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Sample records for content addressable memories

  1. Content addressable memories in scientific instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotto, I. de; Golinelli, S.

    1975-01-01

    The content-addressable-memory feature of a new system designed in these laboratories for non-destructive testing of nuclear reactor pressure vessels based on acoustic emission analysis is presented. The content addressable memory is divided into two parts: the first selects the most frequent events among incoming ones (FES: Frequent Event Selection memory), the second stores the frequent events singled out (FEM: Frequent Event Memory). The statistical behaviour of FES is analyzed, and experimental results are compared with theoretical ones; the model presented proved to be a useful tool in dimensioning the instrument store capacity. (Auth.)

  2. Hybrid content addressable memory MSD arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Kim, Dai Hyun; Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Eichmann, George

    1990-07-01

    The modified signed-digit (MSD) number system, because of its inherent weak interdigit dependance, has been suggested as a useful means for a fast and parallel digital arithmetic. To maintain a fast processing speed, a single-stage holographic optical content-addressable memory (CAM) based MSD algorithm was suggested. In this paper, a novel non-holographic opto-electronic CAM based fast MSD addition processing architecture is proposed. The proposed concept has been verified with our first-order proof-of-principle experiments. A figure of merit comparison of this and other existing approaches is also presented. Based on this key opto-electronic CAM element, implementation of more sophisticated I'VISD arithmetic, such as optical MSD subtraction and multiplication operations, are proposed.

  3. Resistive content addressable memory based in-memory computation architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Khaled N.; Zidan, Mohammed A.; Kurdahi, Fadi; Eltawil, Ahmed M.

    2016-01-01

    Various examples are provided examples related to resistive content addressable memory (RCAM) based in-memory computation architectures. In one example, a system includes a content addressable memory (CAM) including an array of cells having a memristor based crossbar and an interconnection switch matrix having a gateless memristor array, which is coupled to an output of the CAM. In another example, a method, includes comparing activated bit values stored a key register with corresponding bit values in a row of a CAM, setting a tag bit value to indicate that the activated bit values match the corresponding bit values, and writing masked key bit values to corresponding bit locations in the row of the CAM based on the tag bit value.

  4. Resistive content addressable memory based in-memory computation architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Khaled N.

    2016-12-08

    Various examples are provided examples related to resistive content addressable memory (RCAM) based in-memory computation architectures. In one example, a system includes a content addressable memory (CAM) including an array of cells having a memristor based crossbar and an interconnection switch matrix having a gateless memristor array, which is coupled to an output of the CAM. In another example, a method, includes comparing activated bit values stored a key register with corresponding bit values in a row of a CAM, setting a tag bit value to indicate that the activated bit values match the corresponding bit values, and writing masked key bit values to corresponding bit locations in the row of the CAM based on the tag bit value.

  5. Content-addressable read/write memories for image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, W. E.; Savage, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    The commonly encountered image analysis problems of region labeling and clustering are found to be cases of search-and-rename problem which can be solved in parallel by a system architecture that is inherently suitable for VLSI implementation. This architecture is a novel form of content-addressable memory (CAM) which provides parallel search and update functions, allowing speed reductions down to constant time per operation. It has been proposed in related investigations by Hall (1981) that, with VLSI, CAM-based structures with enhanced instruction sets for general purpose processing will be feasible.

  6. Content-addressable memory based enforcement of configurable policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Michael J

    2014-05-06

    A monitoring device for monitoring transactions on a bus includes content-addressable memory ("CAM") and a response policy unit. The CAM includes an input coupled to receive a bus transaction tag based on bus traffic on the bus. The CAM stores data tags associated with rules of a security policy to compare the bus transaction tag to the data tags. The CAM generates an output signal indicating whether one or more matches occurred. The response policy unit is coupled to the CAM to receive the output signal from the CAM and to execute a policy action in response to the output signal.

  7. Hardware emulation of Memristor based Ternary Content Addressable Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, Mohamed A.

    2017-12-13

    MTCAM (Memristor Ternary Content Addressable Memory) is a special purpose storage medium in which data could be retrieved based on the stored content. Using Memristors as the main storage element provides the potential of achieving higher density and more efficient solutions than conventional methods. A key missing item in the validation of such approaches is the wide spread availability of hardware emulation platforms that can provide reliable and repeatable performance statistics. In this paper, we present a hardware MTCAM emulation based on 2-Transistors-2Memristors (2T2M) bit-cell. It builds on a bipolar memristor model with storing and fetching capabilities based on the actual current-voltage behaviour. The proposed design offers a flexible verification environment with quick design revisions, high execution speeds and powerful debugging techniques. The proposed design is modeled using VHDL and prototyped on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA.

  8. Hardware emulation of Memristor based Ternary Content Addressable Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, Mohamed A.; Naous, Rawan; Masmoudi, M.

    2017-01-01

    MTCAM (Memristor Ternary Content Addressable Memory) is a special purpose storage medium in which data could be retrieved based on the stored content. Using Memristors as the main storage element provides the potential of achieving higher density and more efficient solutions than conventional methods. A key missing item in the validation of such approaches is the wide spread availability of hardware emulation platforms that can provide reliable and repeatable performance statistics. In this paper, we present a hardware MTCAM emulation based on 2-Transistors-2Memristors (2T2M) bit-cell. It builds on a bipolar memristor model with storing and fetching capabilities based on the actual current-voltage behaviour. The proposed design offers a flexible verification environment with quick design revisions, high execution speeds and powerful debugging techniques. The proposed design is modeled using VHDL and prototyped on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA.

  9. Design and Implementation of High Performance Content-Addressable Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    content addressability and two basic implementations of content addressing. The need and application of hardware CAM is presented to motivate the " topic...3r Pass 4th Ps4 Pass Figure 2.15 Maximum SearchUsing All-Parallel CAM - left-most position (the most significant bit) and the other IF bits are zeros

  10. Design and analysis of 2T-2M Ternary content addressable memories

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, M. A.; Fouda, M. E.; Naous, Rawan; Zidan, Mohammed A.; Eltawil, A. M.; Kurdahi, F.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2017-01-01

    Associate and approximate computing using resistive memory based Ternary Content Addressable Memory is becoming widely used. In this paper, a simplified model based analysis of a 2T2M-Ternary Content Addressable Memory using memristors is introduced. A comprehensive study is presented taking into consideration different circuit parameters and parasitic effects. Parameters such as the memristor Rh/Rl ratio, transistor technology, operating frequency, and memory width are taken into consideration. The proposed model is verified with SPICE showing a high degree of matching between theory and simulation. The utility of the model is established using a design example.

  11. Design and analysis of 2T-2M Ternary content addressable memories

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, M. A.

    2017-10-24

    Associate and approximate computing using resistive memory based Ternary Content Addressable Memory is becoming widely used. In this paper, a simplified model based analysis of a 2T2M-Ternary Content Addressable Memory using memristors is introduced. A comprehensive study is presented taking into consideration different circuit parameters and parasitic effects. Parameters such as the memristor Rh/Rl ratio, transistor technology, operating frequency, and memory width are taken into consideration. The proposed model is verified with SPICE showing a high degree of matching between theory and simulation. The utility of the model is established using a design example.

  12. A Content-Addressable Memory structure using quantum cells in nanotechnology with energy dissipation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoghifar, Ali; Heikalabad, Saeed Rasouli

    2018-05-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata is one of the recent new technologies at the nanoscale that can be a suitable replacement for CMOS technology. The circuits constructed in QCA technology have desirable features such as low power consumption, high speed and small size. These features can be more distinct in memory structures. In this paper, we design a new structure for content addressable memory cell in QCA. For this purpose, first, a unique gate is introduced for mask operation in QCA and then this gate is used to improve the performance of CAM. These structures are evaluated with QCADesigner simulator.

  13. Content-addressable memory processing: Multilevel coding, logical minimization, and an optical implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsalehi, M.M.; Gaylord, T.K.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of coding scheme on the number of reference patterns that need to be stored in a content-addressable memory. It is shown that residue number system in conjunction with multilevel coding and logical minimization significantly reduces the number of reference patterns required for implementation of an operation. The number of reference patterns and the total amount of information that needs to be stored are determined for practical cases of 16-bit and 32-bit fixed-point addition and multiplication. The storage requirements were found to be achievable with the state-of-the-art memory technologies. An optical holographical processor capable of parallel-input/parallel-output operation is described

  14. A novel ternary content addressable memory design based on resistive random access memory with high intensity and low search energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Runze; Shen, Wensheng; Huang, Peng; Zhou, Zheng; Liu, Lifeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Kang, Jinfeng

    2018-04-01

    A novel ternary content addressable memory (TCAM) design based on resistive random access memory (RRAM) is presented. Each TCAM cell consists of two parallel RRAM to both store and search for ternary data. The cell size of the proposed design is 8F2, enable a ∼60× cell area reduction compared with the conventional static random access memory (SRAM) based implementation. Simulation results also show that the search delay and energy consumption of the proposed design at the 64-bit word search are 2 ps and 0.18 fJ/bit/search respectively at 22 nm technology node, where significant improvements are achieved compared to previous works. The desired characteristics of RRAM for implementation of the high performance TCAM search chip are also discussed.

  15. Integrated Optical Content Addressable Memories (CAM and Optical Random Access Memories (RAM for Ultra-Fast Address Look-Up Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Vagionas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Content Addressable Memories (CAM implement Address Look-Up (AL table functionalities of network routers; however, they typically operate in the MHz regime, turning AL into a critical network bottleneck. In this communication, we demonstrate the first steps towards developing optical CAM alternatives to enable a re-engineering of AL memories. Firstly, we report on the photonic integration of Semiconductor Optical Amplifier-Mach Zehnder Interferometer (SOA-MZI-based optical Flip-Flop and Random Access Memories on a monolithic InP platform, capable of storing the binary prefix-address data-bits and the outgoing port information for next hop routing, respectively. Subsequently the first optical Binary CAM cell (B-CAM is experimentally demonstrated, comprising an InP Flip-Flop and a SOA-MZI Exclusive OR (XOR gate for fast search operations through an XOR-based bit comparison, yielding an error-free 10 Gb/s operation. This is later extended via physical layer simulations in an optical Ternary-CAM (T-CAM cell and a 4-bit Matchline (ML configuration, supporting a third state of the “logical X” value towards wildcard bits of network subnet masks. The proposed functional CAM and Random Access Memories (RAM sub-circuits may facilitate light-based Address Look-Up tables supporting search operations at 10 Gb/s and beyond, paving the way towards minimizing the disparity with the frantic optical transmission linerates, and fast re-configurability through multiple simultaneous Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM memory access requests.

  16. Recall Performance for Content-Addressable Memory Using Adiabatic Quantum Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imam, Neena [ORNL; Humble, Travis S. [ORNL; McCaskey, Alex [ORNL; Schrock, Jonathan [ORNL; Hamilton, Kathleen E. [ORNL

    2017-09-01

    A content-addressable memory (CAM) stores key-value associations such that the key is recalled by providing its associated value. While CAM recall is traditionally performed using recurrent neural network models, we show how to solve this problem using adiabatic quantum optimization. Our approach maps the recurrent neural network to a commercially available quantum processing unit by taking advantage of the common underlying Ising spin model. We then assess the accuracy of the quantum processor to store key-value associations by quantifying recall performance against an ensemble of problem sets. We observe that different learning rules from the neural network community influence recall accuracy but performance appears to be limited by potential noise in the processor. The strong connection established between quantum processors and neural network problems supports the growing intersection of these two ideas.

  17. Memristor-based ternary content addressable memory (mTCAM) for data-intensive computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Le; Shin, Sangho; Steve Kang, Sung-Mo

    2014-01-01

    A memristor-based ternary content addressable memory (mTCAM) is presented. Each mTCAM cell, consisting of five transistors and two memristors to store and search for ternary data, is capable of remarkable nonvolatility and higher storage density than conventional CMOS-based TCAMs. Each memristor in the cell can be programmed individually such that high impedance is always present between searchlines to reduce static energy consumption. A unique two-step write scheme offers reliable and energy-efficient write operations. The search voltage is designed to ensure optimum sensing margins with the presence of variations in memristor devices. Simulations of the proposed mTCAM demonstrate functionalities in write and search modes, as well as a search delay of 2 ns and a search of 0.99 fJ/bit/search for a word width of 128 bits. (paper)

  18. A content addressable memory for use in CEBAF's CLAS detector level 2 triggering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, R.F.; Doughty, D.C. Jr.; Allgood, D.C.; Campbell, S.A.; Wilson, W.C.; Bickley, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    A collaboration of researchers from CEBAF, CNU and NASA is designing a 256-32 specialized Content Addressable Memory (CAM) for the level 2 triggering system in CEBAF's CLAS detector. These integrated circuits will find tracks and the momentum and angle of each track within 2 microseconds of an event. The custom CAM can operate as conventional memory, performing read and write operations, and can additionally perform independent byte compare operations across all words simultaneously. It is this compare feature which makes these CAMs attractive for identifying tracks passing through drift chambers by linking together segment number triplets within the CAM. Simulations have indicated that less than 16 k triplets need to be stored for each sector of the detector. This implies the level 2 triggering can be performed with 64 CAM chips per sector, or 384 total. Each data channel into a sector CAM array is buffered in a FIFO and is designed to handle aggregate data rates up to 750 Mbs for three channels (one channel/superlayer). The architecture of the level 2 trigger and details of the CAM chip design are discussed along with a performance report on our prototype CAMs

  19. New Content Addressable Memory (CAM) Technologies for Big Data and Intelligent Electronics Enabled by Magneto-Electric Ternary CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0198 NEW CONTENT ADDRESSABLE MEMORY (CAM) TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIG DATA AND INTELLIGENT ELECTRONICS ENABLED BY MAGNETO-ELECTRIC...MEMORY (CAM) TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIG DATA AND INTELLIGENT ELECTRONICS ENABLED BY MAGNETO-ELECTRIC TERNARY CAM 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-16-1-7655 5b... electronic applications, such as internet of things, big data, wireless sensors, and mobile devices, have begun to focus on the importance of energy

  20. Stream specificity and asymmetries in feature binding and content-addressable access in visual encoding and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Duong L; Tripathy, Srimant P; Bedell, Harold E; Ögmen, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Human memory is content addressable-i.e., contents of the memory can be accessed using partial information about the bound features of a stored item. In this study, we used a cross-feature cuing technique to examine how the human visual system encodes, binds, and retains information about multiple stimulus features within a set of moving objects. We sought to characterize the roles of three different features (position, color, and direction of motion, the latter two of which are processed preferentially within the ventral and dorsal visual streams, respectively) in the construction and maintenance of object representations. We investigated the extent to which these features are bound together across the following processing stages: during stimulus encoding, sensory (iconic) memory, and visual short-term memory. Whereas all features examined here can serve as cues for addressing content, their effectiveness shows asymmetries and varies according to cue-report pairings and the stage of information processing and storage. Position-based indexing theories predict that position should be more effective as a cue compared to other features. While we found a privileged role for position as a cue at the stimulus-encoding stage, position was not the privileged cue at the sensory and visual short-term memory stages. Instead, the pattern that emerged from our findings is one that mirrors the parallel processing streams in the visual system. This stream-specific binding and cuing effectiveness manifests itself in all three stages of information processing examined here. Finally, we find that the Leaky Flask model proposed in our previous study is applicable to all three features.

  1. Comparison Elements on STG DICE cell for Content-Addressable Memory and Simulation of Single-Event Transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ya. Stenin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparison elements on base the STG DICE cell and the logical element “Exclusive OR” for a content-addressable memory were designed and simulated. The comparison element contains two identical joint groups of transistors that are spaced on the chip by the distance of four micrometers, so the loss of data in STG DICE cell practically excluded. On the characteristics of the new 65-nm CMOS comparison element, we predict the hardness of these item to single event rate (SER more to hundred times compared to elements on 6-transistors cells and the standard DICE cell with distances 0.5-0.6 μm between mutually sensitive nodes.

  2. Zone memories and pseudorandom addressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, D.; Mirizzi, N.; Stella, R.; Visaggio, G.

    1975-01-01

    A quantitative comparison between zone memories, pseudorandom addressed memories and an alternative special purpose memory (spread zone memory) in which the distance between any two transformed descriptors, at first adjacent, is independent of the descriptors pair and results the maximum one is presented. This memory has not been particularly considered at present in spite of its efficiency and its simple implementation

  3. Design and measurement of fully digital ternary content addressable memory using ratioless static random access memory cells and hierarchical-AND matching comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikata, Daisuke; Ali, Mohammad Alimudin Bin Mohd; Hosoda, Kento; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    2018-04-01

    A 36-bit × 32-entry fully digital ternary content addressable memory (TCAM) using the ratioless static random access memory (RL-SRAM) technology and fully complementary hierarchical-AND matching comparators (HAMCs) was developed. Since its fully complementary and digital operation enables the effect of device variabilities to be avoided, it can operate with a quite low supply voltage. A test chip incorporating a conventional TCAM and a proposed 24-transistor ratioless TCAM (RL-TCAM) cells and HAMCs was developed using a 0.18 µm CMOS process. The minimum operating voltage of 0.25 V of the developed RL-TCAM, which is less than half of that of the conventional TCAM, was measured via the conventional CMOS push–pull output buffers with the level-shifting and flipping technique using optimized pull-up voltage and resistors.

  4. PCI bus content-addressable-memory (CAM) implementation on FPGA for pattern recognition/image retrieval in a distributed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megherbi, Dalila B.; Yan, Yin; Tanmay, Parikh; Khoury, Jed; Woods, C. L.

    2004-11-01

    Recently surveillance and Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) applications are increasing as the cost of computing power needed to process the massive amount of information continues to fall. This computing power has been made possible partly by the latest advances in FPGAs and SOPCs. In particular, to design and implement state-of-the-Art electro-optical imaging systems to provide advanced surveillance capabilities, there is a need to integrate several technologies (e.g. telescope, precise optics, cameras, image/compute vision algorithms, which can be geographically distributed or sharing distributed resources) into a programmable system and DSP systems. Additionally, pattern recognition techniques and fast information retrieval, are often important components of intelligent systems. The aim of this work is using embedded FPGA as a fast, configurable and synthesizable search engine in fast image pattern recognition/retrieval in a distributed hardware/software co-design environment. In particular, we propose and show a low cost Content Addressable Memory (CAM)-based distributed embedded FPGA hardware architecture solution with real time recognition capabilities and computing for pattern look-up, pattern recognition, and image retrieval. We show how the distributed CAM-based architecture offers a performance advantage of an order-of-magnitude over RAM-based architecture (Random Access Memory) search for implementing high speed pattern recognition for image retrieval. The methods of designing, implementing, and analyzing the proposed CAM based embedded architecture are described here. Other SOPC solutions/design issues are covered. Finally, experimental results, hardware verification, and performance evaluations using both the Xilinx Virtex-II and the Altera Apex20k are provided to show the potential and power of the proposed method for low cost reconfigurable fast image pattern recognition/retrieval at the hardware/software co-design level.

  5. A novel match-line selective charging scheme for high-speed, low-power and noise-tolerant content-addressable memory

    KAUST Repository

    Hasan, Muhammad Mubashwar; Rashid, Abdul B M Harun Ur; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Content-addressable memory (CAM) is an essential component for high-speed lookup intensive applications. This paper presents a match-line selective charging technique to increase speed and reduce the energy per bit per search while increasing the noise-tolerance. Simulation in TSMC 0.18 μm technology with 64×72 Ternary CAM shows the match-line energy reduction of 45% compared to the conventional currentsaving scheme with the reduction of minimum cycle time by 68% and the improvement of noise-tolerance by 96%.

  6. A novel match-line selective charging scheme for high-speed, low-power and noise-tolerant content-addressable memory

    KAUST Repository

    Hasan, Muhammad Mubashwar

    2010-06-01

    Content-addressable memory (CAM) is an essential component for high-speed lookup intensive applications. This paper presents a match-line selective charging technique to increase speed and reduce the energy per bit per search while increasing the noise-tolerance. Simulation in TSMC 0.18 μm technology with 64×72 Ternary CAM shows the match-line energy reduction of 45% compared to the conventional currentsaving scheme with the reduction of minimum cycle time by 68% and the improvement of noise-tolerance by 96%.

  7. Phase-image-based content-addressable holographic data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Renu; Joseph, Joby; Singh, Kehar

    2004-03-01

    We propose and demonstrate the use of phase images for content-addressable holographic data storage. Use of binary phase-based data pages with 0 and π phase changes, produces uniform spectral distribution at the Fourier plane. The absence of strong DC component at the Fourier plane and more intensity of higher order spatial frequencies facilitate better recording of higher spatial frequencies, and improves the discrimination capability of the content-addressable memory. This improves the results of the associative recall in a holographic memory system, and can give low number of false hits even for small search arguments. The phase-modulated pixels also provide an opportunity of subtraction among data pixels leading to better discrimination between similar data pages.

  8. Memory reconsolidation mediates the updating of hippocampal memory content

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan L C Lee

    2010-01-01

    The retrieval or reactivation of a memory places it into a labile state, requiring a process of reconsolidation to restabilize it. This retrieval-induced plasticity is a potential mechanism for the modification of the existing memory. Following previous data supportive of a functional role for memory reconsolidation in the modification of memory strength, here I show that hippocampal memory reconsolidation also supports the updating of contextual memory content. Using a procedure that se...

  9. Memory reconsolidation mediates the updating of hippocampal memory content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L C Lee

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The retrieval or reactivation of a memory places it into a labile state, requiring a process of reconsolidation to restabilize it. This retrieval-induced plasticity is a potential mechanism for the modification of the existing memory. Following previous data supportive of a functional role for memory reconsolidation in the modification of memory strength, here I show that hippocampal memory reconsolidation also supports the updating of contextual memory content. Using a procedure that separates the learning of pure context from footshock-motivated contextual fear learning, I demonstrate doubly dissociable hippocampal mechanisms of initial context learning and subsequent updating of the neutral contextual representation to incorporate the footshock. Contextual memory consolidation was dependent upon BDNF expression in the dorsal hippocampus, whereas the footshock modification of the contextual representation required the expression of Zif268. These mechanisms match those previously shown to be selectively involved in hippocampal memory consolidation and reconsolidation, respectively. Moreover, memory reactivation is a necessary step in modifying memory content, as inhibition of hippocampal synaptic protein degradation also prevented the footshock-mediated memory modification. Finally, dorsal hippocampal knockdown of Zif268 impaired the reconsolidation of the pure contextual memory only under conditions of weak context memory training, as well as failing to disrupt contextual freezing when a strong contextual fear memory is reactivated by further conditioning. Therefore, an adaptive function of the reactivation and reconsolidation process is to enable the updating of memory content.

  10. Quantitative measurements of autobiographical memory content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Gardner

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM, subjective recollection of past experiences, is fundamental in everyday life. Nevertheless, characterization of the spontaneous occurrence of AM, as well as of the number and types of recollected details, remains limited. The CRAM (Cue-Recalled Autobiographical Memory test (http://cramtest.info adapts and combines the cue-word method with an assessment that collects counts of details recalled from different life periods. The SPAM (Spontaneous Probability of Autobiographical Memories protocol samples introspection during everyday activity, recording memory duration and frequency. These measures provide detailed, naturalistic accounts of AM content and frequency, quantifying essential dimensions of recollection. AM content (∼20 details/recollection decreased with the age of the episode, but less drastically than the probability of reporting remote compared to recent memories. AM retrieval was frequent (∼20/hour, each memory lasting ∼30 seconds. Testable hypotheses of the specific content retrieved in a fixed time from given life periods are presented.

  11. Memory Compression Techniques for Network Address Management in MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yanfei; Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael; Parker, Scott; Bland, Wesley; Raffenetti, Ken; Balaji, Pavan

    2017-05-29

    MPI allows applications to treat processes as a logical collection of integer ranks for each MPI communicator, while internally translating these logical ranks into actual network addresses. In current MPI implementations the management and lookup of such network addresses use memory sizes that are proportional to the number of processes in each communicator. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism, called AV-Rankmap, for managing such translation. AV-Rankmap takes advantage of logical patterns in rank-address mapping that most applications naturally tend to have, and it exploits the fact that some parts of network address structures are naturally more performance critical than others. It uses this information to compress the memory used for network address management. We demonstrate that AV-Rankmap can achieve performance similar to or better than that of other MPI implementations while using significantly less memory.

  12. A diagonal address generator for a Josephson memory circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.; Hasuo, S.

    1987-01-01

    The authors propose that a diagonal D address generator, which is useful for a single flux quantum (SFQ) memory cell in the triple coincidence scheme, can be performed by a full adder circuit. For the purpose of evaluating the D address generator for a 16-kbit memory circuit, a 6-bit full adder circuit, using a current-steering flip-flop circuit, has been designed and fabricated with the lead-alloy process. Operating times for the address latch, carry generator, and sum generator were 150 ps, 250 ps/stage, and 1.4 ns, respectively. From these results, they estimate that the time necessary for the diagonal signal generation is 2.8 ns

  13. A flexible analog memory address list manager for PHENIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, M.N.; Musrock, M.S.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Walker, J.W.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.; Allen, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    A programmable analog memory address list manager has been developed for use with all analog memory-based detector subsystems of PHENIX. The unit provides simultaneous read/write control, cell write-over protection for both a Level-1 trigger decision delay and digitization latency, and re-ordering of AMU addresses following conversion, at a beam crossing rate of 105 ns. Addresses are handled such that up to 5 Level-1 (LVL-1) events can be maintained in the AMU without write-over. Data tagging is implemented for handling overlapping and shared beam-event data packets. Full usage in all PHENIX analog memory-based detector subsystems is accomplished by the use of detector-specific programmable parameters--the number of data samples per valid LVL-1 trigger and the sample spacing. Architectural candidates for the system are discussed with emphasis on implementation implications. Details of the design are presented including application specifics, timing information, and test results from a full implementation using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs)

  14. CAN Tree Routing for Content-Addressable Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongtao LI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel topology to improve the routing performance of Content- Addressable Network overlays while minimizing the maintenance overhead during nodes churn. The key idea of our approach is to establish a P2P tree structure (CAN tree by means of equipping each node with a few long links towards some distant nodes. The long links enhance routing flexibility and robustness against failures. Nodes automatically adapt routing table to cope with network change. The routing complexity is O(log n, which is much better than a uniform greedy routing, while each node maintains two long links in average.

  15. Analysis of the influence of memory content of auditory stimuli on the memory content of EEG signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Hamidreza; Khosrowabadi, Reza; Hussaini, Jamal; Habibi, Shaghayegh; Farid, Ali Akhavan; Kulish, Vladimir V

    2016-08-30

    One of the major challenges in brain research is to relate the structural features of the auditory stimulus to structural features of Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal. Memory content is an important feature of EEG signal and accordingly the brain. On the other hand, the memory content can also be considered in case of stimulus. Beside all works done on analysis of the effect of stimuli on human EEG and brain memory, no work discussed about the stimulus memory and also the relationship that may exist between the memory content of stimulus and the memory content of EEG signal. For this purpose we consider the Hurst exponent as the measure of memory. This study reveals the plasticity of human EEG signals in relation to the auditory stimuli. For the first time we demonstrated that the memory content of an EEG signal shifts towards the memory content of the auditory stimulus used. The results of this analysis showed that an auditory stimulus with higher memory content causes a larger increment in the memory content of an EEG signal. For the verification of this result, we benefit from approximate entropy as indicator of time series randomness. The capability, observed in this research, can be further investigated in relation to human memory.

  16. Compelling Untruths: Content Borrowing and Vivid False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampinen, James Michael; Meier, Christopher R.; Arnal, Jack D.; Leding, Juliana K.

    2005-01-01

    False memories are sometimes accompanied by surprisingly vivid experiential detail that makes them difficult to distinguish from actual memories. Such strikingly real false memories may be produced by a process called content borrowing in which details from presented items are errantly borrowed to corroborate the occurrence of the false memory…

  17. Working memory contents revive the neglected, but suppress the inhibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Suk Won

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that attention is biased toward a stimulus matching working memory contents. However, it remains unknown whether the maintenance of information in working memory by itself is sufficient to create memory-driven attentional capture. Notably, in many previous studies showing the memory-driven attentional capture, the task settings might have explicitly or implicitly incentivized participants to strategically attend to a memory-matching stimulus. By innovating an experimental paradigm, the present study overcame this challenge and directly tested whether working memory contents capture attention in the absence of task-level attentional bias toward a memory-matching stimulus. I found that a stimulus that is usually outside the focus of attention, powerfully captured attention when it matched working memory contents, whereas a match between working memory and an inhibited stimulus suppressed attentional allocation toward the memory-matching stimulus. These findings suggest that in the absence of any task-level attentional bias toward memory-matching stimuli, attention is biased toward a memory-matching stimulus, but this memory-driven attentional capture is diminished when top-down inhibition is imposed on the stimulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Content-specific working memory modulation of the attentional blink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akyürek, Elkan G.; Abedian-Amiri, Ali; Ostermeier, Sonja M.

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of working memory content on temporal attention in a rapid serial visual presentation attentional blink paradigm. It was shown that categorical similarity between working memory content and the target stimuli pertaining to the attentional

  19. Short-term memory for scenes with affective content

    OpenAIRE

    Maljkovic, Vera; Martini, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    The emotional content of visual images can be parameterized along two dimensions: valence (pleasantness) and arousal (intensity of emotion). In this study we ask how these distinct emotional dimensions affect the short-term memory of human observers viewing a rapid stream of images and trying to remember their content. We show that valence and arousal modulate short-term memory as independent factors. Arousal influences dramatically the average speed of data accumulation in memory: Higher aro...

  20. Dissociating Contents of Consciousness from Contents of Short-Term Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Staugaard, Camilla Funch

    2014-01-01

    The contents of consciousness and of short-term memory are hard to disentangle. As it seems intuitive that we represent attended objects in short-term memory and in experience, to many, it also seems intuitive to equate this content. Here we investigated memory resolution for orientation......” to a “clear experience” of a probed target. To assess memory resolution we used a Landolt-variation on the visual short-term memory (VSTM) resolution paradigm (e.g. Wilken & Ma, 2004). Set-sizes in the memory display were varied between 1, 2, or 4 elements. With increasing set-size we found that both...

  1. Oscillations and Episodic Memory: Addressing the Synchronization/Desynchronization Conundrum

    OpenAIRE

    Hanslmayr, Simon; Staresina, Bernhard P.; Bowman, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Trends Data from rodent as well as human studies suggest that theta/gamma synchronization in the hippocampus (i.e., theta phase to gamma power cross-frequency coupling) mediates the binding of different elements in episodic memory. In vivo and in vitro animal studies suggest that theta provides selective time windows for fast-acting synaptic modifications and recent computational models have implemented these mechanisms to explain human memory formation and retrieval. Recent data from human e...

  2. Emotion and false memory: The context-content paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookbinder, S H; Brainerd, C J

    2016-12-01

    False memories are influenced by a variety of factors, but emotion is a variable of special significance, for theoretical and practical reasons. Interestingly, emotion's effects on false memory depend on whether it is embedded in the content of to-be-remembered events or in our moods, where mood is an aspect of the context in which events are encoded. We sketch the theoretical basis for this content-context dissociation and then review accumulated evidence that content and context effects are indeed different. Paradoxically, we find that in experiments on spontaneous and implanted false memories, negatively valenced content foments distortion, but negatively valenced moods protect against it. In addition, correlational data show that enduring negative natural moods (e.g., depression) foment false memory. Current opponent-process models of false memory, such as fuzzy-trace theory, are able to explain the content-context dissociation: Variations in emotional content primarily affect memory for the gist of events, whereas variations in emotional context primarily affect memory for events' exact verbatim form. Important questions remain about how these effects are modulated by variations in memory tests and in arousal. Promising methods of tackling those questions are outlined, especially designs that separate the gist and verbatim influences of emotion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Direct Access to Working Memory Contents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.E.; Oberauer, K.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract. In two experiments participants held in working memory (WM) three digits in three different colors, and updated individual digits with the results of arithmetic equations presented in one of the colors. In the memory-access condition, a digit from WM had to be used as the first number in

  4. Addressing Working Memory in Children with Autism through Behavioral Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltruschat, Lisa; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Tarbox, Jonathan; Dixon, Dennis R.; Najdowski, Adel C.; Mullins, Ryan D.; Gould, Evelyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism often struggle with executive function (EF) deficits, particularly with regard to working memory (WM). Despite the documented deficits in these areas, very little controlled research has evaluated treatments for remediation of EF or WM deficits in children with autism. This study examined the use of positive reinforcement for…

  5. Negative Emotional Content Disrupts the Coherence of Episodic Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Bisby, James A.; Horner, Aidan J.; Bush, Daniel; Burgess, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Events are thought to be stored in episodic memory as coherent representations, in which the constituent elements are bound together so that a cue can trigger reexperience of all elements via pattern completion. Negative emotional content can strongly influence memory, but opposing theories predict strengthening or weakening of memory coherence. Across a series of experiments, participants imagined a number of person-location-object events with half of the events including a negative element ...

  6. Ritual as a method of social memory content transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkina Anna N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a ritual as a method of social memory content transfer. To reveal dialectics of ritual phenomenon formation and development, hermeneutical, dialectical and general scientific approaches as well as analysis and synthesis are applied. Social memory is considered as a complex of essential information for a society rooted in a social medium mentality and transferred from one generation to another. In terms of analyzed theoretical approaches to ritual and social memory the authors conclude that a ritual is capable of transferring social memory from one social stratum to another retaining its content. By means of a ritual, the process of conversation between different individuals is implemented, and the unity of memories is formed. Ritual instability allows changing its form dialectically retaining its content unvaried. Ritual preserves, presents and keeps its content current taking into account changing forms of manifestation that define the dynamics of society development. Reflecting the inner content of a social memory ritual contributes to its literal perception in the modern world and, as a consequence, to the reduction of social conscience manipulation. The development of society is in great necessity in such methods of social memory transfer that are capable of responding to social changes retaining important information for society ungarbled. The authors consider a ritual as one of such methods.

  7. Scheduling support for transactional memory contention management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maldonado, Walther; Marler, Patrick; Felber, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Transactional Memory (TM) is considered as one of the most promising paradigms for developing concurrent applications. TM has been shown to scale well on >multiple cores when the data access pattern behaves "well," i.e., when few conflicts are induced. In contrast, data patterns with frequent wri...

  8. Reprogrammable read only variable threshold transistor memory with isolated addressing buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Robert J.

    1976-01-01

    A monolithic integrated circuit, fully decoded memory comprises a rectangular array of variable threshold field effect transistors organized into a plurality of multi-bit words. Binary address inputs to the memory are decoded by a field effect transistor decoder into a plurality of word selection lines each of which activates an address buffer circuit. Each address buffer circuit, in turn, drives a word line of the memory array. In accordance with the word line selected by the decoder the activated buffer circuit directs reading or writing voltages to the transistors comprising the memory words. All of the buffer circuits additionally are connected to a common terminal for clearing all of the memory transistors to a predetermined state by the application to the common terminal of a large magnitude voltage of a predetermined polarity. The address decoder, the buffer and the memory array, as well as control and input/output control and buffer field effect transistor circuits, are fabricated on a common substrate with means provided to isolate the substrate of the address buffer transistors from the remainder of the substrate so that the bulk clearing function of simultaneously placing all of the memory transistors into a predetermined state can be performed.

  9. Feature-based memory-driven attentional capture: Visual working memory content affects visual attention.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivers, C.N.L.; Meijer, F.; Theeuwes, J.

    2006-01-01

    In 7 experiments, the authors explored whether visual attention (the ability to select relevant visual information) and visual working memory (the ability to retain relevant visual information) share the same content representations. The presence of singleton distractors interfered more strongly

  10. How visual working memory contents influence priming of visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Nancy B; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2017-04-12

    Recent evidence shows that when the contents of visual working memory overlap with targets and distractors in a pop-out search task, intertrial priming is inhibited (Kristjánsson, Sævarsson & Driver, Psychon Bull Rev 20(3):514-521, 2013, Experiment 2, Psychonomic Bulletin and Review). This may reflect an interesting interaction between implicit short-term memory-thought to underlie intertrial priming-and explicit visual working memory. Evidence from a non-pop-out search task suggests that it may specifically be holding distractors in visual working memory that disrupts intertrial priming (Cunningham & Egeth, Psychol Sci 27(4):476-485, 2016, Experiment 2, Psychological Science). We examined whether the inhibition of priming depends on whether feature values in visual working memory overlap with targets or distractors in the pop-out search, and we found that the inhibition of priming resulted from holding distractors in visual working memory. These results are consistent with separate mechanisms of target and distractor effects in intertrial priming, and support the notion that the impact of implicit short-term memory and explicit visual working memory can interact when each provides conflicting attentional signals.

  11. Addresses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Point features representing locations of all street addresses in Orange County, NC including Chapel Hill, NC. Data maintained by Orange County, the Town of Chapel...

  12. Negative emotional content disrupts the coherence of episodic memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisby, James A; Horner, Aidan J; Bush, Daniel; Burgess, Neil

    2018-02-01

    Events are thought to be stored in episodic memory as coherent representations, in which the constituent elements are bound together so that a cue can trigger reexperience of all elements via pattern completion. Negative emotional content can strongly influence memory, but opposing theories predict strengthening or weakening of memory coherence. Across a series of experiments, participants imagined a number of person-location-object events with half of the events including a negative element (e.g., an injured person), and memory was tested across all within event associations. We show that the presence of a negative element reduces memory for associations between event elements, including between neutral elements encoded after a negative element. The presence of a negative element reduces the coherence with which a multimodal event is remembered. Our results, supported by a computational model, suggest that coherent retrieval from neutral events is supported by pattern completion, but that negative content weakens associative encoding which impairs this process. Our findings have important implications for understanding the way traumatic events are encoded and support therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring associations between negative content and its surrounding context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Memory reactivation during rest supports upcoming learning of related content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Margaret L.; Preston, Alison R.

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of studies have highlighted the importance of offline processes for memory, how these mechanisms influence future learning remains unknown. Participants with established memories for a set of initial face–object associations were scanned during passive rest and during encoding of new related and unrelated pairs of objects. Spontaneous reactivation of established memories and enhanced hippocampal–neocortical functional connectivity during rest was related to better subsequent learning, specifically of related content. Moreover, the degree of functional coupling during rest was predictive of neural engagement during the new learning experience itself. These results suggest that through rest-phase reactivation and hippocampal–neocortical interactions, existing memories may come to facilitate encoding during subsequent related episodes. PMID:25331890

  14. Memory reactivation during rest supports upcoming learning of related content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Margaret L; Preston, Alison R

    2014-11-04

    Although a number of studies have highlighted the importance of offline processes for memory, how these mechanisms influence future learning remains unknown. Participants with established memories for a set of initial face-object associations were scanned during passive rest and during encoding of new related and unrelated pairs of objects. Spontaneous reactivation of established memories and enhanced hippocampal-neocortical functional connectivity during rest was related to better subsequent learning, specifically of related content. Moreover, the degree of functional coupling during rest was predictive of neural engagement during the new learning experience itself. These results suggest that through rest-phase reactivation and hippocampal-neocortical interactions, existing memories may come to facilitate encoding during subsequent related episodes.

  15. An Analysis of an Ultra-High Speed Content-Addressable Database Retrieval System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costianes, Peter

    2001-01-01

    This work presents a model for assessing the performance of a paradigm and its implementation first proposed by Chou, Detofsky, and Louri entitled Multiwavelength Optical Content-Addressable Parallel Processor (MW-OCAPP...

  16. Information Content Moderates Positivity and Negativity Biases in Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M.; Popham, Lauren E.; Dennis, Paul A.; Emery, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments examined the impact of encoding conditions and information content in memory for positive, neutral, and negative pictures. We examined the hypotheses that the positivity effect in memory (i.e., a bias in favor of positive or against negative information in later life) would be reduced when (a) pictures were viewed under structured as opposed to unstructured conditions, and (b) contained social as opposed to nonsocial content. Both experiments found that the positivity effect observed with nonsocial stimuli was absent with social stimuli. In addition, little evidence was obtained that encoding conditions affected the strength of the positivity effect. We argue that some types of social stimuli may engage different types of processing than nonsocial stimuli, perhaps encouraging self-referential processing that engages attention and supports memory. This processing may then conflict with the goal-driven, top-down processing that is hypothesized to drive the positivity effect. Thus, our results identify further boundary conditions associated with the positivity effect in memory, arguing that stimulus factors as well as situational goals may affect its occurrence. Further research awaits to determine if this effect is specific to all social stimuli or specific subsets. PMID:23421322

  17. Information content moderates positivity and negativity biases in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M; Popham, Lauren E; Dennis, Paul A; Emery, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    Two experiments examined the impact of encoding conditions and information content in memory for positive, neutral, and negative pictures. We examined the hypotheses that the positivity effect in memory (i.e., a bias in favor of positive or against negative information in later life) would be reduced when (a) pictures were viewed under structured as opposed to unstructured conditions, and (b) contained social as opposed to nonsocial content. Both experiments found that the positivity effect observed with nonsocial stimuli was absent with social stimuli. In addition, little evidence was obtained that encoding conditions affected the strength of the positivity effect. We argue that some types of social stimuli may engage different types of processing than nonsocial stimuli, perhaps encouraging self-referential processing that engages attention and supports memory. This processing may then conflict with the goal-driven, top-down processing that is hypothesized to drive the positivity effect. Thus, our results identify further boundary conditions associated with the positivity effect in memory, arguing that stimulus factors as well as situational goals may affect its occurrence. Further research awaits to determine if this effect is specific to all social stimuli or specific subsets.

  18. Contention Modeling for Multithreaded Distributed Shared Memory Machines: The Cray XMT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secchi, Simone; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste

    2011-07-27

    Distributed Shared Memory (DSM) machines are a wide class of multi-processor computing systems where a large virtually-shared address space is mapped on a network of physically distributed memories. High memory latency and network contention are two of the main factors that limit performance scaling of such architectures. Modern high-performance computing DSM systems have evolved toward exploitation of massive hardware multi-threading and fine-grained memory hashing to tolerate irregular latencies, avoid network hot-spots and enable high scaling. In order to model the performance of such large-scale machines, parallel simulation has been proved to be a promising approach to achieve good accuracy in reasonable times. One of the most critical factors in solving the simulation speed-accuracy trade-off is network modeling. The Cray XMT is a massively multi-threaded supercomputing architecture that belongs to the DSM class, since it implements a globally-shared address space abstraction on top of a physically distributed memory substrate. In this paper, we discuss the development of a contention-aware network model intended to be integrated in a full-system XMT simulator. We start by measuring the effects of network contention in a 128-processor XMT machine and then investigate the trade-off that exists between simulation accuracy and speed, by comparing three network models which operate at different levels of accuracy. The comparison and model validation is performed by executing a string-matching algorithm on the full-system simulator and on the XMT, using three datasets that generate noticeably different contention patterns.

  19. Effects of emotional content on working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Katie E; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2018-02-13

    Emotional events tend to be remembered better than neutral events, but emotional states and stimuli may also interfere with cognitive processes that underlie memory performance. The current study investigated the effects of emotional content on working memory capacity (WMC), which involves both short term storage and executive attention control. We tested competing hypotheses in a preregistered experiment (N = 297). The emotional enhancement hypothesis predicts that emotional stimuli attract attention and additional processing resources relative to neutral stimuli, thereby making it easier to encode and store emotional information in WMC. The emotional impairment hypothesis, by contrast, predicts that emotional stimuli interfere with attention control and the active maintenance of information in working memory. Participants completed a common measure of WMC (the operation span task; Turner, M. L., & Engle, R. W. [1989]. Is working memory capacity task dependent? Journal of Memory and Language, 28, 127-154) that included either emotional or neutral words. Results revealed that WMC was reduced for emotional words relative to neutral words, consistent with the emotional impairment hypothesis.

  20. A light writable microfluidic "flash memory": optically addressed actuator array with latched operation for microfluidic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Zhishan; Pal, Rohit; Srivannavit, Onnop; Burns, Mark A; Gulari, Erdogan

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents a novel optically addressed microactuator array (microfluidic "flash memory") with latched operation. Analogous to the address-data bus mediated memory address protocol in electronics, the microactuator array consists of individual phase-change based actuators addressed by localized heating through focused light patterns (address bus), which can be provided by a modified projector or high power laser pointer. A common pressure manifold (data bus) for the entire array is used to generate large deflections of the phase change actuators in the molten phase. The use of phase change material as the working media enables latched operation of the actuator array. After the initial light "writing" during which the phase is temporarily changed to molten, the actuated status is self-maintained by the solid phase of the actuator without power and pressure inputs. The microfluidic flash memory can be re-configured by a new light illumination pattern and common pressure signal. The proposed approach can achieve actuation of arbitrary units in a large-scale array without the need for complex external equipment such as solenoid valves and electrical modules, which leads to significantly simplified system implementation and compact system size. The proposed work therefore provides a flexible, energy-efficient, and low cost multiplexing solution for microfluidic applications based on physical displacements. As an example, the use of the latched microactuator array as "normally closed" or "normally open" microvalves is demonstrated. The phase-change wax is fully encapsulated and thus immune from contamination issues in fluidic environments.

  1. Feature-Based Memory-Driven Attentional Capture: Visual Working Memory Content Affects Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivers, Christian N. L.; Meijer, Frank; Theeuwes, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In 7 experiments, the authors explored whether visual attention (the ability to select relevant visual information) and visual working memory (the ability to retain relevant visual information) share the same content representations. The presence of singleton distractors interfered more strongly with a visual search task when it was accompanied by…

  2. SIR JOHN CRAWFORD MEMORIAL ADDRESS: Agriculture: The challenges of the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Beddington, Sir John

    2012-01-01

    The Sir John Crawford Memorial Address has been presented since 1985, in honour of the distinguished Australian civil servant, educator and agriculturalist in whose name the Crawford Fund was established. Sir John Crawford was a remarkable Australian who contributed at the highest levels, and was a passionate supporter of international agricultural research for development. This talk draws attention to four current and interrelated trends that suggest the world will be rather different by 202...

