WorldWideScience

Sample records for contamination monitoring instruments

  1. Radioactive standards and calibration methods for contamination monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-06-01

    Contamination monitoring in the facilities for handling unsealed radioactive materials is one of the most important procedures for radiation protection as well as radiation dose monitoring. For implementation of the proper contamination monitoring, radiation measuring instruments should not only be suitable to the purpose of monitoring, but also be well calibrated for the objective qualities of measurement. In the calibration of contamination monitoring instruments, quality reference activities need to be used. They are supplied in different such as extended sources, radioactive solutions or radioactive gases. These reference activities must be traceable to the national standards or equivalent standards. On the other hand, the appropriate calibration methods must be applied for each type of contamination monitoring instruments. In this paper, the concepts of calibration for contamination monitoring instruments, reference sources, determination methods of reference quantities and practical calibration methods of contamination monitoring instruments, including the procedures carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and some relevant experimental data. (G.K.)

  2. The Opera Instrument: An Advanced Curation Development for Mars Sample Return Organic Contamination Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M. D.; Fries, W. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    Mars Sample Return (MSR) requires strict organic contamination control (CC) and contamination knowledge (CK) as outlined by the Mars 2020 Organic Contamination Panel (OCP). This includes a need to monitor surficial organic contamination to a ng/sq. cm sensitivity level. Archiving and maintaining this degree of surface cleanliness may be difficult but has been achieved. MSR's CK effort will be very important because all returned samples will be studied thoroughly and in minute detail. Consequently, accurate CK must be collected and characterized to best interpret scientific results from the returned samples. The CK data are not only required to make accurate measurements and interpretations for carbon-depleted martian samples, but also to strengthen the validity of science investigations performed on the samples. The Opera instrument prototype is intended to fulfill a CC/CK role in the assembly, cleaning, and overall contamination history of hardware used in the MSR effort, from initial hardware assembly through post-flight sample curation. Opera is intended to monitor particulate and organic contamination using quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs), in a self-contained portable package that is cleanroom-compliant. The Opera prototype is in initial development capable of approximately 100 ng/sq. cm organic contamination sensitivity, with additional development planned to achieve 1 ng/sq. cm. The Opera prototype was funded by the 2017 NASA Johnson Space Center Innovation Charge Account (ICA), which provides funding for small, short-term projects.

  3. Instrument evaluation no. 11. ESI nuclear model 271 C contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Iles, W.J.

    1978-06-01

    The various radiations encountered in radiological protection cover a wide range of energies and radiation measurements have to he carried out under an equally broad spectrum of environmental conditions. This report is one of a series intended to give information on the performance characteristics of radiological protection instruments, to assist in the selection of appropriate instruments for a given purpose, to interpret the results obtained with such instruments, and, in particular, to know the likely sources and magnitude of errors that might be associated with measurements in the field. The radiation, electrical and environmental characteristics of radiation protection instruments are considered together with those aspects of the construction which make an instrument convenient for routine use. To provide consistent criteria for instrument performance, the range of tests performed on any particular class of instrument, the test methods and the criteria of acceptable performance are based broadly on the appropriate Recommendations of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The radiations in the tests are, in general, selected from the range of reference radiations for instrument calibration being drawn up by the International Standards Organisation. Normally, each report deals with the capabilities and limitations of one model of instrument and no direct comparison with other instruments intended for similar purposes is made, since the significance of particular performance characteristics largely depends on the radiations and environmental conditions in which the instrument is to be used. The results quoted here have all been obtained from tests on instruments in routine production, with the appropriate measurements being made by the NRPB. This report deals with the ESI Nuclear Model 271 C; a general purpose contamination monitor, comprising a GM tube connected by a coiled extensible cable to a ratemeter

  4. Radioactive surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Kei; Minagoshi, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Toru

    1994-01-01

    To reduce radiation exposure and prevent contamination from spreading, each nuclear power plant has established a radiation controlled area. People and articles out of the controlled area are checked for the surface contamination of radioactive materials with surface contamination monitors. Fuji Electric has repeatedly improved these monitors on the basis of user's needs. This paper outlines typical of a surface contamination monitor, a personal surface contamination monitor, an article surface contamination monitor and a laundry monitor, and the whole-body counter of an internal contamination monitor. (author)

  5. Automatic personnel contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattin, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    United Nuclear Industries, Inc. (UNI) has developed an automatic personnel contamination monitor (APCM), which uniquely combines the design features of both portal and hand and shoe monitors. In addition, this prototype system also has a number of new features, including: micro computer control and readout, nineteen large area gas flow detectors, real-time background compensation, self-checking for system failures, and card reader identification and control. UNI's experience in operating the Hanford N Reactor, located in Richland, Washington, has shown the necessity of automatically monitoring plant personnel for contamination after they have passed through the procedurally controlled radiation zones. This final check ensures that each radiation zone worker has been properly checked before leaving company controlled boundaries. Investigation of the commercially available portal and hand and shoe monitors indicated that they did not have the sensitivity or sophistication required for UNI's application, therefore, a development program was initiated, resulting in the subject monitor. Field testing shows good sensitivity to personnel contamination with the majority of alarms showing contaminants on clothing, face and head areas. In general, the APCM has sensitivity comparable to portal survey instrumentation. The inherit stand-in, walk-on feature of the APCM not only makes it easy to use, but makes it difficult to bypass. (author)

  6. Contamination monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamares, A L [Philippine Nuclear Research Inst., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    1997-06-01

    By virture of Republic Act 2067, as amended the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), now renamed Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) is the government agency charged with the regulations and control of radioactive materials in the Philippines. The protection against the hazards of non-ionizing radiation is being monitored by the Radiological Health Service (RHS) of the Department of Health pursuant to the provision of Presidental Decree 480. The RHS issues licenses for possession, handling, and use of x-ray machines and equipment, both industrial and medical, and provide radiation protection training to x-ray technologists and technicians. As part of its regulatory function, the PNRI is charged with the responsibility of assuring that the radiation workers and the public are protected from the hazards associated with the possession, handling, production, manufacturing, and the use of radioactive materials and atomic energy facilities in the Philippines. The protection of radiation workers from the hazards of ionizing radiation has always been a primary concern of PNRI and by limiting the exposure of radiation workers, the risk to population is kept to within acceptable level. In this paper, the following items are described: radiation protection program, radiation protection services, radiation control, and problems encountered/recommendation. (G.K.)

  7. Radiation contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tsutomu; Iba, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    To make sure of no contamination on people, used articles and working uniforms coming out of the radiation controlled area, nuclear power plants are equipped with radioactive contamination monitors. This paper outlines the basic specifications and advantages of our personnel surface contamination monitors to inspect whole-body surface contamination of people coming out, article surface contamination monitors to inspect the surface and inside contamination of used articles brought out, laundry monitors to inspect surface contamination of working uniforms used in the area before and after a wash, and whole-body counters to inspect and measure the internal contamination of a person out of the area. (author)

  8. Instrument evaluation no. 11. ESI nuclear model 271 C contamination monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, P H

    1978-01-01

    The various radiations encountered in radiological protection cover a wide range of energies and radiation measurements have to he carried out under an equally broad spectrum of environmental conditions. This report is one of a series intended to give information on the performance characteristics of radiological protection instruments, to assist in the selection of appropriate instruments for a given purpose, to interpret the results obtained with such instruments, and, in particular, to know the likely sources and magnitude of errors that might be associated with measurements in the field. The radiation, electrical and environmental characteristics of radiation protection instruments are considered together with those aspects of the construction which make an instrument convenient for routine use. To provide consistent criteria for instrument performance, the range of tests performed on any particular class of instrument, the test methods and the criteria of acceptable performance are based broadly on the a...

  9. Contamination monitoring activities in Kanupp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, S S [Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Pakistan)

    1997-06-01

    The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Kanupp) is a 137 MWe pressurized heavy water reactor, designed and erected by the Canadian General Electric Company as a turn key project. The plant is in operation since it was commissioned in the year 1972. It is located at the Arabian Sea Coast about 15 miles to the west of Karachi. During its more than two decades of operation, the plant has generated about 8 billion units of electricity with an average life time availability factor of 60%. In Kanupp, radioactive contamination may exit due to the release of fission product, activation products etc., which may somehow escape from its confinement and may contaminate surface or other media such as air, water etc. In this paper, following items are described: main aspects of contamination, status of contamination monitoring, need of contamination monitoring, radiation protection activity, instruments, contamination, current status of contamination survey materials and their disposal, and environmental monitoring. (G.K.)

  10. Monitoring of transport contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkin, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Organization of monitoring of transport contamination is considered. A particularly thorough monitoring is recommended to be carried out in loading-unloading operations. The monitoring is performed when leaving loading-unloading site and zone under control and prior to preventive examination, technical service or repair. The method of monitoring of auto transport contamination with high-energy β-emitters by means of a special stand permitting the automation of the monitoring process is described [ru

  11. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities as well as wastes from old waste burial ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. Because of the topic of this workshop, only the assay instrumentation applied specifically to soil monitoring will be discussed here. Four types of soil monitors are described

  12. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities, as well as from old waste-burial-ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. The assay instrumentation that is applied specifically to soil monitoring is discussed

  13. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  14. Calibration of radiation monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Radiation protection is dependent on good radiation monitoring, and properly calibrated instruments are essential for this work. Simple procedures for periodically checking and recalibrating different kinds of radiation monitoring instruments are shown in this training film

  15. Calibration of radiation monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-12-31

    Radiation protection is dependent on good radiation monitoring, and properly calibrated instruments are essential for this work. Simple procedures for periodically checking and recalibrating different kinds of radiation monitoring instruments are shown in this training film

  16. Instruments for Water Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Dwight G.

    1972-01-01

    Presents information regarding available instruments for industries and agencies who must monitor numerous aquatic parameters. Charts denote examples of parameters sampled, testing methods, range and accuracy of test methods, cost analysis, and reliability of instruments. (BL)

  17. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Program Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA uses the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring (UCM) program to collect data for contaminants suspected to be present in drinking water, but that do not have...

  18. Instrumentation for environmental monitoring: biomedical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    An update is presented to Volume four of the six-volume series devoted to a survey of instruments useful for measurements in biomedicine related to environmental research and monitoring. Results of the survey are given as descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Methods of detection and analysis of gaseous organic pollutants and metals, including Ni and As are presented. Instrument techniques and notes are included on atomic spectrometry and uv and visible absorption instrumentation

  19. ESI nuclear model 271 C contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Iles, W.J.

    1978-06-01

    This instrument is a general purpose contamination monitor, comprising a GM tube connected by a coiled extensible cable to a ratemeter. The scale is marked quasi-logarithmically from 0 to 600 in 'counts per second'. The report falls under the headings: general description, facilities and controls, radiation performance, electrical characteristics, environmental characteristics, mechanical characteristics, summary of performance, conclusions. (U.K.)

  20. Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

  1. The status on contamination monitoring in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinakhom, Fookiat [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1997-06-01

    Thailand has embarked upon the development of nuclear energy for peaceful utilizations since 1961 when the Atomic Energy for Peace Act was enacted. The Atomic Energy Commission (Thai AEC) was established under section 5 of this Act having power and duty of carrying out matters concerning atomic energy for peace. The applications of nuclear energy in Thailand, at present are exclusively in medicine, education, research and industry. In this paper, the following items are described on contamination monitoring: controllable monitoring, uncontrollable monitoring, standardization of monitoring instruments, and decontamination and waste management. (G.K.)

  2. Radioactive contamination in monitors received for calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Paulo S.; Santos, Gilvan C. dos; Brunelo, Maria Antonieta G.; Paula, Tiago C. de; Pires, Marina A.; Borges, Jose C.

    2013-01-01

    The Calibration Laboratory - LABCAL, from the Research Center for Metrology and Testing - METROBRAS, MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., began activities in October 2008 and, in August 2009, decided to establish a procedure for monitoring tests, external and internal, of all packages received from customers, containing instruments for calibration. The aim was to investigate possible contamination radioactive on these instruments. On July 2011, this procedure was extended to packagings of personal thermoluminescent dosemeters - TLD, received by the newly created Laboratory Laboratorio de Dosimetria Pessoal - LDP . In the monitoring procedure were used monitors with external probe, type pancake, MRA brand, models GP - 500 and MIR 7028. During the 37 months in which this investigation was conducted, were detected 42 cases of radioactive contamination, with the following characteristics: 1) just one case was personal dosimeter, TLD type; 2) just one case was not from a packing from nuclear medicine service - was from a mining company; 3) contamination occurred on packs and instruments, located and/or widespread; 4) contamination values ranged from slightly above the level of background radiation to about a thousand fold. Although METROBRAS has facilities for decontamination, in most cases, especially those of higher contamination, the procedure followed was to store the contaminated material in a room used for storage of radioactive sources. Periodically, each package and/or instrument was monitored, being released when the radiation level matched the background radiation. Every contamination detected, the client and/or owner of the instrument was informed. The Brazilian National Energy Commission - CNEN, was informed, during your public consultation for reviewing the standard for nuclear medicine services, held in mid-2012, having received from METROBRAS the statistical data available at the time. The high frequency of contamination detected and the high

  3. Miniaturized Environmental Monitoring Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. B. Freidhoff

    1997-09-01

    The objective of the Mass Spectrograph on a Chip (MSOC) program is the development of a miniature, multi-species gas sensor fabricated using silicon micromachining technology which will be orders of magnitude smaller and lower power consumption than a conventional mass spectrometer. The sensing and discrimination of this gas sensor are based on an ionic mass spectrograph, using magnetic and/or electrostatic fields. The fields cause a spatial separation of the ions according to their respective mass-to-charge ratio. The fabrication of this device involves the combination of microelectronics with micromechanically built sensors and, ultimately, vacuum pumps. The prototype of a chemical sensor would revolutionize the method of performing environmental monitoring for both commercial and government applications. The portable unit decided upon was the miniaturized gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector, referred to as a GC/MS in the analytical marketplace.

  4. Hand and foot contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakati, R.K.; Kaptral, R.S.; Ananthkrishnan, T.S.; Pansare, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    In order to make quick measurements of beta and gamma contaminations on hands and feet of personnel working in radioactive environments, hand and foot contamination monitors are widely used. This paper describes such a monitor system designed with Intel 8085 based microcomputer. The monitoring and warning system is designed to perform measurement of activity spread over surface of hands and soles of shoes or feet. Even though the system has many features to aid testing and maintainance operation, it is easy to use for unskilled persons. In order to check the contamination, the person stands on platform and inserts both his hands into detector assemblies thereby actuating the sensing switches. After a preset interval, annunciation of clean or contaminated status is declared by the system. (author)

  5. The design of hands and feet contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Jiangxue; Shen Yang; Deng Changming; Zhang Jia; Hou Lei; Meng Dan

    2011-01-01

    In order to protect the hands and feet of personnel engaged in nuclear, draw on advanced hands and feet contamination monitor, we design a new radiation protection instrumentation. It describes the composition of the hands and feet contamination monitor, and software program design. It describes the hardware monitor software, firmware and computer programming techniques. If device found your hand and foot surface is contamination, it will prompt you to decontamination, to protect your hands and feet of safety. (authors)

  6. Instrument evaluation no. 18. Mini instruments contamination meter type 5.10 EL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Iles, W.J.

    1980-04-01

    An evaluation is given of the general purpose contamination monitor, the Mini-Instruments Type 5-10EL which comprises a probe connected by a coiled extensible cable to a ratemeter. The facilities and controls, radiation characteristics, electrical characteristics, environmental effects, mechanical characteristics, and the manual are considered. A summary is given of the instrument's performance showing that it is a useful general-purpose contamination monitor suitable for the monitoring of beta contamination at a level for non-active areas of 1 DL (3.7 Bq cm -2 (10 -4 μCi cm -2 )) for beta emitters of maximum energy at least that of 14 C, given a normal environmental gamma background. (U.K.)

  7. Nuclear reactor instrumentation power monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigeru.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention concerns a nuclear reactor instrumentation power monitor that can be used in, for example, BWR type nuclear power plants. Signals from multi-channel detectors disposed on field units are converted respectively by LPRM signal circuits. Then, the converted signals are further converted by a multiplexer into digital signals and transmitted as serial data to a central monitor unit. The thus transmitted serial data are converted into parallel data in the signal processing section of the central monitor unit. Then, LPRM signals are taken out from each of channel detectors to conduct mathematical processing such as trip judgment or averaging. Accordingly, the field unit and the central monitor unit can be connected by way of only one data transmission cable thereby enabling to reduce the number of cables. Further, since the data are transmitted on digital form, it less undergoes effect of noises. (I.S.)

  8. Radiation monitoring instrumentation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharath Kumar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of nucleonic signals is required to control and operate the reactor in a safe and reliable manner. To achieve this, parameters like Neutron flux, other radiation fields, contamination levels, source strength, release thru stack etc. are required to be monitored and controlled. The above are required to be monitored throughout the life of the reactor whether it is operational or in shutdown condition. In addition such monitoring is also required during decommissioning phase of the reactor as needed. To measure these parameters a large number of instruments are used in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) which includes sensors and electronics for detecting alpha, beta, gamma and neutron radiation with qualification to withstand harsh environment

  9. Organization of internal contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badreddine, A.

    1986-07-01

    The nuclear energy takes a big part in the world's energy production. The nuclear techniques are used in most fields of life. Nevertheless the use of radioactive materials may cause prejudice to human beings by radiation contamination. The International Commission on Radiological Protection gives the general rules and regulations to avoid this danger. In the publication No. 30, the ICRP gives a metabolic model for the respiratory system and values of Annual Limit of Intake. The ALI for inhalation supposes a standard AMAD (Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter) of 1 um. We have measured the AMAD in a laboratory under different conditions of functioning in order to show its variation. Then we have analysed the effect of this variation on the internal contamination monitoring. Thus we have calculated the Effective Committed Dose (ECD), the ALI, then the Derived Investigation Level (DIL) for different values of AMAD for Whole-Body Counting (WBC)

  10. Country report on contamination monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyuntulkhuur, Navaangalsan [National Centre for Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology (Mongolia). Central Radiological Laboratory

    1997-06-01

    Mongolia is a non-nuclear country and has currently neither nuclear power plants nor research reactors. This country joined the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA) for the Asia Pacific region for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology in 1993. Various measures has been taken for strengthening of radiation protection, cooperated with several international organizations mainly with IAEA. In Mongolia radioactive substances and sources are used for the following purposes: for research work; medical radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology in hospitals; industrial enterprises for technological processes; and for non-destructive testing in industry. Radiation safety inspection is conducted by the CRL. The inspections consist of verification of compliance with radiation safety requirements and with any additional requirements specified in the authorization of accounting records and a physical check on the presence of radiation sources; check on the work carried out by the radiation safety services to monitor radioactive contamination of the environment; and measurements and sampling. CRL should take much attention for improvement and development of the activities in the field of surface contamination monitoring concerning a wide use of radionuclides in different field of economy. (G.K.)

  11. Method of decontaminating radioactive-contaminated instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Megumu; Fujii, Masaaki; Kitaguchi, Hiroshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safety processing of liquid wastes by recovering radioactive metal ions remaining in the electrolytes after the decontamination procedure thereby decreasing the radioactivity. Method: In a decontamination tank containing electrolytes consisting of diluted hydrochloric acid and diluted sulfuric acid, are provided a radioactive contaminated instrument connected to an anode and a collector electrode made of stainless steel connected to a cathode respectively. Upon applying electrical current, the portion of the mother material to be decontaminated is polished electrolytically into metal ions and they are deposited as metal on the collection electrode. After completion of the decontamination, an ultrasonic wave generator is operated to strip and remove the oxide films. Thereafter, the anode is replaced with the carbon electrode and electrical current is supplied continuously, whereby the remaining metal ions are deposited and recovered as the metal on the collection electrode. (Yoshino, Y.)

  12. Method of decontaminating radioactive-contaminated instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, M; Fujii, M; Kitaguchi, H

    1982-03-29

    Purpose: To enable safety processing of liquid wastes by recovering radioactive metal ions remaining in the electrolytes after the decontamination procedure thereby decreasing the radioactivity. Method: In a decontamination tank containing electrolytes consisting of diluted hydrochloric acid and diluted sulfuric acid, are provided a radioactive contaminated instrument connected to an anode and a collector electrode made of stainless steel connected to a cathode respectively. Upon applying electrical current, the portion of the mother material to be decontaminated is polished electrolytically into metal ions and they are deposited as metal on the collection electrode. After completion of the decontamination, an ultrasonic wave generator is operated to strip and remove the oxide films. Thereafter, the anode is replaced with the carbon electrode and electrical current is supplied continuously, whereby the remaining metal ions are deposited and recovered as the metal on the collection electrode.

  13. Status on contamination monitoring in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quanlu, Gou [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)

    1997-06-01

    The air contaminated by radioactive materials in nuclear enterprises and radioactive workplaces and forming radioactive aerosol and the leakage of radioactive materials in operation cause internal exposure damage in workers. It is necessary and important to monitor air and surface contaminations for the health of public and workers, and for protecting environment. At present, many institutes engage in the studies on surface contamination monitoring in China, and the government has formulated the control limits of surface contamination in the Regulations of Radiation Protection. The monitors for surface contamination monitoring are almost home-made. The methods being used often are smear test and placing surface sample test. Scintillation counters, semiconductor detectors and G-M counters have been used for detecting alpha surface contamination. Plastic scintillator meters and thin wall/window G-M counters are used for beta surface contamination. Special detectors have been designed for monitoring low energy nuclides. The status of airborne contamination monitoring in China is reported. As the studies for future, the development of the surface contamination monitor for low energy beta nuclides, especially H-3, the monitoring methods for the special shapes of surfaces, the technology of decontamination and the calibration method and device for on-line radioactive aerosol continuous monitors are taken up. (K.I.)

  14. Development of remote operated floor contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, K.; Gangamohan, M.; Kannan, R.K.; Rajan, S.

    2005-01-01

    Contamination check of floors and walkways in and around Reactor building areas forms an integral part of Radiation Protection Program in Power Stations. Though random swipe check method is adopted for the detection of loose contamination, this method has the disadvantage of leaving the fixed contamination and hotspots undetected. Hence, scanning the area with a sensitive detector, held close to the surface provides positive means for the detection of contamination. Checking large areas and walkways by holding the detector close to the surface involves physical work. Also, areas which are unapproachable due to congestion of equipment, may go uncovered by contamination monitoring in order to eliminate the physical strain involved in such contamination monitoring and to cover unapproachable areas, a small size prototype device that can be operated remotely was fabricated. This device detects contamination instantaneously and accurately. This paper describes design and fabrication of the device used for floor contamination monitoring. (author)

  15. Monitoring of surface and airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeep Kumar, K S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1997-06-01

    Indian nuclear energy programme aims at total safety in all activities involved in the entire fuel cycle for the occupational workers, members of the public and the environment as a whole. Routine radiation monitoring with clearly laid out procedures are followed for ensuring the safety of workers and public. Radiation monitoring carried out for the nuclear installations comprises of process monitoring, monitoring of effluent releases and also of the radiation protection monitoring of the individuals, work place and environment. Regulations like banning of smoking and consumption of food and drink etc. reduces the risk of direct ingestion even if inadvertent spread of contamination takes place. Though limit of transportable surface contamination is prescribed, the health physicists always follow a ``clean on swipe`` philosophy which compensates any error in the measurement of surface contamination. In this paper, the following items are contained: Necessity of contamination monitoring, accuracy required in the calibration of surface contamination monitors, methodology for contamination monitoring, air monitoring, guidelines for unrestricted release of scrap materials, and problems in contamination monitoring. (G.K.)

  16. Monitoring of plutonium contaminated solid waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.; Notea, A.

    1977-01-01

    The planning of a system for monitoring Pu contaminated solid waste streams, from the nuclear fuel cycle, is considered on the basis of given facility waste management program. The inter relations between the monitoring system and the waste management objectives are stressed. Selection criteria with pertinent data of available waste monitors are given. Example of monitoring systems planning are presented and discussed

  17. Instrumentation for Power System Disturbance Monitoring, Data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the level of instrumentation for power system disturbance monitoring, data acquisition and control in Nigerian Electric Power System; National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) is presented. The need for accurate power system disturbance monitoring is highlighted. A feature of an adequate monitoring, data ...

  18. Development of a calibration system for surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marechal, M.H.H.; Barbosa, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A calibration system for surface contamination monitors is developed, aiming supply the existence demand of these instruments. A experimental arrangement and a methodology are described. The advantages of use this system for calibration routine optimization are also discussed. (C.G.C.)

  19. Development of radioactive surface contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Tadao; Hasegawa, Toru; Fukumoto, Keisuke; Ooki, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    In the radiation facilities such as nuclear power plants, surface contamination of the people accessing or articles conveyed in and out of the radiation controlled areas is detected and monitored by installing contamination monitors at the boundary of controlled areas and uncontrolled areas against the expansion of the radioactive materials to out of the facilities. It is required for the surface contamination of articles to be tightened of control criteria as 'Guidelines for discrimination ways of nonradioactive waste (not classified as radioactive waste) generated from nuclear power plants' (hereinafter referred to as 'the Guideline') was established by the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry in August, 2005. It predicts that the control criteria of monitors other than article monitors are also tightened in the future. Fuji electric has been fabricating and delivering surface contamination detecting monitors. Now we are developing the new contamination monitor corresponding to the tightening of the control criteria. 'Large article transfer monitor', 'Clothing monitor' and 'Body surface contamination monitor' are introduced in this article. (author)

  20. Instrumentation for environmental monitoring in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, N.M.; Graven, R.M.; Budnitz, R.J.; Mack, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review of the status of instrumentation for monitoring environmental pollutants is given. Pollutants are divided into six broad categories: trace elements, pesticides and herbicides, ionizing radiation and radionuclides, asbestos and other microparticulates, and gaseous pollutants. (U.S.)

  1. Monitoring of overalls and personnel skin contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkin, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Organization of monitoring of overalls and personnel skin contamination wastes is considered. The devices used for this purpose are enumerated. In sanitary sluices through which the personnel leaving the repair zone it is recommended to particularly thoroughly control hand skin contamination and most contaminated parts of overalls (sleeves, breeches lower parts, pockets, stomack region). In sanitary check points during personnel leaving the operator zone monitoring of overalls and skin contamination is performed. The overalls and other individual protective clothing are subjected to control in a special loundry before and after washing (decontamination) [ru

  2. Contamination monitoring: an overview and its objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangena, S.

    2013-04-01

    The study presents and objectively summarises the aspect of contamination monitoring. This envisages reviewing sources of contamination and evaluating the scientific basis for practice specific courses of action for rehabilitation in a bid to restore pristine conditions wherever possible. The practices considered include nuclear medicine, reprocessing plants, fuel production plants, uranium and thorium mining and milling together with near surface disposal facilities (for radioactive waste). It also deals with monitoring sites contaminated as a consequence of past practices. General issues related to the design and operation of monitoring systems during and in the aftermath of a nuclear or radiological accident are also discussed including monitoring for long lived radionuclides widely dispersed in the environment following an accidental release. Thus the above discourse provides a framework for both quantitative and qualitative measures undertaken to enable effective response in the event of radioactive contamination. (au)

  3. Calibration of alpha surface contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, I.S.M. de; Goncalez, O.L.

    1990-01-01

    In this work, the results, as well as the methodology, of the calibration of an alpha surface contamination monitor are presented. The calibration factors are obtained by least-squares fitting with effective variance. (author)

  4. Automated contamination monitoring for hot particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, G.; Case, L.

    1987-01-01

    INS Corp., the largest nuclear laundry company in the United States, has recently developed two types of automated contamination monitoring systems: 1) the Automated Laundry Monitor (ALM), which provides quality assurance monitoring for protective clothing contamination and 2) a low-level automated monitoring system for Plastic Volume Reduction Service (PVRS). The presentation details the inaccuracies associated with hand-probe frisking which led to the development of the ALM. The ALM was designed for 100% quality assurance monitoring of garments to the most stringent customer requirements. A review of why the ALM is essential in verifying the absence of hot particles on garments is given. The final topic addresses the expansion of the ALM technology in support of the INS Plastic Volume Reduction Service by monitoring decontaminated plastics to free release levels. This presentation reviews the design and operation of both monitoring systems

  5. Optimization of monitoring sewage with radionuclide contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    Recommendations on optimization of monitoring contaminated sewage aimed at enviromental protection agxinst radioactive contamination at minimum cost are presented. The way of selecting water sampling technique depends on water composition stability and flow rate. Depending on the type of radionuclide distribution in the sewage one can estimate minimum frequency of sampling or number of samples sufficient for assuring reliability of the conclusion on the excess or non-excess of permissible radioactive contamination levels, as well as analysis assigned accuracy. By irregular contaminated sewage-discharge and possibility of short-term releases of different form and duration, sampling should be accomplished through automatic devices of continuons or periodic operation

  6. Monitoring and evaluation techniques for airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yihua, Xia [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    1997-06-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are of great importance for the purpose of protection of health and safety of workers in nuclear installations. Because airborne contamination is one of the key sources to cause exposure to individuals by inhalation and digestion, and to cause diffusion of contaminants in the environment. The main objectives of monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are: to detect promptly a loss of control of airborne material, to help identify those individuals and predict exposure levels, to assess the intake and dose commitment to the individuals, and to provide sufficient documentation of airborne radioactivity. From the viewpoint of radiation protection, the radioactive contaminants in air can be classified into the following types: airborne aerosol, gas and noble gas, and volatile gas. In this paper, the following items are described: sampling methods and techniques, measurement and evaluation, and particle size analysis. (G.K.)

  7. Monitoring and evaluation techniques for airborne contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yihua

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are of great importance for the purpose of protection of health and safety of workers in nuclear installations. Because airborne contamination is one of the key sources to cause exposure to individuals by inhalation and digestion, and to cause diffusion of contaminants in the environment. The main objectives of monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are: to detect promptly a loss of control of airborne material, to help identify those individuals and predict exposure levels, to assess the intake and dose commitment to the individuals, and to provide sufficient documentation of airborne radioactivity. From the viewpoint of radiation protection, the radioactive contaminants in air can be classified into the following types: airborne aerosol, gas and noble gas, and volatile gas. In this paper, the following items are described: sampling methods and techniques, measurement and evaluation, and particle size analysis. (G.K.)

  8. Emergency preparedness and internal contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Suomela, M.

    2000-01-01

    After the radiation accidents in Chernobyl, Ukraina in 1986 and in Goiania, Brasil in 1987, much resource have been spent on improving emergency preparedness. Especially regarding transfer of information using the most recent techniques and establishment of 24 hour emergency service of radiation safety experts the development has been fast. The very first measures in a possible emergency situation have been trained nationally and internationally. Less attention has been paid to measures in a somewhat later phase. To be able to react fast enough in an emergency situation it is essential to have well documented plans, written instructions and suitable measurement equipment ready for use. Equally important is that there is trained staff prepared to do measurements without delay. In the first phase of a nuclear accident radioactive iodine is of primary concern regarding internal contamination. After the Chernobyl accident the number of childhood thyroidea cancer clearly exceeded the expected number. Reliable direct measurements of I-131 in the thyroidea in Ukraina, Russia and Belarussia were done only to a limited number of children. Many uncertainties are involved in the data used for dose estimation. Later the body burdens of radiocesium or other radionuclides might be of most importance. Normal whole-body counting instruments can be used if only small groups need to be measured. For large groups of people in an emergency situation faster methods are needed. Different types of monitors installed at places where radiation workers are controlled for internal contamination as well as gamma cameras at hospitals can be used. Rapid field measurements of the whole-body and especially of the thyroid can been done with less sophisticated instruments. In the acute phase of a nuclear accident such measurements should be done without delay. Instruments and staff trained to use them should be available and plans for which groups of people to measure prepared. The detection level

  9. Monitoring of tritium-contaminated surfaces, including skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surette, R A; Wood, M J

    1994-05-01

    We have examined various commercially available tritium surface contamination monitors along with different swipe media and techniques for direct and indirect (swipe) monitoring of contaminated surfaces, including skin. None of the methods or instruments evaluated were more sensitive than the swipe and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method. Swipe measurements with open-window proportional counters were, in general, less than half as sensitive as LSC, but have the advantages of having the results available almost immediately, and no sample preparation is required. The Nuclear Measurement Corporation`s PC-55 is the most suitable instrument we tested for the analysis of routine swipe measurement. The PC-55 was about one third as sensitive as LSC when used with Ontario Hydro filter paper swipe media. Surface contamination measurement results can be obtained within minutes using the PC-55, compared to hours using LSC. The selection of swipe media for use with proportional counter-based instruments is critical. A medium that is electrically insulating can develop an electrostatic charge on its surface; this may alter the field gradient in the detector and may adversely influence the results. Although the PC-55 is sufficiently sensitive and very convenient, operational experience with the instrument is needed before recommending that it replace current LSC methods. The PC-55`s susceptibility to internal tritium contamination may limit its practical usefulness. Because of the complexity of using live animals to evaluate direct and indirect methods for assessing skin contamination, pig skin was investigated as a possible substitute. We concluded that, for the first few hours post-exposure, pig skin mimics the kinetics of animal skin that has contacted a tritium-contaminated surface. (author). 30 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  10. Monitoring of tritium-contaminated surfaces, including skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surette, R.A.; Wood, M.J.

    1994-05-01

    We have examined various commercially available tritium surface contamination monitors along with different swipe media and techniques for direct and indirect (swipe) monitoring of contaminated surfaces, including skin. None of the methods or instruments evaluated were more sensitive than the swipe and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method. Swipe measurements with open-window proportional counters were, in general, less than half as sensitive as LSC, but have the advantages of having the results available almost immediately, and no sample preparation is required. The Nuclear Measurement Corporation's PC-55 is the most suitable instrument we tested for the analysis of routine swipe measurement. The PC-55 was about one third as sensitive as LSC when used with Ontario Hydro filter paper swipe media. Surface contamination measurement results can be obtained within minutes using the PC-55, compared to hours using LSC. The selection of swipe media for use with proportional counter-based instruments is critical. A medium that is electrically insulating can develop an electrostatic charge on its surface; this may alter the field gradient in the detector and may adversely influence the results. Although the PC-55 is sufficiently sensitive and very convenient, operational experience with the instrument is needed before recommending that it replace current LSC methods. The PC-55's susceptibility to internal tritium contamination may limit its practical usefulness. Because of the complexity of using live animals to evaluate direct and indirect methods for assessing skin contamination, pig skin was investigated as a possible substitute. We concluded that, for the first few hours post-exposure, pig skin mimics the kinetics of animal skin that has contacted a tritium-contaminated surface. (author). 30 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  11. Background compensation methodologies for contamination monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, Anand; Chaudhury, Probal; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Radiation surveillance program in the various nuclear facilities incorporate contamination monitoring as an important component. Contamination monitoring programs constitute monitoring for alpha and beta contamination of the physical entities associated with the working personnel that include his hands, feet, clothing, shoes as well as the general surface areas in the working environment like floors. All these measurements are fraught with the contribution of the ambient gamma background radiation fields. These inhibit a proper and precise estimation of the contamination concentration being monitored. This paper investigates the efficacy of two methodologies that have been incorporated in two of the contamination monitoring systems developed in the Division. In the first system discussed, a high degree of gamma compensation has been achieved for an uniform exposure of the order of 50 nSv/hr to 100 mSv/hr. In the second system discussed, the degree of gamma compensation achieved is equal to those dictated by the statistical nature of the uncertainties associated with the subtraction of background from the source data. These two methods can be very effectively employed depending on the application requirement. A minimum detection level equivalent to 0.37 Bq/cdm 2 has been achieved in both these cases

  12. Instrument failure monitoring in nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylee, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of monitoring dynamic systems for instrument failures were developed and evaluated. In particular, application of these methods to nuclear power plant components is addressed. For a linear system, statistical tests on the innovations sequence of a Kalman filter driven by all system measurements provides a failure detection decision and identifies any failed sensor. This sequence (in an unfailed system) is zero-mean with calculable covariance; hence, any major deviation from these properties is assumed to be due to an instrument failure. Once a failure is identified, the failed instrument is replaced with an optimal estimate of the measured parameter. This failure accommodation is accomplished using optimally combined data from a bank of accommodation Kalman filters (one for each sensor), each driven by a single measurement. Using such a sensor replacement allows continued system operation under failed conditions and provides a system operator with information otherwise unavailable. To demonstrate monitor performance, a liner failure monitor was developed for the pressurizer in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor plant. LOFT is a small-scale pressurized water reactor (PWR) research facility located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. A linear, third-order model of the pressurizer dynamics was developed from first principles and validated. Using data from the LOFT L6 test series, numerous actual and simulated water level, pressure, and temperature sensor failures were employed to illustrate monitor capabilities. Failure monitor design was applied to nonlinear dynamic systems by replacing all monitor linear Kalman filters with extended Kalman filters. A nonlinear failure monitor was derived for LOFT reactor instrumentation. A sixth-order reactor model, including descriptions of reactor kinetics, fuel rod heat transfer, and core coolant dynamics, was obtained and verified with test data

  13. Design and Development of Hand and Foot Contamination Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Akter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A hand and foot contamination monitor is a health physics instrument to provide detection and measurement of beta-gamma contamination on the palm of each hand and on the bottom surface of both feet/shoes. There are four channels of detection for two hands and two feet. Four G-M detectors have been used in a single unit to cover the whole area of hand and feet. A regulated high voltage DC power supply (900 V has been designed using the PIC12F675 microcontroller to operate the pancake Geiger-Müller detectors. The reading is displayed on a linearly scaled 0-100 Bq/cm2 analog panel meter. The monitor detects beta–gamma radiation emitted by radioactive materials, and if the detected value exceeds a preset level, the monitor sounds an alarm and displays a reading in the respective panel meter. Indicator lamps are used to show the status of contamination. The performance of the system has been tested by using pulse generator and by flat surface radioactive calibration sources. Electronic linearity, detection efficiency, response to the contamination, calibration factor and percentage of error has been measured. Test results were satisfactory and the present system can be used instead of similar imported instruments.

  14. The last generation of contamination and exposure rate meters and monitors designed in Boris Kidric Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koturovic, A.M.; Sobajic, M.V.; Smelcerovic, M.A.; Damljanovic, D.D.; Drndarevic, V.R.

    1989-01-01

    The last generation of contamination and exposure rate meters and monitors designed and produced in Boris Kidric Institute, presented in this paper, are digital survey instruments. The common principle of these instruments is the 'simple precision' concept, i.e. predetermined time pulse counting. This principle is discussed and basic structure of these instruments is shown with their possibilities and features (author)

  15. Alpha contaminated liquid effluent monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparo, M.; Mattia, B.; Bianchini, E.; Frazzoli, F.V.

    1987-01-01

    The present report takes into consideration the possibility to carry out an in-line control of activity in liquid streams of fuel cycle nuclear plants, epecially for waste streams. The instrument developed for this purpose, has been characterized by means of static and dinamic measurements with Pu and Am bearing solutions. The results so far obtained show that the minimum detectable Pu amount is about .01mg/l and that it is possible to apply such a technique as alarm system able to detect the overcoming of a present threshold of actinides concentrations. The report also presents an approach to the spectra deconvolution in order to determine the amount of single isotopes

  16. Radioactive contamination in monitors received for calibration; Contaminacao em monitores de radiacao recebidos para calibracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Paulo S.; Santos, Gilvan C. dos; Brunelo, Maria Antonieta G.; Paula, Tiago C. de; Pires, Marina A.; Borges, Jose C. [MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., Jardinopolis, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ensaios e Pesquisas em Metrologia (METROBRAS)

    2013-10-01

    The Calibration Laboratory - LABCAL, from the Research Center for Metrology and Testing - METROBRAS, MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., began activities in October 2008 and, in August 2009, decided to establish a procedure for monitoring tests, external and internal, of all packages received from customers, containing instruments for calibration. The aim was to investigate possible contamination radioactive on these instruments. On July 2011, this procedure was extended to packagings of personal thermoluminescent dosemeters - TLD, received by the newly created Laboratory Laboratorio de Dosimetria Pessoal - LDP . In the monitoring procedure were used monitors with external probe, type pancake, MRA brand, models GP - 500 and MIR 7028. During the 37 months in which this investigation was conducted, were detected 42 cases of radioactive contamination, with the following characteristics: 1) just one case was personal dosimeter, TLD type; 2) just one case was not from a packing from nuclear medicine service - was from a mining company; 3) contamination occurred on packs and instruments, located and/or widespread; 4) contamination values ranged from slightly above the level of background radiation to about a thousand fold. Although METROBRAS has facilities for decontamination, in most cases, especially those of higher contamination, the procedure followed was to store the contaminated material in a room used for storage of radioactive sources. Periodically, each package and/or instrument was monitored, being released when the radiation level matched the background radiation. Every contamination detected, the client and/or owner of the instrument was informed. The Brazilian National Energy Commission - CNEN, was informed, during your public consultation for reviewing the standard for nuclear medicine services, held in mid-2012, having received from METROBRAS the statistical data available at the time. The high frequency of contamination detected and the high

  17. Workplace monitoring for radiation and contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiations cannot be seen, felt or sensed by the human body in any way but excessive exposure to them may have adverse health effects. In order to avoid excessive exposure, appropriate and efficient radiation measuring instruments are needed. This Module explains the basic terminology associated with such measuring instruments and describes the principal types, their construction and typical applications in the workplace. It is important to ensure not only that monitoring is carried out where there is a potential radiation exposure but also that the monitoring instrument is appropriate to the task and that the user places correct interpretations on the results obtained. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Some of the instrument tests and calibrations described in this Module require the services of a qualified expert

  18. Status of contamination monitoring in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Aleya [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Savar, Dacca (Bangladesh)

    1997-06-01

    The applications of radioisotopes and radiation sources to the research and development in medicine, food agriculture, industries and others are rapidly increasing in Bangladesh. The existing major nuclear facilites and allied laboratories of the country include 3 MW TRIGA Mark-2 research reactor for training, research and radioisotope production, 14 MeV neutron generator for nuclear data measurement and elemental analysis via neutron activation, 3 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator for the research and application of nuclear physics, and 50,000 Ci and 5,000 Ci Co-60 irradiators. About 10 Co-60 and Cs-137 teletherapy units are in operation in hospitals. The radioactive contamination of working areas, equipment, protective clothing and skin may result from normal operation and accidents, and contamination monitoring and decontamination are the essential part of radiation protection program. Surface contamination is monitored with Berthold survey meters. Hand and foot monitors have been used. Routine systematic search, continuous air monitoring, the examination of silt movement in Chittagong harbor using Sc-46 tracer and the measurement of tritium contamination for the neutron generator are reported. (K.I.)

  19. GSFC contamination monitors for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosso, P. A.; Tveekrem, J. L.; Coopersmith, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the Work Package 3 activities in the area of neutral contamination monitoring for the Space Station. Goddard Space Flight Center's responsibilities include the development of the Attached Payload Accommodations Equipment (APAE), the Polar Orbiting Platform (POP), and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS). GSFC will also develop the Customer Servicing Facility (CSF) in Phase 2 of the Space Station.

  20. Monitoring Instrument for X-Ray Box

    CERN Document Server

    Cifuentes Ospina, Alberto; Kuehn, Susanne; Schaepe, Steffen; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2017-01-01

    A humidity and temperature readout instrument has been designed and implemented in order to monitor the X-Ray Box used for testing the silicon detectors prototypes of the ITk. The sensors are connected to an Arduino Mega board equipped with 16 analog inputs and a serial port to a computer. A user-friendly software has been also designed in order to give an easy access to all measurements.

  1. Instrument evaluation no.14: Wallac laboratory contamination meter RD 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Iles, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    An instrument for measuring low level contamination and consisting of a detachable Geiger-Muller tube probe, connected to a rate meter by a coiled extensible tube is described. Facilities and controls, performance, electrical, environmental and mechanical characteristics are included. (UK)

  2. Safeguards instrument to monitor spent reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, N.; Dowdy, E.J.; Holt, D.M.; Stump, C.

    1981-01-01

    A hand-held instrument for monitoring irradiated nuclear fuel inventories located in water-filled storage ponds has been developed. This instrument provides sufficient precise qualitative and quantitative information to be useful as a confirmatory technique to International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors, and is believed to be of potential use to nuclear fuel managers and to operators of spent-fuel storage facilities, both at reactor and away-from-reactor, and to operators of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Because the Cerenkov radiation glow can barely be seen by the unaided eye under darkened conditions, a night vision device is incorporated to aid the operator in locating the fuel assembly to be measured. Beam splitting optics placed in front of the image intensifier and a preset aperture select a predetermined portion of the observed scene for measurement of the light intensity using a photomultiplier (PM) tube and digital readout. The PM tube gain is adjusted by use of an internal optical reference source, providing long term repeatability and instrument-to-instrument cnsistency. Interchangeable lenses accommodate various viewing and measuring conditions

  3. Workplace monitoring for radiation and contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Ionizing radiations cannot be seen, felt or sensed by the human body in any way but excessive exposure to them may have adverse health effects. Radiation measuring instruments are needed in order to detect the presence of such radiations and avoid excessive exposure. The use of appropriate and efficient instruments enables exposures to be controlled and the doses received to be kept as low as reasonably achievable. This Manual explains the basic terminology associated with such measuring instruments and describes the principal types, their construction and typical applications in the workplace. It is important to ensure not only that monitoring is carried out where there is a potential radiation exposure but also that the monitoring instrument is appropriate to the task and that the user places correct interpretations on the results obtained. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Some of the instrument tests and calibrations described in this Manual require the services of a qualified expert

  4. Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmage, S.S.; Walton, B.T.

    1991-01-01

    The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants

  5. Process instrument monitoring for SNM solution surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armatys, C.M.; Johnson, C.E.; Wagner, E.P.

    1983-02-01

    A process monitoring computer system at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is being used to evaluate nuclear fuel reprocessing plant data for Safeguards surveillance capabilities. The computer system was installed to collect data from the existing plant instruments and to evaluate what safeguards assurances can be provided to complement conventional accountability and physical protection measures. Movements of solutions containing special nuclear material (SNM) can be observed, activities associated with accountancy measurements (mixing, sampling, and bulk measurement) can be confirmed, and long-term storage of SNM solutions can be monitored to ensure containment. Special precautions must be taken, both in system design and operation to ensure adequate coverage of essential measured parameters and interpretation of process data, which can be comprised by instrument malfunctions or failures, unreliable data collection, or process activities that deviate from readily identified procedures. Experience at ICPP and prior evaluations at the Tokai reprocessing plant show that the use of process data can provide assurances that accountability measurement procedures are followed and SNM solutions are properly contained and can help confirm that SNM controls are in effect within a facility

  6. Second IRMF comparison of surface contamination monitor calibrations 2001-2002

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, C J

    2002-01-01

    The Ionising Radiations Metrology Forum (IRMF) organised a second comparison of surface contamination monitor calibrations in which twenty establishments in the UK participated. The exercise involved the circulation of three surface contamination monitors for calibration using large area reference sources available in the participants' laboratories. The instruments used were a Mini Instruments EP15, a Berthold LB122 and an Electra ratemeter with DP6AD probe. The instrument responses were calculated by the individual participants and submitted to the for analysis along with details of the reference sources used. Details of the estimated uncertainties were also reported. The results are compared and demonstrate generally satisfactory agreement between the participating establishments.

  7. Monitoring of plutonium contaminated solid waste streams. Chapter IV: Passive neutron assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.; Bondar, L.

    1978-01-01

    The fundamentals of the passive neutron technique for the non destructive assay of plutonium bearing materials are summarized. A reference monitor for the passive neutron assay of Pu contaminated solids is described in terms of instrumental design principles and performances. The theoretical model of this reference monitor with pertinent nuclear data and functions for the interpretation of experimental data is given

  8. Theoretical considerations on design and analysis of monitoring systems for Pu-contaminated solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notea, A.

    1979-01-01

    Monitoring systems for plutonium contaminated wastes refers to both managerial regulations and instrumental hardware. Its design is inseparable from the design of the production line in the fuel handling facility, and depends on the general wastes management program. Characteristic functions of the monitors are discussed and the necessity of reference monitors is stressed. The reference monitor enables the formation of a quality scale. Guidelines for future R and D efforts are suggested

  9. Statistical considerations in practical contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, A.; Gallaghar, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an examination of smear survey practices which indicates that many radiation safety programs are lacking in important aspects of contamination monitoring. In order to satisfy regulatory and potential litigatory requirements, smear surveys should include the measurement and recording of the flowing data: area of each smear and smear procedure (by reference); total counts on smear and counting procedure; total counts on appropriate blanks and description of blank; total counts on standard and specifications of standard; and all counting times. The rationale for these smear survey requirements is obtained by examining the formulation of the minimum detectable amount (MDA) on a smear

  10. Requirements for internal contamination monitoring units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, E.; Beyer, D.; Doerfel, H.; Erlenbach, H.; Fischbach, G.; Henrichs, K.; Keller, K.D.; Koenig, K.; Riedel, W.; Scheler, R.; Schieferdecker, H.

    1994-01-01

    For the evaluation of internal contamination by officially authorized monitoring units according to section 63 (6) of the German radiation protection ordinance, a directive will be prepared in order to define uniform requirements for the laboratories in charge of incorporation monitoring by appointment of the relevant authorities. These requirements refer to equipment, to performance of measurements, to interpretation of measured values, to quality control as well as to documentation and to delivery of results. The duties of such laboratories comprise measurements of radioactivity, evaluation of intakes of radionuclides and of the resulting internal radiation dose, but also transmission of results to the employer, to the central dose registry, and under certain circumstances to the authorities. Among the requirements to be met by the laboratory for incorporation control are a sufficient measuring efficiency, the implementation of in-house checks, and the participation in intercomparison programs. For the accomplishment of such duties the laboratory needs appropriate apparatus, rooms, facilities, and staffing. (orig.) [de

  11. Instrumentation development for real time brainwave monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Lawrence Frederick; Clough, Benjamin W.

    2005-12-01

    The human brain functions through a chemically-induced biological process which operates in a manner similar to electrical systems. The signal resulting from this biochemical process can actually be monitored and read using tools and having patterns similar to those found in electrical and electronics engineering. The primary signature of this electrical activity is the ''brain wave'', which looks remarkably similar to the output of many electrical systems. Likewise, the device currently used in medical arenas to read brain electrical activity is the electroencephalogram (EEG) which is synonymous with a multi-channel oscilloscope reading. Brain wave readings and recordings for medical purposes are traditionally taken in clinical settings such as hospitals, laboratories or diagnostic clinics. The signal is captured via externally applied scalp electrodes using semi-viscous gel to reduce impedance. The signal will be in the 10 to 100 microvolt range. In other instances, where surgeons are attempting to isolate particular types of minute brain signals, the electrodes may actually be temporarily implanted in the brain during a preliminary procedure. The current configurations of equipment required for EEGs involve large recording instruments, many electrodes, wires, and large amounts of hard disk space devoted to storing large files of brain wave data which are then eventually analyzed for patterns of concern. Advances in sensors, signal processing, data storage and microelectronics over the last decade would seem to have paved the way for the realization of devices capable of ''real time'' external monitoring, and possible assessment, of brain activity. A myriad of applications for such a capability are likewise presenting themselves, including the ability to assess brain functioning, level of functioning and malfunctioning. Our plan is to develop the sensors, signal processing, and portable instrumentation package which could

  12. Paper on operation and maintenance experiences on radiation monitoring instrumentation at NAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, J.P.; Vinod Kumar; Sen, S.K.; Malhotra, S.

    2005-01-01

    Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) is the first standardized Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor in India commissioned in the year 1989. Many new Radiation Monitoring Systems like Portal Monitors and Ventilation Exhaust Activity Monitors were first time introduced at NAPS. All the Personnel Contamination Monitors and Area Radiation Monitors used at NAPS were designed and developed by Electronics Division, BARC. Only the Portal Monitor was supplied by M/S Herfurth, Germany. The paper highlights the operation and maintenance experiences on Radiation Monitoring Instrumentation at NAPS in the last 15 years of operation. The paper also highlights the different problems faced in Radiation Instruments and our suggestions for improvement in their design for their better availability and long term reliability. (author)

  13. Remote Monitoring of Instrumentation in Sealed Compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landron, Clinton; Moser, John C.

    1999-01-01

    The Instrumentation and Telemetry Departments at Sandia National Laboratories have been exploring the instrumentation of sealed canisters where the flight application will not tolerate either the presence of a chemical power source or penetration by power supply wires. This paper will describe the application of a low power micro-controller based instrumentation system that uses magnetic coupling for both power and data to support a flight application

  14. Design of instrument for monitoring nuclear radiation and baneful gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jianping; Chen Jun; Zhu Wenkai

    2006-01-01

    Counters and ionization chambers are applied to sensors, and microprocessor based on ARM IP is applied to center controller in the instrument. It is achieved to monitor nuclear radiation and baneful gas in an instrument. The instrument is capable of LCD displaying, menu operating and speech alarming. (authors)

  15. Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Thomas B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-08-15

    The Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) measures particle mass loading and chemical composition in real time for non-refractory sub-micron aerosol particles. The ACSM is designed for long-term unattended deployment and routine monitoring applications.

  16. Development of custom LCD based portable survey/contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Equipments for carrying out radiation survey measurements for alpha, beta and gamma radiations have evolved considerably with the advancements in Electronics overtime. There are 2 major classes of portable instruments available from most manufacturers - (a) Analog indicator type (b) Direct digital readout type. Analog meters give a direct quantifying feel to radiation levels though they are not rich features nor they have smartness like a digital meter. Digital versions have advantages of direct readout numerically and configurable as per users requirements. To achieve best features of both the techniques a dual indicator type LCD module comprising of Analog indicating LCD segments and digital readout indicating 7 segments has been developed. This LCD comprising of LCD glass and its display driver has been deployed across various types of survey meters and contamination monitors manufactured by Nucleonix. This display now facilitates direct readout of dose rate/count rate in various units simultaneously in both analog LCD scale and direct digital indication. (author)

  17. Chapter 7. Monitoring of chemical contamination of the environment and analytical-chemical monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojak, L.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter deals with the monitoring of chemical contamination of the environment and analytical-chemical monitoring. There are presented: the concept o monitoring of the environment of the Slovak Republic; unified monitoring system and complex information about state and development of the environment; analytical methods determination of chemical contaminants in the environment

  18. Monitoring of atmospheric contamination by plutonium in laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomarola, J.; Risselin, A.; Feliers, P.

    1965-02-01

    Immediate detection of atmospheric contamination by plutonium is necessary for warning of operators. A precise estimate of the level of this contamination is also necessary in order to give the Medical Section proper information. Experiments have been carried out at CEN-FAR using atmospheric contamination by plutonium monitors. This paper deals successively with: important problems of monitoring, the carrying out of the experiments and the results yielded. (authors) [fr

  19. Quantitative analysis of residual protein contamination of podiatry instruments reprocessed through local and central decontamination units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gordon Wg; Goldie, Frank; Long, Steven; Lappin, David F; Ramage, Gordon; Smith, Andrew J

    2011-01-10

    The cleaning stage of the instrument decontamination process has come under increased scrutiny due to the increasing complexity of surgical instruments and the adverse affects of residual protein contamination on surgical instruments. Instruments used in the podiatry field have a complex surface topography and are exposed to a wide range of biological contamination. Currently, podiatry instruments are reprocessed locally within surgeries while national strategies are favouring a move toward reprocessing in central facilities. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of local and central reprocessing on podiatry instruments by measuring residual protein contamination of instruments reprocessed by both methods. The residual protein of 189 instruments reprocessed centrally and 189 instruments reprocessed locally was determined using a fluorescent assay based on the reaction of proteins with o-phthaldialdehyde/sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate. Residual protein was detected on 72% (n = 136) of instruments reprocessed centrally and 90% (n = 170) of instruments reprocessed locally. Significantly less protein (p podiatry instruments when protein contamination is considered, though no significant difference was found in residual protein between local decontamination unit and central decontamination unit processes for Blacks files. Further research is needed to undertake qualitative identification of protein contamination to identify any cross contamination risks and a standard for acceptable residual protein contamination applicable to different instruments and specialities should be considered as a matter of urgency.

  20. Quantitative analysis of residual protein contamination of podiatry instruments reprocessed through local and central decontamination units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramage Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cleaning stage of the instrument decontamination process has come under increased scrutiny due to the increasing complexity of surgical instruments and the adverse affects of residual protein contamination on surgical instruments. Instruments used in the podiatry field have a complex surface topography and are exposed to a wide range of biological contamination. Currently, podiatry instruments are reprocessed locally within surgeries while national strategies are favouring a move toward reprocessing in central facilities. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of local and central reprocessing on podiatry instruments by measuring residual protein contamination of instruments reprocessed by both methods. Methods The residual protein of 189 instruments reprocessed centrally and 189 instruments reprocessed locally was determined using a fluorescent assay based on the reaction of proteins with o-phthaldialdehyde/sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate. Results Residual protein was detected on 72% (n = 136 of instruments reprocessed centrally and 90% (n = 170 of instruments reprocessed locally. Significantly less protein (p Conclusions Overall, the results show the superiority of central reprocessing for complex podiatry instruments when protein contamination is considered, though no significant difference was found in residual protein between local decontamination unit and central decontamination unit processes for Blacks files. Further research is needed to undertake qualitative identification of protein contamination to identify any cross contamination risks and a standard for acceptable residual protein contamination applicable to different instruments and specialities should be considered as a matter of urgency.

  1. INSTRUMENTATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING--Radiation--Vol3Pt1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1972-01-02

    A comprehensive survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring is being carried out by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory originally under a grant from the National Science Foundation and now by the Office of Health and Environmental Research of the Department of Energy. Instruments being investigated are those useful for measurements in Air Quality, Water Quality, Radiation, and Biomedicine related to environmental research and monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to this work. The results of the survey are given as (a) descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, (b) critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and (c) recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Information is also given regarding the pollutants to be monitored: their characteristics and forms, their sources and pathways, their effects on the ecosystem, and the means of controlling them through process and regulatory controls.

  2. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites

  3. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites.

  4. The instrumentation for express characterization of historical radwaste storages and contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, A.G.; Ignatov, S.M.; Danilovich, A.S.; Potapov, V.N.; Ivanov, O.P.; Stepanov, V.E.; Smirnov, S.V.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of special radiation measurement problems arise in planning and performance of rehabilitation activities at the radwaste disposal site (RWDS), including acquisition and refinement of data on composition, location and activity of radwaste (RW) in the old repositories, evaluation of activity of radwaste to be removed, measurement of radioactive contamination of repository structures and soil, monitoring of dose rates [1]. The old repositories are characterized by nonuniform RW distribution over the repository volume. The radwaste in the old repositories are mixed with soil, concrete and other materials. A number of new instruments and systems were developed to conduct the necessary measurements. New instruments with collimated scintillation detectors operating both in current and spectrometry modes were developed for measurements of the distribution of the RW specific activity over layers in the old repositories. The measurements are taken in exploratory wells that are drilled in the old repositories prior to their opening. The technique of specific activity measurements with collimated detectors was used when examining radioactive contamination of soil in a number of Russian contaminated territories and demonstrated a good agreement with results of sampling performed at the same time. (author)

  5. Multisensor Instrument for Real-Time Biological Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sean (Zhanxiang); Xu, Guoda; Qiu, Wei; Lin, Freddie

    2004-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an instrumentation system, called a fiber optic-based integration system (FOBIS), that is undergoing development to enable real-time monitoring of fluid cell cultures, bioprocess flows, and the like. The FOBIS design combines a micro flow cytometer (MFC), a microphotometer (MP), and a fluorescence-spectrum- or binding-force-measuring micro-sensor (MS) in a single instrument that is capable of measuring multiple biological parameters simultaneously or sequentially. The fiber-optic-based integration system is so named because the MFC, the MP, and the MS are integrated into a single optical system that is coupled to light sources and photometric equipment via optical fibers. The optical coupling components also include a wavelength-division multiplexer and diffractive optical elements. The FOBIS includes a laserdiode- and fiber-optic-based optical trapping subsystem (optical tweezers ) with microphotometric and micro-sensing capabilities for noninvasive confinement and optical measurement of relevant parameters of a single cell or other particle. Some of the measurement techniques implemented together by the FOBIS have long been used separately to obtain basic understanding of the optical properties of individual cells and other organisms, the optical properties of populations of organisms, and the interrelationships among these properties, physiology of the organisms, and physical processes that govern the media that surround the organisms. For example, flow cytometry yields information on numerical concentrations, cross-sectional areas, and types of cells or other particles. Micro-sensing can be used to measure pH and concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose, metabolites, calcium, and antigens in a cell-culture fluid, thereby providing feedback that can be helpful in improving control over a bioprocess. Microphotometry (including measurements of scattering and fluorescence) can yield further information about optically

  6. Single-chip microcomputer application in nuclear radiation monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Songshou

    1994-01-01

    The single-chip microcomputer has advantage in many respects i.e. multiple function, small size, low-power consumption,reliability etc. It is widely used now in industry, instrumentation, communication and machinery. The author introduced usage of single-chip microcomputer in nuclear radiation monitoring instruments for control, linear compensation, calculation, changeable parameter presetting and military training

  7. Regulatory requirements and quality assurance of radiation monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimharao, K.L.; Sharma, Ranjit

    2005-01-01

    The successful utilisation of radiation sources in the fields of medicine and industry requires the accurate measurement of activity, exposure rate and dose. Many varieties of instruments are in use for measurement of these parameters and new ones are being developed. The criteria for the design of the radiation monitoring instrument include the type and intensity of the radiation, purpose of measurement and ruggedness of the instrument. Quality and reliability of radiation monitoring instruments ensure that individuals are adequately protected. Accuracy, response time and ruggedness are required to be as per the approved/ prescribed guidelines. Regulatory authorities outline the design and performance criteria for radiation monitoring instruments and prescribe the recommendations of international agencies such as IAEA, ICRU and ISO for radiological measurement assurance programme. National Standards Laboratories all over the world prescribe procedures for calibration of various radiation monitoring instruments. The instruments should be calibrated as per these guidelines and should be traceable to national standards. The calibration traceable to national/ international standards and documentation as well as limits stipulated by the competent authority ensures the expected performance of the instrument. (author)

  8. Instrumentation for chemical and radiochemical monitoring in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, F.; Ballard, G.

    2009-01-01

    This article details the instrumentation implemented in French nuclear power plants for the monitoring of chemical and radiochemical effluents with the aim of limiting their environmental impact. It describes the controls performed with chemical automata for the search for drifts, anomalies or pollution in a given circuit. The operation principles of the different types of chemical automata are explained as well as the manual controls performed on samples manually collected. Content: 1 - general considerations; 2 - objectives of the chemical monitoring: usefulness of continuous monitoring with automata, transmission to control rooms and related actions, redundancy of automata; 3 - instrumentation and explanations for the main circuits: principle of chemical automata monitoring, instrumentation of the main primary circuit, instrumentation of the main secondary circuit, instrumentation of the tertiary circuit, preparation of water makeup (demineralized water), other loops, instrumentation for effluents and environment monitoring, measurement principles of chemical automata, control and maintenance of chemical automata; 4 - manual controls after sampling; 5 - radiochemical monitoring: automatized radiochemical measurements, manual radiochemical measurements; 6 - conclusion

  9. Absorption-Edge-Modulated Transmission Spectra for Water Contaminant Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6390--16-9675 Absorption- Edge -Modulated Transmission Spectra for Water Contaminant...ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Absorption- Edge -Modulated Transmission Spectra for Water Contaminant Monitoring...contaminants, within a volume of sampled solution, requires sufficient sensitivity. The present study examines the sensitivity of absorption- edge

  10. Micro GC's for Contaminant Monitoring in Spacecraft Air, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to create new gas chromatographs (GCs) for contaminant monitoring in spacecraft air that do not require any reagents or special...

  11. LEDA BEAM DIAGNOSTICS INSTRUMENTATION: BEAM POSITION MONITORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7-MeV and current of 100-mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Of key importance to the commissioning and operations effort is the Beam Position Monitor system (BPM). The LEDA BPM system uses five micro-stripline beam position monitors processed by log ratio processing electronics with data acquisition via a series of custom TMS32OC40 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. Of special interest to this paper is the operation of the system, the log ratio processing, and the system calibration technique. This paper will also cover the DSP system operations and their interaction with the main accelerator control system

  12. Monitoring instrumentation spent fuel management program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary monitoring system methodologies are identified as an input to the risk assessment of spent fuel management. Conceptual approaches to instrumentation for surveillance of canister position and orientation, vault deformation, spent fuel dissolution, temperature, and health physics conditions are presented. In future studies, the resolution, reliability, and uncertainty associated with these monitoring system methodologies will be evaluated

  13. Understanding Fluid and Contaminant Movement in the Unsaturated Zone Using the INEEL Vadose Zone Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J. M.; Mattson, E. D.; Sisson, J. B.; Magnuson, S. O.

    2002-01-01

    DOE has hundreds of contaminated facilities and waste sites requiring cleanup and/or long-term monitoring. These contaminated sites reside in unsaturated soils (i.e. the vadose zone) above the water table. Some of these sites will require active remediation activities or removal while other sites will be placed under institutional controls. In either case, evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation strategy or institutional controls will require monitoring. Classical monitoring strategies implemented at RCRA/CERCLA sites require ground water sampling for 30 years following closure. The overall effectiveness of ground water sampling is diminished due to the fact that by the time you detect chemical transport from a waste site, a major contamination plume likely exists in the vadose zone and the aquifer. This paper suggests a more effective monitoring strategy through monitoring near the contaminant sites within the vadose zone. Vadose zone monitoring allows for quicker detection of potential contaminant transport. The INEEL Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) is becoming an accepted, cost effective monitoring technology for assessing contaminant transport at DOE facilities. This paper describes the technologies employed in the VZMS and describes how it was used at several DOE facilities. The INEEL VZMS has provided the information in developing and validating both conceptual and risk assessment models of contaminant transport at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Hanford site. These DOE sites exhibit a broad range of meteorologic, hydrologic and geologic conditions representative of various common geologic environments. The VZMS is comprised of advanced tensiometers, water content sensors, temperature sensors and soil and gas samplers. These instruments are placed at multiple depths in boreholes and allows for the detection of water movement in the

  14. a Novel Instrument to Monitor Lanslides Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasuto, A.; Mantovani, M.; Schenato, L.; Scherneck, H.

    2013-12-01

    Landslides are more widespread than any other geological event and have high ranking among the natural disasters in terms of casualties and economical damages. Deforestation and constructions of new settlements and infrastructures, as direct consequences of population growth, and the increasing frequency of extreme meteorological events, due to the global climatic changing, could lead to a more severe impact of landslides on human life and activities in the next future. Risk reduction generally comes through countermeasures, both structural and non-structural, that directly act on the developing process or tend to reduce the effects on the fabric of the city and of the environment. Nevertheless countermeasures have often shown their flimsiness especially if they are carried out on disruptions hard to stabilize for their dimensions, kinematics and morpho-evolutive conditions. In these cases there are basically two options: the relocation of the element at risk or the surveillance of the evolution of the instability process by means of a monitoring system. Monitoring therefore represents a powerful tool in both the surveillance of the territory and the management of the emergencies coming from geo-hydrological hazard. In this study we propose the development and testbedding of a novel, low-cost wireless smart sensor network for remote monitoring of land surface deformations. The purpose is to create a flexible and scalable monitoring system in order to overcome some of the limitations of the existing devices and to strongly reduce the costs. The system consists in a master station that works as a control and measuring unit, and a series of sensors (motes) placed over the unstable areas. The master station transmits a microwave signal and receives the response from each mote measuring their relative position and inferring any deformation occurred between successive interrogations. Moreover the motes can work as bridges so that even those that are not directly visible

  15. Assessing hospitals' clinical risk management: Development of a monitoring instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeiffer Yvonne

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical risk management (CRM plays a crucial role in enabling hospitals to identify, contain, and manage risks related to patient safety. So far, no instruments are available to measure and monitor the level of implementation of CRM. Therefore, our objective was to develop an instrument for assessing CRM in hospitals. Methods The instrument was developed based on a literature review, which identified key elements of CRM. These elements were then discussed with a panel of patient safety experts. A theoretical model was used to describe the level to which CRM elements have been implemented within the organization. Interviews with CRM practitioners and a pilot evaluation were conducted to revise the instrument. The first nationwide application of the instrument (138 participating Swiss hospitals was complemented by in-depth interviews with 25 CRM practitioners in selected hospitals, for validation purposes. Results The monitoring instrument consists of 28 main questions organized in three sections: 1 Implementation and organizational integration of CRM, 2 Strategic objectives and operational implementation of CRM at hospital level, and 3 Overview of CRM in different services. The instrument is available in four languages (English, German, French, and Italian. It allows hospitals to gather comprehensive and systematic data on their CRM practice and to identify areas for further improvement. Conclusions We have developed an instrument for assessing development stages of CRM in hospitals that should be feasible for a continuous monitoring of developments in this important area of patient safety.

  16. Assessing hospitals' clinical risk management: Development of a monitoring instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, Matthias; Kessler, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Yvonne; Wehner, Theo; Manser, Tanja

    2010-12-13

    Clinical risk management (CRM) plays a crucial role in enabling hospitals to identify, contain, and manage risks related to patient safety. So far, no instruments are available to measure and monitor the level of implementation of CRM. Therefore, our objective was to develop an instrument for assessing CRM in hospitals. The instrument was developed based on a literature review, which identified key elements of CRM. These elements were then discussed with a panel of patient safety experts. A theoretical model was used to describe the level to which CRM elements have been implemented within the organization. Interviews with CRM practitioners and a pilot evaluation were conducted to revise the instrument. The first nationwide application of the instrument (138 participating Swiss hospitals) was complemented by in-depth interviews with 25 CRM practitioners in selected hospitals, for validation purposes. The monitoring instrument consists of 28 main questions organized in three sections: 1) Implementation and organizational integration of CRM, 2) Strategic objectives and operational implementation of CRM at hospital level, and 3) Overview of CRM in different services. The instrument is available in four languages (English, German, French, and Italian). It allows hospitals to gather comprehensive and systematic data on their CRM practice and to identify areas for further improvement. We have developed an instrument for assessing development stages of CRM in hospitals that should be feasible for a continuous monitoring of developments in this important area of patient safety.

  17. CLOUDCLOUD : general-purpose instrument monitoring and data managing software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, António; Amorim, António; Tomé, António

    2016-04-01

    An effective experiment is dependent on the ability to store and deliver data and information to all participant parties regardless of their degree of involvement in the specific parts that make the experiment a whole. Having fast, efficient and ubiquitous access to data will increase visibility and discussion, such that the outcome will have already been reviewed several times, strengthening the conclusions. The CLOUD project aims at providing users with a general purpose data acquisition, management and instrument monitoring platform that is fast, easy to use, lightweight and accessible to all participants of an experiment. This work is now implemented in the CLOUD experiment at CERN and will be fully integrated with the experiment as of 2016. Despite being used in an experiment of the scale of CLOUD, this software can also be used in any size of experiment or monitoring station, from single computers to large networks of computers to monitor any sort of instrument output without influencing the individual instrument's DAQ. Instrument data and meta data is stored and accessed via a specially designed database architecture and any type of instrument output is accepted using our continuously growing parsing application. Multiple databases can be used to separate different data taking periods or a single database can be used if for instance an experiment is continuous. A simple web-based application gives the user total control over the monitored instruments and their data, allowing data visualization and download, upload of processed data and the ability to edit existing instruments or add new instruments to the experiment. When in a network, new computers are immediately recognized and added to the system and are able to monitor instruments connected to them. Automatic computer integration is achieved by a locally running python-based parsing agent that communicates with a main server application guaranteeing that all instruments assigned to that computer are

  18. Device for contamination monitoring against radiation contamination of people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rische, U.W.; Gerlach, R.

    1986-01-01

    The monitor has detector devices at an angle to each other made as a rigid component which can be rotated around a vertical axis in the angle between the joined detector devices. A reset drive which can be tensioned is provided at the axis of rotation. If it is in its rest position, a platform is situated as floor plate with a foot detector between the vertical detector devices. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Improvement of a device for monitoring the contamination of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, Albert.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this invention is to make it possible to monitor the contamination of surfaces by a light weight portable device and enabling the alpha, beta and gamma radiation contamination to be detected. The detection probe which is connected by a single lead to the box is adapted, in each particular case, to the radiation mode emitted by the contaminated surfaces and the box is provided with a special leak-proof socket for connecting the probe and includes means for assessing the counting rate of the radiation given off, depending on the mode of the radiations emitted by the contaminated surfaces and the intensity of the count rate [fr

  20. Monitor for alpha beta contamination of hands; Moniteur de contamination alpha beta des mains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guitton, J

    1958-07-01

    The following specifications of hands alpha beta contamination monitor are presented: the position of the hands, the detection and separation of alpha and beta, the information processing, the programming, the results presentation and general characteristics. (A.L.B.)

  1. Device for contamination monitoring against radiation contamination of people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rische, U.W.; Gerlach, R.

    1986-01-01

    The monitor has only two detector columns at an angle to one another and possibly divided in height, whose detectors are divided in the vertical direction in a middle range depending on a reference shape. The units formed by the subdivision equal the effect produced by the subdivision in approximation to the reference shape in evaluation. By including the detector columns divided into several detectors in height, a detector of about half the width is produced at a level above the threshold. Underarm boxes are provided at the outer edge of this detector, which are directed obliquely upwards. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Biological monitoring of environmental contaminants (plants). Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, M.A.S.

    1986-01-01

    Knowledge of contaminant concentrations does not necessarily indicate their significance to plant populations and communities within ecosystems. Accumulation within plants facilitates analysis of contaminants which may be present at very low levels in the environment and may show the spatial distribution and changes in the level of contamination with time. Effects on species distribution within plant communities and visible injury to foliage may also be related to contamination. Species can be selected appropriate to the area and the contaminant to be monitored. Species used to investigate the input of contaminants from atmospheric deposition, for example, may differ from those used to assess transfer through food webs. Mosses and lichens have been particularly widely used in many countries to show distribution of metals and radionuclides on local and regional scales and of pesticide contamination. Visible injury to foliage of higher plant species may reflect atmospheric concentrations of gaseous pollutants and monitoring networks of transplanted sensitive species can provide information on contaminant levels on a regional scale. Changes in species composition, especially of lichens, have also been related to the degree of contamination.

  3. Proximal spectral sensing to monitor phytoremediation of metal - contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rathod, P.H.; Rossiter, D.; Noomen, M.; van der Meer, F.D.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of soil contamination and its long-term monitoring are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of phytoremediation systems. Spectral sensing-based monitoring methods promise obvious benefits compared to field-based methods: lower cost, faster data acquisition and better spatio-temporal

  4. Modeling, Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Spacecraft Air Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, W. Fred; Skliar, Mikhail; Narayan, Anand; Morgenthaler, George W.; Smith, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    Control of air contaminants is a crucial factor in the safety considerations of crewed space flight. Indoor air quality needs to be closely monitored during long range missions such as a Mars mission, and also on large complex space structures such as the International Space Station. This work mainly pertains to the detection and simulation of air contaminants in the space station, though much of the work is easily extended to buildings, and issues of ventilation systems. Here we propose a method with which to track the presence of contaminants using an accurate physical model, and also develop a robust procedure that would raise alarms when certain tolerance levels are exceeded. A part of this research concerns the modeling of air flow inside a spacecraft, and the consequent dispersal pattern of contaminants. Our objective is to also monitor the contaminants on-line, so we develop a state estimation procedure that makes use of the measurements from a sensor system and determines an optimal estimate of the contamination in the system as a function of time and space. The real-time optimal estimates in turn are used to detect faults in the system and also offer diagnoses as to their sources. This work is concerned with the monitoring of air contaminants aboard future generation spacecraft and seeks to satisfy NASA's requirements as outlined in their Strategic Plan document (Technology Development Requirements, 1996).

  5. Onboard calibration and monitoring for the SWIFT instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnama, P; McDade, I; Shepherd, G; Gault, W

    2012-01-01

    The SWIFT (Stratospheric Wind Interferometer for Transport studies) instrument is a proposed space-based field-widened Doppler Michelson interferometer designed to measure stratospheric winds and ozone densities using a passive optical technique called Doppler Michelson imaging interferometry. The onboard calibration and monitoring procedures for the SWIFT instrument are described in this paper. Sample results of the simulations of onboard calibration measurements are presented and discussed. This paper also discusses the results of the derivation of the calibrations and monitoring requirements for the SWIFT instrument. SWIFT's measurement technique and viewing geometry are briefly described. The reference phase calibration and filter monitoring for the SWIFT instrument are two of the main critical design issues. In this paper it is shown that in order to meet SWIFT's science requirements, Michelson interferometer optical path difference monitoring corresponding to a phase calibration accuracy of ∼10 −3 radians, filter passband monitoring corresponding to phase accuracy of ∼5 × 10 −3 radians and a thermal stability of 10 −3 K s −1 are required. (paper)

  6. Contamination control by laundry monitor at NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vishwanath P.; Rana, P.K.; Lokeshwar Rao, S.; Managanvi, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power reactor produces electricity as well as small quantity of radioactive waste as gaseous, liquid and solid. The waste contains radionuclides produced by fission and activation in reactor systems with wide spectrum of energy and half life. The long-lived nuclides Sr, Cs, Ba, Iodine and Co etc compared to short-lived are important in view of radiation protection. The radioactive contamination on the materials, human body or other places where it is undesirable is enormously harmful to workers at Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The spread of radioactive from controlled areas is very complex problem for power reactor plant management

  7. Method and apparatus for continuous fluid leak monitoring and detection in analytical instruments and instrument systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Karl K [Pasco, WA; Moore, Ronald J [West Richland, WA

    2010-07-13

    A method and device are disclosed that provide for detection of fluid leaks in analytical instruments and instrument systems. The leak detection device includes a collection tube, a fluid absorbing material, and a circuit that electrically couples to an indicator device. When assembled, the leak detection device detects and monitors for fluid leaks, providing a preselected response in conjunction with the indicator device when contacted by a fluid.

  8. A Coupled model for ERT monitoring of contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuling; Zhang, Bo; Gong, Shulan; Xu, Ya

    2018-02-01

    The performance of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) system is usually investigated using a fixed resistivity distribution model in numerical simulation study. In this paper, a method to construct a time-varying resistivity model by coupling water transport, solute transport and constant current field is proposed for ERT monitoring of contaminated sites. Using the proposed method, a monitoring model is constructed for a contaminated site with a pollution region on the surface and ERT monitoring results at different time is calculated by the finite element method. The results show that ERT monitoring profiles can effectively reflect the increase of the pollution area caused by the diffusion of pollutants, but the extent of the pollution is not exactly the same as the actual situation. The model can be extended to any other case and can be used to scheme design and results analysis for ERT monitoring.

  9. Considerations of selection suggested for internal contamination monitoring in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz S, R.; Lopez B, G.; Placeres V, C.; Arado L, J.; Jova S, L.

    1996-01-01

    A method for calculating effective risk of radionuclide intake and hypothetical annual dose that will receive a person who works with unsealed sources is proposed. Calculated committed dose equivalent and metabolic characteristic of radionuclides permit to select the type of monitoring 'in vivo' and/or 'in vitro'. The method was applied to 396 workers from 28 institutions, where 20 radionuclides in 124 different products for 266 applications are used. From this study 62% of the workers had to be monitored for internal contamination, meanly by 'in vitro' monitoring. In practices of Nuclear Medicine and other medical uses 75% of the workers had to be monitored. These results permitted to corroborate the criteria for internal contamination monitoring program carried out by Center for Hygiene and Radiation Protection and permitted to identify needs for control of radionuclides intakes. (authors).5 refs., 3 figs

  10. Atmospheric air contamination monitoring. Monitoring station ASS-500, GIG Katowice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, B.

    1993-01-01

    The results obtained during the period of 1991-1993 in monitoring station ASS-500 working in Katowice have been presented. The concentration of 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 40 K, 7 Be and dustiness in atmospheric air have been shown. Some proposals about the modifications of monitoring station ASS-500 have been introduced. 3 figs, 5 tabs

  11. Applied research of environmental monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju

    1997-08-01

    This technical report is written as a guide book for applied research of environmental monitoring using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The contents are as followings; sampling and sample preparation as a airborne particulate matter, analytical methodologies, data evaluation and interpretation, basic statistical methods of data analysis applied in environmental pollution studies. (author). 23 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs.

  12. Mobile Monitoring System for Nuclear Contamination Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broide, A.; Sheinfeld, M.; Marcus, E.; Wengrowicz, U.; Tirosh, D.

    2002-01-01

    In case of a nuclear accident, it is essential to have extensive knowledge concerning the nature of the radioactive plume expansion, for further analysis. For this purpose a mobile monitoring system may provide important data about the plume characteristics. An advanced Mobile Monitoring System is under development at the Nuclear Research Center-Negev. The system is composed of a network of mobile stations, typically installed onboard vehicles, which transmit radiation measurements along with position information to a central station. The mobile network's communications infrastructure is based on Motorola Mobile Logic Unit devices, which are state-of-the-art reliable modems with an integrated Global Positioning System module. The radiation measurements received by the central station are transferred to a risk assessment program, which evaluates the expected hazards to the populated areas located in the estimated plume's expansion direction

  13. Calibration through on-line monitoring of instruments channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Plant technical specifications require periodic calibration of instrument channels, and this has traditionally meant calibration at fixed time intervals for nearly all instruments. Experience has shown that unnecessarily frequent calibrations reduce channel availability and reliability, impact outage durations, and increase maintenance costs. An alternative approach to satisfying existing requirements for periodic calibration consists of on-line monitoring and quantitative comparison of instrument channels during operation to identify instrument degradation and failure. A Utility Working Group has been formed by EPRI to support the technical activities necessary to achieve generic NRC acceptance of on-line monitoring of redundant instrument channels as a basis for determining when to perform calibrations. A topical report proposing NRC acceptance of this approach was submitted in August 1995, and the Working Group is currently resolving NRC technical questions. This paper describes the proposed approach and the current status of the topical report with regard to NRC review. While these activities will not preclude utilities from continuing to use existing calibration approaches, successful acceptance of this performance-based approach will allow utilities to substantially reduce the number of calibrations which are performed. Concurrent benefits will include reduced I ampersand C impact on outage durations and improved sensitivity to instrument channel performance

  14. On-line Monitoring of Instrumentation in Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-12-01

    This publication is the result of a benchmarking effort undertaken under the IAEA coordinated research project on improved instrumentation and control (I&C) maintenance techniques for research reactors. It lays the foundation for implementation of on-line monitoring (OLM) techniques and establishment of the validity of those for improved maintenance practices in research reactors for a number of applications such as change to condition based calibration, performance monitoring of process instrumentation systems, detection of process anomalies and to distinguish between process problems/effects and instrumentation/sensor issues. The techniques and guidance embodied in this publication will serve the research reactor community in providing the technical foundation for implementation of OLM techniques. It is intended to be used by Member States to implement I&C maintenance and to improve performance of research reactors.

  15. Volcano-Monitoring Instrumentation in the United States, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Diefenbach, Angela K.; Ewert, John W.; Ramsey, David W.; Cervelli, Peter F.; Schilling, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    The United States is one of the most volcanically active countries in the world. According to the global volcanism database of the Smithsonian Institution, the United States (including its Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands) is home to about 170 volcanoes that are in an eruptive phase, have erupted in historical time, or have not erupted recently but are young enough (eruptions within the past 10,000 years) to be capable of reawakening. From 1980 through 2008, 30 of these volcanoes erupted, several repeatedly. Volcano monitoring in the United States is carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Volcano Hazards Program, which operates a system of five volcano observatories-Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO), Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), Long Valley Observatory (LVO), and Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO). The observatories issue public alerts about conditions and hazards at U.S. volcanoes in support of the USGS mandate under P.L. 93-288 (Stafford Act) to provide timely warnings of potential volcanic disasters to the affected populace and civil authorities. To make efficient use of the Nation's scientific resources, the volcano observatories operate in partnership with universities and other governmental agencies through various formal agreements. The Consortium of U.S. Volcano Observatories (CUSVO) was established in 2001 to promote scientific cooperation among the Federal, academic, and State agencies involved in observatory operations. Other groups also contribute to volcano monitoring by sponsoring long-term installation of geophysical instruments at some volcanoes for specific research projects. This report describes a database of information about permanently installed ground-based instruments used by the U.S. volcano observatories to monitor volcanic activity (unrest and eruptions). The purposes of this Volcano-Monitoring Instrumentation Database (VMID) are to (1) document the Nation's existing

  16. Quality assurance of radiation protection monitoring instruments in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, S.M.; Daniel, Liji; Rao, Suresh; Sharma, D.N.

    2008-01-01

    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is the National Metrology Institute (NMI) for developing, maintaining and disseminating standards for ionizing radiation in India. Radiation Safety Systems Division (RSSD) of BARC has the requisite infrastructure in the form of experts, trained manpower, laboratories, equipment and facilities for providing calibration services to users and ascertaining traceability to international standards. It periodically participates in various international inter-comparisons. RSSD maintains reference radiation fields that are required for calibrating Radiation Protection Monitoring Instruments that form the backbone of the radiation monitoring programme for harnessing the benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiations. These instruments are type-tested and periodically calibrated at standard reference radiation fields to ensure their healthy working condition and fitness for their intended use. This paper describes the details of the standardization procedures adopted for reference radiation fields and infrastructure established and maintained at RSSD, BARC in accordance with the recommendations of ISO-4037. The paper describes the various tests that are carried out for radiation protection monitoring instrument to study the variation of the calibration factor with influencing quantities like linearity of response, energy response, angular dependence and overload characteristics. The results of these tests for typical instruments are also discussed. The present work also describes various types of indigenously developed radiation protection monitoring instruments and their performance characteristics. Adaptability of these instruments for the implementation of operational quantities are discussed briefly. It also dwells on the IAEA Quality Audit for radiation protection level calibrations, which RSSD has been participating since 2001. Our results of the quality audit are well within the acceptance limit (±7%) set by IAEA for the

  17. Automation system for tritium contaminated surface monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Curuia, Marian; Raceanu, Mircea; Enache, Adrian; Stefanescu, Ioan; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2005-01-01

    The low energy of betas makes tritium difficult to detect. However, there are several methods used in tritium detection, such as liquid scintillation and ionization chambers. Tritium on or near a surface can be also detected using proportional counter and, recently, solid state devices. The paper presents our results in the design and achievement of a surface tritium monitor using a PIN photodiode as a solid state charged particle detector to count betas emitted from the surface. That method allows continuous, real-time and non-destructively measuring of tritium. (authors)

  18. Eco-monitoring of highly contaminated areas: historic heavy metal contamination in tree ring records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baross, Norbert; Jordán, Győző; Albert, Julianna; Abdaal, Ahmed; Anton, Attila

    2014-05-01

    This study examines and compares tree rings of trees grown in a mining area highly contaminated with heavy metals. Tree rings offers an excellent opportunity for eco-monitoring polluted areas. Contamination dispersion from the source to the receptors can be studied in time and space. The sampled area is located in the eastern part of the Matra Mts. of the Inner-Carpathian calc-alkaline Volcanic Arc (Hungary) with abundant historical ore (Pb, Zn, Cu, etc.) mining in the area. Dense forests are composed of the most typical association of the Turkey oak (Quercus cerris). Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), European black pine (Pinus nigra), oak (Quercus robur), beech (Fagus sylvatica), and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) also occurs in the landscape. Sampled trees are located within a 1km radius of the abandoned historic ore mines. Sample sites were located above the old mines and waste rock heaps, under the waste rock heaps and on the floodplain of the Ilona Creek. The sampled trees were selected by the following criteria: the tree should be healthy, showing no signs of thunderbolt or diseases and having a minimum diameter of 50 cm. Samples were taken with a tree borer at the height of 150 cm. At the same time, soil samples were also taken near the trees in a 25 cm depth. Prior to laboratory analysis, the samples measured and air dried. Every fifth years tree ring was taken from the samples under microscope, working backwards from the most recent outer ring (2012, the year of the sampling). Samples were digested with a mixture of H2SO4 and H2O2m in Teflon vessels in a microwave unit. The samples were analyzed by ICP-OES instrument. The results were evaluated with statistical method. Results revealed a consistent picture showing distinct locations and years of the contamination history in the former mining area. Some elements are built into the trees more efficiently than other elements depending on mobility in the soil solution that is influenced by soil chemical properties

  19. Standard audit procedure for continuous emission monitors and ambient air monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    The instruments were published in an operational policy manual in 2009. This policy aims to introduce standard audit criteria that can be used to determine if continuous emission monitors and ambient air monitoring devices are operating within acceptable parameters. Before delivering upscale points of the instrument to be audited, each one of the audit equipment used in the field is required to be at normal operating conditions. Before the beginning of the audit, each one of the meteorological and flow measurement equipment is required to be conditioned to current conditions. If the audit fails, the instrument will have to be audited quarterly. The establishment of specific procedures based on instrument manufacturer or certifying body operational standards is required in the case of non-continuous monitoring instruments presenting operational principles outside of the audit procedures listed in the document.

  20. Belted kingfishers as ecological monitors of contamination: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landrum, C.L.

    1993-03-01

    Aquatic systems serve as transport pathways and reservoirs for most of the contaminants known to be present on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Organisms that live in aquatic systems accumulate some of these contaminants from their food and directly from the water or sediment. A wide array of terrestrial organisms feeds on aquatic organisms and may accumulate contaminants from aquatic prey. The belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon) is a piscivorous and territorial avian species that may be a suitable monitor of contaminant accumulation at specific sites on the ORR. A kingfisher collected on White Oak Lake in 1991 had a 137 Cs concentration of 568 pCi/g in muscle tissue, which exceeds levels found in any other waterfowl collected from the lake. An investigation into the efficacy of using the kingfisher as an ecological indicator of aquatic contaminants on the ORR was initiated in late August 1992. The primary objective of this study was to acquire information concerning the ecology of the kingfisher to determine how the species could be used within the framework of the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A second important objective of the study was to examine the possible somatic and reproductive effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Hg, and various radioactive contaminants on piscivorous birds by reviewing pollution ecology studies conducted on those species

  1. Belted kingfishers as ecological monitors of contamination: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landrum, C.L. [North Texas Univ., Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Biology; Ashwood, T.L.; Cox, D.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Aquatic systems serve as transport pathways and reservoirs for most of the contaminants known to be present on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Organisms that live in aquatic systems accumulate some of these contaminants from their food and directly from the water or sediment. A wide array of terrestrial organisms feeds on aquatic organisms and may accumulate contaminants from aquatic prey. The belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon) is a piscivorous and territorial avian species that may be a suitable monitor of contaminant accumulation at specific sites on the ORR. A kingfisher collected on White Oak Lake in 1991 had a {sup 137}Cs concentration of 568 pCi/g in muscle tissue, which exceeds levels found in any other waterfowl collected from the lake. An investigation into the efficacy of using the kingfisher as an ecological indicator of aquatic contaminants on the ORR was initiated in late August 1992. The primary objective of this study was to acquire information concerning the ecology of the kingfisher to determine how the species could be used within the framework of the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A second important objective of the study was to examine the possible somatic and reproductive effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Hg, and various radioactive contaminants on piscivorous birds by reviewing pollution ecology studies conducted on those species.

  2. Hanford double shell tank corrosion monitoring instrument trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.L.

    1995-03-01

    High-level nuclear wastes at the Hanford site are stored underground in carbon steel double-shell and single-shell tanks - (DSTs and SSTS). Westinghouse Hanford Company is considering installation of a prototype corrosion monitoring instrument tree in at least one DST in the summer of 1995. The instrument tree will have the ability to detect and discriminate between uniform corrosion, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and pitting. Additional instrument trees will follow in later years. Proof-of-technology testing is currently underway for the use of commercially available electric field pattern (EFP) analysis and electrochemical noise (EN) corrosion monitoring equipment. Creative use and combinations of other existing technologies is also being considered. Successful demonstration of these technologies will be followed by the development of a Hanford specific instrument tree. The first instrument tree will incorporate one of these technologies. Subsequent trees may include both technologies, as well as a more standard assembly of corrosion coupons. Successful development of these trees will allow their application to single shell tanks and the transfer of technology to other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites

  3. Wireless Sensor Network Based Subsurface Contaminant Plume Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    Sensor Network (WSN) to monitor contaminant plume movement in naturally heterogeneous subsurface formations to advance the sensor networking based...time to assess the source and predict future plume behavior. This proof-of-concept research aimed at demonstrating the use of an intelligent Wireless

  4. Air contamination control as an element of state environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.

    1993-01-01

    The results of air contamination control on the base of gamma and beta radioactivity of aerosols collected on filters and in precipitation samples have been shown. The data have been gathered from 12 monitoring stations in Poland during 1993. No significant differences between actual results and those obtained in previous years have been noticed. 4 figs, 1 tab

  5. Contamination monitor as a nuclear stethoscope for community nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M.M.; Sharma, S.K.; Sharma, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    A portable contamination monitor has been modified for use as an in vivo counting probe. The evaluation by physical parameters and clinical studies shows its suitability for a variety of diagnostic studies. The correlation equations for thyroid uptake measurement have been worked out for whole range of values. Its use as a versatile nuclear stethoscope is envisaged. (author)

  6. Application of effective variance method for contamination monitor calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalez, O.L.; Freitas, I.S.M. de.

    1990-01-01

    In this report, the calibration of a thin window Geiger-Muller type monitor for alpha superficial contamination is presented. The calibration curve is obtained by the method of the least-squares fitting with effective variance. The method and the approach for the calculation are briefly discussed. (author)

  7. Thermoexoemission detectors for monitoring radioactive contamination of industrial waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obukhov, V.T.; Sobolev, I.A.; Khomchik, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Detectors on base of BeO(Na) monocrystals with thermoemission to be used for monitoring radioactive contamination of industrial waste waters are suggested. The detectors advantages are sensitivity to α and low-ehergy β radiations, high mechanical strength and wide range of measurements. The main disadvantage is the necessity of working in red light

  8. Monitoring bacterial faecal contamination in waters using multiplex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monitoring of sanitary quality or faecal pollution in water is currently based on quantifying some bacterial indicators such as Escherichia coli and faecal enterococci. Using a multiplex real-time PCR assay for faecal enterococci and Bacteroides spp., the detection of faecal contamination in non-treated water can be done in a ...

  9. Body-surface contamination monitoring preparatory to monitoring for internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, W.; Klucke, H.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements in the whole-body counter of the SAAS are routinely preceded by a thorough inspection of the patients for body-surface contamination to protect the sensitive counting equipment against becoming contaminated and to avoid a falsified indication of incorporated radionuclides. The measuring system employed for these examinations is described. (author)

  10. Osprey: worldwide sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental contamination in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Robert A; Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, many fish and wildlife species have been used nationwide to monitor environmental contaminant exposure and effects, including carcasses of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), the only top avian predator regularly used in the past. Unfortunately, bald eagles are sensitive to investigator intrusion at the nest. Thus, the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is evaluated as a potential sentinel species for aquatic ecosystems. Several characteristics support the choice of the osprey as a sentinel species, including: (1) fish-eating diet atop the aquatic food web, (2) long-lived with strong nest fidelity, (3) adapts to human landscapes (potentially the most contaminated), (4) tolerates short-term nest disturbance, (5) nests spatially distributed at regular intervals, (6) highly visible nests easily located for study, (7) ability to accumulate most, if not all, lipophilic contaminants, (8) known sensitivity to many contaminants, and (9) nearly a worldwide distribution. These osprey traits have been instrumental in successfully using the species to understand population distribution, abundance, and changes over time; the effects of various contaminants on reproductive success; how contaminants in prey (fish on biomass basis) contribute to egg concentrations (i.e., biomagnification factors); and spatial residue patterns. Data summarized include nesting population surveys, detailed nesting studies, and chemical analyses of osprey egg, organ, blood, and feather samples for contaminants that bioaccumulate and/or biomagnify in aquatic food webs; and biochemical evaluations of blood and various organs. Studies in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Europe, and elsewhere have shown the osprey to be a useful sentinel species for monitoring selected environmental contaminants, including some emerging contaminants in lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and estuaries.

  11. [Research on hyperspectral remote sensing in monitoring snow contamination concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xu-guang; Liu, Dian-wei; Zhang, Bai; Du, Jia; Lei, Xiao-chun; Zeng, Li-hong; Wang, Yuan-dong; Song, Kai-shan

    2011-05-01

    Contaminants in the snow can be used to reflect regional and global environmental pollution caused by human activities. However, so far, the research on space-time monitoring of snow contamination concentration for a wide range or areas difficult for human to reach is very scarce. In the present paper, based on the simulated atmospheric deposition experiments, the spectroscopy technique method was applied to analyze the effect of different contamination concentration on the snow reflectance spectra. Then an evaluation of snow contamination concentration (SCC) retrieval methods was conducted using characteristic index method (SDI), principal component analysis (PCA), BP neural network and RBF neural network method, and the estimate effects of four methods were compared. The results showed that the neural network model combined with hyperspectral remote sensing data could estimate the SCC well.

  12. Development of an instrument for fast monitoring of radiotherapy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, H.J.; Almeida Melo, F. de; Patriota, J.H.; Oliveira Lira, C.B. de

    1990-01-01

    Radiation therapy machines need a constant monitoring to assure tumoral dose accuracy. Special attention must be given to linear accelerators which should be checked frequently. By this reason, an instrument was developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory DEN/UFPE to measure the output energy and beam symmetry. This instrument use three silicon photodiodes as radiation detectors. Two of then were localized at 5cm and 10cm depht at the central axis and one at 5 cm from the center, at the lateral irradiated field. Changes in the photon spectrum are detected by the ratio of upper to lower photodiode response. The radiation field uniformity is checked by the lateral photodiode. (author) [pt

  13. Development of multifunctional radiation monitoring instrument based on PLC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ziqiang; Zhu Yuye; Zhuang Min

    2007-01-01

    This eight-channel multifunctional Radiation Monitoring Instrument is developed by making use of the built-in high-speed counters and the powerful instruction system of the SIEMES SIMATICS S7 series Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) to record and process the pulse signal output by the detectors. The instrument with functions, such as analog and digital display, digital storage of digital data, pulse signal generator, network communication, can connect various types of pulse detectors. The initial process can be translated between Graduation Apparatus method and Formula method. the logicality of the high-dosage warning system is processed itself. The signal output will drive the alarm lights and bell directly. This paper mainly describes the configuration, programming and feature of the instrument. (authors)

  14. An overview of existing raptor contaminant monitoring activities in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ramírez, P; Shore, R F; van den Brink, N W; van Hattum, B; Bustnes, J O; Duke, G; Fritsch, C; García-Fernández, A J; Helander, B O; Jaspers, V; Krone, O; Martínez-López, E; Mateo, R; Movalli, P; Sonne, C

    2014-06-01

    Biomonitoring using raptors as sentinels can provide early warning of the potential impacts of contaminants on humans and the environment and also a means of tracking the success of associated mitigation measures. Examples include detection of heavy metal-induced immune system impairment, PCB-induced altered reproductive impacts, and toxicity associated with lead in shot game. Authorisation of such releases and implementation of mitigation is now increasingly delivered through EU-wide directives but there is little established pan-European monitoring to quantify outcomes. We investigated the potential for EU-wide coordinated contaminant monitoring using raptors as sentinels. We did this using a questionnaire to ascertain the current scale of national activity across 44 European countries. According to this survey, there have been 52 different contaminant monitoring schemes with raptors over the last 50years. There were active schemes in 15 (predominantly western European) countries and 23 schemes have been running for >20years; most monitoring was conducted for >5years. Legacy persistent organic compounds (specifically organochlorine insecticides and PCBs), and metals/metalloids were monitored in most of the 15 countries. Fungicides, flame retardants and anticoagulant rodenticides were also relatively frequently monitored (each in at least 6 countries). Common buzzard (Buteo buteo), common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), tawny owl (Strix aluco) and barn owl (Tyto alba) were most commonly monitored (each in 6-10 countries). Feathers and eggs were most widely analysed although many schemes also analysed body tissues. Our study reveals an existing capability across multiple European countries for contaminant monitoring using raptors. However, coordination between existing schemes and expansion of monitoring into Eastern Europe is needed. This would enable

  15. Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift (CAPS) Monitor Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, Arthur J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The CAPS PMex monitor is a cavity attenuated phase shift extinction instrument. It operates as an optical extinction spectrometer, using a visible-light-emitting diode (LED) as the light source, a sample cell incorporating two high-reflectivity mirrors centered at the wavelength of the LED, and a vacuum photodiode detector. Its efficacy is based on the fact that aerosols are broadband scatterers and absorbers of light.

  16. Applicability of monitored natural attenuation at radioactively contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States with the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support a sustainable nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, including managing the legacy of past practices and accidents. Hence, the IAEA has initiated a comprehensive programme of work covering all aspects of environmental remediation including: - Technical and non-technical factors influencing decision making in environmental remediation; - Site characterization techniques and strategies; - Assessment of remediation technologies; - Assessment of technical options for cleanup of contaminated media; - Post-restoration compliance monitoring; - Assessment of the costs of remediation measures. It has been observed that many measures to remove or contain contamination are inefficient below certain concentrations, in general costly, and of a limited lifetime compared with the half-lives of the radionuclides concerned. Dispersed low level contamination poses a particular challenge to those charged with its remediation. Economic considerations in many Member States also result in constraints being placed on resources available to deal with such contamination. Experience has also shown that many techniques are not efficient below certain concentration thresholds or may entail impacts on certain environmental compartments in addition to those due to the contamination itself. This includes doses received by workers on the remediation project. As a result, the concept of relying on geological media to retain contaminants and/or to 'flatten out' concentration/dose peaks is increasingly being discussed in a remediation context. Technical Reports Series No. 424 (Remediation of Sites with Dispersed Radioactive Contamination) examined a variety of technological options for remediating dispersed contamination and concluded that the approaches can be broadly

  17. Applicability of monitored natural attenuation at radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States with the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support a sustainable nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, including managing the legacy of past practices and accidents. Hence, the IAEA has initiated a comprehensive programme of work covering all aspects of environmental remediation including: - Technical and non-technical factors influencing decision making in environmental remediation; - Site characterization techniques and strategies; - Assessment of remediation technologies; - Assessment of technical options for cleanup of contaminated media; - Post-restoration compliance monitoring; - Assessment of the costs of remediation measures. It has been observed that many measures to remove or contain contamination are inefficient below certain concentrations, in general costly, and of a limited lifetime compared with the half-lives of the radionuclides concerned. Dispersed low level contamination poses a particular challenge to those charged with its remediation. Economic considerations in many Member States also result in constraints being placed on resources available to deal with such contamination. Experience has also shown that many techniques are not efficient below certain concentration thresholds or may entail impacts on certain environmental compartments in addition to those due to the contamination itself. This includes doses received by workers on the remediation project. As a result, the concept of relying on geological media to retain contaminants and/or to 'flatten out' concentration/dose peaks is increasingly being discussed in a remediation context. Technical Reports Series No. 424 (Remediation of Sites with Dispersed Radioactive Contamination) examined a variety of technological options for remediating dispersed contamination and concluded that the approaches can be broadly

  18. Remote monitoring of instrumented structures using the Internet information superhighway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhr, Peter L.; Huston, Dryver R.; Ambrose, Timothy P.

    1994-09-01

    The requirements of sensor monitoring associated with instrumented civil structures poses potential logistical constraints on manpower, training, and costs. The need for frequent or even continuous data monitoring places potentially severe constraints on overall system performance given real-world factors such as available manpower, geographic separation of the instrumented structures, and data archiving as well as the training and cost issues. While the pool of available low wage, moderate skill workers available to the authors is sizable (undergraduate engineering students), the level of performance of such workers is quite variable leading to data acquisition integrity and continuity issues - matters that are not acceptable in the practical field implementation of such developed systems. In the case of acquiring data from the numerous sensors within the civil structures which the authors have instrumented (e.g., a multistory building, roadway/railway bridges, and a hydroelectric dam), we have found that many of these concerns may be alleviated through the use of an automated data acquisition system which archives the acquired information in an electronic location remotely accessible through the Internet global computer network. It is therefore a possible for the data monitoring to be performed at a remote location with the only requirements for data acquisition being Internet accessibility. A description of the developed scheme is presented as well as guiding philosophies.

  19. Calibration of radiation protection area monitoring instruments in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, I.I.; Youssif, B.E.; Beineen, A.A.; Hassan, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents results of measurements for the calibration of radiation protection area monitoring instruments carried out during the period 2006-2008 at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of Sudan. The work performed included quality assurance measurements, measurements for the dosimeter calibrations and uncertainty analysis. Calibrations were performed using 137 Cs gamma ray sources produced by OB 85 and OB 34/1 gamma calibrators producing air kerma rate that ranged from 10 μGy/h to 50 mGy/h. Area monitoring instruments were calibrated in terms of ambient dose equivalent, H*(10) derived using air kerma to ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients. Results are presented for 78 area monitoring instruments representing most commonly used types in Sudan. Radioactive check source measurements for the reference chamber showed deviation within 1% limit. The accuracy in the beam output measurements was within 5% internationally considered as acceptable. The results highlighted the importance of radiation protection calibrations. Regulations are further need to ensure safety aspect really meet the required international standards.

  20. Hand Monitor for Simultaneous Measurements of Alpha and Beta Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, I.Oe.; Braun, J.; Soederlund, B.

    1960-11-01

    An instrument is described which measures α and β contamination of the hands simultaneously. This has been achieved by using as detectors 8 flow counters paired in 4 units of two chambers, one unit for each side of the hand. The inner chamber of every unit (adjacent to the hands) delivers α-pulses, the outer chambers deliver β-pulses. When two finger contacts are pushed the detectors are closing around the hands and the measurement is started. Audible and visual warnings operate when the MPL is exceeded. Similar warnings ope.rate if hands are removed before the end of the counting period. The activity levels are logarithmically indicated on four pointer instruments, which are automatically zeroed when the next measurement is started. The instrument is now commercially available

  1. Hand Monitor for Simultaneous Measurements of Alpha and Beta Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, I Oe; Braun, J; Soederlund, B

    1960-11-15

    An instrument is described which measures {alpha} and {beta} contamination of the hands simultaneously. This has been achieved by using as detectors 8 flow counters paired in 4 units of two chambers, one unit for each side of the hand. The inner chamber of every unit (adjacent to the hands) delivers {alpha}-pulses, the outer chambers deliver {beta}-pulses. When two finger contacts are pushed the detectors are closing around the hands and the measurement is started. Audible and visual warnings operate when the MPL is exceeded. Similar warnings ope.rate if hands are removed before the end of the counting period. The activity levels are logarithmically indicated on four pointer instruments, which are automatically zeroed when the next measurement is started. The instrument is now commercially available.

  2. Testing of portal monitors for personnel contamination control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.O.; Gupta, V.P.; Stevenson, R.L.; Stalker, A.C.; Baker, K.R.; Littleton, M.L.; Rich, B.L.

    1983-04-01

    This is a report of an INPO-funded evaluation of state-of-the-art portal monitors used to detect personnel contamination. The project developed techniques and procedures to evaluate the performance and sensitivity of the portal monitors which provided data for intercomparison. An additional accomplishment was development of a methodology to assist manufacturers and users to optimize the monitor settings, and to provide technical basis for the eventual use of fixed monitors to replace frisking for contamination control. The monitors tested utilize thin-window gas-flow proportional counters sensitive to beta and gamma radiation. Various tests were performed: (1) background count rate and the statistical variability, (2) detector efficiency at different distances, (3) moving source sensitivity for various size sources and speeds, and (4) false alarm rates at different background levels. A model has been developed for the moving source measurements to compare the experimental data, and to test whether it is possible to adequately model the behavior of a portal monitor response to a moving source. The model results with the actual test results are compared

  3. First Results from Contamination Monitoring with the WFC3 UVIS G280 Grism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, B.; Pirzkal, N.; Baggett, S.

    2011-11-01

    The presence of contaminants within the optical light path of the instrument or telescope can alter photometric zeropoints and the observed flux levels of imaging and spectra, particularly at UV wavelengths. Regular monitoring of a spectro-photometric standard star using photometric filters has been used in the past to monitor the presence of contaminants and (when necessary) re-calibrate zeropoints. However, the use of the WFC3 UVIS Grism mode (G280 filter) may provide a more robust early alert detection system for the presence of contaminants, in particular, those that are photo-polymerized from the bright Earth. These contaminants may collect on surfaces in the optical light path of the telescope. The G280 grism is sensitive to light at wavelengths below the cutoff of the bluest UV filter (F218W). In this ISR, we present: 1) the first results from G280 monitoring for the period of 2010-November through 2011-August; 2) the discovery of an anomaly in the WCS header information of sub-array exposures; and 3) an outline for reducing standard G280 grism observations and the specialized case of observations obtained in sub-array mode.

  4. A portable contamination monitor with a numerical display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.R.

    1980-10-01

    A portable contamination monitor, its performance and application are described. The monitor is equipped with two 15.5 cm 2 'pancake' type Geiger-Mueller counters with thin windows ( 2 ). The summed counting rate is displayed in the range 0.2000 counts/s on a liquid crystal digital voltmeter. Every tenth pulse is signaled by flashing an LED and emitting a short (0.1 s) pulse of sound. The efficiencies for detecting a variety of α-, β- and γ- emitters have been measured and are reported. Data on the effects of varying battery voltage and temperature are also reported. (auth)

  5. The sensitivity to humidity of radon monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmied, H.

    1984-01-01

    In a project funded by the Swedish Building Research Council (BFR) a continuous radon monitoring instrument (RGA-400 EDA Instr. Inc.) with electrostatic field collection has been calibrated. The original calibration factor gave no reliable radon readings and was therefore corrected for relative humidity by EDA. From four calibrations in the radon chamber at the Swedish Radiation Protection Board (SSI) it was clear that the instrument was sensitive to absolute humidity, which gave better agreement than relative humidity or temperature. Sensitivity to humidity for this principle of measure ment has been presented in various papers without presenting any combined influence with temperature, which can lead to the wrong conclusions, especially when the temperature levels differ. Some laboratories use humidity absorbants to overcome this humidity dependence. In this paper the calibration results for the FGA-400 radon readings only, are presented. (Author)

  6. Hanford double shell tank corrosion monitoring instrument tree prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.L.; Edgemon, G.L.; Ohl, P.C.

    1995-11-01

    High-level nuclear wastes at the Hanford site are stored underground in carbon steel double-shell and single-shell tanks (DSTs and SSTs). The installation of a prototype corrosion monitoring instrument tree into DST 241-A-101 was completed in December 1995. The instrument tree has the ability to detect and discriminate between uniform corrosion, pitting, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) through the use of electrochemical noise measurements and a unique stressed element, three-electrode probe. The tree itself is constructed of AISI 304L stainless steel (UNS S30403), with probes in the vapor space, vapor/liquid interface and liquid. Successful development of these trees will allow their application to single shell tanks and the transfer of technology to other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Keywords: Hanford, radioactive waste, high-level waste tanks, electrochemical noise, probes, double-shell tanks, single-shell tanks, corrosion

  7. Development of plastic scintillator based food radioactivity contamination monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parihar, A.; Sahani, R.M.; Mahala, V.K.; Vaijapurkar, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactivity is naturally present in soil, water and food stuffs. Food can be contaminated after discharge of radioactivity into the environment from industries that concentrate natural radionuclide and from civil or military nuclear operations. The contamination can be in three ways; by direct deposition, through the food chain and induced radioactivity due to exposure of high neutron flux. The health effects on human depend on the type of radionuclide and the length of time people are exposed to it. The studies of fission product behaviour in the food chain have revealed radionuclide Strontium-90, Caesium 137 and Iodine-131 are of major concern. Plastic scintillator is already developed indigenously at Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur. Efforts has been made to develop a portable field instrument using plastic scintillator for assessment of beta ( 90 Sr) and gamma ( 137 Cs and 131 I) radioactivity in food

  8. Remote Monitoring and Instrumentation Strategies for Integral Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyaya, Belle R.; Lish, Matthew R.; Tarver, Rayan A.; Hines, J. Wesley

    2014-01-01

    The University of Tennessee is engaged in research and development projects related to instrumentation and controls for small modular reactors (SMR) and integral pressurized water reactors (iPWR). The approach incorporates the deployment of physics-based models for control design and parameter estimation, development of noncontact sensors for flow monitoring, and placement of sensors to maximize fault detection and isolation. The results of research and development illustrate the feasibility of sensor location in space-constrained environment. Major issues and challenges in I and C design are addressed

  9. Remote Monitoring and Instrumentation Strategies for Integral Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyaya, Belle R.; Lish, Matthew R.; Tarver, Rayan A.; Hines, J. Wesley [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)

    2014-08-15

    The University of Tennessee is engaged in research and development projects related to instrumentation and controls for small modular reactors (SMR) and integral pressurized water reactors (iPWR). The approach incorporates the deployment of physics-based models for control design and parameter estimation, development of noncontact sensors for flow monitoring, and placement of sensors to maximize fault detection and isolation. The results of research and development illustrate the feasibility of sensor location in space-constrained environment. Major issues and challenges in I and C design are addressed.

  10. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument: overview of 14 years in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levelt, Pieternel F.; Joiner, Joanna; Tamminen, Johanna; Pepijn Veefkind, J.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Stein Zweers, Deborah C.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Streets, David G.; Eskes, Henk; van der A, Ronald; McLinden, Chris; Fioletov, Vitali; Carn, Simon; de Laat, Jos; DeLand, Matthew; Marchenko, Sergey; McPeters, Richard; Ziemke, Jerald; Fu, Dejian; Liu, Xiong; Pickering, Kenneth; Apituley, Arnoud; González Abad, Gonzalo; Arola, Antti; Boersma, Folkert; Miller, Christopher Chan; Chance, Kelly; de Graaf, Martin; Hakkarainen, Janne; Hassinen, Seppo; Ialongo, Iolanda; Kleipool, Quintus; Krotkov, Nickolay; Li, Can; Lamsal, Lok; Newman, Paul; Nowlan, Caroline; Suleiman, Raid; Gijsbert Tilstra, Lieuwe; Torres, Omar; Wang, Huiqun; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2018-04-01

    This overview paper highlights the successes of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the Aura satellite spanning a period of nearly 14 years. Data from OMI has been used in a wide range of applications and research resulting in many new findings. Due to its unprecedented spatial resolution, in combination with daily global coverage, OMI plays a unique role in measuring trace gases important for the ozone layer, air quality, and climate change. With the operational very fast delivery (VFD; direct readout) and near real-time (NRT) availability of the data, OMI also plays an important role in the development of operational services in the atmospheric chemistry domain.

  11. Luminescence monitoring of oil or tar contamination for industrial hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Vo-Dinh, T.

    1980-01-01

    Synfuel plants produce potentially carcinogenic oils and tars. Exposure of workers to these tars and oils is difficult to avoid completely and occurs via direct contact with dirty surfaces or condensation of escaped fumes onto or within the body. Surface skin, measurements are made directly with a near-ultraviolet luminoscope employing a fiber optics lightguide and a stethoscopic cap pressed against the skin. This instrument is especially suitable for measuring ng to μg/cm 2 amounts of residual contamination remaining on the surface of the skin after washing. To minimize the potential for carcinogenicity, the excitating ultraviolet light intensity is only 1/100th that of sunlight. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of surface contamination due to alpha using large area contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavayya, M.

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive contamination at work places is evaluated routinely using either the swipe sampling technique or a contamination monitor. Commercially available alpha probes used for the purpose are usually circular and have a face diameter of 50 or 100 mm. Square faced probes are also available. A thin aluminized mylar membrane of thickness 0.45 to 0.9 mg.cm -2 is used to screen the phosphor in the alpha probe to protect it from external light. The membrane cuts off more alphas from low energy emitters than from higher energy alpha emitters. Moreover the response of the detector for alphas originating at all points under the detector face is not uniform, especially when the large area alpha monitors are used. These factors can introduce errors as high as 40% into the measurements. This paper aims to quantify these errors and describe a procedure to overcome the limitations. (author)

  13. Fiber optic field analytical instrumentation in place of quarterly compliance monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshaw, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    ChemSensor reg-sign is a new field analytical tool capable of in situ, real time measurements of organics in water. The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of this new instrument to the ongoing monitoring of petroleum contaminated ground water. The sensing element in ChemSensor incorporates a short optical fiber core with a hydrophobic/organophilic chemical coating. Light is launched into the fiber from a light emitting diode and detected at the opposite end by a photodiode. When the sensor is immersed in water containing organics, the organics partition into the organophilic coating and change the effective refractive index of he coating allowing light to escape. The resultant loss of light reaching the detector correlates to the concentration of organics present. It has been demonstrated through extensive field tests that response factors developed for ChemSensor allow it to be used as an accurate indication of BTEX contamination present. A large scale field test with an environmental consultant and a petroleum company was conducted to gain confidence in the correlation of ChemSensor to laboratory methods. As a result of this study, a case was made to the state regulators for substitution of a portion of the quarterly compliance monitoring with ChemSensor. This program has the potential to save the petroleum company thousands in laboratory analytical costs per year. This paper discusses the application of ChemSensor to sites contaminated by gasoline as well as the collection and interpretation of the data

  14. Optimisation of internal contamination monitoring programme by integration of uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davesne, E.; Casanova, P.; Chojnacki, E.; Paquet, F.; Blanchardon, E.

    2011-01-01

    Potential internal contamination of workers is monitored by periodic bioassay measurements interpreted in terms of intake and committed effective dose by the use of biokinetic and dosimetric models. After a prospective evaluation of exposure at a workplace, a suitable monitoring programme can be defined by choosing adequate measurement techniques and frequency. In this study, the sensitivity of a programme is evaluated by the minimum intake and dose, which may be detected with a given level of confidence by taking into account uncertainties on exposure conditions and measurements. This is made for programme optimisation, which is performed by comparing the sensitivities of different alternative programmes. These methods were applied at the AREVA NC reprocessing plant and support the current monitoring programme as the best compromise between the cost of the measurements and the sensitivity of the programme. (authors)

  15. A Simple Instrumentation System for Large Structure Vibration Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik R. Santoso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional instrumentation systems used for monitoring vibration of large-scale infrastructure building such as bridges, railway, and others structural building, generally have a complex design. Makes it simple would be very useful both in terms of low-cost and easy maintenance. This paper describes how to develop the instrumentation system. The system is built based on distributed network, with field bus topology, using single-master multi-slave architecture. Master is a control unit, built based on a PC equipped with RS-485 interface. Slave is a sensing unit; each slave was built by integrating a 3-axis vibration sensor with a microcontroller based data acquisition system. Vibration sensor is designed using the main components of a MEMS accelerometer. While the software is developed for two functions: as a control system hardware and data processing. To verify performance of the developed instrumentation system, several laboratory tests have been performed. The result shows that the system has good performance.

  16. Rapid monitoring for transuranic contaminants during buried waste retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Shaw, P.G.; Randolph, P.D.; Amaro, C.R.; Pawelko, R.J.; Thompson, D.N.; Loomis, G.G.

    1991-03-01

    This document reports results of research performed in support of possible future transuranic waste retrieval operations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The focus of this research was to evaluate various methods of performing rapid and, as much as possible, ''on-line'' quantitative measurements of 239 Pu or 241 Am, either as airborne or loose contamination. Four different alpha continuous air monitors were evaluated for lower levels of detection of airborne 239 Pu. All of the continuous air monitors were evaluated by sampling ambient air. In addition, three of the continuous air monitors were evaluated by sampling air synthetically laden with clean dust and dust spiked with 239 Pu. Six methods for making quantitative measurements of loose contamination were investigated. They were: (1) microwave digestion followed by counting in a photon electron rejecting alpha liquid scintillation spectrometer, (2) rapid radiochemical separation followed by alpha spectrometry, (3) measurement of the 241 Am 59 keV gamma ray using a thin window germanium detector, (4) measurement of uranium L-shell x-rays, (5) gross alpha counting using a large-area Ag activated ZnS scintillator, and (6) direct counting of alpha particles using a large-area ionization chamber. 40 refs., 42 figs., 24 tabs

  17. Contaminant monitoring of hydraulic systems. The need for reliable data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, M.J. Rinkinen, J. [Pall Europe Ltd., Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The need for both reliable operation of hydraulic and lubrication systems and long component lives has focused users to the benefits of controlling the contamination in the hydraulic fluid. Maximum operating (target) levels are being implemented as part of a condition based maintenance regime. If these are exceeded, maintenance effort is directed to correcting the rise in consummation level, and so make optimum use of resources as maintenance effort is only affected when it is necessary to do so. Fundamental to ibis aspect of condition based monitoring is the provision of accurate and reliable data in the shortest possible time. This way, corrective actions can be implemented immediately so minimising the damage to components. On-line monitoring devices are a way of achieving this and are seeing increased use, but some are affected by the condition of the fluid. Hence, there is a potential for giving incorrect data which will waste time and effort by initiating unnecessary corrective actions. A more disturbing aspect is the effect on the user of continual errors. The most likely effect would be a loss of confidence in the technique or even complete rejection of it and hence the potential benefits will be lost. This presentation explains how contaminant monitoring techniques are applied to ensure that the potential benefits of operating with clean fluids is realised. It examines the sources of error and shows how the user can interrogate the data and satisfy himself of its authenticity. (orig.) 14 refs.

  18. Contaminant monitoring of hydraulic systems. The need for reliable data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, M.J. [Pall Europe Ltd., Portsmouth (United Kingdom)] Rinkinen, J. [Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The need for both reliable operation of hydraulic and lubrication systems and long component lives has focused users to the benefits of controlling the contamination in the hydraulic fluid. Maximum operating (target) levels are being implemented as part of a condition based maintenance regime. If these are exceeded, maintenance effort is directed to correcting the rise in consummation level, and so make optimum use of resources as maintenance effort is only affected when it is necessary to do so. Fundamental to ibis aspect of condition based monitoring is the provision of accurate and reliable data in the shortest possible time. This way, corrective actions can be implemented immediately so minimising the damage to components. On-line monitoring devices are a way of achieving this and are seeing increased use, but some are affected by the condition of the fluid. Hence, there is a potential for giving incorrect data which will waste time and effort by initiating unnecessary corrective actions. A more disturbing aspect is the effect on the user of continual errors. The most likely effect would be a loss of confidence in the technique or even complete rejection of it and hence the potential benefits will be lost. This presentation explains how contaminant monitoring techniques are applied to ensure that the potential benefits of operating with clean fluids is realised. It examines the sources of error and shows how the user can interrogate the data and satisfy himself of its authenticity. (orig.) 14 refs.

  19. Portable instrumentation for quantitatively measuring radioactive surface contaminations, including 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodzinski, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    In order to measure the effectiveness of decontamination efforts, a quantitative analysis of the radiocontamination is necessary, both before and after decontamination. Since it is desirable to release the decontaminated material for unrestricted use or disposal, the assay equipment must provide adequate sensitivity to measure the radioactivity at or below the release limit. In addition, the instrumentation must be capable of measuring all kinds of radiocontaminants including fission products, activation products, and transuranic materials. Finally, the survey instrumentation must be extremely versatile in order to assay the wide variety of contaminated surfaces in many environments, some of which may be extremely hostile or remote. This communication describes the development and application of portable instrumentation capable of quantitatively measuring most transuranics, activation products, and fission products, including 90 Sr, on almost any contaminated surface in nearly any location

  20. Monitoring of raptors and their contamination levels in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjershaug, Jan Ove; Kålås, John Atle; Nygård, Torgeir; Herzke, Dorte; Folkestad, Alv Ottar

    2008-09-01

    This article summarizes results from raptor monitoring and contamination studies in Norway of the golden eagle, gyrfalcon, white-tailed sea eagle, osprey, peregrine, and merlin. Golden eagle and gyrfalcon populations have been monitored since 1990 as part of the "Monitoring Programme for Terrestrial Ecosystems" (TOV). No long-term trend in the population size or productivity of golden eagle has been shown in any of the 5 study areas. The reproductive output of gyrfalcon is monitored in 3 areas. It is positively correlated with the populations of its main prey species, the rock ptarmigan and the willow ptarmigan. The white-tailed sea eagle population has been monitored since 1974 by the Norwegian Ornithological Society, and the population is increasing. The levels of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls are low in the eggs of both the golden eagle and the gyrfalcon, but elevated levels and effects on reproduction have been indicated for a coastal subpopulation of golden eagle. The pollutant levels in white-tailed sea eagle are lower than in the Baltic population of sea eagles, and shell thinning was never severe overall, but individual eggs have contained pollutant concentrations above critical levels. The levels of pollutants in the bird-eating falcons, peregrine, and merlin were higher than in other species. New emerging pollutants, like brominated diphenylethers and perfluorinated organic compounds, could be detected in all species. By incorporating available published and unpublished data, we were able to produce time trends for pollutants and shell thickness over 4 decades.

  1. Raman Spectroscopy for In-Line Water Quality MonitoringInstrumentation and Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyun; Deen, M. Jamal; Kumar, Shiva; Selvaganapathy, P. Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the access to safe drinking water is a huge problem. In fact, the number of persons without safe drinking water is increasing, even though it is an essential ingredient for human health and development. The enormity of the problem also makes it a critical environmental and public health issue. Therefore, there is a critical need for easy-to-use, compact and sensitive techniques for water quality monitoring. Raman spectroscopy has been a very powerful technique to characterize chemical composition and has been applied to many areas, including chemistry, food, material science or pharmaceuticals. The development of advanced Raman techniques and improvements in instrumentation, has significantly improved the performance of modern Raman spectrometers so that it can now be used for detection of low concentrations of chemicals such as in-line monitoring of chemical and pharmaceutical contaminants in water. This paper briefly introduces the fundamentals of Raman spectroscopy, reviews the development of Raman instrumentations and discusses advanced and potential Raman techniques for in-line water quality monitoring. PMID:25230309

  2. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor Instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R. D.; Meegan, C. A.; Lichti, G. G.; Diehl, R.; Greiner, J.; Kienlin, A. von; Fishman, G. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kippen, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope launched on June 11, 2008 carries two experiments onboard--the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). The primary mission of the GBM instrument is to support the LAT in observing γ-ray bursts (GRBs) by providing low-energy measurements with high temporal and spectral resolution as well as rapid burst locations over a large field-of-view (≥8 sr). The GBM will complement the LAT measurements by observing GRBs in the energy range 8 keV to 40 MeV, the region of the spectral turnover in most GRBs. The GBM detector signals are processed by the onboard digital processing unit (DPU). We describe some of the hardware features of the DPU and its expected limitations during intense triggers.

  3. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument: overview of 14 years in space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Levelt

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This overview paper highlights the successes of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI on board the Aura satellite spanning a period of nearly 14 years. Data from OMI has been used in a wide range of applications and research resulting in many new findings. Due to its unprecedented spatial resolution, in combination with daily global coverage, OMI plays a unique role in measuring trace gases important for the ozone layer, air quality, and climate change. With the operational very fast delivery (VFD; direct readout and near real-time (NRT availability of the data, OMI also plays an important role in the development of operational services in the atmospheric chemistry domain.

  4. An efficient network for interconnecting remote monitoring instruments and computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Gainer, K.E.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1994-01-01

    Remote monitoring instrumentation must be connected with computers and other instruments. The cost and intrusiveness of installing cables in new and existing plants presents problems for the facility and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The authors have tested a network that could accomplish this interconnection using mass-produced commercial components developed for use in industrial applications. Unlike components in the hardware of most networks, the components--manufactured and distributed in North America, Europe, and Asia--lend themselves to small and low-powered applications. The heart of the network is a chip with three microprocessors and proprietary network software contained in Read Only Memory. In addition to all nonuser levels of protocol, the software also contains message authentication capabilities. This chip can be interfaced to a variety of transmission media, for example, RS-485 lines, fiber topic cables, rf waves, and standard ac power lines. The use of power lines as the transmission medium in a facility could significantly reduce cabling costs

  5. Feasibility of using fiber optics for monitoring ground water contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschfeld, T.; Deaton, T.; Milanovich, F.; Klainer, S.M.

    1984-06-01

    The report contains the results of the initial feasibility study for a research program undertaken to develop the technology needed to use fiber optics for monitoring groundwater contaminants. The technology appears especially well suited to the requirements of detection monitoring where a few indicator parameters can be measured continuously by sensors placed down small-diameter monitoring wells. Data are generated at a remote, centrally located fluorimeter, connected to the sampling sites by inexpensive optical fibers. The analytical method is laser-induced fluorescence which gives the desired sensitivity. The optrode, a chemical system and/or a mechanical device at the distal end of a fiber optic, furnishes the needed specificity. Various fiber and optrode configurations have been evaluated and their applications to groundwater monitoring are discussed. Feasibility is shown for physical measurements such as temperature, pressure and pH. Chemical detection and quantification of the actinides, inorganic and organic chlorides, sulfates, alcohols, aldehydes, pesticides and tracer materials are presented. Finally, it is shown that the need for smaller diameter wells (as compared to conventional sampling methods), and the ability to make up to 50 unattended in situ measurements, using a reasonably priced centralized fluorometer system connected to the sampling sites by inexpensive optical fibers, results in acceptable economy

  6. Tritium contamination and monitoring at Frascati Neutron Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucci, F.; Sandri, S.; Ianni, A. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Dipartimento Ambiente; Vasselli, R. [ANPA, Roma (Italy); Pillon, M.; Bettinali, L. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Dipartimento Energia

    1994-11-01

    The Frascati Neutron Generator (FGN) is a specialised 300 keV, 3 mA direct electrostatic deuteron accelerator which produces about 5-10{sup 1}1 14 MeV neutrons per second by D-T reactions on a tritium-titanium fixed target. This paper concerns the tritium contamination control and monitoring aspects after some months of testing and a preliminary period of operation of the plant. The tritium monitoring system is composed of both on-line and off-line devices to control the tritium concentration in the atmosphere measured from different parts of the plant: vacuum exhaust clean up (VECU) system, stack, etc. The on-line devices are three flux monitors, that sample continuosly the air from up to eight different points in the plant. The passive sampling system is designed to select the chemical form of tritium and to collect respectively HTO and HT in two different cartridges filled with an appropriate drying material. The response of the on-line tritium monitor system are exposed and discussed: some measurements performed with atmosphere dehumidifying apparatus of this system are described and the relevant results are analysed.

  7. Tritium contamination and monitoring at Frascati Neutron Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucci, F.; Sandri, S.; Ianni, A.; Pillon, M.; Bettinali, L.

    1994-11-01

    The Frascati Neutron Generator (FGN) is a specialised 300 keV, 3 mA direct electrostatic deuteron accelerator which produces about 5-10 1 1 14 MeV neutrons per second by D-T reactions on a tritium-titanium fixed target. This paper concerns the tritium contamination control and monitoring aspects after some months of testing and a preliminary period of operation of the plant. The tritium monitoring system is composed of both on-line and off-line devices to control the tritium concentration in the atmosphere measured from different parts of the plant: vacuum exhaust clean up (VECU) system, stack, etc. The on-line devices are three flux monitors, that sample continuosly the air from up to eight different points in the plant. The passive sampling system is designed to select the chemical form of tritium and to collect respectively HTO and HT in two different cartridges filled with an appropriate drying material. The response of the on-line tritium monitor system are exposed and discussed: some measurements performed with atmosphere dehumidifying apparatus of this system are described and the relevant results are analysed

  8. The introduction of radiation monitor produced by several nuclear instrument factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Liying

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduce some radiation monitor products of several nuclear instrument factories include Xi'an Nuclear Instrument Factory, MGP Instruments Inc, and Canberra Industries Inc. The introduction aspects include the range, configuration, and application of products. So, the paper is reference for the designer with responsibility for radiation monitoring system of new nuclear project. (authors)

  9. Monitoring and Hardware Management for Critical Fusion Plasma Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Paulo F.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled nuclear fusion aims to obtain energy by particles collision confined inside a nuclear reactor (Tokamak. These ionized particles, heavier isotopes of hydrogen, are the main elements inside of plasma that is kept at high temperatures (millions of Celsius degrees. Due to high temperatures and magnetic confinement, plasma is exposed to several sources of instabilities which require a set of procedures by the control and data acquisition systems throughout fusion experiments processes. Control and data acquisition systems often used in nuclear fusion experiments are based on the Advanced Telecommunication Computer Architecture (AdvancedTCA® standard introduced by the Peripheral Component Interconnect Industrial Manufacturers Group (PICMG®, to meet the demands of telecommunications that require large amount of data (TB transportation at high transfer rates (Gb/s, to ensure high availability including features such as reliability, serviceability and redundancy. For efficient plasma control, systems are required to collect large amounts of data, process it, store for later analysis, make critical decisions in real time and provide status reports either from the experience itself or the electronic instrumentation involved. Moreover, systems should also ensure the correct handling of detected anomalies and identified faults, notify the system operator of occurred events, decisions taken to acknowledge and implemented changes. Therefore, for everything to work in compliance with specifications it is required that the instrumentation includes hardware management and monitoring mechanisms for both hardware and software. These mechanisms should check the system status by reading sensors, manage events, update inventory databases with hardware system components in use and maintenance, store collected information, update firmware and installed software modules, configure and handle alarms to detect possible system failures and prevent emergency

  10. Monitoring and Hardware Management for Critical Fusion Plasma Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Paulo F.; Santos, Bruno; Correia, Miguel; Combo, Álvaro M.; Rodrigues, AntÓnio P.; Pereira, Rita C.; Fernandes, Ana; Cruz, Nuno; Sousa, Jorge; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Batista, AntÓnio J. N.; Correia, Carlos M. B. A.; Gonçalves, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Controlled nuclear fusion aims to obtain energy by particles collision confined inside a nuclear reactor (Tokamak). These ionized particles, heavier isotopes of hydrogen, are the main elements inside of plasma that is kept at high temperatures (millions of Celsius degrees). Due to high temperatures and magnetic confinement, plasma is exposed to several sources of instabilities which require a set of procedures by the control and data acquisition systems throughout fusion experiments processes. Control and data acquisition systems often used in nuclear fusion experiments are based on the Advanced Telecommunication Computer Architecture (AdvancedTCA®) standard introduced by the Peripheral Component Interconnect Industrial Manufacturers Group (PICMG®), to meet the demands of telecommunications that require large amount of data (TB) transportation at high transfer rates (Gb/s), to ensure high availability including features such as reliability, serviceability and redundancy. For efficient plasma control, systems are required to collect large amounts of data, process it, store for later analysis, make critical decisions in real time and provide status reports either from the experience itself or the electronic instrumentation involved. Moreover, systems should also ensure the correct handling of detected anomalies and identified faults, notify the system operator of occurred events, decisions taken to acknowledge and implemented changes. Therefore, for everything to work in compliance with specifications it is required that the instrumentation includes hardware management and monitoring mechanisms for both hardware and software. These mechanisms should check the system status by reading sensors, manage events, update inventory databases with hardware system components in use and maintenance, store collected information, update firmware and installed software modules, configure and handle alarms to detect possible system failures and prevent emergency scenarios

  11. Environmental geophysics and geochemistry for contamination mapping and monitoring 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tai Sup; Lee, Sang Kyu; Hong, Young Kook [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1995-12-01

    This study aims to provide the technologies which can be practically used for contamination mapping and monitoring. To accomplish this goal, the geophysical and geochemical expertise and techniques commonly used in the mineral resources exploration are employed. In the first year of the three-year-long project, the purpose of the study is to introduce the optimum methodologies among the geophysical and geochemical techniques to tackle the various cases of environmental contamination. To achieve the purpose, case studies of the developed countries were surveyed and analyzed through the various kinds of literatures. The followings are categorized to be solved by geophysical methods: 1) delineation of water system pollution by acid mine drainage and distributions of waste rocks in the closed mine area, 2) defining boundaries of subsurface contamination due to oil seepage, 3) zoning of sea water intrusion in the seashore or subsurface geology highly containing salt, 4) locating of buried metallic wastes such as pipes and drums which can cause the secondary pollution by corrosion, and 5) outlining of the subsurface area polluted by leachate from the landfill. To experiment the above items, various geophysical methods were applied to the corresponding test sites. From these experiments, the applicabilities of the respective geophysical method were analyzed, and the optimum methods were derived for the various pollution types. Furthermore, electric and electromagnetic surveys data processing software were developed to quantitatively interpret and highly resolve the geology. The environmental assignments which can be solved by geochemical methods include: 1) drainage pollution by coal mine effluents, 2)subsurface contamination of oil-spill, 3) sea water intrusion, 4) dispersion of toxic heavy metallic elements in the metal mines, and 5) radon environmental geochemistry. The appropriate test sites for applying the geochemical methods were selected. (Abstract Truncated)

  12. Instruments for calibration and monitoring of the LHCb Muon Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Deplano, C; Lai, A

    2006-01-01

    The subject of this Ph. D. thesis is the study and the development of the instruments needed to monitor and calibrate the Muon Detector of the LHCb (Large Hadron Collider beauty) experiment. LHCb is currently under installation at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and will start to take data during 2007. The experiment will study B mesons decays to achieve a profound understanding of favour physics in the Standard Model framework and to search signs of new physics beyond. Muons can be found in the final states of many B-decays which are sensitive to CP violation. The Muon Detector has the crucial role to identify the muon particles generated by the b-hadron decays through a measurement of their transverse momentum, already at the first trigger level (Level-0). A 95% effciency in events selection is required for the Muon Trigger, which operates at the Level-0. 1380 detectors are used to equip the whole Muon System and the corresponding 122,112 readout channels must be time aligned and monitored with a resol...

  13. Instrumentation of Lysimeter Experiments and Monitoring of Soil Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, T.; Tallos, A.; Millan, R.; Vera, R.; Recreo, F.

    2004-01-01

    This study forms part of the project Mercurio and Recuperation de Terrenos Afectados por Mercurio Ambiental (RETAMA) , which determines the behaviour of mercury in the soil-plant system within the area of Almaden. The objective of this work is to instrument lysimeters with a set of electronic sensors to monitor physical and chemical soil parameters (moisture content, soil temperature, soil water matrix potential, Eh and pH) over a period of a complete vegetation cycle for selected crops. Physical and chemical soil analyses have been carried out on samples two soil profiles marking the extreme perimeter where the lysimeters were extracted. The monitoring data obtained every half hour show that the physicochemical conditions of the soils in the lysimeter can be correlated with the type of cultivation in the lysimeters. The results for parameters such as soil water matrix potential and the soil temperature reflect the diurnal changes; and fluctuations of the Eh can be related to the biological activities in the soils and are within oxid and sub oxid conditions. Slight fluctuations have been observed for the pH and constant volumetric moisture content is maintained during the period of no hydric stress. (Author) 16 refs

  14. Instrumentation of Lysimeter Experiments and Monitoring of Soil Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, T.; Tallos, A.; Millan, R.; Vera, R.; Recreo, F.

    2004-07-01

    This study forms part of the project Mercurio and Recuperation de Terrenos Afectados por Mercurio Ambiental (RETAMA), which determines the behaviour of mercury in the soil-plant system within the area of Almaden. The objective of this work is to instrument lysimeters with a set of electronic sensors to monitor physical and chemical soil parameters (moisture content, soil temperature, soil water matrix potential. Eh and pH) over a period of a complete vegetation cycle for selected crops. Physical and chemical soil analyses have been carried out on samples two soil profiles marking the extreme perimeter where the lysimeters were extracted. The monitoring data obtained every half hour show that the physicochemical conditions of the soils in the lysimeter can be correlated with the type of cultivation in the lysimeters. The results for parameters such as soil water matrix potential and the soil temperature reflect the diurnal changes; and fluctuations of the Eh can be related to the biological activities in the soils and are within oxid and suboxic conditions. Slight fluctuations have been observed for the pH and constant volumetric moisture content is maintained during the period of no hydric stress. (Author) 16 refs.

  15. Automated Instrumentation, Monitoring and Visualization of PVM Programs Using AIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Pankaj; VanVoorst, Brian; Yan, Jerry; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We present views and analysis of the execution of several PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics on a networks of Sparcstations, including: (1) NAS Parallel Benchmarks CG and MG; (2) a multi-partitioning algorithm for NAS Parallel Benchmark SP; and (3) an overset grid flowsolver. These views and analysis were obtained using our Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) version 3.0, a toolkit for debugging the performance of PVM programs. We will describe the architecture, operation and application of AIMS. The AIMS toolkit contains: (1) Xinstrument, which can automatically instrument various computational and communication constructs in message-passing parallel programs; (2) Monitor, a library of runtime trace-collection routines; (3) VK (Visual Kernel), an execution-animation tool with source-code clickback; and (4) Tally, a tool for statistical analysis of execution profiles. Currently, Xinstrument can handle C and Fortran 77 programs using PVM 3.2.x; Monitor has been implemented and tested on Sun 4 systems running SunOS 4.1.2; and VK uses XIIR5 and Motif 1.2. Data and views obtained using AIMS clearly illustrate several characteristic features of executing parallel programs on networked workstations: (1) the impact of long message latencies; (2) the impact of multiprogramming overheads and associated load imbalance; (3) cache and virtual-memory effects; and (4) significant skews between workstation clocks. Interestingly, AIMS can compensate for constant skew (zero drift) by calibrating the skew between a parent and its spawned children. In addition, AIMS' skew-compensation algorithm can adjust timestamps in a way that eliminates physically impossible communications (e.g., messages going backwards in time). Our current efforts are directed toward creating new views to explain the observed performance of PVM programs. Some of the features planned for the near future include: (1) ConfigView, showing the physical topology

  16. Development of Interactive Monitoring System for Neutron Scattering Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Ji Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Neutron scattering instruments in HANARO research reactor have been contributed to various fields of basic science and material engineering. These instruments are open to publics and researchers can apply beam-time and do experiments with instrument scientists. In most cases, these instruments run for several weeks without stopping, and therefore instrument scientist wants to see the instrument status and receive information if the instruments have some problem. This is important for the safety. However, it is very hard to get instrument information outside of instruments. Access from external site is strongly forbidden in the institute due to the network safety, I developed another way to send instrument status information using commercial short messaging service(SMS). In this presentation, detailed features of this system will be shown. As a prototype, this system is being developed for the single instrument: Disk-chopper time-of-flight instruments (DC-TOF). I have successfully developed instruments and operate for several years. This information messaging system can be used for other neutron scattering instruments.

  17. Experiences in monitoring airborne radioactive contamination in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezawa, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Yabe, A.

    1980-01-01

    The following results were obtained at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) from experience in air monitoring at the hot cells for handling highly radioactive materials, the glove box containing plutonium and the cell for producing 99 Mo. (1) The ratios of activities of airborne dust to those of whole dust were of the order of 10 -2 for the semi-volatile form of 125 Sb, and 10 -3 to 10 -4 for the particulate form of 137 Cs, 144 Ce and 144 Pr, when irradiated fuels were cut in the hot cells. (2) The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of airborne particle size distributions varied from O.4 to 15 μm with changing geometric standard deviation (sigmasub(g)) 1.7 to 7, depending on types of metallurgical treatment of fuels and on kinds of work in the cells. (3) A resuspension factor (the ratio of the concentration of airborne contamination to the surface contamination) was found to be 4x10 -8 to approximately 2x10 -7 cm -1 for plutonium oxide deposited on the floor surface. (4) The collection efficiency of the charcoal-loaded filter paper for airborne radioiodine, consisting of 60% inorganic and 40% organic iodide, was over 95% under conditions of relative humidity 40 to approximately 80% and face velocity 50 cm/sec, during the production of 99 Mo. (H.K.)

  18. Instrument Response Modeling and Simulation for the GLAST Burst Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippen, R. M.; Hoover, A. S.; Wallace, M. S.; Pendleton, G. N.; Meegan, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Lichti, G. G.; Kienlin, A. von; Steinle, H.; Diehl, R.; Greiner, J.; Preece, R. D.; Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M. S.; Paciesas, W. S.; Bhat, P. N.

    2007-01-01

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) is designed to provide wide field of view observations of gamma-ray bursts and other fast transient sources in the energy range 10 keV to 30 MeV. The GBM is composed of several unshielded and uncollimated scintillation detectors (twelve NaI and two BGO) that are widely dispersed about the GLAST spacecraft. As a result, reconstructing source locations, energy spectra, and temporal properties from GBM data requires detailed knowledge of the detectors' response to both direct radiation as well as that scattered from the spacecraft and Earth's atmosphere. This full GBM instrument response will be captured in the form of a response function database that is derived from computer modeling and simulation. The simulation system is based on the GEANT4 Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation toolset, and is being extensively validated against calibrated experimental GBM data. We discuss the architecture of the GBM simulation and modeling system and describe how its products will be used for analysis of observed GBM data. Companion papers describe the status of validating the system

  19. Applying Online Monitoring for Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, H. M.

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a practical review of the state-of-the-art means for applying OLM data acquisition in nuclear power plant instrumentation and control, qualifying or validating the OLM data, and then analyzing it for static and dynamic performance monitoring applications. Whereas data acquisition for static or steady-state OLM applications can require sample rates of anywhere from 1 to 10 seconds to 1 minutes per sample, for dynamic data acquisition, higher sampling frequencies are required (e.g., 100 to 1000 Hz) using a dedicated data acquisition system capable of providing isolation, anti-aliasing and removal of extraneous noise, and analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion. Qualifying the data for use with OLM algorithms can involve removing data `dead' spots (for static data) and calculating, examining, and trending amplitude probability density, variance, skewness, and kurtosis. For static OLM applications with redundant signals, trending and averaging qualification techniques are used, and for single or non-redundant signals physical and empirical modeling are used. Dynamic OLM analysis is performed in the frequency domain and/or time domain, and is based on the assumption that sensors' or transmitters' dynamic characteristics are linear and that the input noise signal (i.e., the process fluctuations) has proper spectral characteristics.

  20. Advances in crosshole seismic instrumentation for dam safety monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderlini, G.; Anderlini, C. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Taylor, R. [RST Instruments Ltd., Coquitlam, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Since 1996, crosshole shear wave velocity measurements have been performed annually at the WAC Bennett Dam in order to monitor the performance of the dam core and integrity of the 1997 sinkhole repairs. As the testing showed to be responsive to embankment conditions and capable of detecting subtle changes, the testing program was expanded to include the development of an electrical shear wave source capable of carrying out crosshole seismic testing in Mica and Revelstoke Dams over distances of 100 metres and depths of 250 metres. This paper discussed the development and capabilities of the crosshole seismic instrumentation and presented preliminary results obtained during initial testing. Specific topics that were discussed included conventional crosshole seismic equipment; design basics; description of new crosshole seismic equipment; and automated in-situ crosshole seismic system (ACSS) system description and operation. It was concluded that the ACSS and accompanying electrical shear wave source, developed as part of the project, has advanced and improved on traditional crosshole seismic equipment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Cost Effective Instrumentation for Developing Autonomous Groundwater Monitoring Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viti, T. M.; Garmire, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    Despite a relatively poor understanding of Hawaiian groundwater systems, the State of Hawaii depends almost exclusively on groundwater for its public water supply. Ike Wai, an NSF funded project (EPSCoR Program Award OIA #1557349) at the University of Hawaii, aims to develop new groundwater models for Hawaii's aquifers, including water quality and transport processes. To better understand aquifer properties such as capacity and hydraulic conductivity, we are developing well-monitoring instruments that can autonomously record water parameters such as conductivity, temperature, and hydraulic head level, with sampling frequencies on the order of minutes. We are currently exploring novel methods and materials for solving classical design problems, such as applying dielectric spectroscopy techniques for measuring salinity, and using recycled materials for producing custom cable assemblies. System components are fabricated in house using rapid prototyping (e.g. 3D printing, circuit board milling, and laser cutting), and traditional manufacturing techniques. This approach allows us to produce custom components while minimizing development cost, and maximizing flexibility in the overall system's design.

  2. Design and development of food radioactivity contamination monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Pradeep; Vaijapurkar, S.G.; Bohra, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Radioactivity has been part and parcel of living being since the existence of the earth. It is available everywhere in our environment and being responsible for evolution of life on earth at some extent. However, the radioactivity in excess of the natural radioactive can have harmful effects on living being. The radiation exposure can be of external or internal origin or of both. The main route of internal radiation exposure is through the contaminated food chains. The concentration of natural radioactivity in food varies in range of 40-600 Bq/kg. 40 K being the single major radionuclide of food with typical radioactivity; 50 Bq/kg in milk, 420 Bq/kg in milk powder, 165 Bq/kg in potatoes, and 125 Bq/kg in beef is also the main contributor of natural radiation doses to human being. Measurement of radioactivity in food items and drinks is thus very important in controlling the internal exposure to human being especially in case of nuclear disaster. Though, the methods and techniques for food radioactivity measurement already existing, the need of portable instrument is warranted to measure the radioactivity in food items in raw form. Measurement of radioactivity may help in quick and mass screening of food items in case of nuclear emergencies. Any enhanced level of radioactivity in food items especially in case of nuclear emergency need to be evaluated for controlling its spread and restriction of consumption by the public. This way, it may help in managing internal radioactivity contamination to human being

  3. Survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring: major update. Volume 3. Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This is the third volume of a four-volume (seven-part) series, the culmination of a comprehensive survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to radiation monitoring. The results of the survey are given as descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Information is also given regarding the pollutants to be monitored, their characteristics and forms, their sources and pathways, their effects on the ecosystem, and the means of controlling them through process and regulatory controls. The discussion is presented under sections entitled radiation sources; instrumentation: by type of radiation or instrument type; and, instrumentation for specific radionuclides. (JGB)

  4. Survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring: major update. Volume 3. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This is the third volume of a four-volume (seven-part) series, the culmination of a comprehensive survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to radiation monitoring. The results of the survey are given as descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Information is also given regarding the pollutants to be monitored, their characteristics and forms, their sources and pathways, their effects on the ecosystem, and the means of controlling them through process and regulatory controls. The discussion is presented under sections entitled radiation sources; instrumentation: by type of radiation or instrument type; and, instrumentation for specific radionuclides

  5. Instrumentation for continuous monitoring of low energy cosmic ray intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S; Prasad, R; Yadav, R S [Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Naqvi, T H [Z.H. Engineering Coll., Aligarh (India); Ahmed, Rais [National Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi (India)

    1975-12-01

    A high counting rate neutron monitor developed at Aligarh for continuous monitoring of low energy nucleonic component of cosmic rays is described. Transistorized electronic circuits used are described.

  6. Application Of The SPV-based Surface Lifetime Technique To In-Line Monitoring Of Surface Cu Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, John; Savtchouk, Alexandre; Wilson, Matthew; Kim, Chul Hong; Yoo, Hyung Won; Lee, Chang Hwan; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Son, Sang Hoon

    2009-09-01

    Implementation of Cu interconnects into Silicon Integrated Circuits (IC's) has been instrumental in the continuing improvement of IC device performance. Copper as a well known Gate Oxide Integrity (GOI) killer [1, 2] requires extensive protocols to minimize the possibility of cross contamination. Despite such protocols the risk for cross contamination exists, and consequently there is the need for in-line Cu cross-contamination detection metrology. Preferably the metrology will be non-destructive, fast, and capable of mapping on product wafers. Up to now the most common approaches for monitoring Cu contamination in IC fabrication lines either measure Cu in the bulk Si, which is not applicable to Cu cross-contamination monitoring because Back-End-of-the-Line thermal budgets restrict the ability to diffuse the surface Cu into the bulk Si; or the techniques are not optimal for in-line monitoring due to their destructive, time-consuming, or costly nature. In this work we demonstrate for the first time the application of the ac-Surface Photo Voltage (ac-SPV) surface lifetime approach [3] to in-line, full wafer coverage mapping of low level (metrology system. Furthermore, because the metrology is non-contact (utilizing edge-grip handling) and non-destructive, it is directly applicable to measurement of production wafers. In-line fab data acquired using this metrology is presented and compared to data from Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS).

  7. Nuclear electronic components of surface contamination monitor based on multi-electrode proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiangyang; Zhang Yong; Han Shuping; Rao Xianming; Fang Jintu

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear electronic components applying in Portal Monitor and Hands and Feet Surface Contamination Monitor were based on modern integrated circuit are introduced. The detailed points in circuit design and manufacturing technique are analyzed

  8. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule 2 (UCMR 2), (2008-2010) Occurrence Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule supporting the second cycle (UCMR 2) of monitoring, conducted under EPA oversight, was published in the Federal Register...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1004 - Instrument and sensory monitoring for leaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to be measured in air. (5) Monitoring performance. Monitoring shall be performed when the equipment... devices in gas and vapor service) or § 63.1012(f) (compressors). (d) Sensory monitoring methods. Sensory... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Instrument and sensory monitoring for...

  10. The Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor II environmental radiological characterization utilizing GPS/GIS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendling, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    Time, cost, and most importantly quality of data are the three factors to measure the success of field radiological characterizations. The application of coupling radiation detection instrumentation to a GPS receiver has dramatically increased the data quality achievable compared to traditional environmental radiological survey methods. Improvements in verifying adequate spatial coverage of an area while collecting data and at,the same time reducing field time requirements can be realized. Data acquired during the recent implementation of the Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor 11 (MSCM-11) will be presented to demonstrate the advantages of this system over traditional radiological survey methods. The comparison will include time and manpower requirements. Linking the complimentary GPS, GIS and radiation detection technologies on a mobile tractor based platform has provided a tool to provide radiological characterization data faster, cheaper, and better to assist in the Environmental Restoration Mission of the Hanford Site

  11. Contamination Control and Monitoring of Tap Water as Fluid in Industrial Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems.......Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems....

  12. Possible extensions of XIA's digital spectrometer technology to portable and remote monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warburton, W.K.; Darknell, D.A.; Hubbard, B.

    1998-01-01

    The XIA DXP-4C, a 4 channel, CAMAC based X-ray spectrometer, is based on digitally processing directly digitized preamplifier signals. Designed for instrumenting multi-detector arrays for synchrotron radiation applications, the DXP-4C was optimized for very high count rates at a low cost per detector channel. These design constraints coincidentally lead to an instrument which is very compact and relatively low power (3.4 W/channel), considering its count rate and MCA capabilities, and which therefore offers interesting possibilities for effective extension to portable applications. Further, because all functions (gain, filter parameters, pileup inspection criteria and internal calibrations) are digitally controlled, the design can be readily adapted to a large variety of user interfaces, including remote access interfaces. Here we present the basics of the design and examine approaches to lowering the power to less than 300 mW/channel while retaining count rate capabilities in excess of 50,000 cps. We then consider the engineering issues associated with portable and remote spectrometry applications, examining in detail the three cases of a lead paint detector, a remote contamination monitor, and a space mission spectrometer. (author)

  13. Requirements for internal contamination monitoring units; Anforderungen an Inkorporationsmessstellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, E. [GSF, Inst. fuer Biophysikalische Strahlenforschung, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Beyer, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Abt. ASS (Germany); Doerfel, H. [Hauptabteilung Sicherheit, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Erlenbach, H. [Zentralstelle fuer Sicherheitstechnik NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany); Fischbach, G. [Siemens Brennelementewerk, Hanau (Germany); Henrichs, K. [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany); Keller, K.D. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Tuebingen (Germany); Koenig, K. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, ISH, Neuherberg (Germany); Riedel, W. [Freie Univ. Berlin, Klinikum Steglitz (Germany); Scheler, R. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, FB Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany); Schieferdecker, H. [Hauptabteilung Sicherheit, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    For the evaluation of internal contamination by officially authorized monitoring units according to section 63 (6) of the German radiation protection ordinance, a directive will be prepared in order to define uniform requirements for the laboratories in charge of incorporation monitoring by appointment of the relevant authorities. These requirements refer to equipment, to performance of measurements, to interpretation of measured values, to quality control as well as to documentation and to delivery of results. The duties of such laboratories comprise measurements of radioactivity, evaluation of intakes of radionuclides and of the resulting internal radiation dose, but also transmission of results to the employer, to the central dose registry, and under certain circumstances to the authorities. Among the requirements to be met by the laboratory for incorporation control are a sufficient measuring efficiency, the implementation of in-house checks, and the participation in intercomparison programs. For the accomplishment of such duties the laboratory needs appropriate apparatus, rooms, facilities, and staffing. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Ermittlung der Koerperdosen nach Paragraph 63 StrlSchV sind fuer die gemaess Abs. 6 von der zustaendigen Behoerde zu bestimmenden Messstellen in einer Richtlinie einheitliche Anforderungen festzulegen. Diese beziehen sich auf deren Ausstattung, die Durchfuehrung der Messungen, Auswertungen und Qualitaetskontrollen sowie die Aufzeichnung und Uebermittlung der Ergebnisse. Die Aufgaben der Messstellen umfassen die Messungen der Radioaktivitaet im Koerper bzw. in Koerperausscheidungen, die Ermittlung der Zufuhr an Radionukliden sowie der daraus resultierenden Koerperdosis und die Weiterleitung der Ergebnisse an den Auftraggeber, an das zentrale Dosisregister und in bestimmten Faellen an die Behoerde. Zu den von einer Messstelle zu erfuellenden Anforderungen gehoeren eine ausreichende Messeffektivitaet, die Durchfuehrung von Eigenkontrollen

  14. Instrumentation for continuous monitoring of low energy cosmic ray intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.; Prasad, R.; Yadav, R.S.; Ahmed, Rais

    1975-01-01

    A high counting rate neutron monitor developed at Aligarh for continuous monitoring of low energy nucleonic component of cosmic rays is described. Transistorized electronic circuits used are described. (author)

  15. Development of Real-Time Coal Monitoring Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan Gurjar, Ph.D.

    2010-06-17

    Relying on coal for energy requires optimizing the extraction of heat content from various blends of coal fuel and reducing harmful constituents and byproducts. Having a real-time measurement instrument provides relevant information about toxic constituents released in the atmosphere from burning coal and optimizes the performance of a power plant. A few commercial instruments exist and have been in operation for more than a decade. However, most of these instruments are based on radioactive sources and are bulky, expensive and time-consuming. The proposed instrument is based on the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The advantage of LIBS is that it is a standoff instrument, does not require sample preparation and provides precise information about sample constituents.

  16. Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Shonka Research Associates, Inc.`s (SRA) Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information management System (SCM/SIMS) is designed to perform alpha and beta radiation surveys of floors and surfaces and document the measured data. The SRA-SCM/SIMS technology can be applied to routine operational surveys, characterization surveys, and free release and site closure surveys. Any large nuclear site can make use of this technology. This report describes a demonstration of the SRA-SCM/SIMS technology. This demonstration is part of the chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology (ST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East`s (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor Facility. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies.

  17. Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Shonka Research Associates, Inc.'s (SRA) Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information management System (SCM/SIMS) is designed to perform alpha and beta radiation surveys of floors and surfaces and document the measured data. The SRA-SCM/SIMS technology can be applied to routine operational surveys, characterization surveys, and free release and site closure surveys. Any large nuclear site can make use of this technology. This report describes a demonstration of the SRA-SCM/SIMS technology. This demonstration is part of the chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology (ST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East's (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor Facility. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies

  18. Study of monitoring protection of radionuclides contamination in organism by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Kang Baoan; He Guangren

    1987-01-01

    In view of the exceptionally important role of the medical radiation protection in human health, the authors try to study on the monitoring of internal contamination of radionuclides in organism by different autoradiographic methods, such as: monitoring of the body retention of isolated or combined radionuclides by freezing microautoradiography; monitoring of blood, bone marrow and excreta radioactive samples by smear autoradiography; differentiation of two radionuclides contamination by double radionuclide autoradiography; especially, monitoring of low level of radionuclides contamination by fluorescence sensitization autoradiography. The sensitivity of autoradiographic formation was increased by the scintillator by 10 times

  19. Monitoring of Plutonium Contaminated Solid Waste Streams. A technical guide to design and analysis of monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.

    1985-06-01

    The basic information on the Pu content in Pu Contaminated Materials (PCM) is the measurement of radiation emitted by Pu isotopes either spontaneously or due to irradiation by external neutron or gamma-sources. Requirements on measurement accuracy and detection limits should be defined by the operator of a Pu-handling facility in accordance with monitoring objectives in the very beginning of the planning of a monitoring system. Monitoring objectives reflect nuclear safety and radiological protection regulations and the needs for Pu-accountancy of nuclear materials management and safeguards. On considering the possibilities and limitations of radiometric techniques a solution of the monitoring problem is based on appropriate segregation and packaging procedures and records upon matrix and isotopic composition of PCM-items to be measured. The general interrelations between waste item characteristics and measurement uncertainty and detection limit are outlined in the first chapter which is addressed to the system planner. Chapter 2 is devoted to the attention of instrument developers and analysts. It presents in a general approach the correlations between the observed radiation leakage rate, respectively detection signal, and the generating source, e.g. Pu-isotopic content of the examined PCM item. Some practical measurement methods are reviewed and their limitations are indicated. The possible radiometric techniques based on detection of gamma rays from alpha decay (and 241 Am), neutrons from spontaneous fission and (α,n)-reaction and from induced fission reactions by neutron irradiation of Pu isotopes are presented. The measurement uncertainty of a single PCM item measurement is estimated on the basis of the uncertainty of the spatial distributions of source (Pu) and matrix materials. For the estimation of the cumulative error over a large collection of PCM items from a defined PCM-stream a probabilistic approach is suggested

  20. Radiation protection instrumentation for personnel dosimetry, area and environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.R.

    1978-04-01

    Several kinds of personal dosimeter exist and their performance is reviewed in the light of requirements for an ideal instrument. The requirements of portable instruments are reviewed and the extent to which they are met in one example is described. Where permitted environmental doses are larger than the fluctuations in natural backgrounds, certain types of thermoluminescent dosimeters provide a cheaper and reliable alternative measuring system

  1. The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative--Performance Monitoring for DOE Environmental Remediation and Contaminant Containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, W. J.; Venedam, R. J.; Lohrstorfer, C. F.; Weeks, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    The Advanced Monitoring System Initiative (AMSI) is a new approach to accelerate the development and application of advanced sensors and monitoring systems in support of Department of Energy needs in monitoring the performance of environmental remediation and contaminant containment activities. The Nevada Site Office of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Bechtel Nevada manage AMSI, with funding provided by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM). AMSI has easy access to unique facilities and capabilities available at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including the Hazardous Materials (HazMat) Spill Center, a one-of-a-kind facility built and permitted for releases of hazardous materials for training purposes, field-test detection, plume dispersion experimentation, and equipment and materials testing under controlled conditions. AMSI also has easy access to the facilities and considerable capabilities of the DOE and NNSA National Laboratories, the Special Technologies Laboratory, Remote Sensing Laboratory, Desert Research Institute, and Nevada Universities. AMSI provides rapid prototyping, systems integration, and field-testing, including assistance during initial site deployment. The emphasis is on application. Important features of the AMSI approach are: (1) customer investment, involvement and commitment to use - including definition of needs, desired mode of operation, and performance requirements; and (2) employment of a complete systems engineering approach, which allows the developer to focus maximum attention on the essential new sensing element or elements while AMSI assumes principal responsibility for infrastructure support elements such as power, packaging, and general data acquisition, control, communication, visualization and analysis software for support of decisions. This presentation describes: (1) the needs for sensors and performance monitoring for environmental systems as seen by the DOE Long Term Stewardship Science and

  2. Post monitoring of a cyclodextrin remeditated chlorinated solvent contaminated aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanford, W. J.

    2006-12-01

    Hydroxypropyl-â-cyclodextrin (HPâCD) has been tested successfully in the laboratory and in the field for enhanced flushing of low-polarity contaminants from aquifers. The cyclodextrin molecule forms a toroidal structure, which has a hydrophobic cavity. Within this cavity, organic compounds of appropriate shape and size can form inclusion complexes, which is the basis for the use of cyclodextrin in groundwater remediation. The hydrophilic exterior of the molecule makes cyclodextrin highly water-soluble. The solubility of cyclodextrins can be further enhanced by adding functional groups, such as hydroxypropyl groups, to the cyclodextrin core. The aqueous solubility of HPâCD exceeds 950 g/L. These high solubilities are advantageous for field applications because they permit relatively high concentrations of the flushing agent. In order for cyclodextrin to become a feasible remediative alternative, it must be demonstrate a short term resistance to biodegradation during field application, but ultimately biodegrade so as not to pose a long term presence in the aquifer. The potential for degradation of cyclodextrin as well as changes in the chlorinated solvents and groundwater geochemistry were examined during the post monitoring of a field demonstration in a shallow aquifer at Little Creek Naval Amphibious Base in Virginia. It was found that a portion of the cyclodextrin remaining in the aquifer after the cessation of field activities biodegraded during the 425 days of post monitoring. This degradation also led to the degradation of the chlorinated solvents trichloroethylene and 1,1-trichloroethane through both biological and chemical processes. The aquifer remained anaerobic with average dissolved oxygen levels below 0.5 mg/L. Dissolved nitrate and sulfate concentrations within the cyclodextrin plume decreased due their being used as terminal electron acceptors during the degradation of the cyclodextrin. The concentrations of total iron at the field site showed no

  3. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels: FY2015 and FY2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Campbell, Scott A [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is conducting a field assessment of the potential for contaminated soil to be transported from the Smoky Contamination Area (CA) as a result of storm runoff. This activity supports Nevada Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) efforts to complete regulatory closure of the Soils Corrective Action Unit (CAU) contamination areas. The work is intended to confirm the likely mechanism of transport and determine the meteorological conditions that might cause movement of contaminated soils, as well as determine the particle size fraction that is most closely associated with transported radionuclide-contaminated soils. These data will facilitate the appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring program.

  4. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels: FY2013 and FY2014 (revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg D. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Campbell, Scott A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is conducting a field assessment of the potential for contaminated soil to be transported from the Smoky Contamination Area (CA) as a result of storm runoff, which supports National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) efforts to complete regulatory closure of the Soils Corrective Action Unit (CAU) contamination areas. The work is intended to confirm the likely mechanism of transport and determine the meteorological conditions that might cause movement of contaminated soils, as well as determine the particle size fraction that is most closely associated with transported radionuclide-contaminated soils. These data will facilitate the appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring program.

  5. Fiber-optic based instrumentation for water and air monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCraith, B.D.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper real-time in-situ water and air monitoring capabilities based on fiber-optic sensing technology are described. This relatively new technology combines advances in fiber optic and optoelectronics with chemical spectorscopic techniques to enable field environmental monitoring of sub ppm quantities of specific pollutants. The advantages of this technology over conventional sampling methods are outlined. As it is the more developed area the emphasis is on water quality monitoring rather than air. Examples of commercially available, soon-to be available and laboratory systems are presented. One such example is a system used to detect hydrocarbon spills and leaking of underground hydrocarbon storage tanks

  6. Cuban-Brazilian comparison of the calibration procedures for surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, Gonzalo W.; Garcia, Jose A.T.; Ramos, Manoel M.O.

    2007-01-01

    The calibration laboratory of the CPHR, Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, is the only laboratory that performs calibrations of radiation protection instruments in Cuba. Recently they started a cooperation project with IAEA, code number CUB3002-01 with the task title 'Assuring and Demonstrating the safety of radioactive Waste Management'. Within the frame of this project they have a compromise to implement the calibration service for surface contamination monitors, for which they received instruments and sources. In 2006 the Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI) from the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, IRD/CNEN, was invited to perform a mission to CPHR in order to evaluate the level of implementation of the service trough the insertion of the service in the Quality Assurance System of their laboratory, and perform a comparison exercise to test the calibration method implemented. The results were evaluated by the methodology recommended in the ISO/IEC 43-1 standard. These results show that all values from both laboratories are comparable for most radionuclides except for Cl-36. The preliminary investigation about this situation is presented in the paper. (author)

  7. Instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Volume 1. Radiation. Second Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.; Nero, A.V.; Murphy, D.J.; Graven, R.

    1983-01-01

    This volume describes ionizing radiation and the instruments used for measurement. Units, sources, and effects of radiation are introduced, basic detection methods discussed, and measurement of alpha, beta, gamma and x-radiation described. Sources of anthropogenic radiation are discussed in detail: nuclear power plants, spent-fuel processing, and uranium mining and milling

  8. Sleep monitoring : A comparison between three wearable instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouwe, N.C. van; Valk, P.J.L.; Veenstra, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    During military operations soldiers often encounter extreme environmental circumstances like heat, cold, prolonged physical exercise, and disturbed sleep, which hamper their performance. Monitoring changes in physiological parameters may assist with adequate interventions to prevent the negative

  9. Development of network communication function for digitalized neutron flux monitoring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kai; Zhang Liangju; Chen Xiaojun; Li Baoxiang

    2002-01-01

    It is essential for a digitalized Neutron Flux Monitoring Instrument to communicate with other parts of Instrumentation and Control System in a network environment, and it is fairly different from the case of traditional analogue nuclear instrumentation. How to satisfy all the requirements of different network structure and communication protocol, which might be adopted in different target nuclear power plant, is a key issue in the design and development of a digitalized neutron flux monitoring instrument. The author describes the overall communication scheme, mainly discusses the design idea and the requirements of the communication interfaces and the implementation of the RS-485 interface as an example of the digitalized neutron flux monitoring instrument, which is under development in the institute

  10. Tesla VUPJT instruments for radiation monitoring of working environment and selected aplications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slezak, V.; Kula, J.; Novakova, O.; Jursova, L.; Severa, L.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is presented of the current state of development and production of instruments for ionizing radiation monitoring and detection, also listing possible applications in the national economy. (author)

  11. Experience with instrumentational monitoring of steam turbine foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnemann, H.; Hagemann, M.

    1989-01-01

    Many factors can lead to the deformation of foundations and consequently to variations in the state of alignment of a turbine shaft line. Various measurement programmes, measurement procedures and instrumentation have been developed and proven in power plant practice. Experience accumulated hitherto with automatic measurement systems shows that these procedures are superior to conventional methods in respect of accuracy, availability and information content. (orig.) [de

  12. Trace Contaminant Monitor for Air in Spacecraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A need exists for analyzers that can measure trace contaminants in air on board spacecraft. Toxic gas buildup can endanger the crew particularly during long...

  13. Contamination monitoring in radiation protection activities in Myanmar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thin, K T; Htoon, S [Yangon Univ. (Myanmar). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    The radioactive contamination in rainwater, seawater, air, milk powder and other eatables were measured with low level counter assembly. The measured activities are found to be very low and well within the maximum permissible level. (author)

  14. Reference values for generic instruments used in routine outcome monitoring: the leiden routine outcome monitoring study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulte-van Maaren Yvonne WM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI, Mood & Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire −30 (MASQ-D30, Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36, and Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Short Form (DAPP-SF are generic instruments that can be used in Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM of patients with common mental disorders. We aimed to generate reference values usually encountered in 'healthy' and ‘psychiatrically ill’ populations to facilitate correct interpretation of ROM results. Methods We included the following specific reference populations: 1294 subjects from the general population (ROM reference group recruited through general practitioners, and 5269 psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with mood, anxiety, or somatoform (MAS disorders (ROM patient group. The outermost 5% of observations were used to define limits for one-sided reference intervals (95th percentiles for BSI, MASQ-D30 and DAPP-SF, and 5th percentiles for SF-36 subscales. Internal consistency and Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC analyses were performed. Results Mean age for the ROM reference group was 40.3 years (SD=12.6 and 37.7 years (SD=12.0 for the ROM patient group. The proportion of females was 62.8% and 64.6%, respectively. The mean for cut-off values of healthy individuals was 0.82 for the BSI subscales, 23 for the three MASQ-D30 subscales, 45 for the SF-36 subscales, and 3.1 for the DAPP-SF subscales. Discriminative power of the BSI, MASQ-D30 and SF-36 was good, but it was poor for the DAPP-SF. For all instruments, the internal consistency of the subscales ranged from adequate to excellent. Discussion and conclusion Reference values for the clinical interpretation were provided for the BSI, MASQ-D30, SF-36, and DAPP-SF. Clinical information aided by ROM data may represent the best means to appraise the clinical state of psychiatric outpatients.

  15. Monitoring of Water and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    seepage is occurring in a freshwater lake environment and to map the lateral extent of any subsurface contamination at the groundwater –surface water ...and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater -Surface Water Interface August 2008 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Monitoring of Water and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater -Surface Water Interface 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  16. Development and Application of Devices for Remote Monitoring of Gamma-Ray Contamination at RECOM Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, O.P.; Stepanov, V.E.; Chesnokov, A.V.; Sudarkin, A.N.; Urutskoev, L.I.

    1999-01-01

    Devices for remote monitoring of gamma-ray contamination develop at RECOM Ltd. are described and typical examples of their application are show. The following devices are discussed: spectrum-sensitive collimated devices for mapping of radioactivity on contaminated surfaces- scanning collimated Gamma Locator, device for field Cs-137 contamination mapping-CORAD; devices for gamma-ray imaging computer-controlled High-Energy Radiation Visualizer (HERV) and Coded Mask Imager

  17. Radiation protection instrumentation. Monitoring equipment. Radioactive aerosols in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This international standard applies to portable or installed equipment for continuous monitoring of radioactive aerosols in the environment in normal and emergency conditions. Monitoring involves continuous sampling and, where desirable, automatic start of sampling. The document applies particularly to the following assignments: (i) determination of the volume activity of radionuclides in the form of aerosols, either per time unit, along with its time changes, or in the integral form over a longer time period such as 24 h, and measurement of the volume sampled; (ii) triggering a warning alarm signal if the preset volume activity or time integral of the volume activity of aerosols has been exceeded. The document deals with radioactive aerosol monitor design, testing procedures, and documentation. Appended tables refer to the reference and normal testing conditions, tests in normal testing conditions, tests during changes of the affecting quantities, and tests of the air circuit. (P.A.)

  18. Ultrasonic partial discharge monitoring method on instrument transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartalović Nenad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sonic and ultrasonic partial discharge monitoring have been applied since the early days of these phenomena monitoring. Modern measurement and partial discharge acoustic (ultrasonic and sonic monitoring method has been rapidly evolving as a result of new electronic component design, information technology and updated software solutions as well as the development of knowledge in the partial discharge diagnosis. Electrical discharges in the insulation system generate voltage-current pulses in the network and ultrasonic waves that propagate through the insulation system and structure. Amplitude-phase-frequency analysis of these signals reveals information about the intensity, type and location of partial discharges. The paper discusses the possibility of ultrasonic method selectivity improvement and the increase of diagnosis reliability in the field. Measurements were performed in the laboratory and in the field while a number of transformers were analysed for dissolved gases in the oil. A comparative review of methods for the partial discharge detection is also presented in this paper.

  19. The laser absorption spectrometer - A new remote sensing instrument for atmospheric pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumate, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    An instrument capable of remotely monitoring trace atmospheric constituents is described. The instrument, called a laser absorption spectrometer, can be operated from an aircraft or spacecraft to measure the concentration of selected gases in three dimensions. This device will be particularly useful for rapid determination of pollutant levels in urban areas.

  20. Instrumentation for Monitoring around Marine Renewable Energy Converters: Workshop Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polagye, B. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Copping, A. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown-Saracino, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suryan, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kramer, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-14

    To better understand the state of instrumentation and capabilities for monitoring around marine energy converters, the U.S. Department of Energy directed Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center at the University of Washington to convene an invitation-only workshop of experts from around the world to address instrumentation needs.

  1. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule 3 (UCMR 3), (2013-2015) Occurrence Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The third Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 3), conducted under EPA oversight, was published in the Federal Register on May 2, 2012. UCMR 3 requires...

  2. Remediating and Monitoring White Phosphorus Contamination at Eagle River Flats (Operable Unit C), Fort Richardson, Alaska

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walsh, M. E; Racine, C. H; Collins, C. M; Walsh, M. R; Bailey, R. N

    2001-01-01

    .... Army Engineer District, Alaska, and U.S. Army Alaska, Public Works, describing the results of research, monitoring, and remediation efforts addressing the white phosphorus contamination in Eagle River Flats, an 865-ha estuarine salt marsh...

  3. Certified reference materials for organic contaminants for use in monitoring of the aquatic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.; McGovern, E.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last three decades organic contaminants have been of increasing importance in environmental monitoring. Dioxins, furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides have determined the environmental research agenda. This has led to an increasing demand for certified reference

  4. History, contamination and monitoring of water bodies at the P/A Mayak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozhko, E.G.; Sharalapov, V.I.; Posokhov, A.K.; Kuzina, N.V.; Postovalova, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The facts concerning the history and contamination data of surface water at Mayak Production Association are given in the article. Data about the monitoring of contaminated water are presented. The monitoring program solved three main problems: assessment of the water quality of basins, examination of water quality in accordance with actual specifications, and reception of new data about the migration of the most important radionuclides

  5. Survey of instrumentation used for monitoring metals in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinby-Hunt, M.S.

    1978-06-01

    A study was conducted of instrumentation used to determine metals in water. Several of the techniques most commonly used for analysis and routine determinations of metals in water are shown in Table 1. They are atomic absorption spectroscopy, both flame and flameless, atomic emission spectroscopy using conventional flame sources and inductively-coupled plasma sources, and ultraviolet-visible absorption techniques. Other less frequently employed methods are x-ray fluorescence analysis using both photon and charged particle excitation with energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive spectral analysis. Also electrochemical techniques and activation analysis are studied.

  6. Calibration of instrument and personnel monitoring in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Aziz Mohamad Ramli; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    1987-01-01

    It is difficult to choose radioprotection equipments that are not too expensive and suit the purpose. Some of the dosimetric characteristics of good dosemeters outlined by ISO 4071-1978 (E) namely scale linearity, energy dependence, radiation quality dependence and angular dependence for some of the commercially available dosemeters are discussed. The calibration procedures practised at the National Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL), of the Nuclear Energy Unit (NEU) is also explained. The radiological equipments for personnel monitoring such as film badge and TLD are widely used to estimate the radiation dose delivered to the whole or partial body of a personnel. Both of the personnel monitoring procedures have been established at the NEU. The objective, use and maintenance of the devices are also discussed in detail. The evaluation of the monthly dose received by a personnel from various establishments in the country are also presented. (author). 17 figs

  7. On line instrument systems for monitoring steam turbogenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapis, A.; Giorgetti, G.; Lapini, G. L.; Benanti, A.; Frigeri, C.; Gadda, E.; Mantino, E.

    A computerized real time data acquisition and data processing for the diagnosis of malfunctioning of steam turbogenerator systems is described. Pressure, vibration and temperature measurements are continuously collected from standard or special sensors including startup or stop events. The architecture of the monitoring system is detailed. Examples of the graphics output are presented. It is shown that such a system allows accurate diagnosis and the possibility of creating a data bank to describe the dynamic characteristics of the machine park.

  8. Use of biological activities to monitor the removal of fuel contaminants - perspective for monitoring hydrocarbon contamination: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil biological activities are vital for the restoration of soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. Their role includes the biotransformation of petroleum compounds into harmless compounds. In this paper, the use of biological activities as potential...

  9. On-Line Monitoring of Instrument Channel Performance in Nuclear Power Plant Using PEANO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantoni, Paolo F.; Hoffmann, Mario; Shankar, Ramesh; Davis, Eddie L.

    2002-01-01

    On-Line monitoring evaluates instrument channel performance by assessing its consistency with other plant indications. Industry and EPRI experience at several plants has shown this overall approach to be very effective in identifying instrument channels that are exhibiting degrading or inconsistent performance characteristics. On-Line monitoring of instrument channels provides information about the condition of the monitored channels through accurate, more frequent monitoring of each channel's performance over time. This type of performance monitoring is a methodology that offers an alternate approach to traditional time-directed calibration. On-line monitoring of these channels can provide an assessment of instrument performance and provide a basis for determining when adjustments are necessary. Elimination or reduction of unnecessary field calibrations can reduce associated labor costs, reduce personnel radiation exposure and reduce the potential for miss-calibration. PEANO is a system for on-line calibration monitoring developed in the years 1995-2000 at the Institutt for energiteknikk (IFE), Norway, which makes use of Artificial Intelligence techniques for its purpose. The system has been tested successfully in Europe in off-line tests with EDF (France), Tecnatom (Spain) and ENEA (Italy). PEANO is currently installed and used for on-line monitoring at the HBWR reactor in Halden. This paper describes the results of performance tests on PEANO with real data from a US PWR plant, in the framework of a co-operation among IFE, EPRI and Edan Engineering, to evaluate the potentials of PEANO for future installations in US nuclear plants. (authors)

  10. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller Julianne J.; Mizell Steve A.; Nikolich George; Campbell Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550, Area 8 Smoky Contamination Area (CA), during precipitation runoff events. CAU 550 includes Corrective Action Sites (CASs) 08-23-03, 08-23-04, 08-23-06, and 08-23-07; these CASs are associated with tests designated Ceres, Smoky, Oberon, and Titania, respectively.

  11. Instrumentation for status monitoring and protection of SST-1 superconducting magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, A.N., E-mail: aashoo.sharma@yahoo.com; Prasad, U.; Doshi, K.; Varmora, P.; Khristi, Y.; Patel, D.; Pradhan, S.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Details of status monitoring instrumentation are presented. • Protection instrumentation details are presented. • Instrumentation installation details, signal conditioning and DAQ system details and the results during SST-1 operation are presented. - Abstract: Superconducting magnets of SST-1 are extensively instrumented to continuously monitor the health of magnets during machine cool-down, plasma experiments and also during the machine warm-up phase. These instrumentations include temperature sensors, flow meters, hall probes, strain gages, displacement sensors, pressure sensors and voltage taps. The number of sensors and their locations has been optimized to systematically monitor all important magnet parameters to ensure its safety. In-house developed modular signal conditioning cards have been developed for these instrumentations. The data is acquired on a Versa Module Europa bus based data acquisition system (VME DAQ). This paper gives an overview of selection, installation, laboratory scale validations, and distribution logics of these instrumentations. Results during plasma campaigns and the up-gradation aspects of these instrumentations are also discussed in this paper.

  12. Optimization of monitoring sewage with radionuclide contaminants. Optimizatsiya kontroya stochnykh vod, zagryaznennykh radionuklidami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorov, V N [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Neorganicheskikh Materialov, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1991-03-01

    Recommendations on optimization of monitoring contaminated sewage aimed at enviromental protection agxinst radioactive contamination at minimum cost are presented. The way of selecting water sampling technique depends on water composition stability and flow rate. Depending on the type of radionuclide distribution in the sewage one can estimate minimum frequency of sampling or number of samples sufficient for assuring reliability of the conclusion on the excess or non-excess of permissible radioactive contamination levels, as well as analysis assigned accuracy. By irregular contaminated sewage-discharge and possibility of short-term releases of different form and duration, sampling should be accomplished through automatic devices of continuons or periodic operation.

  13. Research in radiation monitoring survey instrumentation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blalock, T.V.; Kennedy, E.J.; Phillips, R.G.; Walker, E.W. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Two low-power solid-state prototype readout units were developed, an LED display and a LCD display. This display output was in a bar-graph format, covering four-decades of information, with 10-segments per decade. The displays accept a frequency input, which is standardly available from several portable radiation-survey instruments. Both readout units will operate on two D-cell batteries (3.0 Volt), with a typical current drain requirement of 0.3 MA for the LED display and 30μA for the LCD display. A wide-range electrometer circuit was also developed. The circuit covers an input current range from 10 -13 A to 10 -8 A. The output signal is a pulse whose frequency is directly proportional to input current. The circuit requires no high-megohm resistors, and is autoranging. Several candidate input amplifiers were analyzed and evaluated for use with the electrometer circuit

  14. The Development of a Sub-Surface Monitoring System for Organic Contamination in Soils and Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Huntley

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem when dealing with environmental contamination is the early detection and subsequent surveillance of the contamination. This paper describes the potential of sub-surface sensor technology for the early detection of organic contaminants in contaminated soils, sediments, and landfill sites. Rugged, low-power hydrocarbon sensors have been developed, along with a data-logging system, for the early detection of phase hydrocarbons in soil. Through laboratory-based evaluation, the ability of this system to monitor organic contamination in water-based systems is being evaluated. When used in conjunction with specific immunoassays, this can provide a sensitive and low-cost solution for long-term monitoring and analysis, applicable to a wide range of field applications.

  15. Microwave Instrument for Human Vital Signs Detection and Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brian Sveistrup

    problems with homodyne systems, i.e. channel mismatches and DC offsets resulting from hardware imperfections. To verify the theory, a new VSD radar system called the DTU-VISDAM (VItalSigns Detection And Monitoring) has been designed and build. The system together with the implemented signal processing...... front-end was initiated. With financial support from the Danish fund H. C. Ørsteds Fonden, the IC was fabricated in the SG25H3 SiGe:C BiCMOS technology from Innovations for High Performance microelectronics (IHP) GmbH in Germany. The radar transceiver has been measured and altough some adjustments could...

  16. L-34: EPR-First Responders: Basic Radiation Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This lecture is about radiation basic instrumentation, previous measurements, personnel dosimetry, Geiger Mueller, ionizing chambers, gamma spectrometry, contamination monitoring and radiation detection.

  17. Long-range alpha detection applied to soil contamination and waste monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Close, D.A.; McAtee, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Alpha contamination monitoring has been traditionally limited by the short range of alpha particles in air and through detector windows. The long-range alpha detector (LRAD) described in this paper circumvents that limitation by detecting alpha-produced ions, rather than alpha particles directly. Since the LRAD is sensitive to all ions, it can monitor all contamination present on a large surface at one time. Because air is the ''detector gas,'' the LRAD can detect contamination on any surface to which air can penetrate. We present data showing the sensitivity of LRAD detectors, as well as documenting their ability to detect alpha sources in previously unmonitorable locations, and verifying the ion lifetime. Specific designs and results for soil contamination and waste monitors are also included

  18. Evaluation of indigenously developed plastic scintillator sheet detector for surface radioactive contamination monitoring application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahani, R.M.; Chaudhary, H.S.; Mahala, V.K.; Senwar, K.R.; Meena, J.P.

    2018-01-01

    Radioactive contamination may be caused by release of radioactivity in the environment due to accident at nuclear plant/reactor or spillage of loose radioactive materials in a laboratory. The protection of workers from potentially hazardous radiations emitted by the contaminants is a matter of prime concern. The detection of such radiations requires a monitoring system capable of measuring the level of radioactivity at the contaminated site. Plastic scintillators are widely used for large area radiation monitoring due to the ease of preparation in different shape and sizes. These detectors are sensitive to beta and gamma radiation therefore can be used for monitoring of beta and gamma contamination. In this paper, performance results of indigenously developed plastic scintillator sheet of area 800 cm 2 are reported

  19. An overview of existing raptor contaminant monitoring activities in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Ramirez, P.; Shore, R.F.; Brink, van den N.W.; Hattum, van B.; Bustnes, J.O.; Duke, G.; Fritsch, C.; Garcia-Fernandez, A.J.; Helander, B.O.; Jaspers, V.; Krone, O.; Martinez-Lopez, E.; Mateo, R.; Movalli, P.; Sonne, C.

    2014-01-01

    Biomonitoring using raptors as sentinels can provide early warning of the potential impacts of contaminants on humans and the environment and also a means of tracking the success of associated mitigation measures. Examples include detection of heavy metal-induced immune system impairment,

  20. Instrumentation techniques for monitoring shock and detonation waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, R. D.; Parrish, R. L.

    1985-09-01

    CORRTEX (Continuous Reflectometry for Radius Versus Time Experiments), SLIFER (Shorted Location Indication by Frequency of Electrical Resonance), and pin probes were used to monitor several conditions of blasting such as the detonation velocity of the explosive, the functioning of the stemming column confining the explosive, and rock mass motion. CORRTEX is a passive device that employs time-domain reflectometry to interrogate the two-way transit time of a coaxial cable. SLIFER is an active device that monitors the changing frequency resulting from a change in length of a coaxial cable forming an element of an oscillator circuit. Pin probes in this application consist of RG-174 coaxial cables, each with an open circuit, placed at several known locations within the material. Each cable is connected to a pulse-forming network and a voltage source. When the cables are shorted by the advancing wave, time-distance data are produced from which a velocity can be computed. Each technique, installation of the gauge, examples of the signals, and interpretation of the records are described.

  1. A new risk and stochastic analysis of monitoring and remediation in subsurface contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapetridis, K.; Paleologos, E.

    2012-04-01

    Sanitary landfills constitute the most widely used management approach for the disposal of solid wastes because of their simplicity and cost effectiveness. However, historical records indicate that landfills exhibit a high failure rate of groundwater contamination. Successful detection of aquifer contamination via monitoring wells is a complicated problem with many factors, such as the heterogeneity of the geologic environment, the dispersion of contamination into the geologic medium, the quantity and nature of the contaminants, the number and location of the monitoring wells, and the frequency of sampling, all contributing to the uncertainty of early detection. Detection of contaminants, of course, is of value if remedial actions follow as soon as possible, so that the volume of contaminated groundwater to be treated is minimized. Practically, there is always a time lag between contaminant detection and remedial action response. Administrative decisions and arrangements with local contractors initiate remedial procedures introduces a time lag between detection and remediation time. During this time lag a plume continues to move into an aquifer contaminating larger groundwater volumes. In the present study these issues are addressed by investigating the case of instantaneous leakage from a landfill facility into a heterogeneous aquifer. The stochastic Monte Carlo framework was used to address, in two dimensions, the problem of evaluating the effectiveness of contaminant detection in heterogeneous aquifers by linear networks of monitoring wells. Numerical experiments based on the random-walk tracking-particle method were conducted to determine the detection probabilities and to calculate contaminated areas at different time steps. Several cases were studied assuming different levels of geologic heterogeneity, contamination dispersion, detectable contamination limits and monitoring wells' sampling frequencies. A new perspective is introduced for the correction of

  2. Evaluation of the homogeneity of reference flat sources used in calibration of surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, I.A.; Xavier, M.; Siqueira, P.T.D.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the uniformity of the wide area reference sources of the Calibration Laboratory of Instruments (LCI-IPEN) used in the calibration of surface contamination monitors, according the recommendations of the ISO 8769 standard and the NRPB. In this work used six wide area reference sources of 150 cm 2 of 241 Am, 14 C, 36 Cl, 137 Cs, 90 Sr+ 90 Y and 99 Tc with reference dates between 1996 and 1997 and three sources of 100 cm 2 of 14 C, 137 Cs and 60 Co were used with reference dates 2007. Measurements were performed with a radiation monitor of the Thermo, model FH40GX with a pancake probe, model FHZ732GM. We also made several models on paper with the objective of define each measurement position and an aluminum plate with a square hole (6.25 cm 2 ) in its center, allowing the passage of the radiation only through the hole. Each wide area reference source was positioned in setup and measurements were performed in order to cover the entire surface of the source. The values of the uniformity obtained partially confirm previous data obtained in another study conducted by LCI-IPEN, showing that some wide area reference sources 150 cm 2 in disagree with ISO 8769. In the former work, just the source of 241 Am (7.3%) was within the range specified by the standard, now have sources of 241 Am (5.7%), 137 Cs (8.8%), 90 Sr+ 9 '0Y (8, 8%) and 99 Tc (9.2%) with values within the specified uniformity. The sources of 14 C (53.3%) and 36 Cl (16.6%) were outside the specified. The wide area reference sources of 100 cm 2 , show disagreement in values of uniformity of the sources 14 C (46.7%) and 60 Co (10.4%). The values of the uniformity of the wide area reference sources show that some fonts can not be used in calibrations, because not in accordance with the value of uniformity specified in ISO 8769:2010, this is a conditions to believe a laboratory according to ISO 17025, show the laboratory performs its services with a high quality. The

  3. Present status of contamination monitoring at the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute (DNRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Hoang Van [Dalat Nuclear Research Inst. (Viet Nam)

    1997-06-01

    The Dalat nuclear research reactor was renovated and upgraded from the previous TRIGA reactor. In Vietnam, it is a unique nuclear device having suitable neutron flux for the radioisotope production and neutron activation analysis. Soon after the reactor reached its initial criticality in November 1983, a programme has been formed to develop the application of nuclear techniques in various fields. In addition, the use of radioisotopes for diagnostic, therapeutic and other research purposes has been in progress. In order to support these activities, the radiation protection, especially the radiation contamination monitoring has been properly paid attention to. In DNRI, the Radiation Protection Department is responsible for controlling and supervising radiation and working safety for all activities. In this paper, the following items are described on radiation contamination monitoring: controlled area, surface contamination monitoring, and airborne concentration monitoring. (G.K.)

  4. Monitoring Instrument Performance in Regional Broadband Seismic Network Using Ambient Seismic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, F.; Lyu, S.; Lin, J.

    2017-12-01

    In the past ten years, the number of seismic stations has increased significantly, and regional seismic networks with advanced technology have been gradually developed all over the world. The resulting broadband data help to improve the seismological research. It is important to monitor the performance of broadband instruments in a new network in a long period of time to ensure the accuracy of seismic records. Here, we propose a method that uses ambient noise data in the period range 5-25 s to monitor instrument performance and check data quality in situ. The method is based on an analysis of amplitude and phase index parameters calculated from pairwise cross-correlations of three stations, which provides multiple references for reliable error estimates. Index parameters calculated daily during a two-year observation period are evaluated to identify stations with instrument response errors in near real time. During data processing, initial instrument responses are used in place of available instrument responses to simulate instrument response errors, which are then used to verify our results. We also examine feasibility of the tailing noise using data from stations selected from USArray in different locations and analyze the possible instrumental errors resulting in time-shifts used to verify the method. Additionally, we show an application that effects of instrument response errors that experience pole-zeros variations on monitoring temporal variations in crustal properties appear statistically significant velocity perturbation larger than the standard deviation. The results indicate that monitoring seismic instrument performance helps eliminate data pollution before analysis begins.

  5. Measurement and instrumentation techniques for monitoring plutonium and uranium particulates released from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V. Jr.

    1976-08-01

    The purpose of this work has been an analysis and evaluation of the state-of-the-art of measurement and instrumentation techniques for monitoring plutonium and uranium particulates released from nuclear facilities. The occurrence of plutonium and uranium in the nuclear fuel cycle, the corresponding potential for releases, associated radiological protection standards and monitoring objectives are discussed. Techniques for monitoring via decay radiation from plutonium and uranium isotopes are presented in detail, emphasizing air monitoring, but also including soil sampling and survey methods. Additionally, activation and mass measurement techniques are discussed. The availability and prevalence of these various techniques are summarized. Finally, possible improvements in monitoring capabilities due to alterations in instrumentation, data analysis, or programs are presented

  6. Long-range alpha detector for contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; McAtee, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, alpha detectors have been limited by the very short range of alpha particles in air and by relatively poor sensitivity, even if the particles are intercepted. Of necessity, these detectors are operated in a vacuum or in close proximity to the source if reasonable efficiency is desired. In our new long-range alpha detector (LRAD), alpha particles interact with the ambient air, producing ionization in the air at the rate of about 30,000 ion pairs per MeV of alpha energy. These charges can be transported over significant distances (several meters) in a moving current of air generated by a small fan. An ion chamber located in front of the fan measures the current carried by the moving ions. The LRAD-based monitor is more sensitive and more thorough than conventional monitors. We present current LRAD sensitivity limits and results, practical monitor designs, and proposed uses for LRAD monitors. 4 refs., 6 figs

  7. High-Performance Contaminant Monitor for Spacecraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vision for Space Exploration demands increasing reliance on real-time trace gas monitors onboard spacecraft. Present grab samples and badges will be inadequate...

  8. Bulk monitoring of soil for low level transuranic contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandler, J.W.; Randolph, P.D.

    1976-01-01

    A system using γ-ray analysis was developed to survey the soil surrounding retrieval barrels for liquid radioactive waste containing 239 Pu and 241 Am. The performance of scintillation detectors of various sizes for monitoring soil samples was evaluated

  9. An assessment of two decades of contaminant monitoring in the Nation’s Coastal Zone.

    OpenAIRE

    Kimbrough, K. L.; Lauenstein, G. G.; Christensen, J. D.; Apeti, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Executive Summary: Information found in this report covers the years 1986 through 2005. Mussel Watch began monitoring a suite of trace metals and organic contaminants such as DDT, PCBs and PAHs. Through time additional chemicals were added, and today approximately 140 analytes are monitored. The Mussel Watch Program is the longest running estuarine and coastal pollutant monitoring effort conducted in the United States that is national in scope each year. Hundreds of scientific journal art...

  10. Concurrent Pilot Instrument Monitoring in the Automated Multi-Crew Airline Cockpit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Stephen R

    2017-12-01

    Pilot instrument monitoring has been described as "inadequate," "ineffective," and "insufficient" after multicrew aircraft accidents. Regulators have called for improved instrument monitoring by flight crews, but scientific knowledge in the area is scarce. Research has tended to investigate the monitoring of individual pilots when in the pilot-flying role; very little research has looked at crew monitoring, or that of the "monitoring-pilot" role despite it being half of the apparent problem. Eye-tracking data were collected from 17 properly constituted and current Boeing 737 crews operating in a full motion simulator. Each crew flew four realistic flight segments, with pilots swapping between the pilot-flying and pilot-monitoring roles, with and without the autopilot engaged. Analysis was performed on the 375 maneuvering-segments prior to localizer intercept. Autopilot engagement led to significantly less visual dwell time on the attitude director indicator (mean 212.8-47.8 s for the flying pilot and 58.5-39.8 s for the monitoring-pilot) and an associated increase on the horizontal situation indicator (18-52.5 s and 36.4-50.5 s). The flying-pilots' withdrawal of attention from the primary flight reference and increased attention to the primary navigational reference was paralleled rather than complemented by the monitoring-pilot, suggesting that monitoring vulnerabilities can be duplicated in the flight deck. Therefore it is possible that accident causes identified as "inadequate" or "insufficient" monitoring, are in fact a result of parallel monitoring.Jarvis SR. Concurrent pilot instrument monitoring in the automated multi-crew airline cockpit. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(12):1100-1106.

  11. Response of monitors of surface contamination to internal exposition control from 131I in the 'nuclear medicine services'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puerta, Nancy; Rojo, Ana M.; Villella, Adrian; Gossio, Sebastian; Parada, Ines Gomez; Acosta, Norma; Arenas, German

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA, in its publication RS-G-1.2, proposes individual control of workers occupationally exposed with risk of internal exposure when the potential exposure provided by incorporation leads to a value of annual committed effective dose equal to or greater than 1 mSv. Because the radionuclide 131 I is the most important to control internal exposure in Nuclear Medicine Services, it is evaluated if the surface contamination monitors, commonly used in nuclear medicine centers of Argentina, would implement individual control of internal exposure to 131 I. Selected detectors were calibrated with a dummy neck and thyroid with calibrated sources of 131 I and 133 Ba reference. For each detector is was estimated the detection efficiency for 131 I and its detection limit. Each instrument was evaluated for the lowest effective dose possible to detect compromised by individual routine monitoring with different measurement intervals . We analyzed the response of each team for determining conditions that may be effective for the control of internal exposure of 131 I. Finally , we conclude that the daily individual monitoring surface contamination detectors available in the Nuclear Medicine Services is feasible to implement and ensures detection of significant additions of 131 I

  12. 40 CFR 141.40 - Monitoring requirements for unregulated contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting level b 5—Sampling location c 6—Period during which monitoring to be completed Acetanilide... μg/L EPTDS 1/1/2008-12/31/2010 Acetanilide Pesticide Parent Compounds Acetochlor 34256-82-1 EPA 525.2... preserve each sample separately. Samples collected for the analysis of Acetanilide “parent” pesticides and...

  13. Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area: Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA)--Programmatic, Technical, and Regulatory Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Martin, Wayne J.

    2001-07-23

    Natural attenuation processes are commonly used for remediation of contaminated sites. A variety of natural processes occur without human intervention at all sites to varying rates and degrees of effectiveness to attenuate (decrease) the mass, toxicity, mobility, volume, or concentration of organic and inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface water systems. The objective of this review is to identify potential technical investments to be incorporated in the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area Strategic Plan for monitored natural attenuation. When implemented, the technical investments will help evaluate and implement monitored natural attenuation as a remediation option at DOE sites. The outcome of this review is a set of conclusions and general recommendations regarding research needs, programmatic guidance, and stakeholder issues pertaining to monitored natural attenuation for the DOE complex.

  14. An instrument for real time detection of contamination in space environmental tests chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, R. G.; Harmon, H. N.

    1972-01-01

    An instrument for in situ vacuum detection of surface reflectance changes at 1216A was designed. Using successive reflections, this instrument is more sensitive as an indicator of reflectance changes than similar instruments having only a single reflection. The selection of each component of the instrument and its operational performance is discussed.

  15. Influence of usage history, instrument complexity, and different cleaning procedures on the cleanliness of blood-contaminated dental surgical instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, G.; Yu, X.F.

    2009-01-01

    Our study assessed the factors that influence the resistance of blood residues on dental surgical instruments to washer‐disinfector-based cleaning procedures in a clinical setting. The use of 2 additional cleaning methods—presoaking and scrubbing by hand—and the use of newer and/or less structurally

  16. Instrument calibration reduction through on-line monitoring in the USA. Annex IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are required to calibrate important instruments once every fuel cycle. This requirement dates back more than 30 years, when commercial nuclear power plants began to operate. Based on calibration data accumulated over this period, it has been determined that the calibration of some instruments, such as pressure transmitters, do not drift enough to warrant calibration as often as once every fuel cycle. This fact, combined with human resources limitations and reduced maintenance budgets, has provided the motivation for the nuclear industry to develop new technologies for identifying drifting instruments during plant operation. Implementing these technologies allows calibration efforts to be focused on the instruments that have drifted out of tolerance, as opposed to current practice, which calls for calibration verification of almost all instruments every fuel cycle. To date, an array of technologies, referred to collectively as 'on-line calibration monitoring', has been developed to meet this objective. These technologies are based on identifying outlier sensors using techniques that compare a particular sensor's output to a calculated estimate of the actual process the sensor is measuring. If on-line monitoring data are collected during plant startup and/or shutdown periods as well as normal operation, the on-line monitoring approach can help verify the calibration of instruments over their entire operating range. Although on-line calibration monitoring is applicable to most sensors and can cover an entire instrument channel, the main application of this approach in nuclear power plants is currently for pressure transmitters (including level and flow transmitters). (author)

  17. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  18. Image Analysis in the Field of Oil Contamination Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Ceco, Ema

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring wear particles in lubricating oils allows specialists to evaluate thehealth and functionality of a mechanical system. The main analysis techniquesavailable today are manual particle analysis and automatic optical analysis. Man-ual particle analysis is effective and reliable since the analyst continuously seeswhat is being counted . The drawback is that the technique is quite time demand-ing and dependent of the skills of the analyst. Automatic optical particle countingconstitutes o...

  19. Environmental monitoring of Columbia River sediments: Grain-size distribution and contaminant association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, M.L.; Gardiner, W.W.; Dirkes, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Based on the results of this study and literature review, the following conclusions can be made: Sediment grain size and TOC (total organic carbon) influence contaminant fate and transport (in general, sediments with higher TOC content and finer grain-size distribution can have higher contaminant burdens than sediments from a given river section that have less TOC and greater amounts of coarse-grained sediments). Physiochemical sediment characteristics are highly variable among monitoring sites along the Columbia River. Sediment grain characterization and TOC analysis should be included in interpretations of sediment-monitoring data.

  20. Environmental monitoring of Columbia River sediments: Grain-size distribution and contaminant association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, M.L.; Gardiner, W.W.; Dirkes, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Based on the results of this study and literature review, the following conclusions can be made: Sediment grain size and TOC (total organic carbon) influence contaminant fate and transport (in general, sediments with higher TOC content and finer grain-size distribution can have higher contaminant burdens than sediments from a given river section that have less TOC and greater amounts of coarse-grained sediments). Physiochemical sediment characteristics are highly variable among monitoring sites along the Columbia River. Sediment grain characterization and TOC analysis should be included in interpretations of sediment-monitoring data

  1. Alpha contamination assessment for D ampersand D activities: Monitoring pipe interiors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; Conaway, J.G.; MacArthur, D.W.; Vaccarella, J.

    1996-02-01

    We have developed a prototype instrument capable of assessing alpha-emitting contamination on interior surfaces of ducts, pipes, tanks, and other enclosed volumes without inserting a probe. Air is drawn through the potentially contaminated volume and then through a detection grid, where ions created in the air by alpha particles are collected and the resulting charge measured with a sensitive electrometer. A filter at the intake end of the contaminated volume excludes externally created ions, so only ions generated inside the volume are detected. We have studied the response of this prototype in initial experiments using calibrated alpha sources with various pipe diameters and configurations, air flows, and source locations in the pipes. The results of these experiments indicate that this method can be an effective approach to assessing internal contamination

  2. [Design and implementation of real-time continuous glucose monitoring instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yonghong; Liu, Hongying; Tian, Senfu; Jia, Ziru; Wang, Zi; Pi, Xitian

    2017-12-01

    Real-time continuous glucose monitoring can help diabetics to control blood sugar levels within the normal range. However, in the process of practical monitoring, the output of real-time continuous glucose monitoring system is susceptible to glucose sensor and environment noise, which will influence the measurement accuracy of the system. Aiming at this problem, a dual-calibration algorithm for the moving-window double-layer filtering algorithm combined with real-time self-compensation calibration algorithm is proposed in this paper, which can realize the signal drift compensation for current data. And a real-time continuous glucose monitoring instrument based on this study was designed. This real-time continuous glucose monitoring instrument consisted of an adjustable excitation voltage module, a current-voltage converter module, a microprocessor and a wireless transceiver module. For portability, the size of the device was only 40 mm × 30 mm × 5 mm and its weight was only 30 g. In addition, a communication command code algorithm was designed to ensure the security and integrity of data transmission in this study. Results of experiments in vitro showed that current detection of the device worked effectively. A 5-hour monitoring of blood glucose level in vivo showed that the device could continuously monitor blood glucose in real time. The relative error of monitoring results of the designed device ranged from 2.22% to 7.17% when comparing to a portable blood meter.

  3. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised

  4. The development of state/region owned goods management’s monitoring instrument design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhwanto Yogy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems in state/region owned goods in Indonesian state and local governments are suspected to occur because of weak monitoring programs, according to many studies. A tool or instrument in implementing this monitoring program is expected to address this problem. Such tool currently doesn’t exist yet. This research aims to fill that gap by developing a monitoring instrument design for state/region owned goods by using Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY Local Government as a research context in order to take valuable inputs for the design. This research is using developmental research method. Government Regulation were used for normative reference and Friedman’s results-based accountability quadrat were used in developing good indicators for the instrument. This research is succeeded in formulating the indicators that made up the instrument. Indicators compiled are divided into compliance-based indicators and results-based indicators. Indicators are formulated based on the validation and inputs from employees of DIY’s Assets Management Agency and experts from academia. This instrument still has some limitations that need improvement through further research.

  5. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  6. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  7. Sulfur dioxide emissions from Peruvian copper smelters detected by the ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carn, S.A.; Krueger, A.J.; Krotkov, N.A.; Yang, Kai; Levelt, P.F.

    2007-01-01

    We report the first daily observations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from copper smelters by a satellite-borne sensor - the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA's EOS/Aura spacecraft. Emissions from two Peruvian smelters (La Oroya and Ilo) were detected in up to 80% of OMI overpasses

  8. Aerosols and surface UV products form Ozone Monitoring Instrument observations: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, O.; Tanskanen, A.; Veihelmann, B.; Ahn, C.; Braak, R.; Bhartia, P.K.; Veefkind, J.P.; Levelt, P.F.

    2007-01-01

    We present an overview of the theoretical and algorithmic aspects of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol and surface UV algorithms. Aerosol properties are derived from two independent algorithms. The nearUV algorithm makes use of OMI observations in the 350-390 nm spectral region to

  9. Effective cloud fractions from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument: theoretical framework and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stammes, P.; Sneep, M.; Haan, de J.F.; Veefkind, J.P.; Wang, P.; Levelt, P.F.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch-Finnish Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board NASA's EOS-Aura satellite is measuring ozone, NO2, and other trace gases with daily global coverage. To correct these trace gas retrievals for the presence of clouds, there are two OMI cloud products, based on different physical processes,

  10. Towards the retrieval of tropospheric ozone with the ozone monitoring instrument (OMI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mielonen, T.; De Haan, J.F.; Van Peet, J.C.A.; Eremenko, M.; Veefkind, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    We have assessed the sensitivity of the operational Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) ozone profile retrieval algorithm to a number of a priori and radiative transfer assumptions. We studied the effect of stray light correction, surface albedo assumptions and a priori ozone profiles on the retrieved

  11. Monitoring student attendance, participation, and performance improvement: an instrument and forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosta, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    When students receive consistent and fair feedback about their behavior, program liability decreases. To help students to have a clearer understanding of minimum program standards and the consequences of substandard performance, the author developed attendance and participation monitoring and performance improvement instruments. The author discusses the tools that address absenteeism, tardiness, unprofessional, and unsafe clinical behaviors among students.

  12. Tritium contaminated surface monitoring with a solid - state device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Curuia, Marian; Enache, Adrian; Stefanescu, Ioan; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2004-01-01

    The low energy of betas makes tritium difficult to detect. However, there are several methods used in tritium detection, such as liquid scintillation and ionization chambers. Tritium on or near a surface can be also detected using proportional counters and, recently, solid state devices. The paper presents our results in the design and achievement of a surface tritium monitor using a PIN photodiode as a solid state charged particle detector to count betas emitted from the surface. That method allows continuous, real-time and non-destructively measuring of tritium. (authors)

  13. Mobile means for the monitoring of atmospheric contamination in a reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, S.; Lestang, M.

    2009-01-01

    After having evoked the context and challenges of contamination monitoring when exploiting nuclear reactors, the authors discuss the representativeness of the atmospheric contamination measurement as it depends on the different physicochemical forms of radionuclides present in the circuits. They indicate the different gaseous or aerosol radioactive elements which are monitored within EDF installations. They discuss the incorporation of monitoring means at the installation design level, briefly present the use of beacons inside and outside the reactor building. They describe how monitoring is organized on the basis of alert threshold adjustments: an investigation threshold and an evacuation threshold. They discuss the beacon (or sensor) selection and indicate recommendations for their implementation for optimization purposes. They indicate where these beacons are installed and evoke the experimentation of networked mobile beacons with data remote transmission

  14. Monitoring of contamination of atmospheric environment by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ise, Hiroaki

    1995-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution has become a worldwide problem regardless of developed industrial nations and developing countries. In particular, the pollution due to automobile exhaust gas, the carcinogenic particles in diesel exhaust and their relation to various respiratory diseases are the problems. Nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides in exhaust gas become the cause of acid rain. Radiation began to be utilized for the measurement of the concentration of floating particles and the amount of fallout dust, the forecast of the generation and diffusion of pollutants, the elucidation of the contribution of generation sources in wide areas and so on. In this report, the circumstances that radiation became to be utilized for monitoring atmospheric environment and the present status and the perspective of the radiation utilization in the field of the preservation of atmospheric environment are described. The progress of the method of measuring floating particles in Japan is explained. The automatic measurement of floating particles by β-ray absorption method and the application of β-ray absorption method to the measurement of the amount of fallout dust, generation source particles and the exposure to floating particles of individuals for health control are described. The utilization of radiation for real time monitoring, the investigation of the generation of blown-up dust, atmospheric diffusion experiment and the elucidation of the contribution of generation sources by PIXE radioactivation analysis are reported. (K.I.)

  15. HFS-II hands and feet contamination monitor for α, β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiangyang; Han Shuping; Wang Xiaodong; Fan Liya; Zhang Yong; Rao Xianming; Fang Jintu

    1999-11-01

    HFS-II Hands and Feet Contamination Monitor for α, β is a necessary device which monitors the entrance of controlling area of nuclear power plant and nuclear facility, and it consists of nuclear detector, nuclear electronic circuit, computer data processing and controlling divisions, input/output controlling etc. Physical indicators conform to the requirements of relative national standard GB8703-87 and department standard EJ/T586

  16. Internal contamination monitoring through measurements in vivo at whole body contamination unity of IRD-CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Monitoracao da contaminacao interna atraves de medicoes in vivo na Unidade de Contador de Corpo Inteiro do IRD-CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Ana Leticia A.; Lucena, Eder A.; Dantas, Bernardo M., E-mail: adantas@ird.gov.b, E-mail: eder@ird.gov.b, E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao In Vivo. Servico de Monitoracao Individual Interna

    2011-10-26

    The present work approaches the internal contamination monitoring capacity through measurements performed at the Whole-body Counter Unity of the in-vivo monitoring laboratory (LABMIV) of the IRD-CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, present thr main parameters related to the monitoring techniques developed, and the the available instrumentation for identification and quantification in vivo of photon emitter radionuclides with energy in the range of 10-3000 keV, incorporated by workers and public individuals

  17. Integrating Modeling and Monitoring to Provide Long-Term Control of Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogwell, Th.

    2009-01-01

    An introduction is presented of the types of problems that exist for long-term control of radionuclides at DOE sites. A breakdown of the distributions at specific sites is given, together with the associated difficulties. A paradigm for remediation showing the integration of monitoring with modeling is presented. It is based on a feedback system that allows for the monitoring to act as principal sensors in a control system. Currently the establishment of a very prescriptive monitoring program fails to have a mechanism for improving models and improving control of the contaminants. The resulting system can be optimized to improve performance. Optimizing monitoring automatically entails linking the monitoring with modeling. If monitoring designs were required to be more efficient, thus requiring optimization, then the monitoring automatically becomes linked to modeling. Records of decision could be written to accommodate revisions in monitoring as better modeling evolves. The technical pieces of the required paradigm are already available; they just need to be implemented and applied to solve the long-term control of the contaminants. An integration of the various parts of the system is presented. Each part is described, and examples are given. References are given to other projects which bring together similar elements in systems for the control of contaminants. Trends are given for the development of the technical features of a robust system. Examples of monitoring methods for specific sites are given. The examples are used to illustrate how such a system would work. Examples of technology needs are presented. Finally, other examples of integrated modeling-monitoring approaches are presented. (authors)

  18. Bringing together raptor collections in Europe for contaminant research and monitoring in relation to chemicals regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movalli, Paola; Dekker, René; Koschorreck, Jan; Treu, Gabriele

    2017-11-01

    Raptors are good sentinels of environmental contamination and there is good capability for raptor biomonitoring in Europe. Raptor biomonitoring can benefit from natural history museums (NHMs), environmental specimen banks (ESBs) and other collections (e.g. specialist raptor specimen collections). Europe's NHMs, ESBs and other collections hold large numbers of raptor specimens and samples, covering long periods of time. These collections are potentially a valuable resource for contaminant studies over time and space. There are strong needs to monitor contaminants in the environment to support EU and national chemical management. However, data on raptor specimens in NHMs, ESBs and other collections are dispersed, few are digitised, and they are thus not easy to access. Specimen coverage is patchy in terms of species, space and time. Contaminant research with raptors would be facilitated by creating a framework to link relevant collections, digitising all collections, developing a searchable meta-database covering all existing collections, making them more visible and accessible for contaminant research. This would also help identify gaps in coverage and stimulate specimen collection to fill gaps in support of prioritised contaminant monitoring. Collections can further support raptor biomonitoring by making samples available for analysis on request.

  19. Using tree swallows to monitor impacts of aquatic contamination in Great Lakes areas of concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patnode, K.A.; Bodenstein, B.; Hetzel, R.; Pearson, S.

    1995-01-01

    Tree swallows were used to evaluate movement and potential impacts of contaminants from sediments in Newton Creek (diesel range organics: DROs) and Sheboygan River (PCBs), tributaries to Lake Superior and Lake Michigan, respectively. Contaminated sites occurred along the course of each river, while reference sites were located upstream or on a nearby river. Productivity was monitored and eggs, day 1 nestlings, and day 12 nestlings were collected from each nest. Whole body or egg homogenates were analyzed for PCBs or DROs. EROD activity in livers from day 12 nestlings is being determined for both PCB and DRO exposures. In the Newton Creek study, hatching success was similar for DRO and reference sites. DROs were detected in gastrointestinal tracts of 1 nestling from the reference and 1 from the contaminated site. DROs were not detected in any egg samples. In the Sheboygan River study, hatching success rates differed between 1 reference and 1 contaminated river segment. PCB daily accumulation rates from day 1 to day 12 nestlings were computed for Sheboygan River. All nestlings at reference nests had negative rates due to growth dilution effects. Preliminary analyses indicate the average rate for nestlings from contaminated segments of the river was 220.3 ng/g/day. These 1995 findings will be combined with 1996 data to evaluate the effectiveness of tree swallows for monitoring ecosystem impacts of aquatic contaminants in Wisconsin

  20. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  1. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  2. Detection of microbial contaminations in drinking water using ATP measurements – evaluating potential for online monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing call for fast and reliable methods for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. The potential for Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements as a real-time analysis for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water...... quality was investigated through simulation of two contamination scenarios, i.e. drinking water contaminated with waste water and surface water at various concentrations. With ATP measurements it was possible to detect waste water diluted 1000-10,000 times in drinking water depending on sensitivity...... of reagent kit. Surface water diluted 100-1000 times was detected in drinking water with ATP measurements. ATP has the potential as an early warning tool, especially in the period when the contamination concentration is high. 2011 © American Water Works Association AWWA WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights...

  3. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  4. SoilCAM: soil contamination: advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, H.K.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Meju, M.

    2009-01-01

    The SoilCAM project is aimed at improving current methods for monitoring contaminant distribution and biodegradation in the subsurface. Currently proven methods, based on invasive sampling of soil, soil water and gaseous phase, are unable to provide sufficiently accurate data with high enough

  5. Mussels and sediment as monitoring tools for contaminants: which to use when?

    Science.gov (United States)

    For decades, sediments and mussels have been used to assess the ecological and human health risks associated with concentrations of bioavailable organic and metal contaminants in a variety of coastal-wide and localized monitoring programs. Mussels (Mytilus edulis) bioaccumulate o...

  6. 手术污染器械保湿过程中的污染控制%Contamination control during wetting of contaminated surgical instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚珊; 许多朵; 董薪

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析手术污染器械保湿以提高器械的清洗效果,确保手术安全。方法选择2014年3-6月污染的医疗器械1200件,分为保湿组与未保湿组,每组各600件,通过对手术污染器械处理过程中技术规范的实践,分析器械保湿对于提高器械清洗效果的重要性。结果在器械回收、转运、预清洗、正式清洗等环节中,不同时间保湿组细菌菌落数低于未保湿组,使用专用保湿剂抑制了细菌生长;保湿组目测及5倍放大镜下监测器械清洁合格率分别为100.0%、99.5%,均高于未保湿组的98.7%、97.8%;保湿组污染器械清洗后隐血试验合格率100.0%,高于未保湿组的98.7%。结论适当的保湿处理能提高器械清洗合格率,确保清洗质量,对于手术污染器械的感染控制有重要作用,为杜绝由于器械清洗不彻底引起医源性感染提供保证。%OBJECTIVE To analyze the wetting process of contaminated surgical instruments and improve cleanlinessso as to ensure the safety of surgical operation .METHODS Totally 1 200 contaminated items of surgical instruments during Mar .2014 to Jun .2014 were divided into two groups ,the wetted group and the non‐wetted group with 600 items in each group .The technical standard was implemented during the wetting management of contaminated surgical instruments .The results were analyzed to illustrate the importance of a wet condition for the benefit of improving sterilization .RESULTS During the processes of instrument recollection ,transfer ,pre‐cleaning and formal cleaning ,the bacterial colony count was less in the wetted group than in the non‐wetted group at each time point ,indicating that the use of specific humectant inhibited bacterial growth .The cleaning qualified rate reached 100 .0% by visual inspection and 99 .5% by magnifying glass in the wetted group ,higher than 98 .7% and 97 .8% in the non‐wetted group .The

  7. Review of historical monitoring data on Techa River contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiova, M. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Burmistrov, D. S.; Safronova, N. G.; Kozheurov, V. P.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, B. A.; Neta, P. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association was the first Russian site for the production and separation of plutonium. The extensive increase in plutonium production during 1948-1955, as well as the absence of reliable waste-management technology, resulted in significant releases of liquid radioactive effluent into the rather small Techa River. This resulted in chronic external and internal exposure of about 30,000 residents of riverside communities; these residents form the cohort of an epidemiologic investigation. Analysis of the available historical monitoring data indicates that the following reliable data sets can be used for reconstruction of doses received during the early periods of operation of the Mayak Production Association: Temporal pattern of specific beta activity of river water for several sites in the upper Techa region since July 1951; average annual values of specific beta activity of river water and bottom sediments as a function of downstream distance for the whole river since 1951; external gamma-exposure rates near the shoreline as a function of downstream distance for the whole Techa River since 1952; and external gamma-exposure rate as a function of distance from the shoreline for several sites in the upper and middle Techa since 1951.

  8. Individual monitoring program for internal contamination by inhaled uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, C.; Chapel, M.L.; Saenz Gancedo, R.

    1988-01-01

    The metabolic behaviour of inhaled uranium is studied. Using a particular analytical method applied to the models and dose assessment methods recommended by ICRP, the organ committed equivalent dose and effective equivalent dose are calculated. The exact ALI and DAC are derived from there. In the paper, the influence that various parameters have on those results are considered for the specific case of a particular nuclear element fabrication factory. Different AMAD and solubility type of inhaled material are specially analyzed. The results show the paramount importance of some of these parameters on the secondary and derived dose limits. Relationships between the real intake, as a fraction of ALI, and the lung retention or urine excretion are shown for different cases and intake forms hypothesis. Minimum detectable intakes with the available experimental techniques are then established. The results shown in the papel are a useful tool to help on the decision on the type and frequency of the individual monitoring techniques to be established in different circumstances. (Author)

  9. In Situ Monitoring of Groundwater Contamination Using the Kalman Filter For Sustainable Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F.; Wainwright, H. M.; Faybishenko, B.; Denham, M. E.; Eddy-Dilek, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable remediation - based on less intensive passive remediation and natural attenuation - has become a desirable remediation alternative at contaminated sites. Although it has a number of benefits, such as reduced waste and water/energy usage, it carries a significant burden of proof to verify plume stability and to ensure insignificant increase of risk to public health. Modeling of contaminant transport is still challenging despite recent advances in numerical methods. Long-term monitoring has, therefore, become a critical component in sustainable remediation. However, the current approach, which relies on sparse groundwater sampling, is problematic, since it could miss sudden significant changes in plume behavior. A new method is needed to combine existing knowledge about contaminant behavior and latest advances in in situ groundwater sensors. This study presents an example of the effective use of the Kalman filter approach to estimate contaminant concentrations, based on in situ measured water quality parameters (e.g. electrical conductivity and pH) along with the results of sparse groundwater sampling. The Kalman filter can effectively couple physical models and data correlations between the contaminant concentrations and in situ measured variables. We aim (1) to develop a framework capable of integrating different data types to provide accurate contaminant concentration estimates, (2) to demonstrate that these results remain reliable, even when the groundwater sampling frequency is reduced, and (3) to evaluate the future efficacy of this strategy using reactive transport simulations. This framework can also serve as an early warning system for detecting unexpected plume migration. We demonstrate our approach using historical and current groundwater data from the Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area Seepage Basins to estimate uranium and tritium concentrations. The results show that the developed method can provide reliable estimates of contaminant

  10. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  11. New portable hand-held radiation instruments for measurements and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehlau, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    Hand-held radiation monitors are often used to search pedestrians and motor vehicles for special nuclear material (SNM) as part of a physical protection plan for nuclear materials. Recently, the Los Alamos Advanced Nuclear Technology group has commercialized an improved hand-held monitor that can be used for both physical-protection monitoring and verification measurements in nuclear material control and waste management. The new monitoring instruments are smaller and lighter; operate much longer on a battery charge; are available with NaI(Tl) or neutron and gamma-ray sensitive plastic scintillation detectors; and are less expensive than other comparable instruments. They also have a second operating mode for making precise measurements over counting times as long as 99 s. This mode permits making basic verification measurements that may be needed before transporting nuclear material or waste outside protected areas. Improved verification measurements can be made with a second new hand-held instrument that has a stabilized detector and three separate gamma-ray energy windows to obtain spectral information for SNM quantity, enrichment, or material-type verification

  12. Novel mass spectrometric instrument for gaseous and particulate characterization and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggiola, M.J.

    1994-02-01

    SRI International will develop a unique new instrument that will be capable of providing real-time (<1 minute), quantitative, chemical characterization of gaseous and particulate pollutants generated from DOE waste cleanup activities. The instrument will be capable of detecting and identifying volatile organic compounds, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and transuranic species released during waste cleanup activities. The instrument will be unique in its ability to detect and quantify in real-time these diverse pollutants in both vapor and particulate form. The instrument to be developed under this program will consist of several major components: (1) an isokinetic sampler capable of operating over a wide range of temperatures (up to 500 K) and flow rates; (2) a high pressure to low pressure transition and sampling region that efficiently separates particles from vapor-phase components for separate, parallel analyses; (3) two small mass spectrometers, one optimized for organic analysis using a unique field ionization source and one optimized for particulate characterization using thermal pyrolysis and electron-impact ionization (EI); and (4) a powerful personal computer for control and data acquisition. Initially, the instrument will be developed for targeted use in conjunction with the K-1435 Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory K-25 site. Ultimately, the instrument will be designed to operate in the field at any cleanup site, located close to the stack or process vent, providing the plant operations personnel with real-time information and alarm capabilities. In addition, this instrument will be very broadly applicable for cleanup or sampling, for example, any time contaminated soil is moved or disturbed

  13. Novel instrumentation for online monitoring of stationary beds and their height for settling slurries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ilgner, Hartmut J

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Ilgner_2016.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1057 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Ilgner_2016.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 10th North American Conference... on Multiphase Technology 2016, Banff, Canada 8 – 10 June 2016 Novel instrumentation for online monitoring of stationary beds and their height for settling slurries H J Ilgner ABSTRACT: Novel instrumentation has been developed to detect stationary...

  14. 16 CFR Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 - Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility 1 Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility EC03OC91.008 ...

  15. XML for nuclear instrument control and monitoring: an approach towards standardisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharade, S.K.; Ananthakrishnan, T.S.; Kataria, S.K.; Singh, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    Communication among heterogeneous system with applications running under different operating systems and applications developed under different platforms has undergone rapid changes due to the adoption of XML standards. These are being developed for different industries like Chemical, Medical, Commercial etc. The High Energy Physics community has already a standard for exchange of data among different applications , under heterogeneous distributed systems like the CMS Data Acquisition System. There are a large number of Nuclear Instruments supplied by different manufactures which are increasingly getting connected. This approach is getting wider acceptance in instruments at reactor sites, accelerator sites and complex nuclear experiments -especially at centres like CERN. In order for these instruments to be able to describe the data which is available from them in a platform independent manner XML approach has been developed. This paper is the first attempt at Electronics Division for proposing an XML standard for control, monitoring, Data Acquisition and Analysis generated by Nuclear Instruments at Accelerator sites, Nuclear Reactor plant and Laboratory. The gamut of Nuclear Instruments include Multichannel Analysers, Health Physics Instruments, Accelerator Control Systems, Reactor Regulating systems, Flux mapping Systems etc. (author)

  16. Development and application of techniques for monitoring the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, C.; Hawar, J.; Samson, R.

    1994-01-01

    A series of tests was designed to examine bioremediation potential in soil and to monitor performance during the treatment operation. Physical and chemical characterization of the soil provides information on the types of organics, their concentrations, and whether interfering materials are present. Microbiological assessment involves culturing of bacterial populations in the soil and examination of the colonies to determine which have the genetic potential to degrade the soil contaminants. Catabolic gene probes are used to survey viable bacteria from petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Such soils consistently demonstrate the presence of bacteria possessing the genetic capability to degrade simple straight-chain alkanes and aromatics. Mineralization and respirometric studies are indicators of the biological activity in the soil, and can be directed at microbial activity towards specific substrates. Gene probe monitoring of a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil during biopile treatment demonstrated that hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial numbers and activity were temperature dependent. The results showed that the activity of the indigenous bacteria as measured by hexadecane mineralization also correlated with the disappearance of the oil and grease. The application of this protocol has provided a useful means to screen contaminated soils for bacteria with desirable catabolic properties and to monitor pollutant-degrading bacteria during biotreatment. 15 refs., 10 figs

  17. Determination of contamination operational value by routine monitoring in research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomao, Edeilson; Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; Mattos, Maria Fernanda S.S.; Daros, Kellen Adriana Curci

    2008-01-01

    The radioisotopes have a large spectrum of applicability in many areas of science, as in medicine, agriculture and industry in general. In the biological area, the radioisotopes have brought many benefits to study physiological processes in living organisms and in vitro. The most radioisotopes used in biological research are emitters of radiation of low energy, mainly β, and are used as unsealed sources. The manipulation of these radioisotopes generates radioactive wastes and eventually can cause contamination in the areas of handling or even occasionally in areas to which access is not controlled. According to CNEN-NE-3.02 standard is necessary and mandatory the exposure and contamination levels control in the areas of handling of unsealed sources. The goal of the work is to establish how often the monitoring should be done through the survey of the contamination and exposure levels, in areas designed to manipulate 32 P and how this monitoring can contribute to the improvement the conditions of radiological protection. From the twenty eight research laboratories registered by 'Nucleo de Protecao Radiologica' (NPR) were selected four where the activities are not restrict to 32 P biological assays. The levels of contamination and exposure were evaluated using monitors GM and the layout of laboratories containing the points to be tracker defined based on the researchers' routine. At each point three values were obtained to measure the rate of contamination on the surface and exposure rate. The measures were made twice a week before and after the radioisotope manipulation. Based on these data was possible to establish the range from 0,306 to 0,678 Bq.cm -2 as operational average level to the superficial contamination. The average exposure rate measured was 5.16 n C/Kg.h. The results were important to demonstrating to researchers how they can contribute to the improvement of radiological protection conditions. (author)

  18. Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs

  19. Contaminant monitoring programmes using marine organisms: Quality assurance and good laboratory practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This publication provides guidelines for obtaining reliable and relevant data during monitoring programmes in which contaminants are measured in marine organisms. It describes the precautions to be taken in each of the procedural steps from planning and sampling to the publication of data reports. The purpose of this document is to provide general guidance on quality assurance and to outline the approach that could be taken by laboratories to achieve the specific aims(s) for each marine pollution monitoring programme. Since most laboratories are currently focussing on programmes involving marine organisms, this document will be confined to this aspect. Four main aims can be identified for programmes involving the collection and analysis of marine organisms for the three main groups of contaminants (metals, organochlorine compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons), these are: (i) The measurement of contaminant levels in edible marine organisms in relation to public health; (ii) The identification of heavily contaminated areas of the sea (''hot spots'') where levels of contaminants are at least an order of magnitude higher than levels in clean or uncontaminated areas; (iii) The establishment of present levels of contaminants in marine organisms (i.e., a ''baseline''); (iv) The assessment of changes in concentrations of contaminants in organisms over a period of time (trends). The selection of organisms will be dictated by the eating patterns of the population. These can be identified by a survey of the species sold at the market, by obtaining information from colleagues in government departments who deal with such matters or in the absence of such information, by distributing a questionnaire to a representative section of the general public. 9 refs, 4 figs

  20. Air monitoring data reveal previously unknown contamination at radioactive waste disposal area, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraig, D.H.; Conrad, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Air monitoring at Area G, the low-level radioactive waste disposal area at Los Alamos National Laboratory, revealed increased air concentrations of 239 Pu and 241 Am at one location along the north boundary. This air monitoring location is a couple of meters north of a dirt road used to access the easternmost part of Area G. Air concentrations of 238 Pu were essentially unaffected which was puzzling because both 238 Pu and 239 Pu are present in the local, slightly contaminated soils. Air concentrations of these radionuclides increased about a factor of ten in early 1995 and remained at those levels until the first quarter of 1996. During the spring of 1996 air concentrations again increased by a factor of about ten. No other radionuclides were elevated, and no other Area G stations showed elevations of these radionuclides. After several formal meetings did not provide an adequate explanation for the elevations, a gamma-survey was performed and showed a small area of significant contamination just south of the monitor location. We found that in February 1995, a trench for a water line had been dug within a meter or so of the air stations. Then, during early 1996, the dirt road was rerouted such that its new path was directly over the unknown contamination. It appears that the trenching brought contaminated material to the surface and caused the firs rise in air concentrations and then the rerouting of the road over the contamination caused the second rise, during 1996. We also found that during 1976 and 1977 contaminated soils from the clean-up of an old processing facility had been spread over the filled pits in the vicinity of the air monitors. These soils, which were probably the source of the air contamination, were very low in 238 Pu which explains why we saw very little 238 Pu in the increased air concentrations. A layer of gravel and sand was spread over the contaminated area. Although air concentrations of 239 Pu and 241 Am dropped considerably, they have

  1. Estimating an appropriate sampling frequency for monitoring ground water well contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuckfield, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly 1,500 ground water wells at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are sampled quarterly to monitor contamination by radionuclides and other hazardous constituents from nearby waste sites. Some 10,000 water samples were collected in 1993 at a laboratory analysis cost of $10,000,000. No widely accepted statistical method has been developed, to date, for estimating a technically defensible ground water sampling frequency consistent and compliant with federal regulations. Such a method is presented here based on the concept of statistical independence among successively measured contaminant concentrations in time

  2. Auto-associative Kernel Regression Model with Weighted Distance Metric for Instrument Drift Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ho Cheol; Park, Moon Ghu; You, Skin

    2006-01-01

    Recently, many on-line approaches to instrument channel surveillance (drift monitoring and fault detection) have been reported worldwide. On-line monitoring (OLM) method evaluates instrument channel performance by assessing its consistency with other plant indications through parametric or non-parametric models. The heart of an OLM system is the model giving an estimate of the true process parameter value against individual measurements. This model gives process parameter estimate calculated as a function of other plant measurements which can be used to identify small sensor drifts that would require the sensor to be manually calibrated or replaced. This paper describes an improvement of auto associative kernel regression (AAKR) by introducing a correlation coefficient weighting on kernel distances. The prediction performance of the developed method is compared with conventional auto-associative kernel regression

  3. Calibration method based on direct radioactivity measurement for radioactive gas monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Makoto; Ohi, Yoshihiro; Chida, Tohru; Wu, Youyang.

    1993-01-01

    A calibration method for radioactive gas monitoring instruments was studied. In the method, gaseous radioactivity standards were provided on the basis of the direct radioactivity measurement by the diffusion-in long proportional counter method (DLPC method). The radioactivity concentration of the gas mixture through a monitoring instrument was determined by sampling the known volume of the gas mixture into the proportional counter used for the DLPC method. Since oxygen in the gas mixture decreased the counting efficiency in a proportional counter, the influence on calibration was experimentally estimated. It was not serious and able to be easily corrected. By the present method, the relation between radioactivity concentration and ionization current was determined for a gas-flow ionization chamber with 1.5 l effective volume. It showed good agreement with the results in other works. (author)

  4. Automatic modal identification of cable-supported bridges instrumented with a long-term monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Y. Q.; Fan, K. Q.; Zheng, G.; Chan, T. H. T.; Ko, J. M.

    2003-08-01

    An automatic modal identification program is developed for continuous extraction of modal parameters of three cable-supported bridges in Hong Kong which are instrumented with a long-term monitoring system. The program employs the Complex Modal Indication Function (CMIF) algorithm to identify modal properties from continuous ambient vibration measurements in an on-line manner. By using the LabVIEW graphical programming language, the software realizes the algorithm in Virtual Instrument (VI) style. The applicability and implementation issues of the developed software are demonstrated by using one-year measurement data acquired from 67 channels of accelerometers deployed on the cable-stayed Ting Kau Bridge. With the continuously identified results, normal variability of modal vectors caused by varying environmental and operational conditions is observed. Such observation is very helpful for selection of appropriate measured modal vectors for structural health monitoring applications.

  5. Design of a instrumentation module for monitoring ingestive behavior in laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Juan M; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Sazonov, Edward S

    2011-01-01

    The development of accurate and objective tools for monitoring of ingestive behavior (MIB) is one of the most important needs facing studies of obesity and eating disorders. This paper presents the design of an instrumentation module for non-invasive monitoring of food ingestion in laboratory studies. The system can capture signals from a variety of sensors that characterize ingestion process (such as acoustical and other swallowing sensors, strain sensor for chewing detection and self-report buttons). In addition to the sensors, the data collection system integrates time-synchronous video footage that can be used for annotation of subject's activity. Both data and video are simultaneously and synchronously acquired and stored by a LabVIEW-based interface specifically developed for this application. This instrumentation module improves a previously developed system by eliminating the post-processing stage of data synchronization and by reducing the risks of operator's error.

  6. Radiation monitoring and measuring instrument developed by Turkish Atomic Energy Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuecuekarslan, N.; Gueven, A.

    2001-01-01

    Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA), Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Nuclear Electronics Department is working on research, development and production of radiation monitoring and measuring instruments in the aims of TAEA to serve our Country. Advanced micro controller technology is used to cover problems of radiation measurement. Control by micro controller enables reliable, stable measurement and display of low level dose rate fields. It makes possible the simultaneous measurement of both dose and dose rate values

  7. Long open-path instrument for simultaneously monitoring of methane, CO2 and water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Valentin; Parlange, Marc

    2013-04-01

    A new, long open-path instrument for monitoring of path-averaged methane, CO2 and water vapor concentrations will be presented. The instrument is built on the monostatic scheme (transceiver -distant retroreflector). A VCSEL with a central wavelength of 1654 nm is used as a light source. The receiver is built around a 20 cm Newtonian telescope. The design optical path length is 2000 m but can be further extended. To avoid distortions in the shape of the spectral lines caused by atmospheric turbulences they are scanned within 1 µs. The expected concentration resolution for the above mentioned path length is of the order of 2 ppb for methane, 100 ppb for CO2 and 100 ppm for water vapor. The instrument is developed at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology - Lausanne (EPFL) Switzerland and will be used within the GAW+ CH program for long-term monitoring of background methane and CO2 concentrations in the Swiss Alps. The initial calibration validation tests at EPFL were completed in December 2012 and the instrument will be installed at the beginning of 2013 at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (HARSJ). The HARSJ is located at 3580 m ASL and is one of the 24 global GAW stations. One of the goals of the project is to compare path-averaged to the ongoing point measurements of methane in order to identify possible influence of the station. Future deployments of a copy of the instrument include the Canadian arctic and Siberian wetlands. The instrument can be used for ground truthing of satellite observation as well.

  8. Performance Monitoring for Nuclear Safety Related Instrumentation at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Mohd Sabri Minhat

    2015-01-01

    The Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) at Malaysia Nuclear Agency is a TRIGA Mark II type reactor and pool type cooled by natural circulation of light water. This paper describe on performance monitoring for nuclear safety related instrumentation in TRIGA PUSPATI Reactor (RTP) of based on various parameter of reactor safety instrument channel such as log power, linear power, Fuel temperature, coolant temperature will take into consideration. Methodology of performance on estimation and monitoring is to evaluate and analysis of reactor parameters which is important of reactor safety and control. And also to estimate power measurement, differential of log and linear power and fuel temperature during reactor start-up, operation and shutdown .This study also focus on neutron power fluctuation from fission chamber during reactor start-up and operation. This work will present result of performance monitoring from RTP which indicated the safety parameter identification and initiate safety action on crossing the threshold set point trip. Conclude that performance of nuclear safety related instrumentation will improved the reactor control and safety parameter during reactor start-up, operation and shutdown. (author)

  9. Effective analysis of the use of peracetic acid after instrumentation of root canals contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cord, Caroline Berwanger; Velasco, Rafael Vidal Cortez; Ribeiro Melo Lima, Laíla Fernanda; Rocha, Daniel Guimarães Pedro; da Silveira Bueno, Carlos Eduardo; Pinheiro, Sérgio Luiz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of peracetic acid (PAA) in cleaning root canals contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. Sixty first and second mandibular molars were used. Their mesiobuccal canals were prepared with the Reciproc System (VDW, Munich, Germany). The canals were irrigated with 10 mL saline during instrumentation. The teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 20), according to the irrigation solution to be used after instrumentation: group PAA (5 mL 1% PAA), group EDTA/sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (5 mL 17% EDTA followed by 5 mL 2.5% sodium hypochlorite), and group S (5 mL saline). Microbiological samples were collected before instrumentation and after final irrigation. Bacterial quantification was performed by counting the number of colony-forming units (CFUs/mL). The results were analyzed by the nonparametric Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The 3 groups showed a significant reduction (P  .05). According to the results of the present study, the effectiveness of 1% PAA was similar to that of 17% EDTA + 2.5% NaOCl in cleaning curved root canals contaminated with E. faecalis. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of sensitivity evaluation of a contamination monitor for use in monitoring of internal exposure of workers in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Bernando Maranhao; Assis, Janima Cruz de; Oliveira, Salomao Marques de; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida

    2014-01-01

    In practice of nuclear medicine, expert personnel routinely handle radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and radiotherapy. The control of intakes of radionuclides by workers can be performed through internal dosimetry techniques, as an integral part of the radiation protection program of the installation. The use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in vivo and in vitro in Brazil is regulated by CNEN-NE Standards and 3:05 CNEN-NN 3.01. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends the establishment of an internal monitoring program on workers, especially those subject to possible exposure to annual effective doses greater than 1 mSv. Note that, currently, in Brazil, are not available qualified laboratories to provide internal monitoring services in all regions in the country, if it were applied by CNEN, the requirement for internal monitoring of workers. This paper presents the development of a simple and low-cost methodology for in vivo monitoring of 131 I in the thyroid. The proposed methodology is the use of portable monitor of surface contamination, equipment available and routinely used in all nuclear medicine services in Brazil. The monitor is calibrated with neck-thyroid simulator developed at the Laboratory of In Vivo Monitoring of IRD/CNEN-RJ. The equipment tested is suitable for application in in vivo occupational monitoring thyroid. This conclusion is based on the fact that the detection system has sufficient sensitivity for monitoring up to seven days after the incorporation of the radionuclide and guarantees 131 I detection in values that result in effective doses below 1 mSv for the exposure scenarios adopted

  11. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the parameters which are important to positron-imaging instruments. It summarizes the options which various groups have explored in designing tomographs and the methods which have been developed to overcome some of the limitations inherent in the technique as well as in present instruments. The chapter is not presented as a defense of positron imaging versus single-photon or other imaging modality, neither does it contain a description of various existing instruments, but rather stresses their common properties and problems. Design parameters which are considered are resolution, sampling requirements, sensitivity, methods of eliminating scattered radiation, random coincidences and attenuation. The implementation of these parameters is considered, with special reference to sampling, choice of detector material, detector ring diameter and shielding and variations in point spread function. Quantitation problems discussed are normalization, and attenuation and random corrections. Present developments mentioned are noise reduction through time-of-flight-assisted tomography and signal to noise improvements through high intrinsic resolution. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)

  12. Some emergency instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, P H

    1986-10-01

    The widespread release of activity and the resultant spread of contamination after the Chernobyl accident resulted in requests to NRPB to provide instruments for, and expertise in, the measurement of radiation. The most common request was for advice on the usefulness of existing instruments, but Board staff were also involved in their adaptation or in the development of new instruments specially to meet the circumstances of the accident. The accident occurred on 26 April. On 1 May, NRPB was involved at Heathrow Airport in the monitoring of the British students who had returned from Kiev and Minsk. The main purpose was to reassure the students by checking that their persons and belongings did not have significant surface contamination. Additional measurements were also made of iodine activity in thyroid using hand-held detectors or a mobile body monitor. This operation was arranged with the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, which had also received numerous requests for instruments from embassies and consulates in countries close to the scene of the accident. There was concern for the well-being of staff and other United Kingdom nationals who resided in or intended to visit the most affected countries. The board supplied suitable instruments, and the FCO distributed them to embassies. The frequency of environmental monitoring was increased from 29 April in anticipation of contamination and appropriate Board instrumentation was deployed. After the Chernobyl cloud arrived in the UK on 2 May, there were numerous requests from local government, public authorities, private companies and members of the public for information and advice on monitoring equipment and procedures. Some of these requirements could be met with existing equipment but members of the public were usually advised not to proceed. At a later stage, the contamination of foodstuffs and livestock required the development of an instrument capable of detecting low levels of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs in food

  13. Automated Miniaturized Instrument for Space Biology Applications and the Monitoring of the Astronauts Health Onboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Peyvan, Kia; Danley, David; Ricco, Antonio J.; Santos, Orlando; Pohorille, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. The spacecraft environment subjects the traveler to noise, chemical and microbiological contaminants, increased radiation, and variable gravity forces. As humans prepare for long-duration missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and beyond, effective measures must be developed, verified and implemented to ensure mission success. Limited biomedical quantitative capabilities are currently available onboard the ISS. Therefore, the development of versatile instruments to perform space biological analysis and to monitor astronauts' health is needed. We are developing a fully automated, miniaturized system for measuring gene expression on small spacecraft in order to better understand the influence of the space environment on biological systems. This low-cost, low-power, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement by providing data on cellular metabolism and regulation. The current system will support growth of microorganisms, extract and purify the RNA, hybridize it to the array, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis, and transmit the measurements to Earth. The system will help discover how bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics and how pathogenic bacteria sometimes increase their virulence in space, facilitating the development of adequate countermeasures to decrease risks associated with human spaceflight. The current stand-alone technology could be used as an integrated platform onboard the ISS to perform similar genetic analyses on any biological systems from the tree of life. Additionally, with some modification the system could be implemented to perform real-time in-situ microbial monitoring of the ISS environment (air, surface and water samples) and the astronaut's microbiome using 16SrRNA microarray technology. Furthermore, the current system can be enhanced

  14. Analyses of integrated aircraft cabin contaminant monitoring network based on Kalman consