and made for using in the individual electric drive of heavy-load wheeled cars. The basic functional elements of the model to simulate the electric drive in Matlab environment with the Simulink and SimPower Systems applications in the structure with vector control are described, and the simulation modeling results of its dynamic mechanical characteristics are provided. It is established that because of increased alternating frequency of currents of the multi-polar engine in the range of high speeds there is an excessive decrease in the torque and the requirement for constancy of the target capacity, corresponding to the specified traction characteristic is not fulfilled. It is a consequence of the waveform distortion of engine phase current in the range of high speeds because of incapability of the power source to compensate an increasing EMF of movement as the speed continues to grow.The paper studies the influence of increased current frequencies on the additional losses in the engine. The analysis of electromagnetic field penetration depth in the copper conductor of stator winding at high frequency allowed us to establish a significant skin – effect. The quantitative assessment is given to this phenomenon by results of numerical calculation of electromagnetic field distribution in a stator groove. Significant increase in additional losses in the engine is established, and estimates of flow loss extent because of damping actions of eddy currents in the laminated steel of stator at

  2. Dynamics of Traction Force Reinforcement in Smooth Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chia; Kramer, Corinne; Chen, Christopher; Reich, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    Mechanical forces influence cell function in various ways. For instance, the force-induced contraction or relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is critical to regulating the properties of blood vessels. Here, we study the dynamics of cellular traction forces in SMCs using micro-scale magnetic nanowires together with flexible PDMS micropost arrays. We use dual magnetic tweezers to apply a sinusoidal magnetic torque on nickel nanowires which are internalized by the SMCs. The spatial and temporal responses of the SMCs cultured on the tips of the microposts are recorded by the deflected posts. We observe a global reinforcement of the cells' traction forces upon applying a localized torque via the nanowires. Interestingly, we also find that the contractile response depends on the frequency of the applied stimulation, with a greater percentage of the SMCs showing enhanced reinforcement at lower frequencies.

  3. Friction-Controlled Traction Force in Cell Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompe, Tilo; Kaufmann, Martin; Kasimir, Maria; Johne, Stephanie; Glorius, Stefan; Renner, Lars; Bobeth, Manfred; Pompe, Wolfgang; Werner, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    The force balance between the extracellular microenvironment and the intracellular cytoskeleton controls the cell fate. We report a new (to our knowledge) mechanism of receptor force control in cell adhesion originating from friction between cell adhesion ligands and the supporting substrate. Adherent human endothelial cells have been studied experimentally on polymer substrates noncovalently coated with fluorescent-labeled fibronectin (FN). The cellular traction force correlated with the mobility of FN during cell-driven FN fibrillogenesis. The experimental findings have been explained within a mechanistic two-dimensional model of the load transfer at focal adhesion sites. Myosin motor activity in conjunction with sliding of FN ligands noncovalently coupled to the surface of the polymer substrates is shown to result in a controlled traction force of adherent cells. We conclude that the friction of adhesion ligands on the supporting substrate is important for mechanotransduction and cell development of adherent cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22004739

  4. Cellular traction stresses increase with increasing metastatic potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey M Kraning-Rush

    Full Text Available Cancer cells exist in a mechanically and chemically heterogeneous microenvironment which undergoes dynamic changes throughout neoplastic progression. During metastasis, cells from a primary tumor acquire characteristics that enable them to escape from the primary tumor and migrate through the heterogeneous stromal environment to establish secondary tumors. Despite being linked to poor prognosis, there are no direct clinical tests available to diagnose the likelihood of metastasis. Moreover, the physical mechanisms employed by metastatic cancer cells to migrate are poorly understood. Because metastasis of most solid tumors requires cells to exert force to reorganize and navigate through dense stroma, we investigated differences in cellular force generation between metastatic and non-metastatic cells. Using traction force microscopy, we found that in human metastatic breast, prostate and lung cancer cell lines, traction stresses were significantly increased compared to non-metastatic counterparts. This trend was recapitulated in the isogenic MCF10AT series of breast cancer cells. Our data also indicate that increased matrix stiffness and collagen density promote increased traction forces, and that metastatic cells generate higher forces than non-metastatic cells across all matrix properties studied. Additionally, we found that cell spreading for these cell lines has a direct relationship with collagen density, but a biphasic relationship with substrate stiffness, indicating that cell area alone does not dictate the magnitude of traction stress generation. Together, these data suggest that cellular contractile force may play an important role in metastasis, and that the physical properties of the stromal environment may regulate cellular force generation. These findings are critical for understanding the physical mechanisms of metastasis and the role of the extracellular microenvironment in metastatic progression.

  5. Skeletal pin traction: guidelines on postoperative care and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Peter

    Orthopaedic pins and wires have been used to apply skeletal traction for many years, and there has been an increase in the use of external fixators (Santy, 2000; Sims and Saleh, 2000). Multiple pins are frequently used and, as such, create potential portals for infection. Infection rates for these pins are reported to be as high as 85 per cent (Sims and Saleh, 2000). However, pin-site management practices are diverse, contradictory and lack consistency.

  6. Creation of electromechanical device for electric vehicle traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Денис Юрьевич Зубенко

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems of creation of electromechanical device for electric vehicle traction are considered in the article. The aim of creation this design are the replacement of the internal combustion engine on electromechanical device. For this electromechanical device are constructed model, which describe processes that occur in the electric drive of electromechanical device. Characteristics of the main modes of motion were recorded. The introduction of electromechanical device will reduce the level of emissions and reduce noise in the cities

  7. REACTIVE POWER DEVICES IN SYSTEMS OF ELECTRIC TRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Kostin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A comparative characteristic of different concepts and expressions for determination of reactive power in the circuits with non-sinusoidal electric values has been given. For the first Ukrainian electric locomotives of DE1 type with the system of DC electric traction, the values of reactive power after Budeany, Fryze, and also the differential, integral and generalized reactive powers have been determined. Some measures on reducing its consumption by the DC electric rolling stock have been suggested.

  8. Modern Solutions for Automation of Electrical Traction Power Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mihaela Andreica

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents modern solutions for the automation of the electrical traction power supply system used in urban public transport (trams, trolleybuses and subway trains. The monitoring and control of this process uses SCADA distributed architectures, grouped around a central point (dispatcher who controls all field sensors, transmitters and actuators using programmable logical controllers. The presented applications refer to the Bucharest electrical transport infrastructure.

  9. Soft Magnetic Composites in Novel Designs of Electrical Traction Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the manufacturing of electrical machines based on electrical steel laminations has been well established worldwide. Compared with the electrical steel, the soft magnetic composites (SMC) shows magnetic isotropy and lower eddy current losses. Thus, it becomes an important impulse promoting the development of new topologies of electrical machine. The application of SMC in the electrical traction machine for hybrid electrical vehicle or electrical vehicle has been researched in the work.

  10. 3D Traction forces in cancer cell invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten M Koch

    Full Text Available Cell invasion through a dense three-dimensional (3D matrix is believed to depend on the ability of cells to generate traction forces. To quantify the role of cell tractions during invasion in 3D, we present a technique to measure the elastic strain energy stored in the matrix due to traction-induced deformations. The matrix deformations around a cell were measured by tracking the 3D positions of fluorescent beads tightly embedded in the matrix. The bead positions served as nodes for a finite element tessellation. From the strain in each element and the known matrix elasticity, we computed the local strain energy in the matrix surrounding the cell. We applied the technique to measure the strain energy of highly invasive MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma and A-125 lung carcinoma cells in collagen gels. The results were compared to the strain energy generated by non-invasive MCF-7 breast and A-549 lung carcinoma cells. In all cases, cells locally contracted the matrix. Invasive breast and lung carcinoma cells showed a significantly higher contractility compared to non-invasive cells. Higher contractility, however, was not universally associated with higher invasiveness. For instance, non-invasive A-431 vulva carcinoma cells were the most contractile cells among all cell lines tested. As a universal feature, however, we found that invasive cells assumed an elongated spindle-like morphology as opposed to a more spherical shape of non-invasive cells. Accordingly, the distribution of strain energy density around invasive cells followed patterns of increased complexity and anisotropy. These results suggest that not so much the magnitude of traction generation but their directionality is important for cancer cell invasion.

  11. Traction Force and Tension Fluctuations During Axon Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamison ePolackwich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Actively generated mechanical forces play a central role in axon growthand guidance, but the mechanisms that underly force generation andregulation in growing axons remain poorly understood. We reportmeasurements of the dynamics of traction stresses from growth cones ofactively advancing axons from postnatal rat DRG neurons. By tracking themovement of the growth cone and analyzing the traction stress field froma reference frame that moves with it, we are able to show that there isa clear and consistent average stress field that underlies the complexspatial stresses present at any one time. The average stress field hasstrong maxima on the sides of the growth cone, directed inward towardthe growth cone neck. This pattern represents a contractile stresscontained within the growth cone, and a net force that is balanced bythe axon tension. Using high time-resolution measurements of the growthcone traction stresses, we show that the stress field is composed offluctuating local stress peaks, with a large number peaks that live fora short time, a population of peaks whose lifetime distribution followsan exponential decay, and a small number of very long-lived peaks. Weshow that the high time-resolution data also reveal that the tensionappears to vary randomly over short time scales, roughly consistent withthe lifetime of the stress peaks, suggesting that the tensionfluctuations originate from stochastic adhesion dynamics.

  12. Design study of toroidal traction CVT for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynard, A. E.; Kraus, J.; Bell, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    The development, evaluation, and optimization of a preliminary design concept for a continuously variable transmission (CVT) to couple the high-speed output shaft of an energy storage flywheel to the drive train of an electric vehicle is discussed. An existing computer simulation program was modified and used to compare the performance of five CVT design configurations. Based on this analysis, a dual-cavity full-toroidal drive with regenerative gearing is selected for the CVT design configuration. Three areas are identified that will require some technological development: the ratio control system, the traction fluid properities, and evaluation of the traction contact performance. Finally, the suitability of the selected CVT design concept for alternate electric and hybrid vehicle applications and alternate vehicle sizes and maximum output torques is determined. In all cases the toroidal traction drive design concept is applicable to the vehicle system. The regenerative gearing could be eliminated in the electric powered vehicle because of the reduced ratio range requirements. In other cases the CVT with regenerative gearing would meet the design requirements after appropriate adjustments in size and reduction gearing ratio.

  13. Effect of continuous lumbar traction on the size of herniated disc material in lumbar disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Bulent; Gunduz, Osman Hakan; Ozoran, Kursat; Bostanoglu, Sevinc

    2006-05-01

    We investigated the effects of continuous lumbar traction in patients with lumbar disc herniation on clinical findings, and size of the herniated disc measured by computed tomography (CT). In this prospective, randomized, controlled study, 46 patients with lumbar disc herniation were included, and randomized into two groups as the traction group (24 patients), and the control group (22 patients). The traction group was given a physical therapy program and continuous lumbar traction. The control group was given the same physical therapy program without traction, for the same duration of time. Data for the clinical symptoms and signs were collected before and after the treatment together with calculation of a herniation index, from the CT images that showed the size of the herniated disc material. In the traction group, most of the clinical findings significantly improved with treatment. Size of the herniated disc material in CT decreased significantly only in the traction group. In the traction group the herniation index decreased from 276.6+/-129.6 to 212.5+/-84.3 with treatment (p0.05). Patients with greater herniations tended to respond better to traction. In conclusion, lumbar traction is both effective in improving symptoms and clinical findings in patients with lumbar disc herniation and also in decreasing the size of the herniated disc material as measured by CT.

  14. The measurement, modeling, and prediction of traction for rocket propellant 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevaarwerk, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    Traction tests were performed on RP-1, a common kerosene based rocket propellant. Traction data on this fluid are required for purposes of turbopump bearing design, using codes such as SHABERTH. To obtain the traction data, an existing twin disc machine was used, operating under the side slip mode and using elliptical contacts. The range of test variables were: contact peak Hertz stress from 1.0 to 2.0 GPa, disc surface speed from 10 to 50 m/s, fluid inlet temperature from 30 to 70 C, and with a contact aspect ratio of 1.7. The resulting traction curves were reduced to fundamental fluid property parameters using the Johnson and Tevaarwerk traction model. Theoretical traction predictions were performed by back substitution of the fundamental properties into the traction model. Comparison of the predicted with the measured curves gives a high degree of confidence in the correctness of the traction model. For purposes of input to the NASA SHABERTH program, the traction model was next used to predict the expected traction of RP-1 under line contact conditions.

  15. [Acupuncture combined with traction therapy for lumbar disc herniation: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-zhen; Chen, Hai-yong; Zheng, Xiao; Liu, Nong-yu

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture combined with traction therapy for lumbar disc herniation, providing the basis for future research strategies. Randomized control trials. (RCT) of acupuncture combined with traction therapy for lumber disc herniation at home and abroad from 2000 to 2013 were searched, analysis and evaluation of literature and strength of evidence were based on the principles and methods of Evidence-based Medicine. The total effective rate and curative rate were considered as primary outcome measures; pain improvement, quality of life, relapse rate and adverse effects were considered as secondary outcome measures. Seventeen RCTs were identified, Meta-analysis showed that (1) total effective rate and curative rate: acupuncture combined with traction therapy was better than single therapy (acupuncture or traction); (2) pain improvement: acupuncture combined with traction therapy was better than traction therapy; (3) relapse rate: current evidence could not support the conclusion that acupuncture combined with traction therapy was better than traction therapy. Acupuncture combined with traction therapy for lumbar disc herniation was effective. However, the included studies were with high risk of bias, important outcome measures such as quality of life, relapse rate and adverse effects were not found in most of the studies. Current evidence has not yet been able to fully reflect acupuncture combined with traction therapy for lumbar disc herniation is better than single therapy, so more RCTs of higher quality are needed to further confirm its efficacy and safety.

  16. Biomechanical analysis of two-step traction therapy in the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won Man; Kim, Kyungsoo; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2014-12-01

    Traction therapy is one of the most common conservative treatments for low back pain. However, the effects of traction therapy on lumbar spine biomechanics are not well known. We investigated biomechanical effects of two-step traction therapy, which consists of global axial traction and local decompression, on the lumbar spine using a validated three-dimensional finite element model of the lumbar spine. One-third of body weight was applied on the center of the L1 vertebra toward the superior direction for the first axial traction. Anterior translation of the L4 vertebra was considered as the second local decompression. The lordosis angle between the superior planes of the L1 vertebra and sacrum was 44.6° at baseline, 35.2° with global axial traction, and 46.4° with local decompression. The fibers of annulus fibrosus in the posterior region, and intertransverse and posterior longitudinal ligaments experienced stress primarily during global axial traction, these stresses decreased during local decompression. A combination of global axial traction and local decompression would be helpful for reducing tensile stress on the fibers of the annulus fibrosus and ligaments, and intradiscal pressure in traction therapy. This study could be used to develop a safer and more effective type of traction therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preoperative skeletal versus cutaneous traction for femoral shaft fractures treated within 24 hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Jesse L; Richards, Justin E; Crosby, Colin G; Kregor, Philip J; Mitchell, Erika J; Jahangir, Alex A; Tressler, Marc A; Obremskey, William T

    2012-10-01

    To compare the advantages and disadvantages of preoperative cutaneous traction versus skeletal traction in adults with diaphyseal femur fractures amenable to fixation within 24 hours. Randomized prospective trial. Level I trauma center in a major metropolitan area. Sixty-five patients with 66 femur fractures were prospectively enrolled and randomized to a traction group from July 2009 to July 2010. Time of application for on call physicians/practitioners, pain relief after application of traction; time of reduction in the operating room theater, and evaluation of pain medication consumption before stabilization. Thirty-seven patients received cutaneous femoral traction, whereas 29 patients received skeletal traction. There was a significant reduction in time of application for the cutaneous traction (24.30 ± 24.74 minutes) compared with skeletal traction (57.10 ± 33.60 minutes) (P ≤ 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in visual analog scale (VAS) scores when compared with pretraction application pain assessment and posttraction pain assessment between the cutaneous and skeletal traction groups with a decrease in the VAS of (0.56 ± 3.73 and 0.54 ± 2.76), respectively (P = 0.99). There was no difference in pain medication requirements between groups (0.12 ± 0.17 mg/kg for cutaneous versus 0.09 ± 0.14 mg/kg for skeletal, P = 0.39). There was no significant difference in reduction time of the fracture (skin incision or opening reamer to guide wire passage) in the operating room between cutaneous traction versus skeletal traction (P = 0.59). Use of cutaneous traction for diaphyseal femur fractures when compared with skeletal traction results in a statistically significant reduction in time of application to the on call practitioner with no complications or detrimental change in operative time and no difference in VAS pain scores or narcotic usage.

  18. Skeletal versus skin traction before definitive management of pediatric femur fractures: a comparison of patient narcotic requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlaningham, Cameron J; Schaller, Thomas M; Wise, Christopher

    2009-09-01

    Pediatric patients with femoral shaft fractures are often placed in traction as a temporizing measure before definitive management. The purpose of our study was to compare narcotic use in pediatric patients with isolated femoral shaft fractures that were initially treated with skeletal traction with similar patients that were initially treated with skin traction. The hypothesis was that narcotic use would not be significantly different between the groups. Chart review at 2 institutions was carried out to identify pediatric patients with isolated femoral shaft fractures treated with either skeletal traction or skin traction. The patients' age, weight, and the amount and duration of narcotic use were recorded. A 2-sample t test was used for the comparison. Fifty-one patients were treated with skin traction and 24 patients were treated with skeletal traction. Patients in the skeletal traction group used more pain medication (0.0177 mg/kg/h in traction) than those in the skin traction group (0.0137 mg/kg/h in traction), but this was not statistically significant (P=0.1031). The findings support our hypothesis that the amount of narcotics used between the skeletal traction group and skin traction group would not be significantly different. In using narcotic requirement as a gross measure of patient comfort while in traction, it seems there may be no benefit to the patient to have invasive skeletal traction while awaiting definitive management of their fracture. Retrospective comparative study, level III.

  19. Direct single to two/three phase power electronic conversion for AC traction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrucky, B.; Pavlanin, R.; Pokorny, M. [Zilina Univ. (Slovakia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed single to 3-phase power electronic converters. Conversion rates were evaluated using a middle frequency transformer with matrix converters. The use of a matrix converter subsystem with a 2-phase orthogonal induction motor was compared with conventional drives as a means of reducing the number of converter power switching elements. The converter was a high voltage modular multilevel converter where the transformer was fed directly by the single phase converter system operating on an AC line voltage. The converter offered sinusoidal input and output harmonics, eliminated the need for a DC link circuit, and decreased the number of switching elements for converters in AC-AC drives. A power active filter was used to improve the harmonic content of the input and output currents. Simulations of the 2-phase matrix converter orthogonal driving concept indicated that the converter can be used to provide solutions for single phase electric traction applications. 21 refs., 15 figs.

  20. Alternate cadmium exposure differentially affects the content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex of male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquifino, A.I. [Dept. de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular III, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Seara, R.; Fernandez-Rey, E.; Lafuente, A. [Lab. de Toxicologia, Universidad de Vigo, Orense (Spain)

    2001-05-01

    This work examines changes of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine contents in the hypothalamus, striatum and prefrontal cortex of the rat after an alternate schedule of cadmium administration. Age-associated changes were also evaluated, of those before puberty and after adult age. In control rats GABA content decreased with age in the median eminence and in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Taurine content showed similar results with the exception of mediobasal hypothalamus and striatum, where no changes were detected. In pubertal rats treated with cadmium from 30 to 60 days of life, GABA content significantly decreased in all brain regions except in the striatum. When cadmium was administered from day 60 to 90 of life, GABA content was significantly changed in prefrontal cortex only compared with the age matched controls. Taurine content showed similar results in pubertal rats, with the exception of the median eminence and the mediobasal hypothalamus, neither of which showed a change. However, when cadmium was administered to rats from day 60 to 90 of life, taurine content only changed in prefrontal cortex compared with the age matched controls. These results suggest that cadmium differentially affects GABA and taurine contents within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex as a function of age. (orig.)

  1. Properties and toxicological effects of particles from the interaction between tyres, road pavement and winter traction material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Mats; Blomqvist, Göran; Gudmundsson, Anders; Dahl, Andreas; Swietlicki, Erik; Bohgard, Mats; Lindbom, John; Ljungman, Anders

    2008-04-15

    In regions where studded tyres and traction material are used during winter, e.g. the Nordic countries, northern part of USA, Canada, and Japan, mechanically generated particles from traffic are the main reason for high particle mass concentrations in busy street and road environments. In many Nordic municipalities the European environmental quality standard for inhalable particles (PM(10)) is exceeded due to these particles. In this study, particles from the wear of studded and studless friction tyres on two pavements and traction sanding were generated using a road simulator. The particles were characterized using particle sizers, Particle Induced X-Ray Emission Analysis and electron microscopy. Cell studies were conducted on particles sampled from the tests with studded tyres and compared with street environment, diesel exhaust and subway PM(10), respectively. The results show that in the road simulator, where resuspension is minimized, studded tyres produce tens of times more particles than friction tyres. Chemical analysis of the sampled particles shows that the generated wear particles consist almost entirely of minerals from the pavement stone material, but also that Sulfur is enriched for the submicron particles and that Zink is enriched for friction tyres for all particles sizes. The chemical data can be used for source identification and apportionment in urban aerosol studies. A mode of ultra-fine particles was also present and is hypothesised to originate in the tyres. Further, traction material properties affect PM(10) emission. The inflammatory potential of the particles from wear of pavements seems to depend on type of pavement and can be at least as potent as diesel exhaust particles. The results imply that there is a need and a good potential to reduce particle emission from pavement wear and winter time road and street operation by adjusting both studded tyre use as well as pavement and traction material properties.

  2. Properties and toxicological effects of particles from the interaction between tyres, road pavement and winter traction material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Mats [Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), SE-581 95 Linkoeping (Sweden)], E-mail: mats.gustafsson@vti.se; Blomqvist, Goeran [Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), SE-581 95 Linkoeping (Sweden); Gudmundsson, Anders; Dahl, Andreas [Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Department of Design Sciences, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Swietlicki, Erik [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bohgard, Mats [Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Department of Design Sciences, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lindbom, John; Ljungman, Anders [Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2008-04-15

    In regions where studded tyres and traction material are used during winter, e.g. the Nordic countries, northern part of USA, Canada, and Japan, mechanically generated particles from traffic are the main reason for high particle mass concentrations in busy street and road environments. In many Nordic municipalities the European environmental quality standard for inhalable particles (PM{sub 10}) is exceeded due to these particles. In this study, particles from the wear of studded and studless friction tyres on two pavements and traction sanding were generated using a road simulator. The particles were characterized using particle sizers, Particle Induced X-Ray Emission Analysis and electron microscopy. Cell studies were conducted on particles sampled from the tests with studded tyres and compared with street environment, diesel exhaust and subway PM{sub 10}, respectively. The results show that in the road simulator, where resuspension is minimized, studded tyres produce tens of times more particles than friction tyres. Chemical analysis of the sampled particles shows that the generated wear particles consist almost entirely of minerals from the pavement stone material, but also that Sulfur is enriched for the submicron particles and that Zink is enriched for friction tyres for all particles sizes. The chemical data can be used for source identification and apportionment in urban aerosol studies. A mode of ultra-fine particles was also present and is hypothesised to originate in the tyres. Further, traction material properties affect PM{sub 10} emission. The inflammatory potential of the particles from wear of pavements seems to depend on type of pavement and can be at least as potent as diesel exhaust particles. The results imply that there is a need and a good potential to reduce particle emission from pavement wear and winter time road and street operation by adjusting both studded tyre use as well as pavement and traction material properties.

  3. Growth Stage and Drying Methods Affect Essential Oil Content and Composition of Pickling Herb (Echinophora tenuifolia subsp. sibthorpiana Tutin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif ŞANLI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted during 2012 in order to determine the essential oil content and composition of Echinophora tenuifolia subsp. sibthorpiana Tutin. Plants were collected during rosette, vegetative growth, full flowering and fruit-ripening stages. Oil was extracted using Clavenger hydro-distillation apparatus from either fresh, shade dried or sun dried samples. Oil composition was determined with a GC/MS. Oil content of samples showed significant variation during the vegetative stages of development. Oil contents of fresh samples were found to be 0.76% at seedling stage whereas oil content has risen to 1.06% at seed set. The shade-dried samples had higher oil contents than the fresh and sun dried samples. The oil composition of pickling herb changed with drying method and growth stage. Throughout the growth stage of the plant, the oil was composed of 21 components and the main components were found to be α- phellandrene (47.43 - 66.39% and methyl eugenol (21.29 – 38.72%. While methyl eugenol content decreased during vegetation period for both fresh and dried samples, α-phellandrene level increased. Attention should be given to the collection time and drying method of pickling herb for different uses since vegetative stage and drying method influence oil content and composition.

  4. Initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affects chemical properties of bagged substrates containing controlled release fertilizer at two different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagged potting mixes can be stored for weeks or months before being used by consumers. Some bagged potting mixes are amended with controlled release fertilizers (CRF). The objective of this research was to observe how initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affect the chemical p...

  5. A Traction Three-Phase to Single-Phase Cascade Converter Substation in an Advanced Traction Power Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiong He

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The advanced traction power supply system (ATPSS is a new directional development for traction power supply systems, which can totally remove the neutral sections and effectively promote power quality. However, the existing converters suffer from small substation capacity. In this paper, a new configuration based on a three-level neutral point clamped (3L-NPC three-phase to single-phase cascade converter in a substation is proposed for ATPSS, which can be used to match the capacity of the converter for high voltage and large power applications. The control strategy of the proposed converter is analyzed in depth, and the phase disposition sinusoidal pulse width modulation (PD-SPWM with phase shift carrier SPWM (PSC-SPWM is employed in the inverters. Then, the inductance equalizing circuit is applied for the voltage balance on the DC-link. Besides, a LC filter circuit is designed to eliminate the double line-frequency ripple of DC voltage. Afterwards, a simulation model and an experimental prototype are developed, respectively. The simulation results show that the proposed converter in this paper can not only meet the requirements of voltage and capacity for the traction network, but also improve power quality. Finally, the experimental results verify the correctness and feasibility of the proposed control strategy.

  6. Pre-operative traction for fractures of the proximal femur in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M J; Handoll, H H G

    2006-07-19

    Following a hip fracture, traction may be applied to the injured limb before surgery. To evaluate the effects of traction applied to the injured limb prior to surgery for a fractured hip. Different methods of applying traction (skin or skeletal) were considered. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (March 2006), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2006), MEDLINE (1966 to March 2006), EMBASE (1988 to 2006 Week 11), CINAHL (1982 to March 2006), the UK National Research Register (Issue 1, 2006), conference proceedings and reference lists of articles. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials comparing either skin or skeletal traction with no traction, or skin with skeletal traction for patients with an acute hip fracture prior to surgery. Both authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Additional information was sought from all trialists. Wherever appropriate and possible, data were pooled. Ten randomised trials, mainly of moderate quality, involving a total of 1546 predominantly elderly patients with hip fractures, were identified and included in the review. Nine trials compared traction with no traction. Although limited data pooling was possible, overall this provided no evidence of benefit from traction, either in the relief of pain before surgery or ease of fracture reduction or quality of fracture reduction at time of surgery. One of these trials included both skin and skeletal traction groups. This trial and one other compared skeletal traction with skin traction and found no important differences between these two methods, although the initial application of skeletal traction was noted as being more painful and more costly. From the evidence available, the routine use of traction (either skin or skeletal) prior to surgery for a hip fracture does not appear to have any benefit. However, the evidence is also insufficient to rule out the potential

  7. Sustainability Aspects of Energy Conversion in Modern High-Speed Trains with Traction Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects are illustrated of energy conversion processes during the operation of electric railway vehicles with traction induction motors, in order to support transport systems’ sustainability. Increasing efforts are being expended to enhance the sustainability of transportation technologies and systems. Since electric drive systems are used with variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF inverters and traction induction motors, these machines with appropriate controls can realize both traction and electric braking regimes for electric traction vehicles. In line with this idea, this paper addresses the operation sustainability of electric railway vehicles highlighting the chain of interactions among the main electric equipment on an electrically driven railway system supplied from an a.c. contact line: The contact line-side converter, the machine-side converter and the traction induction motor. The paper supports the findings that electric traction drive systems using induction motors fed by network-side converters and VVVF inverters enhance the sustainable operation of railway trains.

  8. Microfabricated tissues for investigating traction forces involved in cell migration and tissue morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerger, Bryan A; Siedlik, Michael J; Nelson, Celeste M

    2017-05-01

    Cell-generated forces drive an array of biological processes ranging from wound healing to tumor metastasis. Whereas experimental techniques such as traction force microscopy are capable of quantifying traction forces in multidimensional systems, the physical mechanisms by which these forces induce changes in tissue form remain to be elucidated. Understanding these mechanisms will ultimately require techniques that are capable of quantifying traction forces with high precision and accuracy in vivo or in systems that recapitulate in vivo conditions, such as microfabricated tissues and engineered substrata. To that end, here we review the fundamentals of traction forces, their quantification, and the use of microfabricated tissues designed to study these forces during cell migration and tissue morphogenesis. We emphasize the differences between traction forces in two- and three-dimensional systems, and highlight recently developed techniques for quantifying traction forces.

  9. Content and Composition of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids in Bovine Milk Are Affected by Lactation Stage and Breed of Dairy Cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Cersosimo, Laura M; Wright, André-Denis G; Kraft, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products contain bioactive fatty acids (FA) and are a unique dietary source of an emerging class of bioactive FA, branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA). The objective of this study was to compare the content and profile of bioactive FA in milk, with emphasis on BCFA, among Holstein (HO), Jersey (JE), and first generation HO x JE crossbreeds (CB) across a lactation to better understand the impact of these factors on FA of interest to human health. Twenty-two primiparous cows (n = 7 HO, n = 7 CB, n = 8 JE) were followed across a lactation. All cows were fed a consistent total mixed ration (TMR) at a 70:30 forage to concentrate ratio. Time points were defined as 5 days in milk (DIM), 95 DIM, 185 DIM, and 275 DIM. HO and CB had a higher content of n-3 FA at 5 DIM than JE and a lower n-6:n-3 ratio. Time point had an effect on the n-6:n-3 ratio, with the lowest value observed at 5 DIM and the highest at 185 DIM. The content of vaccenic acid was highest at 5 DIM, yet rumenic acid was unaffected by time point or breed. Total odd and BCFA (OBCFA) were higher in JE than HO and CB at 185 and 275 DIM. Breed affected the content of individual BCFA. The content of iso-14:0 and iso-16:0 in milk was higher in JE than HO and CB from 95 to 275 DIM. Total OBCFA were affected by time point, with the highest content in milk at 275 DIM. In conclusion, HO and CB exhibited a higher content of several bioactive FA in milk than JE. Across a lactation the greatest content of bioactive FA in milk occurred at 5 DIM and OBCFA were highest at 275 DIM.

  10. Content and Composition of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids in Bovine Milk Are Affected by Lactation Stage and Breed of Dairy Cow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L Bainbridge

    Full Text Available Dairy products contain bioactive fatty acids (FA and are a unique dietary source of an emerging class of bioactive FA, branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA. The objective of this study was to compare the content and profile of bioactive FA in milk, with emphasis on BCFA, among Holstein (HO, Jersey (JE, and first generation HO x JE crossbreeds (CB across a lactation to better understand the impact of these factors on FA of interest to human health. Twenty-two primiparous cows (n = 7 HO, n = 7 CB, n = 8 JE were followed across a lactation. All cows were fed a consistent total mixed ration (TMR at a 70:30 forage to concentrate ratio. Time points were defined as 5 days in milk (DIM, 95 DIM, 185 DIM, and 275 DIM. HO and CB had a higher content of n-3 FA at 5 DIM than JE and a lower n-6:n-3 ratio. Time point had an effect on the n-6:n-3 ratio, with the lowest value observed at 5 DIM and the highest at 185 DIM. The content of vaccenic acid was highest at 5 DIM, yet rumenic acid was unaffected by time point or breed. Total odd and BCFA (OBCFA were higher in JE than HO and CB at 185 and 275 DIM. Breed affected the content of individual BCFA. The content of iso-14:0 and iso-16:0 in milk was higher in JE than HO and CB from 95 to 275 DIM. Total OBCFA were affected by time point, with the highest content in milk at 275 DIM. In conclusion, HO and CB exhibited a higher content of several bioactive FA in milk than JE. Across a lactation the greatest content of bioactive FA in milk occurred at 5 DIM and OBCFA were highest at 275 DIM.

  11. DEFINITION OF LOCOMOTIVE TRACTION FORCE WITH REGARD TO UNEVEN LOADING OF WHEEL-MOTOR BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ye. Bodnar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article describes the most common methods for determining the locomotive traction force. Solving the tasks of traction calculations involves determination of the forces influencing the train at every point of the way. When choosing a rational trajectory of the train motion and the development of operational regulations of train driving it is necessary to determine the actual value of the locomotive traction force. Considering various factors, power value of traction electric motor of locomotive may have significant differences. Advancement of the operational definition system of the locomotive traction force during the calculations by electrical parameters of traction electric motor with regard to uneven load of wheel-motor block is the purpose of the article. Methodology. The method of determining the traction force of locomotives and diesel locomotives with electric transmission, which is based on primary data acquisition of traction electric engines of direct current behavior, was proposed. Sensors and their integration into the electrical circuitry of the locomotive in order to get the data in digital form and for operational calculation of the each traction motor mode and the definition of locomotive traction force are presented. Findings. The experimental investigation of the system of locomotive traction force determination with the electric traction motor ED-105 was offered. A comparison of electrical and mechanical power of the electric motor was conducted. Originality. The system of locomotives power operational definition, which takes into account the variable electro-mechanical factors of wheel and motor blocks and increases the accuracy of the calculations, was proposed. Practical value. The system is a part of an onboard complex in definition of energy-efficient regimes for trains movement and provides the definition of accelerating and decelerating forces.

  12. Orthodontic traction of a transmigrated mandibular canine using mini-implant: a case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Sonia Patricia

    2016-12-01

    The patient in this case is an 11-year-old girl, whose mandibular left canine was transmigrated. The traction to the arch was assisted by using a temporary skeletal anchorage device. After 5 months of poor response to traction, the biomechanics were re-adjusted, obtaining effective traction in to the arch in 12 months. After this period, the treatment was completed with fixed orthodontic appliances.

  13. Quality of Care for Patients With Traction in Shahid Beheshti Hospital in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Adib Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Moradi, Tayebeh

    2013-01-01

    Background With increasing incidence of traumatic fractures, the use of orthopedic intervention such as traction has increased. Inappropriate traction care may cause substantial morbidity and delay the patient rehabilitation. Objectives This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of care for patients with traction in the orthopedic unit of Kashan's Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan, Iran. Patients and Methods This observational study was conducted on 100 patients with traumatic fractures ...

  14. Packaging methods and storage duration affect essential oil content and composition of lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora Kunth.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Mohammad-Taghi; Sefidkon, Fatemeh; Azizi, Majid; Ahmadi, Noorollah

    2017-05-01

    Changes in essential oils (EOs) content and composition of lemon verbena leave at different packaging methods (packaged with air, nitrogen, or under vacuum) and during storage period (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 months) were determined. All the samples were hydrodistilled every 2 months during storage for EO content evaluation. EO composition was determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that by extending the storage period in all packaging methods, EO content was significantly decreased. Parallel to the increase in the storage duration in all packaging methods, citral content was decreased, whereas the amounts of limonene and 1,8-cineole were increased. Packaging of lemon verbena leaves with nitrogen preserved the highest EO content during 8 months of storage and achieved the desired amounts of citral, limonene, and 1,8-cineole. This investigation also showed camphene may be a useful marker for the indication of storage duration of lemon verbena.

  15. Factors that Affect the Content of Cadmium, Nickel, Copper and Zinc in Tissues of the Knee Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roczniak, Wojciech; Brodziak-Dopierała, Barbara; Cipora, Elżbieta; Jakóbik-Kolon, Agata; Kluczka, Joanna; Babuśka-Roczniak, Magdalena

    2017-08-01

    Osteoarthritis causes the degradation of the articular cartilage and periarticular bones. Trace elements influence the growth, development and condition of the bone tissue. Changes to the mineral composition of the bone tissue can cause degenerative changes and fractures. The aim of the research was to determine the content of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in the tibia, the femur and the meniscus in men and women who underwent a knee replacement surgery. Samples were collected from 50 patients, including 36 women and 14 men. The determination of trace elements content were performed by ICP-AES method, using Varian 710-ES. Average concentration in the tissues of the knee joint teeth amounted for cadmium 0.015, nickel 0.60, copper 0.89 and zinc 80.81 mg/kg wet weight. There were statistically significant differences in the content of cadmium, copper and zinc in different parts of the knee joint. There were no statistically significant differences in the content of cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc in women and men in the examined parts of the knee joint. Among the elements tested, copper and nickel showed a high content in the connective tissue (the meniscus) compared to the bone tissue (the tibia and the femur).

  16. Manual Therapy, Exercise, and Traction for Patients With Cervical Radiculopathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ian A. Young; Lori A. Michener; Joshua A. Cleland; Arnold J. Aguilera; Alison R. Snyder

    2009-01-01

    .... Preliminary evidence suggests that a multimodal treatment program consisting of manual therapy, exercise, and cervical traction may result in positive outcomes for patients with cervical radiculopathy...

  17. Effect of traction on wrist joint space and cartilage visibility with and without MR arthrography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ryan K L; Griffith, James F; Tang, W K; Ng, Alex W H; Yeung, David K W

    2017-04-01

    To compare the effect of traction during non-arthrographic and arthrographic MR examination of the wrist with regard to joint space width, joint fluid dispersion and cartilage surface visibility. Prospective 3-T MRI study of 100 wrists in 96 patients. The first 50 wrists underwent MR arthrography first without traction and then with traction. The following 50 wrists underwent standard MR first without traction and then with traction. On these examinations, two radiologists independently measured (i) joint space width, semi-quantitatively graded (ii) joint fluid dispersion between opposing cartilage surfaces and (iii) articular cartilage surface visibility. The three parameters were compared between the two groups. Traction led to an increase in joint space width at nearly all joints in all patients (p wrist although the effect was not as great as that seen with MR arthography or MR arthrography with traction. Advances in knowledge: This is the first study to show the beneficial effect of traction during standard non-arthrography MRI of the wrist and compare the effect of traction between non-arthrographic and arthrographic MRI of the wrist.