  3. Medial temporal lobe reinstatement of content-specific details predicts source memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jackson C.; Preston, Alison R.

    2016-01-01

    Leading theories propose that when remembering past events, medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures reinstate the neural patterns that were active when those events were initially encoded. Accurate reinstatement is hypothesized to support detailed recollection of memories, including their source. While several studies have linked cortical reinstatement to successful retrieval, indexing reinstatement within the MTL network and its relationship to memory performance has proved challenging. Here, we addressed this gap in knowledge by having participants perform an incidental encoding task, during which they visualized people, places, and objects in response to adjective cues. During a surprise memory test, participants saw studied and novel adjectives and indicated the imagery task they performed for each adjective. A multivariate pattern classifier was trained to discriminate the imagery tasks based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses from hippocampus and MTL cortex at encoding. The classifier was then tested on MTL patterns during the source memory task. We found that MTL encoding patterns were reinstated during successful source retrieval. Moreover, when participants made source misattributions, errors were predicted by reinstatement of incorrect source content in MTL cortex. We further observed a gradient of content-specific reinstatement along the anterior-posterior axis of hippocampus and MTL cortex. Within anterior hippocampus, we found that reinstatement of person content was related to source memory accuracy, whereas reinstatement of place information across the entire hippocampal axis predicted correct source judgments. Content-specific reinstatement was also graded across MTL cortex, with PRc patterns evincing reactivation of people and more posterior regions, including PHc, showing evidence for reinstatement of places and objects. Collectively, these findings provide key evidence that source recollection relies on reinstatement of past

  4. A flexible analog memory address list manager/controller for PHENIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, M.N.; Walker, J.W.; Britton, C.L.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    A programmable analog memory address list manager/controller has been developed for use with all analog memory-based detector subsystems of PHENIX. The unit provides simultaneous read/write control, cell write-over protection for both a Level-1 trigger decision delay and digitization latency, and re-ordering of AMU addresses following conversion, at a beam crossing rate of 112 ns. Addresses are handled such that up to 5 Level-1 events can be maintained in the AMU without write-over. Data tagging is implemented for handling overlapping and shared beam event data packets. Full usage in all PHENIX analog memory-based detector sub-systems is accomplished by the use of detector-specific programmable parameters -- the number of data samples per Level-1 trigger valid and the swnple spacing. Architectural candidates for the system are discussed with emphasis on implementation implications. Details of the design are presented including design simulations, timing information, and test results from a full implementation using programmable logic devices

  5. Multi-Core Processor Memory Contention Benchmark Analysis Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Tyler; McGalliard, James

    2009-01-01

    Multi-core processors dominate current mainframe, server, and high performance computing (HPC) systems. This paper provides synthetic kernel and natural benchmark results from an HPC system at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center that illustrate the performance impacts of multi-core (dual- and quad-core) vs. single core processor systems. Analysis of processor design, application source code, and synthetic and natural test results all indicate that multi-core processors can suffer from significant memory subsystem contention compared to similar single-core processors.

  6. Attention, working memory, and phenomenal experience of WM content: memory levels determined by different types of top-down modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Jane; Jacobs, Christianne; Silvanto, Juha

    2015-01-01

    What is the role of top-down attentional modulation in consciously accessing working memory (WM) content? In influential WM models, information can exist in different states, determined by allocation of attention; placing the original memory representation in the center of focused attention gives rise to conscious access. Here we discuss various lines of evidence indicating that such attentional modulation is not sufficient for memory content to be phenomenally experienced. We propose that, i...

  7. Trauma and autobiographical memory: contents and determinants of earliest memories among war-affected Palestinian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltonen, Kirsi; Kangaslampi, Samuli; Qouta, Samir; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-11-01

    The contents of earliest memories (EM), as part of autobiographical memory, continue to fascinate scientists and therapists. However, research is scarce on the determinants of EM, especially among children. This study aims, first, to identify contents of EM of children living in war conditions, and, second, to analyse child gender, traumatic events and mental health as determinants of the contents of EM. The participants were 240 Palestinian schoolchildren from the Gaza Strip (10-12 years, M = 11.35, SD = 0.57; 49.4% girls). They responded to an open-ended EM question, and reported their trauma exposures (war trauma, losses and current traumatic events), posttraumatic stress, depressive symptoms and psychosocial well-being, indicating mental health. The EM coding involved nature, social orientation, emotional tone and specificity. Results showed, first, that 43% reported playing or visiting a nice place as EM, and about a third (30%) traumatic events or accidents (30%) or miscellaneous events (27%). The individual and social orientation were almost equally common, the emotional tone mainly neutral (45.5%), and 60% remembered a specific event. Second, boys remembered more EM involving traumatic events or accidents, and girls more social events. Third, war trauma was associated with less positive emotional tone and with more specific memories.

  8. Addressing scientific literacy through content area reading and processes of scientific inquiry: What teachers report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Susan J.

    The purpose of this study was to interpret the experiences of secondary science teachers in Florida as they address the scientific literacy of their students through teaching content reading strategies and student inquiry skills. Knowledge of the successful integration of content reading and inquiry skills by experienced classroom teachers would be useful to many educators as they plan instruction to achieve challenging state and national standards for reading as well as science. The problem was investigated using grounded theory methodology. Open-ended questions were asked in three focus groups and six individual interviews that included teachers from various Florida school districts. The constant comparative approach was used to analyze the data. Initial codes were collapsed into categories to determine the conceptual relationships among the data. From this, the five core categories were determined to be Influencers, Issues, Perceptions, Class Routines, and Future Needs. These relate to the central phenomenon, Instructional Modifications, because teachers often described pragmatic and philosophical changes in their teaching as they deliberated to meet state standards in both reading and science. Although Florida's secondary science teachers have been asked to incorporate content reading strategies into their science instruction for the past several years, there was limited evidence of using these strategies to further student understanding of scientific processes. Most teachers saw little connection between reading and inquiry, other than the fact that students must know how to read to follow directions in the lab. Scientific literacy, when it was addressed by teachers, was approached mainly through class discussions, not reading. Teachers realized that students cannot learn secondary science content unless they read science text with comprehension; therefore the focus of reading instruction was on learning science content, not scientific literacy or student

  9. Attention, working memory, and phenomenal experience of WM content: memory levels determined by different types of top-down modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jane; Jacobs, Christianne; Silvanto, Juha

    2015-01-01

    What is the role of top-down attentional modulation in consciously accessing working memory (WM) content? In influential WM models, information can exist in different states, determined by allocation of attention; placing the original memory representation in the center of focused attention gives rise to conscious access. Here we discuss various lines of evidence indicating that such attentional modulation is not sufficient for memory content to be phenomenally experienced. We propose that, in addition to attentional modulation of the memory representation, another type of top-down modulation is required: suppression of all incoming visual information, via inhibition of early visual cortex. In this view, there are three distinct memory levels, as a function of the top-down control associated with them: (1) Nonattended, nonconscious associated with no attentional modulation; (2) attended, phenomenally nonconscious memory, associated with attentional enhancement of the actual memory trace; (3) attended, phenomenally conscious memory content, associated with enhancement of the memory trace and top-down suppression of all incoming visual input.

  10. A Novel CAN Tree Coordinate Routing in Content-Addressable Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongtao Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel approach to improve coordination routing while minimizing the maintenance overhead during nodes churn. It bases on “CAN Tree Routing for Content- Addressable Network” 1 which is a solution for peer-to-peer routing. We concentrated on coordinate routing in this paper. The key idea of our approach is a recursion process to calculate target zone code and search in CAN tree 1. Because the hops are via long links in CAN, it enhances routing flexibility and robustness against failures. Nodes automatically adapt routing table to cope with network change. The routing complexity is , which is much better than a uniform greedy routing, while each node maintains two long links in average.

  11. Continuity of phenomenology and (in)consistency of content of meaningful autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Martina; Rossi, Nicolino; Montebarocci, Ornella; Sutin, Angelina R

    2016-05-01

    Phenomenology is a critical component of autobiographical memory retrieval; it reflects both (a) memory-specific features and (b) stable individual differences. Few studies have tested phenomenology longitudinally. The present work examined the continuity of memory phenomenology in a sample of Italians adults (N=105) over a 4-week period. Participants retrieved two 'key' personal memories, a Turning Point and an Early Childhood Memory, rated the phenomenology of each memory, and completed measures of personality, psychological distress and subjective well-being. Phenomenological ratings were moderately stable over time (median correlation >.40), regardless of memory content. Personality traits, psychological distress and well-being were associated with phenomenology cross-sectionally and with changes in phenomenology over time. These results suggest that how individuals re-experience their most important personal memories is relatively consistent over time and shaped by both trait and state aspects of psychological functioning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of cue content on retrieval from autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzer, Tugba; Brown, Norman R

    2017-01-01

    It has long been argued that personal memories are usually generated in an effortful search process in word-cueing studies. However, recent research (Uzer, Lee, & Brown, 2012) shows that direct retrieval of autobiographical memories, in response to word cues, is common. This invites the question of whether direct retrieval phenomenon is generalizable beyond the standard laboratory paradigm. Here we investigated prevalence of direct retrieval of autobiographical memories cued by specific and individuated cues versus generic cues. In Experiment 1, participants retrieved memories in response to cues from their own life (e.g., the names of friends) and generic words (e.g., chair). In Experiment 2, participants provided their personal cues two or three months prior to coming to the lab (min: 75days; max: 100days). In each experiment, RT was measured and participants reported whether memories were directly retrieved or generated on each trial. Results showed that personal cues elicited a high rate of direct retrieval. Personal cues were more likely to elicit direct retrieval than generic word cues, and as a consequence, participants responded faster, on average, to the former than to the latter. These results challenge the constructive view of autobiographical memory and suggest that autobiographical memories consist of pre-stored event representations, which are largely governed by associative mechanisms. These demonstrations offer theoretically interesting questions such as why are we not overwhelmed with directly retrieved memories cued by everyday familiar surroundings? Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Emotional content enhances true but not false memory for categorized stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hae-Yoon; Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Rajaram, Suparna

    2013-04-01

    Past research has shown that emotion enhances true memory, but that emotion can either increase or decrease false memory. Two theoretical possibilities-the distinctiveness of emotional stimuli and the conceptual relatedness of emotional content-have been implicated as being responsible for influencing both true and false memory for emotional content. In the present study, we sought to identify the mechanisms that underlie these mixed findings by equating the thematic relatedness of the study materials across each type of valence used (negative, positive, or neutral). In three experiments, categorically bound stimuli (e.g., funeral, pets, and office items) were used for this purpose. When the encoding task required the processing of thematic relatedness, a significant true-memory enhancement for emotional content emerged in recognition memory, but no emotional boost to false memory (exp. 1). This pattern persisted for true memory with a longer retention interval between study and test (24 h), and false recognition was reduced for emotional items (exp. 2). Finally, better recognition memory for emotional items once again emerged when the encoding task (arousal ratings) required the processing of the emotional aspect of the study items, with no emotional boost to false recognition (EXP. 3). Together, these findings suggest that when emotional and neutral stimuli are equivalently high in thematic relatedness, emotion continues to improve true memory, but it does not override other types of grouping to increase false memory.

  14. Do the Contents of Visual Working Memory Automatically Influence Attentional Selection During Visual Search?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodman, Geoffrey F.; Luck, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    In many theories of cognition, researchers propose that working memory and perception operate interactively. For example, in previous studies researchers have suggested that sensory inputs matching the contents of working memory will have an automatic advantage in the competition for processing resources. The authors tested this hypothesis by requiring observers to perform a visual search task while concurrently maintaining object representations in visual working memory. The hypothesis that ...

  15. The content of cigarette counter-advertising: are perceived functions of smoking addressed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Nancy; Roskos-Ewoldsen, David; Eno, Cassie A; Monahan, Jennifer L

    2009-01-01

    Media campaigns can be an effective tool in reducing adolescent smoking. To better understand the types of ads that have been used in campaigns in the United States, a content analysis was conducted of ads available at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Media Campaign Resource Center (MCRC; Waves 1 through 7). A total of 487 ads were coded. Ads were coded for target audience, primary theme present in the ad, and sensation value-production techniques that have been demonstrated to attract attention and increase arousal. Primary themes extended earlier studies by focusing on the perceived functions of smoking (weight lose, stress management, controlling negative affect) as well as the traditional themes of industry attack, the health consequences of smoking, secondhand smoke, quitting, and the social image of smokers. A majority of ads were rated as having moderate sensation value, and ads targeted at teens and children were, on the average, higher in sensation value than those targeting general audiences. Changes across time suggest that campaigns are focusing more on adolescent smoking and relying more on attacking the tobacco industry. Research indicates that the functions of stress relief, mood regulation, and weight loss are strong reasons for initiating and continuing to smoke cigarettes; however, none of the 487 ads addressed these functional themes. Implications for developing campaigns that more closely relate to the functions of smoking are discussed.

  16. Do the Contents of Working Memory Capture Attention? Yes, but Cognitive Control Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Suk Won; Kim, Min-Shik

    2009-01-01

    There has been a controversy on whether working memory can guide attentional selection. Some researchers have reported that the contents of working memory guide attention automatically in visual search (D. Soto, D. Heinke, G. W. Humphreys, & M. J. Blanco, 2005). On the other hand, G.F. Woodman and S. J. Luck (2007) reported that they could not…

  17. Do the Contents of Visual Working Memory Automatically Influence Attentional Selection during Visual Search?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Geoffrey F.; Luck, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    In many theories of cognition, researchers propose that working memory and perception operate interactively. For example, in previous studies researchers have suggested that sensory inputs matching the contents of working memory will have an automatic advantage in the competition for processing resources. The authors tested this hypothesis by…

  18. Addressing Phonological Memory in Language Therapy with Clients Who Have Down Syndrome: Perspectives of Speech-Language Pathologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Gayle G.; Conners, Frances A.; Barber, Angela B.; Price, Hannah R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Phonological memory (PM) plays a significant role in language development but is impaired in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Without formal recommendations on how to address PM limitations in clients with DS, it is possible speech-language pathologists (SLPs) find ways to do so in their practices. Aims: This study asked if and how…

  19. When increasing distraction helps learning: Distractor number and content interact in their effects on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussenbaum, Kate; Amso, Dima; Markant, Julie

    2017-11-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that increasing the number of distractors in a search array can reduce interference from distractor content during target processing. However, it is unclear how this reduced interference influences learning of target information. Here, we investigated how varying the amount and content of distraction present in a learning environment affects visual search and subsequent memory for target items. In two experiments, we demonstrate that the number and content of competing distractors interact in their influence on target selection and memory. Specifically, while increasing the number of distractors present in a search array made target detection more effortful, it did not impair learning and memory for target content. Instead, when the distractors contained category information that conflicted with the target, increasing the number of distractors from one to three actually benefitted learning and memory. These data suggest that increasing numbers of distractors may reduce interference from conflicting conceptual information during encoding.

  20. Scalable printed electronics: an organic decoder addressing ferroelectric non-volatile memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tse Nga; Schwartz, David E.; Lavery, Leah L.; Whiting, Gregory L.; Russo, Beverly; Krusor, Brent; Veres, Janos; Bröms, Per; Herlogsson, Lars; Alam, Naveed; Hagel, Olle; Nilsson, Jakob; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Scalable circuits of organic logic and memory are realized using all-additive printing processes. A 3-bit organic complementary decoder is fabricated and used to read and write non-volatile, rewritable ferroelectric memory. The decoder-memory array is patterned by inkjet and gravure printing on flexible plastics. Simulation models for the organic transistors are developed, enabling circuit designs tolerant of the variations in printed devices. We explain the key design rules in fabrication of complex printed circuits and elucidate the performance requirements of materials and devices for reliable organic digital logic. PMID:22900143

  1. A New Contention Management Technique for Obstruction Free Transactional Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Ammlan; Sahin, Anubhab; Silsarma, Anirban; Chaki, Rituparna

    2014-01-01

    Part 2: Algorithms; International audience; Transactional Memory, one of the most viable alternatives to lock based concurrent systems, was explored by the researchers for practically implementing parallel processing. The goal was that threads will run parallel and improve system performance, but the effect of their execution will be linear. In STM, the non-blocking synchronization can be implemented by Wait-Freedom, Lock-Freedom or Obstruction-Freedom philosophy. Though Obstruction Free Tran...

  2. Content Analysis of Memory and Memory-Related Research Studies on Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Murat; Hasanoglu, Gülcihan

    2016-01-01

    Memory plays a profound role in explaining language development, academic learning, and learning disabilities. Even though there is a large body of research on language development, literacy skills, other academic skills, and intellectual characteristics of children with hearing loss, there is no holistic study on their memory processes.…

  3. Webquests: A Strategy to Address the "Content" Dilemma in Teacher Education Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fero, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose the use of technology integration in elementary and middle level education courses, specifically, the use of WebQuests as vehicles for the infusion of content knowledge in preservice and in-service education courses. Observation in content area teaching methods courses found that teacher candidates often…

  4. Data Movement Dominates: Advanced Memory Technology to Address the Real Exascale Power Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, Keren

    2014-08-28

    Energy is the fundamental barrier to Exascale supercomputing and is dominated by the cost of moving data from one point to another, not computation. Similarly, performance is dominated by data movement, not computation. The solution to this problem requires three critical technologies: 3D integration, optical chip-to-chip communication, and a new communication model. The central goal of the Sandia led "Data Movement Dominates" project aimed to develop memory systems and new architectures based on these technologies that have the potential to lower the cost of local memory accesses by orders of magnitude and provide substantially more bandwidth. Only through these transformational advances can future systems reach the goals of Exascale computing with a manageable power budgets. The Sandia led team included co-PIs from Columbia University, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, and the University of Maryland. The Columbia effort of Data Movement Dominates focused on developing a physically accurate simulation environment and experimental verification for optically-connected memory (OCM) systems that can enable continued performance scaling through high-bandwidth capacity, energy-efficient bit-rate transparency, and time-of-flight latency. With OCM, memory device parallelism and total capacity can scale to match future high-performance computing requirements without sacrificing data-movement efficiency. When we consider systems with integrated photonics, links to memory can be seamlessly integrated with the interconnection network-in a sense, memory becomes a primary aspect of the interconnection network. At the core of the Columbia effort, toward expanding our understanding of OCM enabled computing we have created an integrated modeling and simulation environment that uniquely integrates the physical behavior of the optical layer. The PhoenxSim suite of design and software tools developed under this effort has enabled the co-design of and performance evaluation photonics-enabled OCM

  5. Visual working memory contents bias ambiguous structure from motion perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Scocchia

    Full Text Available The way we perceive the visual world depends crucially on the state of the observer. In the present study we show that what we are holding in working memory (WM can bias the way we perceive ambiguous structure from motion stimuli. Holding in memory the percept of an unambiguously rotating sphere influenced the perceived direction of motion of an ambiguously rotating sphere presented shortly thereafter. In particular, we found a systematic difference between congruent dominance periods where the perceived direction of the ambiguous stimulus corresponded to the direction of the unambiguous one and incongruent dominance periods. Congruent dominance periods were more frequent when participants memorized the speed of the unambiguous sphere for delayed discrimination than when they performed an immediate judgment on a change in its speed. The analysis of dominance time-course showed that a sustained tendency to perceive the same direction of motion as the prior stimulus emerged only in the WM condition, whereas in the attention condition perceptual dominance dropped to chance levels at the end of the trial. The results are explained in terms of a direct involvement of early visual areas in the active representation of visual motion in WM.

  6. Memory bottlenecks and memory contention in multi-core Monte Carlo transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tramm, J.R.; Siegel, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    The simulation of whole nuclear cores through the use of Monte Carlo codes requires an impracticably long time-to-solution. We have extracted a kernel that executes only the most computationally expensive steps of the Monte Carlo particle transport algorithm - the calculation of macroscopic cross sections - in an effort to expose bottlenecks within multi-core, shared memory architectures. (authors)

  7. Parietal and early visual cortices encode working memory content across mental transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophel, Thomas B; Cichy, Radoslaw M; Hebart, Martin N; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2015-02-01

    Active and flexible manipulations of memory contents "in the mind's eye" are believed to occur in a dedicated neural workspace, frequently referred to as visual working memory. Such a neural workspace should have two important properties: The ability to store sensory information across delay periods and the ability to flexibly transform sensory information. Here we used a combination of functional MRI and multivariate decoding to indentify such neural representations. Subjects were required to memorize a complex artificial pattern for an extended delay, then rotate the mental image as instructed by a cue and memorize this transformed pattern. We found that patterns of brain activity already in early visual areas and posterior parietal cortex encode not only the initially remembered image, but also the transformed contents after mental rotation. Our results thus suggest that the flexible and general neural workspace supporting visual working memory can be realized within posterior brain regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Selective updating of working memory content modulates meso-cortico-striatal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; Sambataro, Fabio; Radulescu, Eugenia; Altamura, Mario; Iudicello, Jennifer; Zoltick, Bradley; Weinberger, Daniel R; Goldberg, Terry E; Mattay, Venkata S

    2011-08-01

    Accumulating evidence from non-human primates and computational modeling suggests that dopaminergic signals arising from the midbrain (substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area) mediate striatal gating of the prefrontal cortex during the selective updating of working memory. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we explored the neural mechanisms underlying the selective updating of information stored in working memory. Participants were scanned during a novel working memory task that parses the neurophysiology underlying working memory maintenance, overwriting, and selective updating. Analyses revealed a functionally coupled network consisting of a midbrain region encompassing the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area, caudate, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex that was selectively engaged during working memory updating compared to the overwriting and maintenance of working memory content. Further analysis revealed differential midbrain-dorsolateral prefrontal interactions during selective updating between low-performing and high-performing individuals. These findings highlight the role of this meso-cortico-striatal circuitry during the selective updating of working memory in humans, which complements previous research in behavioral neuroscience and computational modeling. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Effects of Violent and Non-Violent Computer Game Content on Memory Performance in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Asja; Kollhorster, Kirsten; Riediger, Annemarie; MacDonald, Vanessa; Lohaus, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    The present study focuses on the short-term effects of electronic entertainment media on memory and learning processes. It compares the effects of violent versus non-violent computer game content in a condition of playing and in another condition of watching the same game. The participants consisted of 83 female and 94 male adolescents with a mean…

  10. Shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Ni-Si-C alloys with low Mn contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, X.H., E-mail: MIN.Xiaohua@nims.go.jp [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Sawaguchi, T.; Ogawa, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Maruyama, T. [Awaji Materia Co., Ltd. 2-3-13, Kanda ogawamachi, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-0052 (Japan); Yin, F.X. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Tsuzaki, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} A class of new Fe-Mn-Ni-Si-C shape memory alloys with low Mn contents has been designed. {yields} A Mn content for the onset of the {alpha}' martensite is less than 13 mass%, and the {epsilon} martensite still exists in the alloy with a 9 mass% Mn. {yields} The shape recovery strain decreases considerably when the Mn content is reduced from 13 to 11 mass%. {yields} The sudden decrease in the shape recovery strain is mainly caused by the formation of {alpha}' martensite. - Abstract: An attempt was made to develop a new Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloy from a Fe-17Mn-6Si-0.3C (mass%) shape memory alloy, which was previously reported to show a superior shape memory effect without any costly training treatment, by lowering its Mn content. The shape memory effect and the phase transformation behavior were investigated for the as-solution treated Fe-(17-2x)Mn-6Si-0.3C-xNi (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4) polycrystalline alloys. The shape recovery strain exceeded 2% in the alloys with x = 0-2, which is sufficient for an industrially applicable shape memory effect; however, it suddenly decreased in the alloys between x = 2 and 3 although the significant shape recovery strain still exceeded 1%. In the alloys with x = 3 and 4, X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscope observation revealed the existence of {alpha}' martensite, which forms at the intersection of the {epsilon} martensite plates and suppresses the crystallographic reversibility of the {gamma} austenite to {epsilon} martensitic transformation.

  11. Information matching the content of visual working memory is prioritized for conscious access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet, Surya; Paffen, Chris L E; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is used to retain relevant information for imminent goal-directed behavior. In the experiments reported here, we found that VWM helps to prioritize relevant information that is not yet available for conscious experience. In five experiments, we demonstrated that information matching VWM content reaches visual awareness faster than does information not matching VWM content. Our findings suggest a functional link between VWM and visual awareness: The content of VWM is recruited to funnel down the vast amount of sensory input to that which is relevant for subsequent behavior and therefore requires conscious access.

  12. Decoding the content of visual short-term memory under distraction in occipital and parietal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Katherine C; Xu, Yaoda

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have provided conflicting accounts regarding where in the human brain visual short-term memory (VSTM) content is stored, with strong univariate fMRI responses being reported in superior intraparietal sulcus (IPS), but robust multivariate decoding being reported in occipital cortex. Given the continuous influx of information in everyday vision, VSTM storage under distraction is often required. We found that neither distractor presence nor predictability during the memory delay affected behavioral performance. Similarly, superior IPS exhibited consistent decoding of VSTM content across all distractor manipulations and had multivariate responses that closely tracked behavioral VSTM performance. However, occipital decoding of VSTM content was substantially modulated by distractor presence and predictability. Furthermore, we found no effect of target-distractor similarity on VSTM behavioral performance, further challenging the role of sensory regions in VSTM storage. Overall, consistent with previous univariate findings, our results indicate that superior IPS, but not occipital cortex, has a central role in VSTM storage.

  13. Decoding the content of visual short-term memory under distraction in occipital and parietal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Katherine C.; Xu, Yaoda

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have provided conflicting accounts regarding where in the human brain visual short-term memory (VSTM) content is stored, with strong univariate fMRI responses reported in superior intraparietal sulcus (IPS) but robust multivariate decoding reported in occipital cortex. Given the continuous influx of information in everyday vision, VSTM storage under distraction is often required. We found that neither distractor presence nor predictability during the memory delay affected behavioral performance. Similarly, superior IPS exhibited consistent decoding of VSTM content across all distractor manipulations and had multivariate responses that closely tracked behavioral VSTM performance. However, occipital decoding of VSTM content was significantly modulated by distractor presence and predictability. Furthermore, we found no effect of target-distractor similarity on VSTM behavioral performance, further challenging the role of sensory regions in VSTM storage. Overall, consistent with previous univariate findings, these results show that superior IPS, not occipital cortex, plays a central role in VSTM storage. PMID:26595654

  14. Evidence of estrogen modulation on memory processes for emotional content in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Assunta; Arnone, Benedetto; D'Amico, Mario; Federico, Paolo; Gasbarri, Antonella

    2016-03-01

    It is well accepted that emotional content can affect memory, interacting with the encoding and consolidation processes. The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of estrogens in the interplay of cognition and emotion. Images from the International Affective Pictures System, based on valence (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral), maintaining arousal constant, were viewed passively by two groups of young women in different cycle phases: a periovulatory group (PO), characterized by high level of estrogens and low level of progesterone, and an early follicular group (EF), characterized by low levels of both estrogens and progesterone. The electrophysiological responses to images were measured, and P300 peak was considered. One week later, long-term memory was tested by means of free recall. Intra-group analysis displayed that PO woman had significantly better memory for positive images, while EF women showed significantly better memory for negative images. The comparison between groups revealed that women in the PO phase had better memory performance for positive pictures than women in the EF phase, while no significant differences were found for negative and neutral pictures. According to the free recall results, the subjects in the PO group showed greater P300 amplitude, and shorter latency, for pleasant images compared with women in the EF group. Our results showed that the physiological hormonal fluctuation of estrogens during the menstrual cycle can influence memory, at the time of encoding, during the processing of emotional information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of working memory contents and perceptual load on distractor processing: When a response-related distractor is held in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshino, Hideya

    2017-01-01

    Working memory and attention are closely related. Recent research has shown that working memory can be viewed as internally directed attention. Working memory can affect attention in at least two ways. One is the effect of working memory load on attention, and the other is the effect of working memory contents on attention. In the present study, an interaction between working memory contents and perceptual load in distractor processing was investigated. Participants performed a perceptual load task in a standard form in one condition (Single task). In the other condition, a response-related distractor was maintained in working memory, rather than presented in the same stimulus display as a target (Dual task). For the Dual task condition, a significant compatibility effect was found under high perceptual load; however, there was no compatibility effect under low perceptual load. These results suggest that the way the contents of working memory affect visual search depends on perceptual load. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals the content of visual short-term memory in the visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvanto, Juha; Cattaneo, Zaira

    2010-05-01

    Cortical areas involved in sensory analysis are also believed to be involved in short-term storage of that sensory information. Here we investigated whether transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can reveal the content of visual short-term memory (VSTM) by bringing this information to visual awareness. Subjects were presented with two random-dot displays (moving either to the left or to the right) and they were required to maintain one of these in VSTM. In Experiment 1, TMS was applied over the motion-selective area V5/MT+ above phosphene threshold during the maintenance phase. The reported phosphene contained motion features of the memory item, when the phosphene spatially overlapped with memory item. Specifically, phosphene motion was enhanced when the memory item moved in the same direction as the subjects' V5/MT+ baseline phosphene, whereas it was reduced when the motion direction of the memory item was incongruent with that of the baseline V5/MT+ phosphene. There was no effect on phosphene reports when there was no spatial overlap between the phosphene and the memory item. In Experiment 2, VSTM maintenance did not influence the appearance of phosphenes induced from the lateral occipital region. These interactions between VSTM maintenance and phosphene appearance demonstrate that activity in V5/MT+ reflects the motion qualities of items maintained in VSTM. Furthermore, these results also demonstrate that information in VSTM can modulate the pattern of visual activation reaching awareness, providing evidence for the view that overlapping neuronal populations are involved in conscious visual perception and VSTM. 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Effects of Working Memory Capacity and Content Familiarity on Literal and Inferential Comprehension in L2 Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Cem; Ercetin, Gulcan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of working memory capacity and content familiarity on literal and inferential comprehension in second language (L2) reading. Participants were 62 Turkish university students with an advanced English proficiency level. Working memory capacity was measured through a computerized version of a reading span test, whereas…

  18. Unraveling Network-induced Memory Contention: Deeper Insights with Machine Learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves, Taylor Liles; Grant, Ryan; Gonzales, Aaron; Arnold, Dorian

    2017-01-01

    Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) is expected to be an integral communication mechanism for future exascale systems enabling asynchronous data transfers, so that applications may fully utilize CPU resources while simultaneously sharing data amongst remote nodes. We examine Network-induced Memory Contention (NiMC) on Infiniband networks. We expose the interactions between RDMA, main-memory and cache, when applications and out-of-band services compete for memory resources. We then explore NiMCs resulting impact on application-level performance. For a range of hardware technologies and HPC workloads, we quantify NiMC and show that NiMCs impact grows with scale resulting in up to 3X performance degradation at scales as small as 8K processes even in applications that previously have been shown to be performance resilient in the presence of noise. In addition, this work examines the problem of predicting NiMC's impact on applications by leveraging machine learning and easily accessible performance counters. This approach provides additional insights about the root cause of NiMC and facilitates dynamic selection of potential solutions. Finally, we evaluated three potential techniques to reduce NiMCs impact, namely hardware offloading, core reservation and network throttling.

  19. Enhancement of declarative memory associated with emotional content in a Brazilian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J.E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have documented that emotional arousal may enhance long-term memory. This is an adaptation of a paradigm previously used in North American and European samples in investigations of the influence of emotion on long-term retention. A sample of 46 healthy adults of high and low educational levels watched a slide presentation of stories. A randomly assigned group watched a story with an arousing content and another group watched a neutral story. The stories were matched for structure and comprehensibility and the set and order of the 11 slides were the same in both conditions. Immediately after viewing the slide presentation, the participants were asked to rate the emotionality of the narrative. The arousing narrative was rated as being more emotional than the neutral narrative (t (44 = -3.6, P<0.001. Ten days later subjects were asked to remember the story and answer a multiple-choice questionnaire about it. The subjects who watched the arousing story had higher scores in the free recall measure (t (44 = -2.59, P<0.01. There were no differences between groups in the multiple-choice test of recognition memory (t (44 = 0.26. These findings confirm that an emotional arousing content enhances long-term declarative memory and indicate the possibility of applying this instrument to clinical samples of various cultural backgrounds.

  20. Memory architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A memory architecture is presented. The memory architecture comprises a first memory and a second memory. The first memory has at least a bank with a first width addressable by a single address. The second memory has a plurality of banks of a second width, said banks being addressable by components

  1. Working memory and executive function: the influence of content and load on the control of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Robert; Garavan, Hugh

    2005-03-01

    In a series of three experiments, increasing working memory (WM) load was demonstrated to reduce the executive control of attention, measured via task-switching and inhibitory control paradigms. Uniquely, our paradigms allowed comparison of the ability to exert executive control when the stimulus was either part of the currently rehearsed memory set or an unrelated distractor item. The results demonstrated a content-specific effect-insofar as switching attention away from, or exerting inhibitory control over, items currently held in WM was especially difficult-compounded by increasing WM load. This finding supports the attentional control theory that active maintenance of competing task goals is critical to executive function and WM capacity; however, it also suggests that the increased salience provided to the contents of WM through active rehearsal exerts a content-specific influence on attentional control. These findings are discussed in relation to cue-induced ruminations, where active rehearsal of evocative information (e.g., negative thoughts in depression or drug-related thoughts in addiction) in WM typically results from environmental cuing. The present study has demonstrated that when information currently maintained in WM is reencountered, it is harder to exert executive control over it. The difficulty with suppressing the processing of these stimuli presumably reinforces the maintenance of these items in WM, due to the greater level of attention they are afforded, and may help to explain how the cue-induced craving/rumination cycle is perpetuated.

  2. Synaesthesia is linked to more vivid and detailed content of autobiographical memories and less fading of childhood memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Taylor; Ward, Jamie

    2017-12-15

    People with synaesthesia have enhanced memory on a wide range of laboratory tests of episodic memory, but very little is known about their real-world memory. This study used a standard measure of autobiographical remembering (the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire, AMQ) considering four constructs (Recollection, Belief, Impact and Rehearsal) and two time periods (recent memories from adulthood, remote memories from childhood). Synaesthetes reported more Recollection (e.g., sensory detail) and Belief (e.g., confidence) which interacted with time, such that remote memories are reported to be comparatively better preserved in synaesthetes. This cannot be explained by synaesthetes recalling more salient episodes (the groups did not differ in Impact). It suggests instead that childhood memories have a special status in synaesthesia that reflects the different neurodevelopmental trajectory of this group. With regards to Rehearsal, controls tended to report that more recent memories tend to resurface (i.e., adulthood > childhood), but the synaesthetes showed the opposite dissociation (i.e., childhood > adulthood).

  3. Resource-sharing between internal maintenance and external selection modulates attentional capture by working memory content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia eKiyonaga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is unclear why and under what circumstances working memory (WM and attention interact. Here, we apply the logic of the time-based resource-sharing (TBRS model of WM (e.g., Barrouillet, Bernardin, & Camos, 2004 to explore the mixed findings of a separate, but related, literature that studies the guidance of visual attention by WM contents. Specifically, we hypothesize that the linkage between WM representations and visual attention is governed by a time-shared cognitive resource that alternately refreshes internal (WM and selects external (visual attention information. If this were the case, WM content should guide visual attention (involuntarily, but only when there is time for it to be refreshed in an internal focus of attention. To provide an initial test for this hypothesis, we examined whether the amount of unoccupied time during a WM delay could impact the magnitude of attentional capture by WM contents. Participants were presented with a series of visual search trials while they maintained a WM cue for a delayed-recognition test. WM cues could coincide with the search target, a distracter, or neither. We varied both the number of searches to be performed, and the amount of available time to perform them. Slowing of visual search by a WM matching distracter—and facilitation by a matching target—were curtailed when the delay was filled with fast-paced (refreshing-preventing search trials, as was subsequent memory probe accuracy. WM content may, therefore, only capture visual attention when it can be refreshed, suggesting that internal (WM and external attention demands reciprocally impact one another because they share a limited resource. The TBRS rationale can thus be applied in a novel context to explain why WM contents capture attention, and under what conditions that effect should be observed.

  4. The association of personal semantic memory to identity representations: insight into higher-order networks of autobiographical contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Matthew D

    2017-11-01

    Identity representations are higher-order knowledge structures that organise autobiographical memories on the basis of personality and role-based themes of one's self-concept. In two experiments, the extent to which different types of personal semantic content are reflected in these higher-order networks of memories was investigated. Healthy, young adult participants generated identity representations that varied in remoteness of formation and verbally reflected on these themes in an open-ended narrative task. The narrative responses were scored for retrieval of episodic, experience-near personal semantic and experience-far (i.e., abstract) personal semantic contents. Results revealed that to reflect on remotely formed identity representations, experience-far personal semantic contents were retrieved more than experience-near personal semantic contents. In contrast, to reflect on recently formed identity representations, experience-near personal semantic contents were retrieved more than experience-far personal semantic contents. Although episodic memory contents were retrieved less than both personal semantic content types to reflect on remotely formed identity representations, this content type was retrieved at a similar frequency as experience-far personal semantic content to reflect on recently formed identity representations. These findings indicate that the association of personal semantic content to identity representations is robust and related to time since acquisition of these knowledge structures.

  5. Large scale integration of flexible non-volatile, re-addressable memories using P(VDF-TrFE) and amorphous oxide transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelinck, Gerwin H; Cobb, Brian; Van Breemen, Albert J J M; Myny, Kris

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric polymers and amorphous metal oxide semiconductors have emerged as important materials for re-programmable non-volatile memories and high-performance, flexible thin-film transistors, respectively. However, realizing sophisticated transistor memory arrays has proven to be a challenge, and demonstrating reliable writing to and reading from such a large scale memory has thus far not been demonstrated. Here, we report an integration of ferroelectric, P(VDF-TrFE), transistor memory arrays with thin-film circuitry that can address each individual memory element in that array. n-type indium gallium zinc oxide is used as the active channel material in both the memory and logic thin-film transistors. The maximum process temperature is 200 °C, allowing plastic films to be used as substrate material. The technology was scaled up to 150 mm wafer size, and offers good reproducibility, high device yield and low device variation. This forms the basis for successful demonstration of memory arrays, read and write circuitry, and the integration of these. (paper)

  6. Episodic and semantic content of memory and imagination: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Aleea L; Addis, Donna Rose; Schacter, Daniel L

    2017-10-01

    Autobiographical memories of past events and imaginations of future scenarios comprise both episodic and semantic content. Correlating the amount of "internal" (episodic) and "external" (semantic) details generated when describing autobiographical events can illuminate the relationship between the processes supporting these constructs. Yet previous studies performing such correlations were limited by aggregating data across all events generated by an individual, potentially obscuring the underlying relationship within the events themselves. In the current article, we reanalyzed datasets from eight studies using a multilevel approach, allowing us to explore the relationship between internal and external details within events. We also examined whether this relationship changes with healthy aging. Our reanalyses demonstrated a largely negative relationship between the internal and external details produced when describing autobiographical memories and future imaginations. This negative relationship was stronger and more consistent for older adults and was evident both in direct and indirect measures of semantic content. Moreover, this relationship appears to be specific to episodic tasks, as no relationship was observed for a nonepisodic picture description task. This negative association suggests that people do not generate semantic information indiscriminately, but do so in a compensatory manner, to embellish episodically impoverished events. Our reanalysis further lends support for dissociable processes underpinning episodic and semantic information generation when remembering and imagining autobiographical events.

  7. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of visual cortex in memory: cortical state, interference and reactivation of visual content in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Vincent; Sack, Alexander T

    2013-01-01

    Memory for perceptual events includes the neural representation of the sensory information at short or longer time scales. Recent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies of human visual cortex provided evidence that sensory cortex contributes to memory functions. In this review, we provide an exhaustive overview of these studies and ascertain how well the available evidence supports the idea of a causal role of sensory cortex in memory retention and retrieval. We discuss the validity and implications of the studies using a number of methodological and theoretical criteria that are relevant for brain stimulation of visual cortex. While most studies applied TMS to visual cortex to interfere with memory functions, a handful of pioneering studies used TMS to 'reactivate' memories in visual cortex. Interestingly, similar effects of TMS on memory were found in different memory tasks, which suggests that different memory systems share a neural mechanism of memory in visual cortex. At the same time, this neural mechanism likely interacts with higher order brain areas. Based on this overview and evaluation, we provide a first attempt to an integrative framework that describes how sensory processes contribute to memory in visual cortex, and how higher order areas contribute to this mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Early selection versus late correction: Age-related differences in controlling working memory contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopp, Tina; Mayr, Ulrich; Jost, Kerstin

    2016-08-01

    We examined whether a reduced ability to ignore irrelevant information is responsible for the age-related decline of working memory (WM) functions. By means of event-related brain potentials, we will show that filtering is not out of service in older adults but shifted to a later processing stage. Participants performed a visual short-term memory task (change-detection task) in which targets were presented along with distractors. To allow early selection, a cue was presented in advance of each display, indicating where the targets were to appear. Despite this relatively easy selection criterion, older adults' filtering was delayed as indicated by the amplitude pattern of the contralateral delay activity. Importantly, WM-equated younger adults did not show a delay indicating that the delay is specific to older adults and not a general phenomenon that comes with low WM capacity. Moreover, the analysis of early visual potentials revealed qualitatively different perceptual/attentional processing between the age groups. Young adults exhibited stronger distractor sensitivity that in turn facilitated filtering. Older adults, in contrast, seemed to initially store distractors and to suppress them after the fact. These early selection versus late-correction modes suggest an age-related shift in the strategy to control the contents of WM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. External details revisited - A new taxonomy for coding 'non-episodic' content during autobiographical memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strikwerda-Brown, Cherie; Mothakunnel, Annu; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier; Irish, Muireann

    2018-04-24

    Autobiographical memory (ABM) is typically held to comprise episodic and semantic elements, with the vast majority of studies to date focusing on profiles of episodic details in health and disease. In this context, 'non-episodic' elements are often considered to reflect semantic processing or are discounted from analyses entirely. Mounting evidence suggests that rather than reflecting one unitary entity, semantic autobiographical information may contain discrete subcomponents, which vary in their relative degree of semantic or episodic content. This study aimed to (1) review the existing literature to formally characterize the variability in analysis of 'non-episodic' content (i.e., external details) on the Autobiographical Interview and (2) use these findings to create a theoretically grounded framework for coding external details. Our review exposed discrepancies in the reporting and interpretation of external details across studies, reinforcing the need for a new, consistent approach. We validated our new external details scoring protocol (the 'NExt' taxonomy) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (n = 18) and semantic dementia (n = 13), and 20 healthy older Control participants and compared profiles of the NExt subcategories across groups and time periods. Our results revealed increased sensitivity of the NExt taxonomy in discriminating between ABM profiles of patient groups, when compared to traditionally used internal and external detail metrics. Further, remote and recent autobiographical memories displayed distinct compositions of the NExt detail types. This study is the first to provide a fine-grained and comprehensive taxonomy to parse external details into intuitive subcategories and to validate this protocol in neurodegenerative disorders. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Transactive memory in organizational groups: the effects of content, consensus, specialization, and accuracy on group performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, John R

    2003-10-01

    Previous research on transactive memory has found a positive relationship between transactive memory system development and group performance in single project laboratory and ad hoc groups. Closely related research on shared mental models and expertise recognition supports these findings. In this study, the author examined the relationship between transactive memory systems and performance in mature, continuing groups. A group's transactive memory system, measured as a combination of knowledge stock, knowledge specialization, transactive memory consensus, and transactive memory accuracy, is positively related to group goal performance, external group evaluations, and internal group evaluations. The positive relationship with group performance was found to hold for both task and external relationship transactive memory systems.

  11. Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  12. Characteristics of the memory sources of dreams: A new version of the content-matching paradigm to take mundane and remote memories into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, Raphael; Chatard, Benoit; Blagrove, Mark; Ruby, Perrine

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that dream content is related to the waking life of the dreamer. However, the characteristics of the memory sources incorporated into dreams are still unclear. We designed a new protocol to investigate remote memories and memories of trivial experiences, both relatively unexplored in dream content until now. Upon awakening, for 7 days, participants identified the waking life elements (WLEs) related to their dream content and characterized them and their dream content on several scales to assess notably emotional valence. Thanks to this procedure, they could report WLEs from the whole lifespan, and mundane ones before they had been forgotten. Participants (N = 40, 14 males, age = 25.2 ± 7.6) reported 6.2 ± 2.0 dreams on average. For each participant, 83.4% ± 17.8 of the dream reports were related to one or more WLEs. Among all the WLEs incorporated into dreams dated by the participants (79.3 ± 19%), 40.2 ± 30% happened the day before the dream, 26.1 ± 26% the month before (the day before excluded), 15.8 ± 21% the year before the dream (the month before excluded), and 17.9 ± 24% happened more than one year before the dream. As could be expected from previous studies, the majority of the WLEs incorporated into dreams were scored as important by the dreamers. However, this was not true for incorporated WLEs dating from the day before the dream. In agreement with Freud's observations, the majority of the day residues were scored as mundane. Finally, for both positive and negative WLEs incorporated into dreams, the dreamt version of the WLE was rated as emotionally less intense than the original WLE. This result, showing that dreams tend to attenuate the emotional tone of waking-life memories towards a more neutral one, argues in favor of the emotional regulation hypothesis of dreaming.

