WorldWideScience

Sample records for contamination taktyczno-operacyjne problemy

  1. Termodinamica 225 problemi risolti

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Michael M

    1994-01-01

    Questo testo presenta i principi fondamentali della termodinamica classica ed illustra, mediante numerosi esempi svolti e problemi, molte delle loro applicazioni nel campo della scienza e dell'ingegneria.

  2. Meccanica quantistica: problemi scelti 100 problemi risolti di meccanica quantistica

    CERN Document Server

    Angelini, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    Questo libro è dedicato essenzialmente agli studenti che preparano l'esame scritto di un corso di Meccanica Quantistica. Di riflesso questa raccolta può risultare molto utile anche ai docenti che devono proporre problemi ai loro studenti sia a lezione che per gli esami. Si assume che i contenuti del corso siano sostanzialmente identici a quelli di un tradizionale corso di Istituzioni di Fisica Teorica dei vecchi ordinamenti del corso di laurea in Fisica. Nei nuovi ordinamenti gli stessi argomenti sono stati, in generale, ripartiti su più corsi. Come molti altri libri di problemi di Meccanica Quantistica non bisogna aspettarsi un particolare sforzo di novità. L'intento è di presentare dei problemi che, oltre a sondare la comprensione della materia e l'abilità ad applicarla concretamente da parte dello studente, siano risolubili in un tempo limitato ed utilizzando gli strumenti matematici che vengono normalmente forniti nei corsi per la laurea in Fisica. Questo proposito difficilmente si coniuga con una r...

  3. Modellistica numerica per problemi differenziali

    CERN Document Server

    Quarteroni, Alfio

    2016-01-01

    In questo testo si introducono i concetti di base per la modellistica numerica di problemi differenziali alle derivate parziali. Si considerano le classiche equazioni lineari ellittiche, paraboliche ed iperboliche, ma anche altre equazioni, quali quelle di diffusione e trasporto, di Navier-Stokes e le leggi di conservazione. Si forniscono inoltre numerosi esempi fisici che stanno alla base di tali equazioni. Quindi si analizzano metodi di risoluzione numerica basati su elementi finiti (continui e discontinui), differenze finite, volumi finiti, metodi spettrali (continui e discontinui), nonché strategie di approssimazione più avanzate basate sui metodi di decomposizione di domini, i metodi a basi ridotte o quelli di risoluzione di problemi di controllo ottimale. In particolare vengono discussi gli aspetti algoritmici e di implementazione al calcolatore e si forniscono diversi programmi di semplice utilizzo. Il testo non presuppone una approfondita conoscenza matematica delle equazioni alle derivate parziali:...

  4. Problems of the agriculture radiology and radiobiology at the environment contamination by the young mixture of the nuclear fission products; Problemy sel'skokhozyajstvennoj radioehkologii i radiobiologii pri zagryaznenii okruzhayushchej sredy molodoj smes'yu produktov yadernogo deleniya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prister, B S

    2008-07-01

    The basic problem on population radiation safety and the farm production at the environment contamination by the young mixture of the nuclear fission products are considered. In the field experiments, the conformities of the out of root plant contamination, kinetics of the irradiation absorbed doses and the biological effect of the NFP on the plants during the different ontogenesis phases are investigated. The kinetics of the nuclear fission product accumulation and drawing out from the cattle organisms of the most movable radionuclides in the biological systems; the distribution and kinetics of the absorbed irradiation doses formation and the nuclear fission products biological effect on the cattle organism is studied. The comparative quantitative assessment of the meaning of the basic formation factors of the radiation situation is produced.

  5. I problemi di matematica della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa

    CERN Document Server

    Profeti, Alessandro

    1998-01-01

    Nasce come aggiornamento del volume precedente ("I problemi di Matematica della Scuola Normale", 1984) e raccoglie gli esercizi di matematica assegnati all'esame di ammissione alla Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa dal 1985 al 1997, con la loro risoluzione. Per rendere più efficace lo scopo didattico viene anche presentata una scelta di problemi relativi al periodo precedente (1905-1984). Il libro si rivolge a studenti e docenti della Scuola Secondaria, e si chiude con un Glossario in cui vengono richiamati i termini usati.

  6. Pravni problemi morske obale : (u svjetlu europskog i hrvatskog prava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Seršić

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pravni problemi morske obale je rad koncipiran na način da predstavi važeće zakonodavstvo do ulaska Hrvatske u Europsku uniju te pozitivno zakonodavstvo nakon ulaska u Europsku uniju, skupa s dostupnom nam sudskom praksom europskih sudova, a sve u odnosu na problematiku morske obale kao dijela pomorskog dobra Republike Hrvatske. U radu se apostrofira nepoznavanje ili nedovoljno poznavanje zakonodavca prilikom donošenja propisa koji tangiraju problematiku morske obale, čime unose nedosljednosti i zabunu u primjenu referentnih propisa te u konačnici i pravnu nesigurnost u ovoj oblasti u Republici Hrvatskoj. Naznačuju se i mogući pravci rješavanja uočenih problema kroz prijedloge primjene integralnog upravljanja morskom obalom uz anticipiranje nekih novih rješenja i ukazivanje na obvezu pridržavanja europskog zakonodavstva i posebno precedentnih odluka nadležnih europskih sudova. Zaključno se ukazuje da naši teoretičari i praktičari koji se bave reguliranjem materije koja se referira na morsku obalu, nažalost, ne uvažavaju propise i sudsku praksu Europske unije koji su postali sastavni dio našeg pozitivnog zakonodavstva. Stoga se Republika Hrvatska izlaže opasnosti da ju Europska unija kao i pojedini zainteresirani subjekti prozivaju za nepoštivanje prava i sankcioniraju u smislu europske sudske prakse, a da te opasnosti nismo uopće svjesni. Isto tako, gledanje na morsku obalu kao prirodni resurs koji u Hrvatskoj ni izdaleka nije iskorišten na adekvatan način, je nužnost koja se nameće Hrvatskoj kao jednoj prezaduženoj zemlji ako želi gospodarski napredak kako države tako i njenih stanovnika.

  7. Il problem solving aritmetico: analisi dei processi cognitivi e metacognitivi e illustrazione del software "Risolvere problemi aritmetici"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella D'Amico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Il presente contributo esamina la letteratura relativa al problem solving matematico ed illustra uno strumento multimediale per la soluzione dei problemi aritmetici in bambini del secondo ciclo della scuola primaria e in bambini che presentano difficoltà in tale area. Il software presenta sia un modulo test, in cui vengono presentati problemi aritmetici di livello di difficoltà crescente, che un modulo di training. Il training è stato elaborato in base alle più recenti ricerche nell’area del problem solving matematico e prevede attività sulla comprensione, rappresentazione, categorizzazione e pianificazione del problema. Il training prevede inoltre particolari attività che stimolano l’uso della memoria di lavoro nella soluzione dei problemi. Il training si presenta come metacognitivamente orientato, in quanto i personaggi guida dell’ambientazione si configurano come compagni di studio che stimolano la riflessione metacognitiva rispetto alle attività affrontate.

  8. Wybrane problemy ustalania wartościw sprawozdaniach finansowych przedsiębiorstw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Sawicki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available W artykule przedstawiono niektóre problemy pomiaru i wyceny w rachunkowości zarówno pozycji bilansu, jak i procesów gospodarczych. Opisano podstawowe modele tradycyjne i współczesne metody wyceny. Podjęto próbę oceny przydatności poszczególnych metod wyceny, zwłaszcza na podstawie wartości godziwej, dla dużych, średnich i małych jednostek. Zdaniem autora, wiarygodność informacji finansowych dla zarządu i użytkowników zewnętrznych może być wątpliwa, jeżeli w wysokim stopniu opiera się na estymacji przyszłości, która zawsze jest niepewna.

  9. Degradacja budynków zabytkowych wskutek nadmiernego zawilgocenia – wybrane problemy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Hoła

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available W artykule przedstawiono wybrane, ale zdaniem autora, istotne problemy dotyczące postępującej degradacji budynków zabytkowych wskutek nadmiernego zawilgocenia. Naświetlono najważniejsze przyczyny i skutki nadmiernego zawilgocenia i zasolenia. Mówiąc o skutkach wskazano między innymi na obniżenie bezpieczeństwa konstrukcji, zmniejszenie izolacyjności cieplnej przegród zewnętrznych oraz na pogorszenie warunków eksploatacyj-nych w pomieszczeniach. Omówiono uwarunkowania badania wilgotności metodami nieniszczącymi wraz ze wskazaniem użytecznych metod w budynkach zabytkowych, zasygnalizowano możliwości wykorzystania do wiarygodnej oceny wilgotności sztucznych sieci neuronowych. Sygnalnie sprecyzowano w ujęciu chronologicznym działania, które należy podejmować w celu zapobieżenia postępującej degradacji budynków zabytkowych powodowanej nadmiernym zawilgoceniem i zasoleniem.

  10. WYBRANE PROBLEMY STEROWANIA POKŁADOWYMI SYSTEMAMI PRĄDU STAŁEGO I PRZEMIENNEGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gębura Andrzej

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Artykuł ujmuje kompleksowo problem współpracy pokładowych źródeł energii elektrycznej statku powietrznego z elektryczną siecią pokładową. Szczególną uwagę autorzy przywiązali do uwarunkowań związanych z poprawnym załączaniem pokładowych źródeł energii elektrycznej. Omówiono strukturalne zabezpieczenia źródeł energii elektrycznej przed szkodliwym oddziaływaniem odbiorników, jak i niepoprawnie działających źródeł na odbiorniki oraz niektóre sposoby przeciwdziałania tym zjawiskom. Poznanie tych relacji umożliwi podjęcie przez użytkownika działań, które mogą wpłynąć na zmniejszanie awaryjności pokładowej sieci elektroenergetycznej i zapewnienie zasilania odbiorników energii elektrycznej we wszystkich warunkach lotu. Od poprawności ich działania zależy poprawność funkcjonowania pokładowej sieci elektroenergetycznej. Autorzy starali się ujmować wszystkie problemy w sposób możliwie uniwersalny, aby rozważania tu zawarte mogły służyć pomocą podczas analizy defektów na różnych statkach powietrznych.

  11. Emilio Pasquini, ed., Studi e problemi di critica testuale: 1960-2010. Per i 150 anni della Commissione per i testi di lingua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Di Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña de Emilio Pasquini, ed., Studi e problemi di critica testuale: 1960-2010. Per i 150 anni della Commissione per i testi di lingua, Commissione per i testi di lingua (Collezione di opere inedite o rare, 169, Bologna, 2012, x + 320 pp. ISBN: 9788898096152.

  12. Emilio Pasquini, ed., Studi e problemi di critica testuale: 1960-2010. Per i 150 anni della Commissione per i testi di lingua

    OpenAIRE

    Di Stefano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Reseña de Emilio Pasquini, ed., Studi e problemi di critica testuale: 1960-2010. Per i 150 anni della Commissione per i testi di lingua, Commissione per i testi di lingua (Collezione di opere inedite o rare, 169), Bologna, 2012, x + 320 pp. ISBN: 9788898096152.

  13. Gli archivi dell'Inquisizione in Italia: problemi storiografici e descrittivi. Roma, Archivio di Stato, 18 febbraio 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Del Col (editor

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It includes the folowing essays:Andrea Del Col, Presentazione Adriano Prosperi, Nuove prospettive per una storia dell'Inquisizione Grado Giovanni Merlo, Problemi documentari dell'Inquisizione medievale in Italia Silvana Seidel Menchi, I giudici dell'Inquisizione romana: inquisitori e vescovi, commissari, nunzi, cardinali, papi Andrea Del Col, I documenti del Sant'Ufficio come fonti per la storia istituzionale e la storia degli inquisiti Marco Pizzo, La Stanza Storica dell'Archivio del Sant'Uffizio: un metodo di intervento Francesca Cavazzana Romanelli, Il censimento della documentazione inquisitoriale riguardante l'Italia Giovanna Paolin - Andrea Del Col, La banca dati dei processi e la ricostruzione completa dell'attività del Sant'Ufficio di Aquileia e Concordia

  14. Polski rejestr chorych na stwardnienie rozsiane – stan obecny, perspektywy i problemy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Brola

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stwardnienie rozsiane jest postępującą zapalno-demielinizacyjną chorobą ośrodkowego układu nerwowego o nieznanej etiologii, dotykającą przede wszystkim ludzi młodych i stanowiącą najczęstszą przyczynę niesprawności neurologicznej w tej grupie wiekowej. Szacuje się, że w Polsce na stwardnienie rozsiane choruje około 40 000 osób, a rocznie stwierdza się około 2000 nowych przypadków. Wskaźniki te oparte są jedynie na statystykach Narodowego Funduszu Zdrowia i nie zawierają wielu istotnych danych, m.in. na temat postaci i przebiegu choroby, stopnia niepełnosprawności, rodzaju leczenia czy jakości życia chorych. W większości krajów europejskich takie informacje są zbierane przez narodowe rejestry chorych, często funkcjonujące już od lat. Polska była pod tym względem białą plamą na mapie świata i największym państwem o tak dużej liczbie chorych, w którym nie wprowadzono żadnej bazy danych. Wzorem innych krajów w 2013 roku powołano ogólnopolski rejestr chorych na stwardnienie rozsiane, którego celem było opisanie podstawowych parametrów epidemiologicznych zebranych ze wszystkich ośrodków zajmujących się leczeniem stwardnienia rozsianego. W artykule przedstawiono założenia polskiego Rejestru Chorych ze Stwardnieniem Rozsianym (RejSM i omówiono wyniki z regionu świętokrzyskiego, który jest najbardziej zaangażowany w zbieranie danych. Na dzień 31 grudnia 2013 roku chorobowość w tym rejonie Polski określono na 109,1/100 000, a zapadalność w latach 2011–2013 – na 4,1/100 000/rok. Wskaźniki te są wyższe od dotychczas publikowanych polskich danych. Przedstawiono również wstępną analizę samooceny jakości życia pacjentów oraz ograniczenia i problemy związane z dalszym rozwojem rejestru.

  15. Choroba zwyrodnieniowa stawów biodrowych - pacjent i problemy funkcjonalne = The hip joint Osteoarthritis - patient and functional problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Biegański

    2015-08-01

      Streszczenie             Coxarthrosis to przewlekłe schorzenie powodujące destrukcje w obrębie stawu biodrowego i tkanek okołostawowych. Choroba zwyrodnieniowa stawów jest jednym z najczęściej spotykanych schorzeń ortopedycznych i drugim po chorobach układu krążenia powodujące niepełnosprawność. Pacjenci najczęściej borykają się z bólem i sztywnością, które wpływają na spadek możliwości lokomocji, samoobsługi i jakości życia. Stanowi to wyzwanie dla zespołu medycznego, który ma zadanie  utrzymywać sprawność pacjenta jak najdłużej.   Abstract             Coxarthrosis is a chronic illness which makes destruction in the area of joint and tissues surrounding  it. The hip joint Osteoarthritis  is one of the most popular orthopaedic disease and second after  cardiovascular disease causing disability. Patients generally feel pain and stiffness which causes decrease the possibility of locomotion, self-servive and quality of life. It is challenge for medical team to maintain efficiency as long as it is possible.   Słowa kluczowe: coxarthrosis, choroba zwyrodnieniowa stawu biodrowego, ból, problemy funkcjonalne. Key word: coxarthrosis, hip joint osteoarthrosis, pain, functional problems.

  16. La crescita del debito pubblico in Italia: evoluzione, prospettive e problemi di politica economica.(The growth of public debt in Italy: past experience, perspectives and policy problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. SPAVENTA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Il lavoro esamina l'esperienza italiana , con riferimento alla crescita e debito pubblico. Non cerca di testare opinioni contrastanti , in quanto gli effetti di alcune innovazioni finanziarie e politiche sono troppo recenti e alcuni dati sono di scarsa qualità . Piuttosto , la sua portata più limitata è di attingere alle esperienze passate e , cosa più importante , valutare le prospettive future , al fine di discutere di alcuni problemi per quanto riguarda la politica fiscale e monetaria. L'autore esamina formazione del  debito con riferimento alle necessità di finanziamento , la loro composizione e la loro misura rettificato , prima di prendere in considerazione le politiche di finanziamento perseguite dalle autorità e le variazioni nella composizione , la proprietà e il costo del debito . Infine vengono esaminati i possibili sviluppi futuri e di alcuni problemi di politica connessi  .The work surveys the Italian experience with reference to growth and public debt. It does not seek to test conflicting views, as the effects of some financial and policy innovations are too recent and some data is of poor quality. Rather, its more limited scope is to draw on past experience and, more importantly, assess future prospects in order to discuss some problems regarding both fiscal and monetary policy. The author examines debt formation with reference to borrowing requirements, their composition and their adjusted measure, before taking into consideration financing policies pursued by the authorities  and the changes in the composition, ownership and cost of debt. Finally, possible future developments and some connected policy problems are examined.JEL: H63, E52, E62

  17. Problemi di Fisica

    CERN Document Server

    Fazio, Michelangelo

    2008-01-01

    L’introduzione delle lauree triennali ha in molti casi costretto i docenti a ridurre drasticamente il numero di ore di insegnamento e quindi l’estensione dei programmi dei corsi di Fisica. In questo volumetto l'autore si è proposto di esporre sinteticamente ma con il massimo rigore possibile il corso di Fisica Generale I evitando le dimostrazioni delle leggi fisiche, ma dando la priorità alle applicazioni di tali leggi e allo svolgimento di esercizi che in genere viene trascurato in molti corsi. Ha cercato pertanto di presentare i fenomeni fisici sottolineando, dove possibile, la loro presenza nella vita quotidiana e le loro più semplici e immediate applicazioni, consentendo in tal modo agli studenti di vedere la Fisica non più come una interminabile serie di formule ma come un nuovo modo di interpretare e di capire i fenomeni naturali inanimati (del resto non dobbiamo dimenticare che il termine greco da cui deriva il suo nome è fisis, fisis, ovvero natura). Il contenuto è completo, comprendendo anc...

  18. Due problemi manzoniane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Den italienske forfatter Manzoni har skrevet kun en roman og hans interesse for fiktion er begrænset. Hans forhold til  romanpersonerne kendetegnes ved samtidig indlevelse og distance. Dette viser sig i en forfatterstemme der for sin tid var forbavsende moderne....

  19. Gezgin satıcı problemi için yeni bir meta-sezgisel: kör fare algoritması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik YILDIRIM

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gezgin Satıcı Problemi (GSP, başlangıç ve bitiş şehirleri aynı olan ve her şehrin sadece bir kez ziyaret edildiği minimum mesafeli turu bulma problemidir. Şehir sayısı arttıkça, kesin yöntemler ile kabul edilebilir sürelerde bir optimum çözüm bulunması zordur. Bu nedenle, son elli yılda GSP’nin çözümü için doğadan ve biyolojiden esinlenen birçok meta-sezgisel yöntem geliştirilmiştir. Bu çalışmada, toprak altındaki bireysel tünel sistemlerinde yaşayan kör farelerin toprak altındaki engelleri geçme stratejisinden esinlenilerek GSP’nin çözümü için yeni bir meta-sezgisel tasarlanmıştır. Geliştirilen yönteme Kör Fare Algoritması adı verilmiştir. Bu yeni sezgisel ile farklı boyutlardaki simetrik test veri setleri için deneyler yapılmış ve sonuçları bilinen en iyi sonuçlar ile kıyaslanmıştır. Önerilen meta-sezgisel henüz literatürdeki diğer algoritmalarla yarışabilecek düzeyde olmamasına rağmen, başlangıç test çözümlerinin umut verici olduğu söylenebilir.Anahtar Kelimeler: Gezgin satıcı problemi, Kombinatoryel eniyileme, Meta-Sezgisel, Kör fare algoritması

  20. Atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, Juerg

    1997-01-01

    It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination

  1. The Exploitation Problems Marine Light Constructions for Corrosion Resistance / Problemy Eksploatacyjne Lekkich Konstrukcji Morskich w Aspekcie Odporności Korozyjnej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurczak Wojciech

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Korozyjne obniżenie właściwości eksploatacyjnych materiałów stosowanych na konstrukcje morskie jest naturalnym zjawiskiem. Stopień obniżenia właściwości mechanicznych materiałów zastosowanych na konstrukcje okrętów zależą od składu chemicznego materiału konstrukcyjnego, warunków eksploatacyjnych (zasolenie, obciążenie oraz rodzaju zastosowanej ochrony przeciwkorozyjnej. W artykule przedstawiono problemy eksploatacyjne okrętów, których konstrukcje wykonano ze stopów aluminium oraz wyniki badań korozji naprężeniowej współczesnych, wysokowytrzymałych stopów aluminium. Dla podwyższenia bezpieczeństwa eksploatacji tych konstrukcji wprowadzono rejestrację potencjału korozyjnego na wybranych (zagrożonych obszarach nadbudówki okrętu projektu 620 wykonanej ze stopu 7020 celem monitorowania zagrożenia pęknięciem korozyjnym.

  2. Light contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda Pena, William Enrique

    1998-01-01

    The article tries on the wrong use of the artificial light, of the main problems of the light contamination, dispersion of the light, noxious effects of the light contamination, ecological effects, effects on the man's biological rhythm, economic effects and effects about the civic and vial security, among other topics

  3. Trauma Studies: prospettive e problemi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachele Branchini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The trauma paradigm pervades contemporary life. In newspapers, on television, on the web, even in ordinary conversation, experiences of every kind (both figurative and positive ones are described as “traumatic”. Thus the very meaning of the term is often overturned. This article seeks to reshape the limits of the concept of trauma by tracing its evolution from the psychological debate of the early nineteenth century to the recent setting up of the specific discipline of Trauma Studies.

  4. Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Training & Education Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Water Contamination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ...

  5. Contamination shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, W.; Pecornik, D.

    1982-01-01

    An acrylate resin is presented as contamination protection coating for components and instruments in nuclear facilities and for spent fuel transport containers. The resin is evaporated or sublimated at 130 0 C and can thus be removed easily from the protected component. The radioactive particles entrained during evaporation are retained by suitable filters. (TK) [de

  6. Cotton contamination

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Sluijs, MHJ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This review focusses on physical forms of contaminant including the presence, prevention and/or removal of foreign bodies, stickiness and seed-coat fragments rather than the type and quantity of chemical residues that might be present in cotton...

  7. Inhalation exposure control problems in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP.; Problemy kontrolya ingalyatsionnogo oblucheniya v Zone otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhoruchkin, A K; Kazakov, S V; Marchenko, V I [Nauchno-Proizvodstvennoe Ob` ` edinenie Pripyat` , Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Space-time inequality of air contamination and rare high-active fuel aerosol causes different exposure of personnel. An increased content of {sup 137} Cs in the organism of people working in the 30 km zone restricts the possibility to detect incorporated transuranium nuclides by means of a whole-body radiation spectrometer.

  8. Contamination Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the total organic carbon content in water is important in assessing contamination levels in high purity water for power generation, pharmaceutical production and electronics manufacture. Even trace levels of organic compounds can cause defects in manufactured products. The Sievers Model 800 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, based on technology developed for the Space Station, uses a strong chemical oxidizing agent and ultraviolet light to convert organic compounds in water to carbon dioxide. After ionizing the carbon dioxide, the amount of ions is determined by measuring the conductivity of the deionized water. The new technique is highly sensitive, does not require compressed gas, and maintenance is minimal.

  9. Problems of Uranium Monocarbide and Mononitride Technology; Problemes de la technologie des monocarbures et mononitrures d'uranium; Problemy tekhnologii monokarbida i mononitrida urana; Problemas de la tecnologia del monocarburo y del mononitruro de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakeshova, L. [Institut Yadernykh Issledovanij Chekhoslovatskoj, Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech Republic)

    1963-11-15

    A critical account of published data is given, and the over-all demands made on ceramic nuclear fuel of the uranium monocarbide and mononitride type are examined. The paper also refers to a number of still unsolved problems, either at the research level or at that of practical application. A short account is given of methods of obtaining monocarbide and preparing compacted products. (author) [French] Le memoire donne un apercu critique de la documentation publiee. Il examine les criteres generaux auxquels doit repondre le combustible nucleaire ceramique du type monocarbure et mononitrure d'uranium. Il indique les problemes qui se posent encore en ce qui concerne les travaux de recherche ou l'utilisation pratique des matieres. Les methodes de preparation des monocarbures et les questions relatives a la fabrication de produits compacts font l'objet d'un bref examen. (author) [Spanish] La memoria examina criticamente los datos publicados. Se exponen los requisitos generales de los combustibles nucleares ceramicos del tipo monocarburo y mononitruio de uranio. Se senalan los problemas aun no resueltos en lo relativo a los trabajos de investigacion o a las aplicaciones practicas de esos materiales. Se describen brevemente los metodos de preparacion de los monocarburos y los problemas que plantean la elaboracion de productos compactos. (author) [Russian] Daetsya kriticheskoe obsuzhdenie literaturnykh dannykh. Razbirayutsya obshchie trebovaniya k keramicheskomu yadernomu toplivu tipa monokarbida i mononitrida urana. Otmechayutsya problemy, kotorye s tochki zreniya issledovatel'skikh rabot ili prakticheskogo primeneniya materialov, ostayutsya eshche ne reshennymi. Kratko obsuzhdayutsya metoda polucheniya monokargida i voprosy prigotovleniya kompaktnykh izdelij. (author)

  10. Treatment of plutonium contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    Three kinds of plutonium contaminations were considered: skin contamination; contaminated wounds; contamination by inhalation. The treatment of these contaminations was studied for insoluble (oxide and metal forms) and soluble plutonium (complexes). The use of DTPA and therapeutic problems encountered with stable plutonium complexes were analyzed. The new possibilities of internal decontamination using Puchel and LICAM were evaluated [fr

  11. Contamination vs. Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... into the environment can cause air, water, surfaces, soil, plants, buildings, people, or animals to become contaminated. ... water to remove contamination. This process is called decontamination. Try to avoid spreading contamination to parts of ...

  12. Radiation contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tsutomu; Iba, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    To make sure of no contamination on people, used articles and working uniforms coming out of the radiation controlled area, nuclear power plants are equipped with radioactive contamination monitors. This paper outlines the basic specifications and advantages of our personnel surface contamination monitors to inspect whole-body surface contamination of people coming out, article surface contamination monitors to inspect the surface and inside contamination of used articles brought out, laundry monitors to inspect surface contamination of working uniforms used in the area before and after a wash, and whole-body counters to inspect and measure the internal contamination of a person out of the area. (author)

  13. Radioactive surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Kei; Minagoshi, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Toru

    1994-01-01

    To reduce radiation exposure and prevent contamination from spreading, each nuclear power plant has established a radiation controlled area. People and articles out of the controlled area are checked for the surface contamination of radioactive materials with surface contamination monitors. Fuji Electric has repeatedly improved these monitors on the basis of user's needs. This paper outlines typical of a surface contamination monitor, a personal surface contamination monitor, an article surface contamination monitor and a laundry monitor, and the whole-body counter of an internal contamination monitor. (author)

  14. Harvesting contaminants from liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott R.

    2016-05-31

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus allowing the contaminants to be harvested.

  15. Center for Contaminated Sediments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Center for Contaminated Sediments serves as a clearinghouse for technology and expertise concerned with contaminated sediments. The...

  16. Contaminated Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Sites contaminated by hazardous materials or wastes. These sites are those administered by the Contaminated Sites Section of Iowa DNR. Many are sites which are...

  17. Restoration of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda J, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    A great variety of techniques are used for the restoration of contaminated soils. The contamination is present by both organic and inorganic pollutants. Environmental conditions and soil characteristics should take into account in order to implement a remedial technique. The bioremediation technologies are showed as help to remove a variety of soil contaminants. (author) [es

  18. Urban atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldasano Jose, M.

    1997-01-01

    The problems of contamination are not only limited to this century, pale pathology evidences of the effects of the contamination of the air exist in interiors in the health of the old ones; the article mention the elements that configure the problem of the atmospheric contamination, atmospheric pollutants and emission sources, orography condition and effects induced by the urbanization process

  19. Atomic Transport Problems of Interest in Nuclear Systems; Problemes de Transport Atomique Presentant un Interet dans les Systemes Nucleaires; Problemy perenosa atomov, predstavlyayushchie interes v yadernykh sistemakh; Problemas de Transporte Atomico de Interes para la Ingenieria Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundy, T. S.; Winslow, F. R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1966-02-15

    sistemas de interes en la esfera nuclear. El fomento de la difusion por los campos de radiacion sigue siendo un problema de justificado interes. Los autores han hecho las primeras mediciones directas del efecto que el bombardeo con particulas rapidas ejerce sobre la difusion en un metal. Los resultados guardan una correlacion satisfactoria con los pronosticos basados en un modelo de la aniquilacion de los defectos puntiformes (huecos e intersticios) excesivos en virtud de tres mecanismos: migracion hacia trampas fijas y homogeneamente distribuidas tales como dislocaciones, migracion hacia una superficie libre, y recombinacion de defectos. (author) [Russian] Obsuzhdajutsja nekotorye problemy, voznikajushhie pri ispol'zovanii osnov- nyh dannyh otnositel'no diffuzii v sistemah, predstavljajushhih prakticheskij interes, napri- mer v sistemah, vstrechajushhihsja v jadernoj tehnike. V chislo jetih problem vkljucheny jeksperi- menty v oblasti izotermicheskoj diffuzii, problemy diffuzii temperaturnogo gradienta i vlijanija radiacii na processy diffuzii. Bol'shaja chast' nadezhnoj informacii otnositel'- no diffuzii v tverdyh telah poluchena v teh sluchajah, kogda po sushhestvu gradient koncen- tracii diffundirujushhih obrazcov otsutstvuet. V sistemah, predstavljajushhih interes dlja inzhenerov-atomnikov, odnako, gradienty koncentracii pochti vsegda prisutstvujut. V svja- zi s jetim neobhodimy rabochie znanija po voprosu o svjazi mezhdu kojefficientami samodiffu- zii i himicheskoj diffuzii, chtoby dat' ocenku sootvetstvujushhih kojefficientov s cel'ju ispol'zovanija v opredelennoj situacii. Znanie kojefficientov termodinamicheskoj aktivnosti kak funkcii struktury predstavljaet soboj neobhodimuju dopolnitel'nuju informaciju. Nedavno bylo jasno pokazano, chto pri nediskriminacionnom primenenii vyrazhenija tipa Arheniusa dlja opisanija temperaturnoj zavisimosti dannyh otnositel'no diffuzii mozhno dopu- stit' znachitel'nye oshibki v predskazanii kojefficientov diffuzii. Obsuzhdajutsja

  20. Problemi e prospettive dell’organizzazione sindacale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Battisti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The author begins from historical reconstruction of consistent and continuous evolution of the discipline which has taken place both in private and public sector, in search of a real principle of recognition. However, she perceives the tension which characterize the actual relationships between CGIL, CISL, UIL and the risk its affects the industrial relations system. The author - after a careful analysis of the guidelines and issues arising, on the one hand, both from the recent Fiat collective agreements and the section 8, law no.143 of 2011 and on the other hand from the recent proposals concerning trade union representation,with particular reference to the trade union negotiators inside the company – concludes,in light of the current economic and financial crisis, that the dialogue between CGIL, CISL, UIL is able to play a fundamental role in the governance of the Italian industrial relationships. Résumé - Resumé. L’auteur, dans un cadre historique, trace l’évolution de la discipline de la représentativité effective dans le secteur privé et dans celui publique.En particulier, il remarque les tensions qui sussistent actuellement entre CGIL, CISL et UIL, qui mettent en danger le système des relations syndicales. Il analyse les lignes-guide des actuels accords d’entreprise Fiat et de l’art. 8 de la loi 143/2011 concernant les acteurs syndicaux à l’intérieur de l’entreprise, mais aussi les propos de loi sur la représentativité syndicale. Tout cela pour conclure que l’unité d’action syndicale peut gérer un rôle fundamental pour gouverner le système italien des relations industrielles dans ce moment de grave crise économique et financière. Resumen - Partiendo de una reconstrucción histórica, el autor recorre la coherente y continua evolución de la disciplina que ha tenido lugar en el sector privado y público en búsqueda de una representatividad efectiva, poniendo de manifiesto las tensiones que caracterizan las actuales relaciones entre CIGL, CISL, UIL que amenazan con descargarse sobre el sistema de relaciones sindicales. Después de haber analizado los criterios orientativos estblecidos por los recientes convenios colectivos Fiat y del art. 8 de la ley n. 143 de 2011 con respecto a los sujetos sindicales dentro de la empresa, además de las recientes propuestas en tema de representatividad sindical, el autor subraya en las conclusiones que la unidad de acción sindical juega verdaderamente un papel fundamental para gobernar el sistema italiano de relaciones sindicales en la actual situación de crisis económica y financiera.. Riassunto - Partendo da una ricostruzione storica, l’autore ripercorre la coerente e continua evoluzione della disciplina maturata nel settore privato e pubblico all’insegna di una rappresentatività effettiva, rilevando le tensioni che caratterizzano gli attuali rapporti tra CGIL, CISL, UIL che rischiano di scaricarsi sul sistema di relazioni sindacali. Dopo aver sottoposto ad analisi le linee guida poste dai recenti contratti Fiat e dall’art.8 della legge n. 143 del 2011 con riguardo ai soggetti sindacali all’interno dell’azienda, nonché le recenti proposte in tema di rappresentatività sindacale, l’A. nelle conclusioni sottolinea che l’unità d’azione sindacale può davvero svolgere un ruolo fondamentale per governare il sistema italiano di relazioni sindacali nell’attuale situazione di crisi economica e finanziaria.

  1. Problemy zdrowotne osób bezdomnych

    OpenAIRE

    Mirczak, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Homelessness is a major problem in both developing and wealthy countries and affects a wide range of people including families and children. Homeless people are at increased risk of dying prematurely compared with the general population and suffer from a wide range of health problems include: infectious diseases (HIV, hepatitis C, tuberculosis), hypertension, diabetes, musculoskeletal disorders, substance abuse (alcoholism), mental illness, foot problems and skin diseases (scabies, lice). Des...

  2. Sguardi sull'Universo problemi di cosmologia

    CERN Document Server

    Bondi, Hermann

    1973-01-01

    Quanto è grande l'Universo ? Quanto antiche sono le stelle e le galassie ? A quale velocità si allontanano da noi le galassie più lontane ? Perché è buio di notte s ci sono nel cielo innumerevoli stelle ? Che cosa avviene dentro le stelle ? E tra una stella a l'altra ? Come è cominciato l'Universo, e dove andrà a finire ?

  3. Discipline criminologiche e problemi di formazione professionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Bisi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The spreading of crime and the wide variety of its forms require that people working in professions involved in social control to be able to organize and to manage these sudden changes for greater efficiency in the world of work and in the wider social context. Consequently, the priority of interventions has to be accorded to the education because the quality of any organization depends on the professional level of the human resources it has.La diffusion de la criminalité et la variété de ses manifestations imposent à la société et particulièrement à ceux qui s’occupent du contrôle social de savoir organiser et gérer ces grands et soudains changements en termes d’efficience dans le monde du travail et dans le plus vaste contexte social. Par conséquence, la priorité des interventions doit être accordée à la formation parce que l’efficacité de n’importe quelle organisation repose sur les qualités professionnelles des ressources humaines dont elle dispose.

  4. Problemy przechowywania danych cyfrowych w bibliotekach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witczak Dorota

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents problems with the storage of digital data in libraries, which are not only the data buyers nowadays, but data manufacturers as well. Selected Polish and international projects on secure long-term archiving are discussed. The authors emphasize the need of developing national strategies and procedures for the appropriate storage environment and digital asset management to ensure the long-term accessibility and usability for the spiraling amounts of digital data and to significantly reduce long-term archiving costs.

  5. O problemie autorstwa paradoksu nocnego nieba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Pabjan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a prehistory of the so called Olbers' paradox is discussed. The stress is laid not on the paradox and its solution within contemporary cosmology, but rather on its authorship: it is argued that Olbers was not the first to formulate the famous paradox. Some astronomers are quoted (Kepler, Halley, Cheseaux, who long before Olbers were aware of the problem of the darkness of the night sky and who wrote about it. Their solutions to the paradox in question were not correct, but neither was Olbers'; to resolve the paradox one has to assume that universe had its beginning and that it expands.

  6. Epistemologiczne problemy badań interdyscyplinarnych

    OpenAIRE

    Angutek, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article is to document the methodological shortcomings, or even errors, that are in evidence in the research aspiring to the notion of interdisciplinary ones. The principal thesis on which the author bases her theoretical disquisition and critique states that a sound theoretical interpretation may be arrived at only through consistent methodological procedure. The authors claims that epistemological and methodological ambiguity of a statement has a negative impact on the qualit...

  7. Contamination analysis unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig

  8. JPL Contamination Control Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakkolb, Brian

    2013-01-01

    JPL has extensive expertise fielding contamination sensitive missions-in house and with our NASA/industry/academic partners.t Development and implementation of performance-driven cleanliness requirements for a wide range missions and payloads - UV-Vis-IR: GALEX, Dawn, Juno, WFPC-II, AIRS, TES, et al - Propulsion, thermal control, robotic sample acquisition systems. Contamination control engineering across the mission life cycle: - System and payload requirements derivation, analysis, and contamination control implementation plans - Hardware Design, Risk trades, Requirements V-V - Assembly, Integration & Test planning and implementation - Launch site operations and launch vehicle/payload integration - Flight ops center dot Personnel on staff have expertise with space materials development and flight experiments. JPL has capabilities and expertise to successfully address contamination issues presented by space and habitable environments. JPL has extensive experience fielding and managing contamination sensitive missions. Excellent working relationship with the aerospace contamination control engineering community/.

  9. Analysis of food contaminants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbert, John

    1984-01-01

    ... quantification methods used in the analysis of mycotoxins in foods - Confirmation and quantification of trace organic food contaminants by mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring - Chemiluminescence...

  10. 17 years after the Chernobyl' accident: problems and decisions. Proceedings of the International scientific and practical conference; 17 let posle Chernobylya: problemy i resheniya. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferentsii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevchuk, V E; Gurachevskij, V L; Kolbanov, V V

    2003-04-01

    The book contains proceedings of the scientific conference on difference medical and biological problems of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident, as well as on the problems of rehabilitation of the contaminated territories and ecosystems.

  11. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In

  12. Surface soil contamination standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define surface soil contamination limits for radioactive materials below which posting, restrictions and environmental controls are not necessary in order to protect personnel and the environment. The standards can also be used to determine if solid waste or other material is contaminated relative to disposal requirements. The derivation of the standards is given

  13. Contamination Control Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  14. Contamination Control Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics

  15. Contaminated water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormly, Sherwin J. (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for processing of a liquid ("contaminant liquid") containing water and containing urine and/or other contaminants in a two step process. Urine, or a contaminated liquid similar to and/or containing urine and thus having a relatively high salt and urea content is passed through an activated carbon filter to provide a resulting liquid, to remove most of the organic molecules. The resulting liquid is passed through a semipermeable membrane from a membrane first side to a membrane second side, where a fortified drink having a lower water concentration (higher osmotic potential) than the resulting liquid is positioned. Osmotic pressure differential causes the water, but not most of the remaining inorganic (salts) contaminant(s) to pass through the membrane to the fortified drink. Optionally, the resulting liquid is allowed to precipitate additional organic molecules before passage through the membrane.

  16. Bioremediation of contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balba, M.T.; Ying, A.C.; McNeice, T.G.

    1992-01-01

    Microorganisms, especially bacteria, yeast and fungi are capable of degrading many kinds of xenobiotic compounds and toxic chemicals such as petroleum hydrocarbon compounds. These microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and, despite their enormous versatility, there are numerous cases in which long-term contamination of soil and groundwater has been observed. The persistence of the contamination is usually caused by the inability of microorganisms to metabolize these compounds under the prevailing environmental condition. This paper reports on biological remediation of contaminated sites which can be accomplished by using naturally-occurring microorganisms to treat the contaminants. The development of a bioremediation program for a specific contaminated soil system usually includes: A thorough site/soil/waste characterization; Treatability studies

  17. Contamination sources, prevention, and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination is defined as anything other than cotton in cotton lint. Worldwide, contamination is on the rise and plastic contamination has increased at a faster rate than contamination overall. In the U.S., there are many sources of plastic contaminants, such as plastic trash that collects in cott...

  18. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  19. Direct contamination - seasonality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1994-01-01

    Direct contamination is the primary pathway to terrestrial vegetation in the first period after an activity release to the atmosphere. All radionuclides are able to be transferred via this pathway. Deposition, interception and retention are the three processes involved in direct contamination of crops. Wet deposition is more important than dry deposition in temperature regions. Resuspension and rainsplash both belong to secondary direct deposition and became evident for e.g. radiocaesium after the Chernobyl accident. Seasonality is the varying response to radioactive contamination of crops according to the time of the year when the contamination occurs. Shortlived radionuclides (as 131 I) and those that mainly enter the foodchain by direct contamination (e.g. 137 Cs) are especially important in this connection. In particular, the contamination of cereal crops is influenced by seasonality. As a result of seasonality the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the radioactive contamination of human diet was for the same deposition density higher in southern than in northern Europe. (orig.)

  20. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  1. Safety against radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The ALWIT anticontamination suit is briefly described, consisting of lasting antistatic ''NDMEX III''. It was specially developed for the fire brigade who are exposed to a particular kind of contamination while carrying out radiation measurements during fire fighting, rescue and clearing up work. The ALWIT suit reliably prevents radioactive contamination of the surface of the body while wearing a breathing apparatus, independent of the ambient air. Tightly fitting cuffs on the neck, arms and legs together with zippers placed behind prevent contamination even with extreme movement. (P.F.K.)

  2. Cleanup of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beone, G.; Carbone, A.I.; Zagaroli, M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of contaminated areas cleanup, in order to eliminate every possible damage for man safety and environment and to site recovery for some utilization, The first step of cleanup operation is site characterization, that is followed by a pianificazion activity for a better definition of staff qualification, technology to be used, protection and prevention instruments for the risks due to contaminants handling. The second section describes the different remedial technologies for contaminated sites. Remedial technologies may be divided into on-site/off-site and in-situ treatments, according to whether materials (waste, soil, water) are moved to another location or not, respectively. Finally, it is outlined that contaminated areas cleanup is a typical multidisciplinary activity because very different competences are required. (author)

  3. Contaminant Candidate List 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 2 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  4. Contaminant Candidate List 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 3 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  5. Contaminant Candidate List 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 1 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  6. Tracers Detect Aquifer Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enfield, Carl

    1995-01-01

    The EPA's National Laboratory (NRMRL) at Ada, OK, along with the University of Florida and the University of Texas, have developed a tracer procedure to detect the amount of contamination in aquifer formations...