  18. The investigation of reverse traction current influence on tone track circuit modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I.Jasсhuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With the introduction of high-speed traffic there is an increased consumption of traction current by new types of rolling stock. This issue is important, as high levels of traction currents can have not only prevents, but also a dangerous impact on the equipment of railway automation devices. It is necessary to investigate the propagation of traction currents and potentials along the rails. Objective: Investigate the propagation of traction currents and potentials along the rails, the determination of critical currents, which not executed tone track circuits modes. Methods: In order to investigate the mathematical model, and the method of calculation tone track circuits modes was used. Results: By means of mathematical model, which includes being several rolling-stocks at the feeder zone, different rail resistance and isolation, the diagrams of currents and potentials propagations for DC and AC electric traction have been obtained. A comparative analysis of the experimental data and the results of the investigation has been realized. Based on received levels of reverse traction current their influence on track circuit modes has been investigated. Conclusions: The reverse traction current level near the substation and rolling-stock can be more than 600A. Great reverse traction current levels have an influence on tonal track circuit functioning, namely normal and shunt modes. When the traction current arrives 200 A there is a reduction criteria of tonal track circuits.

  19. A Skeletal Traction Technique for Proximal Femur Fracture Management in an Austere Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidwell, David; Meghoo, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal traction is a useful technique for managing proximal femur fractures in austere environments where fracture stabilization for this injury is difficult. We present a technique and a construct appropriate for field use that facilitates patient evacuation, and we provide guidelines for the use of this technique by an advanced medical provider managing these injuries. The objectives of this article are to enable to reader to (1) recognize the role of skeletal traction in managing proximal femur fractures in an austere environment, (2) identify the key steps in placing transfemoral skeletal traction pins, and (3) identify options and requirements for building a traction construct in resource-limited environments. 2016.

  20. The effect of cavernous nerve traction on erectile function in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hao; Chen, Liping; Wang, Tao; Wang, Shaogang; Liu, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    We performed this study to evaluate the effect of cavernous nerve (CN) traction on erectile function in rats. Thirty-two 8- week-old Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, 1-minute CN traction, 2-minute CN traction, and 2-minute CN crush. CN traction was performed using a glass hook with a tensile force of 0.2 Newton. One month later, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and intracavernosal pressure (ICP) in response to CN stimulation were measured to assess erectile function...

  1. The influence of sexual music videos on adolescents' misogynistic beliefs: the role of video content, gender, and affective engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, J.M.F.; Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on how sexual music videos affect beliefs related to sexual aggression is rare and has not differentiated between the effects of music videos by male and female artists. Moreover, little is known about the affective processes that underlie the effects of sexual music videos. Using data from

  2. Contents and digestibility of carbohydrates of mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) as affected by domestic processing and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, A; Chauhan, B M

    1988-01-01

    Effects of common processing and cooking methods on sugar and starch contents and starch digestibility (in vitro) of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) were investigated. Soaking reduced the level of total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and starch and improved starch digestibility, significantly. Cooking (both ordinary and pressure cooking) increased the concentrations of the sugars and digestibility of starch of soaked as well a unsoaked seeds. Starch contents, however, were decreased. Germination decreased starch thereby raising the level of the soluble sugars. Starch digestibility was increased appreciably.

  3. Factors affecting the cholesterol content of milk of cows fed conserved feeds in a TMR system throughout the year

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Strzałkowska; Artur Jóźwik; Emilia Bagnicka; Józef Krzyżewski; Ross G. Cooper; Jarosław Olav Horbańczuk

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the cholesterol content in the milk of high yielding cows fed a uniform diet composed of conserved feeds over the whole year. The investigationswere conducted on 124 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, selected fromherd yielding 8457 kg milk with 4,58 % and 3,56 % of fat and protein content, respectively. The cows were maintained in a loose barn and fed ad libitum with TMR (total mixed ration) throughout the year. The diets consisted of corn silage ...

  4. Abscisic Acid content of senescing petals on cut rose flowers as affected by sucrose and water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borohov, A; Tirosh, T; Halevy, A H

    1976-08-01

    Leafless cut Superstar roses (Rosa hyb.) were kept in a 1% sucrose solution. During the first few days of treatment, the abscisic acid content and the water deficit in the petals was higher in treated flowers than in controls kept in water. Later and up to the termination of the flower's life, ABA content and water deficit values were lower in petals of sucrose-treated flowers than in controls. Water stress treatments resulted in higher water deficit values and higher ABA content of petals. An 8-day sucrose treatment following temporary water stress improved the quality of flowers and reduced the level of ABA in the petals. We conclude that the effect which sucrose has on the ABA content of rose petals is at least partly due to its effect on changes in water deficit in the petals. This happens in spite of the fact that rose petals have no stomata, and therefore, ABA is not involved in regulating water balance via the stomata.

  5. Fatty acid, tocopherol and carotenoid content in herbage and milk affected by sward composition and season of grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Fretté, Xavier; Kristensen, Troels

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present work was to study to what extent grazing large amounts ofwhite clover (WCL), red clover (RCL), lucerne (LUC) or chicory (CHI) was suitable for production of bovine milk with a high milk fat content of tocopherols, carotenoids, α-linolenic acid and conjugated...

  6. Removal of ruminal contents followed by restricted feeding does not affect the frequency of luteinizing-hormone pulses in steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of removal of ruminal contents and reduced nutrient intake on concentrations of LH in serum of beef cattle. Gonadectomized, male, Angus x Hereford cattle (steers, 402 ± 17 kg) with rumen cannulae were randomly assigned to treatment. Control (C...

  7. Variability of the essential oil content and composition of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) affected by weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosztola, Beáta; Sárosi, Szilvia; Németh, Eva

    2010-03-01

    In our study we examined the variability of the essential oil content and composition of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) during three years (2005-2007). Twenty-eight populations of wild origin and 4 registered cultivars ('Soroksári 40', 'Lutea', 'Goral' and 'Bona') were evaluated in open field experiments. It could be established that the experimental populations represented different genetic potential for essential oil accumulation and composition. The best populations of wild growing origin from the Somogy-region and four cultivars produced the highest essential oil contents (above 0.6 g/100g) in each year. Additionally, the quality of the characteristic main compound of the oil determining the "chemotype", according to Schilcher, was found to be stable during the three years period. However, the actual chemosyndroms are significantly influenced by the weather conditions. In the three years' experiment, the moderately warm and relatively wet year of 2006 produced the highest contents of essential oil and also that of its alpha-bisabolol component. Although bisabolol oxide A also showed a high variability through the years, its direct connection with weather conditions could not be proved. A moderate variability was established for the proportions of chamazulene, and the lowest one for bisabolol-oxide B. Considerable genotype-weather interaction was supposed, especially for the essential oil content and for the ratio of bisabolol-oxide A.

  8. Quantitative trait loci affecting oil content, oil composition, and other agronomically important traits in Oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groat oil content and composition are important determinants of oat quality. We investigated these traits in a population of 146 recombinant inbred lines from a cross between 'Dal' (high oil) and 'Exeter' (low oil). A linkage map consisting of 475 DArT markers spanning 1271.8 cM across 40 linkage gr...

  9. Antioxidant activity, polyphenolic contents and essential oil composition of Pimpinella anisum L. as affected by zinc fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallali, Vahid; Rahmati, Sadegh; Bahmanzadegan, Atefeh

    2017-11-01

    The antioxidant activity and essential oil content of plants may vary considerably with respect to environmental conditions, especially nutrient availability. Among micronutrients, zinc (Zn) is needed by plants in only small amounts but is crucial to plant development. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Zn fertilization on the antioxidant activity, polyphenolic contents and essential oil composition of Pimpinella anisum fruit. Foliar application of Zn fertilizer considerably increased the number of detected essential oil components from 27 to 45. Zinc application at a rate of 0.2% (w/v) significantly enhanced the levels of β-bisabolene, germacrene D, n-decane and α-zingiberene, whereas the opposite trend was observed for (E)-anethole and geijerene. Application of 0.2% Zn considerably increased the levels of phenolic compounds, with chlorogenic acid showing the highest content among eight phenolic compounds detected in treated plants. The maximum antioxidant activity was achieved through application of 0.2% Zn fertilizer. These findings indicated that the quality and quantity of anise fruit essential oil components were significantly altered by application of low levels of Zn. After foliar application of Zn, polyphenolic contents as well as antioxidant activity of anise fruit increased. Using Zn fertilizer is an efficient method to improve the pharmaceutical and food properties of anise fruit. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. An Integrated Approach to Identify Water Resources for Human Consumption in an Area Affected by High Natural Arsenic Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Armiento

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the occurrence of arsenic in the groundwater system of the Cimino-Vico volcanic area (central Italy, different parts of which are currently widely used for local drinking water supply and for irrigation. The system shows a complex groundwater circulation, including a continuous basal aquifer, discontinuous perched aquifers, groundwater flows at high altitude, and local interactions with rising thermal fluids. Data on arsenic contents in 250 water samples from springs and wells and in 68 samples from rock outcrops were measured and combined with already existing information. Results highlight that arsenic concentrations of groundwater are influenced by type of aquifer, groundwater flow path, arsenic content of the aquifer rocks, and interaction with fluids rising from depth. Waters circulating in the Vico volcanics, one of the prominent rock units of the area, have high concentrations of arsenic, both for the basal and the perched aquifers. A large fraction of the waters associated with this rock unit have arsenic contents higher than 10 μg/L (82 percent for basal, 40 percent for perched. In contrast, waters circulating in the Cimino volcanics have lower arsenic contents: 30 percent of the basal and 10 percent of the perched aquifers have arsenic concentrations greater than 10 μg/L. Through an integrated approach, including leaching tests to investigate the arsenic behavior concerning the water-rock interaction and a geostatistical modeling of data, it has been possible to identify and tentatively quantify suitable water resources that have arsenic content not exceeding the quality standards for human consumption.

  11. Fruit-related terms and images on food packages and advertisements affect children's perceptions of foods' fruit content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Rebecca; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Berhaupt-Glickstein, Amanda; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether food label information and advertisements for foods containing no fruit cause children to have a false impression of the foods' fruit content. In the food label condition, a trained researcher showed each child sixteen different food label photographs depicting front-of-food label packages that varied with regard to fruit content (i.e. real fruit v. sham fruit) and label elements. In the food advertisement condition, children viewed sixteen, 30 s television food advertisements with similar fruit content and label elements as in the food label condition. After viewing each food label and advertisement, children responded to the question 'Did they use fruit to make this?' with responses of yes, no or don't know. Schools, day-care centres, after-school programmes and other community groups. Children aged 4-7 years. In the food label condition, χ 2 analysis of within fruit content variation differences indicated children (n 58; mean age 4·2 years) were significantly more accurate in identifying real fruit foods as the label's informational load increased and were least accurate when neither a fruit name nor an image was on the label. Children (n 49; mean age 5·4 years) in the food advertisement condition were more likely to identify real fruit foods when advertisements had fruit images compared with when no image was included, while fruit images in advertisements for sham fruit foods significantly reduced accuracy of responses. Findings suggest that labels and advertisements for sham fruit foods mislead children with regard to the food's real fruit content.

  12. Model-based efficiency evaluation of combine harvester traction drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Häberle

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the research the drive train of the combine harvesters is investigated in detail. The focus on load and power distribution, energy consumption and usage distribution are explicitly explored on two test machines. Based on the lessons learned during field operations, model-based studies of energy saving potential in the traction train of combine harvesters can now be quantified. Beyond that the virtual machine trial provides an opportunity to compare innovative drivetrain architectures and control solutions under reproducible conditions. As a result, an evaluation method is presented and generically used to draw comparisons under local representative operating conditions.

  13. Effective Maxillary Protraction with Tandem Traction Bow Appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Kumar S Marure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandem traction bow appliance (TTBA promotes patient compliance, because it is more esthetic and comfortable than extraoral appliances. TTBA should be used only in case where maxillary deficiency and normal mandible is present. Advantages of it includes good oral hygiene, early treatment of any Class III malocclusion, optimal retention, distribution of the forces for protraction to all maxillary teeth, free mandibular movement. It can be used in conjunction with fixed appliances if necessary. This paper includes two case reports. The treatment results in both the cases demonstrated significant skeletal and dental response to TTBA therapy. Skeletal change was primarily a result of anterior movement of the maxilla.

  14. APPROXIMATION OF UNIVERSAL MAGNETIC CHARACTERISTIC FOR MODELLING ELECTRIC TRACTION MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Drubetskyi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The scientific work is aimed to obtain an analytic expression describing universal magnetic characteristic and enabling to take into account the demagnetizing effect of the armature. On the basis of the universal magnetic characteristics one need to obtain universal expressions for inductive parameters of electric traction machines of direct and pulsating currents. Methodology. A universal magnetic characteristic (UMC is the dependence of the relative units of the magnetic flux on the magnetomotive force (MMF of the excitation winding. Since MMF was built for machines operating under load, therefore, in fact it is a dependency on the MMF and on the MMF of the armature reaction. For the calculation of electromechanical characteristics at constant excitation one can use one of the well-known expressions approximating the UMC. However, during modeling the electric traction engine operation in wide ranges of excitation change it is necessary the expression, in which there is a second variable in the form of MMF of the anchor reaction. Such an expression is also necessary to determine the inductive parameters of electric traction engine, to a large extent dependent on the current. The expression for the approximation of the UMC with two variables can be obtained by analyzing the magnetic field distribution in the air gap at the calculated pole arc. Findings. The author obtained expression for approximation of the UMC, which depends on two variables: MMF of excitation and MMF of armature reaction. For a particular mode of excitation weakening it is possible to convert the expression into the function of one variable, for example, the anchor current. Also, the MMF of excitation winding can be the argument. Originality. For the UMC approximation it was proposed a methodology that makes it possible to record into approximating expression the second variable in the form of the anchor reaction MMF. Practical value. Due to the presence of speed

  15. Subtalar arthroscopy with calcaneal skeletal traction in a hanging position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyong Nyun; Ryu, Seung Ryol; Park, Jung Min; Park, Yong Wook

    2012-01-01

    Several arthroscopic approaches to the subtalar joint have been developed in the supine, lateral, or prone position. However, it is difficult to use the posteromedial portal with the patient in the supine or lateral position and the anterolateral portal with the patient prone. Furthermore, obtaining joint distraction in the lateral or prone position is difficult. We present a technique that enables the combination of 2 posterior portals and lateral portals to the subtalar joint with calcaneal skeletal traction in a hanging position for better visualization and instrumentation of the joint. Copyright © 2012 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lower extremity traction pins: indications, technique, and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althausen, Peter L; Hak, David J

    2002-01-01

    The placement of pins in the lower extremity for the purpose of skeletal traction is a basic skill required by an orthopedic surgeon. These pins are primarily used for the management of fractures and dislocations. Although simple, the insertion and care of these pins can be accompanied by severe complications including damage to neurovascular structures, physeal injury, ligamentous insult, fracture, and infection. We review the techniques of pin insertion at the distal femur, proximal tibia, and calcaneus to provide a foundation for residents and attendings alike so that unnecessary complications may be avoided and proper placement ensured.

  17. FreedomCAR Advanced Traction Drive Motor Development Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, Josh (UQM Technologies, Inc.); Lutz, Jon (UQM Technologies, Inc.)

    2006-09-01

    The overall objective of this program is to design and develop an advanced traction motor that will meet the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) 2010 goals and the traction motor technical targets. The motor specifications are given in Section 1.3. Other goals of the program include providing a cost study to ensure the motor can be developed within the cost targets needed for the automotive industry. The program has focused on using materials that are both high performance and low costs such that the performance can be met and cost targets are achieved. In addition, the motor technologies and machine design features must be compatible with high volume manufacturing and able to provide high reliability, efficiency, and ruggedness while simultaneously reducing weight and volume. Weight and volume reduction will become a major factor in reducing cost, material cost being the most significant part of manufacturing cost at high volume. Many motor technology categories have been considered in the past and present for traction drive applications, including: brushed direct current (DC), PM (PM) brushless dc (BLDC), alternating current (AC) induction, switched reluctance and synchronous reluctance machines. Of these machine technologies, PM BLDC has consistently demonstrated an advantage in terms of power density and efficiency. As rare earth magnet cost has declined, total cost may also be reduced over the other technologies. Of the many different configurations of PM BLDC machines, those which incorporate power production utilizing both magnetic torque as well as reluctance torque appear to have the most promise for traction applications. There are many different PM BLDC machine configurations which employ both of these torque producing mechanisms; however, most would fall into one of two categories--some use weaker magnets and rely more heavily on reluctance torque (reluctance-dominant PM machines), others use strong PMs and supplement with reluctance torque

  18. Seed Burial Depth and Soil Water Content Affect Seedling Emergence and Growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa in the Horqin Sandy Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of seed burial depth and soil water content on seedling emergence and growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa (sandy elm, an important native tree species distributed over the European-Asian steppe. Experimental sand burial depths in the soil were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 cm, and soil water contents were 4%, 8%, 12% and 16% of field capacity. All two-way ANOVA (five sand burial depths and four soil water contents results showed that seed burial depths, soil water content and their interactions significantly affected all the studied plant variables. Most of the times, seedling emergence conditions were greater at the lower sand burial depths (less than 1.0 cm than at the higher (more than 1.0 cm seed burial depths, and at the lower water content (less than 12% than at the higher soil water content. However, high seed burial depths (more than 1.5 cm or low soil water content (less than 12% reduced seedling growth or change in the root/shoot biomass ratios. In conclusion, the most suitable range of sand burial was from 0.5 to 1.0 cm soil depth and soil water content was about 12%, respectively, for the processes of seedling emergence and growth. These findings indicate that seeds of the sandy elm should be kept at rather shallow soil depths, and water should be added up to 12% of soil capacity when conducting elm planting and management. Our findings could help to create a more appropriate sandy elm cultivation and understand sparse elm woodland recruitment failures in arid and semi-arid regions.

  19. Alterations in Seed Development Gene Expression Affect Size and Oil Content of Arabidopsis Seeds1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihi, Abdelhak; Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Dörmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE). The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e.g. Pheres1 (PHE1), by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion. Another endosperm development pathway depends on MINISEED3 (a WRKY10 transcription factor) and HAIKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase). While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Analysis of oil, protein, and sucrose accumulation in mutants and overexpression plants of the four seed development genes revealed that (1) seeds carrying a maternal fie allele accumulate low oil with an altered composition of triacylglycerol molecular species; (2) homozygous mutant seeds of phe1, mini3, and iku2, which are smaller, accumulate less oil and slightly less protein, and starch, which accumulates early during seed development, remains elevated in mutant seeds; (3) embryo-specific overexpression of FIE, PHE1, and MINI3 has no influence on seed size and weight, nor on oil, protein, or sucrose content; and (4) overexpression of IKU2 results in seeds with increased size and weight, and oil content of overexpressed IKU2 seeds is increased by 35%. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds. PMID:24014578

  20. Tobacco susceptibility to Potato virus Y(NTN) infection is affected by grafting and endogenous cytokinin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoustová, Petra; Hýsková, Veronika; Müller, Karel; Schnablová, Renata; Ryšlavá, Helena; Čeřovská, Noemi; Malbeck, Jiří; Cvikrová, Milena; Synková, Helena

    2015-06-01

    Faster or stronger response to pathogen occurs if plants undergo prior priming. Cytokinins seem to be also involved in plant priming and in response to pathogens. Susceptibility to Potato virus Y(NTN) (PVY(NTN)) was studied in transgenic cytokinin overproducing (Pssu-ipt) tobacco and compared with nontransgenic plants. Since cytokinin overproduction inhibits development of plant roots and grafting overcomes this limitation, both types were grown as rooted and/or grafted plants to check also the effect of grafting. Control rooted tobacco (C), the most susceptible to PVY(NTN), showed always symptoms during the infection together with the rising virus content and a systemic response, such as accumulation of H2O2, salicylic acid (SA) and other phenolic acids, and stress-induced enzyme activities. In transgenic and grafted plants, the response to PVY(NTN) was dependent on protective mechanisms activated prior to the inoculation. In Pssu-ipt tobacco, cytokinin active forms and SA contents exceeded manifold their content in C. Grafting promoted the accumulation of phenolics, but SA, and stimulated peroxidase activities. Thus, the pre-infection barrier established in both transgenic and grafted plants helped to suppress partly the virus multiplication and resulted in milder symptom development. However, only the synergic effect of both grafting and the high cytokinins led to PVY(NTN) tolerance in transgenic grafts. Possible mechanisms were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MONITORING OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY QUALITY ON THE TRACTION SUBSTATION INPUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Gryb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the implementation of measures to maintain the quality of the energy industrial enterprises have to spend a significant material and monetary assets. In this regard, significant is the feasibility study of the allocation of such funds and, primarily, the determination of the economic damage arising from low quality of electricity. The reliability of the electricity metering system, relay protection and automation of modern digital substations depends on the quality of electrical energy. At the present time to improve the reliability of the substation operation it is necessary to monitor indicators of quality of electric energy, allowing you to take organizational and technical solutions for their improvement. Monitoring the power quality at the input traction substation has shown that indicators such as the coefficient of the n-th harmonic component of the voltage does not meet the standards GOST 13109-97. The source of higher harmonics is a voltage Converter used on the locomotive. To eliminate higher harmonics in the supply network for traction substations will need to install power filters. Today, the USB-analyzer of power quality «Digital measurement system of power quality» type of CSICE of accuracy class 0.2. Work energy requires reliable and quality electricity supply to consumers. The new model of balancing energy market are bilateral contracts. The main task of this market, it ensure the stable and reliable operation of the unified energy system of Ukraine, that is, transmission and supply of electricity of appropriate quality.

  2. Effects of Intermittent Traction in Patients With Cervical Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akbari

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:Osteoarthritis(OA is the most common joint disease occuring after middle age.Because of the high mobility of the neck, OA is common in the cervical spine. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the effects of intermittent traction on patients with mild and moderate cervical OA. Therefore, 32 patients with cervical OA were recruited.Methods:Aclinical trial study was designed for patients with cervical OA that were randomly assigned in two equal groups.Control group received a routine physical therapy protocol which included moist heat, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, and an exercise for neck and shoulder girdle. Experimental group received a routine physical therapy protocol plus intermittent traction (IT.Results: Pain and mobility improved in both groups.There was significant difference in interaction of the improvement of cervical pain between the two groups,the rate of pain reduction; sleep ease, medicine taking and range of motion (ROM improvement in the experimental group were higher than that of the control group.Conclusion: The results justify the efficacy of IT, therefore it can be concluded that the IT is an effective modality for patients with mild and moderate cervical OA.  

  3. High-Voltage Converter for the Traction Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Volskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-voltage converter employing IGCT switches (VDC=2800 V for traction application is presented. Such a power traction drive operates with an unstable input voltage over 2000⋯4000 V DC and with an output power up to 1200 kW. The original power circuit of the high-voltage converter is demonstrated. Development of the attractive approach to designing the low-loss snubber circuits of the high-frequency IGCT switches is proposed. It is established on the complex multilevel analysis of the transient phenomena and power losses. The essential characteristics of the critical parameters under transient modes and the relation between the snubber circuit parameters and the losses are discussed. Experimental results for the prototype demonstrate the properties of new power circuit. The test results confirm the proposed high-voltage converter performance capability as well as verifying the suitability of the conception for its use in the Russian suburban train power system and other high-voltage applications.

  4. Enzymatic vitreolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for vitreomacular traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raczyńska D

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dorota Raczyńska,1 Paweł Lipowski,1 Katarzyna Zorena,2 Andrzej Skorek,3 Paulina Glasner1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland; 2Department of Immunobiology and Environment Microbiology, Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland; 3Department of Otolaryngology, Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland Aims: The aim of our research was to gain data about the efficacy of intravitreal injections of a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA in dissolving vitreoretinal tractions (VRTs.Materials and methods: The study group consisted of patients of our Ophthalmology Clinic who had received an injection of rTPA (TPA Group for an existent vitreomacular traction confirmed by optical coherence tomography and stereoscopic examinations. The control group consisted of patients who had declined treatment despite the existence of a vitreomacular traction confirmed by the same diagnostic methods. Each group consisted of 30 people (30 eyes. The observation period was 6 months.Conclusion: In both groups some of the VRTs had dissolved. In the TPA group the traction dissolved in 10 patients (33.33% and in the control group only in 5 (16.67%. It is also important to point out that the mean baseline membrane thickness was higher in the TPA group than in the control group. Observing patients in both groups we noticed that the dissolution of vitreoretinal membrane occurred most frequently in those cases where the membrane was thin. In the TPA group, the mean membrane thickness after 6 months decreased considerably. At the same time, no significant change in the membrane thickness could be observed in the control group. Observation of the retinal thickness allows us to draw the following conclusion: in the TPA group, the retinal thickness in the macular area (edema had decreased over the study period, whereas in the control group it had increased. In those cases where the traction had dissolved, the edema of the retina decreased by the end

  5. Social stress during adolescence in Wistar rats induces social anxiety in adulthood without affecting brain monoaminergic content and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidal, Jose; de Bie, Josien; Granneman, Ramon A.; Wallinga, Alinde E.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Buwalda, Bauke

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence has been described as an important period to acquire social competences required for adult life. It has been suggested that early stress experiences could affect the development of the brain at different levels. These changes in the brain during adolescence may be related with the

  6. Sowing density and harvest time affect fibre content in hemp (Cannabis sativa) through their effects on stem weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, W.; Amaducci, S.; Struik, P.C.; Zatta, A.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Stomph, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Sowing density and harvest time are considered important crop management factors influencing fibre quantity and quality in hemp (Cannabis sativa). We investigated whether the effects of these factors are essentially different or that both factors affect stem weight and thereby total and long-fibre

  7. Down-Regulation of Small Rubber Particle Protein Expression Affects Integrity of Rubber Particles and Rubber Content in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hillebrand, A.; Post, J. J.; Wurbs, D.; Wahler, D.; Lenders, D.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Pruefer, D.; Gronover, CH. S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 7 (2012), e41874:1-9 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Hevea-Brasiliensis * Parthenium-Argentatum * Elongation-Factor * Silencing Affects * Surface- Structure * Oil Bodies * Latex * Prenyltransferase * Biosynthesis * Stability Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  8. Does the Instructor's Experience as a Practitioner Affect the Purpose and Content of the Undergraduate Systems Analysis and Design Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey and follow-up interviews that were administered to instructors of the undergraduate systems analysis and design course, a core course of the Information Systems curriculum. The goal of this research was to learn if the background of the instructor, in terms of industry experience, affects the purpose and…

  9. The Harmonoise/IMAGINE model for traction noise of powered railway vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Zhang, X.

    2006-01-01

    Traction noise is one of the noise sources of powered railway vehicles such as locomotives, electric- and diesel-powered multiple unit trains and high-speed trains. Especially at speeds below 60 km/h and at idling, but also at acceleration conditions for a wide range of speeds, traction noise can be

  10. Changes in dynamics processes of the muscles’ traction under influence of stress-factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Nozdrenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Change of fibers’ dynamic parameters of the frog Rana temporaria skeletal muscle m. tibialis traction under influence of modulated stimulation and aluminium chloride solutions was studied. At 10-4,5·10-4 and 10‑3 M·l-1 concentrations of aluminium chloride the nonlinear decrease of the muscle fibers’ traction parameters was observed.

  11. Efficacy of Six Weeks Skin Traction in the Management of Chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traction is widely used for the treatment of lumbar spine conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of 6-weeks skin traction in the management of pain in patients presenting with lumbar spondylosis. Materials and Methods: The study was a repeated measures (pretest-posttest) design.

  12. Novel use of ear sockets as points of traction in partial foetotomy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traction was used to deliver the dead foetuses while guarding the points of amputation in the birth canals. It was concluded that the ear socket can be used as a new point of traction along with or in place of the eye socket in partial foetotomy for relieving dystocia with non-viable foetus in Bunaji cows. Keywords: Bunaji cow ...

  13. Influence of locomotive traction drive design on main forms of self-oscillations during spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipin, D. Ya; Izmerov, O. V.; Kopyilov, S. O.

    2017-10-01

    The problem of the effect of the locomotive traction drive design on the main forms of self-oscillations during spinning is considered. It is established that in most cases it is sufficient to carry out a simulation for 2-3 prevailing self-oscillation modes, which simplifies the analysis of the results and selects the best variant of the traction drive.

  14. Skull traction for cervical spinal injury in Enugu: A 5‑year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty‑one had the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Grade A whereas 64 had incomplete cord injury of ASIA Grades B–E. Forty‑eight had Crutchfield traction whereas 57 had Gardner‑Wells traction. At the end of treatment, no patient improved among those with ASIA Grades A and B. All the 12 cases of mortality ...

  15. Introducing the inbed spinal traction kit for use on patients with low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim is to reduce cost, shorten period of Hospital stay and immobilization encountered when skin Traction Devices are used in our environment. It compares favorably with the standard spinal Traction Machine and does not require Electric or pneumatic powering. It has no known side effect when used properly under ...

  16. THE ENERGY SPECTRA OF RANDOM PROCESSES OF TRACTION VOLTAGES AND CURRENTS OF ELECTRIC TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Kostin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spectral analysis of traction voltages and currents are the basis for assessing energy electromagnetic processes in systems of electric traction, in particular, DC. The latter is due to the fact that the DC system is not in consequence of nonstationary random character of change of traction voltage and current. Nonperiodic stochastic nature of the change of voltage and current calls for study of their spectral composition using probabilistic methods based on spectral correlation theory of random processes. The theoretical assumptions and the relations of connection of the energy spectrum of a random process with his correlating function are set out. The results of the numerical calculations of the spectra of traction voltages and currents actually operating electrical subsystems transport are given; they are: feeder voltage at the traction substation; currents in modes of traction and recuperation of electric locomotives in accordance with DE 1 and VL 8; the voltage on the current collector of the city tram. It is established that energy spectra of random processes traction and recuperative voltages and currents are probabilistic in nature, depending on technological factors of the system, and the energy of the random process is numerically greater in traction mode than in the regenerative braking modes

  17. Applications of Traction Force Microscopy in Measuring Adhesion Molecule Dependent Cell Contractility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Cynthia Marie

    2009-01-01

    This work describes the use of polyacrylamide hydrogels as controlled elastic modulus substrates for single cell traction force microscopy studies. The first section describes the use of EDC/NHS chemistry to convalently link microbeads to the hydrogel matrix for the purpose of performing long-term traction force studies (7 days). The final study…

  18. Preovulatory follicular status and diet affect the insulin and glucose content of follicles in high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, S; Braw-Tal, R; Kaim, M; Bor, A; Bruckental, I

    2000-12-29

    Insulin and glucose may be limiting factors for ovarian function in dairy cows genetically selected for high milk yield. The effects of nutrition on the intrafollicular content of insulin and glucose were investigated in Israeli Holstein dairy cattle fed a basic total mixed ration and producing 34-39kg of milk daily. In experiment 1, carried out in 11 oestrus-synchronised cows, little variation in insulin concentration was found in plasma sampled during the luteal phase, but high variation was found in plasma sampled during the follicular phase. Therefore, in order to prevent confounding the effects of diet and of phase in cycle in the following experiments, experimental diets were fed during the luteal phase of synchronised oestrus cycles. In experiment 2, designed as Latin-Square, six cows received sequentially diets containing 17.1 (control) or 19.7% of crude protein, using two sources of supplementary protein, i.e. soyabean meal (SBM) and corn gluten meal (CGM), differing in ruminal degradability and leucine content. When dry matter intake was used as covariant, plasma insulin on day 16 was 29.5 and 26.4% higher in cows fed diets containing SBM and CGM than in the control (Pmorning of day 17, they were administered PGF(2alpha) and the content of 26 largest follicles was aspirated by using the transvaginal ovum pick-up technique. Follicles were sorted into two classes (preovulatory and subordinate) according to oestradiol concentration and the progesterone:oestradiol ratio in follicular fluid (FF). Higher concentrations of insulin (0.282 versus 0.127ng/ml, Peffects did not reach significance in subordinate follicles. The finding that preovulatory follicular status is associated with increased intrafollicular insulin and glucose suggests that insulin is involved in follicular maturation. The nutritional effect on intrafollicular glucose and insulin may have practical implications to optimise feeding in dairy cows during phases of the oestrus cycle.

  19. To compare the effect of Active Neural Mobilization during Intermittent Lumbar Traction and Intermittent Lumbar Traction followed by Active Neural Mobilization in cases of Lumbar Radiculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Jaywant Nagulkar; Kalyani Nagulkar

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of Active neural mobilization (ANM) during intermittent lumbar traction (ILT) and intermittent lumbar traction followed by active neural mobilization treatment in patients of low back pain (LBP) with radiculopathy.. To study the effect of ANM during ILT and ILT followed by ANM in patients of LBP with radiculopathy on VAS scale, P1 angle of SLR, P2 angle of SLR and Oswestry disability index(ODI). To compare the effect of ANM during ILT and ILT followed ...

  20. Growing environment and nutrient availability affect the content of some phenolic compounds in Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Saxena, Praveen K

    2006-12-01

    Medicinal plant production is different from other agricultural production systems in that the plants are grown for the production of specific phytochemical(s) for human use. To address this need, a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant, controlled-environment production system was developed for production of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia. Within the prototype facility, the growing systems, nutrient availability, water and physical environment were highly controlled. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of different hydroponic systems, nutrient solution NO (3)(-)/NH (4)(+) ratios and mild water stress on the content of some phenolic compounds in Echinacea plants. The deep-flow solution culture system in which the plant roots were continuously immersed in the nutrient solutions was optimum for the growth of E. purpurea. Higher concentrations of caftaric acid, cynarin and echinacoside were produced in E. angustifolia plants grown in the soil-based growing media while the plants grown in the deep-flow solution system had higher levels of cichoric acid. Altering the NO (3)(-)/NH (4)(+) ratio or limited water stress did not have any significant effect on the phytochemical content of Echinacea plants. Echinacea plants grown in the controlled environment systems had higher or similar amounts of cynarin, caftaric acid, echinacoside and cichoric acid as previously reported in the literature for both field-cultivated and wild-harvested Echinacea plants. This growing system offers the advantages of year-round crop production with minimal contamination by environmental pollutants and common microbes.

  1. REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION OF THE TRACTION NETWORK OF THE ELECTRIFIED RAILWAY TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzan V.P.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The method of the parametrical analysis of reactive power compensation of traction network depending on load-ing position on stage between two traction substations is offered. Problem solutions are received in an explicit form at a unilateral and bilateral supplying of complex loading by traction network. The parametrical analysis of active loading influence on characteristics of the compensating devices mounted on low voltage bars of traction substations depending on a site of this loading between power supplies and the loading is made. It is shown, that depending on point of joining of active loading to network and its values the compensating device generally should generate both inductive, and capacitive reactive power for maintenance of power factor value of traction network .

  2. Indications and anatomic landmarks for the application of lower extremity traction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFroda, S F; Gil, J A; Born, C T

    2016-12-01

    Fractures of the lower extremity, particularly of the femur and acetabulum, may be difficult to immobilize with splinting alone. These injuries may be best stabilized with the application of various types of skeletal traction. Often, traction is applied percutaneously in an emergent setting, making the knowledge of both superficial and deep anatomy crucial to successful placement. Review was performed via PubMed search as well as referencing the Orthopaedic literature. Relevant articles to the anatomy of the knee, ankle and calcaneus as they pertain to traction placement were referenced in compiling the optimal recommendations for traction placement. By palpating and marking superficial landmarks and observing specific anatomic relationships, safe application of traction pins can be performed while minimizing iatrogenic injury to vital anatomic structures, and avoiding intra-articular placement which could potentially lead to joint infection.

  3. Fuzzy logic electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, Susan R.

    1994-01-01

    An regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system using fuzzy logic for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensor and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, and requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs fuzzy logic based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control operation of the electric traction motor and to the brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

  4. Comparison of the environmental performance of light mechanization and animal traction using a modular LCA approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerutti, Alessandro K.; Calvo, Angela; Bruun, Sander

    2014-01-01

    operations. This achievement completely changed food production systems for all populations able to access such technology. Nowadays, animal traction is mainly used in the developing countries, in specific contexts such as mountainous areas due to the difficulties in using tractors, and within farm tourism......Animal traction has supported humans in most field operations since the origin of agriculture. With the introduction of mechanization, humans gained access to much more work power at similar management costs and were able to significantly increase the productivity and time efficiency of field...... in the developed countries. Although the consumption of non-renewable resources is clearly higher in crop production systems that use mechanized traction, tractor traction may involve low consumption of fuel relative to that needed for feed production for equivalent draught animals. Mechanical traction can also...

  5. Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolB gene affects photosynthesis and chlorophyll content in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants

    OpenAIRE

    Bettini, Priscilla B.; Marvasi, Massimiliano; Fani, Fabiola; Lazzara, Luigi; Cosi, Elena; Melani, Lorenzo; Mauro, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Insertion of Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolB gene into plant genome affects plant development, hormone balance and defence. However, beside the current research, the overall transcriptional response and gene expression of rolB as a modulator in plant is unknown. Transformed rolB tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivar Tondino has been used to investigate the differential expression profile. Tomato is a well-known model organism both at the genetic and molecular level, and one of the mos...

  6. Is it possible to increase the n-3 fatty acid content of eggs without affecting their technological and/or sensorial quality and the laying performance of hens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, E; Chartrin, P; Lessire, M; Meteau, K; Chesneau, G; Guillevic, M; Mourot, J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the n-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) content of eggs without affecting their sensorial and/or technological properties or the laying performance of hens. Laying hens from line 477 were divided into 5 groups corresponding to 5 different diets over the laying period: control diet (C) and diets containing extruded linseed with a high level of fibre (ELHF), extruded linseed with a low level of fibre (ELLF), microalgae, or a combination of 75% ELLF and 25% MA (ELLF+MA). Dietary enrichment with n-3 FA had no effect on the laying performance, hen body weight or egg white viscosity. The egg yolks produced by hens fed the diet containing microalgae were redder than egg yolks from the other groups, suggesting the presence of red pigments in the microalgae preparation. However, the colour difference was low and not perceptible to the human eye. Moreover, colour measurement of egg yolks by sensorial analysis panellists using the Roche colour fan did not reveal a diet effect on this parameter. Egg yolk lipid content was not affected by diet. The egg yolk of hens fed on diets containing linseed and/or microalgae had greater n-3 FA content (×2.5 to 2.9 compared to group C). Linseed mainly increased the linolenic acid content (×3.0 to 3.4 compared to group C) and the microalgae increased the LC n-3 FA content (×4.1 compared to group C). Dietary enrichment with n-3 FA had no effect on the sensorial quality of shell cooked eggs except for the "unusual flavour" criterion for which the score was higher for the MA group compared to the other groups and corresponded to a fishy flavour.