  13. Characteristics of the memory sources of dreams: A new version of the content-matching paradigm to take mundane and remote memories into account.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Vallat

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated that dream content is related to the waking life of the dreamer. However, the characteristics of the memory sources incorporated into dreams are still unclear. We designed a new protocol to investigate remote memories and memories of trivial experiences, both relatively unexplored in dream content until now. Upon awakening, for 7 days, participants identified the waking life elements (WLEs related to their dream content and characterized them and their dream content on several scales to assess notably emotional valence. Thanks to this procedure, they could report WLEs from the whole lifespan, and mundane ones before they had been forgotten. Participants (N = 40, 14 males, age = 25.2 ± 7.6 reported 6.2 ± 2.0 dreams on average. For each participant, 83.4% ± 17.8 of the dream reports were related to one or more WLEs. Among all the WLEs incorporated into dreams dated by the participants (79.3 ± 19%, 40.2 ± 30% happened the day before the dream, 26.1 ± 26% the month before (the day before excluded, 15.8 ± 21% the year before the dream (the month before excluded, and 17.9 ± 24% happened more than one year before the dream. As could be expected from previous studies, the majority of the WLEs incorporated into dreams were scored as important by the dreamers. However, this was not true for incorporated WLEs dating from the day before the dream. In agreement with Freud's observations, the majority of the day residues were scored as mundane. Finally, for both positive and negative WLEs incorporated into dreams, the dreamt version of the WLE was rated as emotionally less intense than the original WLE. This result, showing that dreams tend to attenuate the emotional tone of waking-life memories towards a more neutral one, argues in favor of the emotional regulation hypothesis of dreaming.

  14. Interaction of sleep and emotional content on the production of false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeon, Shannon; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2012-01-01

    Sleep benefits veridical memories, resulting in superior recall relative to off-line intervals spent awake. Sleep also increases false memory recall in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Given the suggestion that emotional veridical memories are prioritized for consolidation over sleep, here we examined whether emotion modulates sleep's effect on false memory formation. Participants listened to semantically related word lists lacking a critical lure representing each list's "gist." Free recall was tested after 12 hours containing sleep or wake. The Sleep group recalled more studied words than the Wake group but only for emotionally neutral lists. False memories of both negative and neutral critical lures were greater following sleep relative to wake. Morning and Evening control groups (20-minute delay) did not differ ruling out circadian accounts for these differences. These results support the adaptive function of sleep in both promoting the consolidation of veridical declarative memories and in extracting unifying aspects from memory details.

  15. Interaction of sleep and emotional content on the production of false memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon McKeon

    Full Text Available Sleep benefits veridical memories, resulting in superior recall relative to off-line intervals spent awake. Sleep also increases false memory recall in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM paradigm. Given the suggestion that emotional veridical memories are prioritized for consolidation over sleep, here we examined whether emotion modulates sleep's effect on false memory formation. Participants listened to semantically related word lists lacking a critical lure representing each list's "gist." Free recall was tested after 12 hours containing sleep or wake. The Sleep group recalled more studied words than the Wake group but only for emotionally neutral lists. False memories of both negative and neutral critical lures were greater following sleep relative to wake. Morning and Evening control groups (20-minute delay did not differ ruling out circadian accounts for these differences. These results support the adaptive function of sleep in both promoting the consolidation of veridical declarative memories and in extracting unifying aspects from memory details.

  16. Shape Memory Polymers Containing Higher Acrylate Content Display Increased Endothelial Cell Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Tina; Shandas, Robin

    2018-01-01

    Shape Memory Polymers (SMPs) are smart materials that can recall their shape upon the application of a stimulus, which makes them appealing materials for a variety of applications, especially in biomedical devices. Most prior SMP research has focused on tuning bulk properties; studying surface effects of SMPs may extend the use of these materials to blood-contacting applications, such as cardiovascular stents, where surfaces that support rapid endothelialization have been correlated to stent success. Here, we evaluate endothelial attachment onto the surfaces of a family of SMPs previously developed in our group that have shown promise for biomedical devices. Nine SMP formulations containing varying amounts of tert-Butyl acrylate (tBA) and Poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) were analyzed for endothelial cell attachment. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), contact angle studies, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to verify bulk and surface properties of the SMPs. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) attachment and viability was verified using fluorescent methods. Endothelial cells preferentially attached to SMPs with higher tBA content, which have rougher, more hydrophobic surfaces. HUVECs also displayed an increased metabolic activity on these high tBA SMPs over the course of the study. This class of SMPs may be promising candidates for next generation blood-contacting devices. PMID:29707382

  17. Shape Memory Polymers Containing Higher Acrylate Content Display Increased Endothelial Cell Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Govindarajan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Shape Memory Polymers (SMPs are smart materials that can recall their shape upon the application of a stimulus, which makes them appealing materials for a variety of applications, especially in biomedical devices. Most prior SMP research has focused on tuning bulk properties; studying surface effects of SMPs may extend the use of these materials to blood-contacting applications, such as cardiovascular stents, where surfaces that support rapid endothelialization have been correlated to stent success. Here, we evaluate endothelial attachment onto the surfaces of a family of SMPs previously developed in our group that have shown promise for biomedical devices. Nine SMP formulations containing varying amounts of tert-Butyl acrylate (tBA and Poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEGDMA were analyzed for endothelial cell attachment. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, contact angle studies, and atomic force microscopy (AFM were used to verify bulk and surface properties of the SMPs. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC attachment and viability was verified using fluorescent methods. Endothelial cells preferentially attached to SMPs with higher tBA content, which have rougher, more hydrophobic surfaces. HUVECs also displayed an increased metabolic activity on these high tBA SMPs over the course of the study. This class of SMPs may be promising candidates for next generation blood-contacting devices.

  18. Catching a glimpse of working memory: top-down capture as a tool for measuring the content of the mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Nicholas D; Thomas, Rick P; Buttaccio, Daniel R; Davelaar, Eddy J

    2012-11-01

    This article outlines a methodology for probing working memory (WM) content in high-level cognitive tasks (e.g., decision making, problem solving, and memory retrieval) by capitalizing on attentional and oculomotor biases evidenced in top-down capture paradigms. This method would be of great use, as it could measure the information resident in WM at any point in a task and, hence, track information use over time as tasks dynamically evolve. Above and beyond providing a measure of information occupancy in WM, such a method would benefit from sensitivity to the specific activation levels of individual items in WM. This article additionally forwards a novel fusion of standard free recall and visual search paradigms in an effort to assess the sensitivity of eye movements in top-down capture, on which this new measurement technique relies, to item-specific memory activation (ISMA). The results demonstrate eye movement sensitivity to ISMA in some, but not all, cases.

  19. Autobiographical Memory Functioning among Abused, Neglected, and Nonmaltreated Children: The Overgeneral Memory Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Kristin; Toth, Sheree L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Background: This investigation addresses whether there are differences in the form and content of autobiographical memory recall as a function of maltreatment, and examines the roles of self-system functioning and psychopathology in autobiographical memory processes. Methods: Autobiographical memory for positive and negative nontraumatic events…

  20. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  1. Negative Emotional Arousal Impairs Associative Memory Performance for Emotionally Neutral Content in Healthy Participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Guez

    Full Text Available The effect of emotional arousal on memory presents a complex pattern with previous studies reporting conflicting results of both improved and reduced memory performance following arousal manipulations. In this study we further tested the effect of negative emotional arousal (NEA on individual-item recognition and associative recognition of neutral stimuli in healthy participants, and hypothesized that NEA will particularly impair associative memory performance. The current study consists of two experiments; in both, participants studied a list of word-pairs and were then tested for items (items recognition test, and for associations (associative recognition test. In the first experiment, the arousal manipulation was induced by flashing emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between study-pairs while in the second experiment arousal was induced by presenting emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between lists. The results of the two experiments converged and supported an associative memory deficit observed under NEA conditions. We suggest that NEA is associated with an altered ability to bind one stimulus to another as a result of impaired recollection, resulting in poorer associative memory performance. The current study findings may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism underlying memory impairments reported in disorders associated with traumatic stress.

  2. An analysis of content in comprehensive cancer control plans that address chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections as major risk factors for liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Behnoosh; Richardson, Lisa

    2012-08-01

    Chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV) infections are among the leading causes of preventable death worldwide. Chronic viral hepatitis is the cause of most primary liver cancer, which is the third leading cause of cancer deaths globally and the ninth leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. The extent to which comprehensive cancer control (CCC) programs in states, tribal governments and organizations, territories, and Pacific Island jurisdictions address chronic hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C infections as risk factors for liver cancer or recommend interventions for liver cancer prevention in their CCC plans remains unknown. We searched CCC plans for this information using the search tool at http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/ncccp/ to access the content of plans for this information. A combination of key search terms including "liver cancer", "hepatitis", "chronic alcohol", and "alcohol abuse" were used to identify potential content regarding liver cancer risk factors and prevention. Relevant content was abstracted for further review and classification. Of 66 (Although CDC funds 65 programs, one of the Pacific Island Jurisdiction grantees is the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). This national program supports four FSM states, each of which submits a cancer plan to CDC for a total of 69 plans. During this time period, 66 plans were available on the website.) CCC plans, 27% (n = 18) addressed liver cancer using the above-mentioned search terms. In the 23 plans that addressed HBV and/or HCV, there were 25 goals, objectives, strategies, and outcomes aimed at reducing the incidence or prevalence of HBV and/or HCV infection. While nearly a third of CCC programs identify at least one goal, objective, strategy, outcome, or prevention program to reduce cancer burden in their CCC plans, few plans discuss specific actions needed to reduce the burden of liver cancer.

  3. Aspects of family caregiving as addressed in planned discussions between nurses, patients with chronic diseases and family caregivers: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedoorn, E I; Paans, W; Jaarsma, T; Keers, J C; van der Schans, C; Luttik, M Louise

    2017-01-01

    Caregiving by family members of elderly with chronic conditions is currently intensifying in the context of an aging population and health care reform in the Netherlands. It is essential that nurses have attention for supporting roles of family caregivers of older patients and address family caregiving aspects on behalf of the continuity of care. This study aims to explore what aspects of family caregiving were addressed during planned discussions between nurses, patients and family caregivers in the hospital. Qualitative descriptive research was conducted using non-participant observation and audio-recordings of planned discussions between nurses, older patients and their family caregivers as they took place in the hospital. Through purposive sampling eligible patients (≥ 65 years) with one or more chronic conditions were included. These patients were admitted to the hospital for diagnostics or due to consequences of their chronic illness. Retrospective chart review was done to obtain patient characteristics. Data were collected in November/December 2013 and April/May 2014 in four hospitals. Qualitative content analysis was performed using the inductive approach in order to gain insight into addressed aspects of family caregiving. A total of 62 patients (mean age (SD) 76 years (7.2), 52% male) were included in the study, resulting in 146 planned discussions (62 admission and discharge discussions and 22 family meetings). Three themes were identified regarding addressed aspects of family caregiving. Two themes referred to aspects addressing the patients' social network, and included 'social network structure' and 'social network support'. One theme referred to aspects addressing coordination of care issues involving family caregiving, referred to as 'coordination of care'. During discussions nurses mostly addressed practical information on the patients' social network structure. When specific family caregiving support was addressed, information was limited and

  4. Making the case that episodic recollection is attributable to operations occurring at retrieval rather than to content stored in a dedicated subsystem of long-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stanley B.

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory often is conceptualized as a uniquely human system of long-term memory that makes available knowledge accompanied by the temporal and spatial context in which that knowledge was acquired. Retrieval from episodic memory entails a form of first–person subjectivity called autonoetic consciousness that provides a sense that a recollection was something that took place in the experiencer's personal past. In this paper I expand on this definition of episodic memory. Specifically, I suggest that (1) the core features assumed unique to episodic memory are shared by semantic memory, (2) episodic memory cannot be fully understood unless one appreciates that episodic recollection requires the coordinated function of a number of distinct, yet interacting, “enabling” systems. Although these systems—ownership, self, subjective temporality, and agency—are not traditionally viewed as memorial in nature, each is necessary for episodic recollection and jointly they may be sufficient, and (3) the type of subjective awareness provided by episodic recollection (autonoetic) is relational rather than intrinsic—i.e., it can be lost in certain patient populations, thus rendering episodic memory content indistinguishable from the content of semantic long-term memory. PMID:23378832

  5. Making the Case that Episodic Recollection is Attributable to Operations Occurring at Retrieval rather than to Content Stored in a Dedicated Subsystem of Long-Term Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan eKlein

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory often is conceptualized as a uniquely human system of long-term memory that makes available knowledge accompanied by the temporal and spatial context in which that knowledge was acquired. Retrieval from episodic memory entails a form of first–person subjectivity called autonoetic consciousness that provides a sense that a recollection was something that took place in the experiencer’s personal past. In this paper I expand on this definition of episodic memory. Specifically, I suggest that (a the core features assumed unique to episodic memory are shared by semantic memory, (b episodic memory cannot be fully understood unless one appreciates that episodic recollection requires the coordinated function of a number of distinct, yet interacting, enabling systems. Although these systems – ownership, self, subjective temporality, and agency – are not traditionally viewed as memorial in nature, each is necessary for episodic recollection and jointly they may be sufficient, and (c the type of subjective awareness provided by episodic recollection (autonoetic is relational rather than intrinsic – i.e., it can be lost in certain patient populations, thus rendering episodic memory content indistinguishable from the content of semantic long-term memory.

  6. A comparison of flashbacks and ordinary autobiographical memories of trauma: content and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellawell, Steph J; Brewin, Chris R

    2004-01-01

    We investigated hypotheses derived from the dual representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder, which proposes that flashbacks and ordinary memories of trauma are supported by different types of representation. Sixty-two participants meeting diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder completed a detailed written trauma narrative, and afterwards identified those sections in the narrative that had been written in flashback and ordinary memory periods. As predicted, flashback periods were characterised by greater use of detail, particularly perceptual detail, by more mentions of death, more use of the present tense, and more mention of fear, helplessness, and horror. In contrast, ordinary memory sections were characterised by more mention of secondary emotions such as guilt and anger.

  7. Individual differences in preschoolers' emotion content memory: the role of emotion knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channell, Marie Moore; Barth, Joan M

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the relation between preschool children's emotion knowledge and their ability to recall emotionally salient information. In total, 42 participants (ages 35-65months) viewed a brief video in which a child played with different toys and expressed one of four basic emotions (happy, sad, angry, or afraid) or a neutral expression in each of 10 vignettes. Children were tested on memory accuracy from the vignettes, and their emotion knowledge was also measured. Results indicated that preschoolers' emotion knowledge was significantly related to memory accuracy for emotion information above and beyond the effect of age or receptive language skills. Tests of a mediation model revealed that emotion knowledge fully mediated the effect of age (or general developmental level) on memory accuracy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Monkey prefrontal neurons during Sternberg task performance: full contents of working memory or most recent item?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecky, R O; Smith, M A; Olson, C R

    2017-06-01

    To explore the brain mechanisms underlying multi-item working memory, we monitored the activity of neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while macaque monkeys performed spatial and chromatic versions of a Sternberg working-memory task. Each trial required holding three sequentially presented samples in working memory so as to identify a subsequent probe matching one of them. The monkeys were able to recall all three samples at levels well above chance, exhibiting modest load and recency effects. Prefrontal neurons signaled the identity of each sample during the delay period immediately following its presentation. However, as each new sample was presented, the representation of antecedent samples became weak and shifted to an anomalous code. A linear classifier operating on the basis of population activity during the final delay period was able to perform at approximately the level of the monkeys on trials requiring recall of the third sample but showed a falloff in performance on trials requiring recall of the first or second sample much steeper than observed in the monkeys. We conclude that delay-period activity in the prefrontal cortex robustly represented only the most recent item. The monkeys apparently based performance of this classic working-memory task on some storage mechanism in addition to the prefrontal delay-period firing rate. Possibilities include delay-period activity in areas outside the prefrontal cortex and changes within the prefrontal cortex not manifest at the level of the firing rate. NEW & NOTEWORTHY It has long been thought that items held in working memory are encoded by delay-period activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Here we describe evidence contrary to that view. In monkeys performing a serial multi-item working memory task, dorsolateral prefrontal neurons encode almost exclusively the identity of the sample presented most recently. Information about earlier samples must be encoded outside the prefrontal cortex or

  9. Information matching the content of visual working memory is prioritized for conscious access.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gayet, S.; Paffen, C.L.E.; van der Stigchel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is used to retain relevant information for imminent goal-directed behavior. In the experiments reported here, we found that VWM helps to prioritize relevant information that is not yet available for conscious experience. In five experiments, we demonstrated that

  10. Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Wager, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will explore a response to traumatic victimisation which has divided the opinions of psychologists at an exponential rate. We will be examining amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse and the potential to recover these memories in adulthood. Whilst this phenomenon is generally accepted in clinical circles, it is seen as highly contentious amongst research psychologists, particularly experimental cognitive psychologists. The chapter will begin with a real case study of a wo...

  11. Effect of W Contents on Martensitic Transformation and Shape Memory Effect in Co-Al-W Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Qian, B. N.; Peng, H. B.; Wu, B. J.; Wen, Y. H.

    2018-04-01

    To clarify the effect of W contents on the shape memory effect (SME) in the Co-Al alloys and its influencing mechanism, the SME, martensitic transformation, and deformation behavior were studied in the Co-7Al-xW ( x = 0, 4, 6, 9 wt pct) alloys. The results showed that the additions of W all deteriorated the SME in Co-7Al alloy when deformed at room temperature. However, when deformed in liquid nitrogen, the SME in Co-7Al alloy could be remarkably improved from 43 to 78 pct after the addition of 4 pct W, above which the SME decreased rapidly with the increase of W content although the yield strength of the parent phase rose due to the solution strengthening of W. The deterioration in SME induced by the excessive addition of W could be ascribed to its resulting significant drop of the start temperature of martensitic transformation.

  12. Topical Session on 'Addressing Issues Raised by Stakeholders: Impacts on Process, Content and Behaviour in Waste Organisations'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    At its 5. meeting in June 2004, the FSC held a topical session aimed at reviewing how organisations are adapting to the new outreach and decision-making context. Eleven organisations from eight countries provided the relevant information, which are collected in these proceedings. Learning and adapting to societal requirements - and organising institutions accordingly - is one of the main aspects of the future programme of work of the FSC. This topical session on 'Addressing Issues Raised by Stakeholders: Impacts on Process, Content and Behaviour in Waste Organisations' provides useful material for future initiatives as well as a source of information to interested stakeholders and practitioners. It focused on how regulators and implementers responded and are restructuring to respond to stakeholders' concerns, issues and needs regarding radioactive waste management

  13. Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  14. The subjective content of historical memory in autobiographical narratives of representatives of titular ethnic group and national diaspora (based on the example of the Volga Germans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhmatulina D.V.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available the article contains a justification of the research approach to the detection of subjective content of historical memory among groups of respondents from different ethnic background; presents the results of a study of two groups of respondents, who are descendants of the Volga Germans and the representatives of the titular nation (Russian; establishes the main cultural and historical events of life of the peoples that make up the historical memory.

  15. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  16. Perceptual salience affects the contents of working memory during free-recollection of objects from natural scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana ePedale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in the study of cognition is to understand which are the factors determining internal representation of the external world. Previous literature has started to highlight the impact of low-level sensory features (indexed by saliency-maps in driving attention selection, hence increasing the probability for objects presented in complex and natural scenes to be successfully encoded into working memory(WM and then correctly remembered. Here we asked whether the probability of retrieving high-saliency objects modulates the overall contents of WM, by decreasing the probability of retrieving other, lower-saliency objects. We presented pictures of natural scenes for 4 secs. After a retention period of 8 secs, we asked participants to verbally report as many objects/details as possible of the previous scenes. We then computed how many times the objects located at either the peak of maximal or minimal saliency in the scene (as indexed by a saliency-map; Itti et al., 1998 were recollected by participants. Results showed that maximal-saliency objects were recollected more often and earlier in the stream of successfully reported items than minimal-saliency objects. This indicates that bottom-up sensory salience increases the recollection probability and facilitates the access to memory representation at retrieval, respectively. Moreover, recollection of the maximal- (but not the minimal- saliency objects predicted the overall amount of successfully recollected objects: The higher the probability of having successfully reported the most-salient object in the scene, the lower the amount of recollected objects. These findings highlight that bottom-up sensory saliency modulates the current contents of WM during recollection of objects from natural scenes, most likely by reducing available resources to encode and then retrieve other (lower saliency objects.

  17. Architectures for a quantum random access memory

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    A random access memory, or RAM, is a device that, when interrogated, returns the content of a memory location in a memory array. A quantum RAM, or qRAM, allows one to access superpositions of memory sites, which may contain either quantum or classical information. RAMs and qRAMs with n-bit addresses can access 2^n memory sites. Any design for a RAM or qRAM then requires O(2^n) two-bit logic gates. At first sight this requirement might seem to make large scale quantum versions of such devices ...

  18. Do Sex and Violence Sell? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effects of Sexual and Violent Media and Ad Content on Memory, Attitudes, and Buying Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lull, Robert B; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-09-01

    It is commonly assumed that sex and violence sell. However, we predicted that sex and violence would have the opposite effect. We based our predictions on the evolution and emotional arousal theoretical framework, which states that people are evolutionarily predisposed to attend to emotionally arousing cues such as sex and violence. Thus, sexual and violent cues demand more cognitive resources than nonsexual and nonviolent cues. Using this framework, we meta-analyzed the effects of sexual media, violent media, sexual ads, and violent ads on the advertising outcomes of brand memory, brand attitudes, and buying intentions. The meta-analysis included 53 experiments involving 8,489 participants. Analyses found that brands advertised in violent media content were remembered less often, evaluated less favorably, and less likely to be purchased than brands advertised in nonviolent, nonsexual media. Brands advertised using sexual ads were evaluated less favorably than brands advertised using nonviolent, nonsexual ads. There were no significant effects of sexual media on memory or buying intentions. There were no significant effects of sexual or violent ads on memory or buying intentions. As intensity of sexual ad content increased, memory, attitudes, and buying intentions decreased. When media content and ad content were congruent (e.g., violent ad in a violent program), memory improved and buying intentions increased. Violence and sex never helped and often hurt ad effectiveness. These results support the evolution and emotional arousal framework. Thus, advertisers should consider the effects of media content, ad content, content intensity, and congruity to design and place more effective ads. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Testing Memories of Personally Experienced Events: The Testing Effect Seems Not to Persist in Autobiographical Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerdinger, Kathrin J.; Kuhbandner, Christof

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that retrieving contents from memory in a test improves long-term retention for those contents, even when compared to restudying (i.e., the “testing effect”). The beneficial effect of retrieval practice has been demonstrated for many different types of memory representations; however, one particularly important memory system has not been addressed in previous testing effect research: autobiographical memory. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of retrieving memories for personally experienced events on long-term memory for those events. In an initial elicitation session, participants described memories for personally experienced events in response to a variety of cue words. In a retrieval practice/restudy session the following day, they repeatedly practiced retrieval for half of their memories by recalling and writing down the previously described events; the other half of memories was restudied by rereading and copying the event descriptions. Long-term retention of all previously collected memories was assessed at two different retention intervals (2 weeks and 13 weeks). In the retrieval practice session, a hypermnesic effect emerged, with memory performance increasing across the practice cycles. Long-term memory performance significantly dropped from the 2-weeks to the 13-weeks retention interval, but no significant difference in memory performance was observed between previously repeatedly retrieved and previously repeatedly restudied memories. Thus, in autobiographical memory, retrieval practice seems to be no more beneficial for long-term retention than repeated re-exposure. PMID:29881365

  20. Gamma and Beta Oscillations in Human MEG Encode the Contents of Vibrotactile Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander H. von Lautz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ample evidence suggests that oscillations in the beta band represent quantitative information about somatosensory features during stimulus retention. Visual and auditory working memory (WM research, on the other hand, has indicated a predominant role of gamma oscillations for active WM processing. Here we reconciled these findings by recording whole-head magnetoencephalography during a vibrotactile frequency comparison task. A Braille stimulator presented healthy subjects with a vibration to the left fingertip that was retained in WM for comparison with a second stimulus presented after a short delay. During this retention interval spectral power in the beta band from the right intraparietal sulcus and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG monotonically increased with the to-be-remembered vibrotactile frequency. In contrast, induced gamma power showed the inverse of this pattern and decreased with higher stimulus frequency in the right IFG. Together, these results expand the previously established role of beta oscillations for somatosensory WM to the gamma band and give further evidence that quantitative information may be processed in a fronto-parietal network.

  1. A System for True and False Memory Prediction Based on 2D and 3D Educational Contents and EEG Brain Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamatraf, Saeed; Hussain, Muhammad; Aboalsamh, Hatim; Qazi, Emad-Ul-Haq; Malik, Amir Saeed; Amin, Hafeez Ullah; Mathkour, Hassan; Muhammad, Ghulam; Imran, Hafiz Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    We studied the impact of 2D and 3D educational contents on learning and memory recall using electroencephalography (EEG) brain signals. For this purpose, we adopted a classification approach that predicts true and false memories in case of both short term memory (STM) and long term memory (LTM) and helps to decide whether there is a difference between the impact of 2D and 3D educational contents. In this approach, EEG brain signals are converted into topomaps and then discriminative features are extracted from them and finally support vector machine (SVM) which is employed to predict brain states. For data collection, half of sixty-eight healthy individuals watched the learning material in 2D format whereas the rest watched the same material in 3D format. After learning task, memory recall tasks were performed after 30 minutes (STM) and two months (LTM), and EEG signals were recorded. In case of STM, 97.5% prediction accuracy was achieved for 3D and 96.6% for 2D and, in case of LTM, it was 100% for both 2D and 3D. The statistical analysis of the results suggested that for learning and memory recall both 2D and 3D materials do not have much difference in case of STM and LTM.

  2. Visual input that matches the content of vist of visual working memory requires less (not faster) evidence sampling to reach conscious access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gayet, S.; van Maanen, L.; Heilbron, M.; Paffen, C.L.E.; Van Der Stigchel, S.

    2016-01-01

    The content of visual working memory (VWM) affects the processing of concurrent visual input. Recently, it has been demonstrated that stimuli are released from interocular suppression faster when they match rather than mismatch a color that is memorized for subsequent recall. In order to investigate

  3. Attending and Inhibiting Stimuli That Match the Contents of Visual Working Memory: Evidence from Eye Movements and Pupillometry (2015 GDR Vision meeting)

    OpenAIRE

    Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Heusden, Elle van; Stigchel, Stefan Van der

    2015-01-01

    Slides for: Mathôt, S., & Van Heusden, E., & Van der Stigchel, S. (2015, Dec). Attending and Inhibiting Stimuli That Match the Contents of Visual Working Memory: Evidence from Eye Movements and Pupillometry. Talk presented at the GDR Vision Meething, Grenoble, France.

  4. The Use of Melodic and Rhythmic Mnemonics to Improve Memory and Recall in Elementary Students in the Content Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Orla C.

    2009-01-01

    Mnemonic strategies that use imagery and visual cues to facilitate memory recall are commonly used in the classroom. A familiar tune, song or jingle, used as a mnemonic device is another popular memory aid. Studies of the brain and memory reveal that exposure to music not only alters but increases brain function in students. The purpose of this…

  5. Data fusion using dynamic associative memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Titus K. Y.; Leung, Henry; Chan, Keith C. C.

    1997-07-01

    An associative memory, unlike an addressed memory used in conventional computers, is content addressable. That is, storing and retrieving information are not based on the location of the memory cell but on the content of the information. There are a number of approaches to implement an associative memory, one of which is to use a neural dynamical system where objects being memorized or recognized correspond to its basic attractors. The work presented in this paper is the investigation of applying a particular type of neural dynamical associative memory, namely the projection network, to pattern recognition and data fusion. Three types of attractors, which are fixed-point, limit- cycle, and chaotic, have been studied, evaluated and compared.

  6. The two sides of adversity: the effect of distant versus recent adversity on updating emotional content in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levens, Sara M; Armstrong, Laura Marie; Orejuela-Dávila, Ana I; Alverio, Tabitha

    2017-09-01

    Previous research suggests that adversity can have both adaptive and maladaptive effects, yet the emotional and working memory processes that contribute to more or less adaptive outcomes are unclear. The present study sought to investigate how updating emotional content differs in adolescents who have experienced past, recent, or no adversity. Participants who had experienced distant adversity (N = 53), no adversity (N = 58), or recent adversity only (N = 20) performed an emotion n-back task with emotional facial expressions. Results revealed that the distant adversity group exhibited significantly faster reaction times (RTs) than the no adversity and recent adversity only groups. In contrast, the recent adversity only group exhibited significantly slower RTs and more errors than the distant adversity and no adversity groups. These results suggest an emotion and executive control pathway by which both the benefits and negative effects of adversity may be conferred. Results also highlight the importance of time in assessing the impact of adversity.

  7. A Josephson ternary associative memory cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisue, M.; Suzuki, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a three-valued content addressable memory cell using a Josephson complementary ternary logic circuit named as JCTL. The memory cell proposed here can perform three operations of searching, writing and reading in ternary logic system. The principle of the memory circuit is illustrated in detail by using the threshold-characteristics of the JCTL. In order to investigate how a high performance operation can be achieved, computer simulations have been made. Simulation results show that the cycle time of memory operation is 120psec, power consumption is about 0.5 μW/cell and tolerances of writing and reading operation are +-15% and +-24%, respectively

  8. Frontal lobe damage impairs process and content in semantic memory: evidence from category-specific effects in progressive non-fluent aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Jamie; Rodriguez, Amy D; Peelle, Jonathan E; Grossman, Murray

    2011-06-01

    Portions of left inferior frontal cortex have been linked to semantic memory both in terms of the content of conceptual representation (e.g., motor aspects in an embodied semantics framework) and the cognitive processes used to access these representations (e.g., response selection). Progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive atrophy of left inferior frontal cortex. PNFA can, therefore, provide a lesion model for examining the impact of frontal lobe damage on semantic processing and content. In the current study we examined picture naming in a cohort of PNFA patients across a variety of semantic categories. An embodied approach to semantic memory holds that sensorimotor features such as self-initiated action may assume differential importance for the representation of manufactured artifacts (e.g., naming hand tools). Embodiment theories might therefore predict that patients with frontal damage would be differentially impaired on manufactured artifacts relative to natural kinds, and this prediction was borne out. We also examined patterns of naming errors across a wide range of semantic categories and found that naming error distributions were heterogeneous. Although PNFA patients performed worse overall on naming manufactured artifacts, there was no reliable relationship between anomia and manipulability across semantic categories. These results add to a growing body of research arguing against a purely sensorimotor account of semantic memory, suggesting instead a more nuanced balance of process and content in how the brain represents conceptual knowledge. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  9. Quality Teaching in Addressing Student Achievement: A Comparative Study between National Board Certified Teachers and Other Teachers on the Kentucky Core Content Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buecker, Harrie Lynne

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation focused on the link between quality teaching and its potential impact on student achievement. National Board Certification is used to represent quality teaching and student achievement is measured by the Kentucky Core Content Test. Data were gathered on the reading and mathematics scores of students of National Board Teachers who…

  10. Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities?: Field experiments in Mexico to assess warning label content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F.; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Villalobos, Victor; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Hammond, David; Carter, Jarvis; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansores, Raul; Regalado-Piñeda, Justino

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the most effective content of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and whether educational attainment moderates these effects. Methods Field experiments were conducted with 529 adult smokers and 530 young adults (258 nonsmokers; 271 smokers), wherein participants reported responses to different HWLs printed on cigarette packages. One experiment involved manipulating textual form (testimonial narrative vs didactic) and the other involved manipulating imagery type (diseased organs vs human suffering). Results Tests of mean ratings and rankings indicated that HWLs with didactic textual forms had equivalent or significantly higher credibility, relevance, and impact than HWLs with testimonial forms. Results from mixed-effects models confirmed these results. However, responses differed by participant educational attainment: didactic forms were consistently rated higher than testimonials among participants with higher education, whereas the difference between didactic and testimonial narrative forms was weaker or not statistically significant among participants with lower education. In the second experiment, with textual content held constant, greater credibility, relevance and impact was found for graphic imagery of diseased organs than imagery of human suffering. Conclusions Pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms appear to work better than with testimonial narratives. Future research should determine which pictorial HWL content has the greatest real-world impact among consumers from disadvantaged groups, including assessment of how HWL content should change to maintain its impact as tobacco control environments strengthen and consumer awareness of smoking-related risks increases. PMID:22350859

  11. Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities? Field experiments in Mexico to assess pictorial warning label content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Villalobos, Victor; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Hammond, David; Carter, Jarvis; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansores, Raul; Regalado-Piñeda, Justino

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the most effective content of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and whether educational attainment moderates these effects. Field experiments were conducted with 529 adult smokers and 530 young adults (258 nonsmokers; 271 smokers). Participants reported responses to different pictorial HWLs printed on cigarette packages. One experiment involved manipulating textual form (testimonial narrative vs. didactic) and the other involved manipulating image type (diseased organs vs. human suffering). Tests of mean ratings and rankings indicated that pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms had equivalent or significantly higher credibility, relevance, and impact than pictorial HWLs with testimonial forms. Results from mixed-effects models confirmed these results. However, responses differed by participant educational attainment: didactic forms were consistently rated higher than testimonials among participants with higher education, whereas the difference between didactic and testimonial narrative forms was weaker or not statistically significant among participants with lower education. In the second experiment, with textual content held constant, greater credibility, relevance, and impact was found for graphic imagery of diseased organs than imagery of human suffering. Pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms seem to work better than those with testimonial narratives. Future research should determine which pictorial HWL content has the greatest real-world impact among consumers from disadvantaged groups, including assessment of how HWL content should change to maintain its impact as tobacco control environments strengthen and consumer awareness of smoking-related risks increases.

  12. Teaching about Modern Germany: Instructional Materials for the Social Studies Classroom. Correlation Charts Indicating Content and Skills Addressed by Each Lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethe House, New York, NY.

    This instructional booklet for the social studies classroom is a companion to a series about modern day Germany. The materials describe the documents in the series and present correlation charts for content and skills: (1) "A Kid Like Me across the Sea"; (2) "Communities and Regions"; (3) "Overview of Germany"; (4)…

  13. The content of visual working memory alters processing of visual input prior to conscious access: Evidence from pupillometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gayet, S.; Paffen, C.L.E.; Guggenmos, M.; Sterzer, P.; Stigchel, S. van der

    2017-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) allows for keeping relevant visual information available after termination of its sensory input. Storing information in VWM, however, affects concurrent conscious perception of visual input: initially suppressed visual input gains prioritized access to consciousness when

  14. Convocation address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, M S

    1998-07-01

    This address delivered to the 40th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in India in 1998 opens by noting that a shortage of jobs for youth is India's most urgent problem but that the problems that attend the increasing numbers of elderly also require serious attention. The address then notes that the Earth's population is growing at an unsustainable rate while economic inequities among countries are increasing, so that, while intellectual property is becoming the most important asset in developed countries, nutritional anemia among pregnant women causes their offspring to be unable to achieve their full intellectual potential from birth. Next, the address uses a discussion of the 18th-century work on population of the Marquis de Condorcet and of Thomas Malthus to lead into a consideration of estimated increased needs of countries like India and China to import food grains in the near future. Next, the progress of demographic transition in Indian states is covered and applied to Mahbub ul Haq's measure of human deprivation developed for and applied to the region of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and the Maldives). The address continues by reiterating some of the major recommendations forwarded by a government of India committee charged in 1995 with drafting a national population policy. Finally, the address suggests specific actions that could be important components of the Hunger-Free India Programme and concludes that all success rests on the successful implementation of appropriate population policies.

  15. Trinary Associative Memory Would Recognize Machine Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Awwal, Abdul Ahad S.; Karim, Mohammad A.

    1991-01-01

    Trinary associative memory combines merits and overcomes major deficiencies of unipolar and bipolar logics by combining them in three-valued logic that reverts to unipolar or bipolar binary selectively, as needed to perform specific tasks. Advantage of associative memory: one obtains access to all parts of it simultaneously on basis of content, rather than address, of data. Consequently, used to exploit fully parallelism and speed of optical computing.

  16. inaugral address

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While political reorientation and economic redress were of immediate concern, ... South African context, where widespread changes have been proposed for education at all ... education at school and other levels and needs to be addressed so as to ..... the major national curriculum intervention in environmental education.

  17. Cognitive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrow, Bernard; Aragon, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Regarding the workings of the human mind, memory and pattern recognition seem to be intertwined. You generally do not have one without the other. Taking inspiration from life experience, a new form of computer memory has been devised. Certain conjectures about human memory are keys to the central idea. The design of a practical and useful "cognitive" memory system is contemplated, a memory system that may also serve as a model for many aspects of human memory. The new memory does not function like a computer memory where specific data is stored in specific numbered registers and retrieval is done by reading the contents of the specified memory register, or done by matching key words as with a document search. Incoming sensory data would be stored at the next available empty memory location, and indeed could be stored redundantly at several empty locations. The stored sensory data would neither have key words nor would it be located in known or specified memory locations. Sensory inputs concerning a single object or subject are stored together as patterns in a single "file folder" or "memory folder". When the contents of the folder are retrieved, sights, sounds, tactile feel, smell, etc., are obtained all at the same time. Retrieval would be initiated by a query or a prompt signal from a current set of sensory inputs or patterns. A search through the memory would be made to locate stored data that correlates with or relates to the prompt input. The search would be done by a retrieval system whose first stage makes use of autoassociative artificial neural networks and whose second stage relies on exhaustive search. Applications of cognitive memory systems have been made to visual aircraft identification, aircraft navigation, and human facial recognition. Concerning human memory, reasons are given why it is unlikely that long-term memory is stored in the synapses of the brain's neural networks. Reasons are given suggesting that long-term memory is stored in DNA or RNA

  18. A New Conceptualization of Human Visual Sensory-Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öğmen, Haluk; Herzog, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Memory is an essential component of cognition and disorders of memory have significant individual and societal costs. The Atkinson-Shiffrin "modal model" forms the foundation of our understanding of human memory. It consists of three stores: Sensory Memory (SM), whose visual component is called iconic memory, Short-Term Memory (STM; also called working memory, WM), and Long-Term Memory (LTM). Since its inception, shortcomings of all three components of the modal model have been identified. While the theories of STM and LTM underwent significant modifications to address these shortcomings, models of the iconic memory remained largely unchanged: A high capacity but rapidly decaying store whose contents are encoded in retinotopic coordinates, i.e., according to how the stimulus is projected on the retina. The fundamental shortcoming of iconic memory models is that, because contents are encoded in retinotopic coordinates, the iconic memory cannot hold any useful information under normal viewing conditions when objects or the subject are in motion. Hence, half-century after its formulation, it remains an unresolved problem whether and how the first stage of the modal model serves any useful function and how subsequent stages of the modal model receive inputs from the environment. Here, we propose a new conceptualization of human visual sensory memory by introducing an additional component whose reference-frame consists of motion-grouping based coordinates rather than retinotopic coordinates. We review data supporting this new model and discuss how it offers solutions to the paradoxes of the traditional model of sensory memory.

  19. Team performance in networked supervisory control of unmanned air vehicles: effects of automation, working memory, and communication content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick, Ryan; Shaw, Tyler; de Visser, Ewart; Saqer, Haneen; Kidwell, Brian; Parasuraman, Raja

    2014-05-01

    Assess team performance within a net-worked supervisory control setting while manipulating automated decision aids and monitoring team communication and working memory ability. Networked systems such as multi-unmanned air vehicle (UAV) supervision have complex properties that make prediction of human-system performance difficult. Automated decision aid can provide valuable information to operators, individual abilities can limit or facilitate team performance, and team communication patterns can alter how effectively individuals work together. We hypothesized that reliable automation, higher working memory capacity, and increased communication rates of task-relevant information would offset performance decrements attributed to high task load. Two-person teams performed a simulated air defense task with two levels of task load and three levels of automated aid reliability. Teams communicated and received decision aid messages via chat window text messages. Task Load x Automation effects were significant across all performance measures. Reliable automation limited the decline in team performance with increasing task load. Average team spatial working memory was a stronger predictor than other measures of team working memory. Frequency of team rapport and enemy location communications positively related to team performance, and word count was negatively related to team performance. Reliable decision aiding mitigated team performance decline during increased task load during multi-UAV supervisory control. Team spatial working memory, communication of spatial information, and team rapport predicted team success. An automated decision aid can improve team performance under high task load. Assessment of spatial working memory and the communication of task-relevant information can help in operator and team selection in supervisory control systems.

  20. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianko, L.

    1993-01-01

    This short talk was the opening remarks to the attendees at this conference, presented by the Scientific Secretary, IWG-LMNPP, of the IAEA. This meeting is an effort to aid research on problems related to the general area of nuclear plant aging and life management. In particular it addresses fracture properties of reactor materials and components, both as installed, and at end of service condition. A major concern is relating measurements made on laboratory samples to properties displayed by actual reactor components

  1. Convocation address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, R

    1996-07-01

    By means of this graduation address at the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) in Bombay, the Chancellor of Urdu University voiced his concerns about overpopulation in India. During the speaker's tenure as Health Minister of Maharashtra, he implemented a sterilization incentive program that resulted in the state's having the best family planning (FP) statistics in India for almost 10 years. The incentive program, however, was misused by overenthusiastic officials in other states, with the result that the FP program was renamed the Family Welfare Programme. Population is growing in India because of improvements in health care, but the population education necessary to change fertility will require more time than the seriousness of the population problem allows. In the longterm, poverty and illiteracy must be addressed to control population. In the meanwhile, the graduate program at the IIPS should be expanded to include an undergraduate program, marriage age laws should be enforced, and misconceptions about religious objections to FP must be addressed. India can not afford to use the measures forwarded by developed countries to control population growth. India must integrate population control efforts with the provision of health care because if population continues to grow in the face of reduced infant mortality and longer life expectancy, future generations will be forced to live in a state of poverty and economic degradation.

  2. Addressing issues raised by stakeholders: impacts on process, content, and behaviour in waste organisations: the Swedish radiation protection authority's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, Bjoern

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden, there is a strong involvement for contributing to and for developing the work in the process aimed at building the Swedish repository sites of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear wastes. The discussions in the focus groups showed that: - the participants had substantial comments on the content and the shaping of the guidelines which will be of use to SSI (one of the Swedish authorities) in the current work; - involved participants' needs for knowledge, as well as their comments, reach far beyond the outline of the guidelines. One can find questions on basic concepts and technical details of measurements as well as on issues of legal, health related, organisational and social aspects and consequences, ranging from today and far into the distant future. This will be of use for building an information database that can place radiation protection criteria concerning final disposal into a broader context. SSI plans to put forward a draft of the guidelines to be discussed further in the municipalities, followed by discussions with other actors. The guidelines are planned to be ready at the end of 2004

  3. Short-Term Memory Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment: The Effect of Verbal and Nonverbal Task Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botting, Nicola; Psarou, Popi; Caplin, Tamara; Nevin, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Background and Design: In recent years, evidence has emerged that suggests specific language impairment (SLI) does not exclusively affect linguistic skill. Studies have revealed memory difficulties, including those measured using nonverbal tasks. However, there has been relatively little research into the nature of the verbal/nonverbal boundaries…

  4. Neural evidence that inhibition is linked to the affective devaluation of distractors that match the contents of working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vito, David; Al-Aidroos, Naseem; Fenske, Mark J

    2017-05-01

    Stimuli appearing as visual distractors subsequently receive more negative affective evaluations than novel items or prior targets of attention. Leading accounts question whether this distractor devaluation effect occurs through evaluative codes that become associated with distractors as a mere artefact of attention-task instructions, or through affective consequences of attentional inhibition when applied to prevent distractor interference. Here we test opposing predictions arising from the evaluative-coding and devaluation-by-inhibition hypotheses using an electrophysiological marker of attentional inhibition in a task that requires participants to avoid interference from abstract-shape distractors presented while maintaining a uniquely-colored stimulus in memory. Consistent with prior research, distractors that matched the colour of the stimulus being held in memory elicited a Pd component of the event-related potential waveform, indicating that their processing was being actively suppressed. Subsequent affective evaluations revealed that memory-matching distractors also received more negative ratings than non-matching distractors or previously-unseen shapes. Moreover, Pd magnitude was greater on trials in which the memory-matching distractors were later rated negatively than on trials preceding positive ratings. These results support the devaluation-by-inhibition hypothesis and strongly suggest that fluctuations in stimulus inhibition are closely associated with subsequent affective evaluations. In contrast, none of the evaluative-coding based predictions were confirmed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The relationship between implicit and explicit motives, goal pursuit, and autobiographical memory content during a diary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bender, M.; Woike, B.A.; Burke, C.; Dow, E.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    This online diary study investigated how motives interact with goal pursuit to predict daily autobiographical experiences. Participants (N = 141) completed measures of implicit and explicit achievement, provided daily memories and reports of their goal pursuit during a 3-week diary period. A

  6. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Room LM-401 in the James Madison Memorial Building, Monday through Friday, between 8:30 a.m. and 5 p.m., and be addressed as follows: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial... Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue, SE...

  7. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses various aspects of the bases underlying the nuclear third party liability regime, and also analyses the distinction between danger and risk and the manner in which damage caused by flood, mass unemployment (economic damage mainly) and certain diseases is dealt with in the absence of liability provisions similar to those applicable to nuclear incidents. It also is suggested that the State because of its duty under the Basic Law to ensure adequate energy supplies, should be co-responsible for liability questions along with the nuclear operator. (NEA) [fr

  8. Addressing issues raised by stakeholders: impacts on process, content and behaviour in the case of the Canadian nuclear waste management organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight how stakeholder input has shaped the work of the Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) in both process and content. In 2002, NWMO was mandated by the Government of Canada to undertake a study of different approaches for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel, and to recommend an approach to the Government by November 15, 2005. Public consultations are an important part of this legislated mandate. In inviting broad dialogue and feedback from the public at large, experts, and other communities of interest, NWMO intends that its processes, the study and its recommendations will reflect the values and perspectives of Canadian society. The organization has adopted a reflective study approach, through which it deliberately seeks public input at each stage of study. A continuum of engagement activities provides for dynamic interaction between the engagement processes and the research and analysis. The insights gained from engagement are integrated into the NWMO's study, to continuously enrich the iterative learning process. NWMO has received a wide range of comments, insights and questions from face-to-face discussions, workshops, round-tables, written submissions and public opinion research. The sections that follow illustrate how this stakeholder input has helped to shape the organisation's public engagement plans, work-plan and the focus of the assessment that is now in progress. Going forward, issues and comments provided by different communities of interest will assist the assessment of the management approaches and help design NWMO's recommendation to the Government of Canada. (author)

  9. The information content of implied volatilities of options on eurodeposit futures traded on the LIFFE: is there long memory?

    OpenAIRE

    Cifarelli, giulio

    2002-01-01

    Under rather general conditions Black - Scholes implied volatilities from at-the-money options appropriately quantify, in each period, the market expectations of the average volatility of the return of the underlying asset until contract expiration. The efficiency of these expectation estimates is investigated here, for options on two major short term interest rate futures contracts traded at the LIFFE, using a long memory framework. Over the 1993 – 1997 time interval the performance of im...

  10. Memory for media: investigation of false memories for negatively and positively charged public events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen; Taylor, Kristian; Ten Brinke, Leanne

    2008-01-01

    Despite a large body of false memory research, little has addressed the potential influence of an event's emotional content on susceptibility to false recollections. The Paradoxical Negative Emotion (PNE) hypothesis predicts that negative emotion generally facilitates memory but also heightens susceptibility to false memories. Participants were asked whether they could recall 20 "widely publicised" public events (half fictitious) ranging in emotional valence, with or without visual cues. Participants recalled a greater number of true negative events (M=3.31/5) than true positive (M=2.61/5) events. Nearly everyone (95%) came to recall at least one false event (M=2.15 false events recalled). Further, more than twice as many participants recalled any false negative (90%) compared to false positive (41.7%) events. Negative events, in general, were associated with more detailed memories and false negative event memories were more detailed than false positive event memories. Higher dissociation scores were associated with false recollections of negative events, specifically.

  11. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farlinger, W.

    1997-01-01

    In this second keynote address of the conference Mr. Farlinger, Chairman of Ontario Hydro, attempted to respond to some of the criticisms levelled at the Corporation in the course of the Macdonald Committee process. He appeared to be particularly vexed by the criticism of IPPSO, saying that in effect, they are' beating up on their only customer', at a time when Hydro is being pulled in several different directions, and was facing pressure from jurisdictional dispute with municipal utilities, (MEUs). Nevertheless, he agreed with the need for restructuring. He defended Hydro by saying that the Macdonald Report in fact represented a vindication of the position Ontario Hydro had taken, particularly on such issues as open competition, customer choice, rationalization of the distribution system, and termination of Hydro's monopoly position. At the same time, he objected to the Report's assertion that dismantling the generation system into smaller units would be in the best interest of the people of Ontario. He suggested that there would be several large US utility companies willing and able to fill the vacuum if there was no large company with its head office in Ontario to stake its claim to the provincial market

  12. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boening, K.

    2003-01-01

    The program of this 9th Meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors IGORR includes are quite a number of fascinating new research reactor projects in France, Germany, Russia, Canada, China, Thailand, and in Australia. In addition to the session about New Facilities there are interesting sessions on the Upgrades and on the Optimization of Operation and Utilization of existing research reactors, on Secondary Neutron Sources, on Neutron Scattering applications, and on the aspects of Safety, Licensing and Decommissioning. Two particular projects of new research reactors are mentioned specially: the TRR-II project in Taiwan, has unfortunately been terminated last year because of a change to anti-nuclear of the ruling parties in the government - and the new FRM-II in Munich, Germany, which will hopefully survive such a political change and receive its green light for nuclear start up in the very near future. The charter of IGORR and its objectives are part of this address: The International Group on Research Reactors IGORR was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. The main IGORR objectives are to promote contacts between its members, to identify and discuss problems of common interest, to distribute newsletters about once or twice every year and to organize meetings about once every one-and-a-half years

  13. Searching for serial refreshing in working memory: Using response times to track the content of the focus of attention over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergauwe, Evie; Hardman, Kyle O; Rouder, Jeffrey N; Roemer, Emily; McAllaster, Sara; Cowan, Nelson

    2016-12-01

    One popular idea is that, to support the maintenance of a set of elements over brief periods of time, the focus of attention rotates among the different elements, thereby serially refreshing the content of working memory (WM). In the research reported here, probe letters were presented between to-be-remembered letters, and response times to these probes were used to infer the status of the different items in WM. If the focus of attention cycles from one item to the next, its content should be different at different points in time, and this should be reflected in a change in the response time patterns over time. Across a set of four experiments, we demonstrated a striking pattern of invariance in the response time patterns over time, suggesting either that the content of the focus of attention did not change over time or that response times cannot be used to infer the content of the focus of attention. We discuss how this pattern constrains models of WM, attention, and human information processing.

  14. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  15. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

  16. Welcome Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  17. Only "efficient" emotional stimuli affect the content of working memory during free-recollection from natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttafuoco, Arianna; Pedale, Tiziana; Buchanan, Tony W; Santangelo, Valerio

    2018-02-01

    Emotional events are thought to have privileged access to attention and memory, consuming resources needed to encode competing emotionally neutral stimuli. However, it is not clear whether this detrimental effect is automatic or depends on the successful maintenance of the specific emotional object within working memory. Here, participants viewed everyday scenes including an emotional object among other neutral objects followed by a free-recollection task. Results showed that emotional objects-irrespective of their perceptual saliency-were recollected more often than neutral objects. The probability of being recollected increased as a function of the arousal of the emotional objects, specifically for negative objects. Successful recollection of emotional objects (positive or negative) from a scene reduced the overall number of recollected neutral objects from the same scene. This indicates that only emotional stimuli that are efficient in grabbing (and then consuming) available attentional resources play a crucial role during the encoding of competing information, with a subsequent bias in the recollection of neutral representations.

  18. The effect of hafnium content on the transformation temperatures of Ni49Ti51-xHfx shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angst, D.R.; Thoma, P.E.; Kao, M.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Ternary alloys of NiTiHf, having higher transformation temperatures than binary NiTi shape memory alloys, have been produced and analyzed. Beginning with a base composition of Ni 49 Ti 51 , Hf was substituted for Ti up to 30 atomic percent. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the transformation temperatures of the as-cast alloys. The peak martensite temperature of the Ni 49 Ti 51 alloy was 69 C and increased to 525 C for the Ni 49 Ti 21 Hf 30 alloy. The peak austenite temperature of the Ni 49 Ti 51 alloy was 114 C and increased to 622 C for the Ni 49 Ti 21 Hf 30 alloy. An apparent minimum in the peak transformation temperatures occurred between 0 and 3 atomic percent Hf. Preliminary experiments were also conducted to determine the effect of thermomechanical processing on the shape memory properties of the Ni 49 Ti 41 Hf 10 . Data are presented on the effect of cold work and heat treatment on the transformation temperatures of this alloy. (orig.)

  19. Effect of Ta content on martensitic transformation behavior of RuTa ultrahigh temperature shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhirong; Zhou Jingen; Furuya, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Effects of Ta content on martensitic transformation (MT) behavior of Ru 100-x Ta x (x=46-54 at.%) alloys have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, dilatometry, X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. Ta content significantly affects the MT behavior of RuTa alloys. The one-stage reservible MT occurs in Ta-poor RuTa alloys with Ta content less than 49 at.%. The two-stage reservible MT takes place in near-equiatomic RuTa alloys. No reservible MT is observed in Ta-rich alloys with Ta content more then 52 at.% Ta. The MT temperatures and hysteresis of RuTa alloys decrease with increasing Ta content. The aged and thermal cycled processes are nearly no effect on the MT behavior of these alloys. The deforming way of RuTa alloys is twinning. The Ru 50 Ta 50 alloy is of the most excellent MT behavior among these RuTa alloys

  20. Addressing user expectations in mobile content delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agboma, F.; Liotta, A.

    2007-01-01

    Multimedia services like television programs and live streaming of mobile videos can be delivered to mobile terminals via different access technologies. The question is – how do users perceive such services on mobile terminals? The objective of this study is to find the correlation between video

  1. EEG and autonomic responses during performance of matching and non-matching to sample working memory tasks with emotional content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eGarcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM is a neural system responsible for the temporary storage of information and its utilization in problem solving. The central executive is theorized as the controller of storage functions that support WM. Neurophysiological data suggest that EEG theta and alpha oscillations in frontal and midline regions are involved in neural communication between the central executive and storage functions during WM performance. Emotion is known to modulate several memory systems, including WM, through central and peripheral pathways. However, the physiological correlations (electroencephalographic – EEG; autonomic nervous activity of the effect of emotion over WM are not well described. In this study we aimed to identify physiological responses related to emotional WM performance. EEG (21 channels, heart rate (HR and galvanic skin response (GSR recordings were obtained from 54 volunteers while performing delayed matching and non-matching to sample tasks (DMTS/DNMTS. Emotional and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System and geometric figures were used as stimuli. As expected, WM performance was accompanied by presence of theta (frontal and midline electrodes and Alpha power (parietal electrodes. Beta and gamma oscillations were concentrated in frontopolar and left temporal regions. DNMTS task was accompanied by increases in Beta power, HR and GSR compared to DMTS task. Correlation analysis showed a positive tendency for gamma in Fp2 site, ratio of LF/HF (HR low and high frequency and skin conductance in both tasks. The HR results indicate an inverse reaction related to parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system during the performance of the tasks. Taken together, our results contribute to elucidate the complex interactions between central and autonomic nervous systems in the modulation of emotional WM tasks.

  2. TiNi shape memory alloys: effects of the fabrication route, the oxygen content and the zirconium or hafnium additions on the metallurgical characteristics and the thermomechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olier, P.

    1996-01-01

    In order to promote the development of Ti-Ni shape memory alloys, we have studied the correlation between the fabrication route, the chemical composition (O 2 content, Zr or Hf additions), the metallurgical characteristics and the thermomechanical properties. A conventional sintering does not allow to obtain a homogeneous compound of pure Ti 50 Ni 50 alloy because of the occurrence of Kirkendall porosities which act as a diffusion barrier. An original process including combustion synthesis and hot-extrusion was successfully developed. Resulting products exhibit a smaller grain size (15-20μm) and an enhanced workability in comparison with products obtained by arc-melting and subsequent hot rolling. The presence of oxygen in equiatomic Ti-Ni alloy induces the oxide precipitation of Ti 4 Ni 2 O x type (with x ≤ 1). The precipitated particle fraction is proportional to the oxygen nominal content of the alloy. We show that the decrease of the transformation temperatures is correlated with the decrease of Ti in solid solution due to Ti 4 Ni 2 O precipitation. Moreover, we find that a fine and homogenous oxide dispersion is suitable to decrease the grain size during hot rolling and to enhance to the one way shape memory properties. An increase of the typical transformation temperatures is obtained through of Zr or Hf (in substitution to Ti). But, an increase of the hardness is measured, and consequently the workability of the ternary alloys becomes reduced. However, it is worthwhile to point out that a Ti 38 Ni 50 Hf 12 product obtained by arc melting and hot extrusion is able to fully recover an apparent plastic strain of more than 4% during tensile tests performed under special loading conditions. Such as behaviour is of great interest with respect to potential applications in a temperature range higher that 100 deg. C. (author)

  3. Models of Working Memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miyake, Akira

    1997-01-01

    .... Understanding the mechanisms and structures underlying working memory is, hence, one of the most important scientific issues that need to be addressed to improve the efficiency and performance...

  4. Resonator memories and optical novelty filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dana Z.; Erle, Marie C.

    Optical resonators having holographic elements are potential candidates for storing information that can be accessed through content addressable or associative recall. Closely related to the resonator memory is the optical novelty filter, which can detect the differences between a test object and a set of reference objects. We discuss implementations of these devices using continuous optical media such as photorefractive materials. The discussion is framed in the context of neural network models. There are both formal and qualitative similarities between the resonator memory and optical novelty filter and network models. Mode competition arises in the theory of the resonator memory, much as it does in some network models. We show that the role of the phenomena of "daydreaming" in the real-time programmable optical resonator is very much akin to the role of "unlearning" in neural network memories. The theory of programming the real-time memory for a single mode is given in detail. This leads to a discussion of the optical novelty filter. Experimental results for the resonator memory, the real-time programmable memory, and the optical tracking novelty filter are reviewed. We also point to several issues that need to be addressed in order to implement more formal models of neural networks.

  5. Supplementing female rats with DHA-lysophosphatidylcholine increases docosahexaenoic acid and acetylcholine contents in the brain and improves the memory and learning capabilities of the pups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, A.; Nieto, S.; Sanhueza, J.; Morgado, N.; Rojas, I.; Zanartu, P.

    2010-07-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (Dha) is supplied to the foetus and newborn through the mother from their own reserves and their diet. No consensus about the best form to supplement DHA has been established. We propose that DHA containing lysophosphatidylcholine (DHA-LPC), obtained from DHA-rich eggs may be a suitable form of DHA and choline (the precursor of acetylcholine) supplementation. We evaluated the effectiveness of DHA-LPC to increase DHA and acetylcholine concentration in the brain of pups born from female rats supplemented with DHA-LPC before and during pregnancy. We also evaluated the effect of DHA supplementation on learning and memory capabilities of pups through the Skinner test for operant conditioning. Female Wistar rats received 40-day supplementation of DHA-LPC (8 mg DHA/kg b.w/daily.), before and during pregnancy. After delivery, plasma, erythrocyte, liver, and adipose tissue DHA and plasma choline were analyzed. Brains from 60 day-old pups separated into frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, hippocampus, and occipital cortex, were assessed for DHA, acetylcholine, and acetylcholine transferase (CAT) activity. Pups were subjected to the Skinner box test. DHA-LPC supplementation produces higher choline and liver DHA contents in the mothers plasma and increases the pups DHA and acetylcholine in the cerebellum and hippocampus. CAT was not modified by supplementation. The Skinner test shows that pups born from DHA-LPC supplemented mothers exhibit better scores of learning and memory than the controls. Conclusion: DHA-LPC may be an adequate form for DHA supplementation during the perinatal period. (Author) 66 refs.

  6. Quantum random access memory

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    A random access memory (RAM) uses n bits to randomly address N=2^n distinct memory cells. A quantum random access memory (qRAM) uses n qubits to address any quantum superposition of N memory cells. We present an architecture that exponentially reduces the requirements for a memory call: O(log N) switches need be thrown instead of the N used in conventional (classical or quantum) RAM designs. This yields a more robust qRAM algorithm, as it in general requires entanglement among exponentially l...

  7. A New Conceptualization of Human Visual Sensory-Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öğmen, Haluk; Herzog, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Memory is an essential component of cognition and disorders of memory have significant individual and societal costs. The Atkinson–Shiffrin “modal model” forms the foundation of our understanding of human memory. It consists of three stores: Sensory Memory (SM), whose visual component is called iconic memory, Short-Term Memory (STM; also called working memory, WM), and Long-Term Memory (LTM). Since its inception, shortcomings of all three components of the modal model have been identified. While the theories of STM and LTM underwent significant modifications to address these shortcomings, models of the iconic memory remained largely unchanged: A high capacity but rapidly decaying store whose contents are encoded in retinotopic coordinates, i.e., according to how the stimulus is projected on the retina. The fundamental shortcoming of iconic memory models is that, because contents are encoded in retinotopic coordinates, the iconic memory cannot hold any useful information under normal viewing conditions when objects or the subject are in motion. Hence, half-century after its formulation, it remains an unresolved problem whether and how the first stage of the modal model serves any useful function and how subsequent stages of the modal model receive inputs from the environment. Here, we propose a new conceptualization of human visual sensory memory by introducing an additional component whose reference-frame consists of motion-grouping based coordinates rather than retinotopic coordinates. We review data supporting this new model and discuss how it offers solutions to the paradoxes of the traditional model of sensory memory. PMID:27375519

  8. Hippocampal long-term depression is facilitated by the acquisition and updating of memory of spatial auditory content and requires mGlu5 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Birte; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2017-03-15

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are key cellular processes that support memory formation. Whereas increases of synaptic strength by means of LTP may support the creation of a spatial memory 'engram', LTD appears to play an important role in refining and optimising experience-dependent encoding. A differentiation in the role of hippocampal subfields is apparent. For example, LTD in the dentate gyrus (DG) is enabled by novel learning about large visuospatial features, whereas in area CA1, it is enabled by learning about discrete aspects of spatial content, whereby, both discrete visuospatial and olfactospatial cues trigger LTD in CA1. Here, we explored to what extent local audiospatial cues facilitate information encoding in the form of LTD in these subfields. Coupling of low frequency afferent stimulation (LFS) with discretely localised, novel auditory tones in the sonic hearing, or ultrasonic range, facilitated short-term depression (STD) into LTD (>24 h) in CA1, but not DG. Re-exposure to the now familiar audiospatial configuration ca. 1 week later failed to enhance STD. Reconfiguration of the same audiospatial cues resulted anew in LTD when ultrasound, but not non-ultrasound cues were used. LTD facilitation that was triggered by novel exposure to spatially arranged tones, or to spatial reconfiguration of the same tones were both prevented by an antagonism of the metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGlu5. These data indicate that, if behaviourally salient enough, the hippocampus can use audiospatial cues to facilitate LTD that contributes to the encoding and updating of spatial representations. Effects are subfield-specific, and require mGlu5 activation, as is the case for visuospatial information processing. These data reinforce the likelihood that LTD supports the encoding of spatial features, and that this occurs in a qualitative and subfield-specific manner. They also support that mGlu5 is essential for synaptic encoding of spatial

  9. Single memory with multiple shift register functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a memory device comprising a memory (EM) having at least two predetermined register memory sections addressable by respective address ranges AS1-ASz) and at least one access port (P1-PZ) for providing access to said memory (EM). Furthermore, access control means (A)

  10. Influence of carbon content on the copper-telluride phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior of carbon alloyed Cu-Te conductive bridge random access memory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devulder, Wouter; De Schutter, Bob; Detavernier, Christophe; Opsomer, Karl; Franquet, Alexis; Meersschaut, Johan; Muller, Robert; Van Elshocht, Sven; Jurczak, Malgorzata; Goux, Ludovic; Belmonte, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the carbon content on the Cu-Te phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior in carbon alloyed Cu 0.6 Te 0.4 based conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) cells. Carbon alloying of copper-tellurium inhibits the crystallization, while attractive switching behavior is preserved when using the material as Cu-supply layer in CBRAM cells. The phase formation is first investigated in a combinatorial way. With increasing carbon content, an enlargement of the temperature window in which the material stays amorphous was observed. Moreover, if crystalline phases are formed, subsequent phase transformations are inhibited. The electrical switching behavior of memory cells with different carbon contents is then investigated by implementing them in 580 μm diameter dot TiN/Cu 0.6 Te 0.4 -C/Al 2 O 3 /Si memory cells. Reliable switching behavior is observed for carbon contents up to 40 at. %, with a resistive window of more than 2 orders of magnitude, whereas for 50 at. % carbon, a higher current in the off state and only a small resistive window are present after repeated cycling. This degradation can be ascribed to the higher thermal and lower drift contribution to the reset operation due to a lower Cu affinity towards the supply layer, leading cycle-after-cycle to an increasing amount of Cu in the switching layer, which contributes to the current. The thermal diffusion of Cu into Al 2 O 3 under annealing also gives an indication of the Cu affinity of the source layer. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy was used to investigate this migration depth in Al 2 O 3 before and after annealing, showing a higher Cu, Te, and C migration for high carbon contents

  11. Influence of carbon content on the copper-telluride phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior of carbon alloyed Cu-Te conductive bridge random access memory cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devulder, Wouter; Opsomer, Karl; Franquet, Alexis; Meersschaut, Johan; Belmonte, Attilio; Muller, Robert; De Schutter, Bob; Van Elshocht, Sven; Jurczak, Malgorzata; Goux, Ludovic; Detavernier, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the carbon content on the Cu-Te phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior in carbon alloyed Cu0.6Te0.4 based conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) cells. Carbon alloying of copper-tellurium inhibits the crystallization, while attractive switching behavior is preserved when using the material as Cu-supply layer in CBRAM cells. The phase formation is first investigated in a combinatorial way. With increasing carbon content, an enlargement of the temperature window in which the material stays amorphous was observed. Moreover, if crystalline phases are formed, subsequent phase transformations are inhibited. The electrical switching behavior of memory cells with different carbon contents is then investigated by implementing them in 580 μm diameter dot TiN/Cu0.6Te0.4-C/Al2O3/Si memory cells. Reliable switching behavior is observed for carbon contents up to 40 at. %, with a resistive window of more than 2 orders of magnitude, whereas for 50 at. % carbon, a higher current in the off state and only a small resistive window are present after repeated cycling. This degradation can be ascribed to the higher thermal and lower drift contribution to the reset operation due to a lower Cu affinity towards the supply layer, leading cycle-after-cycle to an increasing amount of Cu in the switching layer, which contributes to the current. The thermal diffusion of Cu into Al2O3 under annealing also gives an indication of the Cu affinity of the source layer. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy was used to investigate this migration depth in Al2O3 before and after annealing, showing a higher Cu, Te, and C migration for high carbon contents.

  12. Tracing Cultural Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    by their encounters – to address a question that thirty years of ground - breaking research into memory has not yet sufficiently answered: What can we learn about the dynamics of cultural memory by examining mundane accounts of touristic encounters with sites of memory? From Blaavand Beach in Western Denmark......We encounter, relate to and make use of our past and that of others in multifarious and increasingly mobile ways. Tourism is one of the main paths for encountering sites of memory. This thesis examines tourists’ creative appropriations of sites of memory – the objects and future memories inspired...... of memory. They highlight the role of mundane uses of the past and indicate the need for cross - disciplinary research on the visual and on memory...

  13. Supplementing female rats with DHA-lysophosphatidylcholine increases docosahexaenoic acid and acetylcholine contents in the brain and improves the memory and learning capabilities of the pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, I.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA is supplied to the foetus and newborn through the mother from their own reserves and their diet. No consensus about the best form to supplement DHA has been established. We propose that DHAcontaining lysophosphatidylcholine (DHA-LPC, obtained from DHA-rich eggs may be a suitable form of DHA and choline (the precursor of acetylcholine supplementation. We evaluated the effectiveness of DHA-LPC to increase DHA and acetylcholine concentration in the brain of pups born from female rats supplemented with DHA-LPC before and during pregnancy. We also evaluated the effect of DHA supplementation on learning and memory capabilities of pups through the Skinner test for operant conditioning. Female Wistar rats received 40-day supplementation of DHA-LPC (8 mg DHA/kg b.w/daily., before and during pregnancy. After delivery, plasma, erythrocyte, liver, and adipose tissue DHA and plasma choline were analyzed. Brains from 60 day-old pups separated into frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, hippocampus, and occipital cortex, were assessed for DHA, acetylcholine, and acetylcholine transferase (CAT activity. Pups were subjected to the Skinner box test. DHA-LPC supplementation produces higher choline and liver DHA contents in the mother’s plasma and increases the pups’ DHA and acetylcholine in the cerebellum and hippocampus. CAT was not modified by supplementation. The Skinner test shows that pups born from DHA-LPC supplemented mothers exhibit better scores of learning and memory than the controls. Conclusion: DHA-LPC may be an adequate form for DHA supplementation during the perinatal period.El ácido docosahexaenoico (DHA que requiere el feto y el recién nacido lo aporta la madre desde sus reservas y la dieta, por lo cual se sugiere suplementar a la madre con DHA. No hay consenso sobre la mejor forma de suplementación. Proponemos que un lisofosfolípido que contiene DHA y colina (DHA-LPC obtenido de huevos con alto contenido de DHA es

  14. Centrally managed unified shared virtual address space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, John

    2018-02-13

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for managing a unified shared virtual address space. A host may execute system software and manage a plurality of nodes coupled to the host. The host may send work tasks to the nodes, and for each node, the host may externally manage the node's view of the system's virtual address space. Each node may have a central processing unit (CPU) style memory management unit (MMU) with an internal translation lookaside buffer (TLB). In one embodiment, the host may be coupled to a given node via an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) interface, where the IOMMU frontend interface shares the TLB with the given node's MMU. In another embodiment, the host may control the given node's view of virtual address space via memory-mapped control registers.

  15. Centrally managed unified shared virtual address space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, John

    2018-02-13

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for managing a unified shared virtual address space. A host may execute system software and manage a plurality of nodes coupled to the host. The host may send work tasks to the nodes, and for each node, the host may externally manage the node's view of the system's virtual address space. Each node may have a central processing unit (CPU) style memory management unit (MMU) with an internal translation lookaside buffer (TLB). In one embodiment, the host may be coupled to a given node via an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) interface, where the IOMMU frontend interface shares the TLB with the given node's MMU. In another embodiment, the host may control the given node's view of virtual address space via memory-mapped control registers.

  16. `Unlearning' has a stabilizing effect in collective memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfield, J. J.; Feinstein, D. I.; Palmer, R. G.

    1983-07-01

    Crick and Mitchison1 have presented a hypothesis for the functional role of dream sleep involving an `unlearning' process. We have independently carried out mathematical and computer modelling of learning and `unlearning' in a collective neural network of 30-1,000 neurones. The model network has a content-addressable memory or `associative memory' which allows it to learn and store many memories. A particular memory can be evoked in its entirety when the network is stimulated by any adequate-sized subpart of the information of that memory2. But different memories of the same size are not equally easy to recall. Also, when memories are learned, spurious memories are also created and can also be evoked. Applying an `unlearning' process, similar to the learning processes but with a reversed sign and starting from a noise input, enhances the performance of the network in accessing real memories and in minimizing spurious ones. Although our model was not motivated by higher nervous function, our system displays behaviours which are strikingly parallel to those needed for the hypothesized role of `unlearning' in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.

  17. Allegheny County Addressing Landmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  18. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  19. Architectures for a quantum random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo

    2008-11-01

    A random access memory, or RAM, is a device that, when interrogated, returns the content of a memory location in a memory array. A quantum RAM, or qRAM, allows one to access superpositions of memory sites, which may contain either quantum or classical information. RAMs and qRAMs with n -bit addresses can access 2n memory sites. Any design for a RAM or qRAM then requires O(2n) two-bit logic gates. At first sight this requirement might seem to make large scale quantum versions of such devices impractical, due to the difficulty of constructing and operating coherent devices with large numbers of quantum logic gates. Here we analyze two different RAM architectures (the conventional fanout and the “bucket brigade”) and propose some proof-of-principle implementations, which show that, in principle, only O(n) two-qubit physical interactions need take place during each qRAM call. That is, although a qRAM needs O(2n) quantum logic gates, only O(n) need to be activated during a memory call. The resulting decrease in resources could give rise to the construction of large qRAMs that could operate without the need for extensive quantum error correction.

  20. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    quest for higher efficiency, better fidelity, broader bandwidth, multimode capacity and longer storage lifetime is pursued in all those approaches, as shown in this special issue. The improvement of quantum memory operation specifically requires in-depth study and control of numerous physical processes leading to atomic decoherence. The present issue reflects the development of rare earth ion doped matrices offering long lifetime superposition states, either as bulk crystals or as optical waveguides. The need for quantum sources and high efficiency detectors at the single photon level is also illustrated. Several papers address the networking of quantum memories either in long-haul cryptography or in the prospect of quantum processing. In this context, much attention has been paid recently to interfacing quantum light with superconducting qubits and with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Finally, the quantum interfacing of light with matter raises questions on entanglement. The last two papers are devoted to the generation of entanglement by dissipative processes. It is shown that long lifetime entanglement may be built in this way. We hope this special issue will help readers to become familiar with the exciting field of ensemble-based quantum memories and will stimulate them to bring deeper insights and new ideas to this area.

  1. Improving the performance and energy-efficiency of virtual memory

    OpenAIRE

    Karakostas, Vasileios

    2016-01-01

    Virtual memory improves programmer productivity, enhances process security, and increases memory utilization. However, virtual memory requires an address translation from the virtual to the physical address space on every memory operation. Page-based implementations of virtual memory divide physical memory into fixed size pages, and use a per-process page table to map virtual pages to physical pages. The hardware key component for accelerating address translation is the Translation Lookasi...

  2. The Effects of Arts-Integrated Instruction on Students' Memory for Science Content: Results from a Randomized Control Trial Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Mariale; JohnBull, Ranjini Mahinda; Carran, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Strong correlational evidence suggests that involvement in the arts improves students' academic outcomes and memory of learning events (e.g., Peppler et al., 2014; Robinson, 2013; Scripps & Paradis, 2014). It is unclear, however, whether the improved outcomes are the result of general exposure to the arts, arts integrated into content…

  3. Auditory enhancement of visual memory encoding is driven by emotional content of the auditory material and mediated by superior frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, A M; De Benedetto, F

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how auditory background interacts with learning and memory. Both facilitatory (e.g., "Mozart effect") and interfering effects of background have been reported, depending on the type of auditory stimulation and of concurrent cognitive tasks. Here we recorded event related potentials (ERPs) during face encoding followed by an old/new memory test to investigate the effect of listening to classical music (Čajkovskij, dramatic), environmental sounds (rain) or silence on learning. Participants were 15 healthy non-musician university students. Almost 400 (previously unknown) faces of women and men of various age were presented. Listening to music during study led to a better encoding of faces as indexed by an increased Anterior Negativity. The FN400 response recorded during the memory test showed a gradient in its amplitude reflecting face familiarity. FN400 was larger to new than old faces, and to faces studied during rain sound listening and silence than music listening. The results indicate that listening to music enhances memory recollection of faces by merging with visual information. A swLORETA analysis showed the main involvement of Superior Temporal Gyrus (STG) and medial frontal gyrus in the integration of audio-visual information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Static Memory Deduplication for Performance Optimization in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangyong Jia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In a cloud computing environment, the number of virtual machines (VMs on a single physical server and the number of applications running on each VM are continuously growing. This has led to an enormous increase in the demand of memory capacity and subsequent increase in the energy consumption in the cloud. Lack of enough memory has become a major bottleneck for scalability and performance of virtualization interfaces in cloud computing. To address this problem, memory deduplication techniques which reduce memory demand through page sharing are being adopted. However, such techniques suffer from overheads in terms of number of online comparisons required for the memory deduplication. In this paper, we propose a static memory deduplication (SMD technique which can reduce memory capacity requirement and provide performance optimization in cloud computing. The main innovation of SMD is that the process of page detection is performed offline, thus potentially reducing the performance cost, especially in terms of response time. In SMD, page comparisons are restricted to the code segment, which has the highest shared content. Our experimental results show that SMD efficiently reduces memory capacity requirement and improves performance. We demonstrate that, compared to other approaches, the cost in terms of the response time is negligible.

  5. The Influence of Direct and Indirect Speech on Source Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Eerland

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available People perceive the same situation described in direct speech (e.g., John said, “I like the food at this restaurant” as more vivid and perceptually engaging than described in indirect speech (e.g., John said that he likes the food at the restaurant. So, if direct speech enhances the perception of vividness relative to indirect speech, what are the effects of using indirect speech? In four experiments, we examined whether the use of direct and indirect speech influences the comprehender’s memory for the identity of the speaker. Participants read a direct or an indirect speech version of a story and then addressed statements to one of the four protagonists of the story in a memory task. We found better source memory at the level of protagonist gender after indirect than direct speech (Exp. 1–3. When the story was rewritten to make the protagonists more distinctive, we also found an effect of speech type on source memory at the level of the individual, with better memory after indirect than direct speech (Exp. 3–4. Memory for the content of the story, however, was not influenced by speech type (Exp. 4. While previous research showed that direct speech may enhance memory for how something was said, we conclude that indirect speech enhances memory for who said what.

  6. Static Memory Deduplication for Performance Optimization in Cloud Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Gangyong; Han, Guangjie; Wang, Hao; Yang, Xuan

    2017-04-27

    In a cloud computing environment, the number of virtual machines (VMs) on a single physical server and the number of applications running on each VM are continuously growing. This has led to an enormous increase in the demand of memory capacity and subsequent increase in the energy consumption in the cloud. Lack of enough memory has become a major bottleneck for scalability and performance of virtualization interfaces in cloud computing. To address this problem, memory deduplication techniques which reduce memory demand through page sharing are being adopted. However, such techniques suffer from overheads in terms of number of online comparisons required for the memory deduplication. In this paper, we propose a static memory deduplication (SMD) technique which can reduce memory capacity requirement and provide performance optimization in cloud computing. The main innovation of SMD is that the process of page detection is performed offline, thus potentially reducing the performance cost, especially in terms of response time. In SMD, page comparisons are restricted to the code segment, which has the highest shared content. Our experimental results show that SMD efficiently reduces memory capacity requirement and improves performance. We demonstrate that, compared to other approaches, the cost in terms of the response time is negligible.

  7. License Address List

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Address list generated from National Saltwater Angler Registry. Used in conjunction with an address-based sample as per survey design.

  8. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  9. Developmental Differences in Recall and Recognition: The Relationship between Rehearsal and Memory as Test Expectation Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, Mary J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An overt rehearsal procedure was used to study the relationship between 48 third- and 48 sixth-grade children's rehearsal strategies and their memory performance under difficult conditions of test expectation. This study addressed the question of why active rehearsal content results in superior recall performances. (MS)

  10. Time-Predictable Virtual Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Schoeberl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Virtual memory is an important feature of modern computer architectures. For hard real-time systems, memory protection is a particularly interesting feature of virtual memory. However, current memory management units are not designed for time-predictability and therefore cannot be used...... in such systems. This paper investigates the requirements on virtual memory from the perspective of hard real-time systems and presents the design of a time-predictable memory management unit. Our evaluation shows that the proposed design can be implemented efficiently. The design allows address translation...... and address range checking in constant time of two clock cycles on a cache miss. This constant time is in strong contrast to the possible cost of a miss in a translation look-aside buffer in traditional virtual memory organizations. Compared to a platform without a memory management unit, these two additional...

  11. Assessing the Quality and Potential Efficacy of Commercial Extracts of Rhodiola rosea L. by Analyzing the Salidroside and Rosavin Content and the Electrophysiological Activity in Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation, a Synaptic Model of Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Dimpfel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhodiola rosea L. roots and rhizome extracts are active ingredients in adaptogenic herbal medicinal products (HMP and dietary supplements for temporary relief of symptoms of stress, such as fatigue and weakness. R. rosea extract has a stimulating effect on the CNS, suggesting potential benefits on cognitive functions, memory, learning, and attention. The reproducible efficacy and quality of preparations of the underground parts of R. rosea depend on the highly variable content of the active markers, salidroside and rosavin, which affect the quality of HMP and dietary supplements. However, it is not clear which analytical markers are important for assessing the efficacy of R. rosea preparations intended for use in aging-induced mild cognitive disorders, such as attenuated memory, attention, and learning. Furthermore, the activity of various commercial R. rosea extracts has not been correlated with their content. Here, the biological activities of salidroside, rosavin, and seven commercial extracts of underground parts of R. rosea were assessed using a synaptic model of memory: long-term potentiation (LTP of synaptic transmission in hippocampus slices. A high degree of variation in the content of all active markers was observed. One extract from China lacked rosavin, and there was even variation in the extracts from the Altai geographic region. In vitro, rosavin, salidroside and all tested R. rosea extracts potentiated electric stimulation of an intra-hippocampal electric circuit, which resulted in higher responses of the pyramidal cells in isolated hippocampus slices. Rosavin was more active at higher concentrations than salidroside; while, salidroside was more effective at lower concentrations. The highest content of both active markers was found in the extracts that were active at the lowest concentrations tested; while, some extracts contained some other compounds that presumably reduced the efficacy due to antagonistic interactions

  12. Effects of hippocampal high-frequency electrical stimulation in memory formation and their association with amino acid tissue content and release in normal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Munguía, Hiram; Meneses, Alfredo; Peña-Ortega, Fernando; Gaona, Andres; Rocha, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Hippocampal high frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) at 130 Hz has been proposed as a therapeutical strategy to control neurological disorders such as intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This study was carried out to determine the effects of hippocampal HFS on the memory process and the probable involvement of amino acids. Using the autoshaping task, we found that animals receiving hippocampal HFS showed augmented short-term, but not long-term memory formation, an effect blocked by bicuculline pretreatment and associated with enhanced tissue levels of amino acids in hippocampus. In addition, microdialysis experiments revealed high extracellular levels of glutamate, aspartate, glycine, taurine, and alanine during the application of hippocampal HFS. In contrast, GABA release augmented during HFS and remained elevated for more than 1 h after the stimulation was ended. HFS had minimal effects on glutamine release. The present results suggest that HFS has an activating effect on specific amino acids in normal hippocampus that may be involved in the enhanced short-term memory formation. These data further provide experimental support for the concept that hippocampus may be a promising target for focal stimulation to treat intractable seizures in humans. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., Inc.

  13. Caffeine prevents age-associated recognition memory decline and changes brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tirosine kinase receptor (TrkB) content in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M S; Botton, P H; Mioranzza, S; Souza, D O; Porciúncula, L O

    2008-06-02

    The beneficial effects of caffeine on cognition are controversial in humans, whereas its benefit in rodents had been well characterized. However, most studies were performed with acute administration of caffeine and the tasks used to evaluate cognition had aversive components. Here, we evaluated adulthood administration of caffeine up to old age on recognition memory in mice using the object recognition task (ORT) and on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) and tyrosine kinase receptor (TrkB) immunocontent in the hippocampus. Adult mice (6 months old) received either drinking water or caffeine (1 mg/mL) during 12 months. At 18 months of age both groups were tested for ORT. Our results showed that aged mice exhibited lower performance in the recognition memory compared with adults (6 months old). Furthermore, caffeine-treated mice showed similar performance to adult mice in the ORT and an improvement compared with their age-matched control mice. Caffeine also counteracted the age-related increase in BDNF and TrkB immunocontent. Our results corroborate with other studies and reinforce that caffeine consumed in adulthood may prevent recognition memory decline with aging. This preventive effect may involve a decrease in the hippocampal BDNF and TrkB immunocontent.

  14. Configurable memory system and method for providing atomic counting operations in a memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellofatto, Ralph E.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Ohmacht, Martin

    2010-09-14

    A memory system and method for providing atomic memory-based counter operations to operating systems and applications that make most efficient use of counter-backing memory and virtual and physical address space, while simplifying operating system memory management, and enabling the counter-backing memory to be used for purposes other than counter-backing storage when desired. The encoding and address decoding enabled by the invention provides all this functionality through a combination of software and hardware.

  15. Insights on consciousness from taste memory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Milagros

    2016-01-01

    Taste research in rodents supports the relevance of memory in order to determine the content of consciousness by modifying both taste perception and later action. Associated with this issue is the fact that taste and visual modalities share anatomical circuits traditionally related to conscious memory. This challenges the view of taste memory as a type of non-declarative unconscious memory.

  16. False memories for aggressive acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding Memory Loss | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Memory & Forgetfulness Understanding Memory Loss Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table of Contents ... weeks at a time. Some Treatable Causes of Memory Loss As we age, our bodies change, including ...

  18. On the Power of Quantum Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Robert; Maurer, Ueli; Renner, Renato

    2003-01-01

    We address the question whether quantum memory is more powerful than classical memory. In particular, we consider a setting where information about a random n-bit string X is stored in r classical or quantum bits, for r

  19. Near-memory data reorganization engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Maya; Lloyd, G. Scott

    2018-05-08

    A memory subsystem package is provided that has processing logic for data reorganization within the memory subsystem package. The processing logic is adapted to reorganize data stored within the memory subsystem package. In some embodiments, the memory subsystem package includes memory units, a memory interconnect, and a data reorganization engine ("DRE"). The data reorganization engine includes a stream interconnect and DRE units including a control processor and a load-store unit. The control processor is adapted to execute instructions to control a data reorganization. The load-store unit is adapted to process data move commands received from the control processor via the stream interconnect for loading data from a load memory address of a memory unit and storing data to a store memory address of a memory unit.

  20. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  1. DNA methylation and memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jeremy J; Sweatt, J David

    2010-11-01

    Memory formation and storage require long-lasting changes in memory-related neuronal circuits. Recent evidence indicates that DNA methylation may serve as a contributing mechanism in memory formation and storage. These emerging findings suggest a role for an epigenetic mechanism in learning and long-term memory maintenance and raise apparent conundrums and questions. For example, it is unclear how DNA methylation might be reversed during the formation of a memory, how changes in DNA methylation alter neuronal function to promote memory formation, and how DNA methylation patterns differ between neuronal structures to enable both consolidation and storage of memories. Here we evaluate the existing evidence supporting a role for DNA methylation in memory, discuss how DNA methylation may affect genetic and neuronal function to contribute to behavior, propose several future directions for the emerging subfield of neuroepigenetics, and begin to address some of the broader implications of this work.

  2. Effects of 5-HT and insulin on learning and memory formation in food-deprived snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aonuma, Hitoshi; Totani, Yuki; Kaneda, Mugiho; Nakamura, Ryota; Watanabe, Takayuki; Hatakeyama, Dai; Dyakonova, Varvara E; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2018-02-01

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis learns conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and consolidates it into long-term memory (LTM). How well they learn and form memory depends on the degree of food deprivation. Serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in mediating feeding, and insulin enhances the memory consolidation process following CTA training. However, the relationship between these two signaling pathways has not been addressed. We measured the 5-HT content in the central nervous system (CNS) of snails subjected to different durations of food deprivation. One-day food-deprived snails, which exhibit the best learning and memory, had the lowest 5-HT content in the CNS, whereas 5-day food-deprived snails, which do not learn, had a high 5-HT content. Immersing 1-day food-deprived snails in 5-HT impaired learning and memory by causing an increase in 5-HT content, and that the injection of insulin into these snails reversed this impairment. We conclude that insulin rescues the CTA deficit and this may be due to a decrease in the 5-HT content in the CNS of Lymnaea. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Looking for episodic memory in animals and young children: prospects for a new minimalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Nicola S; Russell, James

    2009-09-01

    Because animals and young children cannot be interrogated about their experiences it is difficult to conduct research into their episodic memories. The approach to this issue adopted by Clayton and Dickinson [Clayton, N. S., & Dickinson, A. (1998). Episodic-like memory during cache recovery by scrub jays. Nature, 395, 272-274] was to take a conceptually minimalist definition of episodic memory, in terms of integrating information about what was done where and when [Tulving, E. (1972). Episodic and semantic memory. In E. Tulving, & W. Donaldson (Eds.), Organisation of memory (pp. 381-403). New York: Academic Press], and to refer to such memories as 'episodic-like'. Some claim, however, that because animals supposedly lack the conceptual abilities necessary for episodic recall one should properly call these memories 'semantic'. We address this debate with a novel approach to episodic memory, which is minimalist insofar as it focuses on the non-conceptual content of a re-experienced situation. It rests on Kantian assumptions about the necessary 'perspectival' features of any objective experience or re-experience. We show how adopting this perspectival approach can render an episodic interpretation of the animal data more plausible and can also reveal patterns in the mosaic of developmental evidence for episodic memory in humans.

  4. MEMORY MODULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  5. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Memory Matters KidsHealth / For Kids / Memory Matters What's in ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...

  6. Addressing the nuclear misconception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, that it is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task is to change these perceptions, by demonstrating that the industry is not a problem in itself, but in fact provides solutions to problems. This paper, while primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry view, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of the industry, by influencing and working together with its stake holders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)

  7. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  8. Associative Memory Computing Power and Its Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The associative memory (AM) system is a computing device made of hundreds of AM ASICs chips designed to perform “pattern matching” at very high speed. Since each AM chip stores a data base of 130000 pre-calculated patterns and large numbers of chips can be easily assembled together, it is possible to produce huge AM banks. Speed and size of the system are crucial for real-time High Energy Physics applications, such as the ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) Processor. Using 80 million channels of the ATLAS tracker, FTK finds tracks within 100 micro seconds. The simulation of such a parallelized system is an extremely complex task if executed in commercial computers based on normal CPUs. The algorithm performance is limited, due to the lack of parallelism, and in addition the memory requirement is very large. In fact the AM chip uses a content addressable memory (CAM) architecture. Any data inquiry is broadcast to all memory elements simultaneously, thus data retrieval time is independent of the database size. The gr...

  9. Associative Memory computing power and its simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ancu, L S; The ATLAS collaboration; Britzger, D; Giannetti, P; Howarth, J W; Luongo, C; Pandini, C; Schmitt, S; Volpi, G

    2014-01-01

    The associative memory (AM) system is a computing device made of hundreds of AM ASICs chips designed to perform “pattern matching” at very high speed. Since each AM chip stores a data base of 130000 pre-calculated patterns and large numbers of chips can be easily assembled together, it is possible to produce huge AM banks. Speed and size of the system are crucial for real-time High Energy Physics applications, such as the ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) Processor. Using 80 million channels of the ATLAS tracker, FTK finds tracks within 100 micro seconds. The simulation of such a parallelized system is an extremely complex task if executed in commercial computers based on normal CPUs. The algorithm performance is limited, due to the lack of parallelism, and in addition the memory requirement is very large. In fact the AM chip uses a content addressable memory (CAM) architecture. Any data inquiry is broadcast to all memory elements simultaneously, thus data retrieval time is independent of the database size. The gr...

  10. Eye movements during the recollection of text information reflect content rather than the text itself

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traub, Franziska; Johansson, Roger; Holmqvist, Kenneth

    Several studies have reported that spontaneous eye movements occur when visuospatial information is recalled from memory. Such gazes closely reflect the content and spatial relations from the original scene layout (e.g., Johansson et al., 2012). However, when someone has originally read a scene....... Recollection was performed orally while gazing at a blank screen. Results demonstrate that participant’s gaze patterns during recall more closely reflect the spatial layout of the scene than the physical locations of the text. Memory data provide evidence that mental models representing either the situation...... description, the memory of the physical layout of the text itself might compete with the memory of the spatial arrangement of the described scene. The present study was designed to address this fundamental issue by having participants read scene descriptions that where manipulated to be either congruent...

  11. Memory-cenric video processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beric, A.; Meerbergen, van J.; Haan, de G.; Sethuraman, R.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a domain-specific memory subsystem based on a two-level memory hierarchy. It targets the application domain of video post-processing applications including video enhancement and format conversion. These applications are based on motion compensation and/or broad class of content

  12. Hydroponics: Content and Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Busby, Joe R.

    2009-01-01

    Technology education has the means of becoming the catalyst for integrated content and curricula, especially in core academic areas, such as science and mathematics, where it has been found difficult to incorporate other subject matter. Technology is diverse enough in nature that it can be addressed by a variety of content areas, serving as a true…

  13. Direct access inter-process shared memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightwell, Ronald B; Pedretti, Kevin; Hudson, Trammell B

    2013-10-22

    A technique for directly sharing physical memory between processes executing on processor cores is described. The technique includes loading a plurality of processes into the physical memory for execution on a corresponding plurality of processor cores sharing the physical memory. An address space is mapped to each of the processes by populating a first entry in a top level virtual address table for each of the processes. The address space of each of the processes is cross-mapped into each of the processes by populating one or more subsequent entries of the top level virtual address table with the first entry in the top level virtual address table from other processes.

  14. A new approach for implementation of associative memory using volume holographic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mohammad; Pashaie, Ramin

    2012-02-01

    Associative memory, also known as fault tolerant or content-addressable memory, has gained considerable attention in last few decades. This memory possesses important advantages over the more common random access memories since it provides the capability to correct faults and/or partially missing information in a given input pattern. There is general consensus that optical implementation of connectionist models and parallel processors including associative memory has a better record of success compared to their electronic counterparts. In this article, we describe a novel optical implementation of associative memory which not only has the advantage of all optical learning and recalling capabilities, it can also be realized easily. We present a new approach, inspired by tomographic imaging techniques, for holographic implementation of associative memories. In this approach, a volume holographic material is sandwiched within a matrix of inputs (optical point sources) and outputs (photodetectors). The memory capacity is realized by the spatial modulation of refractive index of the holographic material. Constructing the spatial distribution of the refractive index from an array of known inputs and outputs is formulated as an inverse problem consisting a set of linear integral equations.

  15. Consent: an event or a memory in lumbar spinal surgery? A multi-centre, multi-specialty prospective study of documentation and patient recall of consent content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, William B; McAuley, Ciaran P; Gillies, Martin J; Grover, Patrick J; Pereira, Erlick A C

    2017-11-01

    Prospective, multi-centre, multi-specialty medical notes review and patient interview. The consenting process is an important communication tool which also carries medico-legal implications. While written consent is a pre-requisite before spinal surgery in the UK, the standard and effectiveness of the process have not been assessed previously. This study assesses standard of written consent for elective lumbar decompressive surgery for degenerative disc disease across different regions and specialties in the UK; level of patient recall of the consent content; and identifies factors which affect patient recall. Consent forms of 153 in-patients from 4 centres a, b, c, d were reviewed. Written documentation of intended benefits, alternative treatments and operative risks was assessed. Of them, 108 patients were interviewed within 24 h before or after surgeries to assess recall. The written documentation rates of the operative risks showed significant inter-centre variations in haemorrhage and sphincter disturbance (P = 0.000), but not for others. Analysis of pooled data showed variations in written documentation of risks (P recall of these risks, there was no inter-centre variation. Patients' recall of paralysis as a risk was highest (50.9%) and that of recurrence was lowest (6.5%). Patients recalled risks better than those ≥65, significantly so for infection (29.9 vs 9.7%, P = 0.027). Patients consented >14 days compared to recall for paralysis (65.2 vs 43.7%) and recurrence (17.4 vs 2.8%). Patient recall was independent of consenter grade. Overall, the standard of written consent for elective lumbar spinal decompressive surgery was sub-optimal, which was partly reflected in the poor patient recall. While consenter seniority did not affect patient recall, younger age and longer consent-to-surgery time improved it.

  16. A Memory-based Robot Architecture based on Contextual Information

    OpenAIRE

    Pratama, Ferdian; Mastrogiovanni, Fulvio; Chong, Nak Young

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a preliminary conceptual design for a robot long-term memory architecture based on the notion of context. Contextual information is used to organize the data flow between Working Memory (including Perceptual Memory) and Long-Term Memory components. We discuss the major influence of the notion of context within Episodic Memory on Semantic and Procedural Memory, respectively. We address how the occurrence of specific object-related events in time impacts on the semanti...

  17. Atomic memory access hardware implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jung Ho; Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J

    2015-02-17

    Atomic memory access requests are handled using a variety of systems and methods. According to one example method, a data-processing circuit having an address-request generator that issues requests to a common memory implements a method of processing the requests using a memory-access intervention circuit coupled between the generator and the common memory. The method identifies a current atomic-memory access request from a plurality of memory access requests. A data set is stored that corresponds to the current atomic-memory access request in a data storage circuit within the intervention circuit. It is determined whether the current atomic-memory access request corresponds to at least one previously-stored atomic-memory access request. In response to determining correspondence, the current request is implemented by retrieving data from the common memory. The data is modified in response to the current request and at least one other access request in the memory-access intervention circuit.

  18. Dreaming and offline memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Erin J

    2014-03-01

    Converging evidence suggests that dreaming is influenced by the consolidation of memory during sleep. Following encoding, recently formed memory traces are gradually stabilized and reorganized into a more permanent form of long-term storage. Sleep provides an optimal neurophysiological state to facilitate this process, allowing memory networks to be repeatedly reactivated in the absence of new sensory input. The process of memory reactivation and consolidation in the sleeping brain appears to influence conscious experience during sleep, contributing to dream content recalled on awakening. This article outlines several lines of evidence in support of this hypothesis, and responds to some common objections.

  19. A comparison of three types of autobiographical memories in old-old age: first memories, pivotal memories and traumatic memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Shmotkin, Dov; Eyal, Nitza; Reichental, Yael; Hazan, Haim

    2010-01-01

    Autobiographical memory enables us to construct a personal narrative through which we identify ourselves. Especially important are memories of formative events. This study describes autobiographical memories of people who have reached old-old age (85 years and above), studying 3 types of memories of particular impact on identity and adaptation: first memories, pivotal memories and traumatic memories. In this paper, we examine the content, characteristic themes and environments, and structural characteristics of each of the 3 types of memory. The participants were 26 persons from a larger longitudinal study with an average age of 91 years; half were men and the other half women. The study integrated qualitative and quantitative tools. An open-ended questionnaire included questions about the participants' life story as well as questions about the 3 types of memories. The responses were rated by 3 independent judges on dimensions of central themes and structural characteristics. First memories had a more positive emotional tone, more references to characters from the participant's social circle, a stronger sense of group belonging, and a more narrative style than the other types of memories. Pivotal and traumatic memories were described as more personal than first memories. The 3 types of memories reflect different stages in life development, which together form a sense of identity. They present experiences from the past on select themes, which may assist in the complex task of coping with the difficulties and limitations that advanced old age presents. Future research should examine the functional role of those memories and whether they enable the old-old to support selfhood in the challenging period of last changes and losses. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. DC Stark addressing for quantum memory in Tm:YAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, Konstantin; Minnegaliev, Mansur; Urmancheev, Ravil; Moiseev, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    We observed a linear DC Stark effect for 3H6 - 3H4 optical transition of Tm3+ ions in Y3Al5O12. We observed that application of electric field pulse suppresses the two-pulse photon echo signal. If we then apply a second electric pulse of opposite polarity the echo signal is restored again, which indicates the linear nature of the observed effect. The effect is present despite the D2 symmetry of the Tm3+ sites that prohibits a linear Stark effect. Experimental data analysis shows that the observed electric field influence can be attributed to defects that break the local crystal field symmetry near Tm3+ ions. Using this effect we demonstrate selective retrieval of light pulses in two-pulse photon echo.

  1. Overwriting and intrusion in short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Tyler D; Jones, Jeffery A; Ensor, Tyler M; Hockley, William E; Servos, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Studies of interference in working and short-term memory suggest that irrelevant information may overwrite the contents of memory or intrude into memory. While some previous studies have reported greater interference when irrelevant information is similar to the contents of memory than when it is dissimilar, other studies have reported greater interference for dissimilar distractors than for similar distractors. In the present study, we find the latter effect in a paradigm that uses auditory tones as stimuli. We suggest that the effects of distractor similarity to memory contents are mediated by the type of information held in memory, particularly the complexity or simplicity of information.

  2. MEMORY FOR POETRY: MORE THAN MEANING?

    OpenAIRE

    Atchley, Rachel M.; Hare, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    The assumption has become that memory for words’ sound patterns, or form, is rapidly lost in comparison to content. Memory for form is also assumed to be verbatim rather than schematic. Oral story-telling traditions suggest otherwise. The present experiment investigated if form can be remembered schematically in spoken poetry, a context in which form is important. We also explored if sleep could help preserve memory for form. We tested whether alliterative sound patterns could cue memory for ...

  3. Technical session keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear industry faces many impacting challenges. First among them is staying competitive with non-nuclear generating options. In the last couple of years, we have seen early shutdowns of plants that could not produce our product cheaply or reliably enough to compete with the other options. Although there have been substantial variations in both the volume of waste disposed and its curie content, the volume has generally been decreasing. This decrease is likely due to economic factors which encourage volume reduction by decontamination and recycle, compaction, better administrative controls, and incineration. It appears that the threat of having to pay the surcharge may have affected the trends between 1985 and 1990. Even accounting for the dramatic 70-75% reduction in disposal volume that had occurred over the last 10 years, base disposal cost have nearly quadrupled. Most of this increase has been attributable to rising federal and state surcharges. The rising cost associated with low-level waste disposal site development threaten economic competitiveness. Successfully responding to competition in the nuclear power industry is a serious and important issue that is being confronted by all

  4. Flexible NAND-Like Organic Ferroelectric Memory Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kam, B.; Ke, T.H.; Chasin, A.; Tyagi, M.; Cristoferi, C.; Tempelaars, K.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Myny, K.; Schols, S.; Genoe, J.; Gelinck, G.H.; Heremans, P.

    2014-01-01

    We present a memory array of organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors (OFeFETs) on flexible substrates. The OFeFETs are connected serially, similar to the NAND architecture of flash memory, which offers the highest memory density of transistor memories. We demonstrate a reliable addressing

  5. Is memory for music special?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulkind, Matthew D

    2009-07-01

    Although psychologists since Hermann Ebbinghaus have studied memory, research in this area has focused on visual and verbal stimuli with little attention paid to music. This bias is surprising because of the ubiquity of music in human cultures across history as well as current cultural beliefs that memory for music is "special." This paper examines the question of whether memory for music is special by addressing two related questions: First, do cultural beliefs about the mnemonic power of music stand up to empirical test? Second, can theories designed to explain memory for non-musical stimuli be applied to musical stimuli? A review of the literature suggests that music is special in some circumstances but not others and that some theories designed to explain cognitive processing of linguistic stimuli apply reasonably well to musical stimuli. Thus, although the question of whether memory for music is special remains open, the unique structure of musical stimuli strongly suggests that memory for music is indeed special.

  6. Memory Modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive

  7. Emotional false memories in children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Chiara; Losito, Nunzia; Ghetti, Simona; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2014-02-01

    Research has shown that children with learning disabilities (LD) are less prone to evince associative illusions of memory as a result of impairments in their ability to engage in semantic processing. However, it is unclear whether this observation is true for scripted life events, especially if they include emotional content, or across a broad spectrum of learning disabilities. The present study addressed these issues by assessing recognition memory for script-like information in children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD), children with dyslexia, and typically developing children (N=51). Participants viewed photographs about 8 common events (e.g., family dinner), and embedded in each episode was either a negative or a neutral consequence of an unseen action. Children's memory was then tested on a yes/no recognition task that included old and new photographs. Results showed that the three groups performed similarly in recognizing target photographs, but exhibited differences in memory errors. Compared to other groups, children with NLD were more likely to falsely recognize photographs that depicted an unseen cause of an emotional seen event and associated more "Remember" responses to these errors. Children with dyslexia were equally likely to falsely recognize both unseen causes of seen photographs and photographs generally consistent with the script, whereas the other participant groups were more likely to falsely recognize unseen causes rather than script-consistent distractors. Results are interpreted in terms of mechanisms underlying false memories' formation in different clinical populations of children with LD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Counting addressing method: Command addressable element and extinguishing module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Jovan D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific requirements that appear in addressable fire detection and alarm systems and the shortcomings of the existing addressing methods were discussed. A new method of addressing of detectors was proposed. The basic principles of addressing and responding of a called element are stated. Extinguishing module is specific subsystem in classic fire detection and alarm systems. Appearing of addressable fire detection and alarm systems didn't caused essential change in the concept of extinguishing module because of long calling period of such systems. Addressable fire security system based on counting addressing method reaches high calling rates and enables integrating of the extinguishing module in addressable system. Solutions for command addressable element and integrated extinguishing module are given in this paper. The counting addressing method was developed for specific requirements in fire detection and alarm systems, yet its speed and reliability justifies its use in the acquisition of data on slowly variable parameters under industrial conditions. .

  9. Targeted Memory Reactivation during Sleep Adaptively Promotes the Strengthening or Weakening of Overlapping Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, Javiera P; Morís, Joaquín; Luque, David; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth; Fuentemilla, Lluís

    2017-08-09

    System memory consolidation is conceptualized as an active process whereby newly encoded memory representations are strengthened through selective memory reactivation during sleep. However, our learning experience is highly overlapping in content (i.e., shares common elements), and memories of these events are organized in an intricate network of overlapping associated events. It remains to be explored whether and how selective memory reactivation during sleep has an impact on these overlapping memories acquired during awake time. Here, we test in a group of adult women and men the prediction that selective memory reactivation during sleep entails the reactivation of associated events and that this may lead the brain to adaptively regulate whether these associated memories are strengthened or pruned from memory networks on the basis of their relative associative strength with the shared element. Our findings demonstrate the existence of efficient regulatory neural mechanisms governing how complex memory networks are shaped during sleep as a function of their associative memory strength. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Numerous studies have demonstrated that system memory consolidation is an active, selective, and sleep-dependent process in which only subsets of new memories become stabilized through their reactivation. However, the learning experience is highly overlapping in content and thus events are encoded in an intricate network of related memories. It remains to be explored whether and how memory reactivation has an impact on overlapping memories acquired during awake time. Here, we show that sleep memory reactivation promotes strengthening and weakening of overlapping memories based on their associative memory strength. These results suggest the existence of an efficient regulatory neural mechanism that avoids the formation of cluttered memory representation of multiple events and promotes stabilization of complex memory networks. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/377748-11$15.00/0.

  10. Deciphering Neural Codes of Memory during Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Wilson, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    Memories of experiences are stored in the cerebral cortex. Sleep is critical for consolidating hippocampal memory of wake experiences into the neocortex. Understanding representations of neural codes of hippocampal-neocortical networks during sleep would reveal important circuit mechanisms on memory consolidation, and provide novel insights into memory and dreams. Although sleep-associated ensemble spike activity has been investigated, identifying the content of memory in sleep remains challenging. Here, we revisit important experimental findings on sleep-associated memory (i.e., neural activity patterns in sleep that reflect memory processing) and review computational approaches for analyzing sleep-associated neural codes (SANC). We focus on two analysis paradigms for sleep-associated memory, and propose a new unsupervised learning framework (“memory first, meaning later”) for unbiased assessment of SANC. PMID:28390699

  11. Memory Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Brandy R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article highlights the dissociable human memory systems of episodic, semantic, and procedural memory in the context of neurologic illnesses known to adversely affect specific neuroanatomic structures relevant to each memory system. Recent Findings: Advances in functional neuroimaging and refinement of neuropsychological and bedside assessment tools continue to support a model of multiple memory systems that are distinct yet complementary and to support the potential for one system to be engaged as a compensatory strategy when a counterpart system fails. Summary: Episodic memory, the ability to recall personal episodes, is the subtype of memory most often perceived as dysfunctional by patients and informants. Medial temporal lobe structures, especially the hippocampal formation and associated cortical and subcortical structures, are most often associated with episodic memory loss. Episodic memory dysfunction may present acutely, as in concussion; transiently, as in transient global amnesia (TGA); subacutely, as in thiamine deficiency; or chronically, as in Alzheimer disease. Semantic memory refers to acquired knowledge about the world. Anterior and inferior temporal lobe structures are most often associated with semantic memory loss. The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) is the paradigmatic disorder resulting in predominant semantic memory dysfunction. Working memory, associated with frontal lobe function, is the active maintenance of information in the mind that can be potentially manipulated to complete goal-directed tasks. Procedural memory, the ability to learn skills that become automatic, involves the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and supplementary motor cortex. Parkinson disease and related disorders result in procedural memory deficits. Most memory concerns warrant bedside cognitive or neuropsychological evaluation and neuroimaging to assess for specific neuropathologies and guide treatment. PMID:26039844

  12. Cue generation and memory construction in direct and generative autobiographical memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Celia B; O'Connor, Akira R; Sutton, John

    2015-05-01

    Theories of autobiographical memory emphasise effortful, generative search processes in memory retrieval. However recent research suggests that memories are often retrieved directly, without effortful search. We investigated whether direct and generative retrieval differed in the characteristics of memories recalled, or only in terms of retrieval latency. Participants recalled autobiographical memories in response to cue words. For each memory, they reported whether it was retrieved directly or generatively, rated its visuo-spatial perspective, and judged its accompanying recollective experience. Our results indicated that direct retrieval was commonly reported and was faster than generative retrieval, replicating recent findings. The characteristics of directly retrieved memories differed from generatively retrieved memories: directly retrieved memories had higher field perspective ratings and lower observer perspective ratings. However, retrieval mode did not influence recollective experience. We discuss our findings in terms of cue generation and content construction, and the implication for reconstructive models of autobiographical memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended.

  14. The nature of forgetting from short-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Muter, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Memory and forgetting are inextricably intertwined. Any account of short-term memory (STM) should address the following question: If three, four, or five chunks are being held in STM, what happens after attention is diverted?

  15. A general model for memory interference in a multiprocessor system with memory hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Badie A.; Standley, Hilda M.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of memory interference in a multiprocessor system with a hierarchy of shared buses and memories is addressed. The behavior of the processors is represented by a sequence of memory requests with each followed by a determined amount of processing time. A statistical queuing network model for determining the extent of memory interference in multiprocessor systems with clusters of memory hierarchies is presented. The performance of the system is measured by the expected number of busy memory clusters. The results of the analytic model are compared with simulation results, and the correlation between them is found to be very high.

  16. Forms of address in Isizulu

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.A. (African Studies) The study deals with forms of address in isiZulu. Therefore, the various aspects of speech that play roles when addressing a person, the factors affecting forms of address in isiZulu and the effect of languages such as English, Afrikaans and other African languages on the forms of address in isiZulu are of interest. Research was conducted on forms of address in isiZulu in parts of Soweto and it was discovered that form of address are determined by different factors i...

  17. Learning and memory and its relationship with the lateralization of epileptic focus in subjects with temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fuentes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : In medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE, previous studies addressing the hemispheric laterality of epileptogenic focus and its relationship with learning and memory processes have reported controversial findings. Objective : To compare the performance of MTLE patients according to the location of the epileptogenic focus on the left (MTLEL or right temporal lobe (MTLER on tasks of episodic learning and memory for verbal and visual content. Methods : One hundred patients with MTLEL and one hundred patients with MTLER were tested with the following tasks: the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT and the Logical Memory-WMS-R to evaluate verbal learning and memory; and the Rey Visual Design Learning Test (RVDLT and the Visual Reproduction-WMS-R to evaluate visual learning and memory. Results : The MTLEL sample showed significantly worse performance on the RAVLT (p < 0.005 and on the Logical Memory tests (p < 0.01 than MTLER subjects. However, there were no significant between-group differences in regard to the visual memory tests. Discussion : Our findings suggest that verbal learning and memory abilities are dependent on the structural and functional integrity of the left temporal lobe, while visual abilities are less dependent on the right temporal lobe.

  18. Modeling the Role of Working Memory and Episodic Memory in Behavioral Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Zilli, Eric A.; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms of goal-directed behavior have been studied using reinforcement learning theory, but these theoretical techniques have not often been used to address the role of memory systems in performing behavioral tasks. The present work addresses this shortcoming by providing a way in which working memory and episodic memory may be included in the reinforcement learning framework, then simulating the successful acquisition and performance of six behavioral tasks, drawn from or inspired by...

  19. Albert Einstein memorial lectures

    CERN Document Server

    Mechoulam, Raphael; The Israel Academy for Sciences and Humanities

    2012-01-01

    This volume consists of a selection of the Albert Einstein Memorial Lectures presented annually at the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Delivered by eminent scientists and scholars, including Nobel laureates, they cover a broad spectrum of subjects in physics, chemistry, life science, mathematics, historiography and social issues. This distinguished memorial lecture series was inaugurated by the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities following an international symposium held in Jerusalem in March 1979 to commemorate the centenary of Albert Einstein's birth. Considering that Einstein's interests, activities and influence were not restricted to theoretical physics but spanned broad fields affecting society and the welfare of humankind, it was felt that these memorial lectures should be addressed to scientists, scholars and erudite laypersons rather than to physicists alone.

  20. Functional memory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    The field of shape memory phenomena in metals and alloys has developed in a sporadic fashion from a scientific curiosity to a vigorously growing niche industry, over a period close to a full working lifetime. Memory metal research and development is replete with scientist and engineer 'true believers', who can finally feel content that their longstanding confidence in the potential of these unusual functional materials has not been misplaced. This paper reviews the current range of medical and non-medical systems and devices which are based on memory metals and attempts to predict trends in applications over the next decade. The market is dominated by Ni Ti alloys which have proved to exhibit the best and most reproducible properties for application in a wide range of medical and non-medical devices

  1. Emotion and autobiographical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-03-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

  2. The time course of working memory effects on visual attention differs depending on memory type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dombrowe, I.; Olivers, C.N.L.; Donk, M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has generated inconsistent results with regard to what extent working memory (WM) content guides visual attention. Some studies found effects of easy to verbalize stimuli, whereas others only found an influence of visual memory content. To resolve this, we compared the time courses of

  3. Memory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sisse

    by cultural forms, often specifically by the concept of memory in philosophy, sociology and psychology, while Danish design traditionally has been focusing on form and function with frequent references to the forms of nature. Alessi's motivation for investigating the concept of memory is that it adds......Mind and Matter - Nordik 2009 Conference for Art Historians Design Matters Contributed Memory design BACKGROUND My research concerns the use of memory categories in the designs by the companies Alessi and Georg Jensen. When Alessi's designers create their products, they are usually inspired...... a cultural dimension to the design objects, enabling the objects to make an identity-forming impact. Whether or not the concept of memory plays a significant role in Danish design has not yet been elucidated fully. TERMINOLOGY The concept of "memory design" refers to the idea that design carries...

  4. Disputed Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , individual and political discourse and electronic social media. Analyzing memory disputes in various local, national and transnational contexts, the chapters demonstrate the political power and social impact of painful and disputed memories. The book brings new insights into current memory disputes...... in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. It contributes to the understanding of processes of memory transmission and negotiation across borders and cultures in Europe, emphasizing the interconnectedness of memory with emotions, mediation and politics....... century in the region. Written by an international group of scholars from a diversity of disciplines, the chapters approach memory disputes in methodologically innovative ways, studying representations and negotiations of disputed pasts in different media, including monuments, museum exhibitions...

  5. System and method for programmable bank selection for banked memory subsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Hoenicke, Dirk (Seebruck-Seeon, DE); Ohmacht, Martin (Yorktown Heights, NY); Salapura, Valentina (Chappaqua, NY); Sugavanam, Krishnan (Mahopac, NY)

    2010-09-07

    A programmable memory system and method for enabling one or more processor devices access to shared memory in a computing environment, the shared memory including one or more memory storage structures having addressable locations for storing data. The system comprises: one or more first logic devices associated with a respective one or more processor devices, each first logic device for receiving physical memory address signals and programmable for generating a respective memory storage structure select signal upon receipt of pre-determined address bit values at selected physical memory address bit locations; and, a second logic device responsive to each of the respective select signal for generating an address signal used for selecting a memory storage structure for processor access. The system thus enables each processor device of a computing environment memory storage access distributed across the one or more memory storage structures.

  6. Main Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Boncz, Peter; Liu, Lei; Özsu, M.

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractPrimary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random Access Memory (RAM), to indicate that load/store instructions can access data at any location at the same cost, is usually implemented using DRAM chips, which are connected to the CPU and other per...

  7. Command vector memory systems: high performance at low cost

    OpenAIRE

    Corbal San Adrián, Jesús; Espasa Sans, Roger; Valero Cortés, Mateo

    1998-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on designing both a low cost and high performance, high bandwidth vector memory system that takes advantage of modern commodity SDRAM memory chips. To successfully extract the full bandwidth from SDRAM parts, we propose a new memory system organization based on sending commands to the memory system as opposed to sending individual addresses. A command specifies, in a few bytes, a request for multiple independent memory words. A command is similar to a burst found in...

  8. Memory and Its Effect on Adult Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouh Navvabi-Nejad

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Memory capabilities, including its mechanisms and memory approaches weaken as age increases. However, the studies reveal that the content of memory, i.e. the knowledge stored in it, usually increases. Memory system includes sensory memory within which environmental information are recorded. Short-term memory is related to storing data at awareness level, whereas long-term memory is associated with  storing knowledge and past experiences. Psychological and physiological factors such as mental and physical health, nutrition, using narcotic substances and alcohol, and also stimulation during life may affect all functions of the elderly such as their memory. Unfortunately, many researchers overlooked the effects of these variables on subjects.

  9. Exploring self-defining memories in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffard, Stéphane; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Lardi, Claudia; Bayard, Sophie; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Van Der Linden, Martial

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia are impaired in recalling specific events from their personal past. However, the relationship between autobiographical memory impairments and disturbance of the sense of identity in schizophrenia has not been investigated in detail. In this study the authors investigated schizophrenic patients' ability to recall self-defining memories; that is, memories that play an important role in building and maintaining the self-concept. Results showed that patients recalled as many specific self-defining memories as healthy participants. However, patients with schizophrenia exhibited an abnormal reminiscence bump and reported different types of thematic content (i.e., they recalled less memories about past achievements and more memories regarding hospitalisation and stigmatisation of illness). Furthermore, the findings suggest that impairments in extracting meaning from personal memories could represent a core disturbance of autobiographical memory in patients with schizophrenia.

  10. A review of visual memory capacity: Beyond individual items and towards structured representations

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, Timothy F.; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Traditional memory research has focused on identifying separate memory systems and exploring different stages of memory processing. This approach has been valuable for establishing a taxonomy of memory systems and characterizing their function, but has been less informative about the nature of stored memory representations. Recent research on visual memory has shifted towards a representation-based emphasis, focusing on the contents of memory, and attempting to determine the format and struct...

  11. Segmenting memory colours

    OpenAIRE

    Fredembach, Clément; Estrada, Francisco; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Memory colours refer to the colour of specific image classes that have the essential attribute of being perceived in a consistent manner by human observers. In colour correction or rendering tasks, this consistency implies that they have to be faithfully reproduced; their importance, in that respect, is greater than other regions in an image. Before these regions can be properly addressed, one must in general detect them. There are various schemes and attributes to do so, but the preferred me...

  12. The Past: History or Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yanet Acuña Rodríguez

    2014-07-01

    facilitating a fascinating academic and intellectual debate. Secondly, this article analyzes the way in which these two concepts have been addressed in the irst six issues of Historia Y MEMORIA journal, which proposes historiography, as a ield of analysis that allows researchers in the social sciences to discuss the contributions of memory to historiographical construction, and how memory contributes to the creation of both individual and collective remembrance. In the irst six journal issues, the relationship between history and memory is found in the subject matter, theoretical approaches, use of sources and proposed methodologies, bringing us closer to alternative prognoses about the past, that include a permanent dialogue with the present.

  13. [Memory and the executive functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirapu-Ustárroz, J; Muñoz-Céspedes, J M

    The terms 'executive functioning' or 'executive control' refer to a set of mechanisms involved in the improvement of cognitive processes to guide them towards the resolution of complex problems. Both the frontal lobes, acting as structure, and the executive processes, acting as function, work with memory contents, operating with information placed in the diencephalic structures and in the medial temporal lobe. Generally, we can state that many works find an association between frontal damage and specific memory shortages like working memory deficit, metamemory problems, source amnesia, or difficulties in the prospective memory. This paper is a critical review of the working memory concept and proposes a new term: the attentional operative system that works with memory contents. Concerning the metamemory, the frontal lobes are essential for monitoring processes in general and for 'the feeling of knowing' kind of judgements in particular. Patients suffering prefrontal damage show serious problems to remember the information source. Thus, the information is rightly remembered but the spatiotemporal context where that information was learned has been forgotten. Finally, the prospective memory deals with remembering to make something in a particular moment in the future and performing the plan previously drawn up.

  14. Collaging Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  15. Memory Magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Thomas G.; Nowak, Norman

    This paper outlines several "tricks" that aid students in improving their memories. The distinctions between operational and figural thought processes are noted. Operational memory is described as something that allows adults to make generalizations about numbers and the rules by which they may be combined, thus leading to easier memorization.…

  16. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barbiturates or ( hypnotics ) ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) (most often short-term memory loss) Epilepsy that is not well controlled Illness that ... appointment. Medical history questions may include: Type of memory loss, such as short-term or long-term Time pattern, such as how ...

  17. Episodic Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  18. Flavor Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, Jos; Köster, Ep

    2016-01-01

    Odor, taste, texture, temperature, and pain all contribute to the perception and memory of food flavor. Flavor memory is also strongly linked to the situational aspects of previous encounters with the flavor, but does not depend on the precise recollection of its sensory features as in vision and

  19. Main Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractPrimary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random

  20. Memory and Self–Neuroscientific Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitsch, Hans J.

    2013-01-01

    Relations between memory and the self are framed from a number of perspectives—developmental aspects, forms of memory, interrelations between memory and the brain, and interactions between the environment and memory. The self is seen as dividable into more rudimentary and more advanced aspects. Special emphasis is laid on memory systems and within them on episodic autobiographical memory which is seen as a pure human form of memory that is dependent on a proper ontogenetic development and shaped by the social environment, including culture. Self and episodic autobiographical memory are seen as interlocked in their development and later manifestation. Aside from content-based aspects of memory, time-based aspects are seen along two lines—the division between short-term and long-term memory and anterograde—future-oriented—and retrograde—past-oriented memory. The state dependency of episodic autobiographical is stressed and implications of it—for example, with respect to the occurrence of false memories and forensic aspects—are outlined. For the brain level, structural networks for encoding, consolidation, storage, and retrieval are discussed both by referring to patient data and to data obtained in normal participants with functional brain imaging methods. It is elaborated why descriptions from patients with functional or dissociative amnesia are particularly apt to demonstrate the facets in which memory, self, and personal temporality are interwoven. PMID:24967303

  1. Accessing memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Doe Hyun; Muralimanohar, Naveen; Chang, Jichuan; Ranganthan, Parthasarathy

    2017-09-26

    A disclosed example method involves performing simultaneous data accesses on at least first and second independently selectable logical sub-ranks to access first data via a wide internal data bus in a memory device. The memory device includes a translation buffer chip, memory chips in independently selectable logical sub-ranks, a narrow external data bus to connect the translation buffer chip to a memory controller, and the wide internal data bus between the translation buffer chip and the memory chips. A data access is performed on only the first independently selectable logical sub-rank to access second data via the wide internal data bus. The example method also involves locating a first portion of the first data, a second portion of the first data, and the second data on the narrow external data bus during separate data transfers.

  2. Conditional load and store in a shared memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A; Ohmacht, Martin

    2015-02-03

    A method, system and computer program product for implementing load-reserve and store-conditional instructions in a multi-processor computing system. The computing system includes a multitude of processor units and a shared memory cache, and each of the processor units has access to the memory cache. In one embodiment, the method comprises providing the memory cache with a series of reservation registers, and storing in these registers addresses reserved in the memory cache for the processor units as a result of issuing load-reserve requests. In this embodiment, when one of the processor units makes a request to store data in the memory cache using a store-conditional request, the reservation registers are checked to determine if an address in the memory cache is reserved for that processor unit. If an address in the memory cache is reserved for that processor, the data are stored at this address.

  3. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  4. Port virtual addressing for PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolanos, L.; Arista, E.; Osorio Deliz, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

  5. Homodyne detection of holographic memory systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urness, Adam C.; Wilson, William L.; Ayres, Mark R.

    2014-09-01

    We present a homodyne detection system implemented for a page-wise holographic memory architecture. Homodyne detection by holographic memory systems enables phase quadrature multiplexing (doubling address space), and lower exposure times (increasing read transfer rates). It also enables phase modulation, which improves signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to further increase data capacity. We believe this is the first experimental demonstration of homodyne detection for a page-wise holographic memory system suitable for a commercial design.

  6. Locating the self in autobiographical memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antalikova, Radka; de la Mata, Manuel; Santamaría, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Systematic cross-cultural variation in autobiographical memory has been demonstrated in previous research. This variation has been interpreted as mirroring differences in culturally diverging self-conceptions, implying that content characteristics of autobiographical memories can be used...... to capture how the self is present, and presented, in autobiographical memory in a more nuanced way than done in previous research. Hence, the system could be applicable for use in studies with a variety of culturally diverse populations....

  7. Memory Reconsolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubrich, Josue; Nader, Karim

    2018-01-01

    Scientific advances in the last decades uncovered that memory is not a stable, fixed entity. Apparently stable memories may become transiently labile and susceptible to modifications when retrieved due to the process of reconsolidation. Here, we review the initial evidence and the logic on which reconsolidation theory is based, the wide range of conditions in which it has been reported and recent findings further revealing the fascinating nature of this process. Special focus is given to conceptual issues of when and why reconsolidation happen and its possible outcomes. Last, we discuss the potential clinical implications of memory modifications by reconsolidation.

  8. Olfactory Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenbaum, Howard; Robitsek, R. Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Odor-recognition memory in rodents may provide a valuable model of cognitive aging. In a recent study we used signal detection analyses to distinguish odor recognition based on recollection versus that based on familiarity. Aged rats were selectively impaired in recollection, with relative sparing of familiarity, and the deficits in recollection were correlated with spatial memory impairments. These results complement electro-physiological findings indicating age-associated deficits in the ability of hippocampal neurons to differentiate contextual information, and this information-processing impairment may underlie the common age-associated decline in olfactory and spatial memory. PMID:19686208

  9. Tier identification (TID) for tiered memory characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jichuan; Lim, Kevin T; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy

    2014-03-25

    A tier identification (TID) is to indicate a characteristic of a memory region associated with a virtual address in a tiered memory system. A thread may be serviced according to a first path based on the TID indicating a first characteristic. The thread may be serviced according to a second path based on the TID indicating a second characteristic.

  10. The Relation Between Goals and Autobiographical Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Rasmussen, Anne Scharling; Berntsen, Dorthe

    facilitate recall of goal congruent autobiographical memories which supports the idea of autobiographical memory facilitating goal attainment. Further, no differences between involuntary and voluntary memories with regard to frequency or characteristics of goal related content were found. Yet memories...... related to goals were rated as more central to the person's identity, life story and expectations for the future than non-goal related memories, irrespective of mode of recall. Interestingly, depression and PTSD symptoms correlated positively with the proportion of goal related memories, thereby......The present study examines involuntary (spontaneously retrieved) versus voluntary (deliberately retrieved) autobiographical memories in relation to earlier registered goals measured by the Personal Concern Inventory (Cox & Klinger, 2000). We found that the important and not yet planned goals...

  11. Local Content

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Local content refers to materials and products made in a country as opposed those that are imported. There is an increasing interest in the concept of local content as a means of supporting local economies and providing jobs (Belderbos & Sleuwaegen...

  12. Multiferroic Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amritendu Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiferroism implies simultaneous presence of more than one ferroic characteristics such as coexistence of ferroelectric and magnetic ordering. This phenomenon has led to the development of various kinds of materials and conceptions of many novel applications such as development of a memory device utilizing the multifunctionality of the multiferroic materials leading to a multistate memory device with electrical writing and nondestructive magnetic reading operations. Though, interdependence of electrical- and magnetic-order parameters makes it difficult to accomplish the above and thus rendering the device to only two switchable states, recent research has shown that such problems can be circumvented by novel device designs such as formation of tunnel junction or by use of exchange bias. In this paper, we review the operational aspects of multiferroic memories as well as the materials used for these applications along with the designs that hold promise for the future memory devices.

  13. Color Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Pate, Monica; Raclariu, Ana-Maria; Strominger, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    A transient color flux across null infinity in classical Yang-Mills theory is considered. It is shown that a pair of test `quarks' initially in a color singlet generically acquire net color as a result of the flux. A nonlinear formula is derived for the relative color rotation of the quarks. For weak color flux the formula linearizes to the Fourier transform of the soft gluon theorem. This color memory effect is the Yang-Mills analog of the gravitational memory effect.

  14. Does emotional memory enhancement assist the memory-impaired?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas S. Broster

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We review recent work on emotional memory enhancement in older adults and patients with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer dementia and evaluate the viability of incorporating emotional components into cognitive rehabilitation for these groups. First, we identify converging evidence regarding the effects of emotional valence on working memory in healthy aging. Second, we introduce work that suggests a more complex role for emotional memory enhancement in aging and identify a model capable of unifying disparate research findings. Third, we identify neuroimaging evidence that the amygdala may play a key role in mediating emotional memory enhancement in mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer dementia. Finally, we assess the theoretical feasibility of incorporating emotional content into cognitive rehabilitation given all available evidence.

  15. Consciousness and working memory: Current trends and research perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichkovsky, Boris B

    2017-10-01

    Working memory has long been thought to be closely related to consciousness. However, recent empirical studies show that unconscious content may be maintained within working memory and that complex cognitive computations may be performed on-line. This promotes research on the exact relationships between consciousness and working memory. Current evidence for working memory being a conscious as well as an unconscious process is reviewed. Consciousness is shown to be considered a subset of working memory by major current theories of working memory. Evidence for unconscious elements in working memory is shown to come from visual masking and attentional blink paradigms, and from the studies of implicit working memory. It is concluded that more research is needed to explicate the relationship between consciousness and working memory. Future research directions regarding the relationship between consciousness and working memory are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Partitioned key-value store with atomic memory operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary

    2017-02-07

    A partitioned key-value store is provided that supports atomic memory operations. A server performs a memory operation in a partitioned key-value store by receiving a request from an application for at least one atomic memory operation, the atomic memory operation comprising a memory address identifier; and, in response to the atomic memory operation, performing one or more of (i) reading a client-side memory location identified by the memory address identifier and storing one or more key-value pairs from the client-side memory location in a local key-value store of the server; and (ii) obtaining one or more key-value pairs from the local key-value store of the server and writing the obtained one or more key-value pairs into the client-side memory location identified by the memory address identifier. The server can perform functions obtained from a client-side memory location and return a result to the client using one or more of the atomic memory operations.

  17. Visual working memory contaminates perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Suk; Hong, Sang Wook; Blake, Randolph; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2011-10-01

    Indirect evidence suggests that the contents of visual working memory may be maintained within sensory areas early in the visual hierarchy. We tested this possibility using a well-studied motion repulsion phenomenon in which perception of one direction of motion is distorted when another direction of motion is viewed simultaneously. We found that observers misperceived the actual direction of motion of a single motion stimulus if, while viewing that stimulus, they were holding a different motion direction in visual working memory. Control experiments showed that none of a variety of alternative explanations could account for this repulsion effect induced by working memory. Our findings provide compelling evidence that visual working memory representations directly interact with the same neural mechanisms as those involved in processing basic sensory events.

  18. Learning, memory, and synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthoft, Nathan; Winawer, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    People with color-grapheme synesthesia experience color when viewing written letters or numerals, usually with a particular color evoked by each grapheme. Here, we report on data from 11 color-grapheme synesthetes who had startlingly similar color-grapheme pairings traceable to childhood toys containing colored letters. These are the first and only data to show learned synesthesia of this kind in more than a single individual. Whereas some researchers have focused on genetic and perceptual aspects of synesthesia, our results indicate that a complete explanation of synesthesia must also incorporate a central role for learning and memory. We argue that these two positions can be reconciled by thinking of synesthesia as the automatic retrieval of highly specific mnemonic associations, in which perceptual contents are brought to mind in a manner akin to mental imagery or the perceptual-reinstatement effects found in memory studies.

  19. Understanding Organizational Memory from the Integrated Management Systems (ERP)

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Perez; Isabel Ramos

    2013-01-01

    With this research, in the form of a theoretical essay addressing the theme of Organizational Memory and Integrated Management Systems (ERP), we tried to present some evidence of how this type of system can contribute to the consolidation of certain features of Organizational Memory. From a theoretical review of the concepts of Human Memory, extending to the Organizational Memory and Information Systems, with emphasis on Integrated Management Systems (ERP) we tried to draw a parallel between ...

  20. 37 CFR 251.1 - Official addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., James Madison Memorial Building, Room LM-401, 101 Independence Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20559-6000...: Copyright Office General Counsel/CARP, Room 403, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue...

  1. Working memory can enhance unconscious visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yi; Cheng, Qiu-Ping; Luo, Qian-Ying

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate that unconscious processing of a stimulus property can be enhanced when there is a match between the contents of working memory and the stimulus presented in the visual field. Participants first held a cue (a colored circle) in working memory and then searched for a brief masked target shape presented simultaneously with a distractor shape. When participants reported having no awareness of the target shape at all, search performance was more accurate in the valid condition, where the target matched the cue in color, than in the neutral condition, where the target mismatched the cue. This effect cannot be attributed to bottom-up perceptual priming from the presentation of a memory cue, because unconscious perception was not enhanced when the cue was merely perceptually identified but not actively held in working memory. These findings suggest that reentrant feedback from the contents of working memory modulates unconscious visual perception.

  2. Treating verbal working memory in a boy with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita eOrsolini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present case study investigates the effects of a cognitive training of verbal working memory that was proposed for Davide, a fourteen-year-old boy diagnosed with mild intellectual disability. The program stimulated attention, inhibition, switching, and the ability to engage either in verbal dual tasks or in producing inferences after the content of a short passage had been encoded in episodic memory. Key elements in our program included (1 core training of target cognitive mechanisms; (2 guided practice emphasizing concrete strategies to engage in exercises; and (3 a variable amount of adult support. The study explored whether such a complex program produced near transfer effects on an untrained dual task assessing verbal working memory and whether effects on this and other target cognitive mechanisms (i.e., attention, inhibition and switching were long-lasting and produced far transfer effects on cognitive flexibility. The effects of the intervention program were investigated with a research design consisting of four subsequent phases lasting eight or ten weeks, each preceded and followed by testing. There was a control condition (phase 1 in which the boy received, at home, a stimulation focused on the visuospatial domain. Subsequently, there were three experimental training phases, in which stimulation in the verbal domain was first focused on attention and inhibition (phase 2a, then on switching and simple working memory tasks (phase 2b, then on complex working memory tasks (phase 3. A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered before and after each training phase and seven months after the conclusion of the intervention. The main finding was that Davide changed from being incapable of addressing the dual task request of the listening span test in the initial assessment to performing close to the normal limits of a thirteen-year-old boy in the follow-up assessment with this test, when he was fifteen years old.

  3. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems.

  4. Introduction to the special issue on visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2014-10-01

    Visual working memory is a volatile, limited-capacity memory that appears to play an important role in our impression of a visual world that is continuous in time. It also mediates between the contents of the mind and the contents of that visual world. Research on visual working memory has become increasingly prominent in recent years. The articles in this special issue of Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics describe new empirical findings and theoretical understandings of the topic.

  5. Forensic Memories: After Testimony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøndergaard, Johanne Helbo

    2014-01-01

    of writing that might in fact come “after” testimony. In this paper I attempt to describe a mode of writing in contemporary literature on memory and history, which allows later generations to address historical events to which they did not bear witness, challenging the testimonial mode while bearing its...... strategies and strengths in mind - “after” in both senses of the word. The central argument is that just as the legal concept of testimony was introduced into the cultural sphere to describe a particular genre or mode of writing, the legal concept of forensics will serve as a useful term for describing...

  6. Introduction to IP address management

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Tim

    2010-01-01

    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  7. Emotionally negative pictures enhance gist memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookbinder, S H; Brainerd, C J

    2017-02-01

    In prior work on how true and false memory are influenced by emotion, valence and arousal have often been conflated. Thus, it is difficult to say which specific effects are caused by valence and which are caused by arousal. In the present research, we used a picture-memory paradigm that allowed emotional valence to be manipulated with arousal held constant. Negatively valenced pictures elevated both true and false memory, relative to positive and neutral pictures. Conjoint recognition modeling revealed that negative valence (a) reduced erroneous suppression of true memories and (b) increased the familiarity of the semantic content of both true and false memories. Overall, negative valence impaired the verbatim side of episodic memory but enhanced the gist side, and these effects persisted even after a week-long delay. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The Importance of Friends in Autobiographical Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antalikova, Radka; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild

    often rehearsed, family memories that were old and rarely rehearsed, and school memories that were in between on both variables. This supports theories of friendship as the primary social context for adolescent development. Moreover, content analysis found friend memories to mention others more often......Relatedness is a complex issue and it has been argued that developmental perspectives should complement cross-cultural comparisons. We noticed that cross-cultural studies of autobiographical memories tend to focus on early childhood and thus family, leaving the role of friends and school less...... explored. Thus, we asked adolescent school-goers who still lived with their parents for a meaningful memory from each of the settings family, school, and friendship. In both samples analyzed so far (Norwegians, N=22, and Slovaks, N=40) participants chose friend memories that were recent and reportedly...