  7. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

    2000-01-01

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift

  8. Monitoring of transport contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkin, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Organization of monitoring of transport contamination is considered. A particularly thorough monitoring is recommended to be carried out in loading-unloading operations. The monitoring is performed when leaving loading-unloading site and zone under control and prior to preventive examination, technical service or repair. The method of monitoring of auto transport contamination with high-energy β-emitters by means of a special stand permitting the automation of the monitoring process is described [ru

  9. Reconditioning contaminated gravel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, H.; Bowers, J.S.; Cadwell, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a portable screening system that will recondition radioactively contaminated gravel in the field. The separation technique employed by this system removes dirt, contaminated debris, and other fine particles from gravel. At LLNL, gravel is used in conjunction with the experimental testing of explosives to reduce shock wave propagation. The gravel surrounds the experimental device and buffers the energy generated from the explosion. During an explosion, some of the gravel is broken down into small particles and mixed with contaminants. Contaminants in the used gravel originate from metal sheathing and other parts comprising, the experimental device. These contaminants may consist of radionuclides and metals that are considered hazardous by the State of California when disposed. This paper describes the process that conveys contaminated material into the screener system, sprays the material with recycled water or other mild cleaning chemicals, and separates particles based on size. Particles greater than a specified size are discharged out of the screener separator and recycled back into use, thereby reducing the amount of mixed waste generated and minimizing the need for new gravel. The fines or silt are flushed out of the separator with the water and are removed from the water and consolidated into a drum with the use of a hydrocyclone separator and drum decant system. Because the water in the spray system is recycled, minimal makeup water is needed. The system monitors pH and total dissolved solids

  10. Fluorescence Imaging Reveals Surface Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirato, Richard; Polichar, Raulf

    1992-01-01

    In technique to detect surface contamination, object inspected illuminated by ultraviolet light to make contaminants fluoresce; low-light-level video camera views fluorescence. Image-processing techniques quantify distribution of contaminants. If fluorescence of material expected to contaminate surface is not intense, tagged with low concentration of dye.

  11. Prevalence of Parasitic Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Yazan

    2016-01-01

    One of the main ways in transmitting parasites to humans is through consuming contaminated raw vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of parasitological contamination (helminthes eggs, Giardia and Entamoeba histolytica cysts) of salad vegetables sold at supermarkets and street vendors in Amman and Baqa’a – Jordan. A total of 133 samples of salad vegetables were collected and examined for the prevalence of parasites. It was found that 29% of the samples were contaminated with different parasites. Of the 30 lettuce, 33 tomato, 42 parsley and 28 cucumber samples examined the prevalence of Ascaris spp. eggs was 43%, 15%, 21% and 4%; Toxocara spp. eggs was 30%, 0%, 0% and 4%; Giardia spp. cysts was 23%, 6%, 0% and 0%; Taenia/Echinococcus eggs was 20%, 0%, 5% and 0%; Fasciola hepatica eggs was 13%, 3%, 2% and 0%; and E. histolytica cysts was 10%, 6%, 0% and 0%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of parasite in salad vegetables either between supermarkets and street vendors, or between Amman and Baqa’a, Ascaris spp. was found to be the highest prevalent parasite in salad vegetables from supermarkets and street vendors and from Amman and Baqa’a. Our results pointed out that, the parasitic contamination of salad vegetables found in our study might be caused by irrigating crops with faecal contaminated water. We concluded that salad vegetables sold in Amman and Baqa’a may cause a health risk to consumers.

  12. Separation of contaminated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakiewicz, J.L.; Reymer, A.P.S.

    1990-01-01

    Separating the contaminated parts from the non-contaminated parts from decommissioned nuclear facilities may strongly reduce the amount of contaminated concrete. The reduction in volume of the radioactive contaminated concrete is dependent on how much cementstone is in the concrete. This research program shows that the radioactive contamination is mostly in the cementstone. However the choice that the cementstone parts, (or better said the radioactive parts) are smaller than 1 mm may not always be true. Normally the cementstone takes about 30% of the total concrete volume. A separation procedure composed by a combination of milling and thermal shock has been assessed. Both the cold and hot thermal shock in combination with milling are not able to separate the cementstone from the larger aggregates completely. However, the cementstone from the concrete with a low nominal grain size seems to be almost completely removed by the combination cold thermal shock/milling, while the cementstone from the concrete with a high nominal grain size seems to be almost completely removed by the combination hot thermal shock/milling. After both methods a layer of cementstone was still visible on the aggregates. Washing followed by a nitric acid treatment removed each 2 wt% of cementstone

  13. Costs of groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, W.B.; Raucher, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Two factors determine the cost of groundwater contamination: (1) the ways in which water was being used or was expected to be used in the future and (2) the physical characteristics of the setting that constrain the responses available to regain lost uses or to prevent related damages to human health and the environment. Most contamination incidents can be managed at a low enough cost that uses will not be foreclosed. It is important to take into account the following when considering costs: (1) natural cleansing through recharge and dilution can take many years; (2) it is difficult and costly to identify the exact area and expected path of a contamination plume; and (3) treatment or replacement of contaminated water often may represent the cost-effective strategy for managing the event. The costs of contamination include adverse health effects, containment and remediation, treatment and replacement costs. In comparing the costs and benefits of prevention programs with those of remediation, replacement or treatment, it is essential to adjust the cost/benefit numbers by the probability of their actual occurrence. Better forecasts of water demand are needed to predict more accurately the scarcity of new supply and the associated cost of replacement. This research should include estimates of the price elasticity of water demand and the possible effect on demand of more rational cost-based pricing structures. Research and development of techniques for in situ remediation should be encouraged

  14. Contamination Control for Thermal Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Rachel B.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). This course will cover the basics of Contamination Control, including contamination control related failures, the effects of contamination on Flight Hardware, what contamination requirements translate to, design methodology, and implementing contamination control into Integration, Testing and Launch.

  15. The Contaminant Cobweb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech Albertsen, Anita Nell

    2017-01-01

    This article maps out character complexity in Penny Dreadful by focusing on the intertextuality of monstrous female characters. The aim of this study is twofold. First, it seeks to examine show how mashup characters gain complexity through textual contamination as they are woven into an intertext......This article maps out character complexity in Penny Dreadful by focusing on the intertextuality of monstrous female characters. The aim of this study is twofold. First, it seeks to examine show how mashup characters gain complexity through textual contamination as they are woven...... into an intertextual cobweb of signification. Secondly, it aims at examining how monstrous complex characters like Vanessa Ives can be conceived as mashups contaminated by different manifestations of the monstrous-feminine as coined by Barbara Creed. An overarching hypothesis of this study is that interfigural...

  16. Phytovolatilization of Organic Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Matt; Burken, Joel

    2016-07-05

    Plants can interact with a variety of organic compounds, and thereby affect the fate and transport of many environmental contaminants. Volatile organic compounds may be volatilized from stems or leaves (direct phytovolatilization) or from soil due to plant root activities (indirect phytovolatilization). Fluxes of contaminants volatilizing from plants are important across scales ranging from local contaminant spills to global fluxes of methane emanating from ecosystems biochemically reducing organic carbon. In this article past studies are reviewed to clearly differentiate between direct- and indirect-phytovolatilization and we discuss the plant physiology driving phytovolatilization in different ecosystems. Current measurement techniques are also described, including common difficulties in experimental design. We also discuss reports of phytovolatilization in the literature, finding that compounds with low octanol-air partitioning coefficients are more likely to be phytovolatilized (log KOA < 5). Reports of direct phytovolatilization at field sites compare favorably to model predictions. Finally, future research needs are presented that could better quantify phytovolatilization fluxes at field scale.

  17. Contamination Analysis Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieda, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    This talk presents 3 different tools developed recently for contamination analysis:HTML QCM analyzer: runs in a web browser, and allows for data analysis of QCM log filesJava RGA extractor: can load in multiple SRS.ana files and extract pressure vs. time dataC++ Contamination Simulation code: 3D particle tracing code for modeling transport of dust particulates and molecules. Uses residence time to determine if molecules stick. Particulates can be sampled from IEST-STD-1246 and be accelerated by aerodynamic forces.

  18. Transportation cask contamination weeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.C.; Doughty, D.H.; Chambers, W.B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the problem of cask contamination weeping, and efforts to understand the phenomenon and to eliminate its occurrence during spent nuclear fuel transport. The paper summarizes analyses of field experience and scoping experiments, and concentrates on current modelling and experimental validation efforts. (J.P.N.)

  19. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  20. Contaminants of Emerging Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-ug/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

  1. Mercury contamination extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Mark [Silver Spring, MD; Heiser, John [Bayport, NY; Kalb, Paul [Wading River, NY

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  2. DSCOVR Contamination Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    The Triana observatory was built at NASA GSFC in the late 1990's, then placed into storage. After approximately ten years it was removed from storage and repurposed as the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). This presentation outlines the contamination control program lessons learned during the integration, test and launch of DSCOVR.

  3. Automatic personnel contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattin, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    United Nuclear Industries, Inc. (UNI) has developed an automatic personnel contamination monitor (APCM), which uniquely combines the design features of both portal and hand and shoe monitors. In addition, this prototype system also has a number of new features, including: micro computer control and readout, nineteen large area gas flow detectors, real-time background compensation, self-checking for system failures, and card reader identification and control. UNI's experience in operating the Hanford N Reactor, located in Richland, Washington, has shown the necessity of automatically monitoring plant personnel for contamination after they have passed through the procedurally controlled radiation zones. This final check ensures that each radiation zone worker has been properly checked before leaving company controlled boundaries. Investigation of the commercially available portal and hand and shoe monitors indicated that they did not have the sensitivity or sophistication required for UNI's application, therefore, a development program was initiated, resulting in the subject monitor. Field testing shows good sensitivity to personnel contamination with the majority of alarms showing contaminants on clothing, face and head areas. In general, the APCM has sensitivity comparable to portal survey instrumentation. The inherit stand-in, walk-on feature of the APCM not only makes it easy to use, but makes it difficult to bypass. (author)

  4. Subsurface Contamination Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Yuan

    2001-12-12

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the

  5. Emerging Contaminants and Federal Facility Contaminants of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page links to fact sheets summarizing contaminants of concern and emerging contaminants that present unique issues and challenges to the environmental community in general and to FFRRO in particular.

  6. Probability mapping of contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, C.A.; Kaplan, P.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McGraw, M.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Istok, J.D. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Sigda, J.M. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Exhaustive characterization of a contaminated site is a physical and practical impossibility. Descriptions of the nature, extent, and level of contamination, as well as decisions regarding proposed remediation activities, must be made in a state of uncertainty based upon limited physical sampling. The probability mapping approach illustrated in this paper appears to offer site operators a reasonable, quantitative methodology for many environmental remediation decisions and allows evaluation of the risk associated with those decisions. For example, output from this approach can be used in quantitative, cost-based decision models for evaluating possible site characterization and/or remediation plans, resulting in selection of the risk-adjusted, least-cost alternative. The methodology is completely general, and the techniques are applicable to a wide variety of environmental restoration projects. The probability-mapping approach is illustrated by application to a contaminated site at the former DOE Feed Materials Production Center near Fernald, Ohio. Soil geochemical data, collected as part of the Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project, have been used to construct a number of geostatistical simulations of potential contamination for parcels approximately the size of a selective remediation unit (the 3-m width of a bulldozer blade). Each such simulation accurately reflects the actual measured sample values, and reproduces the univariate statistics and spatial character of the extant data. Post-processing of a large number of these equally likely statistically similar images produces maps directly showing the probability of exceeding specified levels of contamination (potential clean-up or personnel-hazard thresholds).

  7. Probability mapping of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.; Kaplan, P.G.; McGraw, M.A.; Istok, J.D.; Sigda, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Exhaustive characterization of a contaminated site is a physical and practical impossibility. Descriptions of the nature, extent, and level of contamination, as well as decisions regarding proposed remediation activities, must be made in a state of uncertainty based upon limited physical sampling. The probability mapping approach illustrated in this paper appears to offer site operators a reasonable, quantitative methodology for many environmental remediation decisions and allows evaluation of the risk associated with those decisions. For example, output from this approach can be used in quantitative, cost-based decision models for evaluating possible site characterization and/or remediation plans, resulting in selection of the risk-adjusted, least-cost alternative. The methodology is completely general, and the techniques are applicable to a wide variety of environmental restoration projects. The probability-mapping approach is illustrated by application to a contaminated site at the former DOE Feed Materials Production Center near Fernald, Ohio. Soil geochemical data, collected as part of the Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project, have been used to construct a number of geostatistical simulations of potential contamination for parcels approximately the size of a selective remediation unit (the 3-m width of a bulldozer blade). Each such simulation accurately reflects the actual measured sample values, and reproduces the univariate statistics and spatial character of the extant data. Post-processing of a large number of these equally likely statistically similar images produces maps directly showing the probability of exceeding specified levels of contamination (potential clean-up or personnel-hazard thresholds)

  8. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Program Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA uses the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring (UCM) program to collect data for contaminants suspected to be present in drinking water, but that do not have...

  9. Contamination Control: a systems approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donck, J.C.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Contamination influences a wide variety of industrial processes. For complex systems, contamination control, the collective effort to control contamination to such a level that it guarantees or even improves process or product functionality, offers a way for finding workable solutions. Central in

  10. The contamination factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In 1989 the Senate Committee on Armed Services asked the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to investigate the environmental and public health impacts of contamination at the nation's nuclear weapons complex and to review the Department of Energy's (DOE) program to clean up past contamination and manage huge quantities of radioactive and hazardous wastes. The DOE Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Program is a massive, multibillion-dollar effort engaging state governments and several federal agencies, and including some of the most technically challenging environmental characterization and remediation projects ever attempted. Congress recognized the enormity of DOE's environmental and legal problems and is interested in insuring that the cleanup program is both adequate and efficient. This summary of the OTA report has been adapted for publication in the Bulletin

  11. Internal radioactive contamination treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobajas, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    In a radiological emergency, the internal radioactive contamination becomes a therapeutic urgency and must be established as fast as possible. Just when a radioactive contamination accident occurs, it is difficult to know exactly the amount of radioactive materials absorbed and to estimate the dose received.. The decision to be taken after the incorporation of the radioactive material depends on the method and on the Radiological Protection Department collaboration. Any treatment achieving a reduction of the doses received or expected will be useful. The International Radiological Protection Commission doesn't recommend the use of the dose limit, to decide about the intervention necessity. However the LIA can be used as the reference point to establish the necessity and reach of the treatment. The object of the present work, is to introduce the general principles to carry out the internal people decontamination, under the last international recommendations. (Author) 4 refs

  12. Electrolyze radioactive contamination away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedman, D.E.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.

    1996-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility is using electrolysis to clean the surfaces of hazardous materials. In the past, contaminated metals were cleaned with concentrated acids. Although these treatments make the surfaces safer, they produce other radioactive and toxic wastes in turn. Anodic current passes through a piece of stainless steel submersed in a sodium nitrate solution, and steel dissolves at the surfaces. Surface contamination strips away along with the surface layers. The authors are using this electrolysis approach to remove plutonium and americium from stainless steel and uranium. Unlike acid washing processes, electrolytic decontamination can be accomplished quickly. Little waste is generated regardless of how much material has to be removed from the surface. Material removal is proportional to the applied current, which gives the operator control over the rate and extent of decontamination

  13. Emerging contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Lapworth, Dan; Stuart, Marianne; Hart, Alwyn; Crane, Emily; Baran, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The term ‘emerging contaminants’ (ECs) is used to cover not only newly developed compounds but also includes newly discovered compounds in the environment (often due to analytical developments), and compounds that have been recently categorised as contaminants. ECs include a huge array of different compounds (and their metabolites) that are used by society for a range of purposes and include; pharmaceuticals, pesticides, personal care products, veterinary medicines, engineered nano-materials,...

  14. Indexing contamination surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The responsibility for safely managing the Tank Farms at Hanford belongs to Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation which is part of the six company Project Hanford Management Team led by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc.. These Tank Farm Facilities contain numerous outdoor contamination areas which are surveyed at a periodicity consistent with the potential radiological conditions, occupancy, and risk of changes in radiological conditions. This document describes the survey documentation and data tracking method devised to track the results of contamination surveys this process is referred to as indexing. The indexing process takes a representative data set as an indicator for the contamination status of the facility. The data are further manipulated into a single value that can be tracked and trended using standard statistical methodology. To report meaningful data, the routine contamination surveys must be performed in a manner that allows the survey method and the data collection process to be recreated. Three key criteria are necessary to accomplish this goal: Accurate maps, consistent documentation, and consistent consolidation of data meeting these criteria provides data of sufficient quality to be tracked. Tracking of survey data is accomplished by converting the individual survey results into a weighted value, corrected for the actual number of survey points. This information can be compared over time using standard statistical analysis to identify trends. At the Tank Farms, the need to track and trend the facility's radiological status presents unique challenges. Many of these Tank Farm facilities date back to the second world war. The Tank Farm Facilities are exposed to weather extremes, plant and animal intrusion, as well as all of the normal challenges associated with handling radiological waste streams. Routine radiological surveys did not provide a radiological status adequate for continuing comparisons

  15. Eliminating PCR contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.C.; Ait-Khaled, Mounir; Webster, Alison; Emery, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can mean that even very low levels of contamination with the target DNA will result in a positive signal. At present this aspect is a major limitation in the use of PCR as a routine diagnostic method. By exposing PCR reagents to UV light, contaminating DNA can be inactivated, thus providing an opportunity to eradicate false positive reactions. UV irradiation was applied to PCR systems used for detection of human cytomegalovirus CMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and shown to be effective in eradicating both laboratory encountered contamination and plasmid DNA (below 100 pg) added to PCR systems prior to UV exposure. Sensitivity of a PCR system to amplify the long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence of HIV-1 was not affected by the irradiation procedure; however, ultimate sensitivity of a PCR system for the amplification of an early gene pro-motor sequence of the CMV genome was reduced 1000-fold. UV irradiation did not affect the size of the PCR product as determined by strand separating polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a 32 P-labelled amplimer. Thus, a simple pre-exposure to UV light would seem a worth-wile step to incorporate into PCR protocols provided that the effects on sensitivity have been determined empirically for each PCR system. (author). 11 refs.; 3 figs

  16. Thorium-230 contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noey, K.C.; Liedle, S.D.; Hickey, C.R.; Doane, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    The authors are currently performing radiological surveys on approximately ninety properties in the St. Louis, Missouri area as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The properties involved are the St. Louis Airport Site, Latty Avenue Properties, St. Louis Downtown Site, Coldwater Creek, and the associated roads and vicinity properties. The primary radioactive contaminant on these properties is thorium-230. Since field instrumentation is not available to detect the presence of alpha-emitting contamination in soil, soil samples are being collected and sent to an analytical laboratory for analysis. Thorium-230 analysis is costly and time-consuming, and as a result, soil sample analysis results are not available to help direct the field sampling program. This paper provides discussion of the manner in which the properties became radioactively contaminated, followed by a discussion of the difficulties associated with the detection of thorium-230. Finally, new methodologies for detecting alpha-emitting radionuclides in the field are described

  17. Contaminant Hazard Reviews (compilation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.; Munro, R.E.; Loges, L.M.; Boone, K.; Paul, M.M.; Garrett, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    This compact disc (CD) contains the 35 reports in the Contaminant Hazard Reviews (CHR) that were published originally between 1985 and 1999 in the U.S. Department of the Interior Biological Report series. The CD was produced because printed supplies of these reviews--a total of 105,000--became exhausted and demand remained high. Each review was prepared at the request of environmental specialists of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and each contained specific information on the following: mirex, cadmium, carbofuran, toxaphene, selenium, chromium, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, diazinon, mercury, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic, chlorpyrifos, lead, tin, index issue, pentachlorophenol, atrazine, molybdenum, boron, chlordane, paraquat, cyanide, fenvalerate, diflubenzuron, zinc, famphur, acrolein, radiation, sodium monofluoroacetate, planar PCBs, silver, copper, nickel, and a cumulative index to chemicals and species. Each report reviewed and synthesized the technical literature on a single contaminant and its effects on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, aquatic plants and animals, avian and mammalian wildlife, and other natural resources. The subtopics include contaminant sources and uses; physical, chemical, and metabolic properties; concentrations in field collections of abiotic materials and living organisms; deficiency effects, where appropriate; lethal and sublethal effects, including effects on survival, growth, reproduction, metabolism, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity; proposed criteria for the protection of human health and sensitive natural resources; and recommendations for additional research.

  18. Birliktelik Kısıtları Altında Montaj Hattı Dengeleme Problemi İçin Bir Çözüm Yaklaşımı Önerisi ve Bir İşletmede Uygulama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Altuntaş

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Montaj Hattı Dengelemesinde, -çeşitli nedenlerle- belli iş elemanlarının birbirinden ayrılmaması ve aynı istasyona atanması istenebilir. Bu tür problemler, 'Birliktelik Kısıtları Altında Montaj Hattı Dengeleme (BKAMHD Problemi' olarak tanınmaktadır. Bu birliktelik kısıtı sayesinde, havaleli ürün imali, birlikte işlem görme gereği gibi özel isteklerden veya takım-kolaylık benzeri kaynakların ortak kullanımı düşüncesinden kaynaklanan 'konum ve bölge kısıtları' da karşılanabilmektedir. Bu tür hatlarda ayrıca, malzeme aktarma, takım ve kolaylık maliyetleri, yürüyüş mesafeleri, ayar süreleri ile tedarik süreleri de azalmaktadır. Uygulamada BKAMHD yapısındaki problemlerle yaygın olarak karşılaşılmasına karşın, bunlar üzerinde yapılan çalışmaların klasik montaj hattı dengeleme problemi ile ilgili yayınlara göre daha az olduğu görülmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, özel konum kısıtları dolayısıyla-, bilinen Montaj Hattı Dengeleme yöntemlerinin uygulanamadığı büyük ölçekli bir montaj hattı için uygun bir hat dengeleme yöntemi geliştirmek ve bu yöntem ile söz konusu hattı dengelemek olmuştur. Çalışmanın başında, bu problemin çözümünde kullanılabilecek basit fakat etkili bir yol olarak tanınan 'En Büyük Aday' algoritmasında bazı değişiklikler yapılarak yeni bir yöntem geliştirilmiştir. Bu yöntemin uyarlanabilmesi için de montaj işlemlerinin yapıldığı atölyede çok yoğun bir metot ve zaman etüdü çalışması yürütmek gerekmiştir. Bu çalışma sonucunda derlenen verilerin geliştirilen yönteme uyarlanması sonucunda türetilen seçenekler değerlendirilerek karar vericiye sunulmuştur.

  19. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors

  20. Contamination trapped in a cage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sender, E.

    2003-01-01

    Some abandoned industrial sites are so strongly contaminated that they threaten to contaminate underground waters. Pollutants are driven through the soil by raining waters. The principle of the ''hydro-Faraday'' cage is to prevent raining waters from flowing through the contaminated part of the soil. The cage is in fact a structure of buried drain tubes that envelop the contaminated zone. Physics make waters flow through the tubes rather than the soil, so the contaminated zone receives no more water and as a consequence pollutants are stopped in their way towards the phreatic bed. (A.C.)

  1. Understanding Mechanisms of Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer; John Drake; Ryan James, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, the study of radiological contamination and decontamination has expanded significantly. This paper addresses the mechanisms of radiological contamination that have been reported and then discusses which methods have recently been used during performance testing of several different decontamination technologies. About twenty years ago the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL began a search for decontamination processes which could minimize secondary waste. In order to test the effectiveness of these decontamination technologies, a new simulated contamination, termed SIMCON, was developed. SIMCON was designed to replicate the types of contamination found on stainless steel, spent fuel processing equipment. Ten years later, the INL began research into methods for simulating urban contamination resulting from a radiological dispersal device (RDD). This work was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and included the initial development an aqueous application of contaminant to substrate. Since 2007, research sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has advanced that effort and led to the development of a contamination method that simulates particulate fallout from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND). The IND method diverges from previous efforts to create tenacious contamination by simulating a reproducible “loose” contamination. Examining these different types of contamination (and subsequent decontamination processes), which have included several different radionuclides and substrates, sheds light on contamination processes that occur throughout the nuclear industry and in the urban environment.

  2. NCRP soil contamination task group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recently established a Task Group on Soil Contamination to describe and evaluate the migration pathways and modes of radiation exposure that can potentially arise due to radioactive contamination of soil. The purpose of this paper is to describe the scientific principles for evaluation of soil contamination which can be used as a basis for derivation of soil contamination limits for specific situations. This paper describes scenarios that can lead to soil contamination, important characteristics of soil contamination, the subsequent migration pathways and exposure modes, and the application of principles in the report in deriving soil contamination limits. The migration pathways and exposure modes discussed in this paper include: direct radiation exposure; and exhalation of gases

  3. Contamination monitoring activities in Kanupp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, S S [Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Pakistan)

    1997-06-01

    The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Kanupp) is a 137 MWe pressurized heavy water reactor, designed and erected by the Canadian General Electric Company as a turn key project. The plant is in operation since it was commissioned in the year 1972. It is located at the Arabian Sea Coast about 15 miles to the west of Karachi. During its more than two decades of operation, the plant has generated about 8 billion units of electricity with an average life time availability factor of 60%. In Kanupp, radioactive contamination may exit due to the release of fission product, activation products etc., which may somehow escape from its confinement and may contaminate surface or other media such as air, water etc. In this paper, following items are described: main aspects of contamination, status of contamination monitoring, need of contamination monitoring, radiation protection activity, instruments, contamination, current status of contamination survey materials and their disposal, and environmental monitoring. (G.K.)

  4. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  5. Environmental radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saucedo, Edgardo

    2000-01-01

    The environmental radioactive contamination with the scientific and technological advances can produce big benefits or damages to the human beings or the environment. The approval of national or international laws in the population's education so that it can face the topic critically and the scientific formation of human resources and ethically for application of the ionizing radiations, they are the best road to take advantage to the maximum of benefits of these radiations, reducing to the minimum the risks on the man and the environment

  6. Soil contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a quick screening method that accurately identifies and quantifies the amount of alpha-emitting radionuclides in infinitely-thick soil samples using a Frisch grid ionization chamber. An additional objective of the work was to provide the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office and its contractors with information on the theoretical and actual measured results of atmospheric testing contamination of soil and water at the Nevada Test Site through a comprehensive search of existing literature

  7. [Perceived risks of food contaminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Severine; Lohmann, Mark; Epp, Astrid; Böl, Gaby-Fleur

    2017-07-01

    Food contaminants can pose a serious health threat. In order to carry out adequate risk communication measures, the subjective risk perception of the public must be taken into account. In this context, the breadth of the topic and insufficient terminological delimitations from residues and food additives make an elaborate explanation of the topic to consumers indispensable. A representative population survey used language adequate for lay people and a clear definition of contaminants to measure risk perceptions with regard to food contaminants among the general public. The study aimed to assess public awareness of contaminants and the perceived health risks associated with them. In addition, people's current knowledge and need for additional information, their attitudes towards contaminants, views on stakeholder accountability, as well as compliance with precautionary measures, such as avoiding certain foods to reduce health risks originating from contaminants, were assessed. A representative sample of 1001 respondents was surveyed about food contaminants via computer-assisted telephone interviewing. The majority of respondents rated contaminants as a serious health threat, though few of them spontaneously mentioned examples of undesirable substances in foods that fit the scientific or legal definition of contaminants. Mercury and dioxin were the most well-known contaminants. Only a minority of respondents was familiar with pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The present findings highlight areas that require additional attention and provide implications for risk communication geared to specific target groups.

  8. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include 234 Th, 234 Pa, 137 Cs, 239 Pu (trace), 60 Co, U, 99 Tc, and 237 Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs

  9. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  10. Adsorption and desorption of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, A.V.; Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; DeFlaun, M.; Ensley, B.

    1994-01-01

    The microbial remediation of sites Contaminated with organics is well documented, however, there are some significant problems that remain to be solved in the areas of contaminants sorbed to soils and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination. Methods of in situ bioremediation techniques employ either the stimulation of indigenous populations by nutrient addition, or the addition of prepared bacterial cultures to the subsurface environment. Problems of contaminant sorption and NAPL's are related in that both encompass reduced contaminant bioavailability. Non-aqueous phase liquids have been identified as a priority area for research in the In situ Program due to their presence at DOE sites and the lack of adequate technology to effectively treat this contamination. Bioremediation technologies developed as a result of this project are easily transferred to industry

  11. A cleanroom contamination control system

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, W.; Eaton, T.

    2002-01-01

    Analytical methods for hazard and risk analysis are being considered for controlling contamination\\ud in pharmaceutical cleanrooms. The most suitable method appears to be the HACCP system that has\\ud been developed for the food industry, but this requires some reinterpretation for use in\\ud pharmaceutical manufacturing. This paper suggests a possible system.\\ud To control contamination effectively, it is necessary to have a good appreciation of the routes and\\ud sources of contamination, and ...

  12. Skin contamination - prevention and decontaminating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, K.

    2001-01-01

    A detailed examination is made of the structure of human skin. Measures were drawn up to prevent skin contamination in nuclear installations as well as contaminated skin was decontaminated from the personnel. By systematically applying these measures a significant level of success was achieved in preventing contamination in nuclear installations. Cases where more far-reaching chemical methods had to be used were kept to a minimum. (R.P.)

  13. Forestry on the contamination territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavrov, A.I.; Kovalev, S.D.; Zhukovskaya, O.V.; Drobyshevskaya, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    The common characteristic of a contamination of the Belarus' forests by radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident is indicated. The recommendations for population about the picking up the mushrooms, berries, juices, medicinal herbs, preparation of forages, wood and other production in the contaminated forests are given. The information about the using of forests in depending on a level of the soil contamination is given. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  14. Contamination control plan for prelaunch operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A unified, systematic plan is presented for contamination control for space flight systems. Allowable contaminant quantities, or contamination budgets, are determined based on system performance margins and system-level allowable degradations. These contamination budgets are compared to contamination rates in ground environments to establish the controls required in each ground environment. The use of feedback from contamination monitoring and some contamination control procedures are discussed.

  15. PRAMU. Contamination sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, Armando R.

    2000-01-01

    Mining and milling activities have been carried out in Argentina during the last 40 years, and nowadays National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) of Argentina is undertaking the Uranium Mining Environmental Restoration Project (PRAMU). The aim of this project is to achieve that in all the places where uranium mining activities were developed, to restore the environment as much as it is possible, according to the legislation in force. The sites which are studied are: Malargue (Mendoza province), Cordoba (Cordoba province), Los Gigantes (Cordoba province), Huemul (Mendoza province), Pichinan (Chubut province), Tonco (Salta province), La Estela (San Luis province), Los Colorados (La Rioja province). In order to develop the restoration project in each site, one of the first task to be performed is to know quantities and the chemical, physicals and radiological characteristics of the contamination sources. In the present paper the activities of PRAMU in this field, are informed. (author)

  16. Microfiltration of radioactive contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, L P; Slade, J A; Vijayan, S; Wong, C F

    1993-04-01

    Cross-flow microfiltration processing of radioactive liquids has been in use at Chalk River Laboratories for about four years. The separation process removes suspended particles from radioactive waste solutions. The clean liquid can then be treated with conventional reverse osmosis membranes to achieve volume reduction factors approaching 100. Microfiltration removes particles below the rating of 0.2 microns, in part from particle agglomeration. Operating experience relating to a 15 USGPM unit is presented. Coupling microfiltration technology with chemical treatment enhances the removal of soluble species. Research and development experience with the removal of soluble contaminants found in ground water and waste water will be discussed. The technology has advantages over other membrane technologies, namely lower energy costs, a lesser degree of fouling, and a higher recovery of processed solution. Future applications of the technology are addressed. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  17. Microfiltration of radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.; Slade, J.A.; Vijayan, S.; Wong, C.F.

    1993-04-01

    Cross-flow microfiltration processing of radioactive liquids has been in use at Chalk River Laboratories for about four years. The separation process removes suspended particles from radioactive waste solutions. The clean liquid can then be treated with conventional reverse osmosis membranes to achieve volume reduction factors approaching 100. Microfiltration removes particles below the rating of 0.2 microns, in part from particle agglomeration. Operating experience relating to a 15 USGPM unit is presented. Coupling microfiltration technology with chemical treatment enhances the removal of soluble species. Research and development experience with the removal of soluble contaminants found in ground water and waste water will be discussed. The technology has advantages over other membrane technologies, namely lower energy costs, a lesser degree of fouling, and a higher recovery of processed solution. Future applications of the technology are addressed. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  18. Management of contaminated forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, A.; Tikhomirov, F.A.; Grebenkov, A.; Dubourg, M.; Belli, M.; Arkhipov, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the main radioecological issues, the consequence of which are the distribution of doses for critical group of populations living in the vicinity of contaminated forest after the Chernobyl accident and the effects on the forestry economy. The main problems that have to be tackled are to avert doses for the population and forest workers, mitigate the economical burden of the lost forestry production and comply with the permissible levels of radionuclides in forest products. Various options are examined with respect to their application, and their cost effectiveness in terms of dose reduction when such attribute appears to be relevant. It is found that the cost effectiveness of the various options is extremely dependant of the case in which it is intended to be applied. Little actions are available for decreasing the doses, but most of them can lead to an economical benefit

  19. Sources of groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaf, H.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2007-09-01

    In spite of the importance of water for life, either for drinking, irrigation, industry or other wide uses in many fields, human beings seem to contaminate it and make it unsuitable for human uses. This is due to disposal of wastes in the environment without treatment. In addition to population increase and building expanding higher living costs, industrial and economical in growth that causes an increase in water consumption. All of these factors have made an increase pressure on our water environment quantitatively and qualitatively. In addition, there is an increase of potential risks to the water environmental due to disposal of domestic and industrial wastewater in areas near the water sources. Moreover, the use of unacceptable irrigation systems may increase soil salinity and evaporation rates. The present report discusses the some groundwater sources and problem, hot and mineral waters that become very important in our life and to our health due to its chemical and radioactivity characteristics.(authors)

  20. Bioremediation of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, C.

    1996-01-01

    By volatilizing aromatic compounds through aeration, landfarming is a recognized approach to the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. With this method, the soil is cultivated and aided with fertilizer amendment to provide a nutrient source for the microbial population involved in the degradation of hydrocarbons. The effectiveness of bioremediation will depend on several factors, including topographic features, soil properties, and biochemistry. Since bioremediation is inhibited by anaerobic conditions, sites that are sloped or have trenches to collect runoff water are preferable. As for soil properties, the percentage of sand should not be too high, but aeration is essential to avoid anaerobic conditions. Addition of straw is generally beneficial, and fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium will help degrading hydrocarbons. Temperature, pH, and salt content are also important factors since they facilitate microbial activity. 3 refs

  1. Radiation surveys in contaminated communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, G.B.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation surveys of uranium contamination in Uranium City and Port Hope, Canada, are described. Samples of soil, water, and crops grown in contaminated soil and air in homes were analyzed for radon content. Following decontamination, measurements were made of γ exposure rates both inside and outside of buildings

  2. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing...... contaminants and factors that influence the occurrence are given as well as suggestions for mitigation....

  3. Contamination Sensitivity in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Share, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Revealed that children were able to indicate that an apparently safe substance such as juice may be contaminated by contact with a foreign body such as a cockroach. Supported the hypothesis that early sensitivity to substances that contain invisible contaminates may be guided by knowledge of a distinction between appearance and reality. (RH)

  4. Management of internal contamination accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipsztein, J.L.; Melo, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper concerns with the techniques for intakes assessment which depend on the mode and level of intake, the type of energy of the radiation emitted, the biokinetic of the contaminant, and the sensitivity and availability of measurement facilities. In vivo and in vitro techniques are used to quantify internal contaminations

  5. Direct probability mapping of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Exhaustive characterization of a contaminated site is a physical and practical impossibility. Descriptions of the nature, extent, and level of contamination, as well as decisions regarding proposed remediation activities, must be made in a state of uncertainty based upon limited physical sampling. Geostatistical simulation provides powerful tools for investigating contaminant levels, and in particular, for identifying and using the spatial interrelationships among a set of isolated sample values. This additional information can be used to assess the likelihood of encountering contamination at unsampled locations and to evaluate the risk associated with decisions to remediate or not to remediate specific regions within a site. Past operation of the DOE Feed Materials Production Center has contaminated a site near Fernald, Ohio, with natural uranium. Soil geochemical data have been collected as part of the Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project. These data have been used to construct a number of stochastic images of potential contamination for parcels approximately the size of a selective remediation unit. Each such image accurately reflects the actual measured sample values, and reproduces the univariate statistics and spatial character of the extant data. Post-processing of a large number of these equally likely, statistically similar images produces maps directly showing the probability of exceeding specified levels of contamination. Evaluation of the geostatistical simulations can yield maps representing the expected magnitude of the contamination for various regions and other information that may be important in determining a suitable remediation process or in sizing equipment to accomplish the restoration

  6. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, J.A.; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming

  7. Field based plastic contamination sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States has a long-held reputation of being a dependable source of high quality, contaminant-free cotton. Recently, increased incidence of plastic contamination from sources such as shopping bags, vegetable mulch, surface irrigation tubing, and module covers has threatened the reputation o...

  8. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    OpenAIRE

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid; Pedreschi, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing contaminants and factors that influence the occurrence are given as well as suggestions for mitigation.

  9. ICRP-26 and skin contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnigan, T.; Huda, W.; Newbery, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    The experience of dealing with skin contamination incidents at The Radiochemical Centre over a 3-year period is presented. Data are given for the primary isotopes involved, the duration of skin contamination, and the skin doses that arise from these incidents. The methods employed in performing dosimetry for skin contamination are discussed and examples involving the isotopes carbon-14 and indium-111 are described. For skin contamination incidents, the mode of penetration of the activity into skin is normally not known and this can be of major significance for the final skin dose estimate. The operational health physics difficulties encountered in complying with both ICRP-26 and UK legislation for skin contamination are considered. In the event of multiple exposure (i.e. skin doses calculated from whole body film badges, extremity TLD dose meters and skin contamination) there is ambiguity in the precise meaning of the skin dose. The usefulness of Derived Working Levels is also discussed. Experience at The Radiochemical Centre has shown that good plant design, proper training and prompt action in dealing with contamination incidents ensures that overexposures to skin from accidental contamination are rare occurrences. (author)

  10. Zespół Aspergera u osób dorosłych – zbieżność z innymi zaburzeniami, zaburzenia współwystępujące i problemy towarzyszące

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sławińska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available W klasyfikacjach ICD-10 i DSM-IV zespół Aspergera należy do kategorii całościowych zaburzeń rozwoju. Nie w pełni zdefiniowane kryteria diagnostyczne są przedmiotem dyskusji badaczy i klinicystów. W nowym systemie klasyfikacji – DSM-5 – zespół Aspergera nie występuje, pojawiła się za to szeroka jednostka „spektrum zaburzeń autystycznych”. Do najpowszechniejszych objawów zespołu Aspergera zalicza się: zaburzenia komunikacji werbalnej i niewerbalnej, egocentryzm, upośledzenie umiejętności społecznych, stereotypowość zachowań, zawężenie zainteresowań, problemy z koordynacją. Manifestacja symptomów zmienia się w ciągu życia – z powodu wzrastających wymagań społecznych objawy stają się wyraźniejsze w okresie dorastania. Świadomość bycia innym prowadzi do pogłębiającego się wycofania. Postawienie właściwej diagnozy jest szczególnie trudne u osób dorosłych. Wielu pacjentów psychiatrycznych, w których przypadku istnieją duże trudności z ustaleniem rozpoznania, cierpi na – wcześniej niezdiagnozowany – zespół Aspergera. Jego objawy bywają błędnie rozpoznawane jako symptomy zaburzeń osobowości czy schizofrenii. Co więcej, wiele zaburzeń może współwystępować z zespołem Aspergera (np. zaburzenia obsesyjno-kompulsyjne, zaburzenia afektywne, schizofrenia, zaburzenia odżywiania. Agresja, uzależnienia, myśli i tendencje samobójcze także mogą zaciemniać jego objawy. Podsumowując: istnieje wiele zaburzeń współwystępujących i problemów towarzyszących, które utrudniają rozpoznanie omawianego zespołu u dorosłych.

  11. Rehabilitation of radioactive contaminated forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panfilov, A.V.; Uspenskaya, E.Ju.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of radiation accidents and nuclear-weapon tests at the territory of the former USSR a part of the Forest Fund of 23 subjects of the Russian Federation has been contaminated by radionuclides. The contaminated forests, which are included in a structure of more than 130 forest management units (leskhozes) and more then 330 local forest management units, as a rule, are located in highly inhabited regions with traditionally intensive forestry management and high level of forest resources use. To provide radiologically safe forest management in the contaminated areas, the Federal Forest Service has developed and validated a special system of countermeasures. Use of this system makes it possible to diminish significantly the dose to personnel, to exclude the use of forest products with contamination exceeding radiological standards and to provide protection of the forest as a biogeochemical barrier to radionuclide migration from contaminated areas to human habitat. (author)

  12. Groundwater contaminant plume ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    Containment plumes at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites were ranked to assist in Subpart B (i.e., restoration requirements of 40 CFR Part 192) compliance strategies for each site, to prioritize aquifer restoration, and to budget future requests and allocations. The rankings roughly estimate hazards to the environment and human health, and thus assist in determining for which sites cleanup, if appropriate, will provide the greatest benefits for funds available. The rankings are based on the scores that were obtained using the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Modified Hazard Ranking System (MHRS). The MHRS and HRS consider and score three hazard modes for a site: migration, fire and explosion, and direct contact. The migration hazard mode score reflects the potential for harm to humans or the environment from migration of a hazardous substance off a site by groundwater, surface water, and air; it is a composite of separate scores for each of these routes. For ranking the containment plumes at UMTRA Project sites, it was assumed that each site had been remediated in compliance with the EPA standards and that relict contaminant plumes were present. Therefore, only the groundwater route was scored, and the surface water and air routes were not considered. Section 2.0 of this document describes the assumptions and procedures used to score the groundwater route, and Section 3.0 provides the resulting scores for each site. 40 tabs

  13. Groundwater contamination and community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, K.

    2004-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company LLC ('Westinghouse') acquired a nuclear fuel processing plant at Hematite, Missouri ('Hematite', the 'Facility', or the 'Plant') in April 2000. The plant has subsequently been closed, and its operations have been relocated to a newer, larger facility. Westinghouse has announced plans to complete its clean-up, decommissioning, and License retirement in a safe, socially responsible, and environmentally sound manner as required by internal policies, as well as those of its parent company, British Nuclear Fuels plc. (BNFL). Preliminary investigations have revealed the presence of environmental contamination in various areas of the facility and grounds, including both radioactive contamination and various other substances related to the nuclear fuel processing operations. Most noteworthy among the areas of contamination are seven private drinking water wells up to 3 000 feet to the southeast, and one private drinking water well approximately 1 000 feet to the northeast, that have been found to contain tetra-chloro-ethylene ('PCE'), trichloroethylene ('TCE'), and other contaminants associated with their environmental degradation. Potential sources of this contamination include approximately 40 large unlined on-site burial pits and 2 evaporation ponds in which previous operators of the facility disposed of uranium contaminated wastes and a variety of other hazardous substances. This paper discusses Westinghouse's response to the discovery of drinking water contamination, and the significance of its community relations program within that response. (author)

  14. Drinking Water Contaminants -- Standards and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Drinking Water Contaminants – Standards and Regulations EPA identifies contaminants to regulate ... other partners to implement these SDWA provisions. Regulated Contaminants National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs) - table of ...

  15. CONTAMINANTS AND REMEDIAL OPTIONS AT PESTICIDE SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many types of soils, sediments, and sludges are contaminated with a wide variety of pesticides. ite-specific characteristics such as volume to be treated, extent of contamination, and applicable cleanup goals differ greatly, and contaminant toxicity, migration pathways, persisten...