  7. Potential of cultivar and crop management to affect phytochemical content in winter-grown sprouting broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Kim; Valverde, Juan; Finn, Leo; Rai, Dilip K; Brunton, Nigel; Sorensen, Jens C; Sorensen, Hilmer; Gaffney, Michael

    2014-01-30

    Variety and crop management strategies affect the content of bioactive compounds (phenolics, flavonoids and glucosinolates) in green broccoli (calabrese) types, which are cultivated during summer and autumn in temperate European climates. Sprouting broccoli types are morphologically distinct and are grown over the winter season and harvested until early spring. Thus they show considerable potential for development as an import substitution crop for growers and consumers during the 'hungry gap' of early spring. The present study investigated the effect of variety and management practices on phytochemical content in a range of sprouting broccoli varieties. Yields were significantly higher in white sprouting broccoli varieties. Levels of phenolics and flavonoids were in the range 81.64-297.65 and 16.95-104.80 mg 100 g⁻¹ fresh weight, respectively, depending on year and cultivar, and were highest in variety 'TZ 5052' in both years. In-row spacing did not affect flavonoid content. Phenolic and flavonoid content generally increased with increasing floret maturity and levels were high in edible portions of the crop. Crop wastes (leaf and flower) contained 145.9-239.3 and 21.5-116.6 mg 100 g⁻¹ fresh weight total phenolics and flavonoids, respectively, depending on cultivar, tissue and year. Climatic factors had a significant effect on phenolic and flavonoid content. Levels of total and some individual glucosinolates were higher in sprouting broccoli than in the green broccoli variety 'Ironman'. Levels of total phenolics, flavonoids and glucosinolates are higher in sprouting than green broccoli types. Sprouting broccoli represents an excellent source of dietary bioactive compounds. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Starch Hydrolysis, Polyphenol Contents, and In Vitro Alpha Amylase Inhibitory Properties of Some Nigerian Foods As Affected by Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sani Saidu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cooking on starch hydrolysis, polyphenol contents, and in vitro α-amylase inhibitory properties of mushrooms (two varieties Russula virescens and Auricularia auricula-judae, sweet potato (Ipomea batatas, and potato (Solanum tuberosum was investigated. The total, resistant, and digestible starch contents of the raw and cooked food samples (FS ranged from 6.4 to 64.9; 0 to 10.1; and 6.4 to 62.7 g/100 g, respectively, while their percentages of starch digestibility (DS values expressed as percentages of total starch hydrolyzed ranged from 45.99 to 100. Raw and boiled unpeeled potato, raw and boiled peeled potato, raw A. auricula-judae, and sweet potato showed mild to high α-amylase inhibition (over a range of concentration of 10–50 mg/mL, which was lower than that of acarbose (that had 69% inhibition of α-amylase over a range of concentration of 2–10 mg/mL, unlike raw R. virescens, boiled A. auricula-judae, and boiled sweet potatoes that activated α-amylase and boiled R. virescens that gave 0% inhibition. The FS contained flavonoids and phenols in addition. The significant negative correlation (r = −0.55; P = 0.05 between the α-amylase inhibitory properties of the raw and cooked FS versus their SD indicates that the α-amylase inhibitors in these FS also influenced the digestibility of their starches. In addition, the significant positive correlation between the α-amylase inhibitory properties of the raw and cooked FS versus their resistant starch (RS (r = 0.59; P = 0.01 contents indicates that the RS constituents of these FS contributed to their α-amylase inhibitory properties. The study showed the usefulness of boiled unpeeled potato, boiled potato peeled, and raw sweet potato as functional foods for people with type 2 diabetes.

  9. Quality of care for patients with traction in shahid beheshti hospital in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Moradi, Tayebeh

    2013-08-01

    With increasing incidence of traumatic fractures, the use of orthopedic intervention such as traction has increased. Inappropriate traction care may cause substantial morbidity and delay the patient rehabilitation. This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of care for patients with traction in the orthopedic unit of Kashan's Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan, Iran. This observational study was conducted on 100 patients with traumatic fractures of hip and femur bones who were admitted to Kashan Shahid-Beheshti Hospital during the first 6 months of 2012, and for whom skeletal or skin traction was performed. Data were collected using a checklist including questions about the personal characteristics and 23 items related to care for patients with tractions. These items were in three domains including caring while establishing traction, recording care and patient's education. Descriptive statistics were calculated and data were analyzed using the independent sample t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient. The mean age of patients was 51.16 ± 23.28 years and 66% of them were male. In total, 47% of the patients were treated by skin traction and 53% by skeletal traction. The overall mean score of quality of care was 10.20 ± 2.64. Quality of establishing traction was good in 55% of patients, but the quality of care was poor in the domains of recording care (88%) and patient education (96%). Total mean of quality of care was significantly different between male and female patients (P traction was not optimal. Therefore it is necessary to improve measures in this area.

  10. Reconstruction of the centers affected by the 2009 earthquake - Contents and methods in the Reconstruction’s Plan development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romolo Continenza

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The principle who guided the policy choices, in the reconstruction process of the damages caused by the earthquake of 2009, was to give priority to the reparation of buildings located outside the historic centres perimeter postponing its reparation to the approval of the Reconstruction plans. This choice was driven from the will to push ahead the more simple interventions implementation postponing the fate of historic centres to further investigations. The paper, as a result of experiences made in developing some reconstruction plans, highlights the cognitive issues needed in order to make this Urban Plan together with the significant differences in selecting its contents, imposed by the need to answer to the specific contextual situations. The case studies examined suggest, indeed, a range of choices ranging from the recovery the memory of a disappeared urban fabric, to the redesign of considerable portions of urban block until the recommendation of accurate restoration operations.

  11. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic and vitamin C contents of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as affected by sprouting and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura N. Laus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant capacity (AC of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cv. Real seeds and sprouts obtained after 4 days of seed germination at 20°C and 70% humidity was evaluated using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays, able to highlight reducing activity and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, respectively; phenolic content (PC was also measured. Both TEAC and ORAC assays revealed a significantly higher (about 2- and 2.8-fold, respectively AC of 4-day-old sprouts compared to seeds; consistently, also PC values of sprouts resulted about 2.6 times higher than seeds. In order to investigate the influence of storage on AC and PC, as well as on vitamin C content (VCC, 4-day-old sprouts were subjected for 7 days at 5°C to three different conditions of controlled atmosphere storage (CAS compared with air. Interestingly, whatever the CAS conditions, storage of quinoa sprouts up to 7 days induced an increase of AC evaluated in terms of reducing activity by TEAC assay. Consistently, an increase of PC and VCC was measured during storage, positively correlated to TEAC values. Moreover, a decrease of peroxyl radical scavenging activity, measured by ORAC, was observed after 7 days of storage, in accordance with a shift of AC towards the reducing activity component. Overall, these findings indicate that sprouting approach using quinoa may provide highly antioxidant-enriched seedlings that may improve nutritional quality of diet or of functional foods. Interestingly, antioxidant properties of quinoa sprouts may be deeply influenced by storage, able to increase reducing activity by increasing phenols and vitamin C.

  12. Perceptual salience affects the contents of working memory during free-recollection of objects from natural scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana ePedale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in the study of cognition is to understand which are the factors determining internal representation of the external world. Previous literature has started to highlight the impact of low-level sensory features (indexed by saliency-maps in driving attention selection, hence increasing the probability for objects presented in complex and natural scenes to be successfully encoded into working memory(WM and then correctly remembered. Here we asked whether the probability of retrieving high-saliency objects modulates the overall contents of WM, by decreasing the probability of retrieving other, lower-saliency objects. We presented pictures of natural scenes for 4 secs. After a retention period of 8 secs, we asked participants to verbally report as many objects/details as possible of the previous scenes. We then computed how many times the objects located at either the peak of maximal or minimal saliency in the scene (as indexed by a saliency-map; Itti et al., 1998 were recollected by participants. Results showed that maximal-saliency objects were recollected more often and earlier in the stream of successfully reported items than minimal-saliency objects. This indicates that bottom-up sensory salience increases the recollection probability and facilitates the access to memory representation at retrieval, respectively. Moreover, recollection of the maximal- (but not the minimal- saliency objects predicted the overall amount of successfully recollected objects: The higher the probability of having successfully reported the most-salient object in the scene, the lower the amount of recollected objects. These findings highlight that bottom-up sensory saliency modulates the current contents of WM during recollection of objects from natural scenes, most likely by reducing available resources to encode and then retrieve other (lower saliency objects.

  13. Traction for low back pain with or without sciatica: an updated systematic review within the framework of the Cochrane collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, J.; van Tulder, M.; Blomberg, S; de Vet, H.C.W.; van der Heijden, G; Bronfort, G.

    2006-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN. Systematic review. OBJECTIVE. To determine if traction is more effective than reference treatments, placebo/sham traction, or no treatment for low back pain (LBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Various types of traction are used in the treatment of LBP, often in conjunction with other

  14. Linkage mapping and identification of QTL affecting deoxynivalenol (DON) content (Fusarium resistance) in oats (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinyao; Skinnes, Helge; Oliver, Rebekah E; Jackson, Eric W; Bjørnstad, Asmund

    2013-10-01

    Mycotoxins caused by Fusarium spp. is a major concern on food and feed safety in oats, although Fusarium head blight (FHB) is often less apparent than in other small grain cereals. Breeding resistant cultivars is an economic and environment-friendly way to reduce toxin content, either by the identification of resistance QTL or phenotypic evaluation. Both are little explored in oats. A recombinant-inbred line population, Hurdal × Z595-7 (HZ595, with 184 lines), was used for QTL mapping and was phenotyped for 3 years. Spawn inoculation was applied and deoxynivalenol (DON) content, FHB severity, days to heading and maturity (DH and DM), and plant height (PH) were measured. The population was genotyped with DArTs, AFLPs, SSRs and selected SNPs, and a linkage map of 1,132 cM was constructed, covering all 21 oat chromosomes. A QTL for DON on chromosome 17A/7C, tentatively designated as Qdon.umb-17A/7C, was detected in all experiments using composite interval mapping, with phenotypic effects of 12.2–26.6 %. In addition, QTL for DON were also found on chromosomes 5C, 9D, 13A, 14D and unknown_3, while a QTL for FHB was found on 11A. Several of the DON/FHB QTL coincided with those for DH, DM and/or PH. A half-sib population of HZ595, Hurdal × Z615-4 (HZ615, with 91 lines), was phenotyped in 2011 for validation of QTL found in HZ595, and Qdon.umb-17A/7C was again localized with a phenotypic effect of 12.4 %. Three SNPs closely linked to Qdon.umb-17A/7C were identified in both populations, and one each for QTL on 5C, 11A and 13A were identified in HZ595. These SNPs, together with those yet to be identified, could be useful in marker-assisted selection to pyramiding resistance QTL.

  15. Biomass, gas exchange, and nutrient contents in upland rice plants affected by application forms of microorganism growth promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascente, Adriano Stephan; de Filippi, Marta Cristina Corsi; Lanna, Anna Cristina; de Souza, Alan Carlos Alves; da Silva Lobo, Valácia Lemes; da Silva, Gisele Barata

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms are considered a genetic resource with great potential for achieving sustainable development of agricultural areas. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of microorganism application forms on the production of biomass, gas exchange, and nutrient content in upland rice. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions in a completely randomized design in a factorial 7 × 3 + 1, with four replications. The treatments consisted of combining seven microorganisms with three application forms (microbiolized seed; microbiolized seed + soil drenched with a microorganism suspension at 7 and 15 days after sowing (DAS); and microbiolized seed + plant sprayed with a microorganism suspension at 7 and 15 DAS) and a control (water). Treatments with Serratia sp. (BRM32114), Bacillus sp. (BRM32110 and BRM32109), and Trichoderma asperellum pool provided, on average, the highest photosynthetic rate values and dry matter biomass of rice shoots. Plants treated with Burkolderia sp. (BRM32113), Serratia sp. (BRM32114), and Pseudomonas sp. (BRM32111 and BRM32112) led to the greatest nutrient uptake by rice shoots. Serratia sp. (BRM 32114) was the most effective for promoting an increase in the photosynthetic rate, and for the greatest accumulation of nutrients and dry matter at 84 DAS, in rice shoots, which differed from the control treatment. The use of microorganisms can bring numerous benefits of rice, such as improving physiological characteristics, nutrient uptake, biomass production, and grain yield.

  16. Estimates of Soil Bacterial Ribosome Content and Diversity Are Significantly Affected by the Nucleic Acid Extraction Method Employed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Pia K.; Nacke, Heiko; Kaiser, Kristin; Marhan, Sven; Sikorski, Johannes; Kandeler, Ellen; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Modern sequencing technologies allow high-resolution analyses of total and potentially active soil microbial communities based on their DNA and RNA, respectively. In the present study, quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were used to evaluate the effects of different extraction methods on the abundance and diversity of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts recovered from three different types of soils (leptosol, stagnosol, and gleysol). The quality and yield of nucleic acids varied considerably with respect to both the applied extraction method and the analyzed type of soil. The bacterial ribosome content (calculated as the ratio of 16S rRNA transcripts to 16S rRNA genes) can serve as an indicator of the potential activity of bacterial cells and differed by 2 orders of magnitude between nucleic acid extracts obtained by the various extraction methods. Depending on the extraction method, the relative abundances of dominant soil taxa, in particular Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, varied by a factor of up to 10. Through this systematic approach, the present study allows guidelines to be deduced for the selection of the appropriate extraction protocol according to the specific soil properties, the nucleic acid of interest, and the target organisms. PMID:26896137

  17. How do field of view and resolution affect the information content of panoramic scenes for visual navigation? A computational investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wystrach, Antoine; Dewar, Alex; Philippides, Andrew; Graham, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The visual systems of animals have to provide information to guide behaviour and the informational requirements of an animal's behavioural repertoire are often reflected in its sensory system. For insects, this is often evident in the optical array of the compound eye. One behaviour that insects share with many animals is the use of learnt visual information for navigation. As ants are expert visual navigators it may be that their vision is optimised for navigation. Here we take a computational approach in asking how the details of the optical array influence the informational content of scenes used in simple view matching strategies for orientation. We find that robust orientation is best achieved with low-resolution visual information and a large field of view, similar to the optical properties seen for many ant species. A lower resolution allows for a trade-off between specificity and generalisation for stored views. Additionally, our simulations show that orientation performance increases if different portions of the visual field are considered as discrete visual sensors, each giving an independent directional estimate. This suggests that ants might benefit by processing information from their two eyes independently.

  18. Potato powders prepared by successive cooking-process depending on resistant starch content affect the intestinal fermentation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Sakura; Han, Kyu-Ho; Araki, Takahiro; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Wakabayashi, Tatsuya; Shimada, Kenichiro; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2017-02-01

    The effects of resistant starch (RS) in dry potato powders prepared by various processes on intestinal fermentation in rats were assessed. Rats were fed raw potato powder (RP), blanched potato powder (BP), steamed potato powder (SP), or drum-dried potato powder (DP) for 4 weeks. The cecal RS content was significantly higher in the RP group than in the control diet (CN) group and other dry potato powder groups. Cecum pH was significantly lower in the RP group compared to the CN group, and was also significantly lower than that in the SP, BP, and DP groups. Lactic acid bacteria levels in the RP group were significantly higher than those in the CN group, and levels in the SP group also increased relative to the control group. Lactobacillus levels in the RP group were higher than in the CN and other dry potato powder groups. Cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in the RP group followed by the SP group exhibited significantly higher levels relative to the control levels. Dry potato powders containing RS produced during the cooking process may represent a useful food material that increases intestinal concentrations of SCFA and enhances the growth of certain lactic acid bacteria.

  19. Shelf life of reduced pork back-fat content sausages as affected by antimicrobial compounds and modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastromatteo, Marianna; Incoronato, Anna Lucia; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2011-10-17

    The combined use of antimicrobial compounds and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on shelf life of reduced pork back-fat content sausages was investigated in this study. First, a pre-screening of different antimicrobial compounds and MAP was addressed. In particular, the consumer test was used as a tool to select the most pleasant antimicrobial compounds, whereas both sausage color and cell load of main spoilage microorganisms were used to choose optimal MAP. Afterwards, antimicrobial compounds (lemon alkott and thymol) and MAP (MAP1: 20% CO(2), 5% O(2), 75% N(2)) that had shown the best performance were used to run the shelf life tests. In order to assess the influence of the variables described beforehand on the shelf life of investigated sausages, the sensorial and microbiological (mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., lactic acid bacteria and coccus-shaped lactic acid bacteria) quality was monitored during storage. Results recorded in this study suggested that Pseudomonas spp. were responsible for sausage unacceptability in all samples, except for thymol and thymol-MAP samples. For these samples, the sensorial quality was the limiting factor while the microbial growth did not limit the shelf life. In particular, for thymol and thymol-MAP samples a shelf life value of more than 5 days with respect to the other samples (2 days) was obtained. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Advancing the Strategic Messages Affecting Robot Trust Effect: The Dynamic of User- and Robot-Generated Content on Human-Robot Trust and Interaction Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuhua Jake; Lee, Seungcheol Austin

    2016-09-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) will soon transform and shift the communication landscape such that people exchange messages with robots. However, successful HRI requires people to trust robots, and, in turn, the trust affects the interaction. Although prior research has examined the determinants of human-robot trust (HRT) during HRI, no research has examined the messages that people received before interacting with robots and their effect on HRT. We conceptualize these messages as SMART (Strategic Messages Affecting Robot Trust). Moreover, we posit that SMART can ultimately affect actual HRI outcomes (i.e., robot evaluations, robot credibility, participant mood) by affording the persuasive influences from user-generated content (UGC) on participatory Web sites. In Study 1, participants were assigned to one of two conditions (UGC/control) in an original experiment of HRT. Compared with the control (descriptive information only), results showed that UGC moderated the correlation between HRT and interaction outcomes in a positive direction (average Δr = +0.39) for robots as media and robots as tools. In Study 2, we explored the effect of robot-generated content but did not find similar moderation effects. These findings point to an important empirical potential to employ SMART in future robot deployment.

  1. Traction control of an electric vehicle based on nonlinear observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Aligia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A traction control strategy for a four-wheel electric vehicle is proposed in this paper. The strategy is based on nonlinear observers which allows estimating the maximum force that can be transmitted to the road. Knowledge of the maximum force allows controlling the slip of the driving wheels, preventing the wheel’s slippage in low-grip surfaces. The proposed strategy also allows to avoid the undesired yaw moment in the vehicle which occurs when road conditions on either side of it are dierent. This improves the eciency and the control of the vehicle, avoiding possible losses of stability that can result in risks for its occupants. Both the proposed observer and the control strategy are designed based on a dynamic rotational model of the wheel and a brush force model. Simulation results are obtained based on a complete vehicle model on the Simulink/CarSim platform.

  2. Subdural abscess associated with halo-pin traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, S R; Botte, M J; Triggs, K J; Nickel, V L

    1988-10-01

    Osteomyelitis and intracranial abscess are among the most serious complications that have been reported in association with the use of the halo device. The cases of five patients who had formation of an intracranial abscess related to the use of a halo cervical immobilizer are described. All of the infections resolved after drainage of the abscess, débridement, and parenteral administration of antibiotics. Meticulous care of the pin sites is essential to avoid this serious complication. Additionally, since all of the infections were associated with prolonged halo-skeletal traction, this technique should be used with caution and with an awareness of the possible increased risks of pin-site infection and of formation of a subdural abscess.

  3. Single-incision laparoscopic splenectomy with innovative gastric traction suture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic splenectomy is now the gold standard for patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP undergoing splenectomy. There are a few reports in literature on single-incision laparoscopic (SIL splenectomy. Herein, we describe a patient undergoing SIL splenectomy for ITP without the use of a disposable port device. We report a 20-year-old female patient with steroid-refractory ITP having a platelet count of 14,000/cmm who underwent a SIL splenectomy. Dissection was facilitated by the use of a single articulating grasper and a gastric traction suture and splenic vessels were secured at the hilum with an endo-GIA stapler. She made an uneventful postoperative recovery and was discharged on the second postoperative day. She is doing well with no visible scar at 8-month follow-up.

  4. Novel Transverse Flux Machine for Vehicle Traction Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Z.; Ahmed, A.; Husain, I.; Muljadi, E.

    2015-04-02

    A novel transverse flux machine topology for electric vehicle traction applications using ferrite magnets is presented in this paper. The proposed transverse flux topology utilizes novel magnet arrangements in the rotor that are similar to the Halbach array to boost flux linkage; on the stator side, cores are alternately arranged around a pair of ring windings in each phase to make use of the entire rotor flux that eliminates end windings. Analytical design considerations and finite-element methods are used for an optimized design of a scooter in-wheel motor. Simulation results from finite element analysis (FEA) show that the motor achieved comparable torque density to conventional rare-earth permanent magnet (PM) machines. This machine is a viable candidate for direct-drive applications with low cost and high torque density.

  5. Microfluidic traction force microscopy to study mechanotransduction in angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldock, Luke; Wittkowske, Claudia; Perrault, Cecile M

    2017-07-01

    The formation of new blood vessels from existing vasculature, angiogenesis, is driven by coordinated endothelial cell migration and matrix remodeling in response to local signals. Recently, a growing body of evidence has shown that mechanotransduction, along with chemotransduction, is a major regulator of angiogenesis. Mechanical signals, such as fluid shear stress and substrate mechanics, influence sprouting and network formation, but the mechanisms behind this relationship are still unclear. Here, we present cellular traction forces as possible effectors activated by mechanosensing to mediate matrix remodeling, and encourage the use of TFM to study mechanotransduction in angiogenesis. We also suggest that deciphering the response of EC to mechanical signals could reveal an optimal angiogenic mechanical environment, and provide insight into development, wound healing, the initiation and growth of tumors, and new strategies for tissue engineering. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A rare case of bilateral tractional retinal detachment following snakebite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicey Roy; Das, Debmalya; Saurabh, Kumar; Roy, Rupak

    2017-01-01

    A 13-year-old female presented with diminution of vision in both eyes for 3 months following snakebite. Best-corrected visual acuities were hand movement in both eyes. Fundoscopy showed vitreous hemorrhage, and B-scan ultrasonography revealed an underlying tractional retinal detachment (TRD) involving the macula in both eyes. Patient underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy in conjunction with belt buckling, endolaser, and silicone oil tamponade in the left eye. At 6 weeks postoperatively, best-corrected visual acuity of the left eye was noted to be 20/200 with settled TRD and attached retina. Bilateral proliferative retinopathy with TRD is a hitherto unreported complication of snake bite. PMID:29133665

  7. A rare case of bilateral tractional retinal detachment following snakebite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicey Roy Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old female presented with diminution of vision in both eyes for 3 months following snakebite. Best-corrected visual acuities were hand movement in both eyes. Fundoscopy showed vitreous hemorrhage, and B-scan ultrasonography revealed an underlying tractional retinal detachment (TRD involving the macula in both eyes. Patient underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy in conjunction with belt buckling, endolaser, and silicone oil tamponade in the left eye. At 6 weeks postoperatively, best-corrected visual acuity of the left eye was noted to be 20/200 with settled TRD and attached retina. Bilateral proliferative retinopathy with TRD is a hitherto unreported complication of snake bite.

  8. Content fat and calorie of human milk is affected by interactions between maternal age and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Won-Ho; Jeong, Tchaewon; Park, Suyeon; Song, Seunghyun; Kang, Nam Mi

    2017-05-19

    We evaluated the association between macronutrients of human milk (HM), and interactions between maternal age and body mass index(BMI) in matched conditions. Totally, 80 HM samples were collected from healthy breast-feeding mothers at fourth week of lactation. HM macronutrients and maternal data were analyzed. Mothers were subgrouped into four groups by maternal age (20 s/30 s) and BMI (overweight/normal). Two-way ANOVA revealed significant interactions between age and BMI to affect macronutrients; fat, carbohydrate, and calories. Moreover, different responses of fat and calorie to BMI were found in different age groups. The evaluation of over- or under-weighted infants warrants considering both of maternal age and BMI.

  9. Heavy metal and arsenic content in seabirds affected by the Prestige oil spill on the Galician coast (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Marcos; Cid, Francisco; Oropesa, Ana Lourdes; Fidalgo, Luis Eusebio; López Beceiro, Ana; Soler, Francisco

    2006-04-15

    Seabirds are top consumers in marine foodchains which offer opportunities to detect and assess the toxicological effects of different inorganic elements on the marine ecosystem. In order to provide baseline data concerning trace element levels in seabird species from NW Spain, zinc, copper, arsenic, chromium, lead, cadmium and mercury concentrations were analyzed in liver of three different seabird species (common guillemot, Atlantic puffin and razorbill) affected by the Prestige oil spill in September 2002 on the Galician coast. In general, with the exception of mercury, levels of all the analyzed elements were similar or lower in comparison with those reported for the same species in other Atlantic areas, and did not exceed levels indicative of increased environmental exposure.

  10. Heavy metal and arsenic content in seabirds affected by the Prestige oil spill on the Galician coast (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, Marcos [Toxicology Area, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (UEX), Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)]. E-mail: marcospl@unex.es; Cid, Francisco [Toxicology Area, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (UEX), Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain); Oropesa, Ana Lourdes [Toxicology Area, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (UEX), Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain); Fidalgo, Luis Eusebio [Rof Codina Clinical Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (USC), Estrada da Granxa s/n. 27003 Lugo (Spain); Ana Lopez Beceiro [Rof Codina Clinical Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (USC), Estrada da Granxa s/n. 27003 Lugo (Spain); Soler, Francisco [Toxicology Area, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (UEX), Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2006-04-15

    Seabirds are top consumers in marine foodchains which offer opportunities to detect and assess the toxicological effects of different inorganic elements on the marine ecosystem. In order to provide baseline data concerning trace element levels in seabird species from NW Spain, zinc, copper, arsenic, chromium, lead, cadmium and mercury concentrations were analyzed in liver of three different seabird species (common guillemot, Atlantic puffin and razorbill) affected by the Prestige oil spill in September 2002 on the Galician coast. In general, with the exception of mercury, levels of all the analyzed elements were similar or lower in comparison with those reported for the same species in other Atlantic areas, and did not exceed levels indicative of increased environmental exposure.

  11. Modeling of traction-coupling properties of wheel propulsor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhapov, R. L.; Nikolaeva, R. V.; Gatiyatullin, M. H.; Makhmutov, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    In conditions of operation of aggregates on soils with low bearing capacity, the main performance indicators of their operation are determined by the properties of retaining the functional qualities of the propulsor. Therefore, the parameters of the anti-skid device can not be calculated by only one criterion. The equipment of propellers with anti-skid devices, which allow to reduce the compaction effect of the propulsion device on the soil, seems to be a rational solution to the problem of increasing traction and coupling properties of the driving wheels. The mathematical model is based on the study of the interaction of the driving wheel with anti-skid devices and a deformable bearing surface, which takes into account the wheel diameter, skid coefficient, the parameters of the anti-skid device, the physical and mechanical properties of the soil. As a basic mathematical model that determines the dependence of the coupling properties on the wheel parameters, the model obtained as a result of integration and reflecting the process of soil deformation from the shear stress is adopted. The total value of the resistance forces will determine the force of the hitch pressure on the horizontal soil layers, and the value of its deformation is the degree of wheel slippage. When the anti-skid devices interact with the soil, the traction capacity of the wheel is composed of shear forces, soil shear and soil deformation forces with detachable hooks. As a result of the interaction of the hook with the soil, the latter presses against the walls of the hook with the force equal to the sum of the hook load and the resistance to movement. During operation, the linear dimensions of the hook will decrease, which is not taken into account by the safety factor. Abrasive wear of the thickness of the hook is approximately proportional to the work of friction caused by the movement of the hook when inserted into the soil and slipping the wheel.

  12. Penile traction therapy for Peyronie's disease-what's the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Mustafa Faruk; Ipekci, Tumay

    2016-06-01

    Penile traction therapy (PTT) is a new therapeutic option for men with Peyronie's disease (PD). However, it has a long history of use in other fields of medicine including bone, skin, skeletal muscle, and Dupuytren's. Mechanotransduction, or gradual expansion of tissue by traction, leads to the formation of new collagen tissue by cellular proliferation. As a molecular result, continuous extension of the fibrous plaque causes significant increases in collagenase and metalloproteinases, and, ultimately, to fibrous plaque softening and extension. This hypothetical knowledge has been supported by recent well designed experimental studies. Furthermore, several clinical papers have provided promising results on the use of PTT in PD patients. It has been shown in some series that the use of PTT significantly increases flaccid and stretched penile lengths and results in significant penile curvature improvement when compared to baseline. Furthermore, the use of PTT concomitantly with either verapamil or interferon α-2b has also been shown to be an effective therapy. Additionally, the beneficial effect of PTT on penile length before or after penile surgery in men with corporal fibrosis has been described. Finally, as a minimally invasive alternative treatment option to penile augmentation surgery in men with dysmorphophobia, PTT use has shown promising results by several experts. Studies have shown that PTT provides an acceptable, minimally invasive method that can produce effective and durable lengthening of the penis in men complaining of a small/short penis. There are, however, several criticisms related to the designs of the reported studies, such as small sample size and selection bias. Well-designed studies with larger numbers of patients and longer follow-up periods are, however, needed to establish the true benefits of PTT.

  13. Content of conventional therapy for the severely affected arm during subacute rehabilitation after stroke: An analysis of physiotherapy and occupational therapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Lex D; van Wijck, Frederike; Stewart, Roy E; Geurts, Alexander C H; Dijkstra, Pieter U

    2018-01-01

    Physiotherapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) are key professions providing treatment for the arm after stroke; however, knowledge about the content of these treatments is scant. Detailed data are needed to replicate interventions, evaluate their effective components, and evaluate PT and OT practice. This paper describes PT and OT treatment for the severely affected arm in terms of duration, content according to components and categories of the International Classification of Human Functioning, Disability and Health, and to analyze differences between professions. Design: This is a retrospective analysis of randomized trial data. 46 patients after stroke with poor arm motor control recruited from inpatient neurological units from three rehabilitation centers in the Netherlands. PTs and OTs recorded duration and content of arm treatment interventions for 8 weeks using a bespoke treatment schedule with 15 International Classification of Human Functioning, Disability and Health categories. PTs and OTs spent on average 4-7 min per treatment session (30 min) on arm treatment. OTs spent significantly more time providing arm treatment and treatment at the activities level than PTs. PTs spent 79% of their arm treatment time on body functions, OTs 41%. OTs spent significantly more time on "moving around using transportation," "self care," and "household tasks" categories. Patients after stroke with a severely affected arm and an unfavorable prognosis for arm motor recovery receive little arm-oriented PT and OT. Therapists spent most arm treatment time on body functions. There was a considerable overlap in the content of PT and OT in 12 of the 15 categories. Results can be generalized only to patients with poor arm motor control and may not represent practice in other countries. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Growth Factor Content in Human Sera Affects the Isolation of Mesangiogenic Progenitor Cells (MPCs from Human Bone Marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Montali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mesangiogenic Progenitor Cells (MPCs are human bone marrow-derived multipotent cells, isolated in vitro under selective culture conditions and shown to retain both mesengenic and angiogenic potential. MPCs also co-isolated with multipotent stromal cells (MSCs when bone marrow primary cultures were set up for clinical applications, using human serum (HS in place of fetal bovine serum (FBS. MPC culture purity (over 95% is strictly dependent on HS supplementation with significant batch-to-batch variability. In the present paper we screened different sources of commercially available pooled human AB type serum (PhABS for their ability to promote MPC production under selective culture conditions. As the majority of contaminating cells in MPC cultures were represented by MSC-like cells, we hypothesized a role by differentiating agents present in the sera. Therefore, we tested a number of growth factors (hGF and found that higher concentrations of FGF-2, EGF, PDGF-AB, and VEGF-A as well as lower concentration of IGF-1 give sub-optimal MPC recovery. Gene expression analysis of hGF receptors was also carried out both in MSCs and MPCs, suggesting that FGF-2, EGF and PDGF-AB could act promoting MSC proliferation, while VEGF-A contribute to MSC-like cell contamination, triggering MPC differentiation. Here we demonstrated that managing hGF contents, together with applying specific receptors inhibitors (Erlotinib-HCl and Nintedanib, could significantly mitigate the batch-to-batch variability related to serum supplementation. These data represent a fundamental milestone in view of manufacturing MPC-based medicinal products.

  15. Analysis methods of stochastic transient electro–magnetic processes in electric traction system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mishchenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The essence and basic characteristics of calculation methods of transient electromagnetic processes in the elements and devices of non–linear dynamic electric traction systems taking into account the stochastic changes of voltages and currents in traction networks of power supply subsystem and power circuits of electric rolling stock are developed. Methodology. Classical methods and the methods of non–linear electric engineering, as well as probability theory method, especially the methods of stationary ergodic and non–stationary stochastic processes application are used in the research. Findings. Using the above-mentioned methods an equivalent circuit and the system of nonlinear integra–differential equations for electromagnetic condition of the double–track inter-substation zone of alternating current electric traction system are drawn up. Calculations allow obtaining electric traction current distribution in the areas of feeder zones. Originality. First of all the paper is interesting and important from scientific point of view due to the methods, which allow taking into account probabilistic character of change for traction voltages and electric traction system currents. On the second hand the researches develop the most efficient methods of nonlinear circuits’ analysis. Practical value. The practical value of the research is presented in application of the methods to the analysis of electromagnetic and electric energy processes in the traction power supply system in the case of high-speed train traffic.

  16. Analysis of electromyographic activities of the lumbar erector spinae caused by inversion traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung Yoo; Kang, Jong Ho

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in the electromyographic activities of the lumbar erector spinae caused by inversion traction in order to verify the relaxation effect. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included 60 healthy male adults who were equally and randomly assigned to a 30-30° group, a 30-60° group, and a 60-60° group. Inversion traction was performed for six minutes, and the electromyographic activities of the lumbar erector spinae (L2, L4) were measured before and after inversion traction. [Results] The root mean square values at the L2 and L4 levels on both sides were statistically significantly higher after inversion traction compared with before inversion traction. Before inversion traction, the root mean square values at the L2 and L4 levels on both sides in the 30-60° group and 60-60° group were significantly higher than those in the 30-30° group, while the root mean square values at the L2 and L4 levels on both sides showed no significant differences between the groups before inversion traction. [Conclusion] The findings of this study indicated that IT is more likely to elicits an increase in muscle tension and prevent relaxation of the lumbar erector spinae.

  17. Extension traction treatment for patients with discogenic lumbosacral radiculopathy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ibrahim M; Diab, Aliaa A

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of lumbar extension traction in patients with unilateral lumbosacral radiculopathy due to L5-S1 disc herniation. A randomized controlled study with six-month follow-up. University research laboratory. Sixty-four patients with confirmed unilateral lumbosacral radiculopathy due to L5-S1 disc herniation and a lumbar lordotic angle less than 39°, randomly assigned to traction or control group. The control group (n = 32) received hot packs and interferential therapy, whereas the traction group (n = 32) received lumbar extension traction in addition to hot packs and interferential therapy. Absolute rotatory angle, back and leg pain rating scale, Oswestry Disability Index, Modified Schober test, H-reflex (latency and amplitude) and intervertebral movements were measured for all patients three times (before treatment, after 10 weeks of treatment and at six-month follow-up). There was a significant difference between the traction group and the control group adjusted to baseline values at 10 weeks post treatment with respect to: absolute rotatory angle (P traction group receiving lumbar extension traction in addition to hot packs and interferential therapy had better effects than the control group with regard to pain, disability, H-reflex parameters and segmental intervertebral movements.

  18. Halo Gravity Traction Is Associated with Reduced Bone Mineral Density of Patients with Severe Kyphoscoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Sun, Weixiang; Qiu, Yong; Xu, Leilei; Sha, Shifu; Shi, Benlong; Yan, Huang; Liu, Zhen; Zhu, Zezhang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Halo gravity traction (HGT) is one of the most commonly used perioperative techniques for the treatment of severe kyphoscoliosis. This study was to explore the influence of HGT on the BMD of these patients. Methods. Patients with severe kyphoscoliosis treated by preoperative HGT for at least 2 months were included. Patients' BMD were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at lumbar spine (LS, L2-L4) and femur neck (FN) of the nondominant side. The weight and duration of traction, as well as baseline characteristics, were recorded. Results. Twenty patients were recruited. The average traction duration was 77.9 ± 13.0 days while the mean traction weight was 39.9% ± 11.1% of total body weight. Remarkable decrease of BMD was observed at LS of 17 (85%) patients and at FN of 18 (90%) patients. After HGT, 75% of patients were found to have osteoporosis, the incidence of which was significantly higher than that before HGT (35%). The correlation analysis revealed BMD reduction was only significantly correlated with the traction duration. Conclusions. The current study showed that preoperative HGT can have obvious impact on the BMD. The BMD reduction is associated with traction duration, suggesting that long traction duration may bring more bone mineral loss.

  19. Lumbar spine traction: evaluation of effects and recommended application for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, M; Refshauge, K M; Dessen, M; Boland, R

    2000-05-01

    Despite the widespread use of traction, little is known of the mode of effect, and application remains largely anecdotal. The efficacy of traction is also unclear because of generally poor design of the clinical trials to date, and because subgroups of patients most likely to benefit have not been specifically studied. These observations prompted this review, the purposes of which are to evaluate the mechanisms by which traction may provide benefit and to provide rational guidelines for the clinical application of traction. Traction has been shown to separate the vertebrae and it appears that large forces are not required. Vertebral separation could provide relief from radicular symptoms by removing direct pressure or contact forces from sensitised neural tissue. Other mechanisms proposed to explain the effects of traction (e.g. reduction of disc protrusion or altered intradiscal pressure) have been shown not to occur. We conclude that traction is most likely to benefit patients with acute (less than 6 weeks' duration) radicular pain with concomitant neurological deficit. The apparent lack of a dose-response relationship suggests that low doses are probably sufficient to achieve benefit. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  20. Halo Gravity Traction Is Associated with Reduced Bone Mineral Density of Patients with Severe Kyphoscoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Halo gravity traction (HGT is one of the most commonly used perioperative techniques for the treatment of severe kyphoscoliosis. This study was to explore the influence of HGT on the BMD of these patients. Methods. Patients with severe kyphoscoliosis treated by preoperative HGT for at least 2 months were included. Patients’ BMD were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at lumbar spine (LS, L2–L4 and femur neck (FN of the nondominant side. The weight and duration of traction, as well as baseline characteristics, were recorded. Results. Twenty patients were recruited. The average traction duration was 77.9±13.0 days while the mean traction weight was 39.9%±11.1% of total body weight. Remarkable decrease of BMD was observed at LS of 17 (85% patients and at FN of 18 (90% patients. After HGT, 75% of patients were found to have osteoporosis, the incidence of which was significantly higher than that before HGT (35%. The correlation analysis revealed BMD reduction was only significantly correlated with the traction duration. Conclusions. The current study showed that preoperative HGT can have obvious impact on the BMD. The BMD reduction is associated with traction duration, suggesting that long traction duration may bring more bone mineral loss.

  1. Spatial and temporal traction response in human airway smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolic-Norrelykke, Iva Marija; Butler, James P.; Chen, Jianxin; Wang, Ning

    2002-01-01

    Tractions that cells exert on their substrates are essential in cell spreading, migration, and contraction. These tractions can be determined by plating the cells on a flexible gel and measuring the deformation of the gel by using fluorescent beads embedded just below the surface of the gel. In this article we describe the image correlation method (ICM) optimized for determining the displacement field of the gel under a contracting cell. For the calculation of the traction field from the displacement field we use the recently developed method of Fourier transform traction cytometry (FTTC). The ICM and FTTC methods are applied to human airway smooth muscle cells during stimulation with the contractile agonist histamine or the relaxing agonist isoproterenol. The overall intensity of the cell contraction (the median traction magnitude, the energy transferred from the cell to the gel, and the net contractile moment) increased after activation with histamine, and decreased after treatment with isoproterenol. Cells exhibited regional differences in the time course of traction during the treatment. Both temporal evolution and magnitude of traction increase induced by histamine varied markedly among different cell protrusions, whereas the nuclear region showed the smallest response. These results suggest that intracellular mediators of cell adhesion and contraction respond to contractile stimuli with different rates and intensities in different regions of the cell.

  2. Influencia de doses de potássio nos teores de macronutrientes em plantas e sementes de alface Macronutrient content in lettuce affected by potassium side dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiaini Kano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência de doses de potássio aplicadas em cobertura nos teores de nutrientes em plantas de alface cultivada para produção de sementes. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos (0,0; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 e 2,5 g planta-1 de K2O e seis repetições. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e à análise de regressão. Somente os teores de potássio e magnésio determinados na matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas foram influenciados significativamente pelas doses de potássio testadas, em que para o teor de potássio ocorreu aumento linear e para o de magnésio houve redução também linear. Conclui-se que os tratamentos testados não interferiram de forma significativa nos teores de macronutrientes das sementes, apesar de ter modificado os teores de potássio e de magnésio na matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas de alface, cultivar Verônica.The influence of potassium rates applied in side dressing was evaluated on the nutrient content of lettuce plants cultivated for seed production. The experiment was carried out in randomized complete blocks, with five treatments (0.0; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 and 2.5 g plant-1 of K2O and six replications. Only the potassium and the magnesium content in the dry matter of the plant aboveground part was affected by the treatments. The potassium content increased and the magnesium content decreased, both linearly, as an effect of the application of increasing potassium rates. Also, despite of the effect on the plant potassium content, the treatments did not affect the seed macronutrient content.

  3. Light reflected from colored mulches affects aroma and phenol content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughrin, J H; Kasperbauer, M J

    2001-03-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an herb the leaves of which are used to add a distinct aroma and flavor to food. It was hypothesized that the size and chemical composition of sun-grown basil leaves could be influenced by the color of light reflected from the soil surface and by the action of the reflected light through the natural growth regulatory system within the growing plants. Leaf morphology, aroma compounds, and soluble phenolics were compared in basil that had been grown over six colors of polyethylene row covers. Altering the ratios of blue, red, and far-red light reflected to growing plants influenced both leaf morphology and chemistry. Leaves developing over red surfaces had greater area, moisture percentage (succulence), and fresh weight than those developing over black surfaces. Basil grown over yellow and green surfaces produced significantly higher concentrations of aroma compounds than did basil grown over white and blue covers. Leaves grown over yellow and green mulches also contained significantly higher concentrations of phenolics than those grown over the other colors. Clearly, the wavelengths (color) of light reflected to growing basil plants affected leaf size, aroma, and concentrations of soluble phenolics, some of which are antioxidants.

  4. Physicochemical and sensory properties of Celta dry-ripened “salchichón” as affected by fat content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca, S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the effect of fat content on the main characteristics of a traditional, Spanish dry-ripened sausage called “salchichón” from the Celta pig breed manufactured with 10, 20 and 30% back fat. Physicochemical properties, color, texture and free fatty acid profile were evaluated throughout the process after 0, 7, 21, 35 and 49 days of ripening, while the study of the volatile compound profile and the sensory evaluation were only performed on the final products. In general, most of the studied physicochemical, color and textural parameters were significantly (P En este trabajo se estudia el efecto del contenido en grasa sobre las principales características del “salchichón”, un embutido crudo-curado tradicional español, elaborado con cerdo de raza Celta y con adición de 10, 20 y 30% de grasa dorsal. Las propiedades físico-químicas, color, textura y perfil de ácidos grasos libres se evaluaron a lo largo del proceso tras 0, 7, 21, 35 y 49 días de maduración, mientras que el estudio del perfil de compuestos volátiles y la evaluación sensorial se llevó a cabo únicamente en los productos finales. En general, la mayoría de los parámetros físico-químicos, de color y textura estudiados se vieron significativamente (P < 0,05 afectados por el nivel de grasa. Las reacciones lipolíticas también resultaron favorecidas con altos niveles de grasa que dan lugar a una mayor liberación de ácidos grasos libres. Los embutidos con 10% de grasa mostraron un contenido más elevado en compuestos volátiles, a pesar de no haber mostrado diferencias significativas en la intensidad de flavor. La evaluación sensorial también reflejó una preferencia por la textura de los embutidos con 30% de grasa. Este hecho nos lleva a concluir que, aunque la reducción de grasa mejoraría la calidad nutricional de los productos cárnicos crudo-curados, sería satisfactoria sólo si se lleva a cabo hasta cierto nivel. Por tanto, una formulaci

  5. CALCULATION OF A MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF ELECTRIC TRACTION MOTOR OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Le Ngo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The traction characteristic of an electric vehicle is the main characteristic of mechanical system that reflects its key performance indicators. Implementation of the traction characteristic is based on controlling angular speed and torque of electric traction motor in an automatic control system. The static mechanical characteristic of an electric traction motor in an automatic control system is the most important characteristic that determines weight, size and operating characteristics of an electric traction motor and serves as the basis for design. The most common variants of constructive implementation of a traction electric drive are analyzed, and a scheme is chosen for further design. Lagrange’s equation for electric mechanical system with one degree of freedom is written in generalized coordinates. In order to determine the generalized forces, elementary operation of all moments influencing on a moving car has been calculated. The resulting equation of motion of the electric vehicle corresponding to the design scheme, as well as the expressions for calculation of characteristic points of static mechanical characteristics of traction motor (i.e. the maximum and minimum time, minimum power are obtained. In order to determine the nominal values of the angular velocity and the power of electric traction motor, a method based on ensuring the movement of the vehicle in the standard cycle has been developed. The method makes it possible to calculate characteristic points of the mechanical characteristic with the lowest possible power rating. The algorithm for calculation of mechanical characteristics of the motor is presented. The method was applied to calculate static mechanical characteristic of an electric traction motor for a small urban electric truck.

  6. The Use of Intraoperative Traction in Pediatric Scoliosis Surgery: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMothe, J M; Al Sayegh, S; Parsons, D L; Ferri-de-Barros, F

    2015-01-01

    Systematic review. To study the morbidity and the potential benefits of using intraoperative skeletal traction as an adjunct method for correcting scoliosis. Cotrel et al., used intraoperative skeletal traction in all patients in their original series of segmental spinal instrumentation for scoliosis correction (Cotrel et al., Clin Orthop Relat Res 1988;227:10-23). However, the use of intraoperative traction may introduce other forms of surgical morbidity, which has not been systematically studied. Two independent reviewers searched MEDLINE (1948-current) and EMBASE (1980-current) using the keywords scoliosis, intraoperative, and traction in all fields, combined with AND. Studies were subject to full-text assessment against specific inclusion and exclusion criteria; discrepancies between the reviewers were resolved by a third independent reviewer. Data were extracted into standardized extraction tables and papers were critically appraised papers with regards to their relative strengths and weaknesses, with particular attention to the study objective. Nine papers were included: case report (n = 1), retrospective case series (n = 2), retrospective case-control (n = 6), and studies included both adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and neuromuscular scoliosis. Seven studies reported positive effects of intraoperative skeletal traction on diverse outcome measures, such as correction of pelvic obliquity, Cobb angle, and axial plane deformity, as well as precluding the need for an anterior release preceding posterior instrumentation for large curves. Overall, there was only one reported postoperative traction-related complication (anterosuperior iliac spine pressure sore). One paper reported that intraoperative traction may evoke neuromonitoring signal changes in a large proportion of patients undergoing AIS surgery. These changes were responded to intraoperatively by decreasing or removing weight and none of the patients had postoperative neurologic deficits. Isolated

  7. The effect of intra-operative skeletal (skull femoral) traction on apical vertebral rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhaveri, Subir N; Zeller, Reinhard; Miller, Stephen; Lewis, Stephen J

    2009-03-01

    The study design is a retrospective review of consecutive case series. Our goal was to identify and quantify the effect of skeletal traction on the apical vertebral rotation (AVR). Intra-operative skeletal traction has been used for the correction of large magnitude idiopathic and neuromuscular scoliosis. The ability of skeletal traction to correct the rotational deformity of the spine has not been characterized. Following REB approval, retrospective analysis of 22 (AIS = 14, neuromuscular = 8) consecutive pediatric patients having surgical posterior instrumented correction and fusion for their scoliosis was performed. Intra-operative skeletal traction with approximately 50% body weight was achieved with smooth distal femoral pins. Counter-traction up to 25% was used through Gardner-Wells tongs. The AVR of the major curve was assessed using the Nash-Moe grading system by a radiologist and a senior spine surgeon not involved in the treatment of these cases. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the significance. The overall mean AVR of the major structural curve was 3.1 +/- 0.8 and reduced to 2.4 +/- 0.6 (p = 0.0001) following traction. The AVR decreased by one or more Nash-Moe grades with traction in 14/22 (64%) patients. The Cobb angle corrected from a mean of 88.2 degrees to 49.1 degrees (44.3%, p = 0.00001) with traction. The decrease in AVR correlated with the higher magnitude Cobb angles (correlation 0.53, p = 0.014). Patients with pre-traction AVR > or = 3 showed the largest change with traction (3.4-2.5, p = 0.000004). There was very good association between the radiologist and the spine surgeon, 0.72(standing films) and 0.63(traction films). The minor structural curve corrected from a mean Cobb of 53.5 degrees to 33.8 degrees (37.8%) with AVR decreasing from a mean of 1.9 to 1.4 (p = 0.014). Significant apical derotation occurs with the use of intra-operative skull-skeletal traction in the correction of high magnitude scoliotic curves. This

  8. Surgical management of retinal diseases: proliferative diabetic retinopathy and traction retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Iñigo, Yousef J; Acabá, Luis A; Berrocal, Maria H

    2014-01-01

    Current indications for pars plana vitrectomy in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) include vitreous hemorrhage, tractional retinal detachment (TRD), combined tractional and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (CTRRD), diabetic macular edema associated with posterior hyaloidal traction, and anterior segment neovascularization with media opacities. This chapter will review the indications, surgical objectives, adjunctive pharmacotherapy, microincision surgical techniques, and outcomes of diabetic vitrectomy for PDR, TRD, and CTRRD. With the availability of new microincision vitrectomy technology, wide-angle microscope viewing systems, and pharmacologic agents, vitrectomy can improve visual acuity and achieve long-term anatomic stability in eyes with severe complications from PDR. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. A Study of Torque Vectoring and Traction Control for an All-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Maharun Mui’nuddin; Mohd Nor Mohamad Noor Iman

    2014-01-01

    Common vehicle always experience energy loss during cornering manoeuver. Thus, to ensure it did not happened especially at high speed, a study of torque vectoring and traction control need to be made since it can increase the traction control of tyres during cornering at high speed. The study of torque vectoring and traction control for an all-wheel drive electric vehicle was conducted by modelling an all-wheel drive electric vehicle (EV) in ADAMS/Car software. In addition, an optimal control...

  10. N sources affect growth, nutrient content, and net photosynthesis in maté (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Gaiad

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different N sources on the growth of maté (Ilex paragurariensis St.Hil. seedlings grown in greenhouse was studied. All seedlings received a base fertilization of 10 mg N.kg-1 soil as NH4NO3, 60 mg P2O5.and 40 mg K2O.kg-1 soil as KH2PO4 15 days before treatments application. Treatments were as follow: Control, with no extra N added; Urea = 100 mg N.kg-1 soil as Urea; NO3- = 100 mg N.kg-1 soil as Ca(NO32; and NH4+ = 100 mg N.kg-1 soil as (NH42SO4. It was concluded that: 1 increasing N content in leaves alone was not able to promote gain in biomass production of maté seedlings; 2 seedlings receiving N-NH4 showed a higher accumulation of P and Mg on shoot biomass; and 3 an increase in leaf area, leaf number and net photosynthesis observed at the N-NH4 treatment was coincident with an increasing absorption of P and Mg.A influência de diferentes fontes de N sobre o crescimento de mudas de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St.Hil. foi estudada, em casa de vegetação. Todas as mudas receberam uma fertilização base de 10 mg N.kg-1 de solo na forma de NH4NO3, 60 mg P2O5.kg-1 e 40 mg K2O.kg-1 de solo na forma de KH2PO4 quinze dias antes da aplicação dos tratamentos. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: Controle, sem adição extra de N; Uréia = 100 mg N.kg-1 de solo como Uréia; NO3- = 100 mg N.kg-1 de solo como Ca(NO32; e NH4+ = 100 mg N.kg-1 de solo como (NH42SO4. Concluiu-se que: 1 o aumento do conteúdo de N nas folhas, por si, não é capaz de promover ganhos na produção de biomassa em mudas de erva-mate; 2 mudas que receberam N-NH4 apresentaram maior acumulo de P e Mg na biomassa aérea; e 3 o aumento na absorção de P e Mg coincidiu com um aumento na área foliar, no número de folhas e na fotossíntese liquida na fonte N-NH4.

  11. Application on forced traction test in surgeries for orbital blowout fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Hong Han

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To discuss the application of forced traction test in surgeries for orbital blowout fracture.METHODS: The clinical data of 28 patients with reconstructive surgeries for orbital fracture were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were treated with forced traction test before/in/after operation. The eyeball movement and diplopia were examined and recorded pre-operation, 3 and 6mo after operation, respectively.RESULTS: Diplopia was improved in all 28 cases with forced traction test. There was significant difference between preoperative and post-operative diplopia at 3 and 6mo(PCONCLUSION: Forced traction test not only have a certain clinical significance in diagnosis of orbital blowout fracture, it is also an effective method in improving diplopia before/in/after operation.

  12. Demonstrating Cell Traction--Using Hens' Egg Vitelline Membrane as Substratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Roger

    1987-01-01

    Suggests ways in which hens' egg vitelline membranes can be used to demonstrate cell traction effects. Reviews procedures for using and culturing the membranes and identifies topic areas for student projects. (ML)

  13. Myopic traction maculopathy: Study with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konidaris, V; Androudi, S; Brazitikos, P

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To describe the tomographic findings of a case of myopic traction maculopathy using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) and present the results of its surgical intervention. Design: Observational case report and review of the literature. Methods: A 61-year-old male with metamorphopsia was examined clinically and with the use of SD-OCT. The diagnosis of myopic traction maculopathy was made. The patient underwent pars plana vitrectomy with removal of the vitreomacular adhesions, the epiretinal and the internal limiting membrane. Results: Visual acuity increased by two Snellen lines, metamorphopsia disappeared, macular morphology was improved and myopic traction maculopathy was resolved. Conclusions: Imaging with SD-OCT is capable of documentation and measurement of the early stages of myopic traction maculopathy. Moreover, vitrectomy was beneficial for the visual and anatomic outcome of the patient. PMID:19561782

  14. The use of Saunders lumbar traction in physiotherapy of patients with chronic lower back pain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pingot, Julia; Pingot, Mariusz; Łabecka, Monika; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of Saunders lumbar tractions in patients with chronic lower back pain in comparison with the group of patients undergoing pharmacological treatment...

  15. Sensorless start-up of traction switched reluctance motors of the railway rolling stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim TCHAVYCHALOV

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of SRM sensorless start is described. The new algorithm of traction switched reluctance motor sensorless start-up in a course is adduced. Results of physical modeling of the described method are given.

  16. Massive perineal wound slough after treatment of complex pelvic and acetabular fractures using a traction table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammit, Matthew D; Cole, Peter A; Kregor, Philip J

    2002-09-01

    An operating table with the capacity for skeletal traction against a pudendal post is a helpful and commonly used piece of equipment for certain pelvic and acetabular fracture patterns. Perineal soft tissue trauma and urogenital injuries are associated with some pelvic and acetabular fractures. The perineal region is vulnerable to compromise after such injuries. There is little documentation available in the literature that addresses intraoperative complications of the perineum after the use of a traction table for pelvic fractures. We present here a case in which prolonged traction against a pudendal post during operative fixation of complex pelvic and acetabular fractures resulted in massive perineal wound slough. This case should heighten surgeons' awareness of the vulnerability of the perineum to injury with the use of a traction table and should prompt measures to prevent complications.

  17. Deformity and functional outcome after treatment for supracondylar humerus fractures in children: a 5- to 10-year follow-up of 139 supracondylar humerus fractures treated by plaster cast, skeletal traction or crossed wire fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sven; Fevang, Jonas M; Gullaksen, Gunnar; Nilsen, Per T; Engesæter, Lars B

    2010-10-01

    At Haukeland University Hospital (HUH), we used overhead skeletal traction for displaced supracondylar humerus fractures (SCHF) in children until closed reduction and crossed wire fixation was introduced in the early 1990s. Though there are obvious and well-documented benefits of wire fixation, the aim of this study was to document and compare the results and complication rates for both methods. One hundred and thirty-nine patients treated for SCHF between 1988 and 1998 were available for follow-up. Of these, 40 children were treated with a plaster cast, 46 with overhead skeletal traction and 45 with crossed wire fixation. Eight children were treated with open reduction and crossed wires. The mean time to follow-up was 7.1 years [standard deviation (SD) 3.2]. The length of hospital stay was 2 days for those treated with crossed wire fixation compared to 11 days for traction (P skeletal traction or wire fixation, but there were more reoperations in the traction group (P = 0.04). Patients treated solely with a plaster cast had a mean of 4° increased extension of the affected elbow compared to 1° in the crossed pin fixation group (P = 0.02). Though this has little clinical relevance, it does indicate improved reduction in the operated patients, as one would expect. The introduction of crossed wire fixation has significantly reduced the number of days for which patients are hospitalised for SCHF. The rate of nerve injuries in Gartland type 3 fractures is high. Despite the fact that this study includes the first patients to be treated with crossed wire fixation at our institution, no significant increase in the risk of complications could be found compared to skeletal traction.

  18. Preoperative short-term traction prior to posterior vertebral column resection: procedure and role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingsong; Xie, Jingming; Zhao, Zhi; Li, Tao; Zhang, Yin; Bi, Ni; Shi, Zhiyue; Cai, Yunhua; Zhang, Yuhao

    2016-03-01

    Severe rigid spine deformity with sharp curve can be effectively corrected by posterior vertebral column resection (PVCR). Meanwhile, high risk of this procedure also has been recognized generally. The aim of this study is to review and evaluate the role of preoperative skull-femoral traction prior to PVCR for extremely severe rigid spinal deformity with sharp angular curve >150°. Twelve cases with extremely severe rigid deformities and sharp curves were treated by skull-femoral traction before operation. For them, the mean preoperative major scoliotic curve and kyphosis were 153° (110°-168°) and 109° (61°-180°). Continuous skull-femoral traction in supine position was started 4 weeks before operation. In the process of traction, tolerance, neurologic status, deformity changes, etc., were reviewed and documented for analysis. PVCR were performed in all these patients for final and main correction. The final traction force in the 12 cases was 63% of body weight. After 4-week traction, the main scoliotic curve and kyphosis were decreased by 34 and 31%. In 1 week, main scoliotic curve and kyphosis were decreased by 19 and 15%. In 2 weeks, the major scoliosis curve was decreased by 11%, but kyphosis was unexpectedly increased by 4%. Deformity in the last 2 weeks was less significant than the first 2 weeks. After PVCR, the main scoliotic curve and kyphosis were improved 69 and 66%. No permanent neurological damage occurred. Preoperative skull-femoral traction effectively mitigates the neurological risks of PVCR for extremely severe rigid spinal deformity with sharp curve. During traction, scoliosis can be improved more significantly and easily than kyphosis.

  19. Sustainability Aspects of Energy Conversion in Modern High-Speed Trains with Traction Induction Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Marc A. Rosen; Doru A. Nicola; Cornelia A. Bulucea; Daniel C. Cismaru

    2015-01-01

    Some aspects are illustrated of energy conversion processes during the operation of electric railway vehicles with traction induction motors, in order to support transport systems’ sustainability. Increasing efforts are being expended to enhance the sustainability of transportation technologies and systems. Since electric drive systems are used with variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF) inverters and traction induction motors, these machines with appropriate controls can realize both tra...

  20. Natural course of myopic traction maculopathy and factors associated with progression or resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Noriaki; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Tokoro, Takashi; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the natural course of myopic traction maculopathy and to identify the factors associated with its progression or resolution in 207 highly myopic eyes. Retrospective, consecutive case series. We investigated 207 highly myopic eyes with myopic traction maculopathy by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and followed the patients for at least 24 months. The size of the macular retinoschisis was categorized according to its extent and location relative to the fovea. The clinical data, status of the myopic traction maculopathy, and changes in the posterior vitreous and inner limiting membrane (ILM) were analyzed during the natural course of the disease process. During a mean follow-up of 36.2 ± 6.2 months, 8 of 207 eyes (3.9%) showed a decrease or complete resolution of the macular retinoschisis. Of these 8 eyes, 6 had release of retinal traction in the OCT images, and 4 of the 6 eyes developed posterior vitreous detachment. A spontaneous disruption of the ILM occurred in 2 eyes before the improvement of the myopic traction maculopathy. Of the 207 eyes, 24 (11.6%) experienced progression of the myopic traction maculopathy. The eyes with more extensive macular retinoschisis showed progression significantly more commonly (42.9%) than the eyes having less extensive macular retinoschisis areas (6.7%). The natural course of myopic traction maculopathy varies, and eyes with more extensive macular retinoschisis tend to progress more commonly. A complete resolution of macular retinoschisis can occur after a release of traction on the retina. These findings can be used to determine whether surgery should be performed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanical effects of traction on lumbar intervertebral discs: A magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Daniel H K; Yuen, Ernest M K; Xiao, L; Leung, Mason C P

    2017-06-01

    Although traction has long been used for treating patients with low back pain (LBP), its effects are still inconclusive mainly because of limited high-quality evidence. To provide evidence of the mechanism of traction on lumbar intervertebral discs. A quantitative approach with a repeated measurement protocol. Nine participants (mean age = 22.1 ± 0.8 years) without any LBP history were recruited. Magnetic Resonance Images of the lumbar spine of each participant were recorded before and after 30 min of horizontal lying and directly after 30 min of horizontal traction of 42% body weight. The average, anterior, central, and posterior disc height and tilt angle of each lumbar disc and lumbar lordosis were measured. A significant increase in the average disc height for all lumbar discs, a significant reduction of lumbar lordosis and changes in tilt angle were observed after the application of 30 min of resting followed by 30 min of traction. A significant increase in the average disc height was observed only in lower lumbar discs after 30 min of traction. The increase in the posterior disc height was more apparent than that in the anterior disc height. Horizontal traction was evidently effective in increasing the disc height of lower lumbar levels, particularly in the posterior regions of the discs. Further evidence of the effects of traction of different modes, magnitudes, and durations on the change in disc height is required for proper control of traction applied to specific disc levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnosis of traction electric motor at irregularity in speed of anchor rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Cyernyayev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To offer a complex diagnostic parameter (or system of parameters that would allow determining the fault of electric traction motor as well as electromagnetic and mechanical nature. Methodology. Technology transition to maintenance and repair of equipment in accordance with its actual condition are developed rapidly in the world practice in recent years. Control of equipment and forecasting of its technical condition with the use of non-destructive testing and diagnosis in-place methods is the basis of such technologies. In operation the reliability level of electrical machines including traction electric motor is very difficult to maintain. Analyzing failures of rolling stock, which arise from the operation, we can see that traction electric motors are the least reliable nodes. Diagnostics of traction electric motor at irregularity in speed of anchor rotation is proposed. A measurement device for irregularity in speed of anchor rotation was developed. Findings. An experimental research in order to determine the irregularity in speed of anchor armature shaft rotation and coupling of irregularity in speed of anchor rotation with traction electric motors nodes failures was executed. The experimental dependence of the waveform uneven rotation anchor for engines with different technical conditions. Originality. A method for diagnosis of traction electric motors at irregularity in speed of anchor armature shaft rotation was first proposed. This method after further improvement can be used at bench test of engines in their work without load and for the quality of the repair. Practical value. The device for detecting defects of the traction electric motor nodes as well as electromagnetic and mechanical nature without engine disassembly may be used for control of engine assembly after repair, and at testing of traction electric motor without load.

  3. Low Incidence of Neurovascular Complications After Placement of Proximal Tibial Traction Pins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Garret; Gibson, Peter; Patel, Param; Koury, Kenneth; Sirkin, Michael; Reilly, Mark; Adams, Mark

    2017-10-20

    Skeletal tibial traction is a temporizing measure used preoperatively for femoral fractures to improve the length and alignment of the limb and provide pain relief. The goal of this study was to identify possible neurovascular morbidity associated with the use of bedside skeletal tibial traction to treat femur fractures. All femoral fractures treated with proximal tibial traction during a 10-year period at an urban level I trauma center were retrospectively reviewed. The medical record was reviewed to determine whether a pin-related complication had occurred. Records also were reviewed to identify ipsilateral multi-ligamentous knee injuries that were not diagnosed until after the application of traction. In total, 303 proximal tibial traction pins were placed. A total of 7 (2.3%; 95% confidence interval, 0.60%-4.0%) pin-related neurologic complications and zero vascular complications were noted. All complications involved motor and/or sensory deficits in the distribution of the peroneal nerve. Of the 7 complications, 6 resolved fully after surgery and removal of the pin. After traction placement, 6 (2.0%) ipsilateral multiligamentous knee injuries were diagnosed. None of these patients had a neurovascular complication. This study suggests that bedside placement of proximal tibial traction for femoral fractures is associated with a low incidence of neurovascular complications and that traction can be safely placed at the bedside by residents. A thorough neurovascular examination should be performed before insertion, and care should be taken to identify the proper starting point and reduce soft tissue trauma during pin placement. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Study on the Characteristics of Traction Forces Difference Asymmetric Steering Bogies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article comes up with a new concept of applying the difference between traction forces on front and rear wheelsets to guiding control, as well as the design of a new type of structurally simple asymmetrical radial bogies, which lead to the proposition of traction forces difference-steering asymmetric radial bogies. The traction forces difference-steering asymmetric radial bogies are referred to as TFDA-bogies, in which the difference of longitudinal creep forces between front and rear wheels produces radial steering of both wheelsets. The concept of traction difference is incorporated into guiding control and bogie structure is also simplified in the form of asymmetrical radial bogies. Angle sensors are mounted to facilitate the change of electric currents of the front and rear traction motors to control the guiding mechanism so that wheelsets can adopt the radial position. With SIMPACK, the multibody dynamics analysis software, three whole vehicle models of TFDA-bogies, radial bogies, and conventional bogies are set up and comparative analyses are made on the lead wheel angle of attack, lead wheel lateral force, lead wheel friction power, and total vehicle friction power under idle running condition and traction condition, respectively. Results show that TFDA-bogies are radial bogies with simplified structure.

  5. Simplified and advanced modelling of traction control systems of heavy-haul locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiryagin, Maksym; Wolfs, Peter; Szanto, Frank; Cole, Colin

    2015-05-01

    Improving tractive effort is a very complex task in locomotive design. It requires the development of not only mechanical systems but also power systems, traction machines and traction algorithms. At the initial design stage, traction algorithms can be verified by means of a simulation approach. A simple single wheelset simulation approach is not sufficient because all locomotive dynamics are not fully taken into consideration. Given that many traction control strategies exist, the best solution is to use more advanced approaches for such studies. This paper describes the modelling of a locomotive with a bogie traction control strategy based on a co-simulation approach in order to deliver more accurate results. The simplified and advanced modelling approaches of a locomotive electric power system are compared in this paper in order to answer a fundamental question. What level of modelling complexity is necessary for the investigation of the dynamic behaviours of a heavy-haul locomotive running under traction? The simulation results obtained provide some recommendations on simulation processes and the further implementation of advanced and simplified modelling approaches.

  6. Comparative Effects of Portable and Stationary Traction in the Management of Mechanical Neck Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajediran I. Bello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the therapeutic effects of portable and stationary tractions on treatment outcomes in patients with mechanical neck disorders (MNDs. Methods Forty-one participants with MNDs were randomly assigned to either portable traction or stationary traction. Participants' pain level, activity limitation, disability, and neck range of motion were measured before and after 6 weeks of intervention. Inferential statistics for comparing the treatment outcome involved paired t -test and two-way analysis of variance at P < 0.05. Results The mean age of participants was 47.3 ± 10.5 years. After intervention, there were significant improvements in both groups. However, the portable traction group had significantly higher score on neck flexion than the stationary traction group at baseline (portable: 27.1 ± 6.0, stationary: 22.1 ± 6.8; P = 0.009 and after intervention ( F -ratio = 15.0; P = 0.001. Conclusion Inclusion of both portable and stationary tractions to usual physiotherapy provided comparable treatment outcomes in patients with MNDs.

  7. Influence of basketball shoe mass, outsole traction, and forefoot bending stiffness on three athletic movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobets, Jay; Wannop, John William

    2015-09-01

    Prior research has shown that footwear can enhance athletic performance. However, public information is not available on what basketball shoe properties should be selected to maximise movement performance. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of basketball shoe mass, outsole traction, and forefoot bending stiffness on sprinting, jumping, and cutting performance. Each of these three basketball shoe properties was systematically varied by ± 20% to produce three shoe conditions of varying mass, three conditions of varying traction, and three conditions of varying bending stiffness. Each shoe was tested by 20 recreational basketball players completing maximal effort sprints, vertical jumps, and a cutting drill. Outsole traction had the largest influence on performance, as the participants performed significantly worse in all tests when traction was decreased by 20% (p < 0.001), and performed significantly better in the cutting drill when traction was increased by 20% (p = 0.005). Forefoot bending stiffness had a moderate effect on sprint and cutting performance (p = 0.013 and p = 0.016 respectively) and shoe mass was found to have no effect on performance. Therefore, choosing a shoe with relatively high outsole traction and forefoot bending stiffness should be prioritised, and less concern should be focused on selecting the lightest shoe.

  8. Duration of preoperative traction associated with sciatic neuropathy after hip fracture surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemler, Marius A; de Vries, Mattijs; van der Tol, Anno

    2006-04-01

    An unknown percentage of patients who have internal fixation for hip fractures have sciatic neuropathy develop. In most cases, the cause for this complication is unknown. We retrospectively reviewed 2202 consecutive patients treated in our hospital for hip fractures to ascertain whether there was any relationship between duration of preoperative traction and postoperative sciatic neuropathy, and to determine the incidence of sciatic neuropathy after surgery for hip fractures. All patients had preoperative skin traction. Patients with and without sciatic neuropathy were compared using nonparametric tests. The median duration of traction was 2.6 days in the group that had sciatic neuropathy develop and 0.9 days in the group that did not. Also, patients in the group that had sciatic palsy develop were older. There seemed to be no other difference between the groups for any of the studied variables. Sixteen patients (0.7 %) had postoperative sciatic neuropathy. Our data suggest sciatic neuropathy after surgery for hip fractures may be related to the duration of preoperative traction. Some investigators have reported that there seems to be no evidence of benefit from skeletal or skin traction. A potential for damage to the sciatic nerve may be an argument to stop routine use of preoperative traction. Diagnostic study, Level III (study of nonconsecutive patients; without consistently applied reference "gold" standard).

  9. A Study of Torque Vectoring and Traction Control for an All-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharun Mui’nuddin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Common vehicle always experience energy loss during cornering manoeuver. Thus, to ensure it did not happened especially at high speed, a study of torque vectoring and traction control need to be made since it can increase the traction control of tyres during cornering at high speed. The study of torque vectoring and traction control for an all-wheel drive electric vehicle was conducted by modelling an all-wheel drive electric vehicle (EV in ADAMS/Car software. In addition, an optimal control algorithm will be developed for best performance to minimize energy losses using MATLAB/Simulink software. Furthermore, to prove the effectiveness of the all-wheel drive electric, the torque and traction control simulation of the all-wheel drive electric vehicle will be compared with uncontrolled electric vehicle model. According to the result, torque vectoring and traction control of in-wheel motor in all wheel drive EV can help to increase the performance of the electric vehicle during cornering manoeuver. In conclusion, this study of torque vectoring and traction control for an all-wheel drive electric vehicle will help researchers to improve the design of the future electric vehicle in term of the vehicle performance during cornering manoeuvre.

  10. Traction suture modification to tongue-in-groove caudal septoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indeyeva, Y A; Lee, T S; Gordin, E; Chan, D; Ducic, Y

    2018-02-01

    Caudal septal deviation leads to unfavorable esthetic as well as functional effects on the nasal airway. A modification to the tongue-in-groove (TIG) technique to correct these caudal septal deformities is described. With placement of a temporary suspension suture to the caudal septum, manual traction is applied, assuring that the caudal septum remains in the midline position while it is being secured with multiple through-and-through, trans-columellar and trans-septal sutures. From 2003 to 2016, 148 patients underwent endonasal septoplasty using this modified technique, with excellent functional and cosmetic outcomes and a revision rate of 1.4%. This modified TIG technique replaces the periosteal suture that secures the caudal septum to the midline nasal crest in the original TIG technique. This simplifies the procedure and minimizes the risk of securing the caudal septum off-midline when used in endonasal septoplasty. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dentofacial effects of a modified tandem traction bow appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Zeynep; Tortop, Tuba

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dentofacial effects of a modified tandem traction bow appliance (modified TTBA) in skeletal Class III subjects, and the effect of age on treatment response. The material consisted of the pre-treatment/pre-observation and post-treatment/post-observation lateral cephalograms and hand-wrist films of 45 children with skeletal and dental Class III malocclusions. Thirty patients were treated with a modified TTBA. Two treatment groups of 15 patients each were formed: an early (nine girls, six boys; mean skeletal age: 8.18 ± 0.50 years) and a late treatment (5 girls, 10 boys; mean skeletal age: 11.75 ± 1.00 years) group. The remaining 15 children (5 girls, 10 boys; mean skeletal age: 7.90 ± 0.62 years) were observed without treatment for 8 months and served as a control for the early treatment group. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used for statistical analysis. Significant forward maxillary movement was determined in both treatment groups (P skeletal correction of the Class III malocclusion was achieved.

  12. A case report of Schatzker type VI tibial plateau fracture treated with double reverse traction closed reduction combined with minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis technique: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dian-Qing; Song, De-Ye; Ni, Jiang-Dong; Ding, Mu-Liang; Huang, Jun

    2017-11-01

    The knee joint is an important weight-bearing joint, tibial plateau fractures affect knee function and stability. High-energy intra-articular fractures involving the tibial plateau can cause management-related problems such as wound dehiscence; severe comminution leading to malalignment; and delayed complications such as varus collapse, implant failure, and arthritis of the knee joint. The treatment of severe or complex tibial plateau fractures can be quite difficult. Traditional methods of open reduction and plating require extensive exposures, which may further compromise soft tissue and devascularize bone fragments, leading to infection. In this case, a novel device, double reverse traction combined with MIPPO technique, was used and provided the possibility of minimally invasive and personalized orthopedic surgery to treat severe comminuted Schatzker type VI tibial plateau fracture and tibial shaft fracture and got satisfactory results. A previously healthy 56-year-old man presented to the emergency room after a fall from a height, who lost the movement of the left knee with pain and swelling. X-rays showed a tibial plateau comminuted fracture, Schatzker type VI, and tibial shaft fracture. Applying less extensile exposure and the indirect reduction technique of double reverse traction and closed reduction combined with minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) technique, we got satisfactory recovery of the severe comminuted Schatzker type VI tibial plateau fracture and tibial shaft fracture. This severe comminuted fracture and tibial shaft fracture were successfully reduced and got satisfactory recovery of knee joint function. Double reverse traction combined with MIPPO technique can reduce the risk of surgical complications, such as bleeding, oozing, and wound infection. It can be applied in patients with comorbidities such as cardiac disease, hypertension, and heart failure who may otherwise not be candidates for surgery. The cost burden is

  13. Characterizing components of the Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) on prostate cancer cell growth and traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtysek, Carina; Krukiewicz, Aleksandra A; Alonso, José-Luis; Sharma, Karan P; Sharma, Pal C; Goldmann, Wolfgang H

    2009-02-13

    Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) is applied for prostate health and treatment of urinary tract infections, nonbacterial prostitis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in man. An assumption is that SPBE affects tumor cell progression and migration in breast and prostate tissue. In this work, DU-145 cells were used to demonstrate that SPBE and its sterol components, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol, inhibit prostate cancer growth by increasing p53 protein expression and also inhibit carcinoma development by decreasing p21 and p27 protein expression. In the presence of cholesterol, these features are not only reversed but increased significantly. The results show for the first time the potential of SPBE, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol as potential anti-tumor agents. Since the protein p53 is also regarded as nuclear matrix protein facilitating actin cytoskeletal binding, 2D tractions were measured. The cell adhesion strength in the presence of SPBE, beta-sitosterol and cholesterol and the observation was that the increase in p53 expression triggered an increase in the intracellular force generation. The results suggest a dual function of p53 in cells.

  14. The effects of cast support on pin loosening and infection in tibial skeletal traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghtadaei M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Pin loosening and infection in skeletal traction are important problems in orthopedic surgery and methods which are usually used to manage these problems, are costly and sometimes complicated. In this study, the efficacy of using cast support in infection and loosening of proximal tibial pin was investigated. "nMethods: In a randomized clinical trial, 60 patients referring to Rasul-e- Akram hospital from 1383 to 1384, who needed to have proximal tibial pin for at least one month, were studied. All patients were treated with oral antibiotic until 24 hours after pin insertion. Depending on using cast support or not, they were randomly categorized into two groups (30, 30. The rate of pin loosening and infection between these two groups were compared. "nResults: In the group without cast support infection rate was about %26.7 while this rate was %13.3 in the group with cast support, which means no significant difference (.33. In addition, although the rate of loosening in the group without cast support was more than the other group, it had no statistical meaning. (%20 compared with %10, p= 0.47 "nConclusions: Cast support doesn't affect the rate of pin loosening and pin site infection. However, considering correct technique for pin insertion including prevention of thermal injury and local hematoma is very important. Therefore, the use of cast support is an optional choice up to surgeons' preference.

  15. To compare the effect of Active Neural Mobilization during Intermittent Lumbar Traction and Intermittent Lumbar Traction followed by Active Neural Mobilization in cases of Lumbar Radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaywant Nagulkar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To compare the effectiveness of Active neural mobilization (ANM during intermittent lumbar traction (ILT and intermittent lumbar traction followed by active neural mobilization treatment in patients of low back pain (LBP with radiculopathy.. To study the effect of ANM during ILT and ILT followed by ANM in patients of LBP with radiculopathy on VAS scale, P1 angle of SLR, P2 angle of SLR and Oswestry disability index(ODI. To compare the effect of ANM during ILT and ILT followed by ANM in patients of LBP with radiculopathy on visual analog scale (VAS scale, P1 angle of SLR, P2 angle of SLR and Oswestry disability index. In this study 107 patients of LBP with radiculopathy were randomly assigned into two different groups. Group A containing 54 patients received active neural mobilization during intermittent lumber traction and group B received intermittent lumber traction followed by active neural mobilization. The data on all the outcome measures were recorded on day 0 pre-treatment and on 10th day post treatment. Data were analyzed using statistical software Intercorted STATA VERSION 9.0. Patients in both the groups showed improvement in all 4 outcome measures as compared to baseline assessment values. Patients treated in group A showed more improvement as compared to group B. This study concluded that ANM during ILT gives more relief and yields better responses in patients of LBP with radiculopathy and may help person to resume his daily activities.

  16. A prospective study of the effects of the progestagen content of oral contraceptives on measures of affect, automatization, and perceptual restructuring ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, A

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-five young women completed the Profile of Mood States and tests of automatization and perceptual restructuring ability before and after commencing one of three forms or oral contraception (OC) or one form of intrauterine contraception (the loop). For each subject on each experimental variable the difference between the first and second tests was computed. These data were then analysed by covariance and discriminant function analyses. Two sets of functions were derived. The first distinguished the loop users from the OC users. The latter exhibited significantly greater increases in anger and significantly greater reductions in vigor than the former. The second set of discriminant functions distinguished users of Neogynon from the women in the other three groups. Neogynon users' performances on the Color Words Test (a measure of automatization ability) worsened and their anger, vigor and tension scores had decreased to a greater extent than was the case for members of the other groups. It is suggested that the changes in affect demonstrated by the first discriminant function were related to personal and attitudinal variables associated with the Loop users. The second discriminant function was interpreted as an indication that the varying progestagen content of OC may have differential effects upon both affect and automatization ability.

  17. Partial-thickness macular hole in vitreomacular traction syndrome: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Sabti Khalid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Vitreomacular traction syndrome has recently been recognized as a distinct clinical condition. It may lead to many complications, such as cystoid macular edema, macular pucker formation, tractional macular detachment, and full-thickness macular hole formation. Case presentation We report a case of vitreomacular traction syndrome with eccentric traction at the macula and a partial-thickness macular hole in a 63-year-old Pakistani Punjabi man. The patient was evaluated using optical coherence tomography, and he underwent a successful pars plana vitrectomy. After the operation, his foveal contour regained normal configuration, and his visual acuity improved from 20/60 to 20/30. Conclusions Pars plana vitrectomy prevents the progression of a partial thickness macular hole in vitreomacular traction syndrome. The relief of traction by vitrectomy restores foveal anatomy and visual acuity in this condition.

  18. Traction versus supine side-bending radiographs in determining flexibility: what factors influence these techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kota; Kawakami, Noriaki; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Goto, Manabu; Tsuji, Taichi; Obara, Tetsuya; Imagama, Shiro; Matsumoto, Morio

    2007-11-01

    Prospective clinical, radiologic study of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). We evaluated a Cobb angle in standing position, patient age, the level of the apex, and the number of involved vertebrae in patients with AIS to determine whether the corrective ability of traction or side-bending radiographs was superior. Side-bending and traction radiographs are used to evaluate curve flexibility during corrective surgery for AIS despite notable differences in the flexibilities of identical curves. Thus, interpretation for the differences among these techniques should be investigated. A total of 229 consecutive patients with AIS who were surgically treated were evaluated. Standing, supine side-bending, and traction radiographs were obtained before surgery. Curves were divided into main thoracic (MT) or thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) curves, and proximal thoracic (PT) curves. We evaluated the Cobb angle in standing position, the level of the apex, the number of involved vertebrae, kyphosis angle of main thoracic curve, and patient age in patients with AIS to determine whether the corrective ability of traction or side-bending radiographs was superior. A total of 219 curves were observed in MT lesions. The traction flexibility rate (FR) was higher than the side-bending FR at angle of > or = 60 degrees (P = 0.02), in patients younger than 15 years (P = 0.02), in curves whose apex was located at T4-T8/T9 (P = 0.01), in curves whose involved vertebrae were 6 or 7 (P = 0.02), and at kyphosis angle between 10 degrees and 39 degrees (P = 0.02). In 96 TL/L curves, side-bending FR was higher at angle of traction FR was higher at angles of > or = 40 degrees (P = 0.02). In addition to a Cobb angle, patient age, the level of the apex, and the number of involved vertebrae also influence the conditions under which the corrective ability of traction radiographs is superior to that of side-bending radiographs.

  19. IMPLEMENTATION MODEL OF MOTOR TRACTION FORCE OF MAGLEV TRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Polyakov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Traction force implementation (TFI by the motor of magnetic levitation train (MLT occurs in the process of electric-to-kinetic energy transformation at interaction of inductor and armature magnetic fields. Ac-cordingly, the aim of this study is to obtain a correct description of such energy transformation. Methodology. At the present stage, a mathematical and, in particular, computer simulation is the main and most universal tool for analysis and synthesis of processes and systems. At the same time, radical advantages of this tool make the precision of selection of a particular research methodology even more important. It is especially important for such a large and complex system as MLT. Therefore the special attention in the work is given to the rationale for choosing the research paradigm selective features. Findings. The analysis results of existing TFI process model versions indicate that each of them has both advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, one of the main results of this study was the creation of a mathematical model for such process that would preserve the advantages of previous versions, but would be free from their disadvantages. The work provides rationale for application (for the purposes of research of train motor TFI of the integrative holistic paradigm, which assimilates the advantages of the theory of electric circuit and magnetic field. Originality. The priority of creation of such paradigm and corresponding version of FI model constitute the originality of the research. Practical value. The main manifestation of practical value of this research in the opportunity, in case of use of its results, for significant increase in efficiency of MLT dynamic studies, on the condition that their generalized costs will not rise.

  20. Comparison between effectiveness of Mechanical and Manual Traction combined with mobilization and exercise therapy in Patients with Cervical Radiculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Bukhari, Syed Rehan Iftikhar; Shakil-ur-Rehman, Syed; Ahmad, Shakeel; Naeem, Aamer

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Cervical radiculopathy is a common neuro-musculo-skeletal disorder causing pain and disability. Traction is part of the evidence based manual physical therapy management due to its mechanical nature, type of traction and parameters related to its applicability and are still to be explored more through research. Our objective was to determine the Effects of Mechanical versus Manual Traction in Manual Physical Therapy combined with segmental mobilization and exercise t...

  1. Supracondylar skeletal traction and open interlocking nailing for neglected fracture of the shaft of femur - Retrospective study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krishnakumar, R; Thiruvenkitaprasad, G; Kaliaperumal, Dayanand; Sundaram, Nandkumar

    2013-01-01

    .... Careful preoperative evaluation is mandatory for good results. Preoperative skeletal traction and two stage surgical procedure may be required to avoid limb length discrepancy and neurovascular complication.

  2. Operative treatment with nerve repair can restore function in patients with traction injuries in the brachial plexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stiasny, Jerzy; Birkeland, Peter

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Brachial plexus injuries are usually a result of road traffic accidents and a cause of severe disability that typically affects young adult males. In 2010, a national centre was established for referral of these cases from Danish trauma centres. In this paper, we report on our...... surgical activity and reflect on the role for this new national centre. METHODS: Records from all our operated patients were reviewed retrospectively. For outcome analysis, we focused on patients who had sustained traction injuries with a surgical follow-up exceeding one year. We used either nerve grafting...... or transfers for nerve repairs based on the pattern of nerve injury seen intraoperatively. RESULTS: Overall, 24 patients were operated, and 12 patients were included in the outcome analysis. The six patients with upper brachial plexus palsies all regained shoulder function and useful elbow flexion. Of the six...

  3. Setting the agenda for a healthy retail environment: content analysis of US newspaper coverage of tobacco control policies affecting the point of sale, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Allison E; Southwell, Brian G; Ribisl, Kurt M; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Lytle, Leslie A

    2017-07-01

    Tobacco control policies affecting the point of sale (POS) are an emerging intervention, yet POS-related news media content has not been studied. We describe news coverage of POS tobacco control efforts and assess relationships between article characteristics, including policy domains, frames, sources, localisation and evidence present, and slant towards tobacco control efforts. High circulation state (n=268) and national (n=5) newspapers comprised the sampling frame. We retrieved 917 relevant POS-focused articles in newspapers from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2014. 5 raters screened and coded articles, 10% of articles were double coded, and mean inter-rater reliability (IRR) was 0.74. POS coverage emphasised tobacco retailer licensing (49.1% of articles) and the most common frame present was regulation (71.3%). Government officials (52.3%), followed by tobacco retailers (39.6%), were the most frequent sources. Half of articles (51.3%) had a mixed, neutral or antitobacco control slant. Articles presenting a health frame, a greater number of protobacco control sources, and statistical evidence were significantly more likely to also have a protobacco control slant. Articles presenting a political/rights or regulation frame, a greater number of antitobacco control sources, or government, tobacco industry, tobacco retailers, or tobacco users as sources were significantly less likely to also have a protobacco control slant. Stories that feature procontrol sources, research evidence and a health frame also tend to support tobacco control objectives. Future research should investigate how to use data, stories and localisation to encourage a protobacco control slant, and should test relationships between content characteristics and policy progression. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS OF CALCULATION OF TRACTION POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS AND ENERGY SYSTEMS FEEDING THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Domanskyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the cause deterioration of quality rating of electricity on tire traction substations AC can be either how mode of operation of power systems, industrial loads so and the impact of electric traction. The experience of energy surveys show that the loss from flow potential equalization currents in each the third plot between traction substations AC is amount to not less than 250 thousand kW∙h per year. To select the optimum power and places location of the device longitudinal capacitive of compensation and decision other tasks it is necessary methodology of systems of calculation that takes into account the complex nature of the mutual influence of the quality of the electricity coming from the energy system of and the transportation process. In the paper proposed three options for calculation algorithms modes work of existing and perspective systems, traction power supply AC jointly with power supply their by energy systems, including the algorithm for calculating networks of different nominal voltages using the transformations; decomposition and synthesis of networks with different voltage levels; the iterations and probabilistic assessment of the impact of power mains. Developed the schemes formalization of graphs and the matrices of portions of the outer and traction power supply and method of selecting parameters and places location of the devices longitudinal capacitive of compensation, which are based on direct methods solving systems of linear algebraic equations with a dense banded and profile-sparse the matrix. Are generalized ways of formation and transformation of graphs of schemes traction power supply and feeding them energy systems and proposed the method of calculation the complex the moment of schemes, which increases the accuracy of calculating of flows power on traction networks to 1-2 % and allows you to select the optimal parameters and places location of the devices longitudinal capacitive of compensation

  5. Neurophysiological changes in deformity correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with intraoperative skull-femoral traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Stephen J; Gray, Randolph; Holmes, Laura M; Strantzas, Samuel; Jhaveri, Subir; Zaarour, Christian; Magana, Sofia

    2011-09-15

    Retrospective review of 36 consecutive patients undergoing coronal plane deformity correction with intraoperative skull-femoral traction between 2005 and 2008 with motor evoked potential (MEP)/somatosensory evoked potential monitoring. To determine the prevalence and significance of neurophysiological changes with intraoperative skull-femoral traction in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Intraoperative skeletal traction can be associated with spinal cord stretching and ischemia with resultant electrophysiological changes. The prevalence and risks of such changes and their clinical significance is unknown. Thirty-seven procedures involving 36 patients (27 females and 9 males) with a mean age of 14.8 (12-18) years were divided into two groups on the basis of the presence (group 1, n = 18 procedures) or absence (group 2, n = 19) of significant MEP changes with surgery. They were compared with patients undergoing correction without traction (group 3). Significant differences among the groups were observed in mean preoperative Cobb angle (86° vs. 70° vs. 59°), mean intraoperative posttraction Cobb angle (50.0° vs. 34.6°), traction index (0.41 vs. 0.50), flexibility index (0.14 vs. 0.27 vs. 0.25), and presence of primary lumbar curves (0% vs. 32% vs. 14%). Initial onset of MEP amplitude loss (group 1) occurred at a mean of 94 (1-257) minutes from the onset of surgery, was bilateral in 13 procedures, and improved at a mean of 5.5 (1-29) minutes after decreasing or removing the traction. At closure, complete bilateral recovery to baseline was observed in 10 procedures, recovery to >50% baseline in five, and recovery to traction is associated with frequent changes in MEP monitoring. The thoracic location of the major curve, increasing Cobb angle, and rigidity of major curve are significant risk factors for changes in MEP with traction. The presence of any MEP recordings irrespective of its amplitude at closure was associated with normal neurological function

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF NEURODYNAMICS IN COMPARISON TO MANUAL TRACTION IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CERVICAL RADICULOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoona Anwar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical radiculopathy is a condition of pain and sensorimotor deficits due to cervical nerve root compression. The symptoms may include weakness, tingling, numbness and pain. C6, C7 nerve roots are most involved in cervical radiculopathy. Various modalities and therapeutic interventions are used and recommended for management of cervical radiculopathy including cervical collars, immobilization, manipulation, cervical traction TENS and therapeutic exercises.The aimof this study is to evaluate the efficacy of neurodynamics in comparison to manual traction in the management of cervical radiculopathy. Methods: An Interventional research was performed in the Department of Physiotherapy, Mayo hospital Lahore, Pakistan. 40 subjects aged between 18-60 years participated in the study. They were divided into two groups namely Group A and Group B with 20 subjects in each group. The duration of the study was 4 weeks with 4 sessions per week. GroupA received neurodynamics along with strengthening exercises while Group B received manual traction along with strengthening exercises. Neck Disability Index (NDI scale was used as an outcome measure andpaired sample t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: A significant improvement was found in both neurodynamics group and manual traction group for pain and functional status with p value< 0.05. Conclusion: This study concluded that the treatment techniques, neurodynamics and manual traction were effective in alleviating the symptoms associated with cervical radiculopathy in terms of decreasing pain intensity, increasing ranges of motion and improving functional capacity.

  7. Solid-state transformer-based new traction drive system and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianghua; Shang, Jing; Zhang, Zhixue; Liu, Huadong; Huang, Zihao

    2017-11-01

    A new type of traction drive system consisting of solid-state traction transformer (SSTT), inverter unit, auxiliary inverter, traction motor and other key components is built in order to suit the demand of developing the next-generation electric traction system which will be efficient and lightweight, with high power density. For the purpose of reducing system volume and weight and improving efficiency and grid-side power quality, an efficient SSTT optimized topology combining high-voltage cascaded rectifiers with high-power high-frequency LLC resonant converter is proposed. On this basis, an integrated control strategy built upon synchronous rotating reference frame is presented to achieve unified control over fundamental active, reactive and harmonic components. The carrier-interleaving phase shift modulation strategy is proposed to improve the harmonic performance of cascaded rectifiers. In view of the secondary pulsating existing in a single-phase system, the mathematical model of secondary power transfer is built, and the mechanism of pulsating voltage resulting in beat frequency of LLC resonant converter is revealed, so as to design optimum matching of system parameters. Simulation and experimental results have verified that the traction system and control scheme mentioned in this paper are reasonable and superior and that they meet the future application requirements for rail transit.

  8. Vitrectomy in eyes with peripheral retinal angioma associated with traction macular detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, H R; Schatz, H; Johnson, R N; Abrams, G W; Brown, G C; Brucker, A J; Han, D P; Lewis, H; Mieler, W F; Meyers, S

    1996-02-01

    Peripheral angiomas have been associated with epiretinal membranes and traction retinal detachment. The authors investigated the timing, results, and complications of vitreous surgery to remove the retinal traction and treat the peripheral vascular tumor. The authors reviewed the results of ten eyes that had undergone vitrectomy for macular pucker and/or traction retinal detachment. These eyes had either preoperative or intraoperative treatment of the peripheral tumor. Patients were followed 4 to 95 months. Six eyes had nonfamilial peripheral acquired retinal hemangioma, three had von Hippel angiomas, and one had multiple large peripheral retinal angiomas associated with extensive retinal telangiectasis. Four eyes received cryotherapy and/or laser photocoagulation 2 to 3 months before surgery. In the remaining six eyes, initial treatment to the peripheral angioma was performed at the time of vitreous surgery. At final follow-up, all eyes were attached without retinal traction. Vision improved in all eyes; six (60%) achieved 20/50 or better visual acuity. Complications included recurrent epiretinal membrane (n=3); nonregressed angiomas (n=3); increased nuclear sclerosis (n=2); and retinal detachment (n=1). Vitreous surgery, when applied to epiretinal membranes or traction retinal detachments associated with peripheral vascular tumors, has a good chance of improving vision. Treatment of the hemangioma, before or during vitrectomy, usually results in tumor regression.

  9. ENERGY EFFICIENCY DETERMINATION OF LOADING-BACK SYSTEM OF ELECTRIC TRACTION MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Afanasov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Acceptance post-repair testsof electric traction machinesare conducted onloading-backstandsthat reducethe overall power costsfor the tests.Currentlya numberof possiblecircuit designs of loading-backsystems of electric machines are known, but there is nomethod of determiningtheir energy efficiency. This in turn makes difficult the choiceof rationaloptions. The purpose of the article is the development of the corresponding methodo-logy to make easier this process. Methodology. Expressions for determining theenergy efficiency ofa stand for testingof electric traction machineswere obtained using the generalizedscheme analysisof energy transformationsin the loading-backsystems of universal structure. Findings.Thetechnique wasoffered and the analytical expressions for determining the energy efficiency of loading-backsystemsof electric traction machines wereobtained. Energy efficiency coefficientofloading-backsystemisproposed to consider as the ratio of the total actionenergy of the mechanical and electromotive forces, providing anchors rotation and flowof currents in electric machines, which are being tested,to the total energy, consumed during the test from the external network. Originality. The concept was introduced and the analytical determination method of the energy efficiency of loading-backsystem in electric traction machines was offered. It differs by efficiency availability of power sources and converters, as well as energy efficiency factors of indirect methods of loss compensation. Practical value. The proposed technique of energy efficiency estimation of a loading-backsystemcan be used in solving the problem of rational options choice of schematics stands decisions for electric traction machines acceptance tests of main line and industrial transport.

  10. Free Form Deformation–Based Image Registration Improves Accuracy of Traction Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge-Peñas, Alvaro; Izquierdo-Alvarez, Alicia; Aguilar-Cuenca, Rocio; Vicente-Manzanares, Miguel; Garcia-Aznar, José Manuel; Van Oosterwyck, Hans; de-Juan-Pardo, Elena M.; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos; Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate

    2015-01-01

    Traction Force Microscopy (TFM) is a widespread method used to recover cellular tractions from the deformation that they cause in their surrounding substrate. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is commonly used to quantify the substrate’s deformations, due to its simplicity and efficiency. However, PIV relies on a block-matching scheme that easily underestimates the deformations. This is especially relevant in the case of large, locally non-uniform deformations as those usually found in the vicinity of a cell’s adhesions to the substrate. To overcome these limitations, we formulate the calculation of the deformation of the substrate in TFM as a non-rigid image registration process that warps the image of the unstressed material to match the image of the stressed one. In particular, we propose to use a B-spline -based Free Form Deformation (FFD) algorithm that uses a connected deformable mesh to model a wide range of flexible deformations caused by cellular tractions. Our FFD approach is validated in 3D fields using synthetic (simulated) data as well as with experimental data obtained using isolated endothelial cells lying on a deformable, polyacrylamide substrate. Our results show that FFD outperforms PIV providing a deformation field that allows a better recovery of the magnitude and orientation of tractions. Together, these results demonstrate the added value of the FFD algorithm for improving the accuracy of traction recovery. PMID:26641883

  11. Determination of Green's function for three-dimensional traction force reconstruction based on geometry and boundary conditions of cell culture matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Y; Herath, S C B; Wang, Q G; Asada, H; Chen, P C Y

    2017-12-12

    Cell migration plays a particular important role in the initiation and progression of many physical processes and pathological conditions such as tumor invasion and metastasis. Three-dimensional traction force microscopy (TFM) of high resolution and high accuracy is being developed in an effort to unveil the underlying mechanical process of cell migration in a vivo-like environment. Linear elasticity-based TFM (LETM) as a mainstream approach relies on the Green's function (that relates traction forces to matrix deformation), of which the inherent boundary conditions and geometry of the matrix could remarkably affect the result as suggested by previous 2D studies. In this study, we investigated this close linkage in 3D environment, via modeling of a cell sensing a close-by fixed boundary of a 3D matrix surrounding it, and comparing the reconstructed traction forces from three different solutions of the Green's function, including a fully matching solution derived using the adapted Mindlin's approach. To increase fidelity in the estimate of traction forces for extreme conditions such as a sparse sampling of deformation field or targeting small focal adhesions, we numerically solved the singularity problem of the Green's function in a non-conventional way to avoid exclusion of singular point regions that could contain representative deformation indicators for such extreme conditions. A single case experimental study was conducted for a multi-cellular structure of endothelial cells that just penetrated into the gel at the early stage of angiogenesis. This study focused on the fundamental issue regarding extension of linear elasticity-based TFM to deal with physically realistic matrices (where cells are encapsulated), which concerns determination of the Green's function matching their geometry and boundary conditions. To increase fidelity in the estimate of traction forces for extreme conditions such as a sparse sampling of deformation field or targeting small focal

  12. Preoperative halo-gravity traction with and without thoracoscopic anterior release for skeletal dysplasia patients with severe kyphoscoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourtaheri, Sina; Shah, Suken A; Ditro, Colleen P; Holmes, Laurens; Mackenzie, William G

    2016-04-01

    Recent work has shown the safety and efficacy of halo-gravity traction as an operative adjunct. However, there are no reports specifically looking at halo-gravity traction in patients with skeletal dysplasia. Our purpose was to assess the safety and efficacy of traction in children with skeletal dysplasia who present with severe kyphoscoliosis. We retrospectively reviewed eight consecutive children with skeletal dysplasia who were treated with halo-gravity traction preoperatively. Six of the patients had a thoracoscopic anterior release prior to the halo-gravity traction. All patients were ambulatory and presented with severe, rigid kyphoscoliosis. The mean duration of traction was 32 days. There were no neurologic complications with traction or after posterior spinal instrumentation. The majority of kyphoscoliosis correction was with the halo-gravity traction alone: major curve (MC) Cobb angle improved 41 %; C7-center sacral vertical line, 75 %; C7-MC apex, 21 %; and T2-T12 kyphosis, 35 %. Trunk height increased 37 % and thoracic height 44 %. An additional amount of correction was obtained with posterior spinal instrumentation (±fusion), decreasing MC Cobb angle an additional 23 %; C7-apex, 16 %; and T2-T12 kyphosis, 10 %. There was no additional correction of thoracic height. Two years after posterior spinal instrumentation (±fusion), a mild-to-moderate amount of correction was lost: MC Cobb angle decreased 23 %; compensatory Cobb angle, 28 %; C7-CSVL, 24 %; C7-S1, 22 %; regional kyphosis, 31 %; thoracic kyphosis, 29 %; and trunk height, 27 %. Among children with skeletal dysplasia and severe kyphosis, halo-gravity traction is well tolerated and safe. Most of the corrections in radiographic parameters were achieved with traction alone. Traction improves coronal balance, apical translation, thoracic height, and kyphosis. In this specific population, the potential for neurologic injury during corrective surgery is high. However, preoperative halo

  13. Halo-gravity traction in the treatment of severe spinal deformity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changsheng; Wang, Huafeng; Zheng, Zhaomin; Zhang, Zhongmin; Wang, Jianru; Liu, Hui; Kim, Yongjung Jay; Cho, Samuel

    2017-07-01

    Halo-gravity traction has been reported to successfully assist in managing severe spinal deformity. This is a systematic review of all studies on halo-gravity traction in the treatment of spinal deformity to provide information for clinical practice. A comprehensive search was conducted for articles on halo-gravity traction in the treatment of spinal deformity according to the PRISMA guidelines. Appropriate studies would be included and analyzed. Preoperative correction rate of spinal deformity, change of pulmonary function and prevalence of complications were the main measurements. Sixteen studies, a total of 351 patients, were included in this review. Generally, the initial Cobb angle was 101.1° in the coronal plane and 80.5° in the sagittal plane, and it was corrected to 49.4° and 56.0° after final spinal fusion. The preoperative correction due to traction alone was 24.1 and 19.3%, respectively. With traction, the flexibility improved 6.1% but postoperatively the patients did not have better correction. Less aggressive procedures and improved pulmonary function were observed in patients with traction. The prevalence of traction-related complications was 22% and three cases of neurologic complication related to traction were noted. The prevalence of total complications related to surgery was 32% and that of neurologic complications was 1%. Partial correction could be achieved preoperatively with halo-gravity traction, and it may help decrease aggressive procedures, improve preoperative pulmonary function, and reduce neurologic complications. However, traction could not increase preoperative flexibility or final correction. Traction-related complications, although usually not severe, were not rare.

  14. Ripened dairy products differentially affect hepatic lipid content and adipose tissue oxidative stress markers in obese and type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Lucie; Everard, Amandine; le Ruyet, Pascale; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Cani, Patrice D

    2012-02-29

    Growing evidence suggests that the consumption of dairy products may contribute to a reduced incidence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. The fatty acid composition in milk fat, the duration of ripening, and the complexity of the food matrices are important factors that may interfere with the physiological impact. In this study, we treated genetic obese and type 2 diabetic mice (db/db) for 4 weeks with different dairy (cheese-based) products, differing by the duration of ripening (0, 15, or 35 days). We found that 35 days ripened product significantly improved glucose tolerance, an effect associated with a decreased adipose tissue lipid peroxide markers (TBARS and NAPDH-oxidase mRNA expression), without affecting body weight, food intake, and fat mass. Both fermented matrices significantly decreased the hepatic lipid content, without modifying plasma triglycerides or plasma total cholesterol. These data suggest that dairy products issued from longer ripening positively impact glucose tolerance, hepatic steatosis, and adipose tissue oxidative stress. Further investigations are warranted to decipher the interactions between milk products fermentation, lipids, and host metabolism.

  15. Observer Based Traction/Braking Control Design for High Speed Trains Considering Adhesion Nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchuan Cai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Train traction/braking control, one of the key enabling technologies for automatic train operation, literally takes its action through adhesion force. However, adhesion coefficient of high speed train (HST is uncertain in general because it varies with wheel-rail surface condition and running speed; thus, it is extremely difficult to be measured, which makes traction/braking control design and implementation of HSTs greatly challenging. In this work, force observers are applied to estimate the adhesion force or/and the resistance, based on which simple traction/braking control schemes are established under the consideration of actual wheel-rail adhesion condition. It is shown that the proposed controllers have simple structure and can be easily implemented from real applications. Numerical simulation also validates the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  16. Rapid, efficient charging of lead-acid and nickel-zinc traction cells. [for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Lead-acid and nickel-zinc traction cells were rapidly and efficiently charged using a high rate taped dc charge (HRTDC) method which could possibly be used for on-the-road service recharge of electric vehicles. The HRTDC method takes advantage of initial high cell charge acceptance and uses cell gassing rate and temperature as an indicator of charging efficiency. On the average, 300 amp-hour nickel-zinc traction cells were given a HRTDC to 78% of rated amp-hour capacity within 53 minutes at an amp-hour efficiency of 92% and an energy efficiency of 52%. Three-hundred amp-hour lead-acid traction cells were charged to 69% of rated amp-hour capacity within 46 minutes at an amp-hour efficiency of 91% with an energy efficiency of 64%.

  17. Clinical study on Laksha Guggulu, Snehana, Swedana & Traction in Osteoarthritis (Knee joint).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajoria, Kshipra; Singh, Sarvesh Kumar; Sharma, R S; Sharma, S N

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to study the efficacy of Laksha Guggulu, Snehana, Swedana & Traction in the management of Osteoarthritis (Knee joint). For the present work, 30 clinically diagnosed patients were selected and randomly divided into three groups. Group A treated with Laksha Guggulu orally, Group B treated with snehana & swedana traction, Group C treated with Laksha Guggulu, Snehana, Swedana & Knee Joint Traction. The various criteria worked upon were joint pain, oedema, tenderness, restriction of joint movement, stiffness, local crepitation, walking distance. Significant results were obtained on pain in joint movement, restriction in joint movement, joint stiffness , local crepitation nearly in all the groups with best result in combined group or group C.

  18. A model-based traction control strategy non-reliant on wheel slip information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deur, Joško; Pavković, Danijel; Burgio, Gilberto; Hrovat, Davor

    2011-08-01

    A traction control system (TCS) for two-wheel-drive vehicles can conveniently be realised by means of slip control. Such a TCS is modified in this paper in order to be applicable to four-wheel-drive vehicles and anti-lock braking systems, where slip information is not readily available. A reference vehicle model is used to estimate the vehicle velocity. The reference model is excited by a saw-tooth signal in order to adapt the slip for maximum tyre traction performance. The model-based TCS is made robust to vehicle modelling errors by extending it with (i) a superimposed loop of tyre static curve gradient control or (ii) a robust switching controller based on a bi-directional saw-tooth excitation signal. The proposed traction control strategies are verified by experiments and computer simulations.

  19. Bayesian Network Based Fault Prognosis via Bond Graph Modeling of High-Speed Railway Traction Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunkai Wu

    2015-01-01

    component-level faults accurately for a high-speed railway traction system, a fault prognosis approach via Bayesian network and bond graph modeling techniques is proposed. The inherent structure of a railway traction system is represented by bond graph model, based on which a multilayer Bayesian network is developed for fault propagation analysis and fault prediction. For complete and incomplete data sets, two different parameter learning algorithms such as Bayesian estimation and expectation maximization (EM algorithm are adopted to determine the conditional probability table of the Bayesian network. The proposed prognosis approach using Pearl’s polytree propagation algorithm for joint probability reasoning can predict the failure probabilities of leaf nodes based on the current status of root nodes. Verification results in a high-speed railway traction simulation system can demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  20. Halo-pelvic traction for severe kyphotic deformity secondary to spinal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muheremu, Aikeremujiang; Ma, Yuan; Ma, Yong; Ma, Junyi; Cheng, Junjie; Xie, Jiang

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Halo-pelvic ring traction in the treatment of severe kyphotic deformity secondary to spinal tuberculosis.Eighty patients with severe kyphotic deformity due to spinal tuberculosis were included in the study. Forty of those patients (experimental group) received Halo- pelvic ring traction before surgery and the rest (control group) received surgical treatment directly. Two groups were compared by means of the duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss, correction of Cobb angle, change in patient height, and American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale.Halo-pelvic traction group achieved significantly (P spinal kyphotic deformity due to spinal tuberculosis to increase efficacy and safety of surgical treatment.

  1. Surgical management of radial head luxation in a dog using an external skeletal traction device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, N; Yeadon, R; Farrell, M

    2013-01-01

    A five-month-old Airedale Terrier was presented with a history of right thoracic limb lameness. Clinical and radiographic examinations revealed caudolateral luxation of the right radial head. Surgical intervention involved an oblique proximal radial osteotomy and gradual craniomedial traction of the radial head using an external skeletal fixator (ESF) incorporating a traction device. The radial head was gradually reduced over 16 days. After radiographic confirmation of appropriate radial head reduction, a consolidation phase followed, with removal of the traction ESF after 24 days. Follow-up radiographs documented remodelling of the radial head. Clinical follow-up three years postoperatively revealed nearly normal ground reaction forces. Activity was unrestricted and there was no requirement for analgesic medications.

  2. Non-regularised Inverse Finite Element Analysis for 3D Traction Force Microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz, Jose J

    2016-01-01

    The tractions that cells exert on a gel substrate from the observed displacements is an increasingly attractive and valuable information in biomedical experiments. The computation of these tractions requires in general the solution of an inverse problem. Here, we resort to the discretisation with finite elements of the associated direct variational formulation, and solve the inverse analysis using a least square approach. This strategy requires the minimisation of an error functional, which is usually regularised in order to obtain a stable system of equations with a unique solution. In this paper we show that for many common three-dimensional geometries, meshes and loading conditions, this regularisation is unnecessary. In these cases, the computational cost of the inverse problem becomes equivalent to a direct finite element problem. For the non-regularised functional, we deduce the necessary and sufficient conditions that the dimensions of the interpolated displacement and traction fields must preserve in ...

  3. Ulnar nerve injury due to lateral traction device during shoulder arthroscopy: Was it avoidable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Pandey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the nerve injuries reported during shoulder arthroscopy in a beach chair, or lateral position is related to inappropriate patient positioning or excess traction. The lateral decubitus position is more vulnerable for traction-related neuropraxia. The present case serves as an important lesson from an avoidable situation of “having a one track mind” of the surgical team during the arthroscopic repair of shoulder instability performed in the lateral decubitus position. The operating surgeon must supervise the appropriate positioning of the patient on operation table and adequate padding of vulnerable bony points before beginning of shoulder arthroscopy to prevent any position-related nerve injuries. This is probably the first case to illustrate an unusual cause of ulnar nerve compression particularly related to the use of an additional traction device in the arthroscopic repair of shoulder instability performed in lateral decubitus position, which has not been previously defined.

  4. Traction endurance biomechanical study of metallic suture anchors at different insertion angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azato Flávia Namie

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The suture anchors' insertion angle and its traction resistance are the main subjects of this study. Twenty trials were realized using threaded suture anchors in four diferents angulations (30º /45º /60º /90º in human bone (distal femur and another twenty trials in artificial bone (SawboneTM. The anchors were pulled out being tractioned uprightly from its bone surface by a Kratos Universal test machine. The human bone results found no relation between the main subjects of this study, so whithout statistical value. On the other hand at the artificial bone the insertion angle of 90º beared more traction, being statistically significant compared to the other angles.

  5. [Efficacy of cervical fixed-point traction manipulation for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chong-Bo; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Zhi-Xin; Hou, Jing-Shan; Ma, Ling; Sun, Tong

    2012-01-01

    Cervical spondylotic radiculopathy is a commonly encountered and frequently occurring disease. Traditional Chinese osteopathic manipulations may have better therapeutic efficacy than that of other methods in treating patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. To evaluate the clinical therapeutic effects of cervical fixed-point traction manipulation in treating patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. A prospective, randomized controlled trial was adopted. Eighty-four patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy were randomly divided into treatment group (n=42) and control group (n=42). All patients were enrolled from the outpatient service of Department of Rehabilitation of Chinese PLA General Hospital of China. Patients received oral and written information about clinical procedures before giving their written informed consent. The patients were treated with cervical fixed-point traction manipulation (treatment group) or cervical computer traction (control group). Cervical fixed-point traction was performed once every other day for a total of seven treatment periods and cervical computer traction was performed 30 min, once per day for 14 d. Before and after treatment, visual analogue scale (VAS) score and temperature of upper limb skin (normal limb and abnormal limb) detected by infrared thermal imaging system were contrastively analyzed. Five patients were lost to follow-up, one patient in the treatment group and four patients in the control group. There were significant differences in VAS score and temperature difference between the normal and abnormal upper limbs of infrared thermal imaging in the treatment group (t=28.652, Pmanipulation has better efficacy than cervical computer traction in treating patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy.

  6. Fusion criteria for posterior lumbar interbody fusion with intervertebral cages : the significance of traction spur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hoon; Park, Jeong Yoon; Chin, Dong Kyu

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish new fusion criteria to complement existing Brantigan-Steffee fusion criteria. The primary purpose of intervertebral cage placement is to create a proper biomechanical environment through successful fusion. The existence of a traction spur is an essential predictable radiologic factor which shows that there is instability of a fusion segment. We studied the relationship between the existence of a traction spur and fusion after a posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) procedure. This study was conducted using retrospective radiological findings from patients who underwent a PLIF procedure with the use of a cage without posterior fixation between 1993 and 1997 at a single institution. We enrolled 183 patients who were followed for a minimum of five years after the procedure, and used the Brantigan-Steffee classification to confirm the fusion. These criteria include a denser and more mature bone fusion area than originally achieved during surgery, no interspace between the cage and the vertebral body, and mature bony trabeculae bridging the fusion area. We also confirmed the existence of traction spurs on fusion segments and non-fusion segments. The PLIF procedure was done on a total of 251 segments in 183 patients (71 men and 112 women). The average follow-up period was 80.4 +/- 12.7 months. The mean age at the time of surgery was 48.3 +/- 11.3 years (range, 25 to 84 years). Among the 251 segments, 213 segments (84.9%) were fused after five years. The remaining 38 segments (15.1%) were not fused. An analysis of the 38 segments that were not fused found traction spur formation in 20 of those segments (52.6%). No segments had traction spur formation with fusion. A new parameter should be added to the fusion criteria. These criteria should be referred to as 'no traction spur formation' and should be used to confirm fusion after a PLIF procedure.

  7. Head-Down Tilt with Balanced Traction as a Model for Simulating Spinal Acclimation to Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, R. E.; Styf, J. R.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Fechner, K.; Haruna, Y.; Kahan, N. J.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts experience total body height increases of 4 to 7 cm in microgravity. Thus, stretching of the spinal cord, nerve roots, and muscular and ligamentous tissues may be responsible for the hyperreflexia, back pain, and muscular atrophy associated with exposure to microgravity. Axial compression of the spine makes 6 deg. head-down tilt (HDT) an unsuitable model for spinal acclimation to microgravity. However, this axial compression may be counteracted by balanced traction consisting of 10% body weight (sin 6 deg. = 0.1) applied to the legs. Six healthy male subjects underwent 3 days each of 60 HDT with balanced traction and horizontal bed rest (HBR), with a 2 week recovery period between treatments. Total body and spine length, lumbar disc height, back pain, erector spinae intramuscular pressure, and ankle joint torque were measured before, during and after each treatment. Total body and spine (processes of L5 - C7) lengths increased significantly more during HDT with balanced traction (22 +/- 8 mm and 25 +/- 8 mm, respectively) than during HBR (16 +/- 4 mm and 14 +/- 9 mm, respectively). Back and leg pain were significantly greater during HDT with balanced traction than during HBR. The distance between the lower end plate of L4 and the upper endplate of S1, as measured by sonography, increased significantly in both treatments to the same degree (2.9 +/- 1.9 mm, HDT with balanced traction; 3.3 +/- 1.5 mm, HBR). Intramuscular pressure of the erector spinae muscles and maximal ankle joint torque were unaltered with both models. While neither model increased height to the magnitude observed in microgravity, HDT with balanced traction may be a better model for simulating the body lengthening and back pain experienced in microgravity.

  8. Simulation of Trolleybus Traction Induction Drive With Supercapacitor Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazis, V.; Latkovskis, L.; Grigans, L.

    2010-01-01

    The article considers the possibilities of saving the regenerative braking energy in Škoda 24Tr type trolleybuses by installing the onboard supercapacitor energy storage system (ESS) and improving its performance with automated switching to the autonomous traction mode. Proposed is an ESS control system with constant DC bus voltage in the supercapacitor charging mode and supercapacitor current proportional to the AC drive current in the discharging mode. The authors investigate stability of the trolleybus ESS control system operating together with AC traction drive in various overhead voltage failure modes. The co-simulation of ESS operation was done by Matlab/Simulink AC drive and PSIM ESS continuous models.

  9. Halo skeletal traction pin site care: toward developing a standard of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R S

    1996-01-01

    Halo skeletal traction may be used to immobilize a patient's head and neck following a cervical fracture. Prevention of infectious reactions around the pin sites of halo traction is a priority in rehabilitation nursing practice. Although prophylactic treatment of skeletal pin sites is a generally accepted practice, there is great diversity of opinion and very limited systematic investigation as to how the sites should be treated. In this article, the author reviews the literature on pin site care and suggests a protocol based on the current literature.

  10. Traction power converter Karlsfeld of Bayernwerk; Bahnstromumrichter Karlsfeld der Bayernwerk AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fister, V.; Kreitmayer, S. [Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany). Abt. Netzbetrieb und Elektrotechnik; Jergas, E. [DB Energieversorgung GmbH und Co. KG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Abt. Netzbetriebsfuehrung und Kraftwerke; Niessen, M. [DB Energieversorgung GmbH und Co. KG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Bereich Energieanlagentechnik/Bahnstromleitungen; Loenard, D.; Northe, J. [ABB Daimler-Benz Transportation (Deutschland) GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    To ensure today`s traction power demand of Deutsche Bahn in greater Munich area, but also to cover future power demands there, Bayernwerk is going to construct a 100 MW traction power converter at Karlsfeld near Munich. Basic network operational situation, demands and technical features of this converter are described. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Absicherung des heutigen Bedarfs an Traktionsleistung der Deutschen Bahn im Grossraum Muenchen, aber auch zur Deckung des zukuenftigen Leistungszuwachses, wird von Bayernwerk in Karlsfeld bei Muenchen ein 100-MW-Bahnstromumrichter errichtet. Die netzbetriebliche Ausgangslage, die Anforderungen an den Umrichter und seine technischen Merkmale werden beschrieben. (orig.)

  11. THEORETICAL ASPECTS AND METHODS OF PARAMETERS IDENTIFICATION OF ELECTRIC TRACTION SYSTEM DEVICES. METHOD OF WEIGHT FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Mishchenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development and substantiation of a new method of structural identification of electrical devices of electric traction systems for both DC and AC current. Methodology. To solve this problem the following methods are used: the methods and techniques of the linear electrical engineering, in particular, the Laplace operator method; the numerical method for solving the integral equation, which is based on the representation of the Wiener-Hopf linear equations system (this allows forming the solutions of the problem in a mathematical form of the correlation and weight functions; the factorization method, which provides certain partition of the correlation functions of the stochastic processes. Findings. It was developed the method of weight function of the electrical devices identification, which can be fully used in the systems of electric traction. As the use example of the developed method it was considered a feeder section of DC electric traction with the single power supply. On this section move two electric locomotives of the type DE 1, they have been identified by the weighting functions. The required currents and voltages of electric locomotives are also formulated in the electric traction network in probabilistic and statistical form, that is, the functions of mathematical expectation and the correlation functions are determined. At this, it is taken into account that the correlation function of the sum of random functions is equal to the sum of the correlation functions of additives, and the correlation function of the integral of a random function is defined as the double integral of the correlation function of the output of a random function. Originality. Firstly, originality consists of the adaption of the developed method of structural identification for the devices of electric traction system. Secondly, it lies in the proper development of the new method of weight function. And finally, it lies in the solution of the Wiener

  12. CRITERES DE RUPTURE DE MATERIAUX FRAGILES INTEGRANT LA DISSYMETRIE EN TRACTION ET COMPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G PLUVINAGE

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Nous proposons une approche générale des critères de résistance à la rupture pour des matériaux présentant une dissymétrie de comportement en traction et compression. Elle est basée sur l’égalité des énergies de rupture en traction et compression et repose sur le concept d’endommagement associé à un formalisme énergétique.

  13. Analysis of electromyographic activities of the lumbar erector spinae caused by inversion traction

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chung Yoo; Kang, Jong Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in the electromyographic activities of the lumbar erector spinae caused by inversion traction in order to verify the relaxation effect. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included 60 healthy male adults who were equally and randomly assigned to a 30?30? group, a 30?60? group, and a 60?60? group. Inversion traction was performed for six minutes, and the electromyographic activities of the lumbar erector spinae (L2, L4) were measured b...

  14. Three-staged correction of severe rigid idiopathic scoliosis using limited halo-gravity traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptan, Wael; ElMiligui, Yasser

    2012-06-01

    Despite the advantages of modern instrumentation techniques, the treatment of severe rigid idiopathic scoliosis could be very demanding. Traction can provide better, safer correction and minimize complications related to forceful intra-operative maneuvers; however, several side effects are associated with prolonged periods of traction. The aim of this work is to review the clinical and radiographic results of limited perioperative halo-gravity traction in severe rigid curves analyzing its efficacy, advantages and possible complications and comparing it to classic two staged corrections performed without traction. A retrospective case control study including 47 adolescents with severe rigid idiopathic scoliosis divided into two groups; a consecutive series of 21 patients who had a three-staged correction by an anterior release, 2 weeks of halo-gravity traction then posterior instrumentation (TRN group); compared to an earlier series of 26 consecutive patients treated without traction (SAP group). The average age was 18 years + 1 month and 16 years + 2 months, respectively. The average preoperative dorsal and lumbar curves for (TRN) group were 106.5° and 87°, respectively, and for (SAP) group were 102° and 81°, respectively. Patients were followed up for an average of 6 years (range 3-8 years). A significantly better correction was achieved in (TRN) group (average 59%) compared to (SAP) group (average 47%). At final follow-up, the loss of correction had an average of 8° for (TRN) group and 11° for (SAP) group. A shorter hospital stay was found in (SAP) group; a shorter operative time was found in (TRN) group and there was no significant difference in blood loss, early or delayed complications. Limited halo-gravity traction is an efficient, safe modality in the treatment of severe rigid adolescent scoliosis. The application of gradual traction over a limited period of 2 weeks led to better correction, shorter operative time with no significant

  15. Injury to neurovascular structures with insertion of traction pins around the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Jason A; Rister, Jamie; Eastman, Jonathan; Freind, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    Identify risk to neurovascular structures around the knee with placement of skeletal traction pins. Kirchner wires were inserted into cadaveric limbs followed by layer dissecting of each leg. Correlations between weight, height, BMI, and distance were determined after calculating the average distance with deviation between each anatomic structure and the Kirschner wire. Insertion of traction pins around the knee did not result in injury to neurovascular structures. Both weight and BMI positively correlated with distance between implants and neurovascular structure. Data collected suggests similar trends for all other anatomic structures.

  16. Effect of combining traction and vibration on back muscles, heart rate and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhen; Zhao, Meiya; Ma, Jian; Tian, Shan; Xiang, Pin; Yao, Wei; Fan, Yubo

    2014-11-01

    Eighty-five percent of the population has experienced low back pain (LBP), which may result in decreasing muscle strength and endurance, functional capacity of the spine, and so on. Traction and vibration are commonly used to relieve the low back pain. The effect of the combing traction and vibration on back muscles, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) was investigated in this study. Thirty healthy subjects participated in 12 trials lying supine on the spine-combing bed with different tilt angle (0°, 10°, 20° and 30°) and vibration modes (along with the sagittal and coronal axis with 0 Hz, 2 Hz and 12 Hz separately). EMG was recorded during each trial. Power spectral frequency analysis was applied to evaluate muscle fatigue by the shift of median power frequency (MPF). Pulse pressure (PP) was calculated from BP. HR and PP were used to estimate the effect of the combination of traction and vibration on the cardio-vascular system. It was shown that vibration could increase HR and decrease PP. The combination of traction and vibration (2 Hz vibration along Z-axis and 12 Hz vibration along Y-axis) had no significant effect on the cardio-vascular system. The MPF of lumbar erector spinae (LES) and upper trapezius (UT) decreased significantly when the angle reached 20° under the condition of 2 Hz vibration along Z-axis compared with it of 0°. Furthermore, the MPF also decreased significantly compared with it of static mode at 20° for LES and at 30° for UT. However at 12 Hz vibration along Y-axis, the MPF had significant increase when the angle reached 20° in LES and 30° in UT compared to 0°. For LES, the MPF also had significant difference when the angle was increased from 10° to 20°. Therefore, combining 2 Hz vibration along Z-axis and traction (tilt angles that less than 20°) may to reduce muscle fatigue both for LES and UT compared with either vibration or traction alone. The combination of 12 Hz vibration along Y-axis and traction (tilt angles

  17. Traction injury of the brachial plexus confused with nerve injury due to interscalene brachial block: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ferrero-Manzanal

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: When postoperative brachial plexus palsy appears, nerve block is a confusing factor that tends to be attributed as the cause of palsy by the orthopedic surgeon. The beach chair position may predispose brachial plexus traction injury. The head and neck position should be regularly checked during long procedures, as intraoperative maneuvers may cause eventual traction of the brachial plexus.

  18. THE SMART RELAY PROTECTION SYSTEM OF TRACTION ENERGY IS BASED ON A NEW CRITERION. 1. THE THEORY OF WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Kostin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article a new indication of emergency conditions detection for the traction DC power supply system, namely the rate of decreasing the traction substation feeder voltage is suggested. The indication considered allows determining a kind of short circuit. In addition, the circuit design decisions for realization of the protection system based on this indication are proposed.

  19. ONCE AGAIN ABOUT DETERMINATION OF SAVING OF ENERGY FOR TRACTION DUE TO PARTIAL CUT–OFF OF TRACTION ENGINES OF ELECTRIC ROLLING STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Getman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In general the well known methods for determination of energy saving due to the partial traction engines cut-off based on their comparison to efficiency coefficient or to the power of energy losses do not allow objective estimation of efficiency of these measures and in a number of cases result in erroneous results and errors. The search for new more advanced methods for determination of energy saving at the partial cut-off of the traction engines is needed. Methodology. The method of calculation determination of energy saving when partial cutting-off of the traction engines is offered. It is based on the use of rationality coefficient as the loading mode of the electric power consumption for the measuring instrument of transportation activity. Findings. Using the given mathematical expressions it is possible to determine the energy saving in both the relative and absolute values and set the terms (motion speed and route gradient, under which the energy saving will take place. Originality. The method of the task solving, which is based on the evaluation of energy consumption differences for the compared variants (not on the comparison of efficiency coefficient or differences of power of energy losses is offered. Practical value. The given methodology allows obtaining more exact conclusions in relation to the electric power consumption, as the comparison of energy losses power or the efficiency coefficient does not determine precisely the electric power consumption for traction. Therefore the conclusions based on the comparison of power of energy losses or efficiency coefficient can appear inexact.

  20. EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERMITTENT PELVIC TRACTION VS INTERMITTENT PELVIC TRACTION WITH SELF NEURAL MOBILIZATION ON LOW BACK PAIN – A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    S.Dinesh Kumar, MPT Sports

    2013-01-01

    Background:Low Back pain is common clinical condition encountered in a day to day Physiotherapy practice.Very few author has so far documented the efficacy of self neural mobilization ,but no literature available SNMduring Intermittent Pelvic Traction. Hence to find out the effect of same this study is done.Materials andMethods:Pre & Post Test Experimental Design, Physiotherapy Out Patient Department, MADHA Medical Col-lege Hospital and Research Centre, Kundrathur – 600069.Participants and In...

  1. A cost analysis of three methods of treating femoral shaft fractures in children: a comparison of traction in hospital, traction in hospital/home and external fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, Hanne; Borgquist, Lars; Larsson, Sune

    2004-06-01

    There is no consensus as to which is best treatment of femoral fractures in children. We performed a cost analysis comparing three treatments of femoral shaft fractures in children aged 3-15 years at 3 hospitals during the same period (1993-2000). The analysis included total medical costs and costs for the care provider and were calculated from the time of injury up to 1 year. At hospital 1, treatment consisted of external fixation and early mobilization. At hospital 2, the treatment was skin or skeletal traction in hospital for 1-2 weeks, followed by home traction. At hospital 3, treatment was skin or skeletal traction in hospital until the fracture healed. The average total costs per patient were EUR 10,000 at hospital 1, EUR 23,000 at hospital 2, and EUR 38,000 at hospital 3. The main factor for determining the cost of treatment was the number of days in hospital, which was lower in children treated with external fixation.

  2. A prospective study of pain reduction and knee dysfunction comparing femoral skeletal traction and splinting in adult trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumpass, David B; Ricci, William M; McAndrew, Christopher M; Gardner, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    To determine if distal femoral traction pins result in knee dysfunction in patients with femoral or pelvic fracture, and to determine if skeletal traction relieves pain more effectively than splinting for femoral shaft fractures. Prospective cohort trial. Level I urban trauma center. One hundred twenty adult patients with femoral shaft, acetabular, and unstable pelvic fractures. Patients with femoral shaft fractures were placed into distal femoral skeletal traction or a long-leg splint, based on an attending-specific protocol. Patients with pelvic or acetabular fractures with instability or intraarticular bone fragments were placed into skeletal traction. An initial Lysholm knee survey was administered to assess preinjury knee pain and function; the survey was repeated at 3- and 6-month follow-up visits. Also, a 10-point visual analog scale was used to document pain immediately before, during, and immediately after fracture immobilization with traction or splinting. Thirty-five patients (29%) were immobilized with a long-leg splint, and 85 (71%) were immobilized with a distal femoral traction pin. Eighty-four patients (70%) completed a 6-month follow-up. Lysholm scores decreased by a mean 9.3 points from preinjury baseline to 6 months postinjury in the entire cohort (P traction pin groups. During application of immobilization, visual analog scale pain scores were significantly lower in traction patients as compared with splinted patients (mean, 1.9 points less, P Traction pins caused no infections, neurovascular injuries, or iatrogenic fractures. Distal femoral skeletal traction does not result in detectable knee dysfunction at 6 months after insertion, and results in less pain during and after immobilization than long-leg splinting. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  3. Diagnostic performance of direct traction MR arthrography of the hip: detection of chondral and labral lesions with arthroscopic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaranzer, Florian; Klauser, Andrea; Kogler, Michael; Henninger, Benjamin; Forstner, Thomas; Reichkendler, Markus; Schmaranzer, Ehrenfried

    2015-06-01

    To assess diagnostic performance of traction MR arthrography of the hip in detection and grading of chondral and labral lesions with arthroscopic comparison. Seventy-five MR arthrograms obtained ± traction of 73 consecutive patients (mean age, 34.5 years; range, 14-54 years) who underwent arthroscopy were included. Traction technique included weight-adapted traction (15-23 kg), a supporting plate for the contralateral leg, and intra-articular injection of 18-27 ml (local anaesthetic and contrast agent). Patients reported on neuropraxia and on pain. Two blinded readers independently assessed femoroacetabular cartilage and labrum lesions which were correlated with arthroscopy. Interobserver agreement was calculated using κ values. Joint distraction ± traction was evaluated in consensus. No procedure had to be stopped. There were no cases of neuropraxia. Accuracy for detection of labral lesions was 92 %/93 %, 91 %/83 % for acetabular lesions, and 92 %/88 % for femoral cartilage lesions for reader 1/reader 2, respectively. Interobserver agreement was moderate (κ = 0.58) for grading of labrum lesions and substantial (κ = 0.7, κ = 0.68) for grading of acetabular and femoral cartilage lesions. Joint distraction was achieved in 72/75 and 14/75 hips with/without traction, respectively. Traction MR arthrography safely enabled accurate detection and grading of labral and chondral lesions. • The used traction technique was well tolerated by most patients. • The used traction technique almost consistently achieved separation of cartilage layers. • Traction MR arthrography enabled accurate detection of chondral and labral lesions.

  4. BACKGROUNDS OF EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY OF TRACTION ASYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC DRIVES IN THE STRUCTURE OF DC TRACTION POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU. S. Bondarenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Application of physical modeling as a tool for research of any events or systems is becoming more widespread, including the field of railway transport. At the same time the adequacy of results that can be obtained, depends largely on the similarity degree of the physical model to real system. From the standpoint of the traction asynchronous electric drive (TAED research together with the traction power supply system research, the similarity can not be determined by the direct proportion of the parameters, because the processes nature accompanying the operation of these systems is non-linear. These features should be taken into account in the experimental setup, the basis for constructing of which is establishing of the system similarity that defines the purpose of this paper. Methodology. At the heart of the experimental setup creation laid reproduction of processes of energy transformation in the system of the DC traction power supply. Determination of the similarity degree of the proposed facility to the real system was carried out using the basic theorems of the similarity theory, their additional provisions on the complexity and nonlinear systems, as well as elements of mathematical analysis. Findings. According to the results of work: 1 The block diagram, the energy conversion mechanism of which is similar to the real system was received. This scheme is the basis of experimental setup, built in the future for the study of electromagnetic compatibility of TAED in the structure of DC traction electric power supply system. 2 Similarity of obtained structural scheme with the real system with the mechanism definition of calculating the scaling relations was established. Originality. In the process of establishing the similarity a simplified method for determining the scaling relations for nonlinear systems was suggested. They are identical in their structure components, but have different capacities. Practical value. Experimental

  5. Distributed Active Traction Control System Applied to the RoboCup Middle Size League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Almeida

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the problem of traction control in mobile wheeled robots in the particular case of the RoboCup Middle Size League (MSL. The slip control problem is formulated using simple friction models for ISePorto Team Robots with a differential wheel configuration. Traction was also characterized experimentally in the MSL scenario for relevant game events. This work proposes a hierarchical traction control architecture which relies on local slip detection and control at each wheel, with relevant information being relayed to a higher level responsible for global robot motion control. A dedicated one axis control embedded hardware subsystem allowing complex local control, high frequency current sensing and odometric information procession was developed. This local axis control board is integrated in a distributed system using CAN bus communications. The slipping observer was implemented in the axis control hardware nodes integrated in the ISePorto Robots and was used to control and detect loss of traction. An external vision system was used to perform a qualitative analysis of the slip detection and observer performance results are presented.

  6. traction: plagiat aggravé dans l'article Aspergillose broncho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traction: plagiat aggravé dans l'article Aspergillose broncho-pulmonaire allergique lors d'un asthme réfractaire: à propos d'un cas clinique. Khalid Lahmadi, Hind El Youssi, Jawad Rochdi, BoughrineNawal, Er-Rami Mohammed. The Pan African Medical Jou.

  7. traction: plagiat aggravé dans l'article Aspergillose broncho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traction: plagiat aggravé dans l'article Aspergillose broncho-pulmonaire allergique lors d'un asthme réfractaire: à propos d'un cas clinique. Khalid Lahmadi, Hind El Youssi, Jawad Rochdi, BoughrineNawal, Er-Rami Mohammed. The Pan African Medical Journal.

  8. Operation analysis of AC traction motors in terms of electromagnetic torque capability on sustainable railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulucea Cornelia A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable operation of electric railway systems represents a significant purpose nowadays in the development of high power and high speed locomotives and trains. At present, high speed electric vehicles mostly work with three-phase induction motors or three-phase synchronous motors as traction motors. The two electric machine types have different efficiencies at different operation points, and experience differences with respect to safety, speed and power, energy use and exergy efficiency. An important issue that correlates these aspects is the electromagnetic torque developed by an electric traction motor. In order to provide an overview of the technical performance of the operation of sustainable railway systems, a detailed analysis is carried out of the electromagnetic torque capability of AC electric motors utilized as traction motors in modern locomotives of high power and/or high speed. The results of this work may help in enhancing the main criteria for optimising the safe and sustainable operation of electric railway traction systems.

  9. Removing the specimen with traction during robotic radical prostatectomy does not cause a positive surgical margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınova, Serkan; İşgören, Abidin Egemen; Akbulut, Ziya; Özcan, Muhammet Fuat; Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Balbay, Mevlana Derya

    2016-12-20

    The aim of this study was to gauge whether removal of a specimen with traction during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy causes a positive surgical margin or not. One hundred and sixty-nine patients with localized prostate cancer who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy from 2009 to 2011 were included in the study. After dividing the patients into two groups, we recorded their characteristics and pre-op/post-op evaluations. There were 111 and 58 patients in groups 1 (with traction) and 2 (without traction), respectively. We evaluated the patients' ages, follow-up time, body mass index (BMI), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values, pre-op and post-op Gleason score values, pathological stage, positive surgical margin rates, and biochemical PSA recurrence rates. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for age, pre-op PSA values, BMI, pre-op and post-op Gleason scores, positive surgical margin rates and biochemical recurrence rates. There was a significant difference between prostate weight, tumor volume, and clinical stage. Removing the specimen with traction during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy does not cause a positive surgical margin. The incision should be as small as possible for cosmetic appearance.

  10. Analysis and Comparison of Modular Railway Power Conditioner for High-Speed Railway Traction System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qianming; Ma, Fujun; He, Zhixing

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern electrified railway, negative sequence current (NSC) minimization is one of the most important considerations in the high-speed railway traction system. In the past, many multiple or multilevel topologies with high compensation capacity have been introduced fo...

  11. Performance Availability Assessment of Combined Multi Power Source Traction Drive Considering Real Operational Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frenkel Ilia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the vehicle’s traction electric drive, consisting of several various electric power sources. One of the main requirements for such systems are the safety and sustainable operations, achieved largely the implementation of an uninterrupted supply of the vehicle’s propulsion system with an electric power.

  12. Wavelet Entropy-Based Traction Inverter Open Switch Fault Diagnosis in High-Speed Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keting Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a diagnosis plan is proposed to settle the detection and isolation problem of open switch faults in high-speed railway traction system traction inverters. Five entropy forms are discussed and compared with the traditional fault detection methods, namely, discrete wavelet transform and discrete wavelet packet transform. The traditional fault detection methods cannot efficiently detect the open switch faults in traction inverters because of the low resolution or the sudden change of the current. The performances of Wavelet Packet Energy Shannon Entropy (WPESE, Wavelet Packet Energy Tsallis Entropy (WPETE with different non-extensive parameters, Wavelet Packet Energy Shannon Entropy with a specific sub-band (WPESE3,6, Empirical Mode Decomposition Shannon Entropy (EMDESE, and Empirical Mode Decomposition Tsallis Entropy (EMDETE with non-extensive parameters in detecting the open switch fault are evaluated by the evaluation parameter. Comparison experiments are carried out to select the best entropy form for the traction inverter open switch fault detection. In addition, the DC component is adopted to isolate the failure Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT. The simulation experiments show that the proposed plan can diagnose single and simultaneous open switch faults correctly and timely.

  13. Preoperative position splint versus skin traction in patients with hip fracture: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Betul; Aslan, Ozlem; Tunay, Servet

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of a preoperative position splint and skin traction on pain, comfort, complications, and satisfaction with the treatment and care for patients with hip fracture. This randomized trial was conducted with a total of 68 patients with hip fracture in a tertiary care hospital in Turkey. Preoperatively, a position splint was applied to the patients in the intervention group (n = 34) and skin traction was applied to patients (n = 34) in the control group. Outcomes studied were pain, comfort, satisfaction and complications. Mann-Whitney U Test showed a significant difference between the position splint group and skin traction group regarding pain severity after the application (p < .05). A significant difference was demonstrated between the two groups concerning comfort levels after the application (p < .05). The position splint group was significantly more satisfied with the treatment and care than the control group in the later period after the application (p < .05). The number of preoperative complications in the position splint group was significantly fewer than that of the skin traction group in the preoperative period (p < .05). Preoperative position splint application in patients with hip fracture relieved pain and complications and increased comfort and satisfaction with treatment and care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of oxen yoke and donkey collar on traction force and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The realization of mechanized zaï with draft animal encounters the weakness of hitch traction capabilities. To overcome this issue, a study was conducted in three villages in the northern Burkina Faso with the aim at evaluating the effect of improved yoke and improved collar respectively with oxen and donkey harnessing on ...

  15. Quantifying the Traction Force of a Single Cell by Aligned Silicon Nanowire Array

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhou

    2009-10-14

    The physical behaviors of stationary cells, such as the morphology, motility, adhesion, anchorage, invasion and metastasis, are likely to be important for governing their biological characteristics. A change in the physical properties of mammalian cells could be an indication of disease. In this paper, we present a silicon-nanowire-array based technique for quantifying the mechanical behavior of single cells representing three distinct groups: normal mammalian cells, benign cells (L929), and malignant cells (HeLa). By culturing the cells on top of NW arrays, the maximum traction forces of two different tumor cells (HeLa, L929) have been measured by quantitatively analyzing the bending of the nanowires. The cancer cell exhibits a larger traction force than the normal cell by ∼20% for a HeLa cell and ∼50% for a L929 cell. The traction forces have been measured for the L929 cells and mechanocytes as a function of culture time. The relationship between cells extending area and their traction force has been investigated. Our study is likely important for studying the mechanical properties of single cells and their migration characteristics, possibly providing a new cellular level diagnostic technique. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  16. The bond-graph design of a motor used for electrical traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Grava

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the asynchronous motorwith cage, used for electrical traction is studied andanalyzed. For this motor we realized the associatedbond-graph, we pointed out the equations thatdescribe this motor, and we analyzed the electricaland mechanical features of this motor, by using thesimulation program 20 SIM, in order to improve theperformances of this motor even from the early stageof design.

  17. Promising results after vacuum-assisted wound closure and mesh-mediated fascial traction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleif, Jakob; Fabricius, Rasmus; Bertelsen, Claus Anders

    2012-01-01

    -mediated fascial traction (VAWCM) is a novel technique recently introduced for late fascial closure of the OA. In previous studies, the disease aetiologies were mainly vascular and visceral surgical disease and trauma. We report our results using VAWCM in a non-trauma patient population treated with an OA due...

  18. [Observation on therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture under continuous traction for treatment of lumbar disc herniation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Yang, Ai-tang; Dai, Mei-tang; Fu, Qin-li

    2009-12-01

    To observe the clinical effect of electroacupuncture under continuous traction in prone position for treatment of lumbar disc herniation, to search a better clinical treatment for lumbar disc herniation. The patients were randomly divided into group A (42 cases), group B (39 cases) and group C (38 cases). The acupuncture methods of three groups were the same, Jiaji (EX B 2), Weizhong (BL 40) and Chengshan (BL 57) etc. were selected, and the electroacupuncture was applied as a basic treatment. Continuous traction in prone position and electroacupuncture treatment were used at the same time in group A, group B was treated with supine position traction first and then electroacupuncture treatment, while group C was treated with electroacupuncture only, the therapeutic effects were observed and compared. The effective rate of 95.2% in group A was superior to that of 79.5% in group B and 65.8% in group C (P traction in prone position is a better treatment for lumbar disc herniation.

  19. [Mobilization and traction therapy for lumbar dorsopathies in obese individuals working in sedentary conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobyshev, V A; Strepetov, O M; Gerasomenko, O N

    2014-01-01

    Obese individuals working in sedentary conditions, if having neurologic symptoms in lumbar dorsopathies, when subjected to mobilization and traction therapy in rehabilitation complex, demonstrated less pain, increased spine mobility and prospective observations proved longer clinical remission, if compared to standard treatment.

  20. Linear booster designs for electric traction; Lineare Booster-Konzepte fuer die elektrische Traktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, A. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt, Inst. fuer Elektrische Energiewandlung, Darmstadt (Germany); Hofmann, M. [Shanghai Maglev Transrapid Project, Shanghai, SH (China); Werle, T. [Bombardier Transportation, Mannheim (Germany)

    2003-12-01

    With electric traction based on the wheel-rail system tractive effort transmission depends on adhesion conditions in wheel contact points, bad rail conditions reducing transmissable tractive effort. Different booster designs can generate additional effort components thus compensating tractive effort loss. (orig.)

  1. Skull traction for cervical spinal injury in Enugu: A 5‑year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-05

    Nov 5, 2015 ... Background: Treatment of cervical spine injury is the most challenging of all the injuries of the spine, and there is yet no agreement on the best method of care. Objective: We studied the complications and outcome of two skull traction devices used to treat cases of cervical spine injury in three centers in ...

  2. Infection of the fracture hematoma from skeletal traction in an asymptomatic HIV-positive patient

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Sven; Beniyasi, Fletcher J; Munthali, Boston; Banza, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    ... broken down. As would be the case for femoral fractures in most hospitals in the region, proximal tibial skeletal traction was applied. The brachial plexus injury was treated with a sling only. Figure 1. The day after admission to hospital. At KCH, more often than not, the lack of films and chemicals prevents getting a second view. Th...

  3. ANALYSIS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF OPERATING MODES OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS WITH THE TRACTION LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Bondarenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovative scenarios of reliable energy supply of transportation process aimed at reducing the specific energy consumption and increase energy efficiency of the systems of electric traction. The paper suggests innovative energy saving directions in traction networks of railways and new circuit solutions accessing traction substations in energy systems networks, ensure energy security of the transportation process. To ensure the energy security of rail transport special schemes were developed to propose the concept of external power traction substations, which would increase the number of connections to the networks of 220 – 330 kV, as well as the creation of transport and energy corridors, development of its own supply of electric networks of 110 kV substations and mobile RP-110 kV of next generation. Therefore, the investment program of the structures owned by the Ukrainian Railways (Ukrzaliznytsia need to be synchronized in their technological characteristics, as well as the criteria of reliability and quality of power supply with the same external energy investment programs. It is found that without any load on left or right supplying arm one of two less loaded phases of traction transformer begins generating specific modes in the supplying three-phase line. Thus, modes of mobile substation cause leakage in one of the phases of the supply line of traction transformers of active-capacitive current, and as a result generating energy in the main power line of 154 kV, which is fixed and calculated by electricity meters. For these three phase mode supply network is necessary to use 1st algorithm, i.e. taking into account the amount of electricity as the energy in all phases. For effective application of reactive power compensation devices in the AC traction power supply systems it is proposed to develop regulatory documentation on necessity of application and the order of choice of parameters and placement of compensation systems taking into

  4. ELECTRODYNAMICS OF TRANSMISSION AND LOSSES OF POWER IN THE DEVICES OF ELECTRIC TRACTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Kostin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Theoretical justification of the "field" approach (based on electromagnetic field to the transmission and losses of power in the devices of traction power supply systems and electric rolling stock. Methodology. The methods of electromagnetic field theory and, in particular, the theory and practice of electromagnetic energy transmission based on the concept of the Poynting vector and elements of the theory of propagation, reflection and refraction of plane electromagnetic waves were used. Findings. Theoretical studies of electromagnetic energy transmission from the traction substation to the electric rolling stock through dielectric (air surrounding traction network: between the contact wire and the rail were carried out. It is proposed strategic designing "squat" (low types of electric rolling stock. The components of electric energy flow through the roof of electric rolling stock and its frontal part of the body were estimated. This allows reliable etimating active power losses in electric traction system. To compensate the reactive power consumed by electric rolling stock, which is conditioned by standing waves, it is proposed (for extinction of the the last to develop and put in front of electric rolling stock the layer of particular environment with the necessary parameters. Originality. The "field" principle of the power transmission analysis and its losses arising in electric traction system was first proposed. The laws of motion of electromagnetic energy flows through the roof and the frontal part of the body of electric rolling stock were established. Practical value. An expression of the absolute value of the Poynting vector in the points of dielectric (air between the contact wire and the rail was obtained. This allows assessing the highest density of energy, which is transferred to the time unit and predicting the main dimensions of the unit of electric rolling stock. The energy indices of the roof of electric rolling stock

  5. Efficacy of the technique of piezoelectric corticotomy for orthodontic traction of impacted mandibular third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhigui; Xu, Guangzhou; Yang, Chi; Xie, Qianyang; Shen, Yuqing; Zhang, Shanyong

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to assess the efficacy of piezoelectric corticotomy for orthodontic traction of mandibular third molars close to the inferior alveolar nerve. Thirty patients with impacted third molars close to the nerve were included in the study, 15 of whom were treated with conventional orthodontic traction and 15 with piezoelectric corticotomy. We recorded duration of treatment including exposure and orthodontic traction, and time to the final extraction. Postoperative complications including trismus, swelling, and pain were also noted. Alveolar bone levels mesial and distal to the second molars were evaluated on cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) images. Student's t test was used to assess the significance of differences between the groups. After orthodontic treatments all impacted third molars were successfully removed from the inferior alveolar nerve without neurological damage. The mean (SD) duration of surgical exposure in the piezoelectric corticotomy group was significantly longer than that in the conventional group (p=0.01). The mean (SD) duration of traction was 4 (2.3) months after piezoelectric corticotomy, much shorter than the 7.5 (1.3) months in the conventional group (p=0.03). There were no significant differences in postoperative complications between the groups. There was a significant increase in the distal alveolar height of second molars after treatment in both groups (ppiezoelectric corticotomy allows more efficient and faster traction of third molars with a close relation between the root and the inferior alveolar nerve, although it took longer than the traditional technique. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vitreomacular traction as a consequence of posterior hyaloidal contraction after transpupillary thermotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Amir H; Aaberg, Thomas M; Capone, Antonio

    2013-05-01

    To describe the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients in whom vitreomacular traction evolved pursuant to treatment of choroidal melanoma with transpupillary thermotherapy. Retrospective, uncontrolled, observational, interventional case series. Vitreomacular traction with macular distortion, macular edema, and vision loss developed in 6 eyes of 6 patients after successful transpupillary thermotherapy for choroidal melanoma. Clinical examination, fluorescein angiography, fundus photography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were performed. Symptomatic patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Primary outcome measures include visual acuity and resolution of macular distortion by clinical examination, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, or both. In all 6 patients, the malignant lesions were treated successfully. The posterior hyaloid was attached in all eyes before transpupillary thermotherapy. All eyes demonstrated focal hyaloidal contraction and vitreomacular traction between the transpupillary thermotherapy scar and the macula. Mean time from transpupillary thermotherapy to PPV for treatment of vitreomacular traction was 23 ± 18 months. Mean length of follow-up was 11 months. Mean logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution visual acuity before transpupillary thermotherapy was 0.23 ± 0.38. Mean visual acuity after transpupillary thermotherapy was 0.53 ± 0.42. Mean visual acuity before membrane peel was 0.65 ± 0.34. Mean visual acuity after membrane peel was 0.44 ± 0.21. All patients undergoing PPV showed visual improvement. Hyaloidal contraction can occur after transpupillary thermotherapy and is a reversible cause of vision loss. The mechanism of vision loss resulting from hyaloidal contraction is flat vitreomacular traction. PPV and membrane peeling are effective in improving macular anatomic features and visual function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effectiveness of lumbar traction with routine conservative treatment in acute herniated disc syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanatharn, Rattana; Sanjaroensuttikul, Nopawan; Anadirekkul, Preeyanuch; Chaivisate, Rungtip; Wannasetta, Wanthanee

    2004-09-01

    To assess the effectiveness of lumbar traction with routine conservative treatment in acute herniated disc syndrome. Randomized double-blind controlled trial. Outpatient clinic of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 120 participants who met the diagnostic criteria of acute herniated disc syndrome were randomized into two groups. The study group received treated traction, and the control group received sham traction. All patients had routine conservative treatments (consisting of NSAIDs, instruction of proper back activity and precaution, back exercise, and heat modality). The main outcome measurement was the Oswestry score, which was collected on the first day and at the 4th week of the treatment. At the end of the study, all patients recorded global improvement and satisfaction. Of 120 patients divided into two groups equally, 12 and 6 cases in the control and intervention groups dropped out of the study. The mean (SD) change of the Oswestry score were 19.25 (15.9) and 25.25 (16.68) in control and intervention groups respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups with the p-value of 0.067 and 95%CI of - 0.42-12.43. Approximately 89% of patients in each group had improvement of their symptoms, and 90% in each group were satisfied with lumbar traction. Co-intervention with heat modality, NSAIDs use and back exercise did not differ between the two groups. The data do not support the benefit of traction for patients with acute herniated disc syndrome. The patient can be conservatively treated at home with proper instruction.

  8. Changes in sagittal lumbar configuration with a new method of extension traction: nonrandomized clinical controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Deed E; Cailliet, Rene; Harrison, Donald D; Janik, Tadeusz J; Holland, Burt

    2002-11-01

    To determine if a new method of lumbar extension traction can increase lordosis in chronic low back pain (LBP) subjects with decreased lordosis. Nonrandomized controlled trial with follow-up at 3 months and 1(1/2) years. Primary care spine clinic in Nevada. Beginning in mid-1998, the first 48 consecutive patients, who met the inclusion criteria of chronic LBP with decreased lordosis and who completed the treatment program were matched for sex, age, height, weight, and pain scores to 30 control subjects with chronic LBP, who received no treatment. A new form of 3-point bending lumbar extension traction was provided in-office 3 to 4 times a week for 12+/-4 weeks. Per session, traction duration was started at 3 minutes and was increased to a maximum of 20 minutes. For short-term pain relief, torsion lumbar spinal manipulation was provided in the initial 3 weeks. Pain as measured on a visual analog scale (VAS) and standing lateral lumbar radiographic measurements. Pain scales and radiographic measurements did not change in the control subjects. In the traction group, VAS ratings decreased from mean +/- standard deviation of 4.4+/-1.9 pretreatment to 0.6+/-0.9 posttreatment (Plumbar extension traction is the first nonsurgical rehabilitative procedure to show increases in lumbar lordosis in chronic LBP subjects with hypolordosis. The fact that there was no change in control subjects' lumbar lordosis indicates the stability of the lumbar lordosis and the repeatability of x-ray procedures. Because, on average, chronic LBP patients have hypolordosis, additional randomized trials should be performed to evaluate the clinical significance of restoration of the lumbar lordosis in chronic LBP subjects. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  9. The biomechanics of gravity-dependent traction of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, A W; Kerkow, T A; Griffiths, H J; Sparrow, E M; Iaizzo, P A

    1997-02-01

    This study evaluated the biomechanical responses evoked by the use of a gravity-dependent, self-operated traction device. These responses were determined by radiographs and were correlated with the body weight of the patient who was supported by a seat strap. To examine the biomechanical effectiveness of the LTX 3000 Lumbar Rehabilitation System. The LTX 3000 Lumbar Rehabilitation System (Spinal Designs International, Minneapolis, MN) was used to administer the lumbar fraction. No previous study has been conducted on this device. For each of the 14 healthy male patients (age range, 19-69 years), lumbar lengthening, alterations in spinal curvature, and thoracic spine movement were assessed using radiographs taken: 1) before traction; 2) at 2, 10, and 15 minutes after the onset of traction; and 3) 2 minutes after traction was completed. Strain on the buttocks-supporting seat strap was recorded continuously during study sessions. The entire patient pool displayed an average maximal lumbar lengthening of 6.39 +/- 4.21 mm. The amount of lumbar lengthening was influenced by the degree of thoracic immobilization and by the amount of prior LTX 3000 (Spinal Designs International) use. Significant curvature reduction was observed during and after traction for the entire patient pool. Strain measurements correlated well with the measured response in the radiographs. Proper use of the LTX 3000 (Spinal Designs International) induces significant lumbar lengthening and curvature reduction in healthy patients. Measurements of body weight supported by the seat strap could help determine if thoracic immobilization has been achieved and if the patient is responding to the lumbar unloading.

  10. Posterior-only surgery with preoperative skeletal traction for management of severe scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpour, Saeedreza; Sorbi, Reza; Rezaei, Reza; Mazda, Keyvan

    2017-04-01

    The surgical treatment of severe adolescent spinal deformities is challenging and carries substantial risks of mortality and morbidity. To mitigate this risk, surgeons have employed various methods as this study designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of preoperative halo-femoral or halo gravity traction (HGT) followed by posterior-only surgery in the management of severe scoliosis. A total number of 23 patients with severe scoliosis treated by preoperative skeletal traction (halo gravity or halo femoral) followed by posterior fusion and instrumentation in one stage. All patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years after surgery. The average age of the patients was 12.7 years at the time of surgery. Mean of the Cobb angle improved from 99.9° ± 8.2° preoperatively to 75.3° ± 8° post-traction and 49.5° ± 7.7° postoperatively. Kyphosis angle corrected from 56.4° ± 9.5° to 38.6° ± 5.8°. The preop-FVC% was 41 ± 6.1% and after 1 year follow-up FVC% was 45.7 ± 7.7%. No patients required an anterior release due to amount of their deformity. Despite the benefits of modern instrumentation procedures, the treatment of severe scoliosis can be very competing. We think that by applying preoperative halo femoral traction and halo-gravity traction, managing severe scoliosis will be in safe and easy manner and can lead to better deformity correction and less neurological complications and facilitate to avoid anterior operation for severe scoliosis and its related complications.

  11. Decoupling Substrate Stiffness, Spread Area, and Micropost Density: A Close Spatial Relationship between Traction Forces and Focal Adhesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sangyoon J.; Bielawski, Kevin S.; Ting, Lucas H.; Rodriguez, Marita L.; Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical cues can influence the manner in which cells generate traction forces and form focal adhesions. The stiffness of a cell’s substrate and the available area on which it can spread can influence its generation of traction forces, but to what extent these factors are intertwined is unclear. In this study, we used microcontact printing and micropost arrays to control cell spreading, substrate stiffness, and post density to assess their effect on traction forces and focal adhesions. We find that both the spread area and the substrate stiffness influence traction forces in an independent manner, but these factors have opposite effects: cells on stiffer substrates produce higher average forces, whereas cells with larger spread areas generate lower average forces. We show that post density influences the generation of traction forces in a manner that is more dominant than the effect of spread area. Additionally, we observe that focal adhesions respond to spread area, substrate stiffness, and post density in a manner that closely matches the trends seen for traction forces. This work supports the notion that traction forces and focal adhesions have a close relationship in their response to mechanical cues. PMID:22947925

  12. Skeletal traction versus external fixation for pediatric femoral shaft fractures: a comparison of hospital costs and charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nork, S E; Hoffinger, S A

    1998-01-01

    To compare the hospital costs, charges, and reimbursement for treatment of pediatric femur fractures by two treatment methods: external fixation and 90-90 traction with spica casting. Retrospective clinical review. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Children's Hospital Oakland, regional pediatric trauma center. Twenty-nine consecutive patients between the ages of five and ten with a fracture of the femoral shaft were treated by one of two methods: external fixation (sixteen patients) or 90-90 skeletal traction followed by spica casting (thirteen patients). External fixation or 90-90 traction followed by spica casting. Hospital billing data including costs, charges, reimbursement for the initial inpatient hospitalization, and outpatient financial data until fracture union and cessation of treatment. There was no difference in age, total treatment time, mechanism of injury, or number of associated injuries between the two groups. The average charge for treatment with skeletal traction and spica casting was $32,094 per patient versus $21,439 for external fixation (p traction and spica casting was $22,396 per patient versus $11,520 for external fixation (p traction group than for the external fixation group (22.3 days versus 4.7 days, p skeletal traction followed by spica casting.

  13. Study of the asynchronous traction drive's operating modes by computer simulation. Part 1: Problem formulation and computer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel KOLPAHCHYAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problems arising from the design of electric locomotives with asynchronous traction drive (with three-phase AC induction motors are considered as including the debugging of control algorithms. The electrical circuit provides the individual (by axle control of traction motors. This allows realizing the operational disconnection/connection of one or more axles in the automatic mode, with account of actual load. In perspective, the evaluation of locomotive's energy efficiency at the realization of various control algorithms must be obtained. Another objective is to research the dynamic processes in various modes of the electric locomotive operation (start and acceleration, traction regime, coasting movement, wheel-slide protection, etc. To solve these problems, a complex computer model based on the representation of AC traction drive as controlled electromechanical system, is developed in Part 1. The description of methods applied in modeling of traction drive elements (traction motors, power converters, control systems, as well as of mechanical part and of "wheel-rail" contact, is given. The control system provides the individual control of the traction motors. Part 2 of the paper focuses on the results of dynamic processes modeling in various modes of electric locomotive operation.

  14. Diagnostic performance of direct traction MR arthrography of the hip: detection of chondral and labral lesions with arthroscopic comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmaranzer, Florian; Klauser, Andrea; Henninger, Benjamin [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Kogler, Michael; Schmaranzer, Ehrenfried [District Hospital St. Johann in Tyrol, Department of Radiology, St. Johann in Tyrol (Austria); Forstner, Thomas [Johannes Keppler University, Department for Applied Systems Research and Statistics, Linz (Austria); Reichkendler, Markus [District Hospital St. Johann in Tyrol, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, St. Johann in Tyrol (Austria)

    2015-06-01

    To assess diagnostic performance of traction MR arthrography of the hip in detection and grading of chondral and labral lesions with arthroscopic comparison. Seventy-five MR arthrograms obtained ± traction of 73 consecutive patients (mean age, 34.5 years; range, 14-54 years) who underwent arthroscopy were included. Traction technique included weight-adapted traction (15-23 kg), a supporting plate for the contralateral leg, and intra-articular injection of 18-27 ml (local anaesthetic and contrast agent). Patients reported on neuropraxia and on pain. Two blinded readers independently assessed femoroacetabular cartilage and labrum lesions which were correlated with arthroscopy. Interobserver agreement was calculated using κ values. Joint distraction ± traction was evaluated in consensus. No procedure had to be stopped. There were no cases of neuropraxia. Accuracy for detection of labral lesions was 92 %/93 %, 91 %/83 % for acetabular lesions, and 92 %/88 % for femoral cartilage lesions for reader 1/reader 2, respectively. Interobserver agreement was moderate (κ = 0.58) for grading of labrum lesions and substantial (κ = 0.7, κ = 0.68) for grading of acetabular and femoral cartilage lesions. Joint distraction was achieved in 72/75 and 14/75 hips with/without traction, respectively. Traction MR arthrography safely enabled accurate detection and grading of labral and chondral lesions. (orig.)

  15. RATIONAL MODES DETERMINATION OF TRACTION MOTORS LOADING-BACK FOR ELECTRIC ROLLING STOCK IN MAINLINE AND INDUSTRIAL TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Afanasov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Loading-back systems are used for post-maintenance acceptance tests of electric traction motors of electric rolling stock (ERS in mainline and industrial transport. The aim of the research is justification of choice method of the rational loading-back parameters of traction electric motors during the tests for heating. Methodology. At the heart of the choice method justification of the rational loading-back parameters is a theory of heating the homogeneous solid body and well-known methods of heating calculations of traction electric machines. Findings. Expediency of heating tests for electric traction motors at load currents equal to the starting current (for ERS of mainline transport or fifteen minutes current (for ERS of industrial transport was substantiated. It was shown that this increase of load current will reduce the electricity costs of the tests for 20–30% and shorten the tests duration for three–four times while ensuring the corrected power minimum of energy sources in loading-back system. Originality. It is shown that the energy costs for heating tests of the traction motors can be reduced by both the increasing the energy efficiency of the loading-back system and by the optimizing of loading mode of traction electric machines. Choice technique of rational modes of loading-back for electric traction motors of rolling stock in mainline and industrial transport was grounded. Practical value. Load current increase of traction electric motors during their tests for heating will reduce the total electricity consumption for the acceptance tests, reduce test time and total material costs for repair of the electric traction motors of rolling stock in mainline and industrial transport.

  16. Modification of the SHABERTH bearing code to incorporate RP-1 and a discussion of the traction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Claudia M.

    1990-01-01

    Recently developed traction data for Rocket Propellant 1 (RP-1), a hydrocarbon fuel of the kerosene family, was used to develop the parameters needed by the bearing code SHABERTH in order to include RP-1 as a lubricant choice. The procedure for inputting data for a new lubricant choice is reviewed, and the theoretical fluid traction model is discussed. Comparisons are made between experimental traction data and those predicted by SHABERTH for RP-1. All data needed to modify SHABERTH for use with RP-1 as a lubricant are specified.

  17. Transient common peroneal nerve palsy following skeletal tibial traction in a morbidly obese patient - case report of a preventable complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liporace Frank A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Today, skeletal tibial traction remains a mainstay of initial management following high-energy, major orthopaedic lower extremity trauma. Historically utilized as definitive fracture management, recent advances in surgical technology have moved skeletal tibial traction into the realm of temporary management, with benefits including fracture reduction, pain relief, and restoration of disturbed surrounding soft tissues, lowering wound complication and compartment syndrome rates. However, no procedure is without its risks. Here, we present a case of common peroneal palsy following skeletal tibial traction placement, which resolved with subsequent pin removal. Indications, proper placement, potential etiologies, and a review of the literature are also discussed.

  18. Transient common peroneal nerve palsy following skeletal tibial traction in a morbidly obese patient - case report of a preventable complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liporace, Frank A; Yoon, Richard S; Kesani, Anil K

    2012-02-21

    Today, skeletal tibial traction remains a mainstay of initial management following high-energy, major orthopaedic lower extremity trauma. Historically utilized as definitive fracture management, recent advances in surgical technology have moved skeletal tibial traction into the realm of temporary management, with benefits including fracture reduction, pain relief, and restoration of disturbed surrounding soft tissues, lowering wound complication and compartment syndrome rates. However, no procedure is without its risks. Here, we present a case of common peroneal palsy following skeletal tibial traction placement, which resolved with subsequent pin removal. Indications, proper placement, potential etiologies, and a review of the literature are also discussed.

  19. Integrated Cooling System for Induction Motor Traction Drives, CARAT Program Phase Two Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, Charles E. [VPT, Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2002-12-03

    This Program is directed toward improvements in electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle traction systems, and in particular, the development of a low cost, highly efficient, compact traction motor-controller system targeted for high volume automotive use. Because of the complex inter-relationships between the motor and the controller, the combination of motor and controller must be considered as a system in the design and evaluation of overall cost and performance. The induction motor is ideally suited for use as a traction motor because of its basic ruggedness, low cost, and high efficiency. As one can see in Figure 1.1, the induction motor traction drive has been continually evolving through a succession of programs spanning the past fifteen years. VPT marketed an induction motor-based traction drive system, the EV2000, which proved to be a reliable, high performance system that was used in a wide range of vehicles. The EV2000 drives evolved from the Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP) and has been used in vehicles ranging in size from 3,000 lb. autos and utility vans, to 32,000 lb. city transit buses. Vehicles powered by the EV2000 induction motor powertrain have accumulated over 2 million miles of service. The EV2000 induction motor system represents 1993 state-of-the-art technology, and evolved from earlier induction motor programs that drove induction motor speeds up to 15,000 rpm to reduce the motor size and cost. It was recognized that the improvements in power density and motor cost sought in the PNGV program could only be achieved through increases in motor speed. Esson’s Rule for motor power clearly states that the power obtainable from a given motor design is the product of motor speed and volume. In order to meet the CARAT Program objectives, the maximum speed goal of the induction motor designed in this Program was increased from 15,000 rpm to 20,000 rpm while maintaining the efficiency and durability demonstrated by lower speed designs done in

  20. SELECTION OF RATIONAL PARAMETERS OF THE NOMINAL MODE ELECTRIC TRAINS WITH ASYNCHRONOUS TRACTION DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Hetman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Parameters of the nominal mode are related to the most important performance indicators of traction means, therefore, the problems of choosing their optimal values always inevitably arise when forming technical requirements for a new rolling stock. The paper describes the features of solving the above-mentioned problems for electric trains with an asynchronous traction drive in the case of two-zone and three-zone frequency control of power. Methodology. Power of nominal mode of the rolling stock should be chosen in such a way that it would be possible to realize a predetermined travel time along in the section or the movement speed. On that basis, and also taking into account the fact that the important operational characteristics of electric trains include the acceleration value during the start-up and acceleration at the design speed, we will formulate the problem of determining the nominal power. In the task for a given range of traction, it is necessary to find such a value of the nominal mode power and the corresponding force value to ensure the ability to carry out transportations with the given level of average speed with minimal energy consumption for traction. At the same time, it is necessary to fulfill the following conditions: a the speed of the electric train on the section does not exceed the established limits; b it is possible to realize the given values of accelerations. A more detailed consideration of the problem shows that in real conditions, when the starting acceleration and the mass of the train are given, the problem of determining electric train power is practically reduced to determining the optimal value of the nominal mode speed. Findings. The task of choosing the optimal values of the nominal mode speed is solved by determining the electric power consumption with the variation of the possible values of starting speed. Therefore, only those values that ensure the implementation of the given starting and

  1. Exercise only, exercise with mechanical traction, or exercise with over-door traction for patients with cervical radiculopathy, with or without consideration of status on a previously described subgrouping rule: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Julie M; Thackeray, Anne; Brennan, Gerard P; Childs, John D

    2014-02-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To examine the effectiveness of cervical traction in addition to exercise for specific subgroups of patients with neck pain. Cervical traction is frequently used, but its effectiveness has not been adequately examined. Existing studies have failed to target patients most likely to respond. Traction is typically recommended for patients with cervical radiculopathy. A prediction rule has been described to identify a narrower subgroup of patients likely to respond to cervical traction. Patients with neck pain and signs of radiculopathy were randomized to 4 weeks of treatment with exercise, exercise with mechanical traction, or exercise with over-door traction. Baseline assessment included subgrouping-rule status. The primary outcome measure (Neck Disability Index, scored 0-100) and secondary outcome measure (neck and arm pain intensity) were assessed at 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after enrollment. The primary analyses examined 2-way treatment-by-time interactions. Secondary analyses examined validity of the subgrouping rule by adding 3-way interactions. Eighty-six patients (53.5% female; mean age, 46.9 years) were enrolled in the study. Intention-to-treat analysis found lower Neck Disability Index scores at 6 months in the mechanical traction group compared to the exercise group (mean difference between groups, 13.3; 95% confidence interval: 5.6, 21.0) and over-door traction group (mean difference between groups, 8.1; 95% confidence interval: 0.8, 15.3), and at 12 months in the mechanical traction group compared to the exercise group (mean difference between groups, 9.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.2, 19.4). Secondary outcomes favored mechanical traction at several time points. The validity of the subgrouping rule was supported on the Neck Disability Index at the 6-month time point only. Adding mechanical traction to exercise for patients with cervical radiculopathy resulted in lower disability and pain, particularly at long-term follow

  2. The seed's protein and oil content, fatty acid composition, and growing cycle length of a single genotype of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as affected by environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayerza, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    As a botanical source, variability in chia seed composition could be expected between growing locations, and between years within a location, due to genotype and environment effects as well genetic x environment's interactions. The objective of the present study was to determine the location effect on the growing cycle length, and seed's protein content, lipid content, and fatty acid profiles, of a single chia genotype. Seeds of chia genotype Tzotzol grown on eight sites in five different ecosystems were tested. One site was in Argentina, in the Semi-Arid Chaco ecosystem (T(5)); one was in Bolivia, in the Sub-Humid Chaco ecosystem (T(4)); and six in Ecuador, one in the Coastal Desert (T(3)), two on the Tropical Rain Forest (T(2)), and three in the Inter-Andean Dry Valley ecosystem (T(1)). Seeds from plants grown in T(4) and in T(3) contained significantly (P seeds from the other three ecosystems. No significant (P Seeds from T(1) and T(5) ecosystems, with 33.5 and 32.2%, respectively, were the numerically highest oil content producers, but their results were only significantly (P seeds. Significant (P fatty acids between oils from seeds grown in different ecosystems were detected, however. Oil of seeds grown in the T(3) ecosystem had the palmitic, stearic and oleic fatty acids' highest contents. Palmitic and oleic fatty acid levels were significantly (P seeds grown in the T(1) ecosystem, and stearic when was compared to that of seeds grown in the T(5) ecosystem; omega-6 linoleic fatty acid content was significantly (P oils of seeds produced in T(1), and T(2) than in those produced in T(3), T(4), and T(5) ecosystems; omega-3 alpha-linolenic fatty acid content was significantly (P seeds produced in T(1), than in those produced in T(3), T(4), and T(5), but not in those produced in T(2).

  3. ABOUT TRACK CIRCUIT CALCULATION METHOD DEPENDENT ON FERROMAGNET PROPERTIES IN CONDITIONS OF TRACTION CURRENT NOISE INFLUENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Zhuravlev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The work is intended to investigate the electromagnetic processes in impedance bond in order to improve noise immunity of track circuits (TC for safe railway operation. Methodology. To achieve this purpose the methods of scientific analysis, mathematical modelling, experimental study, a large-scale simulation were used. Findings. The work examined the interference affecting the normal performance of track circuits. To a large extent, part of track circuit damages account for failures in track circuit equipment. Track circuit equipment is connected directly to the track line susceptible to traction current interference, which causes changes in its electrical characteristics and electromagnetic properties. Normal operability, performance of the main operating modes of the track circuit is determined by previous calculation of its performance and compilation of regulatory tables. The classical method for determination of track circuit parameters was analysed. The classical calculation method assumes representation of individual sections of the electrical track circuit using the quadripole network with known coefficients, usually in the A-form. Determining the coefficients of linear element circuit creates no metrological or mathematical difficulties. However, in circuits containing nonlinear ferromagnets (FM, obtaining the coefficients on the entire induction change range in the cores is quite a difficult task because the classical methods of idling (I and short circuit (SC are not acceptable. This leads to complicated methods for determining both the module and the arguments of quadripole network coefficients. Instead of the classical method, the work proposed the method for calculating the track circuit dependent on nonlinear properties of ferromagnets. Originality. The article examines a new approach to the calculation of TC taking into account the losses in ferromagnets (FM, without determination of equivalent circuit quadripole

  4. Soil–water content and air-filled porosity affect height growth of Scots pine in afforested arable land in Finland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wall, Antti; Heiskanen, Juha

    2009-01-01

    We examined the soil-water content (SWC) and air-filled porosity (AFP) of afforested arable land in situ and related them with tree growth, which was expressed as the total length of 5-year-height growth above 2.5m stem height...

  5. Treatment of adult femoral shaft fractures using the Perkins traction at addis Ababa Tikur Anbessa University Hospital: the Ethiopian experience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bezabeh, Bahiru; Wamisho, Biruk L; Coles, Maxime Jm

    2012-01-01

    This is a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy of the Perkins traction in the treatment of adult femoral shaft fractures from October 1, 2007, to the present at the Black Lion Hospital in Addis...

  6. Long-Life, Oil-Free, Light-Weight, Multi-Roller Traction Drives for Planetary Vehicle Surface Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A multi-roller "oil free" traction drive is under development for use on vehicles used in hostile environments like those that will be encountered on planetary...

  7. Long-Life, Oil-Free Polymeric, Multi-Roller Traction Drives for Planetary Vehicle Surface Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multi-roller traction drives have several advantages relative to geared units for aerospace and commercial drive applications. Among these are zero backlash, low...

  8. Hg contents in soils and olive-tree (Olea Europea, L.) leaves from an area affected by elemental mercury pollution (Jódar, SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Amorós, José Angel; Lorenzo, Saturnino; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; Perez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad

    2014-05-01

    Data from soil and olive tree leaves around a decommissioned chlor-alkali plant are presented in this communication. The factory was active in the period 1977-1991, producing during these years a heavily pollution of Guadalquivir River and hydrargyrism in more than local 45 workers. It is located at 7 km South of Jódar, a locality with some 12,120 inhabitants. Mercury usage was general in this type of plants, but at present it is being replaced by other types of technologies, due to the risks of mercury usage in personal and environment. A soil geochemistry survey was carried out in the area, along with the analysis of olive-tree leaves (in the plots with this culture) from the same area. 73 soil samples were taken at two different depths (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm), together with 41 olive tree samples. Mercury content of geologic and biologic samples was determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Zeeman Effect, using a Lumex RA-915+ device with the RP-91C pyrolysis attachment. Air surveys were carried our using a RA-915M Lumex portable analytical device. Soil mercury contents were higher in topsoil than in the deeper soil samples, indicating that incorporation of mercury was due to dry and wet deposition of mercury vapors emitted from the plant. Average content in topsoil is 564.5 ng g-1. Hg contents in olive-tree leaves were in the range 46 - 453 ng g-1, with an average of 160.6 ng g-1. This level is slightly lower than tolerable level for agronomic crops established by Kabata-Pendias (2001) in 200 ng g-1. We have also compared soil and leaf contents for each sampling site, finding a positive and significant correlation (R=0.49), indicating that Hg contents in the leaves are linked to Hg contents in the soils. BAC (Bioaccumulation Absorption Coefficient, calculated as ratio between soil and leaf concentration) is 0.28 (consistent with world references, BAC = 0.7), considered "medium" in comparison with other mineral elements. Main conclusions of this

  9. Analysis of patients with nonambulatory neuromuscular scoliosis surgically treated to the pelvis with intraoperative halo-femoral traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Katsushi; Lenke, Lawrence G; Bridwell, Keith H; Kim, Yongjung J; Sides, Brenda; Hensley, Marsha

    2006-09-15

    Retrospective case-control study. To compare patients treated with and without intraoperative halo-femoral traction to assess neuromuscular spinal deformity correction as well as the safety of the technique. Optimal sitting balance can be achieved in nonambulatory neuromuscular patients with pelvic obliquity by maneuvering a Galveston-type rod or inserting screws into the iliac wings; however, this is often clinically challenging because of the small, soft bone-stock in the pelvis of these patients. A total of 40 patients with nonambulatory neuromuscular scoliosis were treated surgically with a T2 or T3-sacrum instrumented posterior spinal fusion. There were 20 patients (12 who underwent posterior spinal fusion-alone and 8 anterior/posterior spinal fusion) who had intraoperative halo-femoral traction performed unilaterally on the high side iliac wing compared to a control group of 20 patients (15 who underwent posterior spinal fusion-alone and 5 anterior/posterior spinal fusion) operatively treated without halo-femoral traction. Each group had 14 patients with spastic (cerebral palsy) scoliosis, and 6 with flaccid (muscular dystrophy) scoliosis deformities. Minimum follow-up for all patients was 2 years (range 3-12). Preoperative lumbar scoliosis averaged 87 degrees (range 30 degrees-141 degrees) in the halo-femoral traction group and 67 degrees (range 28 degrees-108 degrees) in the control group (P = 0.012). Postoperative lumbar Cobb decreased to 35 degrees (range 15 degrees-60 degrees) in the halo-femoral traction group and 32 degrees (range 4 degrees-66 degrees) in the control group (P = 0.181). Preoperative pelvic obliquity averaged 26 degrees (range 8 degrees-47 degrees) in the halo-femoral traction group and 17 degrees (range 8 degrees-44 degrees) in the control group (P = 0.017); postoperative averaged 6 degrees (range 1 degrees-23 degrees) in the halo-femoral traction group and 7 degrees (range 0 degrees-27 degrees) in the control group. Average pelvic

  10. Tire-road friction estimation and traction control strategy for motorized electric vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li-Qiang; Ling, Mingze; Yue, Weiqiang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an optimal longitudinal slip ratio system for real-time identification of electric vehicle (EV) with motored wheels is proposed based on the adhesion between tire and road surface. First and foremost, the optimal longitudinal slip rate torque control can be identified in real time by calculating the derivative and slip rate of the adhesion coefficient. Secondly, the vehicle speed estimation method is also brought. Thirdly, an ideal vehicle simulation model is proposed to verify the algorithm with simulation, and we find that the slip ratio corresponds to the detection of the adhesion limit in real time. Finally, the proposed strategy is applied to traction control system (TCS). The results showed that the method can effectively identify the state of wheel and calculate the optimal slip ratio without wheel speed sensor; in the meantime, it can improve the accelerated stability of electric vehicle with traction control system (TCS).

  11. Algorithm for Choosing Traction Rolling-Stock for Railway Line Rail Baltica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasys Steišūnas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses traction rolling-stock for freight transportation presently used by AB Lietuvos geležinkeliai. The paper explores and compares technical data on the above mentioned rolling-stock and estimates exploitation expenses. Following an assessment of forecasting freight flows on the future railway line Rail Baltica, an algorithm for selecting traction rolling-stock is proposed. The efficiency of locomotives operating on the railway is determined taking into account three multi-criteria evaluation methods: the sum of ratings, simple additive weighting and geometric mean method. Locomotives are estimated in accordance with technical, economic and ecological aspects. The results of possible performance efficiency of rolling stock have been determined changing weight coefficient values of the criteria.

  12. Application of a High-Power Reversible Converter in a Hybrid Traction Power Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A high-power reversible converter can achieve a variety of functions, such as recovering regenerative braking energy, expanding traction power capacity, and improving an alternating current (AC grid power factor. A new hybrid traction power supply scheme, which consists of a high-power reversible converter and two 12-pulse diode rectifiers, is proposed. A droop control method based on load current feed-forward is adopted to realize the load distribution between the reversible converter and the existing 12-pulse diode rectifiers. The direct current (DC short-circuit characteristics of the reversible converter is studied, then the relationship between the peak fault current and the circuit parameters is obtained from theoretical calculations and validated by computer simulation. The first two sets of 2 MW reversible converters have been successfully applied in Beijing Metro Line 10, the proposed hybrid application scheme and coordinated control strategy are verified, and 11.15% of average energy-savings is reached.

  13. A Study of Coordinated Vehicle Traction Control System Based on Optimal Slip Ratio Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Under complicated situations, such as the low slippery road surface and split-μ road surface, traction control system is the key issue to improve the performance of vehicle acceleration and stability. In this paper, a novel control strategy with engine controller and active pressure controller is presented. First and foremost, an ideal vehicle model is proposed for simulation; then a method for the calculation of optimal slip ratio is also brought. Finally, the scheme of control method with engine controller and active brake controller is presented. From the results of simulation and road tests, it can be concluded that the acceleration performance and stability of a vehicle equipped with traction control system (TCS can be improved.

  14. Experimental Research of Harmonic Spectrum of Currents at Traction Drive with PMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Novak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the significant results of the experimental research of current harmonic spectrum of traction drive with permanent magnet synchronous motor. The experiments were done on a special workplace with a real traction drive for wheel vehicles. Current harmonic spectrum was analyzed by a specialized device on the base of central measuring station. The knowledge of current marked subharmonic components of stator winding is the most significant finding of experiments. The frequencies of these components are given by multiples of frequency of mechanical speeds. The subharmonic components also pass to input DC current of drive. This fact is important in particular from the point of view of legislative requirements to electromagnetic compatibility of drive with railway interlocking devices.

  15. PREDICTIVE FACTORS OF SURGICAL OUTCOMES IN VITRECTOMY FOR MYOPIC TRACTION MACULOPATHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kyoko; Kataoka, Keiko; Takeuchi, Jun; Ito, Yasuki; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2017-11-07

    To assess predictive factors and surgical outcomes for myopic traction maculopathy. This retrospective observational case study enrolled 73 patients who underwent vitrectomy for myopic traction maculopathy. The 79 eyes obtained from our study sample were divided into 4 types: retinoschisis, lamellar macular hole (lamellar MH), foveal retinal detachment (FRD), and FRD + lamellar MH, or into 2 types according to the presence of FRD preoperatively. Dependent variables of interest were age, sex, pre- and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 6 months, and axial length. All the four types showed moderately strong-to-strong positive correlations with pre- and postoperative BCVA (retinochisisi: r = 0.61; lamellar MH: r = 0.62; FRD: r = 0.51; FRD + lamellar MH; r = 0.83). Preoperative BCVA was associated with postoperative BCVA (P maculopathy.

  16. Concept for a Differential Lock and Traction Control Model in Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukul, A. K.; Hansra, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    The automobile is a complex integration of electronics and mechanical components. One of the major components is the differential which is limited due to its shortcomings. The paper proposes a concept of a cost effective differential lock and traction for passenger cars to sports utility vehicles alike, employing a parallel braking mechanism coming into action based on the relative speeds of the wheels driven by the differential. The paper highlights the employment of minimum number of components unlike the already existing systems. The system was designed numerically for the traction control and differential lock for the world's cheapest car. The paper manages to come up with all the system parameters and component costing making it a cost effective system.

  17. Treatment of supracondylar fracture of the humerus in children by skeletal traction in a brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, K; Nakatani, N; Harada, M; Tamaki, T

    2004-03-01

    In 1980, we developed a specially designed brace for treating supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children, along with an easy and safe technique of reduction by skeletal traction. This method, which takes into consideration only the medial tilting and anterior angulation of the distal fragment, achieves complete reduction, ignoring any lateral, posterior and minor rotational displacements of the fragment. Skeletal traction is applied through a screw inserted into the olecranon and the angulation at the fracture site is reduced regardless of the anatomical position without manipulation. We treated 193 children with displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus using this method between 1980 and 2001. Only four children (2%) developed cubitus varus. The majority obtained an excellent range of movement at the elbow; one had a 25 degree limitation of flexion. This technique is an effective and easy method of treating supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children.

  18. Use of traction in cervical spine fractures during interhospital transfer by aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, S; Watts, C; Loos, L; Cope, M

    1990-03-01

    Despite significant improvement in the organization and function of the nation's emergency medical services and the increasing sophistication of initial providers of critical care, there has apparently been no reduction in the incidence of neurological deficits suffered by patients with unstable cervical spine injuries during management prior to intervention by the spine surgeon. In analyzing the techniques used to stabilize patients with suspected unstable cervical spine injuries during this phase, we conclude that present standard techniques are either insufficient or potentially destabilizing. We have developed a system that will permit the use of cervical traction, applied with a halter or the standard Gardner-Wells tongs, during the prehospital phase of management of patients with cervical spine injuries. Based on our experience with the system, we recommend that patients with such injuries be stabilized with skeletal traction when transferred between hospitals by air ambulance. Logic permits consideration of the concept even earlier in the prehospital phase of management and in ground ambulances.

  19. THE STRUCTURE OF THE ELECTROTECHNIC TRACTION COMPLEX OF VEHICLE WITH ENERGY STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kurys

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the existing means of improving the energy efficiency of vehicles with electric transmission, on its basis the special place of electricity storage is allocated. The scheme of transistor converter for implementation of the DC motor traction characteristics by consistent or independent excitation modes of acceleration movement and braking is given. Additionally, the scheme is introduced for the controlled capacitor drive for accumulation of excess braking energy and use it during acceleration. To study the transition process in operation mode of transistor converter the mathematical model of electro-technical traction complex is developed. The model realizes the dynamic (acceleration and stationary (weakening magnetic flux modes of DC motor with capacitor energy storage

  20. A mathematical model of tumour angiogenesis incorporating cellular traction and viscoelastic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, M J; Sleeman, B D

    2000-01-21

    Angiogenesis is defined as the outgrowth and formation of new vessels from a pre-existing vascular network (Rakusan, In: Cardiac Growth and Regeneration. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1995), and is of fundamental importance in understanding the processes by which a tumour achieves vascularization. Diffusible substances, collectively called tumour angiogenesis factors are released from the tumour to elicit a variety of responses from the surrounding tissues, most importantly the migration of endothelial cells (lining neighbouring vessels) towards the tumour. To facilitate locomotion, the cells exert appreciable traction forces upon the interstitial extracellular matrix which, in turn, influences the resulting direction of their migration. In this paper, we examine the role played by cellular traction during cell migration and the corresponding viscoelastic effects of the extracellular matrix. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  1. COMPARISON BETWEEN POSTERIOR TO ANTERIOR MOBILIZATION AND TRACTION SLR ON PAIN AND NEURODYNAMIC MOBILITY IN PATIENTS OF LOW BACK PAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Varun; Malik Manoj; Malik Jaspreet; Ganer Naveen

    2014-01-01

    Background : Low back pain is one of the most prevalent condition . According to the American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons about 80 percent of people will have at least one bout with back pain during their lifetime . Various treatments methods have been used like traction SLR , posterior to anterior mobilization etc, but no study was done to compare the effects of posterior to anterior mobilization and traction SLR technique in reducing pain and increasing neurodynamic mobility in p...

  2. Use of Bivector Traction for Stabilization of the Head and Maintenance of Optimal Cervical Alignment in Posterior Cervical Fusions

    OpenAIRE

    Karikari, Isaac O.; Bumpass, David B.; Gum, Jeffrey; Sugrue, Patrick; Chapman, Todd M.; Elsamadicy, Aladine A.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective analysis of consecutive case series. Objective: To introduce a novel method of stabilizing the cranium using bivector traction in posterior cervical fusions. Methods: A retrospective review of 50 consecutive patients undergoing instrumented posterior cervical arthrodesis was performed. All patients had at least 3 levels of subaxial fusion using the bivector traction apparatus. Patients? demographic data was recorded for the following: pre- and postoperative cervica...

  3. Metal-enclosed, air-insulated traction switchgear - developments and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loenard, D.; Northe, J. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH Power Systems, Offenbach (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    TracFeed {sup registered} TA switchgear series has been extended and successfully type tested under exceptional conditions for the requirements of 15 kV 16,7 Hz traction power supply systems. Therefore, air-insulated, metal-enclosed prefabricated switchgear systems are available for AC power supply with 15 kV 16,7 Hz in one- and two-pole configurations. The new switchgears are now in use in several installations. (orig.)

  4. The Berlin Aussenring - electrification and traction power supply; Berliner Aussenring - Elektrifizierung und Bahnenergieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeltzsch, W.

    2006-07-01

    The Berlin Aussenring, step by step completed from 1945 to 1989, was electrified with AC 15 kV 16 2/3Hz in the year 1983 to 1985. Power supply was realized from six decentral converter stations and overhead contact line network was normally coupled via switch boards and coupling posts. Conversion to central traction power supply started in 1997 and shall be finished in 2007. (orig.)

  5. CD28 and CD3 have complementary roles in T-cell traction forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashour, Keenan T; Gondarenko, Alexander; Chen, Haoqian; Shen, Keyue; Liu, Xin; Huse, Morgan; Hone, James C; Kam, Lance C

    2014-02-11

    Mechanical forces have key roles in regulating activation of T cells and coordination of the adaptive immune response. A recent example is the ability of T cells to sense the rigidity of an underlying substrate through the T-cell receptor (TCR) coreceptor CD3 and CD28, a costimulation signal essential for cell activation. In this report, we show that these two receptor systems provide complementary functions in regulating the cellular forces needed to test the mechanical properties of the extracellular environment. Traction force microscopy was carried out on primary human cells interacting with micrometer-scale elastomer pillar arrays presenting activation antibodies to CD3 and/or CD28. T cells generated traction forces of 100 pN on arrays with both antibodies. By providing one antibody or the other in solution instead of on the pillars, we show that force generation is associated with CD3 and the TCR complex. Engagement of CD28 increases traction forces associated with CD3 through the signaling pathway involving PI3K, rather than providing additional coupling between the cell and surface. Force generation is concentrated to the cell periphery and associated with molecular complexes containing phosphorylated Pyk2, suggesting that T cells use processes that share features with integrin signaling in force generation. Finally, the ability of T cells to apply forces through the TCR itself, rather than the CD3 coreceptor, was tested. Mouse cells expressing the 5C.C7 TCR exerted traction forces on pillars presenting peptide-loaded MHCs that were similar to those with α-CD3, suggesting that forces are applied to antigen-presenting cells during activation.

  6. A comparative study on OCT before and after the operation for vitreomacular traction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Qi Song

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To make a contrast and then analyze the difference of optical coherence tomography(OCTbefore and after vitreomacular traction syndrome(VTSwas performed. METHODS: The clinical date of 11 evaluable eyes of 11 patients with VTS who were diagnosed by OCT and underwent 25G vitreous surgery from January 2013 to January 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were followed up for an average of 6mo, to observe the visual acuity and OCT examination of the patient before and after operation. We compared the changes of retinal thickness and local morphology before and after operation.RESULTS: After vitreous retraction, 6 eyes improved, 2 eyes do not improve. One eye received macular membrane traction, in the operation the macular epiretinal membrane peeling, retrial membrane stripping and the triamcinolone acetonide intravitreal injection were given, but after the operation, the vision does not improve. Two eyes received vitreous combined with retinal macular membrane traction. In the operation, macular epiretinal membrane stripping was given, after the operation, visual acuity improved. The proportion of those with visual acuity of 0.1 or more increased from 46% before to 73% after the operation. Before operations, the mean central macular thickness was 619.27±195.13μm, 239.12±143.84μm after, which decreased significantly(PCONCLUSION: Vitrectomy can effectively relieve the vitreous traction of the macula, and can prevent further decline in visual acuity and reduce macular edema as well as improve the visual acuity of some patients. So, OCT has important guiding significance on the diagnosis and prognosis of this group.

  7. Lateral femoral traction pin entry: risk to the femoral artery and other medial neurovascular structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appleton Paul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Femoral skeletal traction assists in the reduction and transient stabilization of pelvic, acetabular, hip, and femoral fractures when splinting is ineffective. Traditional teaching has recommended a medial entry site for insertion of the traction pin in order to minimize injury to the femoral artery as it passes through Hunter's canal. The present anatomical study evaluates the risk to the femoral artery and other medial neurovascular structures using a lateral entry approach. Methods Six embalmed cadavers (twelve femurs were obtained for dissection. Steinman pins were drilled from lateral to medial at the level of the superior pole of the patella, at 2 cm, and at 4 cm proximal to this point. Medial superficial dissection was then performed to identify the saphenous nerve, the superior medial geniculate artery, the adductor hiatus, the tendinous insertion of the adductor magnus and the femoral artery. Measurements localizing these anatomic structures relative to the pins were obtained. Results The femoral artery was relatively safe and was no closer than 29.6 mm (mean from any of the three Steinman pins. The superior medial geniculate artery was the medial structure at most risk. Conclusions Lateral femoral traction pin entry is a safe procedure with minimal risk to the saphenous nerve and femoral artery. Of the structures examined, only the superior medial geniculate artery is at a risk of iatrogenic injury due to its position. The incidence of such injury in clinical practice and its clinical significance is not known. Lateral insertion facilitates traction pin placement since it minimizes the need to move the contralateral extremity out of the way of the drilling equipment or the need to elevate or externally rotate the injured extremity relative to the contralateral extremity.

  8. A locking-free nonconforming triangular element for planar elasticity with pure traction boundary condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongqin; Chen, Shaochun

    2010-03-01

    A new nonconforming triangular element for the equations of planar linear elasticity with pure traction boundary conditions is considered. By virtue of construction of the element, the discrete version of Korn's second inequality is directly proved to be valid. Convergence rate of the finite element methods is uniformly optimal with respect to [lambda]. Error estimates in the energy norm and L2-norm are O(h2) and O(h3), respectively.

  9. The new generation of Alstom's CORADIA trademark Lint and its diesel traction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindorff, Konrad; Don, Rainer [Alstom Transport Deutschland GmbH, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Easy, convenient boarding, a comfortable journey and passengers who feel relaxed when they arrive - those are the characteristics of the successful family of Coradia multiple units. These trains, which are intended for local and regional services, can be flexibly customised to suit each operating location and number of passengers. It is also possible to chose different vehicle lengths and the traction outputs that are optimally suited to them. (orig.)

  10. [The use of Saunders lumbar traction in physiotherapy of patients with chronic lower back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingot, Julia; Pingot, Mariusz; Łabecka, Monika; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta

    2014-05-01

    Pain of the lower back is one of the most common ailments in modem society. Such frequent occurrence of back pain syndromes is a serious medical and social problem. Despite numerous attempts, there have not been comprehensive or decisive publications on the therapeutic standard for back pain syndromes that would cover all the aspects of the ailment. Partial report can change the attitude and shed new light on the treatment of these syndromes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of Saunders lumbar tractions in patients with chronic lower back pain in comparison with the group of patients undergoing pharmacological treatment. The study included 140 patients with chronic lower back pain who were divided into two groups. Each group consisted of 70 persons of mixed gender (the age mean value was 45). Group I were treated with the use of Saunders lumbar traction and Group II (control group) were treated pharmacologically. The following scales were used to assess pain and mobility of the lumbar part of the vertebral column (before treatment, in-treatment, right after treatment and 30 days after treatment): Laitinen, VAS, Rolland-Morris questionnaire and Schober functional test. The statistical analysis was performed with Greenhouse-Geisser test of within-subjects effects. In both the groups, a significant analgesic action and an improvement to spinal mobility were observed. Significantly better results were obtained in Group I where the patients had been treated with the use of Saunders lumbar traction. The pharmacological treatment applied in Group II showed an analgesic action and influenced positively the functional parameters of the patients. The effects, however, were much worse than in Group 1 where axial Saunders traction was applied to the lumbar part of the vertebral column.

  11. Intraoperative Distal Femoral Fine Wire Traction to Facilitate Intramedullary Nailing of the Femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githens, Michael; Alton, Timothy B; Firoozabadi, Reza; Bishop, Julius A

    2016-01-01

    Many techniques have been employed to facilitate intramedullary nailing of femur fractures. Maintaining limb length during the operation can be difficult. The authors describe the use of distal femoral fine wire skeletal traction as a technique to maintain reduction while allowing intramedullary nailing of femur fractures. This technique is safe, is effective, and negates the need for a fracture table or an assistant. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. le traitement chirurgical des poches de rétraction tympaniques

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    16 juin 2006 ... Nombres de cas. Pourcentage. Attique antérieure. 24. 18. Attique postérieure. 83. 62. Hypotympanum. 4. 3. Région des fenêtres. 67. 50. Sinus tympanum. 30. 22. Recessus facial. 73. 55. Tableau I : Extension des poches de rétraction. Résultat anatomique. Guérison. Récidive. Perforation. Résultat global.

  13. Traction Converting Substation from Viewpoint of Feeding Interlocking Plant at Czech Railwayes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Dolecek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents analyses current and voltage harmonic in traction converting substation 3 kV. It researches their rise and influence to three-phase cable line 6 kV, 50 Hz that is used for feeding interlocking plant. Processing of this task is arisen from requirement practice for line Pěčky - Poříčany - Rostoklaty where happened to adverse ratio in particular transmission line of feeding system. It is meant especially about backward influence traction substation rectifier Pečky to three - phase cable line 6 kV, 50 Hz. At the determinate lenght of the cable line, when resonace frequency of circuit transformer 22 kV/6 kV and the cable line 6 kV, 50 Hz is approached frequency 550 Hz and 650 Hz (i.e. 11 and 13 harmonic are happened to socalled "annulations input reactance of this circuit". That is caused by the leakage of current resonace frequency from traction converting substation to cable line. That proceduces additional losses and deformation waveform of voltage too. This deformation can be reflected on how interlocking plant is working. 

  14. Morphostructural characterization of soil conventionally tilled with mechanized and animal traction with and without cover crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ralisch

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The structural stability and restructuring ability of a soil are related to the methods of crop management and soil preparation. A recommended strategy to reduce the effects of soil preparation is to use crop rotation and cover crops that help conserve and restore the soil structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the homogeneous morphological units in soil under conventional mechanized tillage and animal traction, as well as to assess the effect on the soil structure of intercropping with jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis L.. Profiles were analyzed in April of 2006, in five counties in the Southern-Central region of Paraná State (Brazil, on family farms producing maize (Zea mays L., sometimes intercropped with jack bean. The current structures in the crop profile were analyzed using Geographic Information Systems (GIS and subsequently principal component analysis (PCA to generate statistics. Morphostructural soil analysis showed a predominance of compact units in areas of high-intensity cultivation under mechanized traction. The cover crop did not improve the structure of the soil with low porosity and compact units that hamper the root system growth. In areas exposed to animal traction, a predominance of cracked units was observed, where roots grew around the clods and along the gaps between them.

  15. The wall traction induced by flowing red blood cells in model microvessels and its potential mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Jonathan; Vermot, Julien

    2013-11-01

    There is evidence in early embryonic development, even well before advective oxygen transport is important, that the presence of red bloods cells per se trigger essential steps of normal vascular development. For example, showed that sequestration of blood cells early in the development of a mouse, such that the hematocrit is reduced, suppresses normal vascular network development. Vascular development also provides a model for remodeling and angiogenesis. We consider the transient stresses associated with blood cells flowing in model microvessels of comparable diameter to those at early stages of development (6 μm to 12 μm). A detailed simulation tool is used to show that passing blood cells present a significant fluctuating traction signature on the vessel wall, well above the mean stresses. This is particularly pronounced for slow flows (<= 50 μm/s) or small diameters (<= 7 μm), for which root-mean-square wall traction fluctuations can exceed their mean. These events potentially present mechanotranduction triggers that direct development or remodeling. Attenuation of such fluctuating tractions by a viscoelastic endothelial glycocalyx layer is also considered. NSF supported.

  16. Traction performance simulation for mechanical front wheel drive tractors: towards a practical computer tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Battiato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model to simulate the traction performance of mechanical front wheel drive MFWD tractors was developed at the Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon ART. The model was validated via several field tests in which the relationship between drawbar pull and slip was measured for four MFWD tractors of power ranging between 40 and 123 kW on four arable soils of different texture (clay, clay loam, silty loam, and loamy sand. The pulling tests were carried out in steady-state controlling the pulling force along numerous corridors. Different configurations of tractors were considered by changing the wheel load and the tyre pressure. Simulations of traction performance matched experimental results with good agreement (mean error of 8% with maximum and minimum values of 17% and 1% respectively. The model was used as framework for developing a new module for the excel application TASCV3.0.xlsm, a practical computer tool which compares different tractor configurations, soil textures and conditions, in order to determine variants which make for better traction performance, this resulting in saving fuel and time, i.e. reducing the costs of tillage management.

  17. MODEL CALCULATING THE INSTANTANEOUS MODE PARAMETER A TRACTION POWER SYSTEM MOVING ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.O. Slobodenjuk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the methods of analysis for calculating the electrical parameters of the mode of the traction power supply systems identified deficiencies related to the readability of the calculation and use of non-sinusoidal currents difficulties in that peculiar modern traction complexes with semiconductor converters. Using the methods of electrical engineering theory developed a model for calculating a continuous instantaneous mode parameters of the traction power supply systems, is different from the calculation methods that have been used previously by the fact that the original data is not averages, and pre-defined instantaneous values of electric current and speed. The model, in contrast to these methods is not large discreteness calculations, which greatly improves the quality of the calculation of the sudden change between the different modes of operation of electric and informative value in the calculation of power quality. The possibility of continuous operation for the entire simulation interval based on the location of the place of electric locomotives that move count distribution of voltage drop, loss of power and non-sinusoidal voltage coefficient for each of the electric contacts in place.

  18. [Effectiveness of manual therapy and traction for lumbar disc herniation: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Jiang-Hui; Kong, Ling-Jun; Guo, Chao-Qing; Yang, Xiao-Cun; Cheng, Ying-Wu

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of manual therapy and traction for lumbar disc herniation and analyze the current status of this kind of randomized clinical trial (RCT). Database of CNKI, VIP, WANFANG, PubMed and OVID were searched. Some relevant journals were manually retrieved. A total of 2 874 literatures on manual therapy and traction for lumbar disc herniation were collected, of which 17 articles met the inclusion criteria. The Jadad score scale was used to evaluate the quality,and RevMan5.0 was used for meta-analysis of literatures. The results of the meta-analysis of all trials involved were as followed:the combined effect of the effective rate was RR = 1.10, 95% CI [1.06, 1.14], the combined effect of the cure rate was RR = 1.36, 95% CI [1.21,1.52], the combined effect of the VAS was RR = 1.37, 95% CI [1.28, 1.45], the combined effect of the JOA was RR = 4.75, 95% CI [4.40, 5.09]. The overall quality of the current RCT researches about manual therapy for lumbar disc herniation was lower,and did not support the conclusion that manual therapy was more effective than traction for lumbar disc herniation.

  19. Conventional physical therapy with lumbar traction; clinical evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging for lumbar disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanli, A; Karaca-Acet, G; Kaya, A; Koc, M; Yildirim, H

    2010-01-01

    This study measures and compares the outcome of conservative physical therapy with traction, by using magnetic resonance imaging and clinical parameters in patients presenting with low back pain caused by lumbar disc herniation. A total of 26 patients with LDH (14F, 12M with mean aged 37 +/- 11) were enrolled in this study and 15 sessions (per day on 3 weeks) of physical therapy were applied. That included hot pack, ultrasound, electrotherapy and lumbar traction. Physical examination of the lumbar spine, severity of pain, sleeping order, patient and physician global assessment with visual analogue scale, functional disability by HAQ, Roland Disability Questionnaire, and Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire were assessed at baseline and at 4-6 weeks after treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging examinations were carried out before and 4-6 weeks after the treatment All patients completed the therapy session. There were significant reductions in pain, sleeping disturbances, patient and physician global assessment and disability scores, and significant increases in lumbar movements between baseline and follow-up periods. There were significant reductions of size of the herniated mass in five patients, and significant increase in 3 patients on magnetic resonance imaging after treatment, but no differences in other patients. This study showed that conventional physical therapies with lumbar traction were effective in the treatment of patient with subacute LDH. These results suggest that clinical improvement is not correlated with the finding of MRI. Patients with LDH should be monitored clinically (Fig. 3, Ref. 18).

  20. Fatigue limit by thermal analysis of specimen surface in mono axial traction test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risitano, A.; Giacomo, R.; Clienti, C.

    2010-06-01

    In this work is indicated how it could be possible to evaluate the limit stress of the thermo-elastic phase of deformation by thermo-analysing the surface of the specimen during a static traction test. Adding the temperature curve measured on a small area of the surface (the hottest) to the classic stress-strain curve, it is possible to evaluate a limit temperature T0 coincident with the beginning of the non linear trend of the curve. The corresponding stress value is coincident with the fatigue limit of the analyzed component. As an example, the results of traction tests performed on two notched specimens, where the change of linearity in the temperature curve during static traction test was evident, are reported. The corresponding value of stress was a good approximation of the fatigue limit for R = - 1, determined by the conventional method. The aim of the reported examples in this paper must be interpreted as support to the basic principle of the method and not as the results of a complete experimental planning of which we will comment in an another occasion.

  1. Fatigue limit by thermal analysis of specimen surface in mono axial traction test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clienti C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work is indicated how it could be possible to evaluate the limit stress of the thermo-elastic phase of deformation by thermo-analysing the surface of the specimen during a static traction test. Adding the temperature curve measured on a small area of the surface (the hottest to the classic stress-strain curve, it is possible to evaluate a limit temperature T0 coincident with the beginning of the non linear trend of the curve. The corresponding stress value is coincident with the fatigue limit of the analyzed component. As an example, the results of traction tests performed on two notched specimens, where the change of linearity in the temperature curve during static traction test was evident, are reported. The corresponding value of stress was a good approximation of the fatigue limit for R = - 1, determined by the conventional method. The aim of the reported examples in this paper must be interpreted as support to the basic principle of the method and not as the results of a complete experimental planning of which we will comment in an another occasion.

  2. Grain boundary traction signatures: Quantifying the asymmetrical dislocation emission processes under tension and compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruizhi; Chew, Huck Beng

    2017-06-01

    The disruption in crystallographic arrangement of atoms across a grain boundary interface generates local stress fields in the vicinity. Here, we reconstruct the continuum-equivalent grain boundary tractions from local atomic stresses near symmetrical-tilt Ni grain boundaries. We show that the resolved shear stress contribution from the grain boundary tractions, τGB, along active slip-systems either assists or prevents the emission of dislocations, depending on its direction with respect to the resolved shear stress contribution from external loading, τext. When τGB acts in the same direction as τext, Shockley partial dislocations are readily emitted from the boundary once | τGB +τext | exceeds the critical barrier stress for shear-slip. When τGB opposes τext, the higher sustainable stresses in the grain boundary structure instead triggers: (a) emission of dislocations from the bulk, or (b) reconfiguration of the grain boundary atomic structure and subsequent emission of non-Schmid dislocations or formation of extrinsic stacking faults. Our results quantitatively explain the asymmetrical grain boundary dislocation emission processes observed in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations under applied tensile and compressive loads. The relationship between the traction signatures and periodic structural units along the grain boundary is discussed.

  3. Height increase, neuromuscular function, and back pain during 6 degrees head-down tilt with traction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styf, J. R.; Ballard, R. E.; Fechner, K.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Kahan, N. J.; Hargens, A. R.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spinal lengthening and back pain are commonly experienced by astronauts exposed to microgravity. METHODS: To develop a ground-based simulation for spinal adaptation to microgravity, we investigated height increase, neuromuscular function and back pain in 6 subjects all of whom underwent two forms of bed rest for 3 d. One form consisted of 6 degrees of head-down tilt (HDT) with balanced traction, while the other was horizontal bed rest (HBR). Subjects had a 2-week recovery period in between the studies. RESULTS: Total body and spinal length increased significantly more and the subjects had significantly more back pain during HDT with balanced traction compared to HBR. The distance between the lower endplate of L4 and upper endplate of S1, as measured by ultrasonography, increased significantly in both treatments to the same degree. Intramuscular pressures in the erector spinae muscles and ankle torque measurements during plantarflexion and dorsiflexion did not change significantly during either treatment. CONCLUSION: Compared to HBR, HDT with balanced traction may be a better method to simulate changes of total body and spinal lengths, as well as back pain seen in microgravity.

  4. Energy efficiency analysis of two-sided feed scheme of DC traction network with high asymmetry of feeders parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, E. Y.; Sopov, V. I.

    2017-10-01

    In a given research using the example of traction network area with high asymmetry of power supply parameters, the sequence of comparative assessment of power losses in DC traction network with parallel and traditional separated operating modes of traction substation feeders was shown. Experimental measurements were carried out under these modes of operation. The calculation data results based on statistic processing showed the power losses decrease in contact network and the increase in feeders. The changes proved to be critical ones and this demonstrates the significance of potential effects when converting traction network areas into parallel feeder operation. An analytical method of calculation the average power losses for different feed schemes of the traction network was developed. On its basis, the dependences of the relative losses were obtained by varying the difference in feeder voltages. The calculation results showed unreasonableness transition to a two-sided feed scheme for the considered traction network area. A larger reduction in the total power loss can be obtained with a smaller difference of the feeders’ resistance and / or a more symmetrical sectioning scheme of contact network.

  5. An innovative model of system-linked community care: home-based traction as an alternative to institutional treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, M; Stevens, B; Browne, G; Dent, P; Gafni, A; Anderson, M; Martin, R

    1994-01-01

    Home-based traction is an alternative treatment to conventional hospital-based traction for children with orthopedic conditions such as congenital dislocated hip and Legg-Perthes disease. The application of a proposed theoretical model is used to describe the process of the home-based traction innovation. Creativity and innovation occasions a reconceptualization of stresses. The reconceptualization of stress, plus the operational support of coordinated in-home services, can help families and nurses in the community and in the hospital develop, implement, and evaluate this kind of innovative care. In applying the home-based traction professionals empower and legitimize parents as resourceful co-providers of care. The legitimizing of the alternative in-home service affords parents a more optimistic appraisal of their situation as manageable. Parents are free to develop a coordinated response to their overall circumstance, including the treatment of their one child's illness. The evaluation of this home-based traction example found the alternative to be acceptable, safe, effective in accomplishing treatment goals, and less expensive than conventional hospital-based traction.

  6. Increases in COX II mRNA in the rat spinal cord induced by cauda equina traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Kiyoko; Komagata, Masashi; Yamada, Jinzo; Isshiki, Atsushi; Watanabe, Yasuo

    2006-05-01

    This article investigated the time response of COX II induction by traction of the cauda equina assessed by a quantified RT-PCR method. Under deep GOI anesthesia, male Wistar rats were fixed in the prone position and a laminectomy of the dorsal part of the first and second sacral vertebrae was performed. Following, COX II-mRNA levels in the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and caudal segments were measured at 2, 4, 6, and 24 h after traction by a quantified RT-PCR method. After cauda equina traction, significant levels of COX II mRNA were detected in all segments of the spinal cord examined. Maximum levels in each segment were determined 4 h after traction of the cauda equina. Particularly in the sacrocaudal segments significantly higher levels of COX II mRNA were measured 24 h after traction. These results indicate that significant induction of spinal COX II mRNA was caused by cauda equina traction and that such induction plays a regulatory role in the nociceptive pain pathway.

  7. Short-term anteroposterior treatment effects of functional appliances and extraoral traction on class II malocclusion. A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakis, Gregory Stylianos; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2007-09-01

    To evaluate the anteroposterior short-term skeletal and dental effects on Class II malocclusion in growing patients following treatment with functional appliances (activators or twin block), extraoral traction, or combination appliances (appliances with both functional and extraoral traction components), based on published data. A literature search was carried out identifying a total of nine prospective clinical trials. The data provided in the publications underwent meta-analysis using the random effects model with regard to SNA, SNB, ANB, and overjet. All appliance groups showed an improvement in sagittal intermaxillary relationships (decrease in ANB) when compared to untreated subjects. Activators and twin block appliances accomplish this mainly by acting on the mandible (increases in SNB) while twin block appliances also seem to act on the maxilla (decrease in SNA). Extraoral traction appliances achieve this by acting on the maxilla (decreases in SNA). Combination appliances mainly act on the mandible (increase in SNB). Activators, twin block, and combination appliances also reveal a decrease in overjet, which is not the case in the singular use of extraoral traction. Intermaxillary changes being present in all appliance groups, anteroposterior treatment response following the use of functional appliances and/or extraoral traction in growing class II malocclusion patients is most evident in one of the two jaws (mandible for activators and combination appliances and maxilla for extraoral traction) except for the twin block group, which shows changes on both jaws.

  8. Acarbose treatment affects the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and the gut content of bifidobacteria in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Benli; Liu, Haixia; Li, Jing; Sunli, Yongjuan; Liu, Ben; Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Ping; Meng, Xiuxiang

    2015-09-01

    The effects of acarbose add-on therapy on gut microbiota and inflammatory cytokines were investigated in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Ninety-five DM patients were randomly allocated to two groups: 59 to Group A who received antidiabetic treatment that included acarbose 150 mg/day, and 36 to Group B who received similar treatment to Group A but without acarbose. Forty-five healthy volunteers were selected as a control group. Serum concentrations of inflammatory cytokines were determined by ELISA, and the contents of 16S rDNA of gut bacteria were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. General linear analysis for repeated measurements was used to analyze trend differences between the two diabetic groups. After 4 weeks of antidiabetic treatment, the gut contents of Bifidobacterium longum and Enterococcus faecalis were significantly increased in both diabetes groups. The increase of Bifidobacterium longum (P = 0.004) and the decrease of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (P analysis showed that changes of Enterococcus faecalis were negatively correlated with LPS, while multiple linear regression analysis showed a positive correlation of Bifidobacterium longum with acarbose treatment and the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration. Acarbose treatment can increase the content of gut Bifidobacterium longum in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and decrease some inflammatory cytokines independently of its antihyperglycemic effects. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. STUDY OF THE MANUAL POWER EQUIPMENT OF TRACTION ELECTRIFICATION SYSTEM OF THE RAILWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Matusevych

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigation of the operation of power equipment of traction substations (TS of Ukrainian electrified railways. The search of the new modern methods and approaches improved monitoring, diagnostics and maintenance of power equipment TS during operation to maintain the required level of reliability of the traction power supply of electrified railway and limit the power equipment accidents TS. Methodology. The study of changes of a technical condition of TSs’ equipment over the last 11 years was done for achieving this goal. This research was done for solving problems of power supply railways with high quality on the base of the reports analysis of the management and power supply of Ukrzaliznytsia. Findings. It was found that on the base of the new methods of maintenance is the risk analysis of old equipment or equipment with some defects (rev servicing equipment for the actual technical condition.Reliable performance of power supply devices has significant impact for solving the problem of safety on the railways of Ukraine. Different kinds of accumulated damage are at the first place before of failures of an electric power supply of electrified railway. The study of main causes of violations from 2002 to 2012 year showed that 80% of the reasons disorders normal operation of the traction power supply over the period constitutes next factors. There are damage to the main power equipment TS; power off the grid; overload and surge; and the impact of weather conditions. The primary power equipment failure of TS are constituted about 43%. Relevant constant monitoring, testing and diagnostics of the equipment with the creation and use of micro-processor smart automated monitoring and diagnosis are topical in the current operating conditions. Originality. The new directions for further improvement of maintenance electrified traction substations for electrified railways were considered. Modern strategies and management techniques and

  10. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE DAMAGE ANALYSIS OF RAILWAY TRACTION ENERGY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Matusevych

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study provides the methods and models development of reducing damages of traction energy systems (TES at electrified railways of Ukraine. Definition the indicator of preventing damage evaluation TES at electrified railways is necessary. Paper is aimed to search the modern methods and approaches to improve the system of TES monitoring, diagnosis and maintenance. Methodology. To achieve this purpose a study of foreign experience and publications that focus on problem-solving quality of TES using a linguistic approach based on the theory of fuzzy multiple numbers and linguistic variable were done. Findings. In result of research an algorithm to reduce TPS damages which operates under uncertainty was developed. It is found that the solution of this problem is possible by timely detection of actual technical condition of equipment in terms of quality maintenance, diagnostics and update resource of electrical equipment traction substations (TS power supply TES. The study examined the fuzzy inference scheme, which is based on the use of mechanisms to minimize the area of decision-making. It contributes not only to structural identification in the process of developing a database, but also can significantly improve the efficiency of finding the parameters of fuzzy model, which in turn reduces the efforts that are necessary for the analysis and the design of effective control systems maintenance and repair (M and R TES. Originality. For the first time the algorithm of reduction the damage of traction energy system of electrified railways of Ukraine was offered. The mathematical model of reduction the damage calculation of TES from TP power equipment failures by improving system maintenance (M and P was developed. Firstly evaluation index was proposed to prevent the damage of traction energy system. Practical value. The article describes the fuzzy inference scheme, which is based on the use of the mechanism to minimize the area of decision

  11. Comparison between effectiveness of Mechanical and Manual Traction combined with mobilization and exercise therapy in Patients with Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Syed Rehan Iftikhar; Shakil-Ur-Rehman, Syed; Ahmad, Shakeel; Naeem, Aamer

    2016-01-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is a common neuro-musculo-skeletal disorder causing pain and disability. Traction is part of the evidence based manual physical therapy management due to its mechanical nature, type of traction and parameters related to its applicability and are still to be explored more through research. Our objective was to determine the Effects of Mechanical versus Manual Traction in Manual Physical Therapy combined with segmental mobilization and exercise therapy in the physical therapy management of Patients with Cervical Radiculopathy. This randomized control trial was conducted at department of physical therapy and rehabilitation, Rathore Hospital Faisalabad, from February to July 2015. Inclusion criteria were both male and female patients with evident symptoms of cervical spine radiculopathy and age ranged between 20-70 years. The exclusion criteria were Patients with history of trauma, neck pain without radiculopathy, aged less than 20 and more than 70. A total of 72 patients with cervical radiculopathy were screened out as per the inclusion criteria, 42 patients were randomly selected and placed into two groups by toss and trial method, and only 36 patients completed the study, while 6 dropped out. The mechanical traction was applied in group A and manual traction in group B along with common intervention of segmental mobilization and exercise therapy in both groups for 6 weeks. The patient's outcomes were assessed by self reported NPRS and NDI at the baseline and after completion of 06 weeks exercise program at 3 days per week. The data was analyzed through SPSS version-21, and paired T test was applied at 95% level significance to determine the statistical deference between two groups. Clinically the group of patients treated with mechanical traction managed pain (mean pre 6.26, mean post 1.43), and disability (mean pre 24.43 and mean post 7.26) more effectively as compared with the group of patients treated with manual traction (Pain mean pre 6

  12. Designing method in current control system of permanent magnet synchronous motor for railway vehicle traction; Tetsudo sharyo kudoyo eikyu jishaku doki dendoki no denryu seigyokei sekkeiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, K.; Matsuoka, K. [Railway Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Nakazawa, Y. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    We have been studying the application of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) for railway vehicle traction in order to reduce the weight and size of direct drive traction motor. As a part of this study establishing a current control system of PMSM suitable for railway vehicle traction should be investigated. In this paper we discuss about designing method of current control system mentioned above and suggest a method which is available under the condition of railway vehicle traction, low switching frequency and long digital calculating period. Next we investigate how to decide current response time constant Td and reach a conclusion that it is about 10ms is appropriate under some assumed condition. Then we checked this current control system for railway vehicle traction through experiments and studies of influence of parameter changing. Consequently we can recognize the current control system has satisfactory performance for railway vehicle traction. 10 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Biomechanical analysis of combining head-down tilt traction with vibration for different grades of degeneration of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sicong; Wang, Lizhen; Wang, Yawei; Du, Chengfei; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Yubo

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, a combination of traction and vibration therapy is usually used to alleviate low back pain (LBP) in clinical settings. Combining head-down tilt (HDT) traction with vibration was demonstrated to be efficacious for LBP patients in our previous study. However, the biomechanics of the lumbar spine during this combined treatment is not well known and need quantitative analysis. In addition, LBP patients have different grades of degeneration of the lumbar spinal structure, which are often age related. Selecting a suitable rehabilitation therapy for different age groups of patients has been challenging. Therefore, a finite element (FE) model of the L1-L5 lumbar spine and a vibration dynamic model are developed in this study in order to investigate the biomechanical effects of the combination of HDT traction and vibration therapy on the age-related degeneration of the lumbar spine. The decrease of intradiscal pressure is more effective when vibration is combined with traction therapy. Moreover, the stresses on the discs are lower in the "traction+vibration" mode than the "traction-only" mode. The stress concentration at the posterior part of nucleus is mitigated after the vibration is combined. The disc deformations especially posterior disc radial retraction is improved in the "traction+vibration" mode. These beneficial effects of this therapy could help decompress the discs and spinal nerves and therefore relieve LBP. Simultaneously, patients with grade 1 degeneration (approximately 41-50 years old) are able to achieve better results compared with other age groups. This study could be used to provide a more effective LBP rehabilitation therapy. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Posterior only pedicle screw instrumentation with intraoperative halo-femoral traction in the surgical treatment of severe scoliosis (>100 degrees).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoglu, Azmi; Ozturk, Cagatay; Aydogan, Mehmet; Tezer, Mehmet; Aksu, Neslihan; Bruno, Marco B

    2008-04-20

    Retrospective clinical study. To report the results of surgical correction achieved by intraoperative halo-femoral traction and posterior only pedicle screw instrumentation in severe scoliosis (scoliosis greater than 100 degrees ). Although previous reports show the effectiveness of preoperative halo traction in the treatment of severe spinal deformity, the intraoperative use of halo-femoral traction in conjunction with posterior pedicle screw instrumentation has never been reported in patients with severe spinal deformity. A total of 15 consecutive patients with severe (>100 degrees) thoracic idiopathic scoliosis and/or kyphoscoliosis operated by using intraoperative halo-femoral traction and posterior only pedicle screw instrumentation were included in the study. Subjects were analyzed by age at date of examination, gender, major coronal curve magnitude, major compensatory coronal curve magnitude, major sagittal curve magnitude, shoulder imbalance, and preoperative vital capacity of the lungs. Halo-traction related complications and short- and long-term complications were noted in each case. The average age at the time of surgery was 17.8 years (range, 16-19). There were 4 males and 11 females. The average improvement was 51% in the major thoracic curve, 33% in the compensatory lumbar curve, and 53% in the major sagittal curve. The average follow-up was 56 (range, 24-96) months. Loss of correction averaged 4 degrees for major thoracic curves and 2 degrees for thoracic kyphosis based on measurements at the final follow-up date. The use of intraoperative halo-femoral traction together with the wide facet resection and posterior release gradually provide a good correction and balance maintained by pedicle screw instrumentation. Intraoperative halo-femoral traction not only elongates spinal column but also elongates the thoracic cavity improving the compromised pulmonary function.

  15. Newly identified mutations at the CSN1S1 gene in Ethiopian goats affect casein content and coagulation properties of their milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestawet, T A; Girma, A; Adnøy, T; Devold, T G; Vegarud, G E

    2013-08-01

    Very high casein content and good coagulation properties previously observed in some Ethiopian goat breeds led to investigating the αs1-casein (CSN1S1) gene in these breeds. Selected regions of the CSN1S1 gene were sequenced in 115 goats from 5 breeds (2 indigenous: Arsi-Bale and Somali, 1 exotic: Boer, and 2 crossbreeds: Boer × Arsi-Bale and Boer × Somali). The DNA analysis resulted in 35 new mutations: 3 in exons, 3 in the 5' untranslated region (UTR), and 29 in the introns. The mutations in exons that resulted in an amino acid shift were then picked to evaluate their influence on individual casein content (αs1-, αs2-, β-, and κ-CN), micellar size, and coagulation properties in the milk from the 5 goat breeds. A mutation at nucleotide 10657 (exon 10) involved a transversion: CAG→CCG, resulting in an amino acid exchange Gln77→Pro77. This mutation was associated with the indigenous breeds only. Two new mutations, at nucleotide 6072 (exon 4) and 12165 (exon 12), revealed synonymous transitions: GTC→GTT in Val15 and AGA→AGG in Arg100 of the mature protein. Transitions G→A and C→T at nucleotides 1374 and 1866, respectively, occurred in the 5' UTR, whereas the third mutation involved a transversion T→G at nucleotide location 1592. The goats were grouped into homozygote new (CC), homozygote reference (AA), and heterozygote (CA) based on the nucleotide that involved the transversion. The content of αs1-CN (15.32g/kg) in milk samples of goats homozygous (CC) for this newly identified mutation, Gln77→Pro77 was significantly higher than in milks of heterozygous (CA; 9.05g/kg) and reference (AA; 7.61g/kg) genotype animals. The αs2-, β-, and κ-CN contents showed a similar pattern. Milk from goats with a homozygous new mutation had significantly lower micellar size. Milk from both homozygote and heterozygote new-mutation goats had significantly shorter coagulation rate and stronger gel than the reference genotype. Except the transversion, the

  16. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D-3 affects vitamin D status similar to vitamin D-3 in pigs - but the meat produced has a lower content of vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Maribo, H.; Bysted, Anette

    2007-01-01

    In food databases, the specific contents of vitamin D-3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 in food have been implemented in the last 10 years. No consensus has yet been established on the relative activity between the components. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to assess the relative...... activity of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 compared to vitamin D-3. The design was a parallel study in pigs (n 24), which from an age of 12 weeks until slaughter 11 weeks later were fed approximately 55 mu g vitamin D/d, as vitamin D-3, in a mixture of vitamin D-3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3...

  17. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor and a Low Carbohydrate Diet Affect Gluconeogenesis and Glycogen Content Differently in the Kidney and the Liver of Non-Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atageldiyeva, Kuralay; Fujita, Yukihiro; Yanagimachi, Tsuyoshi; Mizumoto, Katsutoshi; Takeda, Yasutaka; Honjo, Jun; Takiyama, Yumi; Abiko, Atsuko; Makino, Yuichi; Haneda, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    A low carbohydrate diet (LCHD) as well as sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) may reduce glucose utilization and improve metabolic disorders. However, it is not clear how different or similar the effects of LCHD and SGLT2i are on metabolic parameters such as insulin sensitivity, fat accumulation, and especially gluconeogenesis in the kidney and the liver. We conducted an 8-week study using non-diabetic mice, which were fed ad-libitum with LCHD or a normal carbohydrate diet (NCHD) and treated with/without the SGLT-2 inhibitor, ipragliflozin. We compared metabolic parameters, gene expression for transcripts related to glucose and fat metabolism, and glycogen content in the kidney and the liver among the groups. SGLT2i but not LCHD improved glucose excursion after an oral glucose load compared to NCHD, although all groups presented comparable non-fasted glycemia. Both the LCHD and SGLT2i treatments increased calorie-intake, whereas only the LCHD increased body weight compared to the NCHD, epididimal fat mass and developed insulin resistance. Gene expression of certain gluconeogenic enzymes was simultaneously upregulated in the kidney of SGLT2i treated group, as well as in the liver of the LCHD treated group. The SGLT2i treated groups showed markedly lower glycogen content in the liver, but induced glycogen accumulation in the kidney. We conclude that LCHD induces deleterious metabolic changes in the non-diabetic mice. Our results suggest that SGLT2i induced gluconeogenesis mainly in the kidney, whereas for LCHD it was predominantly in the liver.

  18. The 5' untranslated mRNA region base content can greatly affect translation initiation in the absence of secondary structures in Prevotella bryantii TC1-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seničar, Lenart; Accetto, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    It has become clear lately that many bacteria and even whole bacterial phyla do not use the classical Shine-Dalgarno sequence mediated pathway of protein translation initiation. The prominent phylum Bacteroidetes is one of them, and this was shown not only using bioinformatic but also functional reporter gene studies in its representative Prevotella bryantii. The latter studies revealed much higher sensitivity toward secondary structures in 5(') untranslated mRNA regions (5(') UTRs) during translation initiation compared to Escherichia coli. It was proposed that in the absence of Shine-Dalgarno sequence interaction the key elements enabling translation initiation are local absence of secondary structures in 5(') UTRs, and the ribosomal protein S1 which binds to mRNA. Here, we evaluate the 5(') UTRs devoid of secondary structures but containing divergent nucleotide compositions in P. bryantii reporter assay. We show that base composition profoundly affects the amount of the reporter synthesized, and further that these amounts were in agreement with S1 protein binding affinity for adenine/uracil bases in mRNA. This is the first, though indirect, clue that S1 is actually involved in translation initiation in Bacteroidetes and adds the second layer of control beside mRNA secondary structure affecting translation initiation in this phylum. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Long-term outcome of gradual reduction using overhead traction for developmental dysplasia of the hip over 6 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Hiroshi; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Mishima, Kenichi; Matsushita, Masaki; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2013-09-01

    In children over 6 months of age with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), achieving a concentrically reduced hip while avoiding avascular necrosis (AVN) is challenging. The utility of gradual reduction (GR) using traction has insufficient evidence. We therefore report the long-term outcome of GR using overhead traction (OHT). We retrospectively reviewed 67 patients with DDH (75 hips) treated with GR using OHT over 6 months of age. The age at reduction ranged from 7 months to 4 years. All patients were followed up until skeletal maturity with a mean duration of 15.6 years. Pelvic radiographs were used to assess AVN, acetabular development, and the Severin classification. We determined the factors affecting the outcome at skeletal maturity. Seventy-two hips (96%) were successfully reduced, 2 required subsequent closed reduction and 1 underwent open reduction. AVN occurred in 2 hips (2.7%). Among 48 hips (64%) with residual acetabular dysplasia, 31 were treated with Salter innominate osteotomy (SIO) between 5 and 6 years of age. Finally, 62 hips (82.7%) showed satisfactory outcome (56 in Severin class I and 6 in class II), whereas 13 showed unsatisfactory outcome (class III). Although we found no significant factors affecting the outcome, most of the hips treated with SIO were included in the satisfactory group. GR using OHT could effectively minimize the risk of developing AVN in patients with DDH over 6 months of age at presentation. SIO at preschool age may play a beneficial role in the long-term outcome of GR using OHT.

  20. Biomechanical study and digital modeling of traction resistance in posterior thoracic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet, Louis Etienne; Pries, Pierre; Hamcha, Hamid; Clarac, Jean-Pierre; Texereau, Jacques

    2002-04-01

    Posterior implants were used to test the resistance of seven human thoracic spines to traction, and results were compared with those of a digital study. To compare the use of hook and screw fixation methods for posterior thoracic surgery in a study supplemented by a digital analysis using the finite-element method. The maximum break strength of pedicular screws on bone has already been studied several times. Far fewer studies have investigated the stresses that may be applied to pedicular and laminar hooks or compared these hooks with pedicular screws in the thorax. For this study, seven human thoracic spines were used, identifying 49 groups of two vertebrae each. The assemblies used a bolt in the medullary cavity. The central diameter of this bolt could be varied using tubes to suit the individual medullary cavity, spreading the stresses over the entire centrum during traction. The assembly was placed on an Instron machine. Vertical traction was applied up to the maximum break strength, that is, the strength recorded at the top of the traction curve read out directly on the Instron machine. Traction speed in all the tests was 5 mm per minute. Four pedicular screws and two pedicular-laminar clips were used alternately. In these tests, 25 values were obtained with hooks and 24 with screws. The group with screw fixation was tested in two halves, with 12 tests using 4-mm diameter screws and 12 tests using 5-mm diameter screws. For the digital study, the vertebra model comprised nearly 63,000 nodes and 14,000 elements. Elastic field calculations were carried out using the Abaqus finite-element calculation method. Each time pedicular-laminar traction was used, the pedicles broke at the base. Where screws were used, a medial fissure was found at the base of the pedicle. For the hooks, the maximum break strength was 1150 +/- 388 N. It was 820 +/- 418 N when 4-mm diameter screws were used and 1395 +/- 435 N when 5-mm screws were used. The most fragile vertebrae were found