  9. Memory and History: Some considerations on antinomies and paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Šubrt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Collective memory does not retain the memories of the past as historical events really happened, but as they are remembered in the present. Memory includes only elements of the past, not the past as a whole. Theoretical thinking about memory has been shaped by opinions often arising from very different starting points. This article outlines ten antinomies characterised by the following terms: individual and collective memory, spirit and matter, saving and deleting, irrevocable and revocable history, spontaneous and purposeful memory, myth and science, rationality and irrationality. The text explains that memory works in a selective way and the contents which are stored in it have no permanent form, but change over time according to the needs of the specific present. Human memory does not work as a rational machine, but rather is prone to distortions and errors. An important role in shaping collective memory is played by ideological influence and deep-rooted historical myths.

  10. Holographic memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Berg, R.H.; Hvilsted, Søren

    1999-01-01

    A Two-dimensional holographic memory for archival storage is described. Assuming a coherent transfer function, an A4 page can be stored at high resolution in an area of 1 mm(2). Recently developed side-chain liquid crystalline azobenzene polyesters are found to be suitable media for holographic...

  11. Sharing Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Nielsen, Emil Byskov; Nielsen, Jonathan Bernstorff

    2018-01-01

    in which it was to be contextualized and through a close partnership between aphasics and their caretakers. The underlying design methodology for the MemoryBook is Participatory Design manifested through the collaboration and creations by two aphasic residents and one member of the support staff. The idea...

  12. Memory consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takashima, A.; Bakker, I.; Schmid, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    In order to make use of novel experiences and knowledge to guide our future behavior, we must keep large amounts of information accessible for retrieval. The memory system that stores this information needs to be flexible in order to rapidly incorporate incoming information, but also requires that

  13. Skilled Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-06

    Woodworth, R. S. Experimental Psychology. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1938. Yates, F. A. The art of memory. London: Rutledge and Kegan Paul, 1966. 50...Group 1 Psychologist (TAEG) ON! Branch Office Dept. of the Navy 1030 East Green Street Orlando, FL 32813 Pasadena, CA 91101 1 Dr. Richard Sorensen I

  14. The Effects of Instruction on the Frequency and Characteristics of Involuntary Autobiographical Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Niedźwieńska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of experimental instruction on the retrieval of involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs). In previous studies of IAMs, participants were either instructed to record only memories (henceforth, the restricted group) or any thoughts (henceforth, the unrestricted group). However, it is unknown whether these two different types of instructions influence the retrieval of IAMs. The most recent study by Vannucci and her colleagues directly addressed this question and demonstrated that the frequency and phenomenological characteristics of IAMs strongly depended on the type of instruction received. The goal of the present study was to replicate these results while addressing some limitations of the Vannucci et al. study and to test three possible mechanisms proposed to explain the effect of instructions on the retrieval of IAMs. Our results accord well with the data presented by Vannucci et al. When participants were instructed to record only IAMs (the restricted group), they reported more memories and rated them as being retrieved in a more goal-oriented fashion. Their memories also were less clear, vivid, detailed and were less frequently accompanied by physiological reactions, compared to memories reported by the participants in the unrestricted group. In addition, the events to which the memories referred were rated as more unusual and personal by the restricted group. These results are consistent with the assumption that retrieval of IAMs depends on the type of instructions used in a study. In addition, our results suggest that one of the main mechanisms underlying the higher frequency of IAMs in the restricted group may be participants' ability to monitor the stream of consciousness and to extract autobiographical content from this flow. Further implications of the effect of instructions for IAMs research are discussed.

  15. The Effects of Instruction on the Frequency and Characteristics of Involuntary Autobiographical Memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystian Barzykowski

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of experimental instruction on the retrieval of involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs. In previous studies of IAMs, participants were either instructed to record only memories (henceforth, the restricted group or any thoughts (henceforth, the unrestricted group. However, it is unknown whether these two different types of instructions influence the retrieval of IAMs. The most recent study by Vannucci and her colleagues directly addressed this question and demonstrated that the frequency and phenomenological characteristics of IAMs strongly depended on the type of instruction received. The goal of the present study was to replicate these results while addressing some limitations of the Vannucci et al. study and to test three possible mechanisms proposed to explain the effect of instructions on the retrieval of IAMs. Our results accord well with the data presented by Vannucci et al. When participants were instructed to record only IAMs (the restricted group, they reported more memories and rated them as being retrieved in a more goal-oriented fashion. Their memories also were less clear, vivid, detailed and were less frequently accompanied by physiological reactions, compared to memories reported by the participants in the unrestricted group. In addition, the events to which the memories referred were rated as more unusual and personal by the restricted group. These results are consistent with the assumption that retrieval of IAMs depends on the type of instructions used in a study. In addition, our results suggest that one of the main mechanisms underlying the higher frequency of IAMs in the restricted group may be participants' ability to monitor the stream of consciousness and to extract autobiographical content from this flow. Further implications of the effect of instructions for IAMs research are discussed.

  16. Can we throw information out of visual working memory and does this leave informational residue in long-term memory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashleigh Monette Maxcey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Can we entirely erase a temporary memory representation from mind? This question has been addressed in several recent studies that tested the specific hypothesis that a representation can be erased from visual working memory based on a cue that indicated that the representation was no longer necessary for the task. In addition to behavioral results that are consistent with the idea that we can throw information out of visual working memory, recent neurophysiological recordings support this proposal. However, given the infinite capacity of long-term memory, it is unclear whether throwing a representation out of visual working memory really removes its effects on memory entirely. In this paper we advocate for an approach that examines our ability to erase memory representations from working memory, as well as possible traces that those erased representations leave in long-term memory.

  17. A memory module for experimental data handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blois, J.

    1985-02-01

    A compact CAMAC memory module for experimental data handling was developed to eliminate the need of direct memory access in computer controlled measurements. When using autonomous controllers it also makes measurements more independent of the program and enlarges the available space for programs in the memory of the micro-computer. The memory module has three modes of operation: an increment-, a list- and a fifo mode. This is achieved by connecting the main parts, being: the memory (MEM), the fifo buffer (FIFO), the address buffer (BUF), two counters (AUX and ADDR) and a readout register (ROR), by an internal 24-bit databus. The time needed for databus operations is 1 μs, for measuring cycles as well as for CAMAC cycles. The FIFO provides temporary data storage during CAMAC cycles and separates the memory part from the application part. The memory is variable from 1 to 64K (24 bits) by using different types of memory chips. The application part, which forms 1/3 of the module, will be specially designed for each application and is added to the memory chian internal connector. The memory unit will be used in Mössbauer experiments and in thermal neutron scattering experiments.

  18. Reconsolidation of memory: a decade of debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Antoine; Caboche, Jocelyne; Laroche, Serge

    2012-10-01

    Memory consolidation refers to a slow process that stabilises a memory trace after initial acquisition of novel events. The consolidation theory posits that once a memory is stored in the brain, it remains fixed for the lifetime of the memory. However, compelling evidence has suggested that upon recall, memories can re-enter a state of transient instability, requiring further stabilisation to be available once again for recall. Since its rehabilitation in the past ten years, this process of reconsolidation of memory after recall stimulated intense debates in the field of cognitive neuroscience. In this review we compile this plentiful literature with a particular emphasis on some of the key questions that have emerged from the reconsolidation theory. We focus on tracing the characterisation of the boundary conditions that constrain the occurrence of memory reconsolidation. We also discuss accumulating evidence supporting the idea that reconsolidation, as implied by its definition, is not a mere repetition of consolidation. We review seminal studies that uncovered specific mechanisms recruited during reconsolidation that are not always crucially involved in consolidation. We next address the physiological significance of reconsolidation since several lines of evidence support the idea that reconsolidation, as opposed to consolidation, may offer a unique opportunity to update memories. We finally discuss recent evidence for or against the potential that the process of memory reconsolidation offers for ongoing efforts to develop novel strategies to combat pathogenic memories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A memory module for experimental data handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blois, J. de

    1985-01-01

    A compact CAMAC memory module for experimental data handling was developed to eliminate the need of direct memory access in computer controlled measurements. When using autonomous controllers it also makes measurements more independent of the program and enlarges the available space for programs in the memory of the micro-computer. The memory module has three modes of operation: an increment-, a list- and a fifo mode. This is achieved by connecting the main parts, being: the memory (MEM), the fifo buffer (FIFO), the address buffer (BUF), two counters (AUX and ADDR) and a readout register (ROR), by an internal 24-bit databus. The time needed for databus operations is 1 μs, for measuring cycles as well as for CAMAC cycles. The FIFO provides temporary data storage during CAMAC cycles and separates the memory part from the application part. The memory is variable from 1 to 64K (24 bits) by using different types of memory chips. The application part, which forms 1/3 of the module, will be specially designed for each application and is added to the memory by an internal connector. The memory unit will be used in Moessbauer experiments and in thermal neutron scattering experiments. (orig.)

  20. Serotonin, neural markers and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo eMeneses

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The interactions among behavioral tasks, control groups and molecular changes and/or pharmacological effects are mentioned. Neurotransmitter receptors and signaling pathways, during normal and abnormally functioning memory with an emphasis on the behavioral aspects of memory are revised. With focus on serotonin, since as it is a well characterized neurotransmitter, with multiple pharmacological tools, and well characterized downstream signaling in mammals’ species. 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors as well as SERT (serotonin transporter seem to be useful neural markers and/or therapeutic targets. Certainly, if the mentioned evidence is replicated, then the translatability from preclinical and clinical studies to neural changes might be confirmed. Hypothesis and theories might provide appropriate limits and perspectives of evidence

  1. Memory Reduction via Delayed Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Holtmann

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We address a central (and classical issue in the theory of infinite games: the reduction of the memory size that is needed to implement winning strategies in regular infinite games (i.e., controllers that ensure correct behavior against actions of the environment, when the specification is a regular omega-language. We propose an approach which attacks this problem before the construction of a strategy, by first reducing the game graph that is obtained from the specification. For the cases of specifications represented by "request-response"-requirements and general "fairness" conditions, we show that an exponential gain in the size of memory is possible.

  2. False memories in social anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRISCILA DE CAMARGO PALMA

    Full Text Available Abstract Background False memories are memories of events that never occurred or that occurred, but not exactly as we recall. Events with emotional content are subject to false memories production similar to neutral events. However, individual differences, such as the level of maladjustment and emotional instability characteristics of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD, may interfere in the production of false memories. Objectives This study aimed to assess the effect of emotion in memory performance for an event witnessed by participants with and without SAD. Methods Participants were 61 young adults with SAD and 76 without any symptoms of SAD who were randomly assigned to watch a story with or without emotional arousal. Participants answered a subjective scale of emotion about the story and a recognition memory test. Results Participants with SAD recovered more true memories and more false memories for the non-emotional version compared to the emotional version of the story. Overall, participants with SAD produced fewer false memories compared to those without SAD. Discussion This finding suggests that social anxiety may have a significant impact on emotional memory accuracy, which may assist in the development and improvement of techniques for therapeutic intervention.

  3. Addressing terrain masking in orbital reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sharad; Cico, Luke

    2012-06-01

    During aerial orbital reconnaissance, a sensor system is mounted on an airborne platform for imaging a region on the ground. The latency between the image acquisition and delivery of information to the end-user is critical and must be minimized. Due to fine ground pixel resolution and a large field-of-view for wide-area surveillance applications, a massive volume of data is gathered and imagery products are formed using a real-time multi-processor system. The images are taken at oblique angles, stabilized and ortho-rectified. The line-of-sight of the sensor to the ground is often interrupted by terrain features such as mountains or tall structures as depicted in Figure1. The ortho-rectification process renders the areas hidden from the line-of sight of the sensor with spurious information. This paper discusses an approach for addressing terrain masking in size, weight, and power (SWaP) and memory-restricted onboard processing systems.

  4. Towards an international address standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available in a better user experience. Standards compliance allows for the separation of concerns: HTML for content, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) for presentation and JavaScript for dynamic behaviour. Standards compliant documents are also...) and cascading style sheets through CSS (CSS n.d.), whilst the JavaScript specification has been standardised by Ecma International (another standards organisation for information and communication systems), in the form of EcmaScript (Ecma...

  5. Advertising Content

    OpenAIRE

    Simon P. Anderson; Régis Renault

    2002-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that most advertisements contain little direct informa- tion. Many do not mention prices. We analyze a firm'ss choice of advertising content and the information disclosed to consumers. A firm advertises only product informa- tion, price information, or both; and prefers to convey only limited product information if possible. Extending the "persuasion" game, we show that quality information takes precedence over price information and horizontal product information.T...

  6. Prospection in Cognition: The Case for Joint Episodic-Procedural Memory in Cognitive Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eVernon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Prospection lies at the core of cognition: it is the means by which an agent — a person or a cognitive robot — shifts its perspective from immediate sensory experience to anticipate future events, be they the actions of other agents or the outcome of its own actions. Prospection, accomplished by internal simulation, requires mechanisms for both perceptual imagery and motor imagery. While it is known that these two forms of imagery are tightly entwined in the mirror neuron system, we do not yet have an effective model of the mentalizing network which would provide a framework to integrate declarative episodic and procedural memory systems and to combine experiential knowledge with skillful know-how. Such a framework would be founded on joint perceptuo-motor representations. In this paper we examine the case for this form of representation, contrasting sensory-motor theory with ideo-motor theory, and we discuss how such a framework could be realized by joint episodic-procedural memory. We argue that such a representation framework has several advantages for cognitive robotics. Since episodic memory operates by recombining imperfectly recalled past experience, this allows it to simulate new or unexpected events. Furthermore, by virtue of its associative nature, joint episodic-procedural memory allows the internal simulation to be conditioned by current context, semantic memory, and the agent’s value system. Context and semantics constrain the combinatorial explosion of potential perception-action associations and allow effective action selection in the pursuit of goals, while the value system provides the motives that underpin the agent’s autonomy and cognitive development. This joint episodic-procedural memory framework is neutral regarding the final implementation of these episodic and procedural memories, which can be configured sub-symbolically as associative networks or symbolically as content-addressable image databases and databases

  7. The Gorani Wedding Ritual – Between Individual and Collective Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Đorđević Crnobrnja

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will attempt to determine which contents are present in individual memories of weddings and underline the contents which contribute to the formation of commonplace memories within personal memories. By studying individual personal memories of a ritual practice, I will attempt to answer questions about the relationship between individual and collective memory. In the paper I will also consider the issue of the influence of individual memories on the construction of ethnic identity. The paper is based on an analysis of narrative discourse which has been adapted for ethnographic research. The Gorani wedding ritual represents a social practice which encompasses not only the influence of collective on personal remembrance and memory, but also the reverse. The Gorani wedding ritual is an example of a social holiday which, on a personal level creates a feeling of connection between individuals and their community, while on a collective level it creates conditions for the continuity of the Gorani community.

  8. Concrete Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    2015-01-01

    This article traces the presence of Atlantikwall bunkers in amateur holiday snapshots and discusses the ambiguous role of the bunker site in visual cultural memory. Departing from my family’s private photo collection from twenty years of vacationing at the Danish West coast, the different mundane...... and poetic appropriations and inscriptions of the bunker site are depicted. Ranging between overlooked side presences and an overwhelming visibility, the concrete remains of fascist war architecture are involved in and motivate different sensuous experiences and mnemonic appropriations. The article meets...... the bunkers’ changing visuality and the cultural topography they both actively transform and are being transformed by through juxtaposing different acts and objects of memory over time and in different visual articulations....

  9. VOP memory management in MPEG-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithianathan, Karthikeyan; Panchanathan, Sethuraman

    2001-03-01

    MPEG-4 is a multimedia standard that requires Video Object Planes (VOPs). Generation of VOPs for any kind of video sequence is still a challenging problem that largely remains unsolved. Nevertheless, if this problem is treated by imposing certain constraints, solutions for specific application domains can be found. MPEG-4 applications in mobile devices is one such domain where the opposite goals namely low power and high throughput are required to be met. Efficient memory management plays a major role in reducing the power consumption. Specifically, efficient memory management for VOPs is difficult because the lifetimes of these objects vary and these life times may be overlapping. Varying life times of the objects requires dynamic memory management where memory fragmentation is a key problem that needs to be addressed. In general, memory management systems address this problem by following a combination of strategy, policy and mechanism. For MPEG4 based mobile devices that lack instruction processors, a hardware based memory management solution is necessary. In MPEG4 based mobile devices that have a RISC processor, using a Real time operating system (RTOS) for this memory management task is not expected to be efficient because the strategies and policies used by the ROTS is often tuned for handling memory segments of smaller sizes compared to object sizes. Hence, a memory management scheme specifically tuned for VOPs is important. In this paper, different strategies, policies and mechanisms for memory management are considered and an efficient combination is proposed for the case of VOP memory management along with a hardware architecture, which can handle the proposed combination.

  10. Treadwell Memorial

    OpenAIRE

    Downey, Frances K

    2015-01-01

    This is a memorial to gold mining in Southeast Alaska. The structure takes visitors from the Treadwell trail onto the edge of a popular local beach, reclaiming a forgotten place that was once the largest gold mine in the world. A tangible tribute to this obscure period of history, this building kindles a connection between artifacts and the community. It is a liminal space, connecting ocean and mountain, past and present, civilization and wilderness. An investigation of the Treadwell Gold...

  11. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  12. Recent life stress exposure is associated with poorer long-term memory, working memory, and self-reported memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Doty, Dominique; Shields, Rebecca H; Gower, Garrett; Slavich, George M; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2017-11-01

    Although substantial research has examined the effects of stress on cognition, much of this research has focused on acute stress (e.g. manipulated in the laboratory) or chronic stress (e.g. persistent interpersonal or financial difficulties). In contrast, the effects of recent life stress on cognition have been relatively understudied. To address this issue, we examined how recent life stress is associated with long-term, working memory, and self-reported memory in a sample of 142 healthy young adults who were assessed at two time points over a two-week period. Recent life stress was measured using the newly-developed Stress and Adversity Inventory for Daily Stress (Daily STRAIN), which assesses the frequency of relatively common stressful life events and difficulties over the preceding two weeks. To assess memory performance, participants completed both long-term and working memory tasks. Participants also provided self-reports of memory problems. As hypothesized, greater recent life stress exposure was associated with worse performance on measures of long-term and working memory, as well as more self-reported memory problems. These associations were largely robust while controlling for possible confounds, including participants' age, sex, and negative affect. The findings indicate that recent life stress exposure is broadly associated with worse memory. Future studies should thus consider assessing recent life stress as a potential predictor, moderator, or covariate of memory performance.

  13. A Life’s Addresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    According to Jonathan Culler’s essay ”Apostrophe”, ”…post-enlightenment poetry seeks to overcome the alienation of subject from object”, and “apostrophe takes the crucial step of constituting the object as another subject with whom the poetic subject might hope to strike up a harmonious relations......According to Jonathan Culler’s essay ”Apostrophe”, ”…post-enlightenment poetry seeks to overcome the alienation of subject from object”, and “apostrophe takes the crucial step of constituting the object as another subject with whom the poetic subject might hope to strike up a harmonious...... to a number of different aspects of Koch’s own life such as marijuana, the Italian language, World War Two, etc. In this way, the book quite conventionally inscribes itself in the tradition of post-enlightenment apostrophic poetry as characterized by Culler, just as all its poems belong to the favourite......, are literally troped as and addressed in the manner of so many acquaintances, personal connections, relatives, friends, lovers, and family members in Koch’s life. My main claim is that Koch’s poetics in New Addresses is one that slightly dislocates the romantic dichotomy between the world of things...

  14. Impulse: Memory System Support for Scientific Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Carter

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Impulse is a new memory system architecture that adds two important features to a traditional memory controller. First, Impulse supports application‐specific optimizations through configurable physical address remapping. By remapping physical addresses, applications control how their data is accessed and cached, improving their cache and bus utilization. Second, Impulse supports prefetching at the memory controller, which can hide much of the latency of DRAM accesses. Because it requires no modification to processor, cache, or bus designs, Impulse can be adopted in conventional systems. In this paper we describe the design of the Impulse architecture, and show how an Impulse memory system can improve the performance of memory‐bound scientific applications. For instance, Impulse decreases the running time of the NAS conjugate gradient benchmark by 67%. We expect that Impulse will also benefit regularly strided, memory‐bound applications of commercial importance, such as database and multimedia programs.

  15. "Back-Stage" Dissent: Student Twitter Use Addressing Instructor Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linvill, Darren L.; Boatwright, Brandon C.; Grant, Will J.

    2018-01-01

    In this content analysis, we explored how students address instructor ideology in the university classroom through the social media platform Twitter. We employed Boolean search operators through Salesforce Marketing Cloud Radian6 software to gather tweets and identified English language tweets by how students referenced their instructor's…

  16. Measurements of a vortex transitional ndro Josephson memory cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahara, S.; Ishida, I.; Hidaka, M.; Nagasawa, S.; Ajisawa, Y.; Wada, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A novel vortex transitional NDRO Jospehson memory cell has been successfully fabricated and tested. The memory cell consists of two superconducting loops and a two-junction interferometer gate as a sense gate. The superconducting loop contains one Josephson junction and inductances, and stores single flux quantum. The memory cell employs vortex transitions in the superconducting loops for writing and reading data. The memory cell chips have been fabricated using niobium planarization process. The +-21 percent address signal current margin and the +-33 percent sense gate current margin have been obtained experimentally. The memory operation of the cell driven by the two-junction interferometer gates has been accurately demonstrated

  17. Hardware Compilation of Application-Specific Memory-Access Interconnect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkataramani, Girish; Bjerregaard, Tobias; Chelcea, Tiberiu

    2006-01-01

    operations dependent on memory reads. More fundamental is that dependences between accesses may not be statically provable (e.g., if the specification language permits pointers), which introduces memory-consistency problems. Addressing these issues with static scheduling results in overly conservative...... enables specifications to include arbitrary memory references (e.g., pointers) and allows the memory system to incorporate features that might cause the latency of a memory access to vary dynamically. This results in raising the level of abstraction in the input specification, enabling faster design times...

  18. Absolute symbolic addressing, a structure making time-sharing easier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debraine, P.

    1968-08-01

    Time-sharing of computers asks for a certain number of conditions, particularly, an efficient dynamic loading of programs and data. This paper indicates a paging method making linkages with a minimum of table-looking operations. The principle is to use associative memory registers for calling blocks of physical memory, the block address being given by the concatenation of a file number (located in a base register) and a page number (located in the instruction proper). The position within the block is given by a displacement located in the instruction. A second associated base register contains the local part (page number + displacement) of the base address. This extended base register system allows executing programs in a very large programming complex without loss of time. The addresses are fixed at assembly time and the blocks can be loaded anywhere without modification for execution. The various problems associated with the execution of complex programs are presented in this context and shown to be easily solved by the proposed system, the realization of which would be very easy starting from the computer structures existing now. (author) [fr

  19. A compact PE memory for vision chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Shi; Zhe, Chen; Jie, Yang; Nanjian, Wu; Zhihua, Wang

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a novel compact memory in the processing element (PE) for single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) vision chips. The PE memory is constructed with 8 × 8 register cells, where one latch in the slave stage is shared by eight latches in the master stage. The memory supports simultaneous read and write on the same address in one clock cycle. Its compact area of 14.33 μm2/bit promises a higher integration level of the processor. A prototype chip with a 64 × 64 PE array is fabricated in a UMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Five types of the PE memory cell structure are designed and compared. The testing results demonstrate that the proposed PE memory architecture well satisfies the requirement of the vision chip in high-speed real-time vision applications, such as 1000 fps edge extraction.

  20. In-memory interconnect protocol configuration registers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kevin Y.; Roberts, David A.

    2017-09-19

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for moving the interconnect protocol configuration registers into the main memory space of a node. The region of memory used for storing the interconnect protocol configuration registers may also be made cacheable to reduce the latency of accesses to the interconnect protocol configuration registers. Interconnect protocol configuration registers which are used during a startup routine may be prefetched into the host's cache to make the startup routine more efficient. The interconnect protocol configuration registers for various interconnect protocols may include one or more of device capability tables, memory-side statistics (e.g., to support two-level memory data mapping decisions), advanced memory and interconnect features such as repair resources and routing tables, prefetching hints, error correcting code (ECC) bits, lists of device capabilities, set and store base address, capability, device ID, status, configuration, capabilities, and other settings.

  1. A compact PE memory for vision chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Cong; Chen Zhe; Yang Jie; Wu Nanjian; Wang Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel compact memory in the processing element (PE) for single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) vision chips. The PE memory is constructed with 8 × 8 register cells, where one latch in the slave stage is shared by eight latches in the master stage. The memory supports simultaneous read and write on the same address in one clock cycle. Its compact area of 14.33 μm 2 /bit promises a higher integration level of the processor. A prototype chip with a 64 × 64 PE array is fabricated in a UMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Five types of the PE memory cell structure are designed and compared. The testing results demonstrate that the proposed PE memory architecture well satisfies the requirement of the vision chip in high-speed real-time vision applications, such as 1000 fps edge extraction. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  2. Combating Memory Corruption Attacks On Scada Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellettini, Carlo; Rrushi, Julian

    Memory corruption attacks on SCADA devices can cause significant disruptions to control systems and the industrial processes they operate. However, despite the presence of numerous memory corruption vulnerabilities, few, if any, techniques have been proposed for addressing the vulnerabilities or for combating memory corruption attacks. This paper describes a technique for defending against memory corruption attacks by enforcing logical boundaries between potentially hostile data and safe data in protected processes. The technique encrypts all input data using random keys; the encrypted data is stored in main memory and is decrypted according to the principle of least privilege just before it is processed by the CPU. The defensive technique affects the precision with which attackers can corrupt control data and pure data, protecting against code injection and arc injection attacks, and alleviating problems posed by the incomparability of mitigation techniques. An experimental evaluation involving the popular Modbus protocol demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the defensive technique.

  3. In-memory interconnect protocol configuration registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kevin Y.; Roberts, David A.

    2017-09-19

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for moving the interconnect protocol configuration registers into the main memory space of a node. The region of memory used for storing the interconnect protocol configuration registers may also be made cacheable to reduce the latency of accesses to the interconnect protocol configuration registers. Interconnect protocol configuration registers which are used during a startup routine may be prefetched into the host's cache to make the startup routine more efficient. The interconnect protocol configuration registers for various interconnect protocols may include one or more of device capability tables, memory-side statistics (e.g., to support two-level memory data mapping decisions), advanced memory and interconnect features such as repair resources and routing tables, prefetching hints, error correcting code (ECC) bits, lists of device capabilities, set and store base address, capability, device ID, status, configuration, capabilities, and other settings.

  4. Parallel structures in human and computer memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, Pentti

    1986-08-01

    If we think of our experiences as being recorded continuously on film, then human memory can be compared to a film library that is indexed by the contents of the film strips stored in it. Moreover, approximate retrieval cues suffice to retrieve information stored in this library: We recognize a familiar person in a fuzzy photograph or a familiar tune played on a strange instrument. This paper is about how to construct a computer memory that would allow a computer to recognize patterns and to recall sequences the way humans do. Such a memory is remarkably similar in structure to a conventional computer memory and also to the neural circuits in the cortex of the cerebellum of the human brain. The paper concludes that the frame problem of artificial intelligence could be solved by the use of such a memory if we were able to encode information about the world properly.

  5. Quantum memory Write, read and reset

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Tai Tsun; Wu, Tai Tsun; Yu, Ming Lun

    2002-01-01

    A model is presented for the quantum memory, the content of which is a pure quantum state. In this model, the fundamental operations of writing on, reading, and resetting the memory are performed through scattering from the memory. The requirement that the quantum memory must remain in a pure state after scattering implies that the scattering is of a special type, and only certain incident waves are admissible. An example, based on the Fermi pseudo-potential in one dimension, is used to demonstrate that the requirements on the scattering process are consistent and can be satisfied. This model is compared with the commonly used model for the quantum memory; the most important difference is that the spatial dimensions and interference play a central role in the present model.

  6. Transactional Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tim; Rajwar, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    The advent of multicore processors has renewed interest in the idea of incorporating transactions into the programming model used to write parallel programs.This approach, known as transactional memory, offers an alternative, and hopefully better, way to coordinate concurrent threads. The ACI(atomicity, consistency, isolation) properties of transactions provide a foundation to ensure that concurrent reads and writes of shared data do not produce inconsistent or incorrect results. At a higher level, a computation wrapped in a transaction executes atomically - either it completes successfullyand

  7. Attention to information in working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Oberauer Klaus; Hein Laura

    2012-01-01

    Working memory retains information and makes it available for processing. People often need to hold several chunks of information available while concentrating on only one of them. This process requires selective attention to the contents of working memory. In this article we summarize evidence for both a broad focus of attention with a capacity of approximately four chunks and a narrow focus of attention that selects a single chunk at a time.

  8. The 2016 Ferno Award Address: Three Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Timothy B

    2017-08-01

    Researchers may optimize smoking treatment by addressing three research topics that have been relatively neglected. First, researchers have neglected to intensively explore how counseling contents affect smoking cessation success. Worldwide, millions of smokers are exposed to different smoking cessation contents and messages, yet existing research evidence does not permit strong inference about the value of particular counseling contents or strategies. Research in this area could enhance smoking outcomes and yield new insights into smoking motivation. Second, researchers have focused great attention on inducing smokers to make quit attempts when they contact healthcare systems; the success of such efforts may have plateaued. Also, the vast majority of quit attempts are self-quit attempts, largely unsuccessful, that occur outside such contacts. Researchers should explore strategies for using healthcare systems as conduits for digital- and other population-based interventions independent of healthcare visits. Such resources should be used to graft timely access to evidence-based intervention onto self-quitting, yielding evidence-based, patient-managed quit attempts. Third, most smoking treatments are assembled via selection of components based on informal synthesis of empirical and impressionistic evidence and are evaluated as a package. However, recent factorial experiments show that components of smoking treatments often interact meaningfully; for example, some components may interfere with the effectiveness of other components. Many extant treatments likely comprise suboptimal sets of components; future treatment development should routinely use factorial experiments to permit the assembly of components that yield additive or synergistic effects.Research in the above three areas should significantly advance our understanding of tobacco use and its treatment. A lack of relevant research, and the likely prospect of significant clinical and public health benefit

  9. Event Boundaries in Memory and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvansky, Gabriel A; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2017-10-01

    Research on event cognition is rapidly developing and is revealing fundamental aspects of human cognition. In this paper, we review recent and current work that is driving this field forward. We first outline the Event Horizon Model, which broadly describes the impact of event boundaries on cognition and memory. Then, we address recent work on event segmentation, the role of event cognition in working memory and long-term memory, including event model updating, and long term retention. Throughout we also consider how event cognition varies across individuals and groups of people and consider the neural mechanisms involved.

  10. Web content a writer's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mizrahi, Janet

    2013-01-01

    The explosion of electronic sources, whether in the form of news, commentary, sales and marketing, or information, has created boundless opportunities for producing content. Whether you're an entrepreneur with a start-up business who needs a website, an executive who uses social media to connect with various stakeholders, or a content provider blogging about topical issues, you'll need to know how to write for the web and address the unique environment of the digital world. This book will help you produce web content that generates results. Writing for the screen differs from writing for a pri

  11. Control over interfering memories in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramaccia, Davide Francesco; Penolazzi, Barbara; Libardi, Arianna; Genovese, Aldo; Castelli, Luigi; Palomba, Daniela; Galfano, Giovanni

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested that patients suffering from either anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) exhibit abnormal performance in the ability to control cognitive interference in response selection. We assessed the status of cognitive control in episodic memory by addressing the ability to inhibit interfering memories. To this end, we used the retrieval-practice paradigm, which allows for measuring both the beneficial and the detrimental effects of memory practice. The latter phenomenon, known as retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF), is thought to reflect an adaptive inhibitory mechanism aimed at reducing competition in memory retrieval. Twenty-seven healthy controls and 27 patients suffering from eating disorders (either AN or BN) performed a retrieval-practice paradigm and a control task addressing general reactivity and filled a self-report questionnaire on impulsivity. No differences between patients and healthy controls were observed for the beneficial effects of practice. The same pattern also emerged for RIF. However, when patients with AN and BN were analyzed separately, a clear dissociation emerged: patients with AN displayed no hint of RIF, whereas patients with BN showed an intact memory suppression performance. No group differences emerged in the control task. Our findings suggest a specific impairment in the ability to suppress interfering memories in patients with AN, thus extending current evidence of cognitive control deficits in AN to episodic memory.

  12. Intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories

    OpenAIRE

    Justice, LV; Morrison, CM; Conway, MA

    2017-01-01

    Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation ti...

  13. STRUKTUR DAN PROSES MEMORI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Bhinnety

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes structures and processes of human memory system according to the modal model. Sensory memory is described as the first system to store information from outside world. Short‐term memory, or now called working memory, represents a system characterized by limited ability in storing as well as retrieving information. Long‐term memory on the hand stores information larger in amount and longer than short‐term memory

  14. STRUKTUR DAN PROSES MEMORI

    OpenAIRE

    Bhinnety, Magda

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes structures and processes of human memory system according to the modal model. Sensory memory is described as the first system to store information from outside world. Short‐term memory, or now called working memory, represents a system characterized by limited ability in storing as well as retrieving information. Long‐term memory on the hand stores information larger in amount and longer than short‐term memory

  15. Visual working memory contaminates perception

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Min-Suk; Hong, Sang Wook; Blake, Randolph; Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2011-01-01

    Indirect evidence suggests that the contents of visual working memory may be maintained within sensory areas early in the visual hierarchy. We tested this possibility using a well-studied motion repulsion phenomenon in which perception of one direction of motion is distorted when another direction of motion is viewed simultaneously. We found that observers misperceived the actual direction of motion of a single motion stimulus if, while viewing that stimulus, they were holding a different mot...

  16. Reversible Inactivation of the Higher Order Auditory Cortex during Fear Memory Consolidation Prevents Memory-Related Activity in the Basolateral Amygdala during Remote Memory Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiaghi, Marco; Renna, Annamaria; Milano, Luisella; Sacchetti, Benedetto

    2017-01-01

    Recent findings have shown that the auditory cortex, and specifically the higher order Te2 area, is necessary for the consolidation of long-term fearful memories and that it interacts with the amygdala during the retrieval of long-term fearful memories. Here, we tested whether the reversible blockade of Te2 during memory consolidation may affect the activity changes occurring in the amygdala during the retrieval of fearful memories. To address this issue, we blocked Te2 in a reversible manner during memory consolidation processes. After 4 weeks, we assessed the activity of Te2 and individual nuclei of the amygdala during the retrieval of long-term memories. Rats in which Te2 was inactivated upon memory encoding showed a decreased freezing and failed to show Te2-to-basolateral amygdala (BLA) synchrony during memory retrieval. In addition, the expression of the immediate early gene zif268 in the lateral, basal and central amygdala nuclei did not show memory-related enhancement. As all sites were intact upon memory retrieval, we propose that the auditory cortex represents a key node in the consolidation of fear memories and it is essential for amygdala nuclei to support memory retrieval process.

  17. Electroconvulsive therapy and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, R G; Wiens, A N

    1975-10-01

    Recent research on the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on memory is critically reviewed. Despite some inconsistent findings, unilateral nondominant ECT appears to affect verbal memory less than bilateral ECT. Adequate research on multiple monitored ECT is lacking. With few exceptions, the research methodologies for assessing memory have been inadequate. Many studies have confounded learning with retention, and only very recently has long term memory been adequately studied. Standardized assessment procedures for short term and long term memory are needed, in addition to more sophisticated assessment of memory processes, the duration of memory loss, and qualitative aspects of memories.

  18. First keynote address - biological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The author describes the interplay of physical research and the practice of radiation protection. There are both analogies in and differences between the problems of health protection from radiation and chemical pollutants. In formulating research objectives for synfuel technologies, it is important to take what lessons there are to be learned from the radiation experience. The regulation of the exposure of persons to radiation probably rests on a firmer scientific basis than does the regulation of exposure to many toxic chemicals. Some things in radiation protection - in both applied work and in research - should help to guide in approaching chemicals. The second section of this paper gives a brief description of the practice of radiation protection. The next section mentions some fundamental deficiencies that exist in radiation protection. Some physical research avenues illustrate how such deficiencies are being addressed as part of an integrated radiation research program. In the fourth section the author focuses on chemical pollutants, drawing some lessons from the radiation experience

  19. A region addresses patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  20. Quantifying Precision and Availability of Location Memory in Everyday Pictures and Some Implications for Picture Database Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdale, Mark W.; Oliff, Lynda; Baguley, Thom S.

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated whether memory for object locations in pictures could be exploited to address known difficulties of designing query languages for picture databases. M. W. Lansdale's (1998) model of location memory was adapted to 4 experiments observing memory for everyday pictures. These experiments showed that location memory is…

  1. Bank switched memory interface for an image processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barron, M.; Downward, J.

    1980-09-01

    A commercially available image processor is interfaced to a PDP-11/45 through an 8K window of memory addresses. When the image processor was not in use it was desired to be able to use the 8K address space as real memory. The standard method of accomplishing this would have been to use UNIBUS switches to switch in either the physical 8K bank of memory or the image processor memory. This method has the disadvantage of being rather expensive. As a simple alternative, a device was built to selectively enable or disable either an 8K bank of memory or the image processor memory. To enable the image processor under program control, GEN is contracted in size, the memory is disabled, a device partition for the image processor is created above GEN, and the image processor memory is enabled. The process is reversed to restore memory to GEN. The hardware to enable/disable the image and computer memories is controlled using spare bits from a DR-11K output register. The image processor and physical memory can be switched in or out on line with no adverse affects on the system's operation

  2. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  3. Environmental context-dependent memory: a review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S M; Vela, E

    2001-06-01

    To address questions about human memory's dependence on the coincidental environmental contexts in which events occur, we review studies of incidental environmental context-dependent memory in humans and report a meta-analysis. Our theoretical approach to the issue stems from Glenberg's (1997) contention that introspective thought (e.g., remembering, conceptualizing) requires cognitive resources normally used to represent the immediate environment. We propose that if tasks encourage processing of noncontextual information (i.e., introspective thought) at input and/or at test, then both learning and memory will be less dependent on the ambient environmental contexts in which those activities occur. The meta-analysis showed that across all studies, environmental context effects were reliable, and furthermore, that the use of noncontextual cues during learning (overshadowing) and at test (outshining), as well as mental reinstatement of appropriate context cues at test, all reduce the effect of environmental manipulations. We conclude that environmental context-dependent memory effects are less likely to occur under conditions in which the immediate environment is likely to be suppressed.

  4. Similarity-based distortion of visual short-term memory is due to perceptual averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Chad; Zhou, Feng; Kahana, Michael J; Sekuler, Robert

    2014-03-01

    A task-irrelevant stimulus can distort recall from visual short-term memory (VSTM). Specifically, reproduction of a task-relevant memory item is biased in the direction of the irrelevant memory item (Huang & Sekuler, 2010a). The present study addresses the hypothesis that such effects reflect the influence of neural averaging under conditions of uncertainty about the contents of VSTM (Alvarez, 2011; Ball & Sekuler, 1980). We manipulated subjects' attention to relevant and irrelevant study items whose similarity relationships were held constant, while varying how similar the study items were to a subsequent recognition probe. On each trial, subjects were shown one or two Gabor patches, followed by the probe; their task was to indicate whether the probe matched one of the study items. A brief cue told subjects which Gabor, first or second, would serve as that trial's target item. Critically, this cue appeared either before, between, or after the study items. A distributional analysis of the resulting mnemometric functions showed an inflation in probability density in the region spanning the spatial frequency of the average of the two memory items. This effect, due to an elevation in false alarms to probes matching the perceptual average, was diminished when cues were presented before both study items. These results suggest that (a) perceptual averages are computed obligatorily and (b) perceptual averages are relied upon to a greater extent when item representations are weakened. Implications of these results for theories of VSTM are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Silent store detection and recording in memory storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Pradip; Cher, Chen-Yong; Nair, Ravi

    2017-03-14

    An aspect includes receiving a write request that includes a memory address and write data. Stored data is read from a memory location at the memory address. Based on determining that the memory location was not previously modified, the stored data is compared to the write data. Based on the stored data matching the write data, the write request is completed without writing the write data to the memory and a corresponding silent store bit, in a silent store bitmap is set. Based on the stored data not matching the write data, the write data is written to the memory location, the silent store bit is reset and a corresponding modified bit is set. At least one of an application and an operating system is provided access to the silent store bitmap.

  6. Silent store detection and recording in memory storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Pradip; Cher, Chen-Yong; Nair, Ravi

    2017-03-07

    An aspect includes receiving a write request that includes a memory address and write data. Stored data is read from a memory location at the memory address. Based on determining that the memory location was not previously modified, the stored data is compared to the write data. Based on the stored data matching the write data, the write request is completed without writing the write data to the memory and a corresponding silent store bit, in a silent store bitmap is set. Based on the stored data not matching the write data, the write data is written to the memory location, the silent store bit is reset and a corresponding modified bit is set. At least one of an application and an operating system is provided access to the silent store bitmap.

  7. Detailed sensory memory, sloppy working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sligte, I.G.; Vandenbroucke, A.R.E.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables us to actively maintain information in mind for a brief period of time after stimulus disappearance. According to recent studies, VSTM consists of three stages - iconic memory, fragile VSTM, and visual working memory - with increasingly stricter capacity

  8. Episodic memory, semantic memory, and amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, L R; Zola, S M

    1998-01-01

    Episodic memory and semantic memory are two types of declarative memory. There have been two principal views about how this distinction might be reflected in the organization of memory functions in the brain. One view, that episodic memory and semantic memory are both dependent on the integrity of medial temporal lobe and midline diencephalic structures, predicts that amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe/diencephalic damage should be proportionately impaired in both episodic and semantic memory. An alternative view is that the capacity for semantic memory is spared, or partially spared, in amnesia relative to episodic memory ability. This article reviews two kinds of relevant data: 1) case studies where amnesia has occurred early in childhood, before much of an individual's semantic knowledge has been acquired, and 2) experimental studies with amnesic patients of fact and event learning, remembering and knowing, and remote memory. The data provide no compelling support for the view that episodic and semantic memory are affected differently in medial temporal lobe/diencephalic amnesia. However, episodic and semantic memory may be dissociable in those amnesic patients who additionally have severe frontal lobe damage.

  9. A review of visual memory capacity: Beyond individual items and towards structured representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Timothy F.; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional memory research has focused on identifying separate memory systems and exploring different stages of memory processing. This approach has been valuable for establishing a taxonomy of memory systems and characterizing their function, but has been less informative about the nature of stored memory representations. Recent research on visual memory has shifted towards a representation-based emphasis, focusing on the contents of memory, and attempting to determine the format and structure of remembered information. The main thesis of this review will be that one cannot fully understand memory systems or memory processes without also determining the nature of memory representations. Nowhere is this connection more obvious than in research that attempts to measure the capacity of visual memory. We will review research on the capacity of visual working memory and visual long-term memory, highlighting recent work that emphasizes the contents of memory. This focus impacts not only how we estimate the capacity of the system - going beyond quantifying how many items can be remembered, and moving towards structured representations - but how we model memory systems and memory processes. PMID:21617025

  10. The cellular memory disc of reprogrammed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjamrooz, Seyed Hadi

    2013-04-01

    The crucial facts underlying the low efficiency of cellular reprogramming are poorly understood. Cellular reprogramming occurs in nuclear transfer, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) formation, cell fusion, and lineage-switching experiments. Despite these advances, there are three fundamental problems to be addressed: (1) the majority of cells cannot be reprogrammed, (2) the efficiency of reprogramming cells is usually low, and (3) the reprogrammed cells developed from a patient's own cells activate immune responses. These shortcomings present major obstacles for using reprogramming approaches in customised cell therapy. In this Perspective, the author synthesises past and present observations in the field of cellular reprogramming to propose a theoretical picture of the cellular memory disc. The current hypothesis is that all cells undergo an endogenous and exogenous holographic memorisation such that parts of the cellular memory dramatically decrease the efficiency of reprogramming cells, act like a barrier against reprogramming in the majority of cells, and activate immune responses. Accordingly, the focus of this review is mainly to describe the cellular memory disc (CMD). Based on the present theory, cellular memory includes three parts: a reprogramming-resistance memory (RRM), a switch-promoting memory (SPM) and a culture-induced memory (CIM). The cellular memory arises genetically, epigenetically and non-genetically and affects cellular behaviours. [corrected].

  11. Sound, memory and interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2016-01-01

    This chapter considers how art can interrupt the times and spaces of urban development so they might be imagined, experienced and understood differently. It focuses on the construction of the M11 Link Road through north-east London during the 1990s that demolished hundreds of homes and displaced...... around a thousand people. The highway was strongly resisted and it became the site of one of the country’s longest and largest anti-road struggles. The chapter addresses specifically Graeme Miller’s sound walk LINKED (2003), which for more than a decade has been broadcasting memories and stories...... of people who were violently displaced by the road as well as those who actively sought to halt it. Attention is given to the walk’s interruption of senses of the given and inevitable in two main ways. The first is in relation to the pace of the work and its deployment of slowness and arrest in a context...

  12. Working memory biasing of visual perception without awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yi; Lin, Bingyuan; Zhao, Yajun; Soto, David

    2014-10-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the contents of visual working memory can bias visual processing in favor of matching stimuli in the scene. However, the extent to which such top-down, memory-driven biasing of visual perception is contingent on conscious awareness remains unknown. Here we showed that conscious awareness of critical visual cues is dispensable for working memory to bias perceptual selection mechanisms. Using the procedure of continuous flash suppression, we demonstrated that "unseen" visual stimuli during interocular suppression can gain preferential access to awareness if they match the contents of visual working memory. Strikingly, the very same effect occurred even when the visual cue to be held in memory was rendered nonconscious by masking. Control experiments ruled out the alternative accounts of repetition priming and different detection criteria. We conclude that working memory biases of visual perception can operate in the absence of conscious awareness.

  13. Understanding women's experience of memory over the menopausal transition: subjective and objective memory in pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkenstein, Anne E; Bryant, Christina A; Judd, Fiona K; Ong, Ben; Kinsella, Glynda J

    2016-12-01

    Many women complain of forgetfulness during the menopausal transition. This study aimed to examine women's subjective perception of memory and their objective memory performance across the menopausal transition. One hundred thirty women, aged 40 to 60 years were recruited from outpatient Menopause and Gynaecological clinics at the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne. Women were divided into menopausal stage groups according to the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop criteria based on menstrual patterns. All women completed self-report measures of depressive, anxiety, vasomotor, and sleep symptoms; attitude to menopause; and various aspects of memory, including memory contentment, frequency of forgetting, sense of control over memory, and use of memory strategies. Women also completed a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation assessing memory and executive function. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessment showed no difference between premenopausal (n = 36), perimenopausal (n = 54), and postmenopausal (n = 40) groups in performance on memory and executive tasks. Perimenopausal women, however, reported significantly more frequent forgetting (η = 0.09, P memory (η = 0.08, P memory. During the menopausal transition women with a more negative attitude to menopause and more intense depressive, anxiety, vasomotor, and sleep symptoms are more vulnerable to feeling less content with their memory.

  14. Shape memory polymer hybrids of SBS/dl-PLA and their shape memory effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Heng; Chen, Zhi; Zheng, Zheng; Zhu, Xiaomin; Wang, Haitao

    2013-01-01

    The hybrids of styrene-butadiene-styrene tri-block copolymer (SBS) and amorphous poly(dl-lactic acid) (dl-PLA) are found to exhibit shape memory effects, which gives an example of a dual-domain shape memory system consisting of an elastic domain and a thermo-switch domain. The dual-domain manner in this hybrid is studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Subsequently, the tensile test clarifies the interactions of the two domains on shape memory effects. As an elastic domain, SBS offers good shape recovery when its content exceeds 50 wt%. As a thermo-switch domain, dl-PLA triggers the shape memory effect at ca. 55 °C and offers good shape fixing when the content exceeds 30 wt%. An easy-to-do and easy-to-know feature of the hybrid is that the optimization of shape memory effect can be achieved by generating bicontinous phases of SBS and dl-PLA, in which the dl-PLA content ranges from 30 to 70 wt%. -- Highlights: ► The composite materials of SBS and amorphous dl-PLA were prepared by blending. ► A continuous domain was observed with the increasing content of dl-PLA. ► The composites exhibited shape memory effects.

  15. Fathers of the Nation: Barack Obama Addresses Nelson Mandela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bordin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes Barack Obama’s Nelson Mandela Memorial speech together with other seminal texts of Obama’s political and personal creed, such as his book Dreams from My Father (1995 and his speech “A More Perfect Union” (2008. This reading becomes helpful to understand Mandela’s transnational power, which Obama uses to comment on the United States by comparing Madiba to other American “fathers of the nation.” Thus, he uproots Mandela’s from a specifically South African legacy, expands his figure, and addresses him as a transnational father of his own nation, whose power, influence, and example transcend South African borders. As a consequence of this enlargement and transnational validation of Mandela’s figure, the speech delivered at the Memorial becomes an occasion to tackle American past and future, while the memory of Madiba and his driving example in Obama’s life serve to reinforce previous positions conveyed in other discourses by the American President, such as the “A More Perfect Union” speech delivered in Philadelphia in 2008.

  16. Characterization of music-evoked autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janata, Petr; Tomic, Stefan T; Rakowski, Sonja K

    2007-11-01

    Despite music's prominence in Western society and its importance to individuals in their daily lives, very little is known about the memories and emotions that are often evoked when hearing a piece of music from one's past. We examined the content of music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) using a novel approach for selecting stimuli from a large corpus of popular music, in both laboratory and online settings. A set of questionnaires probed the cognitive and affective properties of the evoked memories. On average, 30% of the song presentations evoked autobiographical memories, and the majority of songs also evoked various emotions, primarily positive, that were felt strongly. The third most common emotion was nostalgia. Analyses of written memory reports found both general and specific levels of autobiographical knowledge to be represented, and several social and situational contexts for memory formation were common across many memories. The findings indicate that excerpts of popular music serve as potent stimuli for studying the structure of autobiographical memories.

  17. Musicians have better memory than nonmusicians: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamini, Francesca; Altoè, Gianmarco; Carretti, Barbara; Grassi, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have found that musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks, but this is not always the case, and the strength of this apparent advantage is unknown. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis with the aim of clarifying whether musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks. Education Source; PEP (WEB)-Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing; Psychology and Behavioral Science (EBSCO); PsycINFO (Ovid); PubMed; ScienceDirect-AllBooks Content (Elsevier API); SCOPUS (Elsevier API); SocINDEX with Full Text (EBSCO) and Google Scholar were searched for eligible studies. The selected studies involved two groups of participants: young adult musicians and nonmusicians. All the studies included memory tasks (loading long-term, short-term or working memory) that contained tonal, verbal or visuospatial stimuli. Three meta-analyses were run separately for long-term memory, short-term memory and working memory. We collected 29 studies, including 53 memory tasks. The results showed that musicians performed better than nonmusicians in terms of long-term memory, g = .29, 95% CI (.08-.51), short-term memory, g = .57, 95% CI (.41-.73), and working memory, g = .56, 95% CI (.33-.80). To further explore the data, we included a moderator (the type of stimulus presented, i.e., tonal, verbal or visuospatial), which was found to influence the effect size for short-term and working memory, but not for long-term memory. In terms of short-term and working memory, the musicians' advantage was large with tonal stimuli, moderate with verbal stimuli, and small or null with visuospatial stimuli. The three meta-analyses revealed a small effect size for long-term memory, and a medium effect size for short-term and working memory, suggesting that musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks. Moreover, the effect of the moderator suggested that, the type of stimuli influences this advantage.

  18. Musicians have better memory than nonmusicians: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoè, Gianmarco; Carretti, Barbara; Grassi, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Background Several studies have found that musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks, but this is not always the case, and the strength of this apparent advantage is unknown. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis with the aim of clarifying whether musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks. Methods Education Source; PEP (WEB)—Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing; Psychology and Behavioral Science (EBSCO); PsycINFO (Ovid); PubMed; ScienceDirect—AllBooks Content (Elsevier API); SCOPUS (Elsevier API); SocINDEX with Full Text (EBSCO) and Google Scholar were searched for eligible studies. The selected studies involved two groups of participants: young adult musicians and nonmusicians. All the studies included memory tasks (loading long-term, short-term or working memory) that contained tonal, verbal or visuospatial stimuli. Three meta-analyses were run separately for long-term memory, short-term memory and working memory. Results We collected 29 studies, including 53 memory tasks. The results showed that musicians performed better than nonmusicians in terms of long-term memory, g = .29, 95% CI (.08–.51), short-term memory, g = .57, 95% CI (.41–.73), and working memory, g = .56, 95% CI (.33–.80). To further explore the data, we included a moderator (the type of stimulus presented, i.e., tonal, verbal or visuospatial), which was found to influence the effect size for short-term and working memory, but not for long-term memory. In terms of short-term and working memory, the musicians’ advantage was large with tonal stimuli, moderate with verbal stimuli, and small or null with visuospatial stimuli. Conclusions The three meta-analyses revealed a small effect size for long-term memory, and a medium effect size for short-term and working memory, suggesting that musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks. Moreover, the effect of the moderator suggested that, the type of stimuli influences this advantage. PMID:29049416

  19. Optical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  20. Realization and Addressing Analysis In Blockchain Bitcoin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakti Arief Daulay, Raja; Michrandi Nasution, Surya; Paryasto, Marisa W.

    2017-11-01

    The implementation research and analyze address blockchain on this bitcoin will have the results that refers to making address bitcoin a safe and boost security of address the bitcoin. The working mechanism of blockchain in making address bitcoin which is already in the blockchain system.

  1. Test data generation for LRU cache-memory testing

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeni, Kornikhin

    2009-01-01

    System functional testing of microprocessors deals with many assembly programs of given behavior. The paper proposes new constraint-based algorithm of initial cache-memory contents generation for given behavior of assembly program (with cache misses and hits). Although algorithm works for any types of cache-memory, the paper describes algorithm in detail for basis types of cache-memory only: fully associative cache and direct mapped cache.

  2. Can we throw information out of visual working memory and does this leave informational residue in long-term memory?

    OpenAIRE

    Ashleigh Monette Maxcey; Geoffrey F. Woodman

    2014-01-01

    Can we entirely erase a temporary memory representation from mind? This question has been addressed in several recent studies that tested the specific hypothesis that a representation can be erased from visual working memory based on a cue that indicated that the representation was no longer necessary for the task. In addition to behavioral results that are consistent with the idea that we can throw information out of visual working memory, recent neurophysiological recordings support this pr...

  3. Memory, microprocessor, and ASIC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    System Timing. ROM/PROM/EPROM. SRAM. Embedded Memory. Flash Memories. Dynamic Random Access Memory. Low-Power Memory Circuits. Timing and Signal Integrity Analysis. Microprocessor Design Verification. Microprocessor Layout Method. Architecture. ASIC Design. Logic Synthesis for Field Programmable Gate Array (EPGA) Technology. Testability Concepts and DFT. ATPG and BIST. CAD Tools for BIST/DFT and Delay Faults.

  4. Infant Visual Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2004-01-01

    Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

  5. IP lookup with low memory requirement and fast update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stübert

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an IP address lookup algorithm with low memory requirement and fast updates. The scheme, which is denoted prefix-tree, uses a combination of a trie and a tree search, which is efficient in memory usage because the tree contains exactly one node for each prefix in the routing...

  6. Low power and reliable SRAM memory cell and array design

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibashi, Koichiro

    2011-01-01

    Success in the development of recent advanced semiconductor device technologies is due to the success of SRAM memory cells. This book addresses various issues for designing SRAM memory cells for advanced CMOS technology. To study LSI design, SRAM cell design is the best materials subject because issues about variability, leakage and reliability have to be taken into account for the design.

  7. Money Enhances Memory Consolidation--But Only for Boring Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Kuhbandner, Christof

    2011-01-01

    Money's ability to enhance memory has received increased attention in recent research. However, previous studies have not directly addressed the time-dependent nature of monetary effects on memory, which are suggested to exist by research in cognitive neuroscience, and the possible detrimental effects of monetary rewards on learning interesting…

  8. Sleep Deprivation affects Extinction but Not Acquisition Memory in Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, Syed Abid; Bogusch, Lisa; Landgraf, Tim; Menzel, Randolf

    2009-01-01

    Sleep-like behavior has been studied in honeybees before, but the relationship between sleep and memory formation has not been explored. Here we describe a new approach to address the question if sleep in bees, like in other animals, improves memory consolidation. Restrained bees were observed by a web camera, and their antennal activities were…

  9. Defense.gov Special Report: Memorial Day 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    information so we can address your issue or question. United States Department of Defense United States Veterans Past, Present on Memorial Day Obama: Memorial Day Honors the Fallen 'Flags In' Tradition Honors Blog: Everyone Can Find A Way to Honor our Service Members Over the past few years, I have been blessed

  10. Human memory research: Current hypotheses and new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Jaeger

    Full Text Available Abstract Research on human memory has increased significantly in the last few decades. Inconsistencies and controversies inherent to such research, however, are rarely articulated on published reports. The goal of the present article is to present and discuss a series of open questions related to major topics on human memory research that can be addressed by future research. The topics covered here are visual working memory, recognition memory, emotion and memory interaction, and methodological issues of false memories studies. Overall, the present work reveals a series of open questions and alternative analysis which could be useful for the process of hypothesis generation, and consequently for the design and implementation of future research on human memory.

  11. Structural, Synaptic, and Epigenetic Dynamics of Enduring Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossama Khalaf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our memories are the records of the experiences we gain in our everyday life. Over time, they slowly transform from an initially unstable state into a long-lasting form. Many studies have been investigating from different aspects how a memory could persist for sometimes up to decades. In this review, we highlight three of the greatly addressed mechanisms that play a central role for a given memory to endure: the allocation of the memory to a given neuronal population and what brain areas are recruited for its storage; the structural changes that underlie memory persistence; and finally the epigenetic control of gene expression that might regulate and support memory perseverance. Examining such key properties of a memory is essential towards a finer understanding of its capacity to last.

  12. Structural, Synaptic, and Epigenetic Dynamics of Enduring Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Ossama; Gräff, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Our memories are the records of the experiences we gain in our everyday life. Over time, they slowly transform from an initially unstable state into a long-lasting form. Many studies have been investigating from different aspects how a memory could persist for sometimes up to decades. In this review, we highlight three of the greatly addressed mechanisms that play a central role for a given memory to endure: the allocation of the memory to a given neuronal population and what brain areas are recruited for its storage; the structural changes that underlie memory persistence; and finally the epigenetic control of gene expression that might regulate and support memory perseverance. Examining such key properties of a memory is essential towards a finer understanding of its capacity to last. PMID:26933513

  13. Role of samarium additions on the shape memory behavior of iron based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakoor, R.A.; Khalid, F. Ahmad; Kang, Kisuk

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The effect of samarium contents on shape memory behavior has been studied. → Addition of samarium increases the strength, c/a ratio and ε (hcp martensite). → Addition of samarium retards the nucleation of α (bcc martensite). → Improvement in shape memory effect with the increase in samarium contents. - Abstract: The effect of samarium contents on shape memory behavior of iron based shape memory alloys has been studied. It is found that the strength of the alloys increases with the increase in samarium contents. This effect can be attributed to the solid solution strengthening of austenite by samarium addition. It is also noticed that the shape memory effect increases with the increase in samarium contents. This improvement in shape memory effect presumably can be regarded as the effect of improvement in strength, increase in c/a ratio and obstruction of nucleation of α in the microstructure.

  14. Hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggins, Tracy; Geng, Fengji; Blankenship, Sarah L; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Episodic memory relies on a distributed network of brain regions, with the hippocampus playing a critical and irreplaceable role. Few studies have examined how changes in this network contribute to episodic memory development early in life. The present addressed this gap by examining relations between hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in 4- and 6-year-old children (n=40). Results revealed similar hippocampal functional connectivity between age groups, which included lateral temporal regions, precuneus, and multiple parietal and prefrontal regions, and functional specialization along the longitudinal axis. Despite these similarities, developmental differences were also observed. Specifically, 3 (of 4) regions within the hippocampal memory network were positively associated with episodic memory in 6-year-old children, but negatively associated with episodic memory in 4-year-old children. In contrast, all 3 regions outside the hippocampal memory network were negatively associated with episodic memory in older children, but positively associated with episodic memory in younger children. These interactions are interpreted within an interactive specialization framework and suggest the hippocampus becomes functionally integrated with cortical regions that are part of the hippocampal memory network in adults and functionally segregated from regions unrelated to memory in adults, both of which are associated with age-related improvements in episodic memory ability. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Smell your way back to childhood: autobiographical odor memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willander, Johan; Larsson, Maria

    2006-04-01

    This study addressed age distributions and experiential qualities of autobiographical memories evoked by different sensory cues. Ninety-three older adults were presented with one of three cue types (word, picture, or odor) and were asked to relate any autobiographical event for the given cue. The main aims were to explore whether (1) the age distribution of olfactory-evoked memories differs from memories cued by words and pictures and (2) the experiential qualities of the evoked memories vary over the different cues. The results showed that autobiographical memories triggered by olfactory information were older than memories associated with verbal and visual information. Specifically, most odor-cued memories were located to the first decade of life (memories associated with verbal and visual cues peaked in early adulthood (11-20 years). Also, odor-evoked memories were associated with stronger feelings of being brought back in time and had been thought of less often than memories evoked by verbal and visual information. This pattern of findings suggests that odor-evoked memories may be different from other memory experiences.

  16. Efficacy of memory training in healthy community-dwelling older people: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Anna; Roqué, Marta; Domènech, Sara; Monteserín, Rosa; Soriano, Núria; Blancafort, Xavier; Bosom, Maria; Vidal, Cristina; Petit, Montse; Hortal, Núria; Gil, Carles; Espelt, Albert; López, Maria José

    2015-10-01

    There is limited evidence on the efficacy and social utility of cognitive training. To address this, we have designed a randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of memory training workshops for healthy older people in terms of their short- and long-term impact on cognitive function, health-related quality of life, and functionality. A randomized controlled trial will be performed in health care centers in Barcelona (Spain) through comparison of a group of individuals participating in memory training workshops (experimental group) with another group with similar characteristics not participating in the workshops (control group). The intervention will consist of twelve 90-minute group sessions imparted once a week by a psychologist specialized in memory training. The groups will each comprise approximately 15 people, for a total number of 230 patients involved in the study. Each session has its own objectives, materials and activities. The content of the intervention is based on memory training from different perspectives, including cognitive and emotional aspects and social and individual skills. Data will be collected at baseline, at 3-4 months and at 6 months. To assess the efficacy of the intervention on cognitive function, health-related quality of life and functionality, a statistical analysis will be performed by fitting a repeated-measures mixed effects model for each main outcome: Self-perceived memory, measured by a Subjective Self-reported Memory Score (from 0 to 10) and by the Memory Failures in Everyday life questionnaire (MFE); Everyday memory, measured using the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test-3 (RBMT-3) and Executive control abilities, measured in terms of visual-perceptual ability, working memory and task-switching ability with the Trail Making Test (TMT) and with the digit span scale of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III (WAIS III). The results of this study will be highly useful for social and public health policies related

  17. Nanoscale memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Andy; Deen, Jamal; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Meyyappan, M

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current status and future prospects for the use of nanomaterials and devices in memory technology. First, the status and continuing scaling trends of the flash memory are discussed. Then, a detailed discussion on technologies trying to replace flash in the near-term is provided. This includes phase change random access memory, Fe random access memory and magnetic random access memory. The long-term nanotechnology prospects for memory devices include carbon-nanotube-based memory, molecular electronics and memristors based on resistive materials such as TiO 2 . (topical review)

  18. What kind of memory has evolution wrought? Introductory article for the special issue of memory: adaptive memory: the emergence and nature of proximate mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    It is without question that our memory system evolved through a process of natural selection. However, basic research into the evolutionary foundations of memory has begun in earnest only recently. This is quite peculiar as the majority, perhaps even all, of memory research relates to whether memory is adaptive or not. In this Special Issue of Memory we have assembled a variety of papers that represent the cutting edge in research on the evolution of memory. These papers are centred on issues about the ultimate and proximate explanations of memory, the development of the adaptive functions of memory, as well as the positive consequences that arise from the current evolutionary form that our memory has taken. In this introductory article we briefly outline these different areas and indicate why they are vital for a more complete theory of memory. Further we argue that, by adopting a more applied stance in the area of the evolution of memory, one of the many future directions in this field could be a new branch of psychology that addresses questions in evolutionary legal psychology.

  19. Cultural and communicative memories: contrasting Argentina's 1976 coup d'état and the 2001 economic-political-social crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Felipe; Bermejo, Federico; Hirst, William

    2018-08-01

    Studies on collective memory have recently addressed the distinction between cultural and communicative memory as a way to understand how the source of a memory affects its structure or form. When a groups' memory is mediated by memorials, documentaries or any other cultural artifacts, collective memory is shaped by cultural memory. When it is based mostly in communication with other people, its source is communicative memory. We address this distinction by studying two recent events in Argentinean history: the 2001 economic-political-social crisis (communicative memory) and the 1976 coup (cultural memory). We also examine the political ideology and the type of memory involved in collective memory. The memory of the studied events may occur during the lifetime of the rememberer (Lived Memory) or refer to distant events (Distant Memory). 100 participants responded to a Free Recall task about the events of 2001 in Argentina. Narrative analysis allowed comparing these recalls with our 1976 study. Results show: 1) Cultural memories are more contextualised, more impersonal and less affective. 2) Communicative memories are more personal and affective. Study shows how collective memory form changes when it has a different prevalent source.

  20. Self-imagining enhances recognition memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Matthew D; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2010-11-01

    The ability to imagine an elaborative event from a personal perspective relies on several cognitive processes that may potentially enhance subsequent memory for the event, including visual imagery, semantic elaboration, emotional processing, and self-referential processing. In an effort to find a novel strategy for enhancing memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage, we investigated the mnemonic benefit of a method we refer to as self-imagining-the imagining of an event from a realistic, personal perspective. Fourteen individuals with neurologically based memory deficits and 14 healthy control participants intentionally encoded neutral and emotional sentences under three instructions: structural-baseline processing, semantic processing, and self-imagining. Findings revealed a robust "self-imagination effect (SIE)," as self-imagination enhanced recognition memory relative to deep semantic elaboration in both memory-impaired individuals, F(1, 13) = 32.11, p memory disorder nor were they related to self-reported vividness of visual imagery, semantic processing, or emotional content of the materials. The findings suggest that the SIE may depend on unique mnemonic mechanisms possibly related to self-referential processing and that imagining an event from a personal perspective makes that event particularly memorable even for those individuals with severe memory deficits. Self-imagining may thus provide an effective rehabilitation strategy for individuals with memory impairment.

  1. Rapid influences of cued visual memories on attentional guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Moorselaar, D.; Battistoni, E.; Theeuwes, J.; Olivers, C.N.L.

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that the deployment of attention can be biased by the content of visual working memory. Recently, it has been shown that focusing internal attention to a specific item in memory not only increases the accessibility of that specific item for retrieval, but also results in increased

  2. The organizational memory mismatch approach in the ERP usage stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stijn, Eveline; Wensley, Anthony; Wijnhoven, Fons

    2005-01-01

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems not only have a broad functional scope promising to support many different business processes. They also embed many different aspects of the company’s organizational memory. Disparities can exist between those memory contents in the ERP system and related

  3. Visual memory needs categories

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Henrik; Poom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Capacity limitations in the way humans store and process information in working memory have been extensively studied, and several memory systems have been distinguished. In line with previous capacity estimates for verbal memory and memory for spatial information, recent studies suggest that it is possible to retain up to four objects in visual working memory. The objects used have typically been categorically different colors and shapes. Because knowledge about categories is stored in long-t...

  4. Non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2014-01-01

    Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.

  5. Memory: sins and virtues

    OpenAIRE

    Schacter, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Memory plays an important role in everyday life but does not provide an exact and unchanging record of experience: research has documented that memory is a constructive process that is subject to a variety of errors and distortions. Yet these memory “sins” also reflect the operation of adaptive aspects of memory. Memory can thus be characterized as an adaptive constructive process, which plays a functional role in cognition but produces distortions, errors, or illusions as a consequence of d...

  6. Three problems of organizational memory information systems development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.; van Slooten, C.; White, D.

    2002-01-01

    Organizational memory information systems have a diversity of contents and may need a variety of information technologies. To cope with this diversity, OMIS requires specific development methodological guidelines. First the OMIS's objectives have to be stated in organizational functional

  7. Implications of psychosocial stress on memory formation in a typical male versus female student sample.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse, S.; van Stegeren, A.H.; Joëls, M.

    2011-01-01

    Stress is known to differentially modulate memory function. Memory can be impaired or strengthened by stress, depending on e.g. the memory type and phase under study, the emotional value of the learned information and the sex of the subjects. Here, we addressed the latter and investigated the impact

  8. On Auditing Auditory Information: The Influence of Mood on Memory for Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, David; Haddock, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    Previous research suggests that memory for music possesses a number of similarities to the more frequently studied modalities of verbal and visual memory. The present study addresses a yet uninvestigated factor involved in the memory for music: mood. Specifically, the study explored whether a mood-congruency effect is attained using major and…

  9. Spike-timing theory of working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botond Szatmáry

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM is the part of the brain's memory system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of information necessary for cognition. Although WM has limited capacity at any given time, it has vast memory content in the sense that it acts on the brain's nearly infinite repertoire of lifetime long-term memories. Using simulations, we show that large memory content and WM functionality emerge spontaneously if we take the spike-timing nature of neuronal processing into account. Here, memories are represented by extensively overlapping groups of neurons that exhibit stereotypical time-locked spatiotemporal spike-timing patterns, called polychronous patterns; and synapses forming such polychronous neuronal groups (PNGs are subject to associative synaptic plasticity in the form of both long-term and short-term spike-timing dependent plasticity. While long-term potentiation is essential in PNG formation, we show how short-term plasticity can temporarily strengthen the synapses of selected PNGs and lead to an increase in the spontaneous reactivation rate of these PNGs. This increased reactivation rate, consistent with in vivo recordings during WM tasks, results in high interspike interval variability and irregular, yet systematically changing, elevated firing rate profiles within the neurons of the selected PNGs. Additionally, our theory explains the relationship between such slowly changing firing rates and precisely timed spikes, and it reveals a novel relationship between WM and the perception of time on the order of seconds.

  10. Salam Memorial

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo

    1997-01-01

    by T.W.B. KIBBLE / Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London. Recollections of Abdus Salam at Imperial College I shall give a personal account of Professor Salam's life and work from the perspective of a colleague at Imperial College, concentrating particularly but not exclusively on the period leading up to the discovery of the electro-weak theory. If necessary I could perhaps give more detail, but only once I have given more thought to what ground I shall cover. by Sheldon Lee GLASHOW / Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. Memories of Abdus Salam. My interactions with Abdus Salam, weak as they have been, extended over five decades. I regret that we never once collaborated in print or by correspondence. I visited Abdus only twice in London and twice again in Trieste, and met him at the occasional conference or summer school. Our face-to-face encounters could be counted on one's fingers and toes, but we became the best of friends. Others will discuss Abdus as an inspiring teacher, as a great scientist,...

  11. A new Variable Resolution Associative Memory for High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Annovi, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Beretta, M; Bossini, E; Crescioli, F; Dell'Orso, M; Giannetti, P; Hoff, J; Liberali, V; Liu, T; Magalotti, D; Piendibene, M; Sacco, A; Schoening, A; Soltveit, H K; Stabile, A; Tripiccione, R; Vitillo, R; Volpi, G

    2011-01-01

    We describe an important advancement for the Associative Memory device (AM). The AM is a VLSI processor for pattern recognition based on Content Addressable Memory (CAM) architecture. The AM is optimized for on-line track finding in high-energy physics experiments. Pattern matching is carried out finding track candidates in coarse resolution “roads”. A large AM bank stores all trajectories of interest, called “patterns”, for a given detector resolution. The AM extracts roads compatible with a given event during detector read-out. Two important variables characterize the quality of the AM bank: its “coverage” and the level of “found fakes”. The coverage, which describes the geometric efficiency of a bank, is defined as the fraction of tracks that match at least a pattern in the bank. Given a certain road size, the coverage of the bank can be increased just adding patterns to the bank, while the number of found fakes unfortunately is roughly proportional to this number of patterns in the bank. M...

  12. Bulk-memory processor for data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.O.; McMillan, D.E.; Sunier, J.W.; Meier, M.; Poore, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    To meet the diverse needs and data rate requirements at the Van de Graaff and Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facilities, a bulk memory system has been implemented which includes a fast and flexible processor. This bulk memory processor (BMP) utilizes bit slice and microcode techniques and features a 24 bit wide internal architecture allowing direct addressing of up to 16 megawords of memory and histogramming up to 16 million counts per channel without overflow. The BMP is interfaced to the MOSTEK MK 8000 bulk memory system and to the standard MODCOMP computer I/O bus. Coding for the BMP both at the microcode level and with macro instructions is supported. The generalized data acquisition system has been extended to support the BMP in a manner transparent to the user

  13. Projected phase-change memory devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelmans, Wabe W; Sebastian, Abu; Jonnalagadda, Vara Prasad; Krebs, Daniel; Dellmann, Laurent; Eleftheriou, Evangelos

    2015-09-03

    Nanoscale memory devices, whose resistance depends on the history of the electric signals applied, could become critical building blocks in new computing paradigms, such as brain-inspired computing and memcomputing. However, there are key challenges to overcome, such as the high programming power required, noise and resistance drift. Here, to address these, we present the concept of a projected memory device, whose distinguishing feature is that the physical mechanism of resistance storage is decoupled from the information-retrieval process. We designed and fabricated projected memory devices based on the phase-change storage mechanism and convincingly demonstrate the concept through detailed experimentation, supported by extensive modelling and finite-element simulations. The projected memory devices exhibit remarkably low drift and excellent noise performance. We also demonstrate active control and customization of the programming characteristics of the device that reliably realize a multitude of resistance states.

  14. Nostalgia: content, triggers, functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Arndt, Jamie; Routledge, Clay

    2006-11-01

    Seven methodologically diverse studies addressed 3 fundamental questions about nostalgia. Studies 1 and 2 examined the content of nostalgic experiences. Descriptions of nostalgic experiences typically featured the self as a protagonist in interactions with close others (e.g., friends) or in momentous events (e.g., weddings). Also, the descriptions contained more expressions of positive than negative affect and often depicted the redemption of negative life scenes by subsequent triumphs. Studies 3 and 4 examined triggers of nostalgia and revealed that nostalgia occurs in response to negative mood and the discrete affective state of loneliness. Studies 5, 6, and 7 investigated the functional utility of nostalgia and established that nostalgia bolsters social bonds, increases positive self-regard, and generates positive affect. These findings demarcate key landmarks in the hitherto uncharted research domain of nostalgia.

  15. Paging memory from random access memory to backing storage in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Inglett, Todd A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2013-05-21

    Paging memory from random access memory (`RAM`) to backing storage in a parallel computer that includes a plurality of compute nodes, including: executing a data processing application on a virtual machine operating system in a virtual machine on a first compute node; providing, by a second compute node, backing storage for the contents of RAM on the first compute node; and swapping, by the virtual machine operating system in the virtual machine on the first compute node, a page of memory from RAM on the first compute node to the backing storage on the second compute node.

  16. [Episodic autobiographical memory in depression: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemogne, C; Piolino, P; Jouvent, R; Allilaire, J-F; Fossati, P

    2006-10-01

    avoidance of intrusive memories; 3) quite stable over time, ie, remaining after remission; and 4) related to short-term prognosis in depression. Although it is not clear whether overgenerality is a cause or an effect of depression, there is some evidence to suggest that overgenerality is a trait marker indicating vulnerability to persistent depression. Mood-congruent effect, a well-known effect in depression, has been addressed in both autobio-graphical and non-autobiographical memory. Depressed patients spontaneously recall more negative than positive memories. With the AMT, depressed patients take longer to respond to positive than to negative cues, whereas controls do the opposite. Depression is also associated with a high occurrence of spontaneous intrusive memories of stressful life events. Studies found intrusions and related avoidance, as measured by the Impact of Event Scale, to be positively correlated with overgenerality, whereas there was no direct link between performance on the Autobiographical Memory Test and stressful life events per se. Both Williams' mnemonic interlock model and Conway's self-memory system are useful models to address the complexity of findings regarding autobiographical memory and depression. According to Williams, repeated avoidance of stressful memories leads depressed patients to have an autobiographical memory functioning characterized by iterative retrievals of categorical overgeneral memories, producing an enduring overgeneral retrieval style. According to Conway, the recollection of autobiographical memories requires a retrieval process that provides access to sensory/perceptual event-specific knowledge (ie perceptions and feelings) via a personal semantic knowledge base (ie lifetime periods and generic events). This retrieval process (generative retrieval mode) relies on both executive functioning and current self-view, namely the working-self. Spontaneous memories, usually vivid, result from a direct retrieval mode in which event

  17. Organizational memory: from expectations memory to procedural memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, J.J.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Organizational memory is not just the stock of knowledge about how to do things, but also of expectations of organizational members vis-à-vis each other and the organization as a whole. The central argument of this paper is that this second type of organizational memory -organizational expectations

  18. Sensory memory consolidation observed: Increased specificity of detail over days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Norman M.; Miasnikov, Alexandre A.; Chen, Jemmy C.

    2010-01-01

    Memories are usually multidimensional, including contents such as sensory details, motivational state and emotional overtones. Memory contents generally change over time, most often reported as a loss in the specificity of detail. To study the temporal changes in the sensory contents of associative memory without motivational and emotional contents, we induced memory for acoustic frequency by pairing a tone with stimulation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis. Adult male rats were first tested for behavioral responses (disruption of ongoing respiration) to tones (1–15 kHz), yielding pre-training behavioral frequency generalization gradients (BFGG). They next received three days of training consisting of a conditioned stimulus (CS) tone (8.00 kHz, 70 dB, 2 s) either Paired (n = 5) or Unpaired (n = 5) with weak electrical stimulation (~48 μA) of the nucleus basalis (100 Hz, 0.2 s, co-terminating with CS offset). Testing for behavioral memory was performed by obtaining post-training BFGGs at two intervals, 24 and 96 h after training. At 24 h post-training, the Paired group exhibited associative behavioral memory manifested by significantly larger responses to tone than the Unpaired group. However, they exhibited no specificity in memory for the frequency of the tonal CS, as indexed by a flat BFGG. In contrast, after 96 h post-training the Paired group did exhibit specificity of memory as revealed by tuned BFGGs with a peak at the CS-band of frequencies. This increased detail of memory developed due to a loss of response to lower and higher frequency side-bands, without any change in the absolute magnitude of response to CS-band frequencies. These findings indicate that the sensory contents of associative memory can be revealed to become more specific, through temporal consolidation in the absence of non-sensory factors such as motivation and emotion. PMID:19038352

  19. Sensory memory consolidation observed: increased specificity of detail over days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Norman M; Miasnikov, Alexandre A; Chen, Jemmy C

    2009-03-01

    Memories are usually multidimensional, including contents such as sensory details, motivational state and emotional overtones. Memory contents generally change over time, most often reported as a loss in the specificity of detail. To study the temporal changes in the sensory contents of associative memory without motivational and emotional contents, we induced memory for acoustic frequency by pairing a tone with stimulation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis. Adult male rats were first tested for behavioral responses (disruption of ongoing respiration) to tones (1-15 kHz), yielding pre-training behavioral frequency generalization gradients (BFGG). They next received three days of training consisting of a conditioned stimulus (CS) tone (8.00 kHz, 70 dB, 2 s) either Paired (n=5) or Unpaired (n=5) with weak electrical stimulation (approximately 48 microA) of the nucleus basalis (100 Hz, 0.2 s, co-terminating with CS offset). Testing for behavioral memory was performed by obtaining post-training BFGGs at two intervals, 24 and 96 h after training. At 24 h post-training, the Paired group exhibited associative behavioral memory manifested by significantly larger responses to tone than the Unpaired group. However, they exhibited no specificity in memory for the frequency of the tonal CS, as indexed by a flat BFGG. In contrast, after 96 h post-training the Paired group did exhibit specificity of memory as revealed by tuned BFGGs with a peak at the CS-band of frequencies. This increased detail of memory developed due to a loss of response to lower and higher frequency side-bands, without any change in the absolute magnitude of response to CS-band frequencies. These findings indicate that the sensory contents of associative memory can be revealed to become more specific, through temporal consolidation in the absence of non-sensory factors such as motivation and emotion.

  20. Type B Package Radioactive Material Contents Compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HENSEL, STEVE

    2006-01-01

    Implementation of packaging and transportation requirements can be subdivided into three categories; contents compliance, packaging closure, and transportation or logistical compliance. This paper addresses the area of contents compliance within the context of regulations, DOE Orders, and appropriate standards. Common practices and current pitfalls are also discussed

  1. Visual Memories Bypass Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Ilona M; Watanabe, Yurika L; Kibbe, Melissa M; Ling, Sam

    2018-05-01

    How distinct are visual memory representations from visual perception? Although evidence suggests that briefly remembered stimuli are represented within early visual cortices, the degree to which these memory traces resemble true visual representations remains something of a mystery. Here, we tested whether both visual memory and perception succumb to a seemingly ubiquitous neural computation: normalization. Observers were asked to remember the contrast of visual stimuli, which were pitted against each other to promote normalization either in perception or in visual memory. Our results revealed robust normalization between visual representations in perception, yet no signature of normalization occurring between working memory stores-neither between representations in memory nor between memory representations and visual inputs. These results provide unique insight into the nature of visual memory representations, illustrating that visual memory representations follow a different set of computational rules, bypassing normalization, a canonical visual computation.

  2. Stochastic memory: getting memory out of noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, Alexander; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2011-03-01

    Memory circuit elements, namely memristors, memcapacitors and meminductors, can store information without the need of a power source. These systems are generally defined in terms of deterministic equations of motion for the state variables that are responsible for memory. However, in real systems noise sources can never be eliminated completely. One would then expect noise to be detrimental for memory. Here, we show that under specific conditions on the noise intensity memory can actually be enhanced. We illustrate this phenomenon using a physical model of a memristor in which the addition of white noise into the state variable equation improves the memory and helps the operation of the system. We discuss under which conditions this effect can be realized experimentally, discuss its implications on existing memory systems discussed in the literature, and also analyze the effects of colored noise. Work supported in part by NSF.

  3. Folklore, creativity, and cultural memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    the role of tradition and creativity in the life of a rural community. Egg decoration is an old custom, with pre-Christian roots, practiced extensively in the historical region of Bucovina, and relying on a complex system of material artefacts and symbolic elements acquired and enacted by artisans usually...... means the opposite of creativity but the actual vehicle of creative activity and its understanding as a stable cultural system ‘engraved’ in collective memory needs to be challenged. The tradition of egg decoration in Romania is a living and evolving social practice that engages the self and community......This paper addresses the question of how folk art can be, simultaneously, a vehicle for cultural memory and cultural creativity. It takes the case of Romanian Easter egg decoration as a practice situated at the intersection between art, folklore, religion and a growing market, it order to unpack...

  4. The specificity and organisation of autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulkind, Matthew D; Rahhal, Tamara A; Klein, Megan R; Lacher, Samantha R

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that autobiographical memories are over-general and are organised according to life periods. One experiment assessed the specificity and organisation of autobiographical memory by manipulating two variables. The retrieval cues were either a set of three words (a theme, a time period, and an emotional valence) or a short narrative that included a specific theme, time period, and emotional valence. The instructions either encouraged the participants to respond as though they were conversing with a friend (social instructions) or did not specify a target audience (standard instructions). Narrative cues and standard instructions elicited more specific responses than word cues and social instructions, respectively. Whereas word cues elicited memories that were most likely to match the cues in terms of time period, narrative cues elicited memories that were most likely to match the cues in terms of theme. These data suggest that previous research underestimated the specificity of the autobiographical knowledge base and overestimated the importance of temporally defined life periods for organising autobiographical memory. Previous conclusions regarding the specificity and organisation of autobiographical memory may reflect the structure of autobiographical narratives and the methodologies used to collect such narratives rather than the content of autobiographical memory itself.

  5. Detailed Sensory Memory, Sloppy Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sligte, Ilja G.; Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R. E.; Scholte, H. Steven; Lamme, Victor A. F.

    2010-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables us to actively maintain information in mind for a brief period of time after stimulus disappearance. According to recent studies, VSTM consists of three stages - iconic memory, fragile VSTM, and visual working memory - with increasingly stricter capacity limits and progressively longer lifetimes. Still, the resolution (or amount of visual detail) of each VSTM stage has remained unexplored and we test this in the present study. We presented people with a...

  6. The Mind and Brain of Short-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.; Nee, Derek Evan; Lustig, Cindy A.; Berman, Marc G.; Moore, Katherine Sledge

    2008-01-01

    The past 10 years have brought near-revolutionary changes in psychological theories about short-term memory, with similarly great advances in the neurosciences. Here, we critically examine the major psychological theories (the “mind”) of short-term memory and how they relate to evidence about underlying brain mechanisms. We focus on three features that must be addressed by any satisfactory theory of short-term memory. First, we examine the evidence for the architecture of short-term memory, w...

  7. 33 CFR 135.9 - Fund address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND General § 135.9 Fund address. The address to which correspondence relating to the Coast Guard's administration of the Fund... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fund address. 135.9 Section 135.9...

  8. Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan; Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2012-09-25

    Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory, in one aspect, may include a plurality of performance counters operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A first storage element may be operable to store an address of a memory location. A second storage element may be operable to store a value indicating whether the hardware should begin copying. A state machine may be operable to detect the value in the second storage element and trigger hardware copying of data in selected one or more of the plurality of performance counters to the memory location whose address is stored in the first storage element.

  9. Characteristics of Positive Autobiographical Memories in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of positive autobiographical memory narratives were examined in younger and older adults. Narratives were content-coded for the extent to which they contained indicators of affect, sensory imagery, and cognition. Affect was additionally assessed through self-report. Young adults expressed more positive affect and less sensory…

  10. The Distributed Nature of Working Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christophel, Thomas B.; Klink, P. Christiaan; Spitzer, Bernhard; Roelfsema, Pieter R.; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Studies in humans and non-human primates have provided evidence for storage of working memory contents in multiple regions ranging from sensory to parietal and prefrontal cortex. We discuss potential explanations for these distributed representations: (i) features in sensory regions versus

  11. Briefly Cuing Memories Leads to Suppression of Their Neural Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have linked partial memory activation with impaired subsequent memory retrieval (e.g., Detre et al., 2013) but have not provided an account of this phenomenon at the level of memory representations: How does partial activation change the neural pattern subsequently elicited when the memory is cued? To address this question, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment in which participants studied word-scene paired associates. Later, we weakly reactivated some memories by briefly presenting the cue word during a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task; other memories were more strongly reactivated or not reactivated at all. We tested participants' memory for the paired associates before and after RSVP. Cues that were briefly presented during RSVP triggered reduced levels of scene activity on the post-RSVP memory test, relative to the other conditions. We used pattern similarity analysis to assess how representations changed as a function of the RSVP manipulation. For briefly cued pairs, we found that neural patterns elicited by the same cue on the pre- and post-RSVP tests (preA–postA; preB–postB) were less similar than neural patterns elicited by different cues (preA–postB; preB–postA). These similarity reductions were predicted by neural measures of memory activation during RSVP. Through simulation, we show that our pattern similarity results are consistent with a model in which partial memory activation triggers selective weakening of the strongest parts of the memory. PMID:24899722

  12. Detailed sensory memory, sloppy working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sligte, Ilja G; Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2010-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables us to actively maintain information in mind for a brief period of time after stimulus disappearance. According to recent studies, VSTM consists of three stages - iconic memory, fragile VSTM, and visual working memory - with increasingly stricter capacity limits and progressively longer lifetimes. Still, the resolution (or amount of visual detail) of each VSTM stage has remained unexplored and we test this in the present study. We presented people with a change detection task that measures the capacity of all three forms of VSTM, and we added an identification display after each change trial that required people to identify the "pre-change" object. Accurate change detection plus pre-change identification requires subjects to have a high-resolution representation of the "pre-change" object, whereas change detection or identification only can be based on the hunch that something has changed, without exactly knowing what was presented before. We observed that people maintained 6.1 objects in iconic memory, 4.6 objects in fragile VSTM, and 2.1 objects in visual working memory. Moreover, when people detected the change, they could also identify the pre-change object on 88% of the iconic memory trials, on 71% of the fragile VSTM trials and merely on 53% of the visual working memory trials. This suggests that people maintain many high-resolution representations in iconic memory and fragile VSTM, but only one high-resolution object representation in visual working memory.

  13. The working memory networks of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, David E J

    2007-06-01

    Working memory and short-term memory are closely related in their cognitive architecture, capacity limitations, and functional neuroanatomy, which only partly overlap with those of long-term memory. The author reviews the functional neuroimaging literature on the commonalities and differences between working memory and short-term memory and the interplay of areas with modality-specific and supramodal representations in the brain networks supporting these fundamental cognitive processes. Sensory stores in the visual, auditory, and somatosensory cortex play a role in short-term memory, but supramodal parietal and frontal areas are often recruited as well. Classical working memory operations such as manipulation, protection against interference, or updating almost certainly require at least some degree of prefrontal support, but many pure maintenance tasks involve these areas as well. Although it seems that activity shifts from more posterior regions during encoding to more anterior regions during delay, some studies reported sustained delay activity in sensory areas as well. This spatiotemporal complexity of the short-term memory/working memory networks is mirrored in the activation patterns that may explain capacity constraints, which, although most prominent in the parietal cortex, seem to be pervasive across sensory and premotor areas. Finally, the author highlights open questions for cognitive neuroscience research of working memory, such as that of the mechanisms for integrating different types of content (binding) or those providing the link to long-term memory.

  14. Modulation of working memory updating: Does long-term memory lexical association matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuso, Caterina; Palladino, Paola

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how working memory updating for verbal material is modulated by enduring properties of long-term memory. Two coexisting perspectives that account for the relation between long-term representation and short-term performance were addressed. First, evidence suggests that performance is more closely linked to lexical properties, that is, co-occurrences within the language. Conversely, other evidence suggests that performance is linked more to long-term representations which do not entail lexical/linguistic representations. Our aim was to investigate how these two kinds of long-term memory associations (i.e., lexical or nonlexical) modulate ongoing working memory activity. Therefore, we manipulated (between participants) the strength of the association in letters based on either frequency of co-occurrences (lexical) or contiguity along the sequence of the alphabet (nonlexical). Results showed a cost in working memory updating for strongly lexically associated stimuli only. Our findings advance knowledge of how lexical long-term memory associations between consonants affect working memory updating and, in turn, contribute to the study of factors which impact the updating process across memory systems.

  15. A Case Study on Neural Inspired Dynamic Memory Management Strategies for High Performance Computing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vineyard, Craig Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Verzi, Stephen Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    As high performance computing architectures pursue more computational power there is a need for increased memory capacity and bandwidth as well. A multi-level memory (MLM) architecture addresses this need by combining multiple memory types with different characteristics as varying levels of the same architecture. How to efficiently utilize this memory infrastructure is an unknown challenge, and in this research we sought to investigate whether neural inspired approaches can meaningfully help with memory management. In particular we explored neurogenesis inspired re- source allocation, and were able to show a neural inspired mixed controller policy can beneficially impact how MLM architectures utilize memory.

  16. Interference from mere thinking: mental rehearsal temporarily disrupts recall of motor memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Cong; Wei, Kunlin

    2014-08-01

    Interference between successively learned tasks is widely investigated to study motor memory. However, how simultaneously learned motor memories interact with each other has been rarely studied despite its prevalence in daily life. Assuming that motor memory shares common neural mechanisms with declarative memory system, we made unintuitive predictions that mental rehearsal, as opposed to further practice, of one motor memory will temporarily impair the recall of another simultaneously learned memory. Subjects simultaneously learned two sensorimotor tasks, i.e., visuomotor rotation and gain. They retrieved one memory by either practice or mental rehearsal and then had their memory evaluated. We found that mental rehearsal, instead of execution, impaired the recall of unretrieved memory. This impairment was content-independent, i.e., retrieving either gain or rotation impaired the other memory. Hence, conscious recollection of one motor memory interferes with the recall of another memory. This is analogous to retrieval-induced forgetting in declarative memory, suggesting a common neural process across memory systems. Our findings indicate that motor imagery is sufficient to induce interference between motor memories. Mental rehearsal, currently widely regarded as beneficial for motor performance, negatively affects memory recall when it is exercised for a subset of memorized items. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Visuospatial working memory in young adults and in children with learning difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Basso Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial working memory (VSWM) comprises specialised subsystems devoted to storage of visual features and spatial locations. Recently, research has been focused on understanding feature binding in memory and how bound objects are temporarily held in working memory. In the current thesis we have addressed two broad questions: What is the nature of bound visual representations in working memory? Is there a specific deficit in binding in individuals with learning difficulties? In Study 1, yo...

  18. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hy...

  19. Reading handprinted addresses on IRS tax forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanaprasad, Vemulapati; Shin, Yong-Chul; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1996-03-01

    The hand-printed address recognition system described in this paper is a part of the Name and Address Block Reader (NABR) system developed by the Center of Excellence for Document Analysis and Recognition (CEDAR). NABR is currently being used by the IRS to read address blocks (hand-print as well as machine-print) on fifteen different tax forms. Although machine- print address reading was relatively straightforward, hand-print address recognition has posed some special challenges due to demands on processing speed (with an expected throughput of 8450 forms/hour) and recognition accuracy. We discuss various subsystems involved in hand- printed address recognition, including word segmentation, word recognition, digit segmentation, and digit recognition. We also describe control strategies used to make effective use of these subsystems to maximize recognition accuracy. We present system performance on 931 address blocks in recognizing various fields, such as city, state, ZIP Code, street number and name, and personal names.

  20. Clinical contributions to addressing the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kiran C R; Spilsbury, Peter; Shukla, Rashmi

    2010-04-01

    The drive to address social determinants of health is gaining momentum. Appreciating that health outcomes are only partly affected by healthcare, clinicians and clinical communities can play a significant role in this crusade by action at local, regional, national and global levels. A concerted and systematic focus on integrating and industrialising upstream interventions at every healthcare encounter is essential to prevent future illness, thus enabling a paradigm shift in the healthcare service from being one of illness management to health preservation. The evidence base demonstrates the cost efficacy of upstream interventions. The challenge is how this evidence is utilised to implement these interventions in everyday healthcare. Today, with a global economic crisis and challenged public sector funding, the need to address prevention has never been more pressing. Clinical engagement at all levels, from the front line to the boardroom is vital. Clinicians must address access, communication, strategy and commissioning to fulfil a professional responsibility to become and remain the corporate memory of a health service focused on preventing illness while simultaneously delivering cost-effective healthcare.

  1. Relational Memory Is Evident in Eye Movement Behavior despite the Use of Subliminal Testing Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison E Nickel

    Full Text Available While it is generally agreed that perception can occur without awareness, there continues to be debate about the type of representational content that is accessible when awareness is minimized or eliminated. Most investigations that have addressed this issue evaluate access to well-learned representations. Far fewer studies have evaluated whether or not associations encountered just once prior to testing might also be accessed and influence behavior. Here, eye movements were used to examine whether or not memory for studied relationships is evident following the presentation of subliminal cues. Participants assigned to experimental or control groups studied scene-face pairs and test trials evaluated implicit and explicit memory for these pairs. Each test trial began with a subliminal scene cue, followed by three visible studied faces. For experimental group participants, one face was the studied associate of the scene (implicit test; for controls none were a match. Subsequently, the display containing a match was presented to both groups, but now it was preceded by a visible scene cue (explicit test. Eye movements were recorded and recognition memory responses were made. Participants in the experimental group looked disproportionately at matching faces on implicit test trials and participants from both groups looked disproportionately at matching faces on explicit test trials, even when that face had not been successfully identified as the associate. Critically, implicit memory-based viewing effects seemed not to depend on residual awareness of subliminal scene cues, as subjective and objective measures indicated that scenes were successfully masked from view. The reported outcomes indicate that memory for studied relationships can be expressed in eye movement behavior without awareness.

  2. Relational Memory Is Evident in Eye Movement Behavior despite the Use of Subliminal Testing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Allison E.; Henke, Katharina; Hannula, Deborah E.

    2015-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that perception can occur without awareness, there continues to be debate about the type of representational content that is accessible when awareness is minimized or eliminated. Most investigations that have addressed this issue evaluate access to well-learned representations. Far fewer studies have evaluated whether or not associations encountered just once prior to testing might also be accessed and influence behavior. Here, eye movements were used to examine whether or not memory for studied relationships is evident following the presentation of subliminal cues. Participants assigned to experimental or control groups studied scene-face pairs and test trials evaluated implicit and explicit memory for these pairs. Each test trial began with a subliminal scene cue, followed by three visible studied faces. For experimental group participants, one face was the studied associate of the scene (implicit test); for controls none were a match. Subsequently, the display containing a match was presented to both groups, but now it was preceded by a visible scene cue (explicit test). Eye movements were recorded and recognition memory responses were made. Participants in the experimental group looked disproportionately at matching faces on implicit test trials and participants from both groups looked disproportionately at matching faces on explicit test trials, even when that face had not been successfully identified as the associate. Critically, implicit memory-based viewing effects seemed not to depend on residual awareness of subliminal scene cues, as subjective and objective measures indicated that scenes were successfully masked from view. The reported outcomes indicate that memory for studied relationships can be expressed in eye movement behavior without awareness. PMID:26512726

  3. Relational Memory Is Evident in Eye Movement Behavior despite the Use of Subliminal Testing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Allison E; Henke, Katharina; Hannula, Deborah E

    2015-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that perception can occur without awareness, there continues to be debate about the type of representational content that is accessible when awareness is minimized or eliminated. Most investigations that have addressed this issue evaluate access to well-learned representations. Far fewer studies have evaluated whether or not associations encountered just once prior to testing might also be accessed and influence behavior. Here, eye movements were used to examine whether or not memory for studied relationships is evident following the presentation of subliminal cues. Participants assigned to experimental or control groups studied scene-face pairs and test trials evaluated implicit and explicit memory for these pairs. Each test trial began with a subliminal scene cue, followed by three visible studied faces. For experimental group participants, one face was the studied associate of the scene (implicit test); for controls none were a match. Subsequently, the display containing a match was presented to both groups, but now it was preceded by a visible scene cue (explicit test). Eye movements were recorded and recognition memory responses were made. Participants in the experimental group looked disproportionately at matching faces on implicit test trials and participants from both groups looked disproportionately at matching faces on explicit test trials, even when that face had not been successfully identified as the associate. Critically, implicit memory-based viewing effects seemed not to depend on residual awareness of subliminal scene cues, as subjective and objective measures indicated that scenes were successfully masked from view. The reported outcomes indicate that memory for studied relationships can be expressed in eye movement behavior without awareness.

  4. Recognition Decisions from Visual Working Memory Are Mediated by Continuous Latent Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, Timothy J.; Thiele, Jonathan E.; Swagman, April R.; Rouder, Jeffrey N.

    2017-01-01

    Making recognition decisions often requires us to reference the contents of working memory, the information available for ongoing cognitive processing. As such, understanding how recognition decisions are made when based on the contents of working memory is of critical importance. In this work we examine whether recognition decisions based on the…

  5. Development in the Organization of Episodic Memories in Middle Childhood and Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Yan eChen; Helena Margaret McAnally; Elaine eReese

    2013-01-01

    The basic elements of autobiographical or episodic memory are established in early childhood, although the exact age at which memories gain episodic status is still under contention. The self-memory system proposed that adults use “lifetime periods” to group episodic memories together into chapters of the life story – an evolving and internalized account of significant life events that are self-defining. Two studies examined at what point in development children or adolescents begin to take a...

  6. Memory for conversation and the development of common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Geoffrey L; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2017-11-01

    Efficient conversation is guided by the mutual knowledge, or common ground, that interlocutors form as a conversation progresses. Characterized from the perspective of commonly used measures of memory, efficient conversation should be closely associated with item memory-what was said-and context memory-who said what to whom. However, few studies have explicitly probed memory to evaluate what type of information is maintained following a communicative exchange. The current study examined how item and context memory relate to the development of common ground over the course of a conversation, and how these forms of memory vary as a function of one's role in a conversation as speaker or listener. The process of developing common ground was positively related to both item and context memory. In addition, content that was spoken was remembered better than content that was heard. Our findings illustrate how memory assessments can complement language measures by revealing the impact that basic conversational processes have on memory for what has been discussed. By taking this approach, we show that not only does the process of forming common ground facilitate communication in the present, but it also promotes an enduring record of that event, facilitating conversation into the future.

  7. Prospective memory, working memory, retrospective memory and self-rated memory performance in persons with intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Levén, Anna; Lyxell, Björn; Andersson, Jan; Danielsson, Henrik; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between prospective memory, working memory, retrospective memory and self-rated memory capacity in adults with and without intellectual disability. Prospective memory was investigated by means of a picture-based task. Working memory was measured as performance on span tasks. Retrospective memory was scored as recall of subject performed tasks. Self-ratings of memory performance were based on the prospective and retrospective mem...

  8. Main Memory DBMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractA main memory database system is a DBMS that primarily relies on main memory for computer data storage. In contrast, normal database management systems employ hard disk based persisntent storage.

  9. Coping with Memory Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Coping With Memory Loss Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... be evaluated by a health professional. What Causes Memory Loss? Anything that affects cognition—the process of ...

  10. Memory and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memory and Aging Losing keys, misplacing a wallet, or forgetting someone’s name are common experiences. But for people nearing or over age 65, such memory lapses can be frightening. They wonder if they ...

  11. Are delusional contents replayed during dreams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Armando; Aletti, Giacomo; Carboni, Martina; Cavallotti, Simone; Limosani, Ivan; Manzone, Marialaura; Scarone, Silvio

    2013-09-01

    The relationship between dream content and waking life experiences remains difficult to decipher. However, some neurobiological findings suggest that dreaming can, at least in part, be considered epiphenomenal to ongoing memory consolidation processes in sleep. Both abnormalities in sleep architecture and impairment in memory consolidation mechanisms are thought to be involved in the development of psychosis. The objective of this study was to assess the continuity between delusional contents and dreams in acutely psychotic patients. Ten patients with a single fixed and recurring delusional content were asked to report their dreams during an acute psychotic break. Sixteen judges with four different levels of acquaintance to the specific content of the patients' delusions were asked to group the dreams, expecting that fragments of the delusional thought would guide the task. A mathematical index (f,t) was developed in order to compare correct groupings between the four groups of judges. Most judges grouped the dreams slightly above chance level and no relevant differences could be found between the four groups [F(3,12)=1.297; p=n.s.]. Scoring of dreams for specific delusional themes suggested a continuity in terms of dream and waking mentation for two contents (Grandiosity and Religion). These findings seem to suggest that at least some delusional contents recur within patients' dreams. Future studies will need to determine whether such continuity reflects ongoing consolidation processes that are relevant to current theories of delusion formation and stabilization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multimedia content classification metrics for content adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Rui; Andrade, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Multimedia content consumption is very popular nowadays. However, not every content can be consumed in its original format: the combination of content, transport and access networks, consumption device and usage environment characteristics may all pose restrictions to that purpose. One way to provide the best possible quality to the user is to adapt the content according to these restrictions as well as user preferences. This adaptation stage can be best executed if knowledge about the conten...

  13. Multimedia content classification metrics for content adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Rui; Andrade, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Multimedia content consumption is very popular nowadays. However, not every content can be consumed in its original format: the combination of content, transport and access networks, consumption device and usage environment characteristics may all pose restrictions to that purpose. One way to provide the best possible quality to the user is to adapt the content according to these restrictions as well as user preferences. This adaptation stage can be best executed if knowledge about the conten...

  14. Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition…

  15. False memories with age: neural and cognitive underpinnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Aleea L.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    As we age we become increasingly susceptible to memory distortions and inaccuracies. Over the past decade numerous neuroimaging studies have attempted to illuminate the neural underpinnings of aging and false memory. Here we review these studies, and link their findings with those concerning the cognitive properties of age-related changes in memory accuracy. Collectively this evidence points towards a prominent role for age-related declines in medial temporal and prefrontal brain areas, and corresponding impairments in associative binding and strategic monitoring. A resulting cascade of cognitive changes contributes to the heightened vulnerability to false memories with age, including reduced recollective ability, a reliance on gist information and familiarity-based monitoring mechanisms, as well as a reduced ability to inhibit irrelevant information and erroneous binding of features between memory traces. We consider both theoretical and applied implications of research on aging and false memories, as well as questions remaining to be addressed in future research. PMID:27592332

  16. Large scale particle simulations in a virtual memory computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.C.; Million, R.; Wagner, J.S.; Tajima, T.

    1983-01-01

    Virtual memory computers are capable of executing large-scale particle simulations even when the memory requirements exceeds the computer core size. The required address space is automatically mapped onto slow disc memory the the operating system. When the simulation size is very large, frequent random accesses to slow memory occur during the charge accumulation and particle pushing processes. Assesses to slow memory significantly reduce the excecution rate of the simulation. We demonstrate in this paper that with the proper choice of sorting algorithm, a nominal amount of sorting to keep physically adjacent particles near particles with neighboring array indices can reduce random access to slow memory, increase the efficiency of the I/O system, and hence, reduce the required computing time. (orig.)

  17. Scaling properties in time-varying networks with memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyewon; Ha, Meesoon; Jeong, Hawoong

    2015-12-01

    The formation of network structure is mainly influenced by an individual node's activity and its memory, where activity can usually be interpreted as the individual inherent property and memory can be represented by the interaction strength between nodes. In our study, we define the activity through the appearance pattern in the time-aggregated network representation, and quantify the memory through the contact pattern of empirical temporal networks. To address the role of activity and memory in epidemics on time-varying networks, we propose temporal-pattern coarsening of activity-driven growing networks with memory. In particular, we focus on the relation between time-scale coarsening and spreading dynamics in the context of dynamic scaling and finite-size scaling. Finally, we discuss the universality issue of spreading dynamics on time-varying networks for various memory-causality tests.

  18. Music, memory and emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. PMID:18710596

  19. Attending to auditory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Jacqueline F; Moscovitch, Morris; Alain, Claude

    2016-06-01

    Attention to memory describes the process of attending to memory traces when the object is no longer present. It has been studied primarily for representations of visual stimuli with only few studies examining attention to sound object representations in short-term memory. Here, we review the interplay of attention and auditory memory with an emphasis on 1) attending to auditory memory in the absence of related external stimuli (i.e., reflective attention) and 2) effects of existing memory on guiding attention. Attention to auditory memory is discussed in the context of change deafness, and we argue that failures to detect changes in our auditory environments are most likely the result of a faulty comparison system of incoming and stored information. Also, objects are the primary building blocks of auditory attention, but attention can also be directed to individual features (e.g., pitch). We review short-term and long-term memory guided modulation of attention based on characteristic features, location, and/or semantic properties of auditory objects, and propose that auditory attention to memory pathways emerge after sensory memory. A neural model for auditory attention to memory is developed, which comprises two separate pathways in the parietal cortex, one involved in attention to higher-order features and the other involved in attention to sensory information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Saving Malta's music memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sant, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Maltese music is being lost. Along with it Malta loses its culture, way of life, and memories. Dr Toni Sant is trying to change this trend through the Malta Music Memory Project (M3P) http://www.um.edu.mt/think/saving-maltas-music-memory-2/

  1. Associative Memory Acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Roger

    The properties of an associative memory are examined in this paper from the viewpoint of automata theory. A device called an associative memory acceptor is studied under real-time operation. The family "L" of languages accepted by real-time associative memory acceptors is shown to properly contain the family of languages accepted by one-tape,…

  2. Generation and Context Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Lozito, Jeffrey P.; Rosner, Zachary A.

    2006-01-01

    Generation enhances memory for occurrence but may not enhance other aspects of memory. The present study further delineates the negative generation effect in context memory reported in N. W. Mulligan (2004). First, the negative generation effect occurred for perceptual attributes of the target item (its color and font) but not for extratarget…

  3. Music, memory and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-08-08

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

  4. Irrelevant sensory stimuli interfere with working memory storage: evidence from a computational model of prefrontal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Tyler D; Hockley, William E; Servos, Philip

    2013-03-01

    The encoding of irrelevant stimuli into the memory store has previously been suggested as a mechanism of interference in working memory (e.g., Lange & Oberauer, Memory, 13, 333-339, 2005; Nairne, Memory & Cognition, 18, 251-269, 1990). Recently, Bancroft and Servos (Experimental Brain Research, 208, 529-532, 2011) used a tactile working memory task to provide experimental evidence that irrelevant stimuli were, in fact, encoded into working memory. In the present study, we replicated Bancroft and Servos's experimental findings using a biologically based computational model of prefrontal neurons, providing a neurocomputational model of overwriting in working memory. Furthermore, our modeling results show that inhibition acts to protect the contents of working memory, and they suggest a need for further experimental research into the capacity of vibrotactile working memory.

  5. Effects of load on the guidance of visual attention from working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Zhang, John X; Huang, Sai; Kong, Lingyue; Wang, Suiping

    2011-12-08

    An active recent line of research on working memory and attention has shown that the visual attention can be top-down guided by working memory contents. The present study examined whether the guidance effect is modulated by memory load, i.e., the amount of information maintained in working memory. In a set of three experiments, participants were asked to perform a visual search task while maintaining several objects in working memory. The memory-driven attentional guidance effect was observed in all experiments when there were spare working memory resources. When memory load was increased from one item to two items, there was no sign that the guidance effect was attenuated. When load was further increased to four items, the guidance effect disappeared completely, indicating a clear impact of memory load on attentional guidance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Organization of Control Units with Operational Addressing

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander A. Barkalov; Roman M. Babakov; Larysa A. Titarenko

    2012-01-01

    The using of operational addressing unit as the block of control unit is proposed. The new structure model of Moore finite-state machine with reduced hardware amount is developed. The generalized structure of operational addressing unit is suggested. An example of synthesis process for Moore finite-state machine with operational addressing unit is given. The analytical researches of proposed structure of control unit are executed.

  7. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E

    2012-01-01

    Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as "memory detection," little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research.

  8. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio eGanis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a probe item by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs between this item and comparison items (irrelevants. Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as memory detection, little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addressed the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study. Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing semantic knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive component (LPC than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. Thus, the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research.

  9. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as “memory detection,” little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research. PMID:23355816

  10. IP Address Management Principles and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    This book will be the first covering the subject of IP address management (IPAM). The practice of IPAM includes the application of network management disciplines to IP address space and associated network services, namely DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) and DNS (Domain Name System). The consequence of inaccurately configuring DHCP is that end users may not be able to obtain IP addresses to access the network. Without proper DNS configuration, usability of the network will greatly suffer as the name-to-address lookup process may fail. Imagine having to navigate to a website or send a

  11. Scientific developments of liquid crystal-based optical memory: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Jai; Chandran, Achu; Biradar, Ashok M.

    2017-01-01

    The memory behavior in liquid crystals (LCs), although rarely observed, has made very significant headway over the past three decades since their discovery in nematic type LCs. It has gone from a mere scientific curiosity to application in variety of commodities. The memory element formed by numerous LCs have been protected by patents, and some commercialized, and used as compensation to non-volatile memory devices, and as memory in personal computers and digital cameras. They also have the low cost, large area, high speed, and high density memory needed for advanced computers and digital electronics. Short and long duration memory behavior for industrial applications have been obtained from several LC materials, and an LC memory with interesting features and applications has been demonstrated using numerous LCs. However, considerable challenges still exist in searching for highly efficient, stable, and long-lifespan materials and methods so that the development of useful memory devices is possible. This review focuses on the scientific and technological approach of fascinating applications of LC-based memory. We address the introduction, development status, novel design and engineering principles, and parameters of LC memory. We also address how the amalgamation of LCs could bring significant change/improvement in memory effects in the emerging field of nanotechnology, and the application of LC memory as the active component for futuristic and interesting memory devices.

  12. Object recognition memory: neurobiological mechanisms of encoding, consolidation and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Boyer D; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J

    2008-07-01

    Tests of object recognition memory, or the judgment of the prior occurrence of an object, have made substantial contributions to our understanding of the nature and neurobiological underpinnings of mammalian memory. Only in recent years, however, have researchers begun to elucidate the specific brain areas and neural processes involved in object recognition memory. The present review considers some of this recent research, with an emphasis on studies addressing the neural bases of perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition memory processes. We first briefly discuss operational definitions of object recognition and the common behavioural tests used to measure it in non-human primates and rodents. We then consider research from the non-human primate and rat literature examining the anatomical basis of object recognition memory in the delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS) and spontaneous object recognition (SOR) tasks, respectively. The results of these studies overwhelmingly favor the view that perirhinal cortex (PRh) is a critical region for object recognition memory. We then discuss the involvement of PRh in the different stages--encoding, consolidation, and retrieval--of object recognition memory. Specifically, recent work in rats has indicated that neural activity in PRh contributes to object memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval processes. Finally, we consider the pharmacological, cellular, and molecular factors that might play a part in PRh-mediated object recognition memory. Recent studies in rodents have begun to indicate the remarkable complexity of the neural substrates underlying this seemingly simple aspect of declarative memory.

  13. Working memory and intelligibility of hearing-aid processed speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Pamela E.; Arehart, Kathryn H.; Shen, Jing; Anderson, Melinda; Kates, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggested that individuals with low working memory capacity may be at a disadvantage in adverse listening environments, including situations with background noise or substantial modification of the acoustic signal. This study explored the relationship between patient factors (including working memory capacity) and intelligibility and quality of modified speech for older individuals with sensorineural hearing loss. The modification was created using a combination of hearing aid processing [wide-dynamic range compression (WDRC) and frequency compression (FC)] applied to sentences in multitalker babble. The extent of signal modification was quantified via an envelope fidelity index. We also explored the contribution of components of working memory by including measures of processing speed and executive function. We hypothesized that listeners with low working memory capacity would perform more poorly than those with high working memory capacity across all situations, and would also be differentially affected by high amounts of signal modification. Results showed a significant effect of working memory capacity for speech intelligibility, and an interaction between working memory, amount of hearing loss and signal modification. Signal modification was the major predictor of quality ratings. These data add to the literature on hearing-aid processing and working memory by suggesting that the working memory-intelligibility effects may be related to aggregate signal fidelity, rather than to the specific signal manipulation. They also suggest that for individuals with low working memory capacity, sensorineural loss may be most appropriately addressed with WDRC and/or FC parameters that maintain the fidelity of the signal envelope. PMID:25999874

  14. An interference model of visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus; Lin, Hsuan-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The article introduces an interference model of working memory for information in a continuous similarity space, such as the features of visual objects. The model incorporates the following assumptions: (a) Probability of retrieval is determined by the relative activation of each retrieval candidate at the time of retrieval; (b) activation comes from 3 sources in memory: cue-based retrieval using context cues, context-independent memory for relevant contents, and noise; (c) 1 memory object and its context can be held in the focus of attention, where it is represented with higher precision, and partly shielded against interference. The model was fit to data from 4 continuous-reproduction experiments testing working memory for colors or orientations. The experiments involved variations of set size, kind of context cues, precueing, and retro-cueing of the to-be-tested item. The interference model fit the data better than 2 competing models, the Slot-Averaging model and the Variable-Precision resource model. The interference model also fared well in comparison to several new models incorporating alternative theoretical assumptions. The experiments confirm 3 novel predictions of the interference model: (a) Nontargets intrude in recall to the extent that they are close to the target in context space; (b) similarity between target and nontarget features improves recall, and (c) precueing-but not retro-cueing-the target substantially reduces the set-size effect. The success of the interference model shows that working memory for continuous visual information works according to the same principles as working memory for more discrete (e.g., verbal) contents. Data and model codes are available at https://osf.io/wgqd5/. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. ECT and memory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, L R

    1977-09-01

    The author reviews several studies that clarify the nature of the memory loss associated with ECT. Bilateral ECT produced greater anterograde memory loss than right unilateral ECT and more extensive retrograde amnesia than unilateral ECT. Reactivating memories just before ECT did not produce amnesia. Capacity for new learning recovered substantially by several months after ECT, but memory complaints were common in individuals who had received bilateral ECT. Other things being equal, right unilateral ECT seems preferable to bilateral ECT because the risks to memory associated with unilateral ECT are smaller.

  16. Determination of memory performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopych, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    Within the scope of testing statistical hypotheses theory a model definition and a computer method for model calculation of widely used in neuropsychology human memory performance (free recall, cued recall, and recognition probabilities), a model definition and a computer method for model calculation of intensities of cues used in experiments for testing human memory quality are proposed. Models for active and passive traces of memory and their relations are found. It was shown that autoassociative memory unit in the form of short two-layer artificial neural network with (or without) damages can be used for model description of memory performance in subjects with (or without) local brain lesions

  17. Memory sources of dreams: the incorporation of autobiographical rather than episodic experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Josie E; Horton, Caroline L

    2014-08-01

    The present study aimed to explore autobiographical memories (long-lasting memories about the self) and episodic memories (memories about discrete episodes or events) within dream content. We adapted earlier episodic memory study paradigms and reinvestigated the incorporation of episodic memory sources into dreams, operationalizing episodic memory as featuring autonoetic consciousness, which is the feeling of truly re-experiencing or reliving a past event. Participants (n = 32) recorded daily diaries and dream diaries, and reported on wake-dream relations for 2 weeks. Using a new scale, dreams were rated for their episodic richness, which categorized memory sources of dreams as being truly episodic (featuring autonoetic consciousness), autobiographical (containing segregated features of experiences that pertained to waking life) or otherwise. Only one dream (0.5%) was found to contain an episodic memory. However, the majority of dreams (>80%) were found to contain low to moderate incorporations of autobiographical memory features. These findings demonstrate the inactivity of intact episodic memories, and emphasize the activity of autobiographical memory and processing within dreams. Taken together, this suggests that memories for personal experiences are experienced fragmentarily and selectively during dreaming, perhaps in order to assimilate these memories into the autobiographical memory schema. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  18. Elements of episodic-like memory in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, Jonathon D

    2009-03-01

    Representations of unique events from one's past constitute the content of episodic memories. A number of studies with non-human animals have revealed that animals remember specific episodes from their past (referred to as episodic-like memory). The development of animal models of memory holds enormous potential for gaining insight into the biological bases of human memory. Specifically, given the extensive knowledge of the rodent brain, the development of rodent models of episodic memory would open new opportunities to explore the neuroanatomical, neurochemical, neurophysiological, and molecular mechanisms of memory. Development of such animal models holds enormous potential for studying functional changes in episodic memory in animal models of Alzheimer's disease, amnesia, and other human memory pathologies. This article reviews several approaches that have been used to assess episodic-like memory in animals. The approaches reviewed include the discrimination of what, where, and when in a radial arm maze, dissociation of recollection and familiarity, object recognition, binding, unexpected questions, and anticipation of a reproductive state. The diversity of approaches may promote the development of converging lines of evidence on the difficult problem of assessing episodic-like memory in animals.

  19. [Nondeclarative memory--neuropsychological findings and neuroanatomic principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, I; Ackermann, H

    1997-03-01

    The contents of long-term memory will influence behaviour, even if the acquired knowledge or the original learning episode are not remembered. These phenomena have been termed "non-declarative" or "implicit" memory, and they are contrasted with "declarative" or "explicit" memory which is characterised by conscious search and retrieval procedures. Non-declarative memory encompasses non-associative learning, simple conditioning, priming effects as well as motor, perceptual and cognitive skill acquisition. The dissociation of both forms of memory is documented by studies in health subjects which indicated that experimental manipulations or drugs may differentially affect declarative and non-declarative memory processes. Damage to the medial temporal or the medial thalamic regions is known to result in declarative memory deficits whereas non-declarative memory is largely unaffected by such lesions. Animal research and clinical findings indicate that several components of non-declarative memory such as motor and cognitive skill acquisition or certain types of classical conditioning are dependent upon the integrity of the basal ganglia or the cerebellum. These issues are therefore of increasing importance for the understanding of extrapyramidal and cerebellar diseases. This paper presents recent neuropsychological findings and neuroanatomical data relating to the issue of non-declarative memory.

  20. Episodic-like memory in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Stephanie J; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2006-07-11

    A fundamental question in comparative cognition is whether animals remember unique, personal past experiences. It has long been argued that memories for specific events (referred to as episodic memory) are unique to humans. Recently, considerable evidence has accumulated to show that food-storing birds possess critical behavioral elements of episodic memory, referred to as episodic-like memory in acknowledgment of the fact that behavioral criteria do not assess subjective experiences. Here we show that rats have a detailed representation of remembered events and meet behavioral criteria for episodic-like memory. We provided rats with access to locations baited with distinctive (e.g., grape and raspberry) or nondistinctive (regular chow) flavors. Locations with a distinctive flavor replenished after a long but not a short delay, and locations with the nondistinctive flavor never replenished. One distinctive flavor was devalued after encoding its location by prefeeding that flavor (satiation) or by pairing it with lithium chloride (acquired taste aversion), while the other distinctive flavor was not devalued. The rats selectively decreased revisits to the devalued distinctive flavor but not to the nondevalued distinctive flavor. The present studies demonstrate that rats selectively encode the content of episodic-like memories.

  1. Emotions and memory in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Dorina; Elzinga, Bernet; Schmahl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Memory processes such as encoding, storage, and retrieval of information are influenced by emotional content. Because patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are particularly susceptible to emotional information, it is relevant to understand whether such memory processes are altered in this patient group. This systematic literature review collects current evidence on this issue. Research suggests that emotional information interferes more strongly with information processing and learning in BPD patients than in healthy controls. In general, BPD patients do not seem to differ from healthy control subjects in their ability to memorize emotional information, but they tend to have specific difficulties forgetting negative information. Also, BPD patients seem to recall autobiographical, particularly negative events with stronger arousal than healthy controls, while BPD patients also show specific temporo-prefrontal alterations in neural correlates. No substantial evidence was found that the current affective state influences learning and memory in BPD patients any differently than in healthy control subjects. In general, a depressive mood seems to both deteriorate and negatively bias information processing and memories, while there is evidence that dissociative symptoms impair learning and memory independently of stimulus valence. This review discusses methodological challenges of studies on memory and emotions in BPD and makes suggestions for future research and clinical implications. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Enhancing memory self-efficacy during menopause through a group memory strategies program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkenstein, Anne E; Bei, Bei; Bryant, Christina A

    2017-05-01

    Anxiety about memory during menopause can affect quality of life. We aimed to improve memory self-efficacy during menopause using a group memory strategies program. The program was run five times for a total of 32 peri- and postmenopausal women, age between 47 and 60 years, recruited from hospital menopause and gynecology clinics. The 4-week intervention consisted of weekly 2-hour sessions, and covered how memory works, memory changes related to ageing, health and lifestyle factors, and specific memory strategies. Memory contentment (CT), reported frequency of forgetting (FF), use of memory strategies, psychological distress, and attitude toward menopause were measured. A double-baseline design was applied, with outcomes measured on two baseline occasions (1-month prior [T1] and in the first session [T2]), immediately postintervention (T3), and 3-month postintervention (T4). To describe changes in each variable between time points paired sample t tests were conducted. Mixed-effects models comparing the means of random slopes from T2 to T3 with those from T1 to T2 were conducted for each variable to test for treatment effects. Examination of the naturalistic changes in outcome measures from T1 to T2 revealed no significant changes (all Ps > 0.05). CT, reported FF, and use of memory strategies improved significantly more from T2 to T3, than from T1 to T2 (all Ps attitude toward menopause nor psychological distress improved significantly more postintervention than during the double-baseline (all Ps > 0.05). Improvements in reported CT and FF were maintained after 3 months. The use of group interventions to improve memory self-efficacy during menopause warrants continued evaluation.

  3. Memory dynamics under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Schwabe, Lars

    2018-03-01

    Stressful events have a major impact on memory. They modulate memory formation in a time-dependent manner, closely linked to the temporal profile of action of major stress mediators, in particular catecholamines and glucocorticoids. Shortly after stressor onset, rapidly acting catecholamines and fast, non-genomic glucocorticoid actions direct cognitive resources to the processing and consolidation of the ongoing threat. In parallel, control of memory is biased towards rather rigid systems, promoting habitual forms of memory allowing efficient processing under stress, at the expense of "cognitive" systems supporting memory flexibility and specificity. In this review, we discuss the implications of this shift in the balance of multiple memory systems for the dynamics of the memory trace. Specifically, stress appears to hinder the incorporation of contextual details into the memory trace, to impede the integration of new information into existing knowledge structures, to impair the flexible generalisation across past experiences, and to hamper the modification of memories in light of new information. Delayed, genomic glucocorticoid actions might reverse the control of memory, thus restoring homeostasis and "cognitive" control of memory again.

  4. Camera Arriving at the Station: Cinematic Memory as Cultural Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell J. A. Kilbourn

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the modern metropolis as an ironically concrete metaphor for the collective memory and the mourning of cinema’s passing, as it—the “city”—is digitally constructed in two recent, auteur-directed, special effects-driven blockbuster films, Inception and Hugo. The modern city, and mass media, such as the cinema, as well as modes of mass transport, especially the train, all originate in the 19th century, but come into their own in the early 20th century in their address to a subject as the mobilised citizen-consumer who, as Anne Friedberg makes clear, is also always a viewer. Additionally, as Barbara Mennel has recently shown, the advent in Europe of trains and time zones, in their transformation of modern time and space, paved the way for cinema’s comparably cataclysmic impact upon modern subjectivity in its iconic reproduction of movement within illusory 3D space. Both films, thus, in their different ways employ cinematic remediation as a form of cultural memory whose nostalgia for cinema’s past is rendered with the latest digital effects, hidden in plain sight in the form of subjective memories (as flashback and dreams. While a version of this reading has been advanced before (at least for Hugo, this paper goes further by connecting each film’s status as remediated dream-memory to its respective dependence upon the city as a post-cinematic three-dimensional framework within which locative and locomotive desires alike determine a subject whose psyche is indistinguishable from the cityscape that surrounds him.

  5. Detailed sensory memory, sloppy working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja G Sligte

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual short-term memory (VSTM enables us to actively maintain information in mind for a brief period of time after stimulus disappearance. According to recent studies, VSTM consists of three stages - iconic memory, fragile VSTM, and visual working memory - with increasingly stricter capacity limits and progressively longer lifetimes. Still, the resolution (or amount of visual detail of each VSTM stage has remained unexplored and we test this in the present study. We presented people with a change detection task that measures the capacity of all three forms of VSTM, and we added an identification display after each change trial that required people to identify the pre-change object. Accurate change detection plus pre-change identification requires subjects to have a high-resolution representation of the pre-change object, whereas change detection or identification only can be based on the hunch that something has changed, without exactly knowing what was presented before. We observed that people maintained 6.1 objects in iconic memory, 4.6 objects in fragile VSTM and 2.1 objects in visual working memory. Moreover, when people detected the change, they could also identify the pre-change object on 88 percent of the iconic memory trials, on 71 percent of the fragile VSTM trials and merely on 53 percent of the visual working memory trials. This suggests that people maintain many high-resolution representations in iconic memory and fragile VSTM, but only one high-resolution object representation in visual working memory.

  6. NAND flash memory technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Aritome, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses basic and advanced NAND flash memory technologies, including the principle of NAND flash, memory cell technologies, multi-bits cell technologies, scaling challenges of memory cell, reliability, and 3-dimensional cell as the future technology. Chapter 1 describes the background and early history of NAND flash. The basic device structures and operations are described in Chapter 2. Next, the author discusses the memory cell technologies focused on scaling in Chapter 3, and introduces the advanced operations for multi-level cells in Chapter 4. The physical limitations for scaling are examined in Chapter 5, and Chapter 6 describes the reliability of NAND flash memory. Chapter 7 examines 3-dimensional (3D) NAND flash memory cells and discusses the pros and cons in structure, process, operations, scalability, and performance. In Chapter 8, challenges of 3D NAND flash memory are dis ussed. Finally, in Chapter 9, the author summarizes and describes the prospect of technologies and market for the fu...

  7. Memory assessment in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy to predict memory impairment after surgery: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Díaz, P; García-Casares, N

    2017-04-19

    Given that surgical treatment of refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy may cause memory impairment, determining which patients are eligible for surgery is essential. However, there is little agreement on which presurgical memory assessment methods are best able to predict memory outcome after surgery and identify those patients with a greater risk of surgery-induced memory decline. We conducted a systematic literature review to determine which presurgical memory assessment methods best predict memory outcome. The literature search of PubMed gathered articles published between January 2005 and December 2015 addressing pre- and postsurgical memory assessment in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients by means of neuropsychological testing, functional MRI, and other neuroimaging techniques. We obtained 178 articles, 31 of which were included in our review. Most of the studies used neuropsychological tests and fMRI; these methods are considered to have the greatest predictive ability for memory impairment. Other less frequently used techniques included the Wada test and FDG-PET. Current evidence supports performing a presurgical assessment of memory function using both neuropsychological tests and functional MRI to predict memory outcome after surgery. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Priority Queues Resilient to Memory Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Moruz, Gabriel; Mølhave, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In the faulty-memory RAM model, the content of memory cells can get corrupted at any time during the execution of an algorithm, and a constant number of uncorruptible registers are available. A resilient data structure in this model works correctly on the set of uncorrupted values. In this paper we...... introduce a resilient priority queue. The deletemin operation of a resilient priority queue returns either the minimum uncorrupted element or some corrupted element. Our resilient priority queue uses $O(n)$ space to store $n$ elements. Both insert and deletemin operations are performed in $O(\\log n...... queues storing only structural information in the uncorruptible registers between operations....

  9. A New Method of Chinese Address Extraction Based on Address Tree Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANG Mengjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Address is a spatial location encoding method of individual geographical area. In China, address planning is relatively backward due to the rapid development of the city, resulting in the presence of large number of non-standard address. The space constrain relationship of standard address model is analyzed in this paper and a new method of standard address extraction based on the tree model is proposed, which regards topological relationship as consistent criteria of space constraints. With this method, standard address can be extracted and errors can be excluded from non-standard address. Results indicate that higher math rate can be obtained with this method.

  10. Remote direct memory access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2012-12-11

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

  11. Generative Street Addresses from Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlke Demir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe our automatic generative algorithm to create street addresses from satellite images by learning and labeling roads, regions, and address cells. Currently, 75% of the world’s roads lack adequate street addressing systems. Recent geocoding initiatives tend to convert pure latitude and longitude information into a memorable form for unknown areas. However, settlements are identified by streets, and such addressing schemes are not coherent with the road topology. Instead, we propose a generative address design that maps the globe in accordance with streets. Our algorithm starts with extracting roads from satellite imagery by utilizing deep learning. Then, it uniquely labels the regions, roads, and structures using some graph- and proximity-based algorithms. We also extend our addressing scheme to (i cover inaccessible areas following similar design principles; (ii be inclusive and flexible for changes on the ground; and (iii lead as a pioneer for a unified street-based global geodatabase. We present our results on an example of a developed city and multiple undeveloped cities. We also compare productivity on the basis of current ad hoc and new complete addresses. We conclude by contrasting our generative addresses to current industrial and open solutions.

  12. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  13. 29 CFR 4245.7 - PBGC address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PBGC address. 4245.7 Section 4245.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION INSOLVENCY, REORGANIZATION, TERMINATION, AND OTHER RULES APPLICABLE TO MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS NOTICE OF INSOLVENCY § 4245.7 PBGC address. See...

  14. Stochastic memory: Memory enhancement due to noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, Alexander; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    There are certain classes of resistors, capacitors, and inductors that, when subject to a periodic input of appropriate frequency, develop hysteresis loops in their characteristic response. Here we show that the hysteresis of such memory elements can also be induced by white noise of appropriate intensity even at very low frequencies of the external driving field. We illustrate this phenomenon using a physical model of memory resistor realized by TiO2 thin films sandwiched between metallic electrodes and discuss under which conditions this effect can be observed experimentally. We also discuss its implications on existing memory systems described in the literature and the role of colored noise.

  15. Phonological Short-Term Memory, Working Memory and Foreign Language Performance in Intensive Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Judit; Safar, Anna

    2008-01-01

    In our research we addressed the question what the relationship is between phonological short-term and working memory capacity and performance in an end-of-year reading, writing, listening, speaking and use of English test. The participants of our study were 121 secondary school students aged 15-16 in the first intensive language training year of…

  16. Are There Multiple Kinds of Episodic Memory? An fMRI Investigation Comparing Autobiographical and Recognition Memory Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Yu; Gilmore, Adrian W; Nelson, Steven M; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2017-03-08

    What brain regions underlie retrieval from episodic memory? The bulk of research addressing this question with fMRI has relied upon recognition memory for materials encoded within the laboratory. Another, less dominant tradition has used autobiographical methods, whereby people recall events from their lifetime, often after being cued with words or pictures. The current study addresses how the neural substrates of successful memory retrieval differed as a function of the targeted memory when the experimental parameters were held constant in the two conditions (except for instructions). Human participants studied a set of scenes and then took two types of memory test while undergoing fMRI scanning. In one condition (the picture memory test), participants reported for each scene (32 studied, 64 nonstudied) whether it was recollected from the prior study episode. In a second condition (the life memory test), participants reported for each scene (32 studied, 64 nonstudied) whether it reminded them of a specific event from their preexperimental lifetime. An examination of successful retrieval (yes responses) for recently studied scenes for the two test types revealed pronounced differences; that is, autobiographical retrieval instantiated with the life memory test preferentially activated the default mode network, whereas hits in the picture memory test preferentially engaged the parietal memory network as well as portions of the frontoparietal control network. When experimental cueing parameters are held constant, the neural underpinnings of successful memory retrieval differ when remembering life events and recently learned events. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Episodic memory is often discussed as a solitary construct. However, experimental traditions examining episodic memory use very different approaches, and these are rarely compared to one another. When the neural correlates associated with each approach have been directly contrasted, results have varied considerably

  17. Short-term memory in Down syndrome: applying the working memory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrold, C; Baddeley, A D

    2001-10-01

    This paper is divided into three sections. The first reviews the evidence for a verbal short-term memory deficit in Down syndrome. Existing research suggests that short-term memory for verbal information tends to be impaired in Down syndrome, in contrast to short-term memory for visual and spatial material. In addition, problems of hearing or speech do not appear to be a major cause of difficulties on tests of verbal short-term memory. This suggests that Down syndrome is associated with a specific memory problem, which we link to a potential deficit in the functioning of the 'phonological loop' of Baddeley's (1986) model of working memory. The second section considers the implications of a phonological loop problem. Because a reasonable amount is known about the normal functioning of the phonological loop, and of its role in language acquisition in typical development, we can make firm predictions as to the likely nature of the short-term memory problem in Down syndrome, and its consequences for language learning. However, we note that the existing evidence from studies with individuals with Down syndrome does not fit well with these predictions. This leads to the third section of the paper, in which we consider key questions to be addressed in future research. We suggest that there are two questions to be answered, which follow directly from the contradictory results outlined in the previous section. These are 'What is the precise nature of the verbal short-term memory deficit in Down syndrome', and 'What are the consequences of this deficit for learning'. We discuss ways in which these questions might be addressed in future work.

  18. The contributions of handedness and working memory to episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aparna; Christman, Stephen D; Propper, Ruth E

    2016-11-01

    Past studies have independently shown associations of working memory and degree of handedness with episodic memory retrieval. The current study takes a step ahead by examining whether handedness and working memory independently predict episodic memory. In agreement with past studies, there was an inconsistent-handed advantage for episodic memory; however, this advantage was absent for working memory tasks. Furthermore, regression analyses showed handedness, and complex working memory predicted episodic memory performance at different times. Results are discussed in light of theories of episodic memory and hemispheric interaction.

  19. Memory for speech and speech for memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, J L; Kutz, K J

    1975-03-01

    Thirty kindergarteners, 15 who substituted /w/ for /r/ and 15 with correct articulation, received two perception tests and a memory test that included /w/ and /r/ in minimally contrastive syllables. Although both groups had nearly perfect perception of the experimenter's productions of /w/ and /r/, misarticulating subjects perceived their own tape-recorded w/r productions as /w/. In the memory task these same misarticulating subjects committed significantly more /w/-/r/ confusions in unspoken recall. The discussion considers why people subvocally rehearse; a developmental period in which children do not rehearse; ways subvocalization may aid recall, including motor and acoustic encoding; an echoic store that provides additional recall support if subjects rehearse vocally, and perception of self- and other- produced phonemes by misarticulating children-including its relevance to a motor theory of perception. Evidence is presented that speech for memory can be sufficiently impaired to cause memory disorder. Conceptions that restrict speech disorder to an impairment of communication are challenged.

  20. What Type of Knowledge Provides Valid Housing Standards Addressing Accessibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse; Iwarsson, Susanne

    evaluations of task-surface heights in elderly people’s homes. Applied Ergonomics, 31, 109-119. Kohlbacher, F. (2006). The use of qualitative content analysis in case study research. Forum: Qualitative social research sozialforschung (FQS), Open Journal Systems, vol 7, No1. Kozey, J.W. & Das, B. (2004...... accessibility aspects such as either reach, seat height or space requirements • Targeted primarily industrial workstation design and only wheelchair/scooter users • Addressed positions (standing/seated) and sex difference with respect to reach • Was generated in lab-like environments, using methods...... of the validity of housing standards. Therefore, it is reasonable to question what type of knowledge that provides the most valid standards addressing accessibility and explore the consequences of using an alternative approach. The idea was thus to examine the validity of a set of housing standards using a so...