  16. Cleanup of contaminated areas; La bonifica di aree contaminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beone, G; Carbone, A I; Zagaroli, M [ENEA - Dipartimento Protezione Ambientale e Salute dell' Uomo, Centro Ricerche Energia, Casaccia (Italy)

    1989-01-15

    The paper deals with the problem of contaminated areas cleanup, in order to eliminate every possible damage for man safety and environment and to site recovery for some utilization, The first step of cleanup operation is site characterization, that is followed by a pianificazion activity for a better definition of staff qualification, technology to be used, protection and prevention instruments for the risks due to contaminants handling. The second section describes the different remedial technologies for contaminated sites. Remedial technologies may be divided into on-site/off-site and in-situ treatments, according to whether materials (waste, soil, water) are moved to another location or not, respectively. Finally, it is outlined that contaminated areas cleanup is a typical multidisciplinary activity because very different competences are required. (author)

  17. Photocatalytic remediation of contaminated solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarenzelli, J R; Scrudato, R J [State Univ. of New York, Oswego, NY (United States). Research Center

    1996-12-31

    Results of various experiments to utilize photocatalysis to photodegrade polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticide-contaminated sediments and soils in slurry suspensions, were discussed. The mechanism of the reaction, i. e. simultaneously bringing together the catalyst, contaminant and light through mixing or overturn of the material, was explained. Potential advantages of the method (on-site treatment, simultaneous degradation of multiple contaminants, low energy requirements, no emission of toxic effluents, reusable inert catalyst, no landfilling or future liability, etc.,) were reviewed. A pilot-scale test is planned for the near future to provide performance data needed for eventual commercialization. 8 refs.

  18. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Cosmetics with high water content are at a risk of being contaminated by micro-organisms that can alter the composition of the product or pose a health risk to the consumer. Pathogenic micro-organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently found in contaminated...... cosmetics. In order to avoid contamination of cosmetics, the manufacturers add preservatives to their products. In the EU and the USA, cosmetics are under legislation and all preservatives must be safety evaluated by committees. There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market...

  19. Nuclear explosion and internal contamination; Explosion nucleaire et contamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeberhardt, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    By the study of the conditions of internal contamination due to the radioactive mixture produced by a nuclear explosion, the parts played by the relative weights of the different elements and the mode of expression of the doses are considered. Only the knowledge of the weight composition of the contamination mixture and of its evolution as a function of time can provide the required basis for the study of its metabolism in the organism. The curves which give the composition of the fission product mixture - in number of nuclei - - as a function of time - have been established. These curves are applied to some practical examples, particularly relative to the nature of contamination, radiotoxicity of some elements and assessment of hazards. (author) [French] Etudiant les modalites de la contamination interne par les elements radioactifs apparus lors d'une explosion nucleaire, le role de la 'masse' et le mode d'expression des doses sont envisages. La connaissance de la composition en 'masse' du melange contaminant et de son evolution en fonction du temps peut seule apporter les bases necessaires a l'etude de son comportement dans l'organisme. Les courbes donnant la composition du melange de produits de fission - en nombre de noyaux - - en fonction du temps - ont ete etablies. Quelques applications pratiques, relatives en particulier a la nature de la contamination, a la radiotoxicite de certains elements et a l'evaluation de risque, sont envisagees a titre d'exemple. (auteur)

  20. Emerging Contaminants – Dinitrotoluene (DNT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO), provides a brief summary of the emerging contaminant Dinitrotoluene (DNT) including physical and chemical properties.

  1. Mercury contamination in the Amazon

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nancy Minogue

    contamination is mainly caused by deforestation upstream. ... The team expected to find that the mercury levels in the water, sediment, and soil decreased as they ... Methylmercury poisoning — known as Minamata Disease after the Japanese ...

  2. Environmental analysis of contaminated sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sunahara, G.I; Renoux, A; Thellen, C; Gaudet, C.L; Pilon, A

    2002-01-01

    .... Topics addressed include: the integration of terrestrial ecotoxicity testing with respect to a chemical's behaviour in soil, developments in contaminated soil risk assessment, and the use of advanced scientific data...

  3. Contaminated sediment transport during floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 48 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of parts of the White Oak Creek catchment. The contaminants presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in the White Oak Creek drainage system. The erosion of these sediments during floods can result in the transport of contaminants both within the catchment and off-site into the Clinch River. A data collection program and a modeling investigation are being used to evaluate the probability of contaminated sediment transport during floods and to develop strategies for controlling off-site transport under present and future conditions

  4. Indoor Environmental Contaminants in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wide range of environmental contaminants can affect the health and safety of a school environment. This page covers the basics on issues your school may face, including asbestos, chemicals, formaldehyde, lead, mercury, PCBs and radon.

  5. Emerging Contaminants in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter explores the use of mass spectrometry and its application to emerging contaminants (ECs) in the environment; such classes of compounds as organometallics, pharmaceuticals/drugs, nanomaterials, and dispersants (surfactants). Table 1 shows the variety of ECs that are...

  6. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  7. Hand and foot contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakati, R.K.; Kaptral, R.S.; Ananthkrishnan, T.S.; Pansare, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    In order to make quick measurements of beta and gamma contaminations on hands and feet of personnel working in radioactive environments, hand and foot contamination monitors are widely used. This paper describes such a monitor system designed with Intel 8085 based microcomputer. The monitoring and warning system is designed to perform measurement of activity spread over surface of hands and soles of shoes or feet. Even though the system has many features to aid testing and maintainance operation, it is easy to use for unskilled persons. In order to check the contamination, the person stands on platform and inserts both his hands into detector assemblies thereby actuating the sensing switches. After a preset interval, annunciation of clean or contaminated status is declared by the system. (author)

  8. Particle contamination in vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martignac, J.; Bonin, B.; Henriot, C.; Poupeau, J.P.; Koltchakian, I.; Kocic, D.; Herbeaux, Ch.; Marx, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Many vacuum devices, like RF cavities, are sensitive to particle contamination. This fact has motivated a considerable effort of cleanliness from the SRF community. The present paper reports the first results of a general study trying to identify the most contaminating steps during assembly and vacuum operation of the cavity. The steps investigated here are gasket assembly, evacuation and venting of the vacuum system, and operation of sputter ion pumps. (author)

  9. Human Forward Contamination Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on Mars, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. Unlike the Mars rovers that we cleaned once and sent on their way, humans will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations?

  10. Particle contamination in vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martignac, J.; Bonin, B.; Henriot, C.; Poupeau, J.P.; Koltchakian, I.; Kocic, D.; Herbeaux, Ch.; Marx, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Many vacuum devices, like RF cavities, are sensitive to particle contamination. This fact has motivated a considerable effort of cleanliness from the SRF community. The first results of a general study trying to identify the most contaminating steps during assembly and vacuum operation of the cavity is reported. The steps investigated here are gasket assembly, evacuation and venting of the vacuum system, and operation of sputter ion pumps. (author)

  11. Isotope hydrology: Investigating groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinchuk, V.; Froehlich, K.; Gonfiantini, R.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater quality has worsened in many regions, with sometimes serious consequences. Decontaminating groundwater is an extremely slow process, and sometimes impossible, because of the generally long residence time of the water in most geological formations. Major causes of contamination are poor groundwater management (often dictated by immediate social needs) and the lack of regulations and control over the use and disposal of contaminants. These types of problems have prompted an increasing demand for investigations directed at gaining insight into the behaviour of contaminants in the hydrological cycle. Major objectives are to prevent pollution and degradation of groundwater resources, or, if contamination already has occurred, to identify its origin so that remedies can be proposed. Environmental isotopes have proved to be a powerful tool for groundwater pollution studies. The IAEA has had a co-ordinated research programme since 1987 on the application of nuclear techniques to determine the transport of contaminants in groundwater. An isotope hydrology project is being launched within the framework of the IAEA's regional co-operative programme in Latin America (known as ARCAL). Main objectives are the application of environmental isotopes to problems of groundwater assessment and contamination in Latin America. In 1989, another co-ordinated research programme is planned under which isotopic and other tracers will be used for the validation of mathematical models in groundwater transport studies

  12. Remediation Technologies Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    All research and development has a story behind it, says Jacqueline Quinn, environmental engineer at Kennedy Space Center. For Quinn, one such story begins with the Saturn 1B launch stand at Kennedy and ends with a unique solution to a challenging environmental problem. Used in a number of Apollo missions and during the Skylab program, the Saturn 1B launch stand was dismantled following the transition to the Space Shuttle Program and stored in an open field at Kennedy. Decades later, the Center s Environmental Program Office discovered evidence of chemicals called polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the field s soil. The findings were puzzling since PCBs a toxin classified as a probable carcinogen by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been banned in the United States since 1979. Before the ban, PCBs were commonly used in transformer oils that leached into the ground when the oils were changed out and dumped near transformer sites, but there were no electrical transformers near the dismantled stand. It soon became apparent that the source of the PCBs was the launch stand itself. Prior to the ban, PCBs were used extensively in paints to add elasticity and other desirable characteristics. The PCB-laden paint on the Saturn 1B launch stand was flaking off into the field s soil. Nobody knew there were PCBs in the paint, says Quinn, noting that the ingredient was not monitored carefully when it was in use in 1960s. In fact, she says, the U.S. EPA was not even established until 1970, a year after Neil Armstrong first set foot on the Moon. Nobody knew any better at the time, Quinn says, but today, we have the responsibility to return any natural environmental media to as close to pristine a condition as possible. Quinn, fellow engineer Kathleen Loftin, and other Kennedy colleagues already had experience developing unprecedented solutions for environmental contamination; the team invented the emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) technology to safely treat

  13. Redispersion of indoor surface contamination: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansone, E.B.; Slein, M.W.

    1978-01-01

    The importance of surface contamination as a potential source of exposure to hazardous materials is discussed. Data from the literature concerning the resuspension of indoor surface contamination are presented. Reported procedures for quantitating surface contamination are compared. It is suggested that, despite its limitations, surface contamination monitoring may be useful in estimating potential risks from hazardous materials. (Auth.)

  14. 9 CFR 381.91 - Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contamination. 381.91 Section 381.91... § 381.91 Contamination. (a) Carcasses of poultry contaminated by volatile oils, paints, poisons, gases... station away from the main processing line, by any method that will remove the contamination, such as...

  15. Modeling subsurface contamination at Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.W.; Flinn, J.C.; Ruwe, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Fernald site is located about 20 miles northwest of Cincinnati. Fernald produced refined uranium metal products from ores between 1953 and 1989. The pure uranium was sent to other DOE sites in South Carolina, Tennessee, Colorado,and Washington in support of the nation's strategic defense programs. Over the years of large-scale uranium production, contamination of the site's soil and groundwater occurred.The contamination is of particular concern because the Fernald site is located over the Great Miami Aquifer, a designated sole-source drinking water aquifer. Contamination of the aquifer with uranium was found beneath the site, and migration of the contamination had occurred well beyond the site's southern boundary. As a result, Fernald was placed on the National Priorities (CERCLA/Superfund) List in 1989. Uranium production at the site ended in 1989,and Fernald's mission has been changed to one of environmental restoration. This paper presents information about computerized modeling of subsurface contamination used for the environmental restoration project at Fernald

  16. Contaminant exposure in terrestrial vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Philip N.; Cobb, George P.; Godard-Codding, Celine; Hoff, Dale; McMurry, Scott T.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Reynolds, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    Here we review mechanisms and factors influencing contaminant exposure among terrestrial vertebrate wildlife. There exists a complex mixture of biotic and abiotic factors that dictate potential for contaminant exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial vertebrates. Chemical fate and transport in the environment determine contaminant bioaccessibility. Species-specific natural history characteristics and behavioral traits then play significant roles in the likelihood that exposure pathways, from source to receptor, are complete. Detailed knowledge of natural history traits of receptors considered in conjunction with the knowledge of contaminant behavior and distribution on a site are critical when assessing and quantifying exposure. We review limitations in our understanding of elements of exposure and the unique aspects of exposure associated with terrestrial and semi-terrestrial taxa. We provide insight on taxa-specific traits that contribute, or limit exposure to, transport phenomenon that influence exposure throughout terrestrial systems, novel contaminants, bioavailability, exposure data analysis, and uncertainty associated with exposure in wildlife risk assessments. Lastly, we identify areas related to exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial organisms that warrant additional research. - Both biotic and abiotic factors determine chemical exposure for terrestrial vertebrates

  17. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water–rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agricultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3–, N2, Cl, SO42–, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well as a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3–, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  18. Radioactive contamination in imported foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Kimiko; Maki, Toshio; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawai, Yuka; Kobayashi, Maki; Shioda, Hiroko; Nishima, Taichiro

    1990-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, explosion occurred in Chernobyl nuclear power station in USSR, and radioactivity contamination was brought about in almost all countries in the world. In European countries, crops were contaminated directly with radioactive fallout to high concentration. Also in Japan, after one week the radioactivity higher than usual was detected in environment, and also in vegetables, milk, tea leaves and others. Thereafter, in order to cope with the import of contaminated foods, inspection and watch system was strengthened by deciding the interim limit of radioactive concentration. However the cases of exceeding the interim limit were often reported. In order to remove the harmful foods due to radioactive contamination and to meet the fear of consumers, the authors measured the radioactive concentration in foods distributed in Tokyo and investigated the actual state of contamination. The samples were 920 imported foods. The experimental method, the preparation of samples, the method of analysis and the results are reported. The samples in which the radioactive concentration exceeding 50 Bq/kg was detected were 25 cases. The food having the high frequency of detection was flavors. (K.I.)

  19. Radiocesium contamination and the reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, O.; Raunistola, T.; Jones, B.E.V.

    1991-01-01

    The high transfer factors calculated for radiocesium in this study are partly due to the feeding habits of the reindeer with a substantial intake of lichens, especially in the wintertime. Seasonal changes in grazing plant selection caused a considerable cyclic, seasonal variation in radiocesium content of soft tissues. The effective half-life of radiocesium in reindeer during winter feeding conditions was determined to about 30 days in an experiment where a herd of reindeer was moved from a high (> 20 kBq/m 2 Cs-137) to a low (> 3 kBq/m 2 Cs-137) contamination area. During natural grazing conditions the fractional transfer of Cs-137 was determined to about 0.65 d/kg during wintertime in the low-contamination area and about 0.30 d/kg in summertime after grazing on highly contaminated pastures. The effective half-life of Cs-137 in reindeer lichens was seven to ten years both before and after the Chernobyl accident. In areas with initially high contamination the half-life was shorter, 6.2±0.9 years, than in areas with lower contamination, 15.0 ± 5.1 years. In heather, bilberry and crowberry negative effective half-lives, increasing concentrations, were observed. Precipitation during the growth period could change the Cs-137 activity of some plant species. (au) (32 refs.)

  20. Contaminant Hydrogeology, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James E.

    Groundwater is a valuable resource that has received much attention over the last couple of decades. Extremely large sums of money have been and will be spent on groundwater contamination problems and the public has become increasingly sensitive to groundwater issues. Groundwater contamination has even become the subject of a major Hollywood movie with the recent release of A Civil Action starring John Travolta. The high profile of groundwater contaminant problems, the associated relatively strong job market over the last 20 years, and the general shift toward an environmental emphasis in science and engineering have resulted in a sustained high demand for senior undergraduate courses and graduate programs in hydrogeology Many voice the opinion that we have seen the peak demand for hydrogeologists pass, but the placement of graduates from hydrogeology programs into career-oriented positions has remained very high.

  1. Groundwater arsenic contamination throughout China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lado, Luis; Sun, Guifan; Berg, Michael; Zhang, Qiang; Xue, Hanbin; Zheng, Quanmei; Johnson, C Annette

    2013-08-23

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater used for drinking in China is a health threat that was first recognized in the 1960s. However, because of the sheer size of the country, millions of groundwater wells remain to be tested in order to determine the magnitude of the problem. We developed a statistical risk model that classifies safe and unsafe areas with respect to geogenic arsenic contamination in China, using the threshold of 10 micrograms per liter, the World Health Organization guideline and current Chinese standard for drinking water. We estimate that 19.6 million people are at risk of being affected by the consumption of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. Although the results must be confirmed with additional field measurements, our risk model identifies numerous arsenic-affected areas and highlights the potential magnitude of this health threat in China.

  2. Psychological aspects of personnel contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.L.

    1985-04-01

    This paper discusses some of the major emotional considerations involved in the treatment of people who have been contaminated with potentially hazardous materials. Although the principal focus is the treatment of people trained to work with these materials, an attempt is also made to extend these methods to people having little or no knowledge of such matters. Accidents always result in emotional trauma. When the accident involves radioactive or other potentially toxic, carcinogenic, or mutagenic materials, there is a possibility of enhanced emotional stress due to the mystique surrounding these substances. Several psychological principles that have emerged from the treatment of radioactively-contaminated workers are: (1) provide pre-accident training for all radiation workers; (2) avoid secrets; (3) as rapidly as possible following a contamination accident, bring the worker into contact with others; (4) recognize the emotions of the family and the family's fears and trauma; and (5) do not desert the worker after decontamination has been completed. 1 ref

  3. Nuclear explosion and internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeberhardt, A.

    1956-01-01

    By the study of the conditions of internal contamination due to the radioactive mixture produced by a nuclear explosion, the parts played by the relative weights of the different elements and the mode of expression of the doses are considered. Only the knowledge of the weight composition of the contamination mixture and of its evolution as a function of time can provide the required basis for the study of its metabolism in the organism. The curves which give the composition of the fission product mixture - in number of nuclei - - as a function of time - have been established. These curves are applied to some practical examples, particularly relative to the nature of contamination, radiotoxicity of some elements and assessment of hazards. (author) [fr

  4. Radioactive contamination of recycled metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubenau, J.O.; Cool, D.A.; Yusko, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive sources commingled with metal scrap have become a major problem for the metals recycling industry worldwide. Worldwide there have been 38 confirmed reports of radioactive sources accidentally smelted with recycled metal. In some instances, contaminated metal products were subsequently distributed. The metal mills, their products and byproducts from the metal making process such as slags, crosses and dusts from furnaces can become contaminated. In the U.S., imported ferrous metal products such as reinforcement bars, pipe flanges, table legs and fencing components have been found contaminated with taco. U.S. steel mills have unintentionally smelted radioactive sources on 16 occasions. The resulting cost for decontamination waste disposal and temporary closure of the steel mill is typically USD 10,000,000 and has been as much as USD 23,000,000. Other metal recycling industries that have been affected by this problem include aluminum, copper, zinc, gold, lead and vanadium. (author)

  5. Geoelectrical mapping and groundwater contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Rainer

    Specific electrical resistivity of near-surface materials is mainly controlled by the groundwater content and thus reacts extremely sensitive to any change in the ion content. Geoelectric mapping is a well-established, simple, and inexpensive technique for observing areal distributions of apparent specific electrical resistivities. These are a composite result of the true resistivities in the underground, and with some additional information the mapping of apparent resistivities can help to delineate low-resistivity groundwater contaminations, typically observed downstream from sanitary landfills and other waste sites. The presence of other good conductors close to the surface, mainly clays, is a serious noise source and has to be sorted out by supporting observations of conductivities in wells and geoelectric depth soundings. The method may be used to monitor the extent of groundwater contamination at a specific time as well as the change of a contamination plume with time, by carrying out repeated measurements. Examples for both are presented.

  6. Wybrane problemy koncentracji i centralizacji ziemi w PGR w Polsce

    OpenAIRE

    Ławniczak, Irena

    1988-01-01

    The subject-matter of the article is to present the process of concentration, déconcentration and centralization of land in the state sector of Polish agriculture in years 1950 - 1984. In turn, the purpose of the work is to find whether those processes were an objective phenomenon resulting from the level of development of production forces or — to the contrary — whether they were a consequence of administrative and political decisions made by central economic authorities and ...

  7. Wybrane problemy bezpieczeństwa w telepracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Goroszkiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teleworking in fact operating on the polish labor market already in since the nineties; has been pursued at the beginning the in civil law forms of employment. The amendment of the labour code of 2007 put teleworking in the polish labor law, as an official, based on the regulations of employees legal form of employment. "Teleworking" means work performed far away from the traditional, conventional place of employment, with contemporary ICTs. Teleworking as a modern type of employment, provides an easy way to reconciliation of work and family life and the use of flexible work arrangements, involving the possibility to exercise in any place and at any time. But it turns out that in practice the use of teleworking in Polish firms are still not common and full of barriers.

  8. Da Platone a Hollywood: due problemi della fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Mori

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The argument of fiction with respect to spectators’ illusion is very vast. This paper outlines the interconnection between two particular issues of this immense area of study, which pertain to two paradoxical effects of fiction: (1 the spectator’s cognitive and emotional illusion induced either by theatrical or by cinematographic representation and (2 the more unclear and long-run effects of such representations on everyday life. Plato’s myth of the cave, and some of Husserl’s ideas about “artistic illusion” awakened through the stage performance, will help in delineating some philosophical aspects of the problem

  9. Levkemija pri otroku in problemi prehranjevanja in pitja

    OpenAIRE

    Šinkovec, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Uvod: Podhranjenost in kaheksija sta pogosta pri otrocih z levkemijo in sta pokazatelja slabše prognoze. Slabo prehransko stanje otroka je povezano z večjim številom stranskih učinkov zdravljenja, s slabšim odzivom na zdravljenje in krajšim preživetjem. Funkcionalno stanje otrok in kakovost njihovega življenja sta slabša. Namen: Namen diplomskega dela je opisati problem prehranjevanja in pitja pri otroku z levkemijo. Metode dela: V diplomskem delu je uporabljena deskriptivna metoda dela s kr...

  10. Problemy medyczne agresji i przemocy w rodzinie u dzieci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Dera

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Przemoc jest procesem ponadczasowym, wykraczającym poza granice i uwarunkowania etniczne, rasowe, wiekowe, narodowościowe i socjoekonomiczne. Dane CBOS wskazują, że co piąty Polak bije swoje dzieci raz w miesiącu lub częściej. Ponad 25% młodzieży spotyka się z przemocą w swoich rodzinach. Podstawowym problemem, niepozwalającym w pełni oszacować rozmiaru zjawiska, jest niska zgłaszalność przypadków przemocy organom porządkowym – tylko co siódme zdarzenie zgłaszane jest na policję w Stanach Zjednoczonych, w Polsce zgłaszalność jest jeszcze mniejsza. Skutki krzywdzenia dziecka pozostają na długie lata w sferze fizycznej i psychicznej. U dzieci takich obserwuje się zwykle opóźnienie rozwoju mowy, płaczliwość, lękliwość, drażliwość lub obojętność, brak reakcji na uśmiech i głos dorosłych, a także opóźnienie rozwoju motorycznego, zaburzenia snu i łaknienia. Dzieci doznające przemocy znacznie częściej skarżą się na dolegliwości pod postacią bólów brzucha, głowy, zakażeń układu moczowego (z.u.m., urazów, astmy, nawracających infekcji dróg oddechowych (n.i.d.o., wymiotów, moczenia nocnego, zaburzeń miesiączkowania. Zaburzenia emocjonalne wywołane przemocą są określane również jako zespół zaburzeń stresu pourazowego (PTSD. Z punktu widzenia psychiatrycznego u dziecka lub młodocianego doświadczającego długotrwałej wieloletniej traumy dochodzi z czasem do tzw. złożonego zespołu stresu pourazowego (disorders of extreme stress not otherwise specified, DESNOS. Z kolei przeżyte w dzieciństwie traumatyczne wydarzenia związane z problemem alkoholowym rodziców wywołują zespół objawów psychopatologicznych i zaburzeń zachowania o nazwie dorosłe dzieci alkoholików (DDA.

  11. Calcolo scientifico esercizi e problemi risolti con Matlab e Octave

    CERN Document Server

    Quarteroni, Alfio; Gervasio, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Questo testo è concepito per i corsi delle Facoltà di Ingegneria e di Scienze. Esso affronta tutti gli argomenti tipici della Matematica Numerica, spaziando dal problema di risolvere sistemi di equazioni lineari e non lineari a quello di approssimare una funzione, di calcolare i suoi minimi, le sue derivate ed il suo integrale definito fino alla risoluzione di equazioni differenziali ordinarie e alle derivate parziali con metodi alle differenze finite ed agli elementi finiti. Un capitolo iniziale conduce lo studente ad un rapido ripasso degli argomenti dell'Analisi Matematica e dell'Algebra Lineare di uso frequente nel volume e ad una introduzione ai linguaggi MATLAB e Octave. Al fine di rendere maggiormente incisiva la presentazione e fornire un riscontro quantitativo immediato alla teoria vengono implementati in linguaggio MATLAB e Octave tutti gli algoritmi che via via si introducono. Vengono inoltre proposti numerosi esercizi, tutti risolti per esteso, ed esempi, anche con riferimento ad applicazioni in...

  12. Sulle modernità multiple: origini, problemi, prospettive teoriche

    OpenAIRE

    Cotesta, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    In the first part of the paper M. Weber’s standpoint will be analyzed. Through the distinction between forms of rationality and rationalization the concept of modernity will be reconstructed. M. Weber formulates the concept of modernity and of Western civilization by investigating how, in Chinese, Indian and European civilizations, the problem of the philosophical and theological justification of human sufferance, perceived as unjust, is solved. Modernity, according to Weber, combines various...

  13. Unione Monetaria Europea: una guida vetero-keynesiana ai problemi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. PALLEY

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The work adopts an old Keynesian perspective to evaluate the EMU. Such a perspective raises concerns with the effectiveness of monetary policy, the feasibility of monetary policy, and the political economy of monetary policy. The EMU brings with it institutional lock-in, and therefore needs to be evaluated with a long term perspective. Whether or not to join the EMU depends on whether effective sovereign monetary policy is feasible now and in the future, whether the EMU constitutes an optimal currency area, and whether the proposed European Central Bank will have an appropriate institutional design. If formed, the EMU should create institutions which promote expansionary policies and empower the conduct of sovereign European monetary policy.  JEL Codes: E5, F3, F4, F02Keywords: European monetary union, European central bank, optimal currency area, sovereign monetary policy.

  14. Kilka uwag o problemie demarkacji ze stanowiska informacjonizmu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Gorzula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a different perspective on the problem of demarcation. It presents the results achieved by J. Hintikka and the Finnish school of the philosophy of science. However, the origins of this approach can be traced to the work of R. Carnap and Y. Bar-Hillel. The controversy over confirmationism and falsificationism is based on false assumptions. We need both probability and informative content. Our theories must have a connection with reality (high probability and reflect its deep structure (information. Expected informational content allows us to define a “negative” demarcation criterion between science and pseudoscience.

  15. Obiettivi prestabiliti di espressione monetaria: esperienze e problemi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D. MCCLAM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a growing number of western European countries have adopted the practice of setting growth targets for money supply and/or other monetary aggregates. For these countries, of course, the new approach has implied a shift away from reliance upon interest rate objectives as an intermediate target of policy. This article looks at the story lying behind the spreading use of this technique. In particular, the author examines whether central banks have suddenly become converted to the precepts of “monetarism”, or rather whether this shift is simply a pragmatic response to changing economic environment. The reasons for the adoption of published monetary targets is first analysed. Then, international comparisons of target fixing and their results are made and the problems of targeting are considered. JEL: E52, E43

  16. Plutonium contaminated materials research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    The paper is a progress report for 1985 from the Plutonium Contaminated Materials Working Party (PCMWP). The PCMWP co-ordinates research and development on a national basis in the areas of management, treatment and immobilisation of plutonium contaminated materials, for the purpose of waste management. The progress report contains a review of the development work carried out in eight areas, including: reduction of arisings, plutonium measurement, sorting and packaging, washing of shredded combustible PCM, decommissioning and non-combustible PCM treatment, PCM immobilisation, treatment of alpha bearing liquid wastes, and engineering objectives. (UK)

  17. The gamma contamination food factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukoc, A.H.; Anicin, I.V.; Adzic, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    We suggest that radioactive food contamination, as determined solely by a quantitative gamma-ray spectroscopic measurement, may, apart from the total activity per unit mass, be for quick reference conveniently characterized by another single figure which we call the ''Gamma Contamination Food Factor'' (GCFF). This factor may be defined as the ratio of the total specific activity of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides in the food sample (except that of 40 K) to the specific activity of 40 K either in the sample itself or in an ''average man''. We discuss briefly the meaning and advantages of these definitions. (author)

  18. Environmental contamination and breathing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona A, Jose D

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric contamination is the main component of the environmental contamination and it can be defined as the presence in the atmosphere of an or several substances in enough quantity to produce alterations of the health, it is presented in aerosol form, with its gassy and specific components, altering the quality of the population's life and the degradation of the ecosystems. The main pollutant, as much for the frequency as for the importance of its effects, is the smoke of cigarettes. The paper mentions other types of polluting agents and their effects in the breathing apparatus

  19. Human Contamination in Public Genome Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukov, Kirill; Imanishi, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Contamination in genome assembly can lead to wrong or confusing results when using such genome as reference in sequence comparison. Although bacterial contamination is well known, the problem of human-originated contamination received little attention. In this study we surveyed 45,735 available genome assemblies for evidence of human contamination. We used lineage specificity to distinguish between contamination and conservation. We found that 154 genome assemblies contain fragments that with high confidence originate as contamination from human DNA. Majority of contaminating human sequences were present in the reference human genome assembly for over a decade. We recommend that existing contaminated genomes should be revised to remove contaminated sequence, and that new assemblies should be thoroughly checked for presence of human DNA before submitting them to public databases.

  20. Dismantling of transuranic contaminated facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, P.

    1985-01-01

    The dismantling of transuranic contaminated facilities raises specific problems. A large part of these problems relates to the management of the waste resulting from dismantling. From the experience gained in the different centers CEA and COGEMA it appears that there are industrial solutions in the group CEA and that an engineering company such as SGN can export them [fr

  1. Environmental Contamination of Normal Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Trevor A.

    1990-01-01

    Environmentally contaminated speech errors (irrelevant words or phrases derived from the speaker's environment and erroneously incorporated into speech) are hypothesized to occur at a high level of speech processing, but with a relatively late insertion point. The data indicate that speech production processes are not independent of other…

  2. Contaminant resorption during soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, D.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the applicability of soil washing to a specific site requires some basic research in how contaminants are bound. Much can be learned from sequential extraction methodology based on micronutrient bioavailability studies wherein the soil matrix is chemically dissected to selectively remove particular fixation mechanisms independently. This procedure uses a series of progressively more aggressive solvents to dissolve the principle phases that make up a soil, however, the published studies do not appear to consider the potential for a contaminant released from one type of site to resorb on another site during an extraction. This physical model assumes no ion exchange or adsorption at sites either previously occupied by other ions, or exposed by the dissolution. Therefore, to make engineering use of the sequential extraction data, the release of contamination must be evaluated relative to the effects of resorption. Time release studies were conducted to determine the optimum duration for extraction to maximize complete destruction of the target matrix fraction while minimizing contaminant resorption. Tests with and without a potassium brine present to inhibit cesium resorption indicated extraction efficiency could be enhanced by as much as a factor of ten using the brine

  3. Atmospheric contamination during ultrasonic scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, MF; Menso, L; Steinfort, J; van Winkelhoff, AJ; van der Weijden, GA

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the microbial atmospheric contamination during initial periodontal treatment using a piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler in combination with either high-volume evacuation (HVE) or conventional dental suction (CDS). Methods: The study included 17

  4. Rehabilitation of the contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageets, V.Yu.; Kenigsberg, Ya.Eh.; Skurat, V.V.; Tikhonova, L.E.; Shevchuk, V.E.; Ipat'ev, V.A.; Klimova, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the activity is development of the scientific reasonable projects of socio-economic and social-psychological rehabilitation of specific areas and populated localities on the contaminated territories of the both Gomel and Mogilev Regions. The results of economic researches allow to decrease expenses for realization of protective measures, to increase feedback of counter-measures, to speed up process of development of the plans and their realization, to decrease the labour input of planning of the rehabilitation measures, to increase quantity of considered alternative variants of strategy of the contaminated regions rehabilitation. On the basis of the sociological and psychological researches the recommendations for the most effective formation of adaptation strategies of behaviour of the people on the contaminated territories, formation of post accidental culture and active life image at teenagers, ways of fastening of youth in these areas, more address specialized social support and protection of the irradiated persons, perfection of social demographic policy on rehabilitated territories are offered. In the report are described following directions: scientific ground and development of the complex programmes of rehabilitation of administrative regions on the contaminated territories; development of administration system of the social economical development of the territories having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; social support and socio-psychological rehabilitation of the population of Belarus

  5. BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological remediation of soils contaminated with organic chemicals is an alternative treatment technology that can often meet the goal of achieving a permanent clean-up remedy at hazardous waste sites, as encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) for impl...

  6. Prohibited Contaminants in Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Neilson M

    With the increasing use of unregulated dietary supplements, athletes are at continued risk from adverse medical events and inadvertent doping. A review of Clinical Key, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases from 2012 to 2017 was performed using search terms, including dietary supplement, contamination, doping in athletes, inadvertent doping, and prohibited substances. The references of pertinent articles were reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 3. Poor manufacturing processes and intentional contamination with many banned substances continue to occur in dietary supplements sold in the United States. Certain sectors, such as weight loss and muscle-building supplements, pose a greater threat because they are more likely to be contaminated. Athletes will continue to be at risk for adverse events and failed doping tests due to contaminated dietary supplements until legislation changes how they are regulated. In the interim, there are several steps that can be taken to mitigate this risk, including improved education of medical staff and athletes and use of third party-certified products.

  7. Molecular contamination math model support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, R.

    1983-01-01

    The operation and features of a preprocessor for the Shuttle/Payload Contamination Evaluation Program Version 2) are described. A preliminary preprocessor for SPACE 2 is developed. Further refinements and enhancements of the preprocessor to insure complete user friendly operation, are recommended.

  8. Melting of contaminated metallic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-S.; Cheng, S.-Y.; Kung, H.-T.; Lin, L.-F.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 100 tons of contaminated metallic wastes were produced each year due to maintenance for each TPC's nuclear power reactor and it was roughly estimated that there will be 10,000 tons of metallic scraps resulted from decommissioning of each reactor in the future. One means of handling the contaminated metal is to melt it. Melting process owns not only volume reduction which saves the high cost of final disposal but also resource conservation and recycling benefits. Melting contaminated copper and aluminum scraps in the laboratory scale have been conducted at INER. A total of 546 kg copper condenser tubes with a specific activity of about 2.7 Bq/g was melted in a vacuum induction melting facility. Three types of products, ingot, slag and dust were derived from the melting process, with average activities of 0.10 Bq/g, 2.33 Bq/g and 84.3 Bq/g respectively. After the laboratory melting stage, a pilot plant with a 500 kg induction furnace is being designed to melt the increasingly produced contaminated metallic scraps from nuclear facilities and to investigate the behavior of different radionuclides during melting. (author)

  9. UNDERWATER COATINGS FOR CONTAMINATION CONTROL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) deactivated several aging nuclear fuel storage basins. Planners for this effort were greatly concerned that radioactive contamination present on the basin walls could become airborne as the sides of the basins became exposed during deactivation and allowed to dry after water removal. One way to control this airborne contamination was to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls were still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market for marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives were easily applied and adhered well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INL fuel pools. Lab-scale experiments were conducted by applying fourteen different commercial underwater coatings to four substrate materials representative of the storage basin construction materials, and evaluating their performance. The coupons included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The evaluation criteria included ease of application, adherence to the four surfaces of interest, no change on water clarity or chemistry, non-hazardous in final applied form and be proven in underwater applications. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates was selected from the underwater coatings tested for application to all four pools. Divers scrubbed loose contamination off the basin walls and floors using a ship hull scrubber and vacuumed up the sludge. The divers then applied the coating using a special powered roller with two separate heated hoses that allowed the epoxy to mix at the roller surface was used to eliminate pot time concerns. The walls were successfully coated and water was removed from the pools with no detectable airborne contamination releases

  10. Contaminated environments in the subsurface and bioremediation: organic contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Holliger, Christof; Gaspard, Sarra; Glod, Guy; Heijman, Cornelis; Schumacher, Wolfram; Schwarzenbach, René P.; Vazquez, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Due to leakages, spills, improper disposal and accidents during transport, organic compounds have become subsurface contaminants that threaten important drinking water resources. One strategy to remediate such polluted subsurface environments is to make use of the degradative capacity of bacteria. It is often sufficient to supply the subsurface with nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, and aerobic treatments are still dominating. However, anaerobic processes have advantages such as low ...

  11. Contaminated environments in the subsurface and bioremediation: organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliger, C; Gaspard, S; Glod, G; Heijman, C; Schumacher, W; Schwarzenbach, R P; Vazquez, F

    1997-07-01

    Due to leakages, spills, improper disposal and accidents during transport, organic compounds have become subsurface contaminants that threaten important drinking water resources. One strategy to remediate such polluted subsurface environments is to make use of the degradative capacity of bacteria. It is often sufficient to supply the subsurface with nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, and aerobic treatments are still dominating. However, anaerobic processes have advantages such as low biomass production and good electron acceptor availability, and they are sometimes the only possible solution. This review will focus on three important groups of environmental organic contaminants: hydrocarbons, chlorinated and nitroaromatic compounds. Whereas hydrocarbons are oxidized and completely mineralized under anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron acceptors such as nitrate, iron, sulfate and carbon dioxide, chlorinated and nitroaromatic compounds are reductively transformed. For the aerobic often persistent polychlorinated compounds, reductive dechlorination leads to harmless products or to compounds that are aerobically degradable. The nitroaromatic compounds are first reductively transformed to the corresponding amines and can subsequently be bound to the humic fraction in an aerobic process. Such new findings and developments give hope that in the near future contaminated aquifers can efficiently be remediated, a prerequisite for a sustainable use of the precious-subsurface drinking water resources.

  12. Materials contamination control in the microelectronic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardif, F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with many aspects of the contamination of materials in the microelectronic industry. The contamination's control of chemicals, process gases, silicon and the survey of the ions free water's purity are treated. (TEC). 29 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Development of remote operated floor contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, K.; Gangamohan, M.; Kannan, R.K.; Rajan, S.

    2005-01-01

    Contamination check of floors and walkways in and around Reactor building areas forms an integral part of Radiation Protection Program in Power Stations. Though random swipe check method is adopted for the detection of loose contamination, this method has the disadvantage of leaving the fixed contamination and hotspots undetected. Hence, scanning the area with a sensitive detector, held close to the surface provides positive means for the detection of contamination. Checking large areas and walkways by holding the detector close to the surface involves physical work. Also, areas which are unapproachable due to congestion of equipment, may go uncovered by contamination monitoring in order to eliminate the physical strain involved in such contamination monitoring and to cover unapproachable areas, a small size prototype device that can be operated remotely was fabricated. This device detects contamination instantaneously and accurately. This paper describes design and fabrication of the device used for floor contamination monitoring. (author)

  14. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study of public pools done ... The E. coli is a marker for fecal contamination. Finding a high percentage of E. coli-positive ...

  15. Air contamination analysis during emergency medical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Y.; Fukutsu, K.; Yuuki, M.; Akashi, M.

    2009-01-01

    After radiological emergencies, patients contaminated with radioactivity are taken to radiation emergency hospitals for treatment. Numerical simulations using the computer software 'Flow Designer R were made in order to evaluate indoor air contamination caused by the breathing out of contaminated air. The National Inst. of Radiological Sciences facility was used for the numerical evaluation. Results indicate that the dispersion of contaminated air depends on the characteristics of the contaminants, and that the dispersion range was limited and localised. Only medical staff standing in a special position near the patient was exposed to almost un-diluted contaminated air. Highly contaminated air was evacuated with a local exhaust pump system. Room air quality was monitored using a continuous air sampling system, but it was found that the sampling point was not representative for the purpose of radiation protection. From the air-flow analysis, some problems that affect radiological safety were revealed and valuable information and measures for preventing secondary contamination were determined. (authors)

  16. Airborne radioactive contamination following aerosol ventilation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, A.; Hart, G.C.; Ibbett, D.A.; Whitehead, R.J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Lung aerosol ventilation studies may be accompanied by airborne contamination, with subsequent surface contamination. Airborne contamination has been measured prior to, during and following 59 consecutive 99 Tc m -diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) aerosol studies using a personal air sampler. Airborne contamination ranging between 0 and 20 330 kBq m -3 has been measured. Airborne contamination increases with degree of patient breathing difficulty. The effective dose equivalent (EDE) to staff from ingested activity has been calculated to be 0.3 μSv per study. This figure is supported by data from gamma camera images of a contaminated staff member. However, surface contamination measurements reveal that 60% of studies exceed maximum permissible contamination limits for the hands; 16% of studies exceed limits for controlled area surfaces. (author)

  17. Meaning and Mental Contamination: Focus on Appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Corinna M.; Radomsky, Adam S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recent expansion of interest in contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has fostered the description of mental contamination and a series of experiments designed to understand associated factors. This supports a cognitive approach to the understanding and treatment of contamination-related OCD--especially when the…

  18. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present or...

  19. 49 CFR 176.715 - Contamination control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contamination control. 176.715 Section 176.715... Requirements for Radioactive Materials § 176.715 Contamination control. Each hold, compartment, or deck area... the removable (non-fixed) radioactive surface contamination is not greater than the limits prescribed...

  20. The Induction of Mental and Contact Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michelle; Shafran, Roz; Burgess, Charlotte; Carpenter, Jodi; Millard, Emma; Thorpe, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Extreme fear of contamination within obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is traditionally conceptualised as a physical phenomenon. More recent research has supported the notion of "mental" contamination (MC) in which people feel contaminated in the absence of physical contact. The current research sought to determine whether…

  1. 49 CFR 173.443 - Contamination control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contamination control. 173.443 Section 173.443... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.443 Contamination control. (a) The level of non-fixed (removable) radioactive contamination on the external surfaces of each package offered for...

  2. Some problems in calibrating surface contamination meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zigen; LI Xingyuan; Shuai Xiaoping.

    1984-01-01

    It is necessary that instruments are calibrated accurately in order to obtain reliable survey data of surface contamination. Some problems in calibrating surface contamination meters are expounded in this paper. Measurement comparison for beta surface contamination meters is organized within limited scope, thus survey quality is understood, questions are discovered, significance of calibration is expounded further. (Author)

  3. NSF-RANN trace contaminants abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, E.D.; Harnden, D.S.

    1976-10-01

    Specific areas of interest of the Environmental Aspects of Trace Contaminants Program are organic chemicals of commerce, metals and organometallic compounds, air-borne contaminants, and environmental assay methodology. Fifty-three abstracts of literature on trace contaminants are presented. Author, keyword, and permuted title indexes are included

  4. URINE CULTURE CONTAMINATION: A ONE-YEAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Background: Urine culture contamination is a significant cause of delay in treatment of patients being investigated for urinary tract infection. ... Lowest contamination rates were in Emergency Paediatric Unit (EPU) and intensive ... The female gender was found to be the most significant predictor of higher contamination rate.

  5. Food contamination : lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, F.

    1987-01-01

    This brief survey of radioactive contamination of food suggests at least four areas in which action needs to be taken so that we might be better prepared to respond to any possible future nuclear accident. More research is needed on the way that radiation enters the food chain, and the measures that can be taken to counter the health hazards posed by fallout. A second clear need is for a global radioactivity monitoring system. Third, international standards need to be established for methods of sampling, analysis and reporting of the radioactive levels in foods. Finally, an effort must be made to inform the public so it can distinguish between the real and the imaginary hazards posed by radioactively contaminated foods

  6. Organization of internal contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badreddine, A.

    1986-07-01

    The nuclear energy takes a big part in the world's energy production. The nuclear techniques are used in most fields of life. Nevertheless the use of radioactive materials may cause prejudice to human beings by radiation contamination. The International Commission on Radiological Protection gives the general rules and regulations to avoid this danger. In the publication No. 30, the ICRP gives a metabolic model for the respiratory system and values of Annual Limit of Intake. The ALI for inhalation supposes a standard AMAD (Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter) of 1 um. We have measured the AMAD in a laboratory under different conditions of functioning in order to show its variation. Then we have analysed the effect of this variation on the internal contamination monitoring. Thus we have calculated the Effective Committed Dose (ECD), the ALI, then the Derived Investigation Level (DIL) for different values of AMAD for Whole-Body Counting (WBC)

  7. Groundwater fluoride contamination: A reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Banerjee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dissolution of fluorite (CaF2 and/or fluorapatite (FAP [Ca5(PO43F], pulled by calcite precipitation, is thought to be the dominant mechanism responsible for groundwater fluoride (F− contamination. Here, one dimensional reactive–transport models are developed to test this mechanism using the published dissolution and precipitation rate kinetics for the mineral pair FAP and calcite. Simulation results correctly show positive correlation between the aqueous concentrations of F− and CO32− and negative correlation between F− and Ca2+. Results also show that precipitation of calcite, contrary to the present understanding, slows down the FAP dissolution by 106 orders of magnitude compared to the FAP dissolution by hydrolysis. For appreciable amount of fluoride contamination rock–water interaction time must be long and of order 106 years.

  8. RADIATION CONTAMINATION INCIDENT AT ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On 27 June 2000 three specialists were investigating a problem with the extraction electrode of the high-resolution separator (HRS) in Isolde. Whilst using an endoscope in order to have a closer look at the interior, they came into contact with radioactive dust and became contaminated. The level of contamination was low and the radiation dose received by the 3 persons was far below the effective dose limit given in the CERN Radiation Safety Manual and in the regulations of the Host States.According to the usual procedure, the Director General has set up a Fact-Finding Group and an Accident Board in order to advise him on the steps and decisions tobe taken following this incident and in particular to avoid a recurrence.

  9. Biological cycles of radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michon, M.-G.

    1959-01-01

    Artificial radio-elements (synthesized for scientific or industrial purposes)having been released, may be absorbed by plants or animals, and may eventually involve a catenation of organisms as some feed on the others. All organisms living in a polluted river become more radioactive than the water, which was to be expected, in as much as organisms are hypertonic in respect to sweet water. Conversely, soil brings into play physico-chemical phenomena (absorption) such that plants can get only a small portion of contaminating radio-elements, land animal feeding on such plants are relatively less exposed to contamination, and carnivorous animals feeding on herbivorous are still less exposed. Man, notably is fairly well protected, whereas lower organisms, notably unicellular organisms may suffer (mutations..). Reprint of a paper published in 'Revue de Pathologie Generale et de Physiologie Clinique', n. 707, April 1959, p. 505-514 [fr

  10. Decontamination strategies in contaminated settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.; Jouve, A.; Tallec, V. Le

    1996-01-01

    Six years after the Chernobyl accident, decontamination actions had been completed in many places, the contamination could be considered as fixed, especially on urban surfaces and the social situation was felt to be stabilized. Under those conditions the efficiency of the 'classical' decontamination techniques was under question, it was worthwhile to look at new specific techniques. Besides it was necessary to discuss the interest of new decontamination actions in settlements. The European Union (EU) sponsored a project ECP 4 in order to look at the opportunities for further dose reduction actions in the contaminated territories of the three republics affected by the accident. The objective was to provide a local decision maker, faced with many alternatives for decontamination, with all the elements for determining what to do according to the various objectives he might pursue. The main results are presented here. (author)

  11. Decontaminating method for radioactive contaminant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Ken-ichi.

    1994-01-01

    After decontamination of radioactive contaminates with d-limonene, a radioactive material separating agent not compatible with liquid wastes caused by decontamination is added to the liquid wastes. Then after stirring, they are stood still to be separated into two phases, and the radioactive materials in the liquid waste phase caused by decontamination are transferred to the phase of the radioactive material separating agent. With such procedures, they can satisfactorily be separated into two phases of d-limonene and the radioactive material separating agent. Further, d-limonene remaining after the separation can be used again as a decontaminating agent for radioactive contaminates. Therefore, the amount of d-limonene to be used can be reduced, to lower the cost for cleaning, thereby enabling to reduce the amount of radioactive wastes formed. (T.M.)

  12. Contaminant transport in Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford

    Construction of a new treatment plant and outfall to clean up Boston Harbor is currently one of the world's largest public works projects, costing about $4 billion. There is concern about the long-term impact of contaminants on Massachusetts Bay and adjacent Gulf of Maine because these areas are used extensively for transportation, recreation, fishing, and tourism, as well as waste disposal. Public concern also focuses on Stellwagen Bank, located on the eastern side of Massachusetts Bay, which is an important habitat for endangered whales. Contaminants reach Massachusetts Bay not only from Boston Harbor, but from other coastal communities on the Gulf of Maine, as well as from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the pathways, mechanisms, and rates at which pollutants are transported throughout these coastal environments is needed to address a wide range of management questions.

  13. Review of soil contamination guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

    1981-08-01

    A review of existing and proposed radioactive soil contamination standards and guidance was conducted for United Nuclear Corporation (UNC), Office of Surplus Facilities Management. Information was obtained from both government agencies and other sources during a literature survey. The more applicable standards were reviewed, evaluated, and summarized. Information pertaining to soil contamination for both facility operation and facility decommissioning was obtained from a variety of sources. These sources included: the Code of Federal Regulations, regulatory guides, the Federal Register, topical reports written by various government agencies, topical reports written by national laboratories, and publications from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). It was difficult to directly compare the standards and guidance obtained from these sources since each was intended for a specific situation and different units or bases were used. However, most of the information reviewed was consistent with the philosophy of maintaining exposures at levels as low as reasonably achievable

  14. Rehabilitation of the contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lych, G.M.; Babosov, E.M.; Firsakova, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    In the chapter the system of management of socio economical development of contaminated territories in conditions of transition of the republic to market economy is described. The scientific substantiation of the complex programs of rehabilitation of both Bragin and Vetka areas of the Gomel Region is given. The methods of social support and socio psychological rehabilitation of the population having suffered after the Chernobyl accident are offered

  15. Environmental contamination in Antarctic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli, R

    2008-08-01

    Although the remote continent of Antarctica is perceived as the symbol of the last great wilderness, the human presence in the Southern Ocean and the continent began in the early 1900s for hunting, fishing and exploration, and many invasive plant and animal species have been deliberately introduced in several sub-Antarctic islands. Over the last 50 years, the development of research and tourism have locally affected terrestrial and marine coastal ecosystems through fuel combustion (for transportation and energy production), accidental oil spills, waste incineration and sewage. Although natural "barriers" such as oceanic and atmospheric circulation protect Antarctica from lower latitude water and air masses, available data on concentrations of metals, pesticides and other persistent pollutants in air, snow, mosses, lichens and marine organisms show that most persistent contaminants in the Antarctic environment are transported from other continents in the Southern Hemisphere. At present, levels of most contaminants in Antarctic organisms are lower than those in related species from other remote regions, except for the natural accumulation of Cd and Hg in several marine organisms and especially in albatrosses and petrels. The concentrations of organic pollutants in the eggs of an opportunistic top predator such as the south polar skua are close to those that may cause adverse health effects. Population growth and industrial development in several countries of the Southern Hemisphere are changing the global pattern of persistent anthropogenic contaminants and new classes of chemicals have already been detected in the Antarctic environment. Although the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty provides strict guidelines for the protection of the Antarctic environment and establishes obligations for all human activity in the continent and the Southern Ocean, global warming, population growth and industrial development in countries of the Southern

  16. Contaminant immobilization via microbial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The aim of this study was to search the literature to identify biological techniques that could be applied to the restoration of contaminated groundwaters near uranium milling sites. Through bioremediation it was hypothesized that the hazardous heavy metals could be immobilized in a stable, low-solubility form, thereby halting their progress in the migrating groundwater. Three basic mechanisms were examined: reduction of heavy metals by microbially produced hydrogen sulfide; direct microbial mediated reduction; and biosorption

  17. Fungal contamination in hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdelli, F; Cristina, M L; Sartini, M; Spagnolo, A M; Dallera, M; Ottria, G; Lombardi, R; Grimaldi, M; Orlando, P

    2006-01-01

    To assess the degree of fungal contamination in hospital environments and to evaluate the ability of air conditioning systems to reduce such contamination. We monitored airborne microbial concentrations in various environments in 10 hospitals equipped with air conditioning. Sampling was performed with a portable Surface Air System impactor with replicate organism detection and counting plates containing a fungus-selective medium. The total fungal concentration was determined 72-120 hours after sampling. The genera most involved in infection were identified by macroscopic and microscopic observation. The mean concentration of airborne fungi in the set of environments examined was 19 +/- 19 colony-forming units (cfu) per cubic meter. Analysis of the fungal concentration in the different types of environments revealed different levels of contamination: the lowest mean values (12 +/- 14 cfu/m(3)) were recorded in operating theaters, and the highest (45 +/- 37 cfu/m(3)) were recorded in kitchens. Analyses revealed statistically significant differences between median values for the various environments. The fungal genus most commonly encountered was Penicillium, which, in kitchens, displayed the highest mean airborne concentration (8 +/- 2.4 cfu/m(3)). The percentage (35%) of Aspergillus documented in the wards was higher than that in any of the other environments monitored. The fungal concentrations recorded in the present study are comparable to those recorded in other studies conducted in hospital environments and are considerably lower than those seen in other indoor environments that are not air conditioned. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of air-handling systems in reducing fungal contamination.

  18. Chernobyl, what happened. [Netherlands; contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwigt, A

    1986-01-01

    In this article a description is given of the accident in the Chernobylsk-4 reactor and the resulting effects in the Netherlands. The Chernobylsk-4 reactor is described and the cause of the accident is followed step by step. The contamination of the Netherlands is mapped. The absorbed doses for the Dutch people are calculated. In the discussion the author recommends agreements about uniformity for sampling, activity measurements and follow-up studies. (Auth.). 5 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 table.

  19. Assessment of emerging groundwater contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Manamsa, Katya; Crane, Emily; White, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    Emerging contaminants in groundwater are important. These have been studied at a range of scales. An increasing range of compounds is being detected Urban areas show impact of sewage and industrial wastewater. Some ECs are probably no threat to drinking water at such µg/L concentrations, e.g. caffeine Others may prove to be in the future. There is little information on their impact on other groundwater receptors in the environment. We are still far from understanding which of these comp...

  20. Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (ECs) are compounds now being found in groundwater from agricultural, urban sources that were previously not detectable, or thought to be significant. ECs include pesticides and degradates, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds, personal care products, fragrances, water treatment by-products, flame retardants and surfactants, as well as ‘life-style’ compounds such as caffeine and nicotine. ECs may have adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. Freq...

  1. Optical measurements on contaminated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, T. E.; Schmitt, R. J.; Linford, R. M. F.

    1975-01-01

    A bidirectional reflectometer system was developed for in situ measurements of the changes in spectral reflectance of surfaces contaminated with films of organic materials. The system permits experiments with films of controlled thickness in an environment that simulates the thermal, radiation, and vacuum conditions of space. The mechanical and optical construction of the reflectometer are discussed in detail, and actual data curves are used to illustrate its operation and performance.

  2. Arsenic, microbes and contaminated aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Stolz, John F.

    2005-01-01

    The health of tens of millions of people world-wide is at risk from drinking arsenic-contaminated well water. In most cases this arsenic occurs naturally within the sub-surface aquifers, rather than being derived from identifiable point sources of pollution. The mobilization of arsenic into the aqueous phase is the first crucial step in a process that eventually leads to human arsenicosis. Increasing evidence suggests that this is a microbiological phenomenon.

  3. 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants. 141.61 Section 141.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels § 141.61 Maximum contaminant...

  4. Decontamination method of contaminated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Fumio; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Sato, Chikara; Komori, Itaru.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively separate radioactive materials from molten metals in dry-processing method by heating metals contaminated with radioactive materials at a temperature below melting point to oxidize the surface thereof, then heating them to melt and include the radioactive materials into the oxides. Method: Metals contaminated with radioactive materials are heated at a temperature below the melting point thereof in an oxidizing atmosphere to oxidize the surface. Thereafter they are heated to melt at temperature above the melting point of the metals, and the molten metals are separated with the radioactive materials included in the oxides. For instance, radiation-contaminated aluminum pipe placed on the bed of an electrical heating furnace, and heated at 500 0 C which is lower than the melting point 660 0 C of aluminum for 1 - 2 hours while supplying air from an air pipe into the furnace, and an oxide film is formed on the surface of the aluminum pipe. Then, the furnace temperature is increased to 750 0 C wherein molten aluminum is flown down to a container and the oxide film is separated by floating it as the slug on the molten aluminum. (Horiuchi, T.)

  5. Water use and groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elton, J.J.; Livingstone, B.

    1998-01-01

    A general review of the groundwater resources in Saskatchewan and their vulnerability to contamination was provided. In particular, the use of water and the effects on water by the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan were discussed. It was suggested that public concerns over scarcity and contamination of water are gradually changing perceptions about Canada's abundance of water. Saskatchewan's surface water covers 12 per cent of the province. About 90 per cent of the rural populations and 80 per cent of municipalities depend on groundwater supplies. Regulations affecting oil and gas operations that could affect water resources have become more stringent. Techniques used in the detection and monitoring of groundwater affected by salt and petroleum hydrocarbons were described. Electromagnetic surveys are used in detecting salt-affected soils and groundwater. Laboratory analysis of chloride concentrations are needed to define actual chloride concentrations in groundwater. Wells and barriers can be installed to control and recover chloride plumes. Deep well injection and reverse osmosis are other methods, but there is no cheap or simple treatment or disposal method for salt-impacted groundwater. Spills or leaks of petroleum hydrocarbons from various sources can also lead to contamination of groundwater. Various assessment and remediation methods are described. Although there is no scarcity of techniques, all of them are difficult, costly, and may take several years to complete. 11 refs., 1 tab

  6. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autry, A.R.; Ellis, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on bioremediation, which offers a cost-competitive, effective remediation alternative for soil contaminated with petroleum products. These technologies involve using microorganisms to biologically degrade organic constituents in contaminated soil. All bioremediation applications must mitigate various environmental rate limiting factors so that the biodegradation rates for petroleum hydrocarbons are optimized in field-relevant situations. Traditional bioremediation applications include landfarming, bioreactors, and composting. A more recent bioremediation application that has proven successful involves excavation of contaminated soil. The process involves the placement of the soils into a powerscreen, where it is screened to remove rocks and larger debris. The screened soil is then conveyed to a ribbon blender, where it is mixed in batch with nutrient solution containing nitrogen, phosphorus, water, and surfactants. Each mixed soil batch is then placed in a curing pile, where it remains undisturbed for the remainder of the treatment process, during which time biodegradation by naturally occurring microorganisms, utilizing biochemical pathways mediated by enzymes, will occur

  7. Underwater Coatings for Contamination Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann-Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included (1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; (2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; (3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and (4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55 F to 80 F dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature. The following criteria were used during this evaluation. The underwater coating must: (1) Be easy to apply; (2) Adhere well to the four surfaces of interest; (3) Not change or have a negative impact on water chemistry or clarity; (4) Not be hazardous in final applied form; and (5) Be proven in other underwater applications. In addition, it is desirable for the coating to have a high pigment or high cross-link density to prevent radiation from penetrating. This paper will detail the testing completed and the test results. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates

  8. Auburn Steel Company radioactive contamination incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, F.J.; Cabasino, L.; Kelly, R.; Awai, A.; Kasyk, G.

    1986-04-01

    On February 21, 1983, workers at the Auburn Steel Company, Auburn, New York discovered that about 120 tons of steel poured that day had become contaminated with 60 Co. In addition to the steel, the air cleaning system and portions of the mill used in casting the steel were contaminated. Approximately 25 curies of 60 Co were involved. Decontamination and disposal of the contamination cost in excess of $2,200,000. This report details the discovery of the contamination, decontamination of the plant and disposal of the contamination

  9. Dispersion of Contaminants in Indoor Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    In rooms ventilated by mixing ventilation, in order to remove contaminants from the occupied zone, the goal of the air distribution system is to achieve a low and even concentration distribution in the room. The experiments showed that the contaminant distribution in a room always will depend...... on the location of the contamination source and in practice also on the supplied air flow rate and the contaminant density. The results showed that it is important for the removal of contaminants in a room that the ventilation system is working in the same direction as the existing buoyancy forces....

  10. Bacterial Hand Contamination and Transfer after Use of Contaminated Bulk-Soap-Refillable Dispensers▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Zapka, Carrie A.; Campbell, Esther J.; Maxwell, Sheri L.; Gerba, Charles P.; Dolan, Michael J.; Arbogast, James W.; Macinga, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Bulk-soap-refillable dispensers are prone to extrinsic bacterial contamination, and recent studies demonstrated that approximately one in four dispensers in public restrooms are contaminated. The purpose of this study was to quantify bacterial hand contamination and transfer after use of contaminated soap under controlled laboratory and in-use conditions in a community setting. Under laboratory conditions using liquid soap experimentally contaminated with 7.51 log10 CFU/ml of Serratia marcesc...

  11. Contamination Effects Due to Space Environmental Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Philip T.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants are commonly generated from the orbital spacecraft operations that are under the influence of the space environment. Once generated, these contaminants may attach to the surfaces of the spacecraft or may remain in the vicinity of the spacecraft. In the event these contaminants come to rest on the surfaces of the spacecraft or situated in the line-of-sight of the observation path, they will create various degrees of contamination effect which may cause undesirable effects for normal spacecraft operations, There will be circumstances in which the spacecraft may be subjected to special space environment due to operational conditions. Interactions between contaminants and special space environment may alter or greatly increase the contamination effect due to the synergistic effect. This paper will address the various types of contamination generation on orbit, the general effects of the contamination on spacecraft systems, and the typical impacts on the spacecraft operations due to the contamination effect. In addition, this paper will explain the contamination effect induced by the space environment and will discuss the intensified contamination effect resulting from the synergistic effect with the special space environment.

  12. Geotechnical properties of crude oil contaminated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, V.K.; Das, B.M.; Cook, E.E.; Shin, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    Contamination of soil due to an oil spill influences its subsequent engineering behavior. An investigation was conducted to study the effect of crude oil contamination on compaction characteristics, shear strength, one-dimensional compression, and coefficient of permeability. Water permeability was also determined by using commercial grade motor oils as contaminants. The test results indicate that the compaction characteristics are influenced by oil contamination. The angle of internal friction of sand (based on total stress condition) decreases due to presence of oil within the pore spaces in sand. One dimensional compression characteristics of sand are significantly influenced by oil contamination resulting in a decrease in the value of constrained modulus with increase in the degree of oil contamination compared to the case of dry sand. Water permeability was observed to be a function of the initial viscosity and the degree of saturation due to the contaminating oil

  13. Oral chlorhexidine and microbial contamination during endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donatsky, Anders Meller; Holzknecht, Barbara Juliane; Arpi, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the biggest concerns associated with transgastric surgery is contamination and risk of intra-abdominal infection with microbes introduced from the access route. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral decontamination with chlorhexidine on microbial contamin......BACKGROUND: One of the biggest concerns associated with transgastric surgery is contamination and risk of intra-abdominal infection with microbes introduced from the access route. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral decontamination with chlorhexidine on microbial...... contamination of the endoscope. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, clinical trial the effect of chlorhexidine mouth rinse was evaluated. As a surrogate for the risk of intra-abdominal contamination during transgastric surgery, microbial contamination of the endoscope during upper endoscopy...... microbial contamination of the endoscope, but micro-organisms with abscess forming capabilities were still present. PPI treatment significantly increased CFU and should be discontinued before transgastric surgery....

  14. Cadastral valuation of land contaminated with radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnikov, A. N.; Sapozhnikov, P. M.; Sanzharova, N. I.; Sviridenko, D. G.; Zhigareva, T. L.; Popova, G. I.; Panov, A. V.; Kozlova, I. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The methodology and procedure for cadastral valuation of land in the areas contaminated with radionuclides are presented. The efficiency of rehabilitation measures applied to decrease crop contamination to the levels satisfying sanitary-hygienic norms is discussed. The differentiation of cadastral value of radioactively contaminated agricultural lands for the particular farms and land plots is suggested. An example of cadastral valuation of agricultural land contaminated during the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident is given. It is shown that the use of sandy and loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soils with the 137Cs contamination of 37-185 and >185 kBq/m2 for crop growing is unfeasible. The growing of grain crops and potatoes on clay loamy soddy-podzolic soils with the 137Cs contamination of 555-740 kBq/m2 is unprofitable. The maximum cadastral value of radioactively contaminated lands is typical of leached chernozems.

  15. Soil sampling for environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    The Consultants Meeting on Sampling Strategies, Sampling and Storage of Soil for Environmental Monitoring of Contaminants was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency to evaluate methods for soil sampling in radionuclide monitoring and heavy metal surveys for identification of punctual contamination (hot particles) in large area surveys and screening experiments. A group of experts was invited by the IAEA to discuss and recommend methods for representative soil sampling for different kinds of environmental issues. The ultimate sinks for all kinds of contaminants dispersed within the natural environment through human activities are sediment and soil. Soil is a particularly difficult matrix for environmental pollution studies as it is generally composed of a multitude of geological and biological materials resulting from weathering and degradation, including particles of different sizes with varying surface and chemical properties. There are so many different soil types categorized according to their content of biological matter, from sandy soils to loam and peat soils, which make analytical characterization even more complicated. Soil sampling for environmental monitoring of pollutants, therefore, is still a matter of debate in the community of soil, environmental and analytical sciences. The scope of the consultants meeting included evaluating existing techniques with regard to their practicability, reliability and applicability to different purposes, developing strategies of representative soil sampling for cases not yet considered by current techniques and recommending validated techniques applicable to laboratories in developing Member States. This TECDOC includes a critical survey of existing approaches and their feasibility to be applied in developing countries. The report is valuable for radioanalytical laboratories in Member States. It would assist them in quality control and accreditation process

  16. Contaminants in ventilated filling boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolster, D. T.; Linden, P. F.

    While energy efficiency is important, the adoption of energy-efficient ventilation systems still requires the provision of acceptable indoor air quality. Many low-energy systems, such as displacement or natural ventilation, rely on temperature stratification within the interior environment, always extracting the warmest air from the top of the room. Understanding buoyancy-driven convection in a confined ventilated space is key to understanding the flow that develops with many of these modern low-energy ventilation schemes. In this work we study the transport of an initially uniformly distributed passive contaminant in a displacement-ventilated space. Representing a heat source as an ideal sourced of buoyancy, analytical and numerical models are developed that allow us to compare the average efficiency of contaminant removal between traditional mixing and modern low-energy systems. A set of small-scale analogue laboratory experiments was also conducted to further validate our analytical and numerical solutions.We find that on average traditional and low-energy ventilation methods are similar with regard to pollutant flushing efficiency. This is because the concentration being extracted from the system at any given time is approximately the same for both systems. However, very different vertical concentration gradients exist. For the low-energy system, a peak in contaminant concentration occurs at the temperature interface that is established within the space. This interface is typically designed to sit at some intermediate height in the space. Since this peak does not coincide with the extraction point, displacement ventilation does not offer the same benefits for pollutant flushing as it does for buoyancy removal.

  17. Remediation of lead contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, W.; Krishnamurthy, S.

    1992-01-01

    Lead contaminated soil in urban area is of major concern because of the potential health risk to children. Many studies have established a direct correlation between lead in soil and elevated blood lead levels in children. In Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mielke et al. (1983) reported that 50% of the Hmong children with lead poisioning were in areas where soil lead levels were between 500 and 1000 micrograms per gram (ug/g), and 40% of the children suffering from lead poisioning lived in areas where soil lead levels exceeded 1000 ug/g. In urban areas, lead pollution in soil has come from many different sources. The sources include lead paint, lead batteries and automobile exhaust. Olson and Skogerbee (1975) found the following lead compounds in soils where the primary source of pollution was from automobiles: lead sulfate, lead oxide, lead dioxide, lead sulfide, and metallic lead. The primary form of lead found was lead sulfate. Lead sulfate, lead tetraoxide, white lead, and other forms of lead have been used in the manufacture of paints for houses. At present, two remediation techniques, solidification and Bureau of Mines fluosilicic acid leaching, are available for lead-contaminated sites. The objective of the present investigation at the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL), Edison, was to try to solubilize the lead species by appropriate reagents and then recover the contaminants by precipitation as lead sulfate, using environmentally acceptable methods. The apparatus used for mixing was a LabMaster mixer, with variable speed and high-shear impeller. Previous work had used nitric acid for dissolving metallic lead. Owing to the environmental concerns, it was decided to use acetic acid in the presence of oxygen. The theoretical justification for this approach is the favorable redox potential for the reaction between metallic lead, acetic acid, and gaseous oxygen

  18. Radioactive contamination of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeder, C.J.; Zanders, E.; Raphael, T.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the radioactivity released through the explosion of the nuclear reactor near Chernobyl radionuclides have been accumulated to a significant extent in sewage sludge in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is demonstrated for samples from four activated sludge plants according to a recent recommendation of the German Commission for Radiation Protection, there is until now no reason to deviate from the common practices of sludge disposal or incineration. The degree of radioactive contamination of plant materials produced on farm lands on which sewage sludge is being spread cannot be estimated with sufficient certainty yet. Additional information is required. (orig.) [de

  19. Hydrogen Contamination of Niobium Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viet Nguyen-Tuong; Lawrence Doolittle

    1993-01-01

    The presence of hydrogen is blamed for dramatic reductions in cavity Q's. Hydrogen concentration is difficult to measure, so there is a great deal of Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt (FUD) associated with the problem. This paper presents measurements of hydrogen concentration depth profiles, commenting on the pitfalls of the methods used and exploring how material handling can change the amount of hydrogen in pieces of niobium. Hydrogen analysis was performed by a forward scattering experiment with Helium used as the primary beam. This technique is variously known as FRES (Forward Recoil Elastic Scattering), FRS, HFS (Hydrogen Forward Scattering), and HRA (Hydrogen Recoil Analysis). Some measurements were also made using SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry). Both HFS and SIMS are capable of measuring a depth profile of Hydrogen. The primary difficulty in interpreting the results from these techniques is the presence of a surface peak which is due (at least in part) to contamination with either water or hydrocarbons. With HFS, the depth resolution is about 30 nm, and the maximum depth profiled is about 300 nm. (This 10-1 ratio is unusually low for ion beam techniques, and is a consequence of the compromises that must be made in the geometry of the experiment, surface roughness, and energy straggling in the absorber foil that must be used to filter out the forward scattered helium.) All the observed HFS spectra include a surface peak which includes both surface contamination and any real hydrogen uptake by the niobium surface. Some contamination occurs during the analysis. The vacuum in the analysis chamber is typically a few times 10(sup -6) torr, and some of the contamination is in the form of hydrocarbons from the pumping system. Hydrocarbons normally form a very thin (less than a monolayer) film which is in equilibrium between arrival rate and the evaporation rate. In the presence of the incoming ion beam, however, these hydrocarbons crack on the surface into non

  20. Los Alamos racquetball contamination incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAtee, J.L.; Stafford, R.G.; Dowdy, E.J.; Prestwood, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Several employees of the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility were found to have low levels of radioactivity on their hands and clothing when they arrived for work one morning. The initial concern was that the stringent contamination or material controls at the facility had failed, and that one or more of the employees had either accidentally or intentionally removed plutonium from the Laboratory premises. Fortunately, however, an investigation revealed that the source of the radioactivity was radon daughters electrostatically collected upon the surface of the racquetball and transferred by physical contact to the employees during an early morning racquetball game. This paper describes the events leading to the discovery of this phenomenon. 1 figure

  1. Contaminant analysis automation, an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollen, R.; Ramos, O. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    To meet the environmental restoration and waste minimization goals of government and industry, several government laboratories, universities, and private companies have formed the Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) team. The goal of this consortium is to design and fabricate robotics systems that standardize and automate the hardware and software of the most common environmental chemical methods. In essence, the CAA team takes conventional, regulatory- approved (EPA Methods) chemical analysis processes and automates them. The automation consists of standard laboratory modules (SLMs) that perform the work in a much more efficient, accurate, and cost- effective manner

  2. Radioactive food and environment contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Food and Environment Control Centre of Abu Dhabi Municipality with the help of IAEA has established facilities for regular monitoring of food and environmental samples for radioactive contamination. The Centre is now capable of measuring gamma, beta as well as alpha activity in different types of samples. The main activities in the area of food monitoring are as follows: General monitoring of food gamma radionuclides in foodstuffs by high resolution gamma spectrometry; Determination of specific gamma radionuclides in foodstuffs by high resolution gamma spectrometry; Radiochemical determination of Sr-90 using liquid scintillation analyzer or by gas flow proportional counter; Measurement of gross alpha activity in drinking water

  3. Mental contamination: The effects of religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilekli, Ilgun; Inozu, Mujgan

    2018-03-01

    Mental contamination, which occurs in the absence of contact with a contaminant, has a moral element. Previous studies evoked feelings of mental contamination via listening to a scenario, which described a non-consensual kiss. Since mental contamination has a moral element, we tested the effects of the level of religiosity on feelings of mental contamination and related variables in an experimental design. Female undergraduates of high religiosity (n = 48) and low religiosity (n = 44) were randomly assigned to listen to one of two audio recordings involving a consensual or non-consensual kiss from a man described as moral. Mental contamination feelings were evoked successfully in both groups. Effects of scenario condition and religiosity level were seen in mental contamination and related negative feelings. Participants who imagined a non-consensual kiss reported greatest feelings of mental contamination, and internal and external negative feelings. More importantly, high religiosity resulted in greater feelings of mental contamination, internal negative feelings, as well as urges to wash and actual washing behaviors. The current study was conducted on non-clinical Muslim females. This limits the generalization of the findings to the wider population. Mental contamination and related feelings can be seen in different forms at different levels of religiosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Integrating risks at contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.; Habegger, L.; Nieves, L.; Schreiber, Z.; Travis, C.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for a number of large sites across the country that were radioactively and chemically contaminated by past nuclear research, development, and production activities. Multiple risk assessments are being conducted for these sites to evaluate current conditions and determine what measures are needed to protect human health and the environment from today through the long term. Integrating the risks associated with multiple contaminants in different environmental media across extensive areas, over time periods that extend beyond 1,000 years, and for a number of different impact categories--from human health and ecological to social and economic--represents a considerable challenge. A central element of these integrated analyses is the ability to reflect key interrelationships among environmental resources and human communities that may be adversely affected by the actions or inactions being considered for a given site. Complicating the already difficult task of integrating many kinds of risk is the importance of reflecting the diverse values and preferences brought to bear by the multiple parties interested in the risk analysis process and outcome. An initial conceptual framework has been developed to provide an organized structure to this risk integration, with the aim of supporting effective environmental management decisions. This paper highlights key issues associated with comprehensive risk integration and offers suggestions developed from preliminary work at a complex DOE site

  5. Some bioindicators of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosma, C.; Cozmuta, I.; Micu, C.

    1996-01-01

    The lessons that could be learned from the Chernobyl accident were numerous and encompassed all areas. One of those lead to the discovery of new monitoring methods which also supply to cost-effective solutions to control contaminant radioactive discharges in the environment. Through the measurements performed, we discovered that some samples, because of their radioactive content restrained also for long periods of time, can be used as bioindicators. Hen eggs between May 1-30 1986 were analysed (identification of radionuclides with a Ge(Li) detector and measuring of total gamma activity with NaI(T1)). Various aspects pursued revealed that eggs are precious witness of vegetable food contamination with fission products, especially Ba-140 and I-131, behaving as radionuclide separators (Ba-140 in egg shell -301 Bq/egg and I-131 in the content - 182 Bq/egg). Some of the most important pharmaceutical plants from Transylvania measured during 1986-1994 period presents high cesium radioactivity. The perennial plants (as Lichen Islandicus) for the same period accumulated a greater activity that the annual ones. Especially the lichen, because of the their slow decreasing activity are suitable as biological detectors also in retrospective measurements. Measuring the activity of some pollen samples was rediscovered. The pollen grains, during their transport in air by the bees, are acting like a filter for radionuclides so that we could use they to monitor the deliverance of these substances in air. (author)

  6. Country report on contamination monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyuntulkhuur, Navaangalsan [National Centre for Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology (Mongolia). Central Radiological Laboratory

    1997-06-01

    Mongolia is a non-nuclear country and has currently neither nuclear power plants nor research reactors. This country joined the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA) for the Asia Pacific region for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology in 1993. Various measures has been taken for strengthening of radiation protection, cooperated with several international organizations mainly with IAEA. In Mongolia radioactive substances and sources are used for the following purposes: for research work; medical radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology in hospitals; industrial enterprises for technological processes; and for non-destructive testing in industry. Radiation safety inspection is conducted by the CRL. The inspections consist of verification of compliance with radiation safety requirements and with any additional requirements specified in the authorization of accounting records and a physical check on the presence of radiation sources; check on the work carried out by the radiation safety services to monitor radioactive contamination of the environment; and measurements and sampling. CRL should take much attention for improvement and development of the activities in the field of surface contamination monitoring concerning a wide use of radionuclides in different field of economy. (G.K.)

  7. Studies of EUV contamination mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Samual, Jr.; Malinowski, Michael E.; Steinhaus, Chip; Grunow, Philip A.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2002-07-01

    Carbon contamination removal was investigated using remote RF-O2, RF-H2, and atomic hydrogen experiments. Samples consisted of silicon wafers coated with 100 Angstrom sputtered carbon, as well as bare Si-capped Mo/Si optics. Samples were exposed to atomic hydrogen or RF plasma discharges at 100 W, 200 W, and 300 W. Carbon removal rate, optic oxidation rate, at-wavelength (13.4 nm) peak reflectance, and optic surface roughness were characterized. Data show that RF- O2 removes carbon at a rate approximately 6 times faster RF- H2 for a given discharge power. However, both cleaning techniques induce Mo/Si optic degradation through the loss of reflectivity associated with surface oxide growth for RF-O2 and an unknown mechanism with hydrogen cleaning. Atomic hydrogen cleaning shows carbon removal rates sufficient for use as an in-situ cleaning strategy for EUVoptics with less risk of optic degradation from overexposures than RF-discharge cleaning. While hydrogen cleaning (RF and atomic) of EUV optics has proven effective in carbon removal, attempts to dissociate hydrogen in co-exposures with EUV radiation have resulted in no detectable removal of carbon contamination.

  8. Bioremediation of oil contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeson, D.L.; Hogue, J.I.; Peterson, J.C.; Guerra, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Baldwin Waste Oil Site was an abandoned waste oil recycling facility located in Robstown, Nueces County, Texas. As part of their site assessment activities, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requested that the Ecology and Environment, Inc., Technical Assistance Team (TAT) investigate the feasibility of using in-situ bioremediation to remediate soils contaminated with oil and grease components, petroleum hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds. Bioremediation based on the land treatment concept was tested. The land treatment concept uses techniques to optimize indigenous microbial populations and bring them in contact with the contaminants. The study was designed to collect data upon which to base conclusions on the effectiveness of bioremediation, to demonstrate the effectiveness of bioremediation under field conditions, and to identify potential problems in implementing a full-scale project. Bioremediation effectiveness was monitored through total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and Oil and Grease (O and G) analyses. Site specific treatment goals for the pilot project were concentrations of less than 1% for O and G and less than 10,000 mg/kg for TPH. Based on the reduction of TPH and O and G concentrations and the cost effectiveness of bioremediation based on the land treatment concept, full-scale in-situ bioremediation was initiated by the EPA at the Baldwin Waste Oil Site in February of 1993

  9. Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In support of its vision for technological excellence, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) has identified three strategic goals. The three goals of the SCFA are: Contain and/or stabilize contamination sources that pose an imminent threat to surface and ground waters; Delineate DNAPL contamination in the subsurface and remediate DNAPL-contaminated soils and ground water; and Remove a full range of metal and radionuclide contamination in soils and ground water. To meet the challenges of remediating subsurface contaminants in soils and ground water, SCFA funded more than 40 technologies in fiscal year 1997. These technologies are grouped according to the following product lines: Dense Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids; Metals and Radionuclides; Source Term Containment; and Source Term Remediation. This report briefly describes the SCFA 1997 technologies and showcases a few key technologies in each product line

  10. Evaluation of Unfixed Tritium Surface Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postolache, C.; Matei, Lidia

    2005-01-01

    Surface unfixed radioactive contamination represents the amount of surface total radioactive contamination which can be eliminated by pure mechanical processes. This unfixed contamination represents the main risk factor for contamination of the personnel which operates in tritium laboratories. Unfixed contamination was determined using sampling smears type FPCSN-PSE-AA. Those FPCSN-PSE-AA smears are disks of expanded polystyrene which contain acrylic acid fragments superficially grafted. Sampling factor was determinated by contaminated surface wiping with moisten smears in 50 μL butylic alcohol and activity measuring at liquid scintillation measuring device. Sampling factor was determined by the ratio between measured activity and initially real conventional activity. The sampling factor was determined for Tritium Laboratory existent surfaces: stainless steel, aluminum, glass, ceramics, linoleum, washable coats, epoxy resins type ALOREX LP-52.The sampling factors and the reproducibility were determined in function of surface nature

  11. Evaluation of certain contaminants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various contaminants or groups of contaminants in food. The first part of the report contains a brief description of general considerations addressed at the meeting, including updates on matters of interest to the work of the Committee. A summary follows of the Committee’s evaluations of technical, toxicological and/or dietary exposure data for six contaminants or groups of contaminants (aflatoxins, 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol, fumonisins, glycidyl esters, 3-MCPD esters and 3-MCPD, sterigmatocystin) as well as an evaluation of co-exposure of fumonisins with aflatoxins. Annexed to the report is a summary of the toxicological and dietary exposure information as well as the Committee’s recommendations on the contaminants and groups of contaminants considered at this meeting.

  12. Contamination of water resources by pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Water-borne pathogen contamination in water resources and related diseases are a major water quality concern throughout the world. Increasing interest in controlling water-borne pathogens in water resources evidenced by a large number of recent publications clearly attests to the need for studies that synthesize knowledge from multiple fields covering comparative aspects of pathogen contamination, and unify them in a single place in order to present and address the problem as a whole. Providing a broader perceptive of pathogen contamination in freshwater (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, groundwater) and saline water (estuaries and coastal waters) resources, this review paper attempts to develop the first comprehensive single source of existing information on pathogen contamination in multiple types of water resources. In addition, a comprehensive discussion describes the challenges associated with using indicator organisms. Potential impacts of water resources development on pathogen contamination as well as challenges that lie ahead for addressing pathogen contamination are also discussed. PMID:25006540

  13. Desorption and bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted in which the extent and pattern of contaminant biodegradation during bioremediation of four industrially-contaminated soils were examined to determine which factors control the ultimate extent of biodegradation and which limit the success of biological treatment. It was noted that although bioremediation is inexpensive and has low environmental impact, it often fails to completely remove the hydrocarbons in soils because of the complex interactions between contaminants, the soil environment, and the active microorganisms. In this study, the competency of the microorganisms in the soil to degrade the contaminants was examined. The equilibrium partitioning of the contaminants between the soil and the aqueous phase was also examined along with the transport of contaminants out of soil particles. The role of diffusion of compounds in the soil and the importance of direct contact between microorganisms and the hydrocarbons was determined. Methods for selecting suitable sites for biological treatment were also described

  14. Toothbrush Contamination: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R. Frazelle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Toothbrushes are commonly used in hospital settings and may harbor potentially harmful microorganisms. A peer-reviewed literature review was conducted to evaluate the cumulative state of knowledge related to toothbrush contamination and its possible role in disease transmission. A systematic review was conducted on adult human subjects through three distinct searches. The review resulted in seven experimental and three descriptive studies which identified multiple concepts related to toothbrush contamination to include contamination, methods for decontamination, storage, design, and environmental factors. The selected studies found that toothbrushes of healthy and oral diseased adults become contaminated with pathogenic bacteria from the dental plaque, design, environment, or a combination of factors. There are no studies that specifically examine toothbrush contamination and the role of environmental factors, toothbrush contamination, and vulnerable populations in the hospital setting (e.g., critically ill adults and toothbrush use in nursing clinical practice.

  15. Contaminant transport modeling studies of Russian sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    1993-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) established mechanisms that promoted cooperation between U.S. and Russian scientists in scientific research as well as environmental technology transfer. Using Russian experience and U.S technology, LBL developed approaches for field investigations, site evaluation, waste disposal, and remediation at Russian contaminated sites. LBL assessed a comprehensive database as well as an actual, large-scale contaminated site to evaluate existing knowledge of and test mathematical models used for the assessment of U.S. contaminated sites

  16. Technologies for remediating radioactively contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearl, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of technologies that can be used for the remediation of radioactively contaminated ground. There are a wide variety of techniques available -most have established track records for contaminated ground, though in general many are only just being adapted to use for radioactively contaminated ground. 1) Remediation techniques for radioactively contaminated ground involve either removal of the contamination and transfer to a controlled/contained facility such as the national LLW repository at Drigg, or 2) immobilization, solidification and stabilization of the contamination where the physical nature of the soil is changed, or an 'agent' is added to the soil, to reduce the migration of the contaminants, or 3) isolation and containment of the contaminated ground to reduce contaminant migration and control potential detrimental effects to human health. Where contamination has to be removed, ex situ and in situ techniques are available which minimize the waste requiring disposal to an LLW repository. These techniques include: 1) detector-based segregation 2) soil washing by particle separations 3) oil washing with chemical leaching agents 4) electro remediation 5) phyto remediation. Although many technologies are potentially applicable, their application to the remediation of a specific contaminated site is dependent on a number of factors and related to detailed site characterization studies, results from development trials and BPEO (best practicable environmental option) studies. Those factors considered of particular importance are: 1) the clean-up target 2) technical feasibility relative to the particular site, soil and contaminant characteristics, and time frame 3) site infrastructure arrangements and needs, the working life of the site and the duration of institutional care 4) long-term monitoring arrangements for slow remedial techniques or for immobilization and containment techniques 5) validation of the remediation 6) health and

  17. Waste management of actinide contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Thompson, G.H.; Kochen, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Waste management processes have been developed to reduce the volume of Rocky Flats soil contaminated with plutonium and americium and to prepare the contaminated fraction for terminal storage. The primary process consists of wet-screening. The secondary process uses attrition scrubbing and wet screening with additives. The tertiary process involves volume reduction of the contaminated fraction by calcination, or fixation by conversion to glass. The results of laboratory scale testing of the processes are described

  18. Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated by Chlorinnated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, C.; Sung, K.; Corapcioglu, M.

    2001-12-01

    In recent years, the possible use of deep rooted plants for phytoremediation of soil contaminants has been offered as a potential alternative for waste management, particularly for in situ remediation of large volumes of contaminated soils. Major objectives of this study are to evaluate the effectiveness of a warm season grass (Eastern Gamagrass) and a cool season prairie grass (Annual Ryegrass) in the phytoremediation of the soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds e.g., trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and to determine the main mechanisms of target contaminant dissipation. The preliminary tests and laboratory scale tests were conducted to identify the main mechanisms for phytoremediation of the target contaminants, and to apply the technique in green house application under field conditions. The results of microcosm and bioreactor experiments showed that volatilization can be the dominant pathway of the target contaminant mass losses in soils. Toxicity tests, conducted in nutrient solution in the growth room, and in the greenhouse, showed that both Eastern gamagrass and Annual ryegrass could grow without harmful effects at up to 400 ppm each of all three contaminants together. Preliminary greenhouse experimentw were conducted with the 1.5 m long and 0.3 m diameter PVC columns. Soil gas concentrations monitored and microbial biomass in bulk and rhizosphere soil, root properties, and contaminant concentration in soil after 100 days were analyzed. The results showed that the soil gas concentration of contaminants has rapidly decreased especially in the upper soil and the contaminant concentraitons in soil were also significantly decreased to 0.024, 0.228, and 0.002 of C/Co for TCE, PCE and TCA, respectively. Significant plant effects were not found however showed contaminant loss through volatilization and plant contamination by air.

  19. Abnormal ''Contamination' Levels On Garden Appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, U.; Levinson, S.; Elmelech, V.; Pelled, O.; Tshuva, A.; Laichter, Y.

    1999-01-01

    During routine contamination checks we encountered an abnormal high level of Alpha and Beta emitting radioisotopes on working gloves of employees of the gardening department. It came out that the source was due to ''contamination'' levels on steering wheels of some gardening machines. In order to ensure that no real contamination of these workers was involved , a series of checks was started to identity the source of the abnormal levels found during monitoring

  20. Proceedings of the second international scientific and practical conference 'Mitigation of the consequences of the catastrophe at the Chernobyl NPP: state and perspectives'; Materialy II mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferentsii 'Preodolenie posledstvij katastrofy na Chernobyl'skoj AEhS: sostoyanie i perspektivy'simpoziuma 'Aktual'nye problemy dozimetrii'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevchuk, V E; Gurachevskij, V L; Kapitonova, Eh K [eds.

    2004-04-01

    The proceeding reflects new scientific results and contains three parts - medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident and dose monitoring of human population; problems of the contaminated territories and social and economical development of the regions; radioecological and radiobiological consequences of the accident and their forecasting.

  1. Decontamination of Soil Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Brief This technical summary will provide decontamination personnel rapid access to information on which decontamination approaches are most effective for soils contaminated with B anthracis.

  2. Global contamination trends of persistent organic chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loganathan, Bommanna G; Lam, Paul K. S

    2012-01-01

    "Composed by a diverse group of experts, this reference covers the history, present status, and projected future trends of environmental contamination from highly toxic synthetic chemical pollutants...

  3. Status on contamination monitoring in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quanlu, Gou [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)

    1997-06-01

    The air contaminated by radioactive materials in nuclear enterprises and radioactive workplaces and forming radioactive aerosol and the leakage of radioactive materials in operation cause internal exposure damage in workers. It is necessary and important to monitor air and surface contaminations for the health of public and workers, and for protecting environment. At present, many institutes engage in the studies on surface contamination monitoring in China, and the government has formulated the control limits of surface contamination in the Regulations of Radiation Protection. The monitors for surface contamination monitoring are almost home-made. The methods being used often are smear test and placing surface sample test. Scintillation counters, semiconductor detectors and G-M counters have been used for detecting alpha surface contamination. Plastic scintillator meters and thin wall/window G-M counters are used for beta surface contamination. Special detectors have been designed for monitoring low energy nuclides. The status of airborne contamination monitoring in China is reported. As the studies for future, the development of the surface contamination monitor for low energy beta nuclides, especially H-3, the monitoring methods for the special shapes of surfaces, the technology of decontamination and the calibration method and device for on-line radioactive aerosol continuous monitors are taken up. (K.I.)

  4. A proximity effect in adults' contamination intuitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Kim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Magical beliefs about contagion via contact (Rozin, Nemeroff, Wane, and Sherrod, 1989 may emerge when people overgeneralize real-world mechanisms of contamination beyond their appropriate boundaries (Lindeman and Aarnio, 2007. Do people similarly overextend knowledge of airborne contamination mechanisms? Previous work has shown that very young children believe merely being close to a contamination source can contaminate an item (Springer and Belk 1994; we asked whether this same hyper-avoidant intuition is also reflected in adults' judgments. In two studies, we measured adults' ratings of the desirability of an object that had made contact with a source of contamination, an object nearby that had made no contact with the contaminant, and an object far away that had also made no contact. Adults showed a clear proximity effect, wherein objects near the contamination source were perceived to be less desirable than those far away, even though a separate group of adults unanimously acknowledged that contaminants could not possibly have made contact with either the nearby or far-away object (Study 1. The proximity effect also remained robust when a third group of adults was explicitly told that no contaminating particles had made contact with the objects at any time (Study 2. We discuss implications of our findings for extending the scope of magical contagion effects beyond the contact principle, for understanding the persistence of intuitive theories despite broad acceptance of science-based theories, and for constraining interpretations of the developmental work on proximity beliefs.

  5. Microbial contaminants in Pakistan: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maida Kanwal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide contamination of surface waters with microbial pathogens is of substantial health concern. These contaminants are usually transmitted by improper sanitation measures, unsafe waste disposal, excretions from patients, and physical contacts, i.e., sexual and nonsexual. Majority of these microbial pathogens have been categorized into three classes, i.e., bacteria, viruses and protozoa. Pakistan, being a developing country, is facing a noteworthy threat due to microbial contamination. In Pakistan, bacterial contaminants are reported extensively followed by viral and protozoa contaminants. The health issues associated with bacterial population includes dysentery, abdominal pain, headache, diarrhea etc.; and usually includes faecal and total coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Campylobacter. The cases related to viral contamination are lesser but chronic and evidenced the presence of HCV, HAV, HEV viruses causing hepatitis, and other hepatic disorders. Lastly, the health impacts associated with protozoans are least reported; and a number of diseases such as giardia, cryptosporidium and toxoplasma have been linked with this class of contaminants. The current review compiles information of these biological contaminants along with their health issues in Pakistan. Moreover, potential sources and fate of microbial contaminants are also discussed.

  6. Optimization of monitoring sewage with radionuclide contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    Recommendations on optimization of monitoring contaminated sewage aimed at enviromental protection agxinst radioactive contamination at minimum cost are presented. The way of selecting water sampling technique depends on water composition stability and flow rate. Depending on the type of radionuclide distribution in the sewage one can estimate minimum frequency of sampling or number of samples sufficient for assuring reliability of the conclusion on the excess or non-excess of permissible radioactive contamination levels, as well as analysis assigned accuracy. By irregular contaminated sewage-discharge and possibility of short-term releases of different form and duration, sampling should be accomplished through automatic devices of continuons or periodic operation

  7. Monitoring of overalls and personnel skin contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkin, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Organization of monitoring of overalls and personnel skin contamination wastes is considered. The devices used for this purpose are enumerated. In sanitary sluices through which the personnel leaving the repair zone it is recommended to particularly thoroughly control hand skin contamination and most contaminated parts of overalls (sleeves, breeches lower parts, pockets, stomack region). In sanitary check points during personnel leaving the operator zone monitoring of overalls and skin contamination is performed. The overalls and other individual protective clothing are subjected to control in a special loundry before and after washing (decontamination) [ru

  8. Forensic recovery within contaminated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Exhibit Handling System, operated by the Anti-Terrorist Branch, has evolved from experiences whilst dealing with long term domestic terrorism and the subsequent prosecution of the offenders. Stringent U.K. criminal law in regard to exhibits and forensic evidence required a strict system in order to provide continuity and integrity to every item that came into possession of the Police. This system also applies to items that are eventually deemed 'unused', as nearly all evidence is disclosed to the defence. I believe that if a system can withstand the close examination that British Criminal Law provides, it will probably be suitable in most countries. The system relies on each item being supplied with a documented trail of all persons who have had possession of it and who have opened the security packaging for examination purposes. In contaminated environments the initial process within the system has to be adapted in order that strict monitoring of the items can be carried out during the packaging process. It is also recognized that access to many exhibits will be heavily restricted and therefore protocols are in place to interrogate the evidence at the packaging stage in order to avoid unnecessary spread of contamination. The protocols are similar for both radiological and nuclear incidents as well as chemical and biological. Regardless of the type of incident the system can be adapted on the advice of the relevant scientific authority. In the U.K. for radiological and nuclear incidents that authority would be the A.W.E. Aldermaston. The integrity and continuity regime should be continued within laboratories which are conducting examinations of exhibits recovered. It is also important that Nuclear Forensic Laboratories do not overlook possibilities of traditional evidence, such as DNA, Fingerprints and fibre traces. Good record photography of items which are unlikely to be released by the laboratory is essential. Finally, cross-contamination has in

  9. Contaminated sites: memory loss experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieber, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Over a period of 50 years, the district of Zurich has financed four projects to catalogue contaminated sites. One lesson is that as soon as there is a new register, the older one fades, so any data that did not get transferred is lost. Several concrete case studies were also presented: - The Glattbrug case, where heavy contamination was discovered to be caused by a carbolineum plant that had been registered at the wrong place and was completely forgotten only 40 years after its closure. - A case where contaminated municipal waste slag was used as compost by wine-growers, and where it was impossible afterwards to find any reliable data concerning the amount or location of compost deliveries. - The Toessegg remediation case, where a number of steel barrels filled with acidic tar were buried above an important aquifer and below grassland. It took the combination of the local level delivering knowledge and the higher political level delivering power to come to action. - The Harwald case, which shows a gap between risk assessment on the one hand and the implementation of results of such risk assessments on the other hand. All of these cases reveal power game between state officials, representatives of the industry, technical experts, politics and the common man. Information may be out there, but not in the right place or not with the right people. It was thus pointed out that RK and M preservation is not only a scientific or a technical problem, but at least as much a social, political, economic, issue. Differences in institutional interests, rivalry, politics and power imbalances play a major role. An important lesson was thus that one may improve the process of archiving, but one also needs to improve the distribution of information and its correct use. The principle of subsidiarity, which delegates power to the lowest competent authority, was judged to be helpful in potentially solving some of these problems, since the international and national level may be too

  10. Microconductometric Detection of Bacterial Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarra EL ICHI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches can be used for the electrochemical detection of bacterial contamination. Their performance can be assessed by the ability to detect bacteria at very low concentrations within a short-time response. We have already demonstrated that a conductometric biosensor based on interdigitated thin-film electrodes is adapted to detect bacteria in clinical samples like serum and compatible with microfluidic fabrication. The type of interdigitated microelectrodes influences the performance of the biosensor. This was shown by the results obtained in this work. A magnetic-nanoparticles based immunosensor was designed using gold screen-printed electrodes. The immunosensor was able to specifically detect E. coli in the range of 1-103 CFU mL-1. The new transducer offered a larger active sensing surface with a lower cost and a robust material. Accuracy of the conductance value was enhanced by differential measurements. The immunosensor is compatible with a microfluidic system.

  11. Rulison: radiation contamination clearance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    Under contract with Austral Oil Company, Eberline Instrument Corporation provided supervision and technicians to radiologically support the well plugging and site abandonment activities at the Project Rulison site during the period September 1, 1976 through October 12, 1976. The purpose of the support was to identify and prepare for removal of all radioactively contaminated materials remaining on site. The emplacement and reentry wells were successfully plugged without a serious radiological incident. There was no measurable radiation exposure above natural background to participating personnel. Decontamination and monitoring procedures assured that no equipment or material was improperly released to unrestricted use. A review of the history of project operations, the conduct of comprehensive sampling programs, and an extensive final survey, ensures that the extent of radioactivity on the site is identified and that such activity is well below established guide lines. Except for appropriate restrictions regarding deep drilling, the radiological condition of the Project Rulison site permits its return to unrestricted use

  12. Coastal marine contamination in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garay T, Jesus A; Marin Z, Bienvenido; Velez G, Ana Maria

    2002-01-01

    The paper tries about the problem of the marine contamination and their marked influence in the health of the coastal ecosystems, of their narrow relationship with the growing increase of the populations that they inhabit the coastal areas and of equal it forms, with the increment of the domestic, agricultural and industrial activities that, for the wrong handling and inadequate control of the solid and liquid waste, they affect the marine environment with significant implications at ecological, socioeconomic level and of health. Another component of the environmental problem of the marine ecosystems in the country, resides in that don't exist in general normative on the chemical quality and sanitary for its marine waters, that which limits the categorization of this agreement ecosystems with its environmental quality, conditioning this the lack of adequate mechanisms to mitigate the causes that originate the deterioration of the quality of the Colombian coasts

  13. Contamination and decontamination of skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, J.; Knajfl, J.

    1983-01-01

    In external contamination the beta radiation dose is the prevalent component of the total dose absorbed by the skin. There exist four types of radionUclide bonds to the skin: mechanical retention of solid particles or solution on the surface and in the pores, physical adsorption of nondissociated molecules or colloids, the ion exchange effect, and chemisorption. Radionuclides then penetrate the skin by transfollicular transfer. The total amount of radioactive substances absorbed into the skin depends on the condition of the skin. Skin is decontaminated by washing with lukewarm water and soap or with special decontamination solutions. The most widely used components of decontamination solutions are detergents, chelaton, sodium hexametaphosphate, oxalic acid, citric acid. The main principles of the decontamination of persons are given. (M.D.)

  14. Derived limits for surface contamination

    CERN Document Server

    Wrixon, A D; Linsley, G S; White, D F

    1979-01-01

    Derived limits (DLs) for surface contamination were first established for use in the nuclear energy industry where a wide variety of radionuclides is encountered. They were later used in factories, hospitals, and universities, where the radionuclides used are normally fewer in number, either known or readily identifiable, and often of low toxicity. In these situations the current limits are frequently over-restrictive. This report describes a reassessment of the values in the light of more recent information on the possible pathways of exposure and the dose equivalent limits given in ICRP Publication 26. The reassessment is prompted also by the introduction of SI units. The results of the reassessment are used to produce a classification of DLs for all radionuclides for active and inactive area surfaces and for skin.

  15. Characterize Human Forward Contamination Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Let's face it: wherever we go, we will inevitably carry along the little critters that live in and on us. Conventional wisdom has long held that it's unlikely those critters could survive the space environment, but in 2007 microscopic animals called Tardigrades survived exposure to space and in 2008 Cyanobacteria lived for 548 days outside the International Space Station (ISS). But what about the organisms we might reasonably expect a crewed spacecraft to leak or vent? Do we even know what they are? How long might our tiny hitch-hikers survive in close proximity to a warm spacecraft that periodically leaks/vents water or oxygen-and how might they mutate with long-duration exposure? Unlike the Mars rovers that we cleaned once and sent on their way, crew members will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations? This project has four technical objectives: 1. TEST: Develop a test plan to leverage existing equipment (i.e. ISS) to characterize the kinds of organisms we can reasonably expect pressurized, crewed volumes to vent or leak overboard; as part of testing, we'll need to develop an Extravehicular Activity (EVA)-compatible tool that can withstand the pressure and temperature extremes of space, as well as collect, separate, and store multiple samples; 2. ANALYSIS: Develop an analysis plan to study those organisms in relevant destination environments, including spacecraft-induced conditions; 3. MODEL: Develop a modeling plan to model organism transport mechanisms in relevant destination environments; 4. SHARE: Develop a plan to disseminate findings and integrate recommendations into exploration requirements & ops. In short, we propose a system engineering approach to roadmap the necessary experiments, analysis, and modeling up front--rather than try to knit together disparate chunks of data into a sensible conclusion after the fact.

  16. Fungi and mycotoxins: Food contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of fungi on food causes physical and chemical changes which, further affect negatively the sensory and nutritive quality of food. Species from genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternariа, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Eurotium and Emericella are usually found. Some of them are potentially dangerous for humans and animals, due to possible synthesis and excretion of toxic secondary metabolites - mycotoxins into the food. Their toxic syndroms in animals and humans are known as mycotoxicoses. The pathologic changes can be observed in parenhimatic organs, and in bones and central nervous system also. Specific conditions are necessary for mycotoxin producing fungi to synthetize sufficient quantities of these compounds for demonstration of biologic effects. The main biochemical paths in the formation of mycotoxins include the polyketide (aflatoxins, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone, citrinine, patulin, terpenic (trichothecenes, aminoacid (glicotoxins, ergotamines, sporidesmin, malformin C, and carbonic acids path (rubratoxins. Aflatoxins are the most toxigenic metabolites of fungi, produced mostly by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus species. Aflatoxins appear more frequently in food in the tropic and subtropic regions, while the food in Europe is more exposed to also very toxic ochratoxin A producing fungi (A. ochraceus and some Penicillium species. The agricultural products can be contaminated by fungi both before and after the harvest. The primary mycotoxicoses in humans are the result of direct intake of vegetable products contaminated by mycotoxins, while the secondary mycotoxicoses are caused by products of animal origin. The risk of the presence of fungi and mycotoxin in food is increasing, having in mind that some of them are highly thermoresistent, and the temperatures of usual food sterilization is not sufficient for their termination. The paper presents the review of most important mycotoxins, their biologic effects

  17. Removing high-level contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Using biomimicry, an Australian cleantech innovation making inroads intoChinas's industrial sector offers multiple benefits to miners and processors in Australia. Stephen Shelley, the executive chairman of Creative Water Technology (CWT), was on hand at a recent trade show to explain how his Melbourne company has developed world-class techniques in zero liquid discharge and fractional crystallization of minerals to apply to a wide range of water treatment and recycling applications. “Most existing technologies operate with high energy distillation, filters or biological processing. CWT's appliance uses a low temperature, thermal distillation process known as adiabatic recovery to desalinate, dewater and/or recycle highly saline and highly contaminated waste water,” said Shelley. The technology has been specifically designed to handle the high levels of contaminant that alternative technologies struggle to process, with proven water quality results for feed water samples with TDS levels over 300,000ppm converted to clean water with less than 20ppm. Comparatively, reverse osmosis struggles to process contaminant levels over 70,000ppm effectively. “CWT is able to reclaim up to 97% clean usable water and up to 100% of the contaminants contained in the feed water,” said Shelley, adding that soluble and insoluble contaminants are separately extracted and dried for sale or re-use. In industrial applications CWT has successfully processed feed water with contaminant levels over 650,000 mg/1- without the use of chemicals. “The technology would be suitable for companies in oil exploration and production, mining, smelting, biofuels, textiles and the agricultural and food production sectors,” said Shelley. When compared to a conventional desalination plant, the CWT system is able to capture the value in the brine that most plants discard, not only from the salt but the additional water it contains. “If you recover those two commodities... then you

  18. 77 FR 27057 - Request for Nominations of Drinking Water Contaminants for the Fourth Contaminant Candidate List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... captures emerging chemicals and pathogens. D. Why is EPA soliciting contaminant nominations? EPA is... providing an additional pathway for the public to identify new and emerging contaminants that may not be... new and emerging contaminants that might not otherwise be considered because new information has not...

  19. 40 CFR 141.62 - Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic contaminants. 141.62 Section 141.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Water Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels § 141.62 Maximum...

  20. 40 CFR 141.51 - Maximum contaminant level goals for inorganic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for inorganic contaminants. 141.51 Section 141.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Level...

  1. 40 CFR 141.63 - Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for microbiological contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for microbiological contaminants. 141.63 Section 141.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Water Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels § 141.63 Maximum...

  2. 40 CFR 141.50 - Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants. 141.50 Section 141.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Level...

  3. 40 CFR 141.52 - Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants. 141.52 Section 141.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Level...

  4. Radioactive contamination of the Guatemalan marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Sabino, J.F.; Oliva de Sandoval, B.E.; Orozco-Chilel, R.M.; Aguilar-Sandoval, E.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the IAEA TC project GUA/2/005 'Radioactivity and Contamination of the Marine Environment in Guatemala', concentrations of artificial and natural radionuclides have been determined in marine water and sediments, giving important information to establish the base line of the natural radioactivity and the radioactive contamination in this area that not have been studying

  5. Radioactive contamination of the Guatemalan marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Sabino, J F; Oliva de Sandoval, B E; Orozco-Chilel, R M; Aguilar-Sandoval, E [Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmacia, Unidad de Analisis Instrumental, Guatemala C.A. (Guatemala)

    1999-07-01

    As part of the IAEA TC project GUA/2/005 `Radioactivity and Contamination of the Marine Environment in Guatemala`, concentrations of artificial and natural radionuclides have been determined in marine water and sediments, giving important information to establish the base line of the natural radioactivity and the radioactive contamination in this area that not have been studying 4 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  6. Minimizing electrode contamination in an electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Zelenay, Piotr; Johnston, Christina

    2014-12-09

    An electrochemical cell assembly that is expected to prevent or at least minimize electrode contamination includes one or more getters that trap a component or components leached from a first electrode and prevents or at least minimizes them from contaminating a second electrode.

  7. Owls as biomonitors of environmental contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven R. Sheffield

    1997-01-01

    Much like the caged canary used by miners, a plethora of wildlife species have been promoted as biomonitors of environmental contamination. These species provide an "early warning system" for toxic contaminants in the environment. Species promoted as useful biomonitors share many common life history characters, such as wide distribution, territorial, non-...

  8. Electro kinetic remediation of contaminated habitats | Shenbagavalli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrokinetics (EK) is a process that separates and extracts heavy metals, radionuclides and organic contaminants from saturated or unsaturated soils, sludge, and sediments. A low intensity direct current is applied across electrode pairs that have been implanted in the ground on each side of the contaminated soil mass.

  9. Remediation of Contaminated Soils by Solvent Flushing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Jessup, Ron E.; Rao, P. Suresh C.; Wood, A. Lynn

    1994-01-01

    Solvent flushing is a potential technique for remediating a waste disposal/spill site contaminated with organic chemicals. This technique involves the injection of a solvent mixture (e.g., water plus alcohols) that enhances contaminant solubility, reduces the retardation factor, and increases the

  10. Remediation of soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... The aim of this study was to determine ways of remediating soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with crude oil. The study involves the use of planted cowpeas, mushrooms, algae, dead vegetable and live earthworm, and fire-heating of the contaminated garden soil ...

  11. Chemical barriers for controlling groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, S.J.; Spangler, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical barriers are being explored as a low-cost means of controlling groundwater contamination. The barrier can intercept a contaminant plume and prevent migration by transferring contaminants from the groundwater to immobile solids. A chemical barrier can be emplaced in a landfill liner or in an aquifer cutoff wall or can be injected into a contaminant plume. Chemical barriers can be classified as either precipitation barriers or sorption barriers depending upon the dominant mode of contaminant extraction. In a precipitation barrier, contaminants are bound in the structures of newly formed phases; whereas, in a sorption barrier, contaminants attach to the surfaces of preexisting solids by adsorption or some other surface mechanism. Sorption of contaminants is pH dependent. A precipitation barrier can control the pH of the system, but alkaline groundwater may dominate the pH in a sorption barrier. A comparison is made of the characteristics of precipitation and sorption barriers. Experimental data on the extraction of uranium and molybdenum from simulated groundwater are used to demonstrate these concepts. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  12. Relationship between rainfall and microbiological contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outbreaks of contamination events in many developing countries occur during periods of peak rainfall. This study presents evidence of direct pulse response of shallow groundwater contamination events to rainfall in Northern Mozambique. The objective of the paper is to establish both a statistical relationship between ...

  13. Total aflatoxin, fumonisin and deoxynivalenol contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycotoxin contamination is a common problem in developing countries, particularly in cereals, and this poses a serious health risk to its consumers. Busaa is a Kenyan traditional brew whose cereal ingredients are prone to mycotoxin contamination. This study aimed at detecting the presence and subsequently quantifying ...

  14. Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effect of lead and chromium on the rate of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated clay soil. Naphthalene was used as a target PAH. The soil was sterilized by heating at 120oC for one hour. 100g of the soil was contaminated with lead, chromium, nickel and mercury ...

  15. Decrease DNA contamination in the laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we tested various approaches to remove DNA from hard laboratory surfaces. We contaminated clean surfaces with four different concentrations of massively parallel sequencing libraries. The DNA was dried and left for 45 min and for 24 h, respectively, before any treatment. The surfaces.......9–1.8% hypochlorite in order to eliminate laboratory contamination and simultaneously minimise any poisonous gases....

  16. Ambient air contamination: Characterization and detection techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulton, C. P.; Silvus, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques to characterize and detect sources of ambient air contamination are described. Chemical techniques to identify indoor contaminants are outlined, they include gas chromatography, or colorimetric detection. Organics generated from indoor materials at ambient conditions and upon combustion are characterized. Piezoelectric quartz crystals are used as precision frequency determining elements in electronic oscillators.

  17. Have we to harvest the contaminated wheats?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenberg, P. de

    1997-01-01

    The institute of nuclear protection and safety (IPSN) has just developed a calculation method allowing to evaluate the radioactive contamination of harvesting. This tool would allow, in case of nuclear accident, to determine if the contaminated lands under cultivation are eatable or not. Two radionuclides have been chosen: cesium 137 and strontium 90. The experiments are conclusive: the experimental releases of cesium and strontium were comparable to these ones of the Chernobyl forbidden zone (between 10 and 40 millions of becquerels/m 2 ): the foliar contamination is proportional to the plants development. Wheats ready to be harvested capture more than 80% of the radioactivity that contaminates them. Leaves of young plants keep only 20 to 40 %. Second result: cesium is more easily washable than strontium. Third results: more late is the contamination more the plant will be irradiated; then,the wheats contaminated when they are just out of ground are nine times less contaminated than cereals contaminated just before the harvest. (N.C.)

  18. Revelations of an overt water contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Kaushik, S K; Mukherji, S

    2017-07-01

    Contaminated water sources are major cause of water borne diseases of public health importance. Usually, contamination is suspected after an increase in patient load. Two health teams investigated the episode. First team conducted sanitary survey, and second team undertook water safety and morbidity survey. On-site testing was carried out from source till consumer end. Investigation was also undertaken to identify factors which masked the situation. Prevention and control measures included super chlorination, provision of alternate drinking water sources, awareness campaign, layout of new water pipeline bypassing place of contamination, repair of sewers, flushing and cleaning of water pipelines, and repeated water sampling and testing. Multiple sources of drinking water supply were detected. Water samples from consumer end showed 18 coliforms per 100 ml. Sewer cross connection with active leakage in water pipeline was found and this was confirmed by earth excavation. Water safety and morbidity survey found majority of households receiving contaminated water supply. This survey found no significant difference among households receiving contaminated water supply and those receiving clean water. Average proportion of household members with episode of loose motions, pain abdomen, vomiting, fever, and eye conditions was significantly more among households receiving contaminated water. The present study documents detailed methodology of investigation and control measures to be instituted on receipt of contaminated water samples. Effective surveillance mechanisms for drinking water supplies such as routine testing of water samples can identify water contamination at an early stage and prevent an impending outbreak.

  19. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  20. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  1. Uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jiemin; Chen Ziyuan; Tang Shirong; Guangzhou Univ., Guangzhou; Ding Bingyang

    2005-01-01

    The review covers results at home and abroad in terms of uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes, and suggests pteridophytes' significance in phytoremediation; the mechanisms related to uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes and some methods and means used for research on the mechanism are also introduced; the authors' viewpoints on future development trends are presented in this paper. (authors)

  2. Prevalence of antibacterial resistant bacterial contaminants from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mobile phones contaminated with bacteria may act as fomites. Antibiotic resistant bacterial contamination of mobile phones of inpatients was studied. One hundred and six samples were collected from mobile phones of patients admitted in various hospitals in Jazan province of Saudi Arabia. Eighty-nine (83.9%) out of 106 ...

  3. Remediation of contaminated soil by cement treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimovic, S.

    2004-01-01

    This manuscript presents the most applicable remedial technologies for contaminated soil with focus on cement stabilisation/solidification treatment. These technologies are examined in the light of soil contamination with depleted uranium in the large area of south Serbia,after Nato bombing 1999. (author) [sr

  4. Dismantling an alpha-contaminated facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, R.D.; Harper, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    The difficult task of removing large pieces of highly contaminated equipment from an obsolete plutonium-239 facility was completed in a seven-month operation that included structural alteration of the process building. Detailed job planning, job execution and contamination control were major factors in accomplishing the task

  5. Water in the March river radioactively contaminated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englander, A.G.

    1990-01-01

    A curve of the tritium contamination of the March river measured in Austria from 1976 to 1989 is shown. The conjecture is put forward that this contamination is caused by the Dukovani power plant in the neighbouring CSFR. Further measurements are called for

  6. Using Tracer Technology to Characterize Contaminated Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maresca, Joseph, W., Jr., Ph.D.; Bratton, Wesley, L., Ph.D., P.E.; Dickerson, Wilhelmina; Hales, Rochelle

    2005-12-30

    The Pipeline Characterization Using Tracers (PCUT) technique uses conservative and partitioning, reactive or other interactive tracers to remotely determine the amount of contaminant within a run of piping or ductwork. The PCUT system was motivated by a method that has been successfully used to characterize subsurface soil contaminants and is similar in operation to that of a gas chromatography column. By injecting a ?slug? of both conservative and partitioning tracers at one end (or section) of the piping and measuring the time history of the concentration of the tracers at the other end (or another section) of the pipe, the presence, location, and amount of contaminant within the pipe or duct can be determined. The tracers are transported along the pipe or duct by a gas flow field, typically air or nitrogen, which has a velocity that is slow enough so that the partitioning tracer has time to interact with the contaminant before the tracer slug completely passes over the contaminate region. PCUT not only identifies the presence of contamination, it also can locate the contamination along the pipeline and quantify the amount of residual. PCUT can be used in support of deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of piping and ducts that may have been contaminated with hazardous chemicals such as chlorinated solvents, petroleum products, radioactive materials, or heavy metals, such as mercury.

  7. Bioremediation of PAH contaminated soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S.

    1994-01-01

    Soils contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose a hazard to life. The remediation of such sites can be done using physical, chemical, and biological treatment methods or a combination of them. It is of interest to study the decontamination of soil using bioremediation. The experiments were conducted using Acinetobacter (ATCC 31012) at room temperature without pH or temperature control. In the first series of experiments, contaminated soil samples obtained from Alberta Research Council were analyzed to determine the toxic contaminant and their composition in the soil. These samples were then treated using aerobic fermentation and removal efficiency for each contaminant was determined. In the second series of experiments, a single contaminant was used to prepare a synthetic soil sample. This sample of known composition was then treated using aerobic fermentation in continuously stirred flasks. In one set of flasks, contaminant was the only carbon source and in the other set, starch was an additional carbon source. In the third series of experiments, the synthetic contaminated soil sample was treated in continuously stirred flasks in the first set and in fixed bed in the second set and the removal efficiencies were compared. The removal efficiencies obtained indicated the extent of biodegradation for various contaminants, the effect of additional carbon source, and performance in fixed bed without external aeration

  8. Surface contamination technology in decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Hideharu

    2012-01-01

    Surface contamination measurement is the most basic technology in radiation control of the nuclear and radiation facilities. Loose surface contamination causes internal exposure through airborne contamination. Surface contamination measurement is recently more important in the waste management such as confirmation of decontamination factor, contamination survey of carried-out materials from radioactive control area, and application of clearance level. This report describes the base of surface contamination standards, meaning of contamination in decommissioning, relationship between clearance level and surface contamination, and current technology of surface contamination measurement. (author)

  9. Environmental contamination, product contamination and workers exposure using a robotic system for antineoplastic drug preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessink, Paul J M; Leclercq, Gisèle M; Wouters, Dominique-Marie; Halbardier, Loïc; Hammad, Chaïma; Kassoul, Nassima

    2015-04-01

    Environmental contamination, product contamination and technicians exposure were measured following preparation of iv bags with cyclophosphamide using the robotic system CytoCare. Wipe samples were taken inside CytoCare, in the clean room environment, from vials, and prepared iv bags including ports and analysed for contamination with cyclophosphamide. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was also measured in environmental air and on the technicians hands and gloves used for handling the drugs. Exposure of the technicians to cyclophosphamide was measured by analysis of cyclophosphamide in urine. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was mainly observed inside CytoCare, before preparation, after preparation and after daily routine cleaning. Contamination outside CytoCare was incidentally found. All vials with reconstituted cyclophosphamide entering CytoCare were contaminated on the outside but vials with powdered cyclophosphamide were not contaminated on the outside. Contaminated bags entering CytoCare were also contaminated after preparation but non-contaminated bags were not contaminated after preparation. Cyclophosphamide was detected on the ports of all prepared bags. Almost all outer pairs of gloves used for preparation and daily routine cleaning were contaminated with cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide was not found on the inner pairs of gloves and on the hands of the technicians. Cyclophosphamide was not detected in the stationary and personal air samples and in the urine samples of the technicians. CytoCare enables the preparation of cyclophosphamide with low levels of environmental contamination and product contamination and no measurable exposure of the technicians. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Assessment of molecular contamination in mask pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foray, Jean Marie; Dejaune, Patrice; Sergent, Pierre; Gough, Stuart; Cheung, D.; Davenet, Magali; Favre, Arnaud; Rude, C.; Trautmann, T.; Tissier, Michel; Fontaine, H.; Veillerot, M.; Avary, K.; Hollein, I.; Lerit, R.

    2008-04-01

    Context/ study Motivation: Contamination and especially Airbone Molecular Contamination (AMC) is a critical issue for mask material flow with a severe and fairly unpredictable risk of induced contamination and damages especially for 193 nm lithography. It is therefore essential to measure, to understand and then try to reduce AMC in mask environment. Mask material flow was studied in a global approach by a pool of European partners, especially within the frame of European MEDEA+ project, so called "MUSCLE". This paper deals with results and assessment of mask pod environment in term of molecular contamination in a first step, then in a second step preliminary studies to reduce mask pod influence and contamination due to material out gassing. Approach and techniques: A specific assessment of environmental / molecular contamination along the supply chain was performed by all partners. After previous work presented at EMLC 07, further studies were performed on real time contamination measurement pod at different sites locations (including Mask manufacturing site, blank manufacturing sites, IC fab). Studies were linked to the main critical issues: cleaning, storage, handling, materials and processes. Contamination measurement campaigns were carried out along the mask supply chain using specific Adixen analyzer in order to monitor in real time organic contaminants (ppb level) in mask pods. Key results would be presented: VOC, AMC and humidity level on different kinds of mask carriers, impact of basic cleaning on pod outgassing measurement (VOC, NH3), and process influence on pod contamination... In a second step, preliminary specific pod conditioning studies for better pod environment were performed based on Adixen vacuum process. Process influence had been experimentally measured in term of molecular outgassing from mask pods. Different AMC experimental characterization methods had been carried out leading to results on a wide range of organic and inorganic

  11. Methodology for performing surveys for fixed contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, J.S.; Gardner, D.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes a methodology for performing instrument surveys for fixed contamination that can be used to support the release of material from radiological areas, including release to controlled areas and release from radiological control. The methodology, which is based on a fast scan survey and a series of statistical, fixed measurements, meets the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy Radiological Control Manual (RadCon Manual) (DOE 1994) and DOE Order 5400.5 (DOE 1990) for surveys for fixed contamination and requires less time than a conventional scan survey. The confidence interval associated with the new methodology conforms to the draft national standard for surveys. The methodology that is presented applies only to surveys for fixed contamination. Surveys for removable contamination are not discussed, and the new methodology does not affect surveys for removable contamination

  12. Dosimetry and therapy of skin contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piechowski, J.; Menoux, B.; Chaptinel, Y.; Durand, F.

    1988-10-01

    This study has been developed to provide guidance to physicians on the handling of skin contaminations in some accidental circumstances. The first stage of diagnosis and consequently of the possible therapy in order to avoid or mitigate radiodermatitis is to appreciate the importance of the contaminations and to foresee their local consequences. Two theoretical cases have been considered: a) strictly superficial contamination; b) deep contamination with homogeneous penetration of the contaminant into the epidermis. The superficial and deep theoretical distributions correspond respectively to the lower and upper absorbed doses in the basal layer. Tables of dose equivalent rates and committed dose equivalents to the skin are supplied for a large number of radionuclides likely to be met in the nuclear industry as well as in various fields of research, medicine and pharmacology using radioactive techniques. Besides these theoretical dose factors, the practitioner will find monitoring procedures, dose calculations and practical data concerning decontamination [fr

  13. Association of leukemia with radium groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, G.H.; Lyman, C.G.; Johnson, W.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation exposure, including the ingestion of radium, has been causally associated with leukemia in man. Groundwater samples from 27 counties on or near Florida phosphate lands were found to exceed 5 pCi/L total radium in 12.4% of measurements. The incidence of leukemia was greater in those counties with high levels of radium contamination (greater than 10% of the samples contaminated) than in those with low levels of contamination. Rank correlation coefficients of .56 and .45 were observed between the radium contamination level and the incidence of total leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia, respectively. The standardized incidence density ratio for those in high-contamination counties was 1.5 for total leukemia and 2.0 for acute myeloid leukemia. Further investigation is necessary, however, before a causal relationship between groundwater radium content and human leukemia can be established

  14. ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN GROUNDWATER: A STATISTICAL MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palas Roy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High arsenic in natural groundwater in most of the tubewells of the Purbasthali- Block II area of Burdwan district (W.B, India has recently been focused as a serious environmental concern. This paper is intending to illustrate the statistical modeling of the arsenic contaminated groundwater to identify the interrelation of that arsenic contain with other participating groundwater parameters so that the arsenic contamination level can easily be predicted by analyzing only such parameters. Multivariate data analysis was done with the collected groundwater samples from the 132 tubewells of this contaminated region shows that three variable parameters are significantly related with the arsenic. Based on these relationships, a multiple linear regression model has been developed that estimated the arsenic contamination by measuring such three predictor parameters of the groundwater variables in the contaminated aquifer. This model could also be a suggestive tool while designing the arsenic removal scheme for any affected groundwater.

  15. Monitoring and evaluation techniques for airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yihua, Xia [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    1997-06-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are of great importance for the purpose of protection of health and safety of workers in nuclear installations. Because airborne contamination is one of the key sources to cause exposure to individuals by inhalation and digestion, and to cause diffusion of contaminants in the environment. The main objectives of monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are: to detect promptly a loss of control of airborne material, to help identify those individuals and predict exposure levels, to assess the intake and dose commitment to the individuals, and to provide sufficient documentation of airborne radioactivity. From the viewpoint of radiation protection, the radioactive contaminants in air can be classified into the following types: airborne aerosol, gas and noble gas, and volatile gas. In this paper, the following items are described: sampling methods and techniques, measurement and evaluation, and particle size analysis. (G.K.)

  16. Monitoring and evaluation techniques for airborne contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yihua

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are of great importance for the purpose of protection of health and safety of workers in nuclear installations. Because airborne contamination is one of the key sources to cause exposure to individuals by inhalation and digestion, and to cause diffusion of contaminants in the environment. The main objectives of monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are: to detect promptly a loss of control of airborne material, to help identify those individuals and predict exposure levels, to assess the intake and dose commitment to the individuals, and to provide sufficient documentation of airborne radioactivity. From the viewpoint of radiation protection, the radioactive contaminants in air can be classified into the following types: airborne aerosol, gas and noble gas, and volatile gas. In this paper, the following items are described: sampling methods and techniques, measurement and evaluation, and particle size analysis. (G.K.)

  17. Containing and discarding method for radiation contaminated materials and radiation contaminated material containing composite member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akagawa, Katsuhiko.

    1995-01-01

    A container for high level radiation contaminated materials is loaded in an outer container in a state of forming a gap between the outer container and a container wall, low level radiation contaminated materials are filled to the gap between the container of the radiation contaminated materials and the container wall, and then the outer container is sealed. In addition, the thickness of the layer of the low level radiation contaminated materials is made substantially uniform. Then, since radiation rays from the container of the radiation contaminated materials are decayed by the layer of the low level radiation contaminated materials at the periphery of the container and the level of the radiation rays emitted from the outer container is extremely reduced than in a case where the entire amount of high level radiation contaminated materials are filled, the level is suppressed to an extent somewhat higher than the level in the case where the entire amount of the low level radiation contaminated materials are filled. Accordingly, the management corresponds to that for the low level radiation contaminated materials, and the steps for the management and the entire volume thereof are reduced than in a case where the high level radiation contaminated materials and the low level radiation contaminated materials are sealed separately. (N.H.)

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION FROM WEAPON TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1958-10-01

    The program of the Atomic Energy Commission on environmental contamination from weapons tests is designed for the overall evaluation of the hazard to humans from test operations. It is limited to studies of the deposition of activity at long range rather than the problems associated with immediate, close-in fallout. The program has largely been a study of Sr{sup 90}, since considerations based on experience and measurement indicate that it is the isotope of greatest potential hazard. Data are presented pertinent to the monitoring of long-range fallout, particularly Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137}. Values are tabulated for the fallout deposition, air concentrations, water concentrations, and the amounts in foods and human bone. In addition, results are given for some experimental investigations. The report of these results is not interpretative although certain papers that do attempt to interpret the present situation with respect to Sr{sup 90} in particular are reprinted. Bibliographies are presented covering the period since the 1957 hearings before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy concerning the nature of radioactive fallout and its effects on man. A document list of submissions to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation is given to illustrate the work done in other countries. Several papers on the subject, which have not been generally available, are reprinted.

  19. Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W.; Mattson, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil has been demonstrated for saturated and unsaturated sand in preliminary experiments using a novel transport visualization technique. Large anionic organic dyes were mixed with a portion of soil and the rate of electromigration of the dye in an imposed electric field was monitored photographically. One of the fastest current-normalized electromigration rates was measured in the driest sand, which contained 7% water by weight. This moisture content is typical of the moisture content in the unsaturated zone of subsurface native soils found in New Mexico. The characteristics of the electromigration were similar in both the saturated and unsaturated sand. The leading edge of the dye migration front was diffuse while the trailing edge was sharp and concentrated. This and other observed behavior may indicate a concentration effect, where the electromigration rate of dilute dye is greater than that of concentrated dye. The soil left after the trailing edge passed seemed to contain no residual dye in both the saturated and unsaturated cases. The success of demonstrating electromigration of large molecules in unsaturated soil is encouraging and indicates that it may be feasible to remediate in situ anionic heavy metals such as chromate from unsaturated soil with electrokinetic techniques. 23 refs., 7 figs

  20. Decontamination of hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes the method of treating hydrocarbon contaminated soil. It comprises forming the soil into a flowing particulate stream, forming an aqueous liquid mixture of water and treating substance that reacts with hydrocarbon to form CO 2 and water, dispersing the liquid mixture into the particulate soil stream to wet the particulate, allowing the substance to react with the wetted soil particulate to thereby form CO 2 and water, thereby the resultant soil is beneficially treated, the stream being freely projected to dwell at a level and then fall, and the dispersing includes spraying the liquid mixture into the projected stream at the dwell, the substance consisting of natural bacteria, and at a concentration level in the mixture of between 100 to 3,000 PPM of bacteria to water, the soil forming step including impacting the soil to reduce it to particles less than about 1 inches in cross dimension, and including forming the wetting particulate into a first layer on a surface to allow the substance to react

  1. Checking contamination of the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-07-01

    In July, 133 scientists from 15 countries attended an IAEA symposium on the Interaction of Radioactive Contaminants with the Constituents of the Marine Environment. It was held at the University of Washington, with the USAEC acting as host. Representatives from five international organisations, the CEC, OECD-NEA, WFUNA, WHO and the IAEA attended. The symposium was primarily aimed at elucidating the influence of radioactivity on the marine ecosystem and providing some background material for estimation of the capacity of the sea to accept radioactive waste without any significant harmful effects on man and the ecosystem. At the U. N. Conference on Human Environment held in Stockholm in June this year, a special concern was expressed regarding the international waters, such as the seas and oceans, and the need to conserve the resources of the sea. For the past 14 years the Agency has conducted an intensive programme on the discharge of radioactive waste into the sea, and the behaviour of radionuclides in the sea. (author)

  2. Food irradiation: contaminating our food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccioni, R.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry has promoted food irradiation as an effective and safe means of preserving food at minimum risk to the public. However, wide-scale food irradiation programmes such as that approved in the United States of America would have an adverse impact on public health in the following ways: through the consumption of carcinogenic substances generated in irradiated foods, through the use of irradiation to mask bacteriological contamination of spoiled food, through the replacement of fresh foods with nutritionally depleted foods, through accidents with leaks or mishandling of the radiation sources used and through the environmental damage resulting from reactor operation or spent fuel reprocessing necessary to produce the required isotopes for food irradiation. The food irradiation market is potentially enormous, requiring a large number of facilities and isotopes, some, such as caesium-137, would come from the production of nuclear weapons. Evidence of the presence of carcinogenic or mutagenic activity in irradiated foods is discussed. Although the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a food irradiation programme it would actually be against the FDA's legal obligation which is to protect the health and safety of the American people. (UK)

  3. Syntrophic biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieg, Lisa M; Fowler, S Jane; Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic environments are crucial to global carbon cycling wherein the microbial metabolism of organic matter occurs under a variety of redox conditions. In many anaerobic ecosystems, syntrophy plays a key role wherein microbial species must cooperate, essentially as a single catalytic unit, to metabolize substrates in a mutually beneficial manner. Hydrocarbon-contaminated environments such as groundwater aquifers are typically anaerobic, and often methanogenic. Syntrophic processes are needed to biodegrade hydrocarbons to methane, and recent studies suggest that syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism can also occur in the presence of electron acceptors. The elucidation of key features of syntrophic processes in defined co-cultures has benefited greatly from advances in 'omics' based tools. Such tools, along with approaches like stable isotope probing, are now being used to monitor carbon flow within an increasing number of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia to pinpoint the key microbial players involved in the degradative pathways. The metagenomic sequencing of hydrocarbon-utilizing consortia should help to further identify key syntrophic features and define microbial interactions in these complex communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Refurbishing tritium contaminated ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, K.E.; Carnevale, R.H.; McCormack, B.E.; Stevenson, T.; Halle, A. von

    1995-01-01

    Extended tritium experimentation on TFTR has necessitated refurbishing Neutral Beam Long Pulse Ion Sources (LPIS) which developed operational difficulties, both in the TFTR Test Cell and later, in the NB Source Refurbishment Shop. Shipping contaminated sources off-site for repair was not permissible from a transport and safety perspective. Therefore, the NB source repair facility was upgraded by relocating fixtures, tooling, test apparatus, and three-axis coordinate measuring equipment; purchasing and fabricating fume hoods; installing exhaust vents; and providing a controlled negative pressure environment in the source degreaser/decon area. Appropriate air flow monitors, pressure indicators, tritium detectors and safety alarms were also included. The effectiveness of various decontamination methods was explored while the activation was monitored. Procedures and methods were developed to permit complete disassembly and rebuild of an ion source while continuously exhausting the internal volume to the TFTR Stack to avoid concentrations of tritium from outgassing and minimize personnel exposure. This paper presents upgrades made to the LPIS repair facility, various repair tasks performed, and discusses the effectiveness of the decontamination processes utilized

  5. Contamination due to radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, D.S.

    1984-01-01

    The peaceful exploitation of radioactivity and the expansion of the nuclear power programme ensure that the disposal of radioactive wastes will cause contamination of the marine environment in the foreseeable future. The exposure of marine organisms to radioactivity from wastes has been studied in depth and related to exposure to natural background radiation. Concentrations of natural radionuclides and those from marine waste disposal have been measured at various stations in the oceans and seas around the world. The fate of radionuclides at four representative sites has been studied and the concentrations of radionuclides in oysters, porphyra, plaice in the Windscale discharge area have been measured. The extent of human exposure, particularly with reference to seafood consumption in local fishing communities, has been assessed. Effects of radiation on developing fish embryos and eggs and genetic radiation effects in aquatic organisms has been studied. The above studies reveal that the controls applied to the discharge of radioactive wastes to limit hazards to humans also provide adequate protection for populations of marine organisms. (U.K.)

  6. Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W.; Mattson, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil has been demonstrated for saturated and unsaturated sand in preliminary experiments using a novel transport visualization technique. Large anionic organic dyes were mixed with a portion of soil and the rate of electromigration of the dye in an imposed electric field was monitored photographically. One of the fastest current-normalized electromigration rates was measured in the driest sand, which contained 7% water by-weight. This moisture content is typical of the moisture content in the unsaturated zone of subsurface native soils found in New Mexico. The characteristics of the electromigration were similar in both the saturated and unsaturated sand. The leading edge of the dye migration front was diffuse while the trailing edge was sharp and concentrated. This and other observed behavior may indicate a concentration effect, where the electromigration rate of dilute dye is greater than that of concentrated dye. The soil left after the trailing edge passed seemed to contain no residual dye in both the saturated and unsaturated cases. The success of demonstrating electromigration of large molecules in unsaturated soil is encouraging and indicates that it may be feasible to remediate in situ anionic heavy metals such as chromate from unsaturated soil with electrokinetic techniques

  7. Teenage experiments contaminate suburban property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lall, P.; Jensen, L.; Mitchell, J.; Sass, W.; Skowronek, R.; Minnaar, D.

    1999-01-01

    In August 1994, 18-year-old David Hahn (David) was detained by police in Clinton Township, Michigan. When the police searched his car, they discovered a locked tool box and other containers that David said contained radioactive materials resulting from experiments he had conducted with the radioactive materials from, primarily, consumer products. From the ages 14 to 18, David spent his spare time at his Union Lake, Michigan, home attempting to concentrate, bum, chemically alter, and experiment with: the thorium from hundreds of lantern mantles, radium from various luminescent sources and clock dials, americium from smoke detector sources, and radioactive materials from natural ores. In the process, he had contaminated a wooden shed in his backyard and his bedroom, and exposed himself. In 1995, EPA, their emergency response contractor, and the Michigan Department of Public Health (MDPH) performed an emergency assessment and removal at the property. The response and removal were conducted cost-effectively and generated approximately 10 cubic yards of radioactive waste. (author)

  8. Nuclear contamination of water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In the wake of the Chernobyl accident, the vulnerability of the water cycle to radionuclide contamination has been an issue of great concern. The impact of the event throughout Europe has been highly variable and wide-ranging, and has demonstrated the need to evaluate the potential risk to drinking water supplies, soilwater and the food chain. This book provides information on radiological standards as they exist at present, on the methods of monitoring, and on concepts in design to minimize risk and to highlight the possible consequences of a nuclear event. With contributions from engineers and scientists from eight countries, this book is a unique source of information about present radiological standards and monitoring requirements. It also includes comprehensive coverage of the effects on water resources of, and deals with the development of management strategies designed to cope with, a nuclear event. There are 19 papers all indexed separately. These are divided into sections -introduction, present radiological standards relating to drinking water, radiological monitoring requirements, the consequences of a nuclear event on water resources and water resource management strategy. The discussion at the end of each section is recorded. (author)

  9. Catalyst Substrates Remove Contaminants, Produce Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A spacecraft is the ultimate tight building. We don t want any leaks, and there is very little fresh air coming in, says Jay Perry, an aerospace engineer at Marshall Space Flight Center. As a result, there is a huge potential for a buildup of contaminants from a host of sources. Inside a spacecraft, contaminants can be introduced from the materials that make spacecraft components, electronics boxes, or activities by the crew such as food preparation or cleaning. Humans also generate contaminants by breathing and through the body s natural metabolic processes. As part of the sophisticated Environmental Control and Life Support System on the International Space Station (ISS), a trace contaminant control system removes carbon dioxide and other impurities from the cabin atmosphere. To maintain healthy levels, the system uses adsorbent media to filter chemical contaminant molecules and a high-temperature catalytic oxidizer to change the chemical structure of the contaminants to something more benign, usually carbon dioxide and water. In the 1990s, while researching air quality control technology for extended spaceflight travel, Perry and others at Marshall were looking for a regenerable process for the continuous removal of carbon dioxide and trace chemical contaminants on long-duration manned space flights. At the time, the existing technology used on U.S. spacecraft could only be used once, which meant that a spacecraft had to carry additional spare parts for use in case the first one was depleted, or the spacecraft would have to return to Earth to exchange the components.

  10. Monitoring of surface and airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeep Kumar, K S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1997-06-01

    Indian nuclear energy programme aims at total safety in all activities involved in the entire fuel cycle for the occupational workers, members of the public and the environment as a whole. Routine radiation monitoring with clearly laid out procedures are followed for ensuring the safety of workers and public. Radiation monitoring carried out for the nuclear installations comprises of process monitoring, monitoring of effluent releases and also of the radiation protection monitoring of the individuals, work place and environment. Regulations like banning of smoking and consumption of food and drink etc. reduces the risk of direct ingestion even if inadvertent spread of contamination takes place. Though limit of transportable surface contamination is prescribed, the health physicists always follow a ``clean on swipe`` philosophy which compensates any error in the measurement of surface contamination. In this paper, the following items are contained: Necessity of contamination monitoring, accuracy required in the calibration of surface contamination monitors, methodology for contamination monitoring, air monitoring, guidelines for unrestricted release of scrap materials, and problems in contamination monitoring. (G.K.)

  11. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, R.A.; Clay, M.E.; Eichorst, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work, (2) working conditions, (3) type of anti-contamination material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-contamination clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

  12. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - MDC_ContaminatedSite

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A point feature class of open DERM Contaminated sites - see phase code for status of site. Contaminated sites identifies properties where environmental contamination...

  13. Cesium contamination of mosses in county Vas, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golya, I.; Sebestyen, R.

    1993-01-01

    Two species of mosses were examined to assess radiocesium contamination of Vas county, and to analyse some aspects of mosses for use as indicator of radioactive contamination. Experimental results demonstrated that the distribution of contamination in a given region could be characterized by the cesium contamination of mosses. Sampling sites should be selected with special attention paid to spots with high contamination. Regression analysis proved that the contamination of mosses originated from Chernobyl fallout. (author) 4 refs.; 2 figs

  14. Spectral imaging for contamination detection in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Jens Michael

    application of the technique is finding anomalies I supposedly homogeneous matter or homogeneous mixtures. This application occurs frequently in the food industry when different types of contamination are to be detected. Contaminants could be e.g. foreign matter, process-induced toxins, and microbiological...... spoilage. Many of these contaminants may be detected in the wavelength range visible to normal silicium-based camera sensors i.e. 350-1050 nm with proper care during sample preparation, sample presentation, image acquisition and analysis. This presentation will give an introduction to the techniques behind...

  15. Environmental contaminants, ecosystems and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S.K.; Miller, E.W.; Brenner, F.J. [eds.] [Lafayette College, Easton, PA (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1995-12-31

    The authors cover a variety of concerns regarding the adverse impacts of contaminants on ecosystems and human health. The twelve chapters in the first section of the text address the impact of contaminants on ecosystem function, and ten of the remaining twenty-two chapters are devoted to the effects of contaminants on human health. Part three presents eight case studies in humans, while the final four chapters provide the reader with an assessment of environmental problems and analyses. Two chapters, on the health effects of power plant generated air pollution and on black lung disease, have been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  16. Surfactant screening of diesel-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.W.; Montemagno, C.D.; Shem, L.; Lewis, B.-A.

    1992-01-01

    At one installation in California, approximately 60,000 gal of No. 2 diesel fuel leaked into the subsurface environment, resulting in contamination at depths from 6 to 34 m below the surface. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted to perform treatability studies for site remediation. This paper summarizes a surfactant screening/surfactant flooding research program in which 22 surfactants were screened for their effectiveness in mobilizing the organics from the contaminated soil prior to bioremediation. Anionic surfactants resulted in the greatest degree of diesel mobilization. The most promising surfactants will be employed on contaminated soil samples obtained from the site

  17. Nickel contaminated titanium weld wire study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, G.R.; Sumstine, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Attachment of thermocouples to fuel rod welding problems at Exxon Nuclear Company and INEL prompted an investigation study of the titanium filler wire material. It was found that the titanium filler wire was contaminated with nickel which was jacketed on the wire prior to the drawing process at the manufacturers. A method was developed to 100% inspect all filler wire for future welding application. This method not only indicates the presence of nickel contamination but indicates quantity of contamination. The process is capable of high speed inspection necessary for various high speed manufacturing processes

  18. Mycoplasma contamination of Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huniche, BS; Jensen, Lise Torp; Birkelund, Svend

    1998-01-01

    media, immunoblotting, polymerase chain reaction and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two of the 6 ATCC isolates [ATCC VR1355 (TWAR strain 2043) and ATCC VR1356 (TWAR strain 2023)] were infected with Mycoplasma hominis and 1 isolate [ATCC VR2282 (TWAR strain TW183)] was contaminated with both...... Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma orale, whereas 3 of the ATCC isolates [ATCC VR1310, ATCC VR1360 (TWAR strain CM-1) and ATCC 53592 (TWAR strain AR39)] were not contaminated. The Finnish C. pneumoniae isolates Kajaani 6 and Parola were found to be contaminated with M. hominis and M. orale, respectively...

  19. Efficient reconstruction of contaminant release history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alezander, Francis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anghel, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gulbahce, Natali [NON LANL; Tartakovsky, Daniel [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    We present a generalized hybrid Monte Carlo (GHMC) method for fast, statistically optimal reconstruction of release histories of reactive contaminants. The approach is applicable to large-scale, strongly nonlinear systems with parametric uncertainties and data corrupted by measurement errors. The use of discrete adjoint equations facilitates numerical implementation of GHMC, without putting any restrictions on the degree of nonlinearity of advection-dispersion-reaction equations that are used to described contaminant transport in the subsurface. To demonstrate the salient features of the proposed algorithm, we identify the spatial extent of a distributed source of contamination from concentration measurements of a reactive solute.

  20. Technologies for remediation of radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This report presents particulars on environmental restoration technologies (control and treatment) which can be applied to land based, radioactively contaminated sites. The media considered include soils, groundwater, surface water, sediments, air, and terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. The technologies addressed in this report can be categorized as follows: self-attenuation (natural restoration); in-situ treatment; removal of contamination; ex-situ treatment; and transportation and final disposal. The report provides also background information about and a general approach to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites as well as some guidance for the selection of a preferred remediation technology. Examples of remediation experience in Australia and Canada are given it annexes

  1. Analysis of soils contaminated with petroleum constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shay, T.A.; Hoddinott, K.

    1994-01-01

    This symposium was held in Atlanta, Georgia on June 24, 1993. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for exchange of information on petroleum contaminated soils. When spilled on the ground, petroleum products can cause massive problems in the environment. In this Special Technical Publication (STP), papers were selected in two categories; the analytical procedures for soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and the behavior of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  2. Biological processes influencing contaminant release from sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reible, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of biological processes, including bioturbation, on the mobility of contaminants in freshwater sediments is described. Effective mass coefficients are estimated for tubificid oligochaetes as a function of worm behavior and biomass density. The mass transfer coefficients were observed to be inversely proportional to water oxygen content and proportional to the square root of biomass density. The sediment reworking and contaminant release are contrasted with those of freshwater amphipods. The implications of these and other biological processes for contaminant release and i n-situ remediation of soils and sediments are summarized. 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Technologies for remediation of radioactively contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    This report presents particulars on environmental restoration technologies (control and treatment) which can be applied to land based, radioactively contaminated sites. The media considered include soils, groundwater, surface water, sediments, air, and terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. The technologies addressed in this report can be categorized as follows: self-attenuation (natural restoration); in-situ treatment; removal of contamination; ex-situ treatment; and transportation and final disposal. The report provides also background information about and a general approach to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites as well as some guidance for the selection of a preferred remediation technology. Examples of remediation experience in Australia and Canada are given it annexes Refs, figs, tabs

  4. Sequential extraction of uranium metal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murry, M.M.; Spitz, H.B.; Connick, W.B.

    2016-01-01

    Samples of uranium contaminated dirt collected from the dirt floor of an abandoned metal rolling mill were analyzed for uranium using a sequential extraction protocol involving a series of five increasingly aggressive solvents. The quantity of uranium extracted from the contaminated dirt by each reagent can aid in predicting the fate and transport of the uranium contamination in the environment. Uranium was separated from each fraction using anion exchange, electrodeposition and analyzed by alpha spectroscopy analysis. Results demonstrate that approximately 77 % of the uranium was extracted using NH 4 Ac in 25 % acetic acid. (author)

  5. Urban contamination and dose model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, E.; Barry, P.J.

    1995-10-01

    Nuclear power reactors and other nuclear facilities are being built near or even within urban centres. Accidental releases of radionuclides to the atmosphere in built-up areas result in radiological exposure pathways that differ from those caused by releases in rural environments. Other than inhalation, exposure pathways involve external radiation from the plume while it passes and from radioactivity deposited onto the many and varied surfaces after it has passed. Radiation fields inside buildings are attenuated but many people are potentially exposed so while individual doses may be relatively low, population integrated doses may be high enough to cause concern. It is important, therefore, to assess the potential exposures and to estimate the cost-effectiveness of dose reduction measures in urban environments. This report describes a model developed to carry out such assessments. The model draws heavily on experience gained in European cities after their contamination fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Input is time integrated concentrations of specific radionuclides in urban air, obtained either by direct measurement or by prediction using an atmospheric dispersion model. The code includes default values for site specific variables and transfer parameters but the user is invited if desired to enter other values from the keyboard. Output is the time integrated dose rates for individuals selected because of the characteristic living, working and recreational habits. An accompanying manual documents the technical background on which the model is based and leads a first-time suer through various steps and operations encountered while the model is running. (author). 60 refs., 10 tabs., 1 fig

  6. Microbial populations in contaminant plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    Efficient biodegradation of subsurface contaminants requires two elements: (1) microbial populations with the necessary degradative capabilities, and (2) favorable subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions. Practical constraints on experimental design and interpretation in both the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences have resulted in limited knowledge of the interaction between hydrogeological and microbiological features of subsurface environments. These practical constraints include: (1) inconsistencies between the scales of investigation in the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences, and (2) practical limitations on the ability to accurately define microbial populations in environmental samples. However, advances in application of small-scale sampling methods and interdisciplinary approaches to site investigations are beginning to significantly improve understanding of hydrogeological and microbiological interactions. Likewise, culture-based and molecular analyses of microbial populations in subsurface contaminant plumes have revealed significant adaptation of microbial populations to plume environmental conditions. Results of recent studies suggest that variability in subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions significantly influences subsurface microbial-community structure. Combined investigations of site conditions and microbial-community structure provide the knowledge needed to understand interactions between subsurface microbial populations, plume geochemistry, and contaminant biodegradation. La biodégradation efficace des polluants souterrains requiert deux éléments: des populations microbiennes possédant les aptitudes nécessaires à la dégradation, et des conditions géochimiques et hydrologiques souterraines favorables. Des contraintes pratiques sur la conception et l'interprétation des expériences à la fois en microbiologie et en hydrogéologie ont conduit à une connaissance limitée des interactions entre les

  7. Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    probe into the spatial controlling processes of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis (PCA). ... topography, soil type, depth of water levels, and water usage. Thus, the ... of effective sites for infiltration of recharge water.

  8. Flotation of PAH contaminated dredged sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulleneers, H.; Roubroeks, S.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.; Koopal, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    The applicability of dissolved air flotation to remediate contaminated sediments of "Overschie" (Rotterdam) and "Petrol Harbor" (Amsterdam) is studied. Several flotation reagents (Diesel Fuel, Montanol, Aerophine, Aerofroth) are applied to enhance the flotation efficiency. The physical chemical

  9. Estimating exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes generalized models for the estimation of contaminant exposure experienced by wildlife on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The primary exposure pathway considered is oral ingestion, e.g. the consumption of contaminated food, water, or soil. Exposure through dermal absorption and inhalation are special cases and are not considered hereIN. Because wildlife mobile and generally consume diverse diets and because environmental contamination is not spatial homogeneous, factors to account for variation in diet, movement, and contaminant distribution have been incorporated into the models. To facilitate the use and application of the models, life history parameters necessary to estimate exposure are summarized for 15 common wildlife species. Finally, to display the application of the models, exposure estimates were calculated for four species using data from a source operable unit on the Oak Ridge Reservation

  10. Radiation exposure to skin following radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, H.; Beyermann, M.; Kraus, W.

    1989-01-01

    In the case of skin contamination intensive decontamination measures should not be carried out until the potential radiation exposure to the basal cell layer of the epidermis was assessed. Dose equivalent rates from alpha-, beta- or photon-emitting contaminants were calculated with reference to the surface activity for different skin regions as a function of radiation energy on the condition that the skin was healthy and uninjured and the penetration of contaminants through the epidermis negligible. The results have been presented in the form of figures and tables. In the assessment of potential skin doses, both radioactive decay and practical experience as to the decrease in the level of surface contamination by natural desquamation of the stratum corneum were taken into account. 9 figs., 5 tabs., 46 refs. (author)

  11. Contamination monitoring: an overview and its objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangena, S.

    2013-04-01

    The study presents and objectively summarises the aspect of contamination monitoring. This envisages reviewing sources of contamination and evaluating the scientific basis for practice specific courses of action for rehabilitation in a bid to restore pristine conditions wherever possible. The practices considered include nuclear medicine, reprocessing plants, fuel production plants, uranium and thorium mining and milling together with near surface disposal facilities (for radioactive waste). It also deals with monitoring sites contaminated as a consequence of past practices. General issues related to the design and operation of monitoring systems during and in the aftermath of a nuclear or radiological accident are also discussed including monitoring for long lived radionuclides widely dispersed in the environment following an accidental release. Thus the above discourse provides a framework for both quantitative and qualitative measures undertaken to enable effective response in the event of radioactive contamination. (au)

  12. Hydrogen peroxide treatment of TCE contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, D.H.; Robinson, K.G.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Solvent contaminated soils are ubiquitous in the industrial world and represent a significant environmental hazard due to their persistence and potentially negative impacts on human health and the environment. Environmental regulations favor treatment of soils with options which reduce the volume and toxicity of contaminants in place. One such treatment option is the in-situ application of hydrogen peroxide to soils contaminated with chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE). This study investigated hydrogen peroxide mass loading rates on removal of TCE from soils of varying organic matter content. Batch experiments conducted on contaminated loam samples using GC headspace analysis showed up to 80% TCE removal upon peroxide treatment. Column experiments conducted on sandy loam soils with high organic matter content showed only 25% TCE removal, even at hydrogen peroxide additions of 25 g peroxide per kg soil

  13. Th biodistribution in internal contamination of animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciubotariu, M.; Danis, A.; Dumitrescu, G.; Cucu, M.

    1999-01-01

    Fissionable elements (U,Th) internal contamination have been studied using the fission track method as analysis method of the U and/or Th contaminant elements and Wistar-London breed rats as experiment animals. Different ways to obtain internal contaminations have been investigated: ingestion, inhalation, absorption by skin and through wounds. After the U internal contamination study was carried out, in this stage the Th internal contamination by ingestion is in progress. Using the identical aliquot parts of a solution calibrated in Th, corresponding to an Annual Limit Intake, three Wistar-London breed rats were contaminated. They were kept in normal life conditions and under permanent medical surveillance up to their sacrification. The animals were sacrificed at different time intervals after their contamination: 2 days, 7 days and 14 days, respectively. After the sacrification, their vital organs were sampled, weighed, calcined, re-weighed and finally analysed by track detection using the fission track micro-mappings technique. Also, their evacuations were sampled every 24 hours weighed, calcined and analysed in the same way as the vital organs. The Th fission track micro-mappings technique was used in the following conditions: - mica-muscovite as track detector pre-etched for fossil tracks 18 h in HF-40 per cent at room temperature; - the neutron irradiations were performed in the nuclear reactor VVR-S Bucharest at the neutron fluences of 3.10 15 - 2.10 16 fast neutrons/c m 2 ; - the visualization of the Th induced fission tracks were obtained by chemical etching in HF-40 per cent, 3 h at room temperature; - the Th track micro-mappings obtained in track detectors were studied by optical microscopy using a stereo microscope WILD M7S for ensemble study (X6-X31) and a binocular ZEISS JENA microscope for qualitative and quantitative studies (X150). The biological reference materials calibrated in Th were prepared in our laboratory using the calcined organs and the

  14. Technology for reuse of contaminated concrete constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkhorst, I.P.; Cornelissen, H.A.W.

    1998-01-01

    During decommissioning activities of nuclear installations, large amounts of contaminated concrete will have to be processed. All this concrete has to be treated and stored as radioactive waste, which implies major economical and environmental consequences. It was shown that the contamination is mainly concentrated in the porous cement stone. By separating this cement stone from the clean dense aggregate particles, a considerable volume reduction can be reached. KEMA has developed, designed and constructed a pilot plant scale test installation for separation of aggregate from contaminated concrete. The separation is based on a thermal treatment followed by milling and sieving. The clean aggregate can be re-used in concrete, whereas the (slightly) contaminated cement stone could be upgraded to a binder for concrete used in the nuclear industry. (author)

  15. Contaminants of Emerging Concern - Methods Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analytical methods developed by EPA to identify and measure certain contaminants of emerging concern. These methods are not approved under 40 CFR Part 136, but may be of interest to regulated entities, permitting authorities, and the public.

  16. Lesions in Broiler Chicks Following Experimental Contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    Average daily food intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and ... that contamination of feed for broilers chicks beyond 0.5% is detrimental to the performance of broiler chicks. Introduction ... nearly all manufacturing industries. Disposal of ...

  17. Viral Contamination Source in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin Ling; Song, Juan; Song, Qin Qin; Yu, Jie; Luo, Xiao Nuan; Wu, Gui Zhen; Han, Jun

    2016-08-01

    To understand the potential causes of laboratory-acquired infections and to provide possible solutions that would protect laboratory personnel, samples from a viral laboratory were screened to determine the main sources of contamination with six subtypes of Rhinovirus. Rhinovirus contamination was found in the gloves, cuffs of protective wear, inner surface of biological safety cabinet (BSC) windows, and trash handles. Remarkably, high contamination was found on the inner walls of the centrifuge and the inner surface of centrifuge tube casing in the rotor. Spilling infectious medium on the surface of centrifuge tubes was found to contribute to contamination of centrifuge surfaces. Exposure to sodium hypochlorite containing no less than 0.2 g/L available chlorine decontaminated the surface of the centrifuge tubes from Rhinovirus after 2 min. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  18. Occurrence of Surface Water Contaminations: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabudin, M. M.; Musa, S.

    2018-04-01

    Water is a part of our life and needed by all organisms. As time goes by, the needs by human increased transforming water quality into bad conditions. Surface water contaminated in various ways which is pointed sources and non-pointed sources. Pointed sources means the source are distinguished from the source such from drains or factory but the non-pointed always occurred in mixed of elements of pollutants. This paper is reviewing the occurrence of the contaminations with effects that occurred around us. Pollutant factors from natural or anthropology factors such nutrients, pathogens, and chemical elements contributed to contaminations. Most of the effects from contaminated surface water contributed to the public health effects also to the environments.

  19. Variable pattern contamination control under positive pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippi, H.M.

    1997-01-01

    Airborne contamination control in nuclear and biological laboratories is traditionally achieved by directing the space ventilation air at subatmospheric pressures in one fixed flow pattern. However, biological and nuclear contamination flow control in the new Biological Research Facility, to be commissioned at the Chalk River Laboratories in 1996, will have the flexibility to institute a number of contamination control patterns, all achieved at positive (above atmospheric) pressures. This flexibility feature, made possible by means of a digitally controlled ventilation system, changes the facility ventilation system from being a relatively rigid building service operated by plant personnel into a flexible building service which can be operated by the facility research personnel. This paper focuses on and describes the application of these unique contamination control features in the design of the new Biological Research Facility. 3 refs., 7 figs

  20. Surfactant screening of diesel-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.W.; Shem, L.; Montemagno, C.D.; Lewis, B.

    1991-01-01

    At one installation, approximately 60,000 gal of No. 2 diesel fuel leaked into the subsurface environment, with contamination at depths of 6 to 34 m below the surface. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted to perform treatability studies for site remediation. The treatability studies focused on four separate phases: (1) leachability studies on the various contaminated soil borings, (2) air stripping studies, (3) bioremediation studies, and (4) surfactant screening/surfactant flooding studies. This paper summarizes the fourth phase of the research program in which 21 surfactants were screened for possible use to mobilize the organics from the contaminated soil prior to bioremediation. Anionic surfactants resulted in the greatest degree of diesel mobilization. The most promising surfactants will be employed on actual contaminated soil samples obtained from the site

  1. Potential Well Water Contaminants and Their Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first step to protect your health and the health of your family is learning about what may pollute your source of drinking water. Potential contamination may occur naturally, or as a result of human activity.

  2. MEASURING CONTAMINANT RESUSPENSION RESULTING FROM SEDIMENT CAPPING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Sediment Issue summarizes two studies undertaken at marine sites by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory of U.S. EPA to evaluate the resuspension of surface materials contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) b...

  3. Estimating exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    This report describes generalized models for the estimation of contaminant exposure experienced by wildlife on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The primary exposure pathway considered is oral ingestion, e.g. the consumption of contaminated food, water, or soil. Exposure through dermal absorption and inhalation are special cases and are not considered hereIN. Because wildlife mobile and generally consume diverse diets and because environmental contamination is not spatial homogeneous, factors to account for variation in diet, movement, and contaminant distribution have been incorporated into the models. To facilitate the use and application of the models, life history parameters necessary to estimate exposure are summarized for 15 common wildlife species. Finally, to display the application of the models, exposure estimates were calculated for four species using data from a source operable unit on the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  4. Radioactive contamination mapping system detailed design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.G.; O'Callaghan, P.B.

    1996-08-01

    The Hanford Site's 100 Area production reactors released radioactively and chemically contaminated liquids into the soil column. The primary source of the contaminated liquids was reactor coolant and various waste waters released from planned liquid discharges, as well as pipelines, pipe junctions, and retention basins leaking into the disposal sites. Site remediation involves excavating the contaminated soils using conventional earthmoving techniques and equipment, treating as appropriate, transporting the soils, and disposing the soils at ERDF. To support remediation excavation, disposal, and documentation requirements, an automated radiological monitoring system was deemed necessary. The RCMS (Radioactive Contamination Mapping System) was designed to fulfill this need. This Detailed Design Report provides design information for the RCMS in accordance with Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Engineering Design Project Instructions

  5. Guide to treatment technology for contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, H.; Aylward, R.

    1992-01-01

    This document is a guide for the screening of alternative treatment technologies for contaminated soils. The contents of this guide are organized into: 1. Introduction, II. Utilizing the table, III. Tables: Contamination Versus Technology, TV. Contaminant Waste Groups, and V. References. The four Contaminations Versus Technology tables are designed to identify the effectiveness and/or potential applicability of technologies to some or all compounds within specific waste groups. The tables also present limitations and special use considerations for the particular treatment technology. The phase of development of the technology is also included in the table. The phases are: Available, Innovative, and Emerging technologies. The technologies presented in this guide are organized according to the method of treatment. The four (4) treatment methods are Biological, Solidification/Stabilization, Thermal, and Chemical/Physical Treatment. There are several processing methods; some are well developed and proven, and others are in the development stage

  6. Dosimetric system for measurement of radioactive contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litynski, Z.; Pienkos, J.P.; Witkowski, J.; Zadrozny, S.

    1985-01-01

    A dosimetric system for personnel dosimetry and monitoring measuring a contamination without time delay and dead time is described. The system ensures many-point measurement and minimalization of background radiation influence. 1 fig. (A.S.)

  7. Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis ... anthropogenic (agricultural activities and domestic wastewaters), and marine ... The PC scores reflect the change of groundwater quality of geogenic origin ...

  8. Contaminated metallic melt volume reduction testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichman, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory scale metallic melts (stainless steel) were accomplished in support of Decontamination and Decommissioning's (D and D) contaminated equipment volume reduction and Low-Level Lead Site Waste programs. Six laboratory scale melts made with contaminated stainless steel provided data that radionuclide distribution can be predicted when proper temperature rates and ranges are employed, and that major decontamination occurs with the use of designed slagging materials. Stainless steel bars were contaminated with plutonium, cobalt, cesium and europium. This study was limited to stainless steel, however, further study is desirable to establish data for other metals and alloys. This study represents a positive beginning in defining the feasibility of economical volume reduction or conversion from TRU waste forms to LLW forms for a large portion of approximately 50 thousand tons of contaminated metal waste now being stored at Hanford underground or in deactivated facilities

  9. Calculational Tool for Skin Contamination Dose Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, R L

    2002-01-01

    Spreadsheet calculational tool was developed to automate the calculations preformed for dose assessment of skin contamination. This document reports on the design and testing of the spreadsheet calculational tool.

  10. Variable pattern contamination control under positive pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippi, H.M. [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada)

    1997-08-01

    Airborne contamination control in nuclear and biological laboratories is traditionally achieved by directing the space ventilation air at subatmospheric pressures in one fixed flow pattern. However, biological and nuclear contamination flow control in the new Biological Research Facility, to be commissioned at the Chalk River Laboratories in 1996, will have the flexibility to institute a number of contamination control patterns, all achieved at positive (above atmospheric) pressures. This flexibility feature, made possible by means of a digitally controlled ventilation system, changes the facility ventilation system from being a relatively rigid building service operated by plant personnel into a flexible building service which can be operated by the facility research personnel. This paper focuses on and describes the application of these unique contamination control features in the design of the new Biological Research Facility. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Calibration of alpha surface contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, I.S.M. de; Goncalez, O.L.

    1990-01-01

    In this work, the results, as well as the methodology, of the calibration of an alpha surface contamination monitor are presented. The calibration factors are obtained by least-squares fitting with effective variance. (author)

  12. CONTAMINANT ADSORPTION AND OXIDATION VIA FENTON REACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A ground water treatment process is proposed involving two cgemical processes: adsorption and oxidation. Adsorption of an organic compound onto granulated activated carbon (GAC) containing iron conveniently results in immobilizing and concentrating contaminants from the ground w...

  13. ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN GROUNDWATER: A STATISTICAL MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Palas Roy; Naba Kumar Mondal; Biswajit Das; Kousik Das

    2013-01-01

    High arsenic in natural groundwater in most of the tubewells of the Purbasthali- Block II area of Burdwan district (W.B, India) has recently been focused as a serious environmental concern. This paper is intending to illustrate the statistical modeling of the arsenic contaminated groundwater to identify the interrelation of that arsenic contain with other participating groundwater parameters so that the arsenic contamination level can easily be predicted by analyzing only such parameters. Mul...

  14. Centrifuge modelling of contaminant transport processes

    OpenAIRE

    Culligan, P. J.; Savvidou, C.; Barry, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    Over the past decade, research workers have started to investigate problems of subsurface contaminant transport through physical modelling on a geotechnical centrifuge. A major advantage of this apparatus is its ability to model complex natural systems in a controlled laboratory environment In this paper, we discusses the principles and scaling laws related to the centrifugal modelling of contaminant transport, and presents four examples of recent work that has bee...

  15. Treatment of contaminated waste plastics material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, J.; Hitchcock, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactive contaminated plastics material is treated by reducing it to uniform-sized debris and extruding it from a heated extruder into a sealed container in monolithic block form or as an in-fill matrix for other contaminated waste articles to create a substantially void-free sealed mass for disposal. Density adjusting fillers may be included. Extrusion may alternatively take place into a clean sealable plastics tube. (author)

  16. Light Obscuration Particle Counter Fuel Contamination Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-08

    two methods for measuring particulate contamination by gravimetric analysis: ASTM D2276 - Standard Test Method for Particulate Contaminant in Aviation...problems with the gravimetric methods is the poor repeatability and reproducibility of the methods , ASTM D2276 has a repeatability of 0.25 mg/L and...collected failing either the particle count or the gravimetric limit, 314 of which failed both methods . 245 false negatives were recorded where the

  17. Vadose zone characterisation at industrial contaminated sites

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez de Vera, Natalia; Dahan, Ofer; Dassargues, Alain; Vanclooster, Marnik; Nguyen, Frédéric; Brouyère, Serge

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve risk characterization and remediation measures for soil and groundwater contamination, there is a need to improve in situ vadose zone characterization. However, most available technologies have been developed in the context of agricultural soils. Such methodologies are not applicable at industrial sites, where soils and contamination differ in origin and composition. To overcome such difficulties, a vadose zone experiment has been setup at a former industrial site in ...

  18. Process for reducing radioactive contamination in phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, J.W.; Gaynor, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    In a process for reducing radioactive contamination of phosphogypsum, anhydrite crystals are obtained through dehydration of the phosphogypsum in strong sulfuric acid: a portion of the anhydrite crystals is converted to subtantially radiation free gypsum by crystallizing out on radiation free gypsum seed crystals. These coarse radiation free gypsum crystals are then separated from the small anhydrite crystal relics containing substantially all of the radioactive contamination

  19. Real significance of skin contamination is

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudmann, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    For five decades, health physicists have discussed the thickness, area, significance of radioactive contamination and the exposures to various portions of the skin. Concern about instances of skin contamination extend beyond the resultant organ dose simply because it is a recognizable and quantifiable event. As such, there is a tendency for management and regulatory agencies to use it as a trend indicator. The final result is a score card similar to the list of OSHA reportable accidents. In fact, the skin contamination incidence rate has a somewhat different meaning to the health physicist, to the manager, and to the regulator. The question must then be asked, What is the true significance of skin contamination, Is it the resultant skin dose, Is it an indicator of loss of control, Is it both or neither. In order to answer these questions, Rockwell Hanford Operations began analysis of the previous five years records of skin contamination cases. Since by policy each incidence of skin contamination is documented, a large percentage of the 425 records analyzed were of low level activity (less than 100 dpm/cm 2 ) on the extremeties, primarily hands and fingers. Most of these cases were readily decontaminated with soap and water. Individual elements studied included: detection/monitoring methods and limits; impact of type of operation on the incidence rate; causes of and methods for reduction of the incidence rate; reporting and documentation; and dose assessment. Results of the study indicate that skin contamination rarely presents a beta dose problem because it is normally highly localized on the extremeties. Only in unusual cases does it represent a potential for internal deposition. Thus, the real importance of skin contamination incidence is as an indicator of deteriorating conditions and should be reviewed by health physicists, managers and regulators as such

  20. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled

  1. A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombard, K.; Hazen, T.

    1994-06-01

    The amount of petroleum contaminated soil (PCS) at the Savannah River site (SRS) that has been identified, excavated and is currently in storage has increased several fold during the last few years. Several factors have contributed to this problem: (1) South Carolina Department of Health ad Environmental control (SCDHEC) lowered the sanitary landfill maximum concentration for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the soil from 500 to 100 parts per million (ppm), (2) removal and replacement of underground storage tanks at several sites, (3) most recently SCDHEC disallowed aeration for treatment of contaminated soil, and (4) discovery of several very large contaminated areas of soil associated with leaking underground storage tanks (LUST), leaking pipes, disposal areas, and spills. Thus, SRS has an urgent need to remediate large quantities of contaminated soil that are currently stockpiled and the anticipated contaminated soils to be generated from accidental spills. As long as we utilize petroleum based compounds at the site, we will continue to generate contaminated soil that will require remediation.

  2. Radioactive contamination in imported foods (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Kimiko; Maki, Toshio; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawai, Yuka; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Maki; Shioda, Hiroko; Nishima, Taichiro

    1991-01-01

    Five years have elapsed since the Chernobyl accident, but the effect of radioactivity contamination to foods has continued. Also in Japan, the imported foods which were ordered by the Ministry of Health and Welfare to be sent back due to radioactivity contamination do not cease. In fiscal year 1990, three cases occurred: tea from Albania, mushrooms from Yugoslavia and spices from france. If those are not checked at quarantines, it is feared that such foods are distributed in Japan. Among the foods which were ordered to be sent back in the past, there were those from Brazil and Hong Kong where the effect of the Chernobyl accident is little, and the foods contaminated with radioactivity spread worldwide through import and export. Therefore, attention must be paid to the foods from the countries where radioactivity contamination is little. Also it is feared that Japanese foods may be contaminated by being cultivated with imported feed, soil and fertilizer, for which there is no regulation. In this report, the radioactivity contamination of imported foods in fiscal year 1990 is described, and the experimental method and the results are reported. (K.I.)

  3. Development of radioactive surface contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Tadao; Hasegawa, Toru; Fukumoto, Keisuke; Ooki, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    In the radiation facilities such as nuclear power plants, surface contamination of the people accessing or articles conveyed in and out of the radiation controlled areas is detected and monitored by installing contamination monitors at the boundary of controlled areas and uncontrolled areas against the expansion of the radioactive materials to out of the facilities. It is required for the surface contamination of articles to be tightened of control criteria as 'Guidelines for discrimination ways of nonradioactive waste (not classified as radioactive waste) generated from nuclear power plants' (hereinafter referred to as 'the Guideline') was established by the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry in August, 2005. It predicts that the control criteria of monitors other than article monitors are also tightened in the future. Fuji electric has been fabricating and delivering surface contamination detecting monitors. Now we are developing the new contamination monitor corresponding to the tightening of the control criteria. 'Large article transfer monitor', 'Clothing monitor' and 'Body surface contamination monitor' are introduced in this article. (author)

  4. Investigating hydrocarbon contamination using ground penetrating radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roest, P.B. van der; Brasser, D.J.S.; Wagebaert, A.P.J.; Stam, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    The increasing costs of remediating contaminated sites has stimulated research for cost reducing techniques in soil investigation and clean-up techniques. Under the traditional approach soil borings and groundwater wells are used to investigate contaminated soil. These are useful tools to determine the amount and characteristics of the contamination, but they are inefficient and costly in providing information on the location and extent of contamination as they only give information on one point. This often leads to uncertainty in estimating clean-up costs or, even worse, to unsuccessful clean-ups. MAP Environmental Research has developed a technology using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) in combination with in-house developed software to locate and define the extent of hydrocarbon contamination. With this technology, the quality of site investigation is increased while costs are reduced. Since 1994 MAP has been improving its technology and has applied it to over 100 projects, which all have been checked afterwards by conventional drilling. This paper gives some general characteristics of the method and presents a case study. The emphasis of this paper lies on the practical application of GPR to hydrocarbon contamination detection

  5. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled.

  6. Solar Development on Contaminated and Disturbed Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lee, Courtney [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melius, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Land classified as contaminated and disturbed across the United States has the potential to host developments of utility-scale solar power. This report examines the prospect of developing utility- and commercial-scale concentrated solar power (CSP) and solar photovoltaics (PV) technologies on degraded and environmentally contaminated lands. The potential for solar development on contaminated anddisturbed lands was assessed, and for the largest and highest solar resource sites, the economic impacts and feasibility were evaluated. Developing solar power on contaminated and disturbed lands can help create jobs and revitalize local and state economies, and selecting these sites over greenfield sites can potentially have permitting and environmental mitigation advantages. The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot goals call for 632 GW of PV and 83 GW of CSP to be deployed by 2050. Conservative land-use estimates of this study (10 acres per megawatt) show that there are disturbed and environmentally contaminated lands throughout the country that could be suitable for utility-scale solar power, and, that there is sufficient land area to meet SunShot solar deployment goals. The purpose of this assessment is to improve the understanding of these sites and facilitate solar developers' selection of contaminated and disturbed sites for development.

  7. Characterisation of contamination migration in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulaud, D.; Laborde, J.C.; Pourprix, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) has developed a procedure for characterising airborne contamination between processes and the workplace in nuclear facilities. It was initially intended to use this process to validate operator choices concerning the monitoring of indoor air contamination (personnel monitoring, and environmental detection at fixed locations), but also to optimise the fundamental parameters which have a more or less direct influence on potential exposure of staff in the workplace (at the same time optimising the contamination source, close confinement, process ventilation and general ventilation). In practice, the methods used to obtain these expert appraisals were usually based on experiments carried out in situ: (i) characterisation of aerosol contamination by accurate measurement of the nature, concentration and particle size distribution at various locations; (ii) characterisation of the migration of contamination by precise measurement involving gas and/or particle tracing techniques. In parallel with these experiments, a considerable effort was made to develop and qualify computer codes capable of predicting or estimating the migration of contamination through complex ventilated areas, by means of both fluid mechanics and aerosol science. (Author)

  8. Uranium-contaminated soil pilot treatment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, W.R.J.R.; Mason, C.F.V.; Michelotti, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    A pilot treatment study is proving to be effective for the remediation of uranium-contaminated soil from a site at the Los Alamos National Laboratory by use of a two-step, zero-discharge, 100% recycle system. Candidate uranium-contaminated soils were characterized for uranium content, uranium speciation, organic content, size fractionization, and pH. Geochemical computer codes were used to forecast possible uranium leach scenarios. Uranium contamination was not homogenous throughout the soil. In the first step, following excavation, the soil was sorted by use of the ThemoNuclean Services segmented gate system. Following the sorting, uranium-contaminated soil was remediated in a containerized vat leach process by use of sodium-bicarbonate leach solution. Leach solution containing uranium-carbonate complexes is to be treated by use of ion-exchange media and then recycled. Following the treatment process the ion exchange media will be disposed of in an approved low-level radioactive landfill. It is anticipated that treated soils will meet Department of Energy site closure guidelines, and will be given open-quotes no further actionclose quotes status. Treated soils are to be returned to the excavation site. A volume reduction of contaminated soils will successfully be achieved by the treatment process. Cost of the treatment (per cubic meter) is comparable or less than other current popular methods of uranium-contamination remediation

  9. Radiation. Basics, influences, contamination situation, and countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Mamoru; Nomura, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident resulted in the contamination of a large area, and by now the situation of contamination and exposure has gradually clarified, and a lot of information has been being accumulated. Toward reconstruction of Fukushima prefecture from the current circumstance that the residents still live under continuing fear, this article discusses how to clarify the current situation and deal with the contamination, which the residents are concerned about. First, radiation, basic properties of radiation, and so on are introduced. Regarding the influence on human bodies, the mechanism and the degree of influence by radiation, especially on children, women, and pregnant women are explained. Next, regarding the measurements of radiation and radioactivity, the properties of measurement methods and the detectors are explained. Regarding the current situation of contamination and exposure, mainly addressing the area around Koriyama city, various topics are covered including: (1) situation of contamination and radiation monitoring, (2) countermeasures for radioactivity contamination, (3) internal exposure dose, (4) exposed dose from water and food, as well as (5) safety standards. (S.K.)

  10. Quebec's new contaminated sites policy : special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Quebec's new contaminated site policy sets out a broad new set of requirements with which industry will have to comply. The new policy entitled 'Politique de protection des sols et de rehabilitation des terrains contamines' is much more comprehensive and detailed than its 1988 predecessor and contains many new elements. The policy seeks to maintain soil and groundwater quality criteria and focuses on the protection of clean commercial and industrial sites through pollution prevention actions. It also takes into account progress which has been made since the inventory of contaminated sites across Quebec. It considers the characteristics of each site and the problems posed by ongoing disposal of contaminated soils in landfills and advances in treatment technologies. The issue of who is responsible for contaminated sites is addressed and the requirements for responsible parties are described in detail. Risk assessment was also introduced as a tool for remediation planning in some cases. The new policy stresses prevention, and attempts to clearly outline site characterization and remediation duties for new and existing industries that pose potential risk of soil and groundwater contamination. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  11. Evaluation of contaminated groundwater cleanup objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arquiett, C.; Gerke, M.; Datskou, I.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Restoration Program will be responsible for remediating the approximately 230 contaminated groundwater sites across the DOE Complex. A major concern for remediation is choosing the appropriate cleanup objective. The cleanup objective chosen will influence the risk to the nearby public during and after remediation; risk to remedial and non-involved workers during remediation; and the cost of remediation. This paper discusses the trends shown in analyses currently being performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratories' (ORNL's) Center for Risk Management (CRM). To evaluate these trends, CRM is developing a database of contaminated sites. This paper examines several contaminated groundwater sites selected for assessment from CRM's data base. The sites in this sample represent potential types of contaminated groundwater sites commonly found at an installation within DOE. The baseline risk from these sites to various receptors is presented. Residual risk and risk during remediation is reported for different cleanup objectives. The cost associated with remediating to each of these objectives is also estimated for each of the representative sites. Finally, the general trends of impacts as a function of cleanup objective will be summarized. The sites examined include the Savannah River site, where there was substantial ground pollution from radionuclides, oil, coal stockpiles, and other forms of groundwater contamination. The effects of various types of groundwater contamination on various types of future user is described. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  12. A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, K.; Hazen, T.

    1994-01-01

    The amount of petroleum contaminated soil (PCS) at the Savannah River site (SRS) that has been identified, excavated and is currently in storage has increased several fold during the last few years. Several factors have contributed to this problem: (1) South Carolina Department of Health ad Environmental control (SCDHEC) lowered the sanitary landfill maximum concentration for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the soil from 500 to 100 parts per million (ppm), (2) removal and replacement of underground storage tanks at several sites, (3) most recently SCDHEC disallowed aeration for treatment of contaminated soil, and (4) discovery of several very large contaminated areas of soil associated with leaking underground storage tanks (LUST), leaking pipes, disposal areas, and spills. Thus, SRS has an urgent need to remediate large quantities of contaminated soil that are currently stockpiled and the anticipated contaminated soils to be generated from accidental spills. As long as we utilize petroleum based compounds at the site, we will continue to generate contaminated soil that will require remediation

  13. Oil contamination in Ogoniland, Niger Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindén, Olof; Pålsson, Jonas

    2013-10-01

    The study shows extensive oil contamination of rivers, creeks, and ground waters in Ogoniland, Nigeria. The levels found in the more contaminated sites are high enough to cause severe impacts on the ecosystem and human health: extractable petroleum hydrocarbons (EPHs) (>10-C40) in surface waters up to 7420 μg L(-1), drinking water wells show up to 42 200 μg L(-1), and benzene up to 9000 μg L(-1), more than 900 times the WHO guidelines. EPH concentrations in sediments were up to 17 900 mg kg(-1). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations reached 8.0 mg kg(-1), in the most contaminated sites. The contamination has killed large areas of mangroves. Although the natural conditions for degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons are favorable with high temperatures and relatively high rainfall, the recovery of contaminated areas is prevented due to the chronic character of the contamination. Oil spills of varying magnitude originates from facilities and pipelines; leaks from aging, dilapidated, and abandoned infrastructure; and from spills during transport and artisanal refining of stolen oil under very primitive conditions.

  14. Dispersion, deposition and resuspension of atmospheric contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: dry deposition, oil shale fugitive air emissions, particle resuspension and translocation, theoretical studies and applications, and processing of emissions by clouds and precipitation. The concentration of contaminant species in air is governed by the rate of input from sources, the rate of dilution or dispersion as a result of air turbulence, and the rate of removal to the surface by wet and dry deposition processes. Once on the surface, contaminants also may be resuspended, depending on meteorological and surface conditions. An understanding of these processes is necessary for accurate prediction of exposures of hazardous or harmful contaminants to humans, animals, and crops. In the field, plume dispersion and plume depletion by dry deposition were studied by the use of tracers. Dry deposition was investigated for particles of both respiration and inhalation interest. Complementary dry deposition studies of particles to rock canopies were conducted under controlled conditions in a wind tunnel. Because of increasing concern about hazardous, organic gases in the atmosphere some limited investigations of the dry deposition of nitrobenzene to a lichen mat were conducted in a stirred chamber. Resuspension was also studied using tracers and contaminated surfaces and in the wind tunnel. The objective of the resuspension studies was to develop and verify models for predicting the airborne concentrations of contaminants over areas with surface contamination, develop resuspension rate predictors for downwind transport, and develop predictors for resuspension input to the food chain. These models will be of particular relevance to the evaluation of deposition and resuspension of both radionuclides and chemical contaminants

  15. Geophysical Signitures From Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M.; Jardani, A.

    2015-12-01

    The task of delineating the contamination plumes as well as studying their impact on the soil and groundwater biogeochemical properties is needed to support the remediation efforts and plans. Geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization (IP), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and self-potential (SP) have been previously used to characterize contaminant plumes and investigate their impact on soil and groundwater properties (Atekwana et al., 2002, 2004; Benson et al., 1997; Campbell et al., 1996; Cassidy et al., 2001; Revil et al., 2003; Werkema et al., 2000). Our objective was to: estimate the hydrocarbon contamination extent in a contaminated site in northern France, and to adverse the effects of the oil spill on the groundwater properties. We aim to find a good combination of non-intrusive and low cost methods which we can use to follow the bio-remediation process, which is planned to proceed next year. We used four geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography, IP, GPR, and SP. The geophysical data was compared to geochemical ones obtained from 30 boreholes installed in the site during the geophysical surveys. Our results have shown: low electrical resistivity values; high chargeability values; negative SP anomalies; and attenuated GPR reflections coincident with groundwater contamination. Laboratory and field geochemical measurements have demonstrated increased groundwater electrical conductivity and increased microbial activity associated with hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater. Our study results support the conductive model suggested by studies such as Sauck (2000) and Atekwana et al., (2004), who suggest that biological alterations of hydrocarbon contamination can substantially modify the chemical and physical properties of the subsurface, producing a dramatic shift in the geo-electrical signature from resistive to conductive. The next stage of the research will include time lapse borehole

  16. Method of producing hydrogen, and rendering a contaminated biomass inert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dennis N [Idaho Falls, ID; Klingler, Kerry M [Idaho Falls, ID; Wilding, Bruce M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-23

    A method for rendering a contaminated biomass inert includes providing a first composition, providing a second composition, reacting the first and second compositions together to form an alkaline hydroxide, providing a contaminated biomass feedstock and reacting the alkaline hydroxide with the contaminated biomass feedstock to render the contaminated biomass feedstock inert and further producing hydrogen gas, and a byproduct that includes the first composition.

  17. Water contamination, land prices, and the statute of repose

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Chamblee; Carolyn A. Dehring; Craig A. Depken; Joseph R. Nicholson

    2015-01-01

    We examine how water contamination risk from an inactive hazardous waste site is capitalized into surrounding vacant land prices. After public knowledge of the first instance of off-site contamination, we find that shallow groundwater contamination potential is negatively capitalized into land prices, as is proximity to a known contaminated well. Public knowledge of...

  18. Decrease of radioactive contamination by official wine-making procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstel, H.; Steffens, W.

    1993-01-01

    A contamination with strontium may be lowered by precipitation as tartaric acid complex, a contamination with cesium or cobalt by precipitation of hexacyanoferrates, both accepted wine-making techniques. Contaminated must was obtained both by addition of nuclides to products from the wine harvest or better by growing wine plants on contaminated soils. (orig.) [de

  19. Radioactive contamination in monitors received for calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Paulo S.; Santos, Gilvan C. dos; Brunelo, Maria Antonieta G.; Paula, Tiago C. de; Pires, Marina A.; Borges, Jose C.

    2013-01-01

    The Calibration Laboratory - LABCAL, from the Research Center for Metrology and Testing - METROBRAS, MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., began activities in October 2008 and, in August 2009, decided to establish a procedure for monitoring tests, external and internal, of all packages received from customers, containing instruments for calibration. The aim was to investigate possible contamination radioactive on these instruments. On July 2011, this procedure was extended to packagings of personal thermoluminescent dosemeters - TLD, received by the newly created Laboratory Laboratorio de Dosimetria Pessoal - LDP . In the monitoring procedure were used monitors with external probe, type pancake, MRA brand, models GP - 500 and MIR 7028. During the 37 months in which this investigation was conducted, were detected 42 cases of radioactive contamination, with the following characteristics: 1) just one case was personal dosimeter, TLD type; 2) just one case was not from a packing from nuclear medicine service - was from a mining company; 3) contamination occurred on packs and instruments, located and/or widespread; 4) contamination values ranged from slightly above the level of background radiation to about a thousand fold. Although METROBRAS has facilities for decontamination, in most cases, especially those of higher contamination, the procedure followed was to store the contaminated material in a room used for storage of radioactive sources. Periodically, each package and/or instrument was monitored, being released when the radiation level matched the background radiation. Every contamination detected, the client and/or owner of the instrument was informed. The Brazilian National Energy Commission - CNEN, was informed, during your public consultation for reviewing the standard for nuclear medicine services, held in mid-2012, having received from METROBRAS the statistical data available at the time. The high frequency of contamination detected and the high

  20. Prevention of airborne contamination and cross-contamination in germ-free mice by laminar flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaij, D. van der; Andres, A.H.

    1971-01-01

    The efficacy of horizontal and vertical laminar flow units (equipped with high-efficiency air filters) in the prevention of cross-contamination between cages and of contamination from outside has been demonstrated. With germ-free mice and using germ-free standard techniques for sterilization and for

  1. Body-surface contamination monitoring preparatory to monitoring for internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, W.; Klucke, H.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements in the whole-body counter of the SAAS are routinely preceded by a thorough inspection of the patients for body-surface contamination to protect the sensitive counting equipment against becoming contaminated and to avoid a falsified indication of incorporated radionuclides. The measuring system employed for these examinations is described. (author)

  2. Sensitivity to contamination of optical coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, A.

    1999-01-01

    A simple theory is presented of the sensitivity to contamination of optical coatings, which permits prediction of performance degradation in the presence of small deposit s of absorbing material. Although a major objective is the ability to compare the sensitivities of different coating types, absolute values can be made possible by adopting a standard contamination layer consisting of a 1 Angstrom thickness of carbon. Results are quoted for a number of common thin-film coatings and filters and are sometimes surprising. The common high-reflectance coating is the quarterwave stack and, at its reference wavelength, it has very low sensitivity to contamination. Although minor constructional errors have little effect on the reflectance, they can seriously affect the contamination sensitivity. Further, the level of contamination determines the maximum reflectance it is possible to achieve, regardless of the number of layers in the coating. The admittance diagram helps in understanding the reasons for the very large variations in sensitivity between coatings with quite similar reflectance

  3. Detection of microbial contamination in platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Tracy L.; Leparc, German; Huffman, Debra E.; Gennaccaro, Angela L.; Garcia-Lopez, Alicia; Klungness, Greta; Stephans, Christie; Garcia-Rubio, Luis H.

    2005-03-01

    In the United States, approximately 100 patients develop fatal sepsis associated with platelet transfusions every year. Current culture methods take 24-48 hours to acquire results, which in turn decrease the shelf life of platelets. Many of the microorganisms that contaminate platelets can replicate easily at room temperature, which is the necessary storage temperature to keep platelets functional. Therefore, there is a need for in-situ quality control assessment of the platelet quality. For this purpose, a real time spectrophotometric technique has been developed. The Spectral Acquisition Processing Detection (SAPD) method, comprised of a UV-vis spectrophotometer and modeling algorithms, is a rapid method that can be performed prior to platelet transfusion to decrease the risk of bacterial infection to patients. The SAPD method has been used to determine changes in cell suspensions, based on size, shape, chemical composition and internal structure. Changes in these cell characteristics can in turn be used to determine microbial contamination, platelet aging and other physiologic changes. Detection limits of this method for platelet suspensions seeded with bacterial contaminants were identified to be less than 100 cfu/ml of sample. Bacterial counts below 1000 cfu/ml are not considered clinically significant. The SAPD method can provide real-time identification of bacterial contamination of platelets affording patients an increased level of safety without causing undue strain on laboratory budgets or personnel while increasing the time frame that platelets can be used by dramatically shortening contaminant detection time.

  4. Plutonium contamination in the Maralinga Tjarutja lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.N.; Lokan, K.H.; Richardson, C.K.; Williams, G.A.

    1989-08-01

    Nuclear weapons trials conducted at Maralinga from 1960 to 1963 resulted in contamination of large areas of land with low levels of plutonium. Ground and aerial surveys and soil sampling conducted between 1984 and 1987 showed that this contamination extended beyond the boundaries of the area still controlled by the Commonwealth Government into the Maralinga Tjarutja lands. Levels of contamination beyond the boundaries of the former test range were found to be low, and were generally undetectable for all but the most sensitive measurement techniques. Soil sampling combined with long laboratory counting was initially used to define the trace levels but the contamination was found to be particulate with a surface density of particles too low for this to be a generally useful technique. The results are presented of in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry using a portable germanium (Ge) detector to measure contamination levels of plutonium to well below 1 kBq m -2 in the Maralinga Tjarutja lands to the north and north-west of the Maralinga test site. 8 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs

  5. Quantitative risk assessment of drinking water contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cothern, C.R.; Coniglio, W.A.; Marcus, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    The development of criteria and standards for the regulation of drinking water contaminants involves a variety of processes, one of which is risk estimation. This estimation process, called quantitative risk assessment, involves combining data on the occurrence of the contaminant in drinking water and its toxicity. The human exposure to a contaminant can be estimated from occurrence data. Usually the toxicity or number of health effects per concentration level is estimated from animal bioassay studies using the multistage model. For comparison, other models will be used including the Weibull, probit, logit and quadratic ones. Because exposure and toxicity data are generally incomplete, assumptions need to be made and this generally results in a wide range of certainty in the estimates. This range can be as wide as four to six orders of magnitude in the case of the volatile organic compounds in drinking water and a factor of four to five for estimation of risk due to radionuclides in drinking water. As examples of the differences encountered in risk assessment of drinking water contaminants, discussions are presented on benzene, lead, radon and alachlor. The lifetime population risk estimates for these contaminants are, respectively, in the ranges of: <1 - 3000, <1 - 8000, 2000-40,000 and <1 - 80. 11 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  6. [Decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmachi, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    When radionuclides are accidentally ingested or inhaled, blood circulation or tissue/organ deposition of the radionuclides causes systemic or local radiation effects. In such cases, decorporation therapy is used to reduce the health risks due to their intake. Decorporation therapy includes reduction and/or inhibition of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, isotopic dilution, and the use of diuretics, adsorbents, and chelating agents. For example, penicillamine is recommended as a chelating agent for copper contamination, and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid is approved for the treatment of internal contamination with plutonium. During chelation therapy, the removal effect of the drugs should be monitored using a whole-body counter and/or bioassay. Some authorities, such as the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and International Atomic Energy Agency, have reported recommended decorporation agents for each radionuclide. However, few drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and many are off-label-use agents. Because many decontamination agents are drugs that have been available for a long time and have limited efficacy, the development of new, higher-efficacy drugs has been carried out mainly in the USA and France. In this article, in addition to an outline of decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination, an outline of our research on decorporation agents for actinide (uranium and plutonium) contamination and for radio-cesium contamination is also presented.

  7. Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Jody L.; Kauffman, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite contamination continues to be a design problem that engineers must take into account when developing new satellites. To help with this issue, NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program funded the development of the Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base. This engineering tool brings together in one location information about the outgassing properties of aerospace materials based upon ground-testing data, the effects of outgassing that has been observed during flight and measurements of the contamination environment by on-orbit instruments. The knowledge base contains information using the ASTM Standard E- 1559 and also consolidates data from missions using quartz-crystal microbalances (QCM's). The data contained in the knowledge base was shared with NASA by government agencies and industry in the US and international space agencies as well. The term 'knowledgebase' was used because so much information and capability was brought together in one comprehensive engineering design tool. It is the SEE Program's intent to continually add additional material contamination data as it becomes available - creating a dynamic tool whose value to the user is ever increasing. The SEE Program firmly believes that NASA, and ultimately the entire contamination user community, will greatly benefit from this new engineering tool and highly encourages the community to not only use the tool but add data to it as well.

  8. Modeling contaminant plumes in fractured limestone aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosthaf, Klaus; Brauns, Bentje; Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann

    Determining the fate and transport of contaminant plumes from contaminated sites in limestone aquifers is important because they are a major drinking water resource. This is challenging because they are often heavily fractured and contain chert layers and nodules, resulting in a complex transport...... model. The paper concludes with recommendations on how to identify and employ suitable models to advance the conceptual understanding and as decision support tools for risk assessment and the planning of remedial actions....... behavior. Improved conceptual models are needed for this type of site. Here conceptual models are developed by combining numerical models with field data. Several types of fracture flow and transport models are available for the modeling of contaminant transport in fractured media. These include...... the established approaches of the equivalent porous medium, discrete fracture and dual continuum models. However, these modeling concepts are not well tested for contaminant plume migration in limestone geologies. Our goal was to develop and evaluate approaches for modeling the transport of dissolved contaminant...

  9. Remedial action of radium contaminated residential properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.; Eng, J.

    1986-01-01

    Since November 1983, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) have been in the process of identifying properties in Montclair, Glen Ridge and West Orange, New Jersey, which were built over radium contaminated soil landfilled areas. Elevated indoor radon concentrations prompted the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to issue a health advisory which included permanent remediation of radon progeny levels in excess of 0.02 Working Levels within two years of discovery. In order to expedite remedial action, NJDEP undertook a ten million dollar cleanup program. Remedial Action at the 12 residential properties encountered some unanticipated problems despite the efforts of numerous government agencies and their contractors to characterize the contamination as much as possible prior to remediation. Some of the unanticipated issues include contamination from other radionuclides, underestimation of removal volumes, and controversy over the transportation and disposal of the radium contaminated soil at a commercial facility in Nevada. This paper will review the approach taken by NJDEP to the remedial action for radium contaminated soil, discuss some of the issues encountered during the remedial action, and provide post remedial action data

  10. Remediation of lead-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.W.; Shem, L.

    1992-01-01

    Excavation and transport of soil contaminated with heavy metals has generally been the standard remediation technique for treatment of heavy-metal-contaminated soils. This approach is not a permanent solution; moreover, off-site shipment and disposal of contaminated soil involves high expense, liability, and appropriate regulatory approval. Recently, a number of other techniques have been investigated for treating such contaminated sites, including flotation, solidification/stabilization, vitrification, and chemical extraction. This paper reports the results of a laboratory investigation determining the efficiency of using chelating agents to extract lead from contaminated soils. Lead concentrations in the soils ranged from 500 to 10,000 mg/kg. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) were examined for their potential extractive capabilities. Concentrations of the chelating agents ranged from 0.01 to 0.10 M. The pH of the suspensions in which the extractions were performed ranged from 4 to 12. Results showed that the removal of lead using NTA and water was ph-dependent, whereas the removal of lead using EDTA was ph-insensitive. Maximum removals of lead were 68.7%,19.1%, and 7.3% using EDTA, NTA, and water, respectively (as compared with initial lead concentrations)

  11. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  12. Woody biomass phytoremediation of contaminated brownfield land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Christopher J. [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Nicholas M. [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: n.m.dickinson@livjm.ac.uk; Putwain, Philip D. [Ecological Restoration Consultants (ERC), Ness Botanic Gardens, University of Liverpool, Ness, Cheshire CH64 (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    Economic and environmental regeneration of post-industrial landscapes frequently involves some element of re-afforestation or tree planting. We report field trials that evaluate whether woody biomass production is compatible with managing residual trace element contamination in brownfield soils. Large-scale mapping of contamination showed a heterogenous dispersion of metals and arsenic, and highly localised within-site hotspots. Yields of Salix, Populus and Alnus were economically viable, showing that short-rotation coppice has a potentially valuable role in community forestry. Mass balance modelling demonstrated that phytoextraction potentially could reduce contamination hotspots of more mobile elements (Cd and Zn) within a 25-30-year life cycle of the crops. Cd and Zn in stems and foliage of Salix were 4-13 times higher than EDTA-extractable soil concentrations. Lability of other trace elements (As, Pb, Cu, Ni) was not increased 3 years after planting the coppice; woody biomass may provide an effective reduction of exposure (phytostabilisation) to these less mobile contaminants. - Field trials show short-rotation coppice provides effective risk management and remediation solutions to hotspots of residual metal and As contamination of brownfield land.

  13. Woody biomass phytoremediation of contaminated brownfield land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, Christopher J.; Dickinson, Nicholas M.; Putwain, Philip D.

    2006-01-01

    Economic and environmental regeneration of post-industrial landscapes frequently involves some element of re-afforestation or tree planting. We report field trials that evaluate whether woody biomass production is compatible with managing residual trace element contamination in brownfield soils. Large-scale mapping of contamination showed a heterogenous dispersion of metals and arsenic, and highly localised within-site hotspots. Yields of Salix, Populus and Alnus were economically viable, showing that short-rotation coppice has a potentially valuable role in community forestry. Mass balance modelling demonstrated that phytoextraction potentially could reduce contamination hotspots of more mobile elements (Cd and Zn) within a 25-30-year life cycle of the crops. Cd and Zn in stems and foliage of Salix were 4-13 times higher than EDTA-extractable soil concentrations. Lability of other trace elements (As, Pb, Cu, Ni) was not increased 3 years after planting the coppice; woody biomass may provide an effective reduction of exposure (phytostabilisation) to these less mobile contaminants. - Field trials show short-rotation coppice provides effective risk management and remediation solutions to hotspots of residual metal and As contamination of brownfield land

  14. Treatment of HMX and RDX contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Card, R.E. Jr.; Autenrieth, R.

    1998-03-01

    HMX and RDX are often found in the soil, groundwater, and surface waters at facilities where they are manufactured as the result of negligent disposal methods. The toxicity of these compounds and their degradation products has led to concern about their fate in the environment and the potential for human exposure. HMX and RDX are recalcitrant in the environment with low rates of biodegradation and photolysis. Several methods of treating contaminated soils and waters have been developed and studied. Many of these technologies (i.e., carbon adsorption, oxidation, and chemical treatment) have been developed to treat munition plant wastewaters that are contaminated with explosives. These methods need to be adapted to remediate contaminated water. Other technologies such as bioremediation and composting are being developed as methods of remediating HMX and RDX contamination in a solid matrix. This report describes and evaluates each of these technologies. This report also describes the processes which affect HMX and RDX in the environment. The major transformation processes of RDX and HMX in the environment are biodegradation and photolysis. A major factor affecting the transport and treatment of RDX and HMX in soil-water environments is their sorption and desorption to soil particles. Finally, this report draws conclusions as to which treatment methods are currently most suitable for the remediation of contaminated soils and waters

  15. Background compensation methodologies for contamination monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, Anand; Chaudhury, Probal; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Radiation surveillance program in the various nuclear facilities incorporate contamination monitoring as an important component. Contamination monitoring programs constitute monitoring for alpha and beta contamination of the physical entities associated with the working personnel that include his hands, feet, clothing, shoes as well as the general surface areas in the working environment like floors. All these measurements are fraught with the contribution of the ambient gamma background radiation fields. These inhibit a proper and precise estimation of the contamination concentration being monitored. This paper investigates the efficacy of two methodologies that have been incorporated in two of the contamination monitoring systems developed in the Division. In the first system discussed, a high degree of gamma compensation has been achieved for an uniform exposure of the order of 50 nSv/hr to 100 mSv/hr. In the second system discussed, the degree of gamma compensation achieved is equal to those dictated by the statistical nature of the uncertainties associated with the subtraction of background from the source data. These two methods can be very effectively employed depending on the application requirement. A minimum detection level equivalent to 0.37 Bq/cdm 2 has been achieved in both these cases

  16. Basic radiological studies contamination control experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duce, S.W.; Winberg, M.R.; Freeman, A.L.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the results of experiments relating to contamination control performed in support of the Environmental Restoration Programs Retrieval Project. During the years 1950 to 1970 waste contaminated with plutonium and other transuranic radionuclides was disposed of in shallow land-filled pits and trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Due to potential for migration of radionuclides to an existing aquifer the feasibility of retrieving and repackaging the waste for placement in a final repository is being examined as part of a retrieval project. Contamination control experiments were conducted to determine expected respirable and nonrespirable plutonium contaminated dust fractions and the effectiveness of various dust suppression techniques. Three soil types were tested to determine respirable fractions: Rocky Flats Plant generic soil, Radioactive Waste Management Complex generic soil, and a 1:1 blend of the two soil types. Overall, the average respirable fraction of airborne dust was 5.4% by weight. Three contamination control techniques were studied: soil fixative sprays, misting agents, and dust suppression agents. All of the tested agents proved to be effective in reducing dust in the air. Details of product performance and recommended usage are discussed

  17. Process for the separation of contaminant or mixture of contaminants from a Ch4-comprising gaseous feed streem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The invention provides a process for the separation of a contaminant or mixture of contaminants from a CH4-comprising gaseous feed streem, comprising the subsequent steps of: a) passing a CH4-comprising gaseous feed streem comprising the contaminant or the mixture of contaminants in to and through a

  18. Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Isamu

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at efficient phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides, we examined the effect of soil microbes on the uptake ability of plants using the multitracer technique to find that tomato rhizofungi in Fusarium spp. can stimulate the uptake of 85 Sr and 137 Cs by the plants. The synergic effect of a nonpathogenic strain of F. oxysporum on the uptake of radionuclides by plants proved to be enhanced by introducing a phytochelatin synthase gene into the fungus. Since soil contamination by radionuclides is still an unsolved problem in many parts of the world. Studies on phytoremediation of polluted soil environment will be important for developing effective strategies and devising adequate techniques to reduce human risks caused by food contamination of radionuclides. (author)

  19. Phyto-remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagvardieff, P.

    2014-01-01

    Some plants can be selected for their capacity to extract radionuclides from the soil, on the contrary other plants can be chosen for being able to produce food grade products in a contaminated environment. Modern genetic methods can be used to enhance these abilities and turn some plants into an efficient means in the managing of contaminated areas. The DEMETERRES project that gathers different research organisations like CEA, IRSN and INRA and industrial partners like AREVA and VEOLIA aims at developing innovative bio-technologies like phyto-extraction and environment friendly physico-chemical technologies for the remediation of contaminated soils. This project was launched in 2013 on a 5-year scheme and is expected to lead to industrial applications. (A.C.)

  20. Electric discharge for treatment of trace contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, D. L.; Wydeven, T. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A radio frequency glow discharge reactor is described for removing trace oxidizable contaminants from an oxygen bearing atmosphere. The reaction chamber is defined by an inner metal electrode facing a dielectric backed by an outer conductive electrode. In one embodiment, a conductive liquid forms the conductor of an outer electrode and cools the dielectric. A resonator coupled to a variable radio frequency source generates the high voltages for creating a glow discharge in the chamber at a predetermined pressure whereby the trace contaminants are oxidized into a few simple non-toxic products that may be easily recovered. The corresponding process for removal of trace contaminants from an oxygen-bearing atmosphere with high efficiency independent of the concentration level is also disclosed.

  1. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, K.H.; Herson, D.S.; Vercellon-Smith, P.; Cronce, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    A utility company discovered soils in their plant contaminated with diesel fuel and related fuel oils (300-450 ppm). The soils were excavated and removed to a concrete pad for treatment. The authors conducted laboratory studies to determine if biostimulation or bioaugmentation would be appropriate for treating the soils. Microbial numbers and soil respiration were monitored in microcosms supplemented with: (1) organic nutrients, (2) inorganic nutrients, and (3) inorganic nutrients plus additional adapted microorganisms. Their studies indicated that biostimulation via the addition of inorganic nutrients would be appropriate at this site. Treatment cells for the contaminated soils were constructed. Initial data indicates that a 35% reduction in the concentration of contaminants has occurred within the first month of operation

  2. Flotation separation of uranium from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, M.; Mehta, R.; Garcia, H.; Chai, C.D.; Smith, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The volume of low-level contaminated soil at the Department of Energy's Nuclear Weapon Sites are in the order of several million tons. Most of the contaminants are uranium, plutonium, other heavy metals and organic compounds. Selected physical separation processes have shown demonstrated potential in concentrating the radionuclides in a small fraction of the soil. Depending upon the size, nature of bonding and distributions of radionuclides, more than 90% of the radionuclide activity can be concentrated in a small volume of fraction of the soil. The physico-chemical separation processes such as flotation in a mechanical and microbubble tall column cell have shown promising applications in cleaning up the high volume contaminated soil

  3. Strategies for sustainable woodland on contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, N M

    2000-07-01

    Extensive in situ reclamation treatment technologies are appropriate for a large proportion of contaminated land in place of total removal or complete containment of soil. In this paper, initial results are presented of site descriptions, tree survival and metal uptake patterns from two field planting trials on a highly industrially contaminated site adjacent to a metal refinery and on old sanitary landfill sites. Survival rate was high in both trials but factors besides heavy metals were particularly significant. Uptake patterns of metals into foliage and woody tissues were variable, with substantial uptake in some species and clones supporting the findings of earlier pot experiments. It is argued that there is sufficient evidence to consider the use of trees in reclamation as part of a realistic, integrated, low-cost, ecologically-sound and sustainable reclamation strategy for contaminated land. This is an opportunity to bring a large number of brownfield sites into productive use, which otherwise would be prohibitively expensive to restore.

  4. In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications

  5. Contamination with iodine-131 in metabolic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R.; Luis, J.; Gomez, A.; Gonzalez, V.; Herrador, M.; Rogriguez, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    High-dose radioactive iodine therapy using 131 I is the treatment of choice for patients with thyroid cancer following thyroidectomy. Because of the large amount of activity which is excreted during hospitalization, contamination harzard from 131 I excretion via perspiration, saliva, breath and urine may arise. In twelve patients treated with doses of 131 I ranging from 1.85-7.4GBq activity levels were measured in room surface, the toilet, patients saliva and skin. Removable activity from skin reached a maximum at 24h post-therapy. Removable activity from room surfaces exceed the level of contamination which requires clean-up in a public area during patient's hospitalization. The relatively high activities present in the saliva and skin of these patients emphasizes the need for all individuals coming in contact with these patients to be made aware of the contamination hazard present. (author)

  6. Decontamination tests on tritium-contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutot, P.; Schipfer, P.

    1967-01-01

    These tests are designed to try out various processes liable to be applied to the decontamination of a material contaminated with tritium. The samples are thin stainless- steel slabs contaminated in the laboratory with elements extracted from industrial installations. The measurement of the initial and residual activities is carried out using an open-window BERTHOLD counter. The best results are obtained by passing a current of pre-heated (300 deg. C) air containing water vapour. This process makes it possible to reach a decontamination factor of 99.5 per cent in 4 hours. In a vacuum, the operation has to be prolonged to 100 hours in order to obtain a decontamination factor of 99.2 per cent. Wet-chemical or electrolytic treatments are efficient but their use is limited by the inherent corrosion risks. A study of the reappearance of the contamination has made it possible to observe that this phenomenon occurs whatever the process used. (authors) [fr

  7. Phytoremediation options for radioactively contaminated sites evaluated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present an overview of the most important site and environmental radioactive contamination problems encountered. ► The potential role of different phytomanagement options is discussed and illustrated with examples. ► The phytomanagement options considered are: soil phytoextraction, rhizofiltration, wetlands and alternative land use. - Abstract: The application of nuclear energy and the use of radionuclides for industrial, medical and research purposes have caused significant contamination of certain sites and their environment, which could result in health problems for several centuries if nothing is undertaken to remedy these situations. Except for the immediate environment of the facility, where decontamination activities may be feasible and affordable, the contamination often extents over a vast area and decontamination would be costly and could result in vast amounts of waste. Therefore, more realistic yet efficient remediation options should be searched for of which phytomanagement is among the potential options. A number of phytomanagement approaches will be discussed

  8. Combating radiocesium contamination in farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hove, K.; Ekern, A.

    1988-01-01

    Considerable amounts of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident swept central parts of Norway, where especially native mountain areas but also some agricultural land were heavily contaminated. Parts of the heavily polluted areas are important in Norwegian animal production, being grazed by reindeer all year, and by sheep, goats and cattle in the summer. Cs-137 and Cs-134 appeared in feeds shortly after the accident and the levels increased throughout the summer. In this paper some of the results obtained in experiments with contaminated animals in Norway are reviewed. Experiments in connection with the use of uncontaminated feeds for decontamination of farm animals, the transfer of radioactivity to milk, and the use of cesiumbinders to reduce cesium contamination are described

  9. Remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boni, M.R.; D' Aprile, L. [Univ. of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dept. of Hydraulic Transportation and Roads (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In December 1999 Italy issued the national regulation (DM 471/99) for the clean-up of contaminated sites. This regulation applies both to derelict and to still operating industrial plants and waste management facilities. Target concentration values for clean-up interventions are issued and the requirements for design and planning of technical operation are defined. The selection of the appropriate clean-up technology are based on the following main criteria: - reduce the concentration in environmental media and the migration of pollutants without removing soil off-site; - in order to reduce contaminated material removal and transportation, remedial actions of soil, subsoil and groundwater should preferably be based on in-situ treatments. In-situ technologies commonly applied in Italy to the remediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb) are: - containment (caps, vertical barriers); - soil flushing; - cement based solidification/stabilization. (orig.)

  10. Phytoforensics—Using trees to find contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jordan L.

    2017-09-28

    The water we drink, air we breathe, and soil we come into contact with have the potential to adversely affect our health because of contaminants in the environment. Environmental samples can characterize the extent of potential contamination, but traditional methods for collecting water, air, and soil samples below the ground (for example, well drilling or direct-push soil sampling) are expensive and time consuming. Trees are closely connected to the subsurface and sampling tree trunks can indicate subsurface pollutants, a process called phytoforensics. Scientists at the Missouri Water Science Center were among the first to use phytoforensics to screen sites for contamination before using traditional sampling methods, to guide additional sampling, and to show the large cost savings associated with tree sampling compared to traditional methods. 

  11. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, D.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Brashaw, T.W.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Blondel, A.; De Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Blackmore, V.J.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Booth, C.N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.; Bravar, U.

    2016-01-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240 MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than ∼1% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is f π  < 1.4% at 90% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling

  12. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomilov, M.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Chignoli, F.; Mazza, R.; Palladino, V.; de Bari, A.; Cecchet, G.; Capponi, M.; Iaciofano, A.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tortora, L.; Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Ishimoto, S.; Japan, Ibaraki; Filthaut, F.; Hansen, O.M.; Ramberger, S.; Vretenar, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Blondel, A.; Drielsma, F.; Karadzhov, Y.; Charnley, G.; Collomb, N.; Gallagher, A.; Grant, A.; Griffiths, S.; Hartnett, T.; Martlew, B.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Oates, A.; Owens, P.; Stokes, G.; Warburton, P.; White, C.; Adams, D.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Courthold, M.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Hayler, T.; Hills, M.; Lintern, A.; Macwaters, C.; Nichols, A.; Preece, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Stanley, T.; Tarrant, J.; Watson, S.; Wilson, A.; Bayes, R.; Nugent, J.C.; Soler, F.J.P.; Cooke, P.; Gamet, R.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Colling, D.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Hunt, C.; Lagrange, J-B.; Long, K.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Pasternak, J.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Uchida, M.A.; Blackmore, V.J.; Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.H.; Lau, W.; Rayner, M.A.; Tunnell, C.D.; Booth, C.N.; Hodgson, P.; Langlands, J.; Nicholson, R.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P.J.; Dick, A.; Ronald, K.; Speirs, D.; Whyte, C.G.; Young, A.; Boyd, S.; Franchini, P.; Greis, J.R.; Pidcott, C.; Taylor, I.; Gardener, R.; Kyberd, P.; Littlefield, M.; Nebrensky, J.J.; Bross, A.D.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R.; Roberts, T.J.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Li, D.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Drews, M.; Hanlet, P.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Rajaram, D.; Snopok, P.; Torun, Y.; Winter, M.; Blot, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Bravar, U.; Onel, Y.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Hart, T.L.; Luo, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Summers, D.J.; Cline, D.; Yang, X.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.G.; Heidt, C.

    2016-01-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240\\,MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than $\\sim$1\\% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is $f_\\pi < 1.4\\%$ at 90\\% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.

  13. Decontamination method for radiation contaminated metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enda, Masami; Hosaka, Katsumi; Sakai, Hitoshi.

    1997-01-01

    An organic acid solution is used as a decontamination liquid, and base materials of radiation contaminated metals are dissolved in the solution. The concentration of the organic acid is measured, and the organic acid is supplied by an amount corresponding to the lowering of the concentration. The decontamination liquid wastes generated during the decontamination step are decomposed, and metals leached in the organic acid solution are separated. With such procedures, contamination intruded into the inside of the mother materials of the metals can be removed, and radioactivity of the contaminated metals such as stainless steels and carbon steels can be eliminated, or the radiation level thereof can be reduced. In addition, the amount of secondary wastes generated along with the decontamination can be suppressed. (T.M.)

  14. Survey of radioactive contamination for foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wan No; Lee, Chang Wu; Choi, Geun Sik; Cho, Yeong Hyeon; Kang, Mun Ja; Cheong, Geun Ho; Kim, Hui Ryeong; Park, Du Won; Park, Hyo Guk; Kwak, Ji Yeon

    2006-11-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, a lot of countries including EU, Japan, USA are to strengthen survey of radioactive contamination for foodstuffs. Our country has also surveyed radioactive contamination of the imported foodstuffs and started to check continuously the radioactivity contamination of the open market foodstuffs since 2003. In this year, imported foodstuffs(130 samples) and domestic foodstuffs(10 samples) are analyzed to investigate the radioactive contamination. Sampled foodstuffs items are collected from the open markets; one group is the imported foodstuffs and the other group is the domestic foodstuffs producted around nuclear facilities and northeast of Sokcho city concerning recent situations. Samples are usually bought from traditional markets, mart, department store or the Internet. After pretreatments such as drying, ashing, and homogenization, all samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometer system for survey and assessment of radioactive contamination. The 131 I radionuclide isn't detected among all foodstuffs(imported and domestic). The 137 Cs radionuclide among the regulation radionuclides( 137 Cs, 13 4 C s, 131 I) of food code is only detected at the imported foodstuffs but its level is far below the maximum permitted level. For the improvement of measurement confidence, the developed analysis method is tested by the participation of the national and international intercomparison. The developed method based on test results and international standard would be used at radioactive analysis as well as an education of relative workers. It could be applied as the basis data for amending the analysis method of food code. It is technically supported for radioactive analysis of commercial company and the government including KFDA. Finally these results would be used to solve an ambiguous anxiety of a people for radiation exposure by foodstuffs intake and help the KFDA to manage systematically the radioactive contamination and to give

  15. How to deal with radiologically contaminated vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.; Murphy, C.E.; Lamar, R.T.; Larson, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the findings from a literature review conducted as part of a Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development Biomass Remediation Task. The principal objective of this project is to develop a process or group of processes to treat radiologically contaminated vegetation in a manner that minimizes handling, processing, and treatment costs. Contaminated, woody vegetation growing on waste sites at SRS poses a problem to waste site closure technologies that are being considered for these sites. It is feared that large sections of woody vegetation (logs) can not be buried in waste sites where isolation of waste is accomplished by capping the site. Logs or large piles of woody debris have the potential of decaying and leaving voids under the cap. This could lead to cap failure and entrance of water into the waste. Large solid objects could also interfere with treatments like in situ mixing of soil with grout or other materials to encapsulate the contaminated sediments and soils in the waste sites. Optimal disposal of the wood includes considerations of volume reduction, treatment of the radioactive residue resulting from volume reduction, or confinement without volume reduction. Volume reduction consists primarily of removing the carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen in the wood, leaving an ash that would contain most of the contamination. The only contaminant that would be released by volume reduction would by small amounts of the radioactive isotope of hydrogen, tritium. The following sections will describe the waste sites at SRS which contain contaminated vegetation and are potential candidates for the technology developed under this proposal. The description will provide a context for the magnitude of the problem and the logistics of the alternative solutions that are evaluated later in the review. 76 refs

  16. Measurement of contamination by 241Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmingsen, L.B.S.

    1991-08-01

    In relation to the fact that four employees at the Danish Isotope Center who had regularly cleaned the smoke detectors used for control measurements were found to be contaminated with 241 Am, the aim was to investigate the suitability of the Phoswich detector system for measurement of contamination of humans by 241 Am. It was also wished to compare this measuring method with other selected ones. The measurement results are presented in detail. It was found that measurements taken on the cranium with the Phoswich detectors were more suitable for measurement of contamination by 241 Am than the use of a Ge detector on the liver, - because of the first-named method's greater degree of measuring efficiency, (0.013 cps/Bq compared with 0.0001 cps/Bq in the case of Ge detector measurement) and lower minimum detectable activity in relation to that activity that was measured on A1 (one of the employees). It was found that Phoswich-detector measurement and measuring of urine samples supplemented each other in a satisfactory way. The Phoswich detector enables a quick measurement of the degree of seriousness of the contamination of a person and a relatively accurate determination of the calculated intake of contamination which has a size of at least twice the annual limit of intake size. Measurements of urine samples enable smaller amounts of contamination to be revealed, but this takes ca. 32 weeks and is less accurate than Phoswich measurement especially if a long time has elapsed after the intake. (AB) (34 refs.)

  17. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  18. Air cleaning issues with contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellamy, R.R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, King of Prussia, PA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a list of contaminated sites that warrant special USNRC attention because they pose unique or complex decommissioning issues. This list of radiologically contaminated sites is termed the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP), and was first issued in 1990. A site is placed on the SDMP list if it has; (1) Problems with the viability of the responsible organization (e.g., the licensee for the site is unable or unwilling to pay for the decommissioning); (2) Large amounts of soil contamination or unused settling ponds or burial grounds that may make the waste difficult to dispose of; (3) The long-term presence of contaminated, unused buildings; (4) A previously terminated license; or (5) Contaminated or potential contamination of the ground water from on-site wastes. In deciding whether to add a site to the SDMP list, the NRC also considers the projected length of time for decommissioning and the willingness of the responsible organization to complete the decommissioning in a timely manner. Since the list was established, 9 sites have been removed from the list, and the current SDMP list contains 47 sites in 11 states. The USNRC annually publishes NUREG-1444, {open_quotes}Site Decommissioning Management Plan{close_quotes}, which updates the status of each site. This paper will discuss the philosophical goals of the SDMP, then will concentrate on the regulatory requirements associated with air cleaning issues at the SDMP sites during characterization and remediation. Both effluent and worker protection issues will be discussed. For effluents, the source terms at sites will be characterized, and measurement techniques will be presented. Off-site dose impacts will be included. For worker protection issues, air sampling analyses will be presented in order to show how the workers are adequately protected and their doses measured to satisfy regulatory criteria during decontamination operations. 1 tab.

  19. How to deal with radiologically contaminated vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W.; Murphy, C.E.; Lamar, R.T.; Larson, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    This report describes the findings from a literature review conducted as part of a Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development Biomass Remediation Task. The principal objective of this project is to develop a process or group of processes to treat radiologically contaminated vegetation in a manner that minimizes handling, processing, and treatment costs. Contaminated, woody vegetation growing on waste sites at SRS poses a problem to waste site closure technologies that are being considered for these sites. It is feared that large sections of woody vegetation (logs) can not be buried in waste sites where isolation of waste is accomplished by capping the site. Logs or large piles of woody debris have the potential of decaying and leaving voids under the cap. This could lead to cap failure and entrance of water into the waste. Large solid objects could also interfere with treatments like in situ mixing of soil with grout or other materials to encapsulate the contaminated sediments and soils in the waste sites. Optimal disposal of the wood includes considerations of volume reduction, treatment of the radioactive residue resulting from volume reduction, or confinement without volume reduction. Volume reduction consists primarily of removing the carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen in the wood, leaving an ash that would contain most of the contamination. The only contaminant that would be released by volume reduction would by small amounts of the radioactive isotope of hydrogen, tritium. The following sections will describe the waste sites at SRS which contain contaminated vegetation and are potential candidates for the technology developed under this proposal. The description will provide a context for the magnitude of the problem and the logistics of the alternative solutions that are evaluated later in the review. 76 refs.

  20. Radiation injury caused by internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petyrek, P.

    1988-01-01

    Basic data are given of radiation injury of the respiratory organs, digestive tract, hematogenous tissues and the thyroid due to internal contamination. Attention is drawn to the complexity of the problem and to the effect of the various factors affecting the picture and course of the radiation damage. The treatment is based on the assumption that fundamental is the damage of the stem cells of the critical organs. Discussed are also the basic clinical pictures that can occur due to internal contamination with activities causing radiation injury. (B.S.). 27 refs

  1. Remediation of sites with dispersed radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    To respond to the needs of Member States, the IAEA launched an environmental remediation project to deal with the problems of radioactive contamination worldwide. The IAEA environmental remediation project includes an IAEA Coordinated Research Project, as well as the participation of IAEA experts in concrete remediation projects when requested by individual Member States. The IAEA has prepared several documents dedicated to particular technical or conceptual areas, including documents on the characterization of contaminated sites, technical and non-technical factors relevant to the selection of a preferred remediation strategy and technique, overview of applicable techniques for environmental remediation,, options for the cleanup of contaminated groundwater and planning and management issues. In addition, a number of other IAEA publications dealing with related aspects have been compiled under different IAEA projects; these include TECDOCs on the remediation of uranium mill tailings, the decontamination of buildings and roads and the characterization of decommissioned sites. Detailed procedures for the planning and implementation of remedial measures have been developed over the past decade or so. A critical element is the characterization of the contamination and of the various environmental compartments in which it is found, in order to be able to evaluate the applicability of remediation techniques. The chemical or mineralogical form of the contaminant will critically influence the efficiency of the remediation technique chosen. Careful delineation of the contamination will ensure that only those areas or volumes of material that are actually contaminated are treated. This, in turn, reduces the amount of any secondary waste generated. The application of a remediation technique requires holistic studies examining the technical feasibility of the proposed measures, including analyses of their impact. Consequently, input from various scientific and engineering

  2. Water and contaminant movement: migration barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, L.J.; Nyhan, J.W.

    1984-11-01

    Migration barriers are used in shallow land burial facilities to slow or stop the movement of water and contaminants and are discussed here as a single component embedded in a complex environmental system. Analytical solutions to solute transport equations are used to approximate the behavior of migration barriers and to derive design criteria for control of subsurface water and contaminant migration. Various types of migration barriers are compared and design recommendations are made for shallow land burial trench caps and liners. Needed improvements and suggested field experiments for future designs of migration barriers are then discussed relative to the management of low-level radioactive wastes

  3. Contamination by human fingers. The Midas touch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwozdz, R.; Grass, F.

    2004-01-01

    Anthropogenic activity is one of the causes of contamination in the human environment: contamination of air, water, top soils, plants and food products has complex effects on human health problems. Wear and abrasion of various surfaces are constant processes in daily life, and commonly include interaction between human fingers and surfaces of every conceivable material. New methods for investigation of trace transfer processes by human fingers are described. Results of transfer for commonly used metals such as gold, silver, zinc, cadmium, tin, cobalt, nickel, chromium and iron are presented. Relationship between transfer of metals by touch and the general problem of purity in analytical activities is briefly discussed. (author)

  4. Priority Environmental Chemical Contaminants in Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; Iamiceli, Annalaura; di Domenico, Alessandro

    Generally, foods of animal origin play an important role in determining the exposure of human beings to contaminants of both biological and chemical origins (Ropkins & Beck, 2002; Lievaart et al., 2005). A potentially large number of chemicals could be considered, several of them deserving a particular attention due to their occurrence (contaminations levels and frequencies) and intake scenarios reflecting the differences existing in the economical, environmental, social and ecological contexts in which the “from-farm-to-fork” activities related to meat production are carried out (FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization, 2008).

  5. Bioremediation of uranium contaminated Fernald soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delwiche, M.E.; Wey, J.E.; Torma, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated the use of microbial bioleaching for removal of uranium from contaminated soils. The ability of bacteria to assist in oxidation and solubilization of uranium was compared to the ability of fungi to produce complexing compounds which have the same effect. Biosorption of uranium by fungi was also measured. Soil samples were examined for changes in mineralogical properties due to these processes. On the basis of these laboratory scale studies a generalized flow sheet is proposed for bioremediation of contaminated Fernald soils

  6. Surfactant flooding of diesel-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.W.; Montemagno, C.D.; Shem, L.; Lewis, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    At one installation, approximately 60,000 gallons of No. 2 diesel fuel leaked into the subsurface environment, with contamination at depths of 6 to 34 m below the surface. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted to perform treatability studies for site remediation. The treatability studies focused on four separate phases: (1) leachability studies on the various contaminated soil borings, (2) air stripping studies, (3) bioremediation studies, and (4) surfactant screening/surfactant flooding studies. This paper summarizes the fourth phase of this research program after initial surfactant screening of 21 surfactants. Three of the surfactants were used for the surfactant flooding studies; the results from that phase of the research program are described

  7. Radioactive contamination of aquatic media and organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, Y.

    1960-01-01

    After a brief account of the radioactive wastes produced by peaceful or military uses of Atomic Industry, the author first describes a series of observations carried out 'in the field' on the extent of contamination in aquatic organisms with respect to that of the medium. The experimental studies are then analysed, with reference both to the radioisotope metabolism and to the factors and types of contamination of aquatic organisms by wastes from atomic industry. A precise experimental project is presented at the end of the paper, including almost 300 references. (author) [fr

  8. Contamination-free sounding rocket Langmuir probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatucci, W. E.; Schuck, P. W.; Walker, D. N.; Kintner, P. M.; Powell, S.; Holback, B.; Leonhardt, D.

    2001-04-01

    A technique for removing surface contaminants from a sounding rocket spherical Langmuir probe is presented. Contamination layers present on probe surfaces can skew the collected data, resulting in the incorrect determination of plasma parameters. Despite following the usual probe cleaning techniques that are used prior to a launch, the probe surface can become coated with layers of adsorbed neutral gas in less than a second when exposed to atmosphere. The laboratory tests reported here show that by heating the probe from the interior using a small halogen lamp, adsorbed neutral particles can be removed from the probe surface, allowing accurate plasma parameter measurements to be made.

  9. Techniques for removing contaminated concrete surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halter, J.M.; Sullivan, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    This discussion compares various techniques that have been used to clean concrete surfaces by removing the surface. Three techniques which have been investigated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for removing surfaces are also described: the water cannon, the concrete spaller, and high-pressure water jet. The equipment was developed with the assumption that removal of the top 1/8 to 1/4 in. of surface would remove most of the contamination. If the contamination has gone into cracks or deep voids in the surface, the removal processes can be repeated until the surface is acceptable

  10. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  11. Isotopic ratio method for determining uranium contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, R.E.; Sieben, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of high concentrations of uranium in the subsurface can be attributed either to contamination from uranium processing activities or to naturally occurring uranium. A mathematical method has been employed to evaluate the isotope ratios from subsurface soils at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant (RFP) and demonstrates conclusively that the soil contains uranium from a natural source and has not been contaminated with enriched uranium resulting from RFP releases. This paper describes the method used in this determination which has widespread application in site characterizations and can be adapted to other radioisotopes used in manufacturing industries. The determination of radioisotope source can lead to a reduction of the remediation effort

  12. Radioactive contamination of natural and artificial materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalchuk, E.L.; Pomansky, A.A.; Smolnikov, A.A.; Temmoev, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    The gamma radiation of different materials was measured in an underground low-background chamber with extraordinary background characteristics. The excellent background conditions of the measurements enabled investigators to see the alpha-particle peaks of the internal radioactive contamination of NaI(Tl) detectors, which were especially made for these measurements. The sensitivity limit of the installation was determined by the internal contamination of the NaI(Tl) detectors alone. Any radiation background, except for three substances, tungsten, copper, and brass, could be registered

  13. Economic analysis of recycling contaminated concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen, A.; Ayers, K.W.; Boren, J.K.; Parker, F.L. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Decontamination and Decommissioning activities in the DOE complex generate large volumes of radioactively contaminated and uncontaminated concrete. Currently, this concrete is usually decontaminated, the contaminated waste is disposed of in a LLW facility and the decontaminated concrete is placed in C&D landfills. A number of alternatives to this practice are available including recycling of the concrete. Cost estimates for six alternatives were developed using a spreadsheet model. The results of this analysis show that recycling alternatives are at least as economical as current practice.

  14. On the Th internal contamination of animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciubotariu, M.; Danis, A.; Dumitrescu, G.

    2000-01-01

    Fissionable elements (U,Th) internal contamination have been studied using the fission track method as analysis method of the U and/or Th contaminant elements and Wistar-London breed rats as experiment animals. In our previous studies on the Th internal contamination, we investigated the Th biodistribution and retention in all the vital organs of the contaminated rats. In this stage, we continued this study with the Th elimination investigation through urine and excrements. The identical aliquot parts of a solution calibrated in Th, corresponding to an Annual Limit Intake, three Wistar-London breed rats were contaminated. They were kept in normal life conditions and under permanent medical surveillance up to their sacrifice. The animals were sacrificed at different time intervals after their contamination: RAT 1 = 2 days, RAT 2 = 7 days and RAT 3 = 14 days, respectively. After the sacrifice, their vital organs were sampled, weighed, calcined, re-weighed and finally analysed by track detection using the fission track micro-mappings technique. The evacuations were sampled every 24 hours: urine, on the filter paper, and all excrements balls. The samples were weighed before and after calcination and analysed in the same way as the vital organs. The Th fission track micro-mappings technique was used in the following conditions: - mica-muscovite as track detector pre-etched for fossil tracks 18 h in HF-40 per cent at room temperature; - the neutron irradiations were performed in the nuclear reactor WWR-S Bucharest at the neutron fluences of 3·10 15 - 2·10 16 fast neutrons/cm 2 ; - the visualization of the Th induced fission tracks was obtained by chemical etching in HF-40 %, 3 h at room temperature; - the Th track micromappings obtained in track detectors were studied by optical microscopy using a stereo microscope WILD M7S for ensemble study (X6-X31) and a binocular Zeiss JENA microscope for qualitative and quantitative studies (X150). The investigation of the Th

  15. Bacterial hand contamination and transfer after use of contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapka, Carrie A; Campbell, Esther J; Maxwell, Sheri L; Gerba, Charles P; Dolan, Michael J; Arbogast, James W; Macinga, David R

    2011-05-01

    Bulk-soap-refillable dispensers are prone to extrinsic bacterial contamination, and recent studies demonstrated that approximately one in four dispensers in public restrooms are contaminated. The purpose of this study was to quantify bacterial hand contamination and transfer after use of contaminated soap under controlled laboratory and in-use conditions in a community setting. Under laboratory conditions using liquid soap experimentally contaminated with 7.51 log(10) CFU/ml of Serratia marcescens, an average of 5.28 log(10) CFU remained on each hand after washing, and 2.23 log(10) CFU was transferred to an agar surface. In an elementary-school-based field study, Gram-negative bacteria on the hands of students and staff increased by 1.42 log(10) CFU per hand (26-fold) after washing with soap from contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers. In contrast, washing with soap from dispensers with sealed refills significantly reduced bacteria on hands by 0.30 log(10) CFU per hand (2-fold). Additionally, the mean number of Gram-negative bacteria transferred to surfaces after washing with soap from dispensers with sealed-soap refills (0.06 log(10) CFU) was significantly lower than the mean number after washing with contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers (0.74 log(10) CFU; P soap (P soap from bulk-soap-refillable dispensers can increase the number of opportunistic pathogens on the hands and may play a role in the transmission of bacteria in public settings.

  16. Modelling of contamination of surface atmosphere for deflation of Cesium-137 on contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, A.P.; Zhmura, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Presence of Cesium 137 in near land air is caused at the contaminated territories by 'local' dusting and transport of the dust from the zone of strong contamination. For large distance is it caused by resuspension of radioactive dust from the surface in the given region. In accordance with the models of dusting round square sources based on Gauss statistical model of dissemination of admixtures in the atmosphere, the contaminated areas of european part of the former of USSR with the density of contamination over 1 Ci/km 2 with Cesium 137 were represented by 30 round square sources covering the main spots of contamination. The results of calculation of contamination of the atmosphere for several cities of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, where there are the permanent points of observation for the content of radionuclides in the air, have shown that the proposed model of dusting sources describes the contamination of near land air with Cesium 137 reasonably well. 7 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood – European database on contaminant levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandermeersch, Griet; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Cunha, Sara; Diogène, Jorge; Cano-Sancho, German; Sloth, Jens J.; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Barcelo, Damia; Allegaert, Wim; Bekaert, Karen; Fernandes, José Oliveira; Marques, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood. So-called “contaminants of emerging concern” are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database ( (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu)), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed. The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed. - Highlights: • Development of a European database regarding contaminants of emerging concern. • Current status on knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation. • Review on the occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood.

  18. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood – European database on contaminant levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandermeersch, Griet, E-mail: griet.vandermeersch@ilvo.vlaanderen.be [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Animal Sciences Unit – Fisheries, Ankerstraat 1, 8400 Oostende (Belgium); Lourenço, Helena Maria [Division of Aquaculture and Upgrading (DivAV), Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere (IPMA), Lisboa (Portugal); Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana [Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Girona (Spain); Cunha, Sara [LAQV-REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Bromatology and Hydrology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge de Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Diogène, Jorge [Institute of Research and Technology in Food and Agriculture (IRTA), Sant Carles de la Ràpita (Spain); Cano-Sancho, German [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Rovirai Virgili University (URV), Reus (Spain); Sloth, Jens J. [National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark (DTU Food), Søborg (Denmark); Kwadijk, Christiaan [Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies (IMARES), Wageningen University and Research Center, Ijmuiden (Netherlands); Barcelo, Damia [Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Girona (Spain); Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Allegaert, Wim; Bekaert, Karen [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Animal Sciences Unit – Fisheries, Ankerstraat 1, 8400 Oostende (Belgium); Fernandes, José Oliveira [LAQV-REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Bromatology and Hydrology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge de Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Marques, Antonio [Division of Aquaculture and Upgrading (DivAV), Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere (IPMA), Lisboa (Portugal); and others

    2015-11-15

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood. So-called “contaminants of emerging concern” are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database ( (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu)), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed. The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed. - Highlights: • Development of a European database regarding contaminants of emerging concern. • Current status on knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation. • Review on the occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood.

  19. Influence of radioactive contaminants on absorbed dose estimates for radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.E.; Stabin, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Several popular radiopharmaceutical products contain low levels of radioactive contaminants. These contaminants increase the radiation absorbed dose to the patient without any increased benefit and, in some cases, with a decrease in image quality. The importance of a contaminant to the radiation dosimetry picture is a function of 1) the contaminant level, 2) the physical half-life of the contaminant, 3) the organ uptake and the biological half-time of the contaminant in the various body systems, and 4) the decay mode, energy, etc. of the contaminant. The general influence of these parameters is discussed in this paper; families of curves are included that reflect the changing importance of contaminant dosimetry with respect to the primary radionuclide as a function of these variables. Several specific examples are also given of currently used radiopharmaceutical products which can contain radioactive contaminants (I-123, In-111, Tl-201, Ir-191m, Rb-82, Au-195m). 7 references, 8 figures, 4 tables

  20. Argon-ion contamination of the plasmasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Y.T.; Cornwall, J.M.; Luhmann, J.G.; Schulz, M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper applies present observational and analytic knowledge on effects of plasma beam interaction wth the magnetosphere to the plasmasphere contamination problem of the argon ion engine exhaust expected to be deposited in the magnetosphere during the construction phase of the Satellite Power System. Effects of plasmasphere, ionosphere, and radiation belt modifications are discussed

  1. Contaminant containment using polymer gel barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwish, M.I.M.; Rowe, R.K.; Maarel, van der J.R.C.; Pel, L.; Huinink, H.P.; Zitha, P.L.J.

    2004-01-01

    Polymer gels are well known in the oil industry, but their potential for use as barriers to contaminant transport has not previously received significant study. As a first step, this paper examines the potential for a polyelectrolyte gel to serve as a barrier to the migration of sodium chloride. Two

  2. Influence of Blood Contamination During Multimode Adhesive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The present study evaluated the effects of blood contamination performed at different steps of bonding on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of multimode adhesives to dentin when using the self-etch approach. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five molars were randomly assigned to three adhesive groups ...

  3. Biological detoxification of a hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, F.; Lucchese, G.; Nardella, A.

    2005-01-01

    The soil quality of an industrial site chronically contaminated by 39000 mg/kg of oil was detrimentally affected. Soil treatments by bio-pile and land-farming resulted in a reduction of the level of contamination exceeding 90% of the original values, but without reaching regulatory limits. However, the bio-remediation treatments dramatically reduced the mobility of the contaminants and, accordingly, microbial tests clearly indicate that the soil quality improved to acceptable levels, similar to those typically observed in unaltered soils. Hydrocarbon mobility was estimated by the use of water and mild extractants (methanol and sodium dodecyl sulphate) to leach the contaminants from the soil; soil quality was evaluated by comparing the values of selected microbial and enzymatic parameters of the treated soil samples to reference values determined for natural soils. Microbial assessments included: measurement of the nitrification potential, dehydrogenase activity, measures of respiration and lipase activity, microbial counts (MPN on rich media) and Microtox TM assays of the water elutriate. Dermal absorption potential was evaluated using absorption on C 18 disks

  4. Measurement of radioactivity in contaminated crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y; Hasegawa, M; Kihara, T

    1956-01-01

    A method called the Direct Method was developed to correct for natural /sup 40/K radiation in plant samples. The K content of the ashed sample is determined by flamephotometry. The radioactivity in a 100 mg sample is measured and the natural radioactivity from /sup 40/K determined by calculation subtracted. Tea samples tested gave evidence of contamination by radioactive fallout.

  5. Fruits contamination in Poland after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubik, M.; Michalczuk, L.; Dzieciol, U.; Bem, H.; Kusmierek, E.

    1996-01-01

    The content of Cs 137, Cs 134 and Ru 106 have been measured in samples of different fruits, mushrooms and honey taken from many farms selected at whole territory of Poland. The research has been carried out during the period of 1986-1991. The soils contamination in farms and forests area has been also done. 2 figs, 2 tabs

  6. Final report on contamination surveys at NPL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuplin, T.A.

    1984-02-01

    The Environmental and Medical Sciences Division of Harwell was contracted to carry out detailed surveys of Building 154 at the National Physical Laboratory, Teddington. The survey used a variety of radiation detectors appropriate to the conditions found and also involved monitoring for the presence of beryllium, by means of smear (wiping) tests. The results from the beryllium survey showed that no areas exceeded accepted control limits. The results of the contamination survey indicated a few places where the derived limit was exceeded However, averaged over the accepted surface area (1000 cm 2 ), and noting that the contamination was fixed, the levels were considered to present no hazard to any worker in the area nor to anyone outside the building. The environmental radiation in Room 35, the most contaminated room, was one hundredth of a millirem per hour. In only one area (Room 26) was there a radiologically significant dose rate, caused by a sealed source of cobalt-60. The accessible dose rates close to the source were around 8 millirem per hour. However, the uranium contamination should be removed to be consistent with the principle that radiation exposure should be as low as reasonably achievable. (U.K.)

  7. Emerging Contaminants in the Drinking Water Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-g/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

  8. 21 CFR 211.176 - Penicillin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin contamination. 211.176 Section 211.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Laboratory Controls § 211.176...

  9. Lesions in Broiler Chicks Following Experimental Contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of feed contamination with battery waste on the performance, organs weights as well as the histology of some internal organs of broiler chicks. A total of 120 1- d old broiler chicks were allotted to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design.

  10. ESI nuclear model 271 C contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Iles, W.J.

    1978-06-01

    This instrument is a general purpose contamination monitor, comprising a GM tube connected by a coiled extensible cable to a ratemeter. The scale is marked quasi-logarithmically from 0 to 600 in 'counts per second'. The report falls under the headings: general description, facilities and controls, radiation performance, electrical characteristics, environmental characteristics, mechanical characteristics, summary of performance, conclusions. (U.K.)

  11. Microbial contamination of traditional liquid herbal medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data were analyzed using STATA software version 11. Results: The median age (interquartile range) of participants was 35 (27-43) years, with males accounting for 36 (61%). Of 109 liquid THMPs collected, 89 (81.7%) were found to be contaminated; with predominant fecal coliforms being Klebsiella spp and ...

  12. Simulation–optimization model for groundwater contamination ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    used techniques for groundwater remediation in which the contaminated groundwater is pumped ... ing the affected groundwater aquifer down to some drinking water standard. Several .... For simplicity, rectangular support domain is used in this study. Figure 1 ..... For PAT remediation system, decision variables include the.

  13. Contaminants in urban runoff to Norwegian fjords

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jartun, Morten [Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim (Norway); Pettersen, Arne [Norwegian Geotechnical Inst., Oslo (Norway)

    2010-03-15

    Introduction: Sediments from urban stormwater runoff have been collected and analyzed for the content of various contaminants in harbor areas of Harstad, Trondheim, Bergen, and Drammen, Norway. Materials and methods: The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), tributyltin, heavy metals, and total organic carbon were determined in most samples. This study provides substantial empirical data on the active, ongoing dispersion of pollutants from land-based sources in an urban area toward the marine environments in Norway. Results and discussion: The results of the analyses clearly demonstrate the importance of the urban environment representing a variety of contamination sources, and that stormwater runoff is an important dispersion mechanism of toxic pollutants. Conclusion: The concentrations of different contaminants in the urban runoff sediments show that there are several active pollution sources supplying the runoff systems with PCBs, PAHs (including benzo(a)pyrene, B(a)p), and heavy metals such as lead, mercury, zinc, and cadmium. This study describe the usefulness of the methods on how to examine ongoing urban contamination of harbors and similar recipients before any remediation plan for improving the environmental condition of marine sediments is effectuated. (orig.)

  14. Microbial contamination associated with the processing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to assess the microbiological contamination and quality of tchachanga, a roasted meat braised product processed at traditional scale in Benin, West Africa. A survey was performed to collect samples of tchachanga and data related to hygienic conditions of the roasted meat processing environment. A total ...

  15. Factors Responsible for Domestic Water Contamination | Idika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was therefore designed to identify the factors that influenced domestic water contamination in our rural communities and recommend some intervention measures that can reduce this high morbidity and mortality due to diarrhoeal diseases in Nigeria. Water samples from the water sources serving six rural ...

  16. Heavy metals contamination of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the presence of heavy metal contamination of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Lates niloticus. Adult C. nigrodigitatus and L. niloticus were obtained from fishermen in Ikere Gorge, Oyo state, Nigeria. Water samples were also collected during the wet and dry seasons of the year in the same locality.

  17. Press to compress contaminated wastes drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevost, J.

    1993-01-01

    This patent describes a press for contaminated wastes drums pressing. The press is made of a structure comprising a base and an upper stringer bind to the base by vertical bearers, a compression system comprising a main cylinder and a ram, connected to the upper stringer

  18. Evaluation of Sediment Contamination in Pearl Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    ancient Hawaiians, was a large natural inland lagoon. Numerous walled fishponds located inside the harbor were used to cultivate various species of fishes... Ecotoxicology , Commission on Natural Resources, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 103 pp. National Research Council, 1989. Contaminated Marine

  19. Study of contamination with 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.G. da.

    1987-01-01

    The methodology and results of measurements accomplished (from October 30 to November 2,87) in a victim of an accident in Goiania (Brazil) are presented. Superficial and whole-body contamination using NaI detectors and Si-Au surface screens are studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. Metal contamination in environmental media in residential ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard-rock mining for metals, such as gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron and others, is recognized to have a significant impact on the environmental media, soil and water, in particular. Toxic contaminants released from mine waste to surface water and groundwater is the primary concern, but human exposure to soil contaminants either directly, via inhalation of airborne dust particles, or indirectly, via food chain (ingestion of animal products and/or vegetables grown in contaminated areas), is also, significant. In this research, we analyzed data collected in 2007, as part of a larger environmental study performed in the Rosia Montana area in Transylvania, to provide the Romanian governmental authorities with data on the levels of metal contamination in environmental media from this historical mining area. The data were also considered in policy decision to address mining-related environmental concerns in the area. We examined soil and water data collected from residential areas near the mining sites to determine relationships among metals analyzed in these different environmental media, using the correlation procedure in SAS statistical software. Results for residential soil and water analysis indicate that the average values for arsenic (As) (85 mg/kg), cadmium (Cd) (3.2 mg/kg), mercury (Hg) (2.3 mg/kg) and lead (Pb) (92 mg/kg) exceeded the Romanian regulatory exposure levels [the intervention thresholds for residential soil in case of As (25 mg/kg) and Hg

  1. Oxidation and metal contamination of EUV optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Liu, Feng; Pachecka, Malgorzata; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    The next generation photolithography will use 13.5 nm Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) for printing smaller features on chips. One of the hallenges is to optimally control the contamination of the multilayer mirrors used in the imaging system. The aim of this project is generating fundamental understanding

  2. Analytical strategies for organic food packaging contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis, Yovana; Yusà, Vicent; Coscollà, Clara

    2017-03-24

    In this review, we present current approaches in the analysis of food-packaging contaminants. Gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection have been widely used in the analysis of some relevant families of these compounds such as primary aromatic amines, bisphenol A, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and related compounds, UV-ink photoinitiators, perfluorinated compounds, phthalates and non-intentionally added substances. Main applications for sample treatment and different types of food-contact material migration studies have been also discussed. Pressurized Liquid Extraction, Solid-Phase Microextraction, Focused Ultrasound Solid-Liquid Extraction and Quechers have been mainly used in the extraction of food contact material (FCM) contaminants, due to the trend of minimising solvent consumption, automatization of sample preparation and integration of extraction and clean-up steps. Recent advances in analytical methodologies have allowed unequivocal identification and confirmation of these contaminants using Liquid Chromatography coupled to High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) through mass accuracy and isotopic pattern applying. LC-HRMS has been used in the target analysis of primary aromatic amines in different plastic materials, but few studies have been carried out applying this technique in post-target and non-target analysis of FCM contaminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Persistent Ratee Contaminants in Performance Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Fleet, David D.; Chamberlain, Howard

    The hypothesis that conventional approaches to evaluating contaminants in performance appraisal overlook important individual ratee effects was examined. A rating form was developed that consisted of the following dimensions and behaviors: warmth; guided discourse or indirect teaching methods; control of subject matter; enthusiasm and reinforcing;…

  4. Bag-like contaminant control work module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, H.; Jacobson, E.B.

    1982-01-01

    A bag-like contaminant control work module is formed from a flexible impervious membrane which is inflated inside of an enclosed workspace to protect workers in the module from contaminants. The workspace, such as in a nuclear power steam generator, has a portal or manway opening into the workspace into which the module is secured by a module passageway. The module includes one or more glove boxes, in which the workers perform their assigned tasks after passing through the passageway and portal. The module includes one or more absolute filters allowing passage of air flow through the module passageway and into the workspace only through the filters. The module may include an auxiliary passageway secured to the outside of the module passageway and also secured in the portal opening and through which items can be passed back and forth to the worker in the glove box from outside the portal. The module is invertible so that it can be pulled out of the workspace trapping all the contaminants therein and disposed of without handling the contaminants

  5. Contamination of the minnow Rastrineobola argenta , through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: Fish landing sites and retail markets in Homa Bay County Subject: Studies on fish contamination are critical for the acceptance of fish food locally and in international markets. In this study, Rastrineobola argentea were examined for microbial loads. Results: Samples indicated high levels of coliforms and Escherichia ...

  6. Status of contamination monitoring in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Aleya [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Savar, Dacca (Bangladesh)

    1997-06-01

    The applications of radioisotopes and radiation sources to the research and development in medicine, food agriculture, industries and others are rapidly increasing in Bangladesh. The existing major nuclear facilites and allied laboratories of the country include 3 MW TRIGA Mark-2 research reactor for training, research and radioisotope production, 14 MeV neutron generator for nuclear data measurement and elemental analysis via neutron activation, 3 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator for the research and application of nuclear physics, and 50,000 Ci and 5,000 Ci Co-60 irradiators. About 10 Co-60 and Cs-137 teletherapy units are in operation in hospitals. The radioactive contamination of working areas, equipment, protective clothing and skin may result from normal operation and accidents, and contamination monitoring and decontamination are the essential part of radiation protection program. Surface contamination is monitored with Berthold survey meters. Hand and foot monitors have been used. Routine systematic search, continuous air monitoring, the examination of silt movement in Chittagong harbor using Sc-46 tracer and the measurement of tritium contamination for the neutron generator are reported. (K.I.)

  7. Contamination of optical surfaces in Earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Donald L.; Weller, Robert A.; Mendenhall, M. H.; Wiedlocher, D. E.; Nichols, R.; Tucker, D.; Whitaker, A.

    1992-01-01

    Glass and glass ceramic samples exposed to the low earth orbit environment for approximately 5.5 years on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) were found to display limited degradation in optical transmission. Commercial optical quality fused silica samples display decreases in transmission in the 200 to 400 nm wavelength region, and this degradation appears to be a consequence of surface contamination. The contamination, found only on internal surfaces of samples, was measured by medium energy backscattering spectrometry and found to be primarily carbon. Additional thin film contamination by a species with atomic mass near 64, which was present at the level of about 8 x 10 exp 14/sq. cm has not been identified. These observations are consistent with the interpretation that organic binders used in the black absorbing paint (Chem Glaze Z-306) inside the sample holding tray were concentrated in the vicinity of the samples and photolytically cracked by solar UV radiation. The resulting decomposition products were deposited on the interior sample surface and gave rise to the optical transmission loss. No detectable contamination was observed on the external or space exposed surface of the samples. No measurable damage was detected which could be attributed to the direct action of gamma or UV radiation on the glass samples. These results emphasize the need for special precautions in the preparation of spacecraft carrying precision optical components on long duration missions.

  8. Active airborne contamination control using electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veatch, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    In spite of our best efforts, radioactive airborne contamination continues to be a formidable problem at many of the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex sites. For workers that must enter areas with high levels of airborne contamination, personnel protective equipment (PPE) can become highly restrictive, greatly diminishing productivity. Rather than require even more restrictive PPE for personnel in some situations, the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is actively researching and developing methods to aggressively combat airborne contamination hazards using electrophoretic technology. With appropriate equipment, airborne particulates can be effectively removed and collected for disposal in one simple process. The equipment needed to implement electrophoresis is relatively inexpensive, highly reliable, and very compact. Once airborne contamination levels are reduced, less PPE is required and a significant cost savings may be realized through decreased waste and maximized productivity. Preliminary ''cold,'' or non-radioactive, testing results at the RFP have shown the technology to be effective on a reasonable scale, with several potential benefits and an abundance of applications

  9. INCINERATION TREATMENT OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    An incineration test program was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as a treatment option for contaminated soils at the Baird and McGuire Superfund site in Holbrook, Massachusetts. The p...

  10. CONTAMINANT-ASSOCIATED ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION IN REPTILES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data presented suggest that contaminants can alter the endocrine and reproductive system of reptiles by mimicking hormones and by various mechanisms other than direct hormonal mimicry. However, these data indicate, as do many other studies using various vertebrates, that a fo...

  11. Contaminant transport at a waste residue deposit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Traberg, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Contaminant transport in an aquifer at an incinerator waste residue deposit in Denmark is simulated. A two-dimensional, geochemical transport code is developed for this purpose and tested by comparison to results from another code, The code is applied to a column experiment and to the field site...

  12. CONTAMINANT-INDUCED ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION IN WILDLIFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental contaminants have posed a threat to the health of wildlife since the onset of the industrial age. Over the last four decades, much concern has focused on the lethal, carcinogenic and/or extreme teratogenic manifestations of environmental pollution. During the last d...

  13. Review: The fundamental mechanism of aqueous contaminant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contaminant co-precipitation with continuously generated and transformed iron corrosion products has received relatively little attention in comparison to other possible removal mechanisms (adsorption, oxidation, precipitation) in Fe0/H2O systems at near neutral pH values. A primary reason for this is that the use of ...

  14. Risk assessment of soil contamination criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.M.; Marter, W.L.; Montaque, D.F.; Holton, G.A.

    1987-06-01

    Criteria have been developed to select radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants at waste sites detailed analysis and risk assessment. These criteria were based on soil and water quality guidelines developed by various government agencies to determine if the criteria were appropriate. We performed a risk assessment of a hypothetical site which contained radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants at levels equal to the criteria values. Risks to the public from atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater exposure pathways were examined. Health risks to the public from atmospheric releases of radioactive and nonradioactive materials from a waste at soil criteria contamination levels are low. Health risks to the maximally exposed individual to chemical carcinogens are considerably below traditional EPA action levels. And health risks to the maximally exposed individual to atmospherically released radioactive contaminants is 1.88 x 10 -7 , more than a factor of 5 less than 10 -6 . Based on our atmospheric exposure pathways analysis and risk assessment, the applied soil criteria are appropriate for screening out unimportant risk contributors to human health from atmospheric exposure pathways. 13 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Transformers as a potential for soil contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Stojić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the presence of PCBs and heavy metals in the surrounding soil and also in the soil of the receiving pit located below the PCB contaminated transformer. Concentrations of PCBs in our samples are ranged from 0,308 to 0,872 mg/kg of absolutely dry soil.

  16. Establishing community trust at radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, E.

    1999-01-01

    Establishing community trust is an essential element in the successful remediation of a radioactively contaminated site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 2 has been involved in the clean up of numerous radioactively contaminated Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA), and Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites in New Jersey and New York. Each site presented a unique challenge which centered around establishing and, often, re-establishing the trust of the surrounding community. Thanks to the United States government's history regarding the use of radioactive materials, people question whether governmental regulators could possibly have the public's best interests in mind when it comes to addressing radioactively contaminated sites. It has been our experience that EPA can use its position as guardian of the environment to help establish public confidence in remedial actions. The EPA can even use its position to lend credibility to remedial activities in situations where it is not directly responsible for the clean-up. Some ways that we have found to instill community confidence are: establishing radioanalytical cross-check programs using EPA's National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory to provide analytical quality assurance; and establishing an environmental radiation monitoring program for the contaminated site and surrounding community. (author)

  17. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peijnenburg, Willie J.G.M.; Teasdale, Peter R.; Reible, Danny

    2014-01-01

    “Dissolved” concentrations of contaminants in sediment porewater (Cfree) provide a more relevant exposure metric for risk assessment than do total concentrations. Passive sampling methods (PSMs) for estimating Cfree offer the potential for cost-efficient and accurate in situ characterization...

  18. Complex contaminant mixtures in multistressor Appalachian riverscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Eric R; Petty, J Todd; Strager, Michael P; Maxwell, Aaron E; Ziemkiewicz, Paul F

    2015-11-01

    Runoff from watersheds altered by mountaintop mining in the Appalachian region (USA) is known to pollute headwater streams, yet regional-scale assessments of water quality have focused on salinization and selenium. The authors conducted a comprehensive survey of inorganic contaminants found in 170 stream segments distributed across a spectrum of historic and contemporary human land use. Principal component analysis identified 3 important dimensions of variation in water chemistry that were significantly correlated with contemporary surface mining (principal component 1: elevated dominant ions, sulfate, alkalinity, and selenium), coal geology and legacy mines (principal component 2: elevated trace metals), and residential development (principal component 3: elevated sodium and chloride). The combination of these 3 dominant sources of pollutants produced a complex stream-to-stream patchwork of contaminant mixtures. Seventy-five percent of headwater streams (catchments  5 km(2) ) were classified as having reference chemistries, and chemistries indicative of combined mining and development contaminants accounted for 47% of larger streams (compared with 26% of headwater streams). Extreme degradation of larger streams can be attributed to accumulation of contaminants from multiple human land use activities that include contemporary mountaintop mining, underground mining, abandoned mines, and untreated domestic wastewater. Consequently, water quality improvements in this region will require a multicontaminant remediation approach. © 2015 SETAC.

  19. Contaminant bacteria in traditional-packed honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hening Tjaturina Pramesti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Honey may be contaminated by microorganisms during its harvesting, processing, and packaging. Honey selected for clinical purposes must safe, sterile, and contain antimicrobial activity, so it must be evaluated using laboratory testing. The aim of this descriptive laboratory study was to isolate and identify the bacterial contaminant in the traditional-packed honey dealing with the use of honey for medical purposes. the colony forming units of honey sample cultured on blood agar were counted using Stuart bacterial colony counter. The suspected bacterial colonies were isolated and identified based on cultural morphology characteristics. The isolates of suspected bacterial colonies were stained according to Gram and Klein method and then were examined by the biochemical reaction. The results showed that there were two contaminant bacteria. Gram-positive cocci which were presumptively identified as coagulase-negative Staphylococci and gram-positive rods which were presumptively identified as Bacillus subtilis. In conclusion, the contaminant bacteria were regarded as low pathogen bacteria. The subtilin enzyme of B subtilis may cause an allergic reaction and coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Staphylococcus epidermidis is also an opportunist pathogen. Inevitably, for medical purposes, traditional-packed honey must be well filtered, water content above 18%, and standardized sterilization without loss of an antibacterial activity or change in properties.

  20. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    of soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST) and catalase increased with soil pesticide contamination in A. caliginosa. Pesticide stress was reflected in depletion of energy reserves in A. chlorotica. Acute exposure of pre-adapted and naïve A. caliginosa to pesticides (fungicide Opus ®, 0.1 μg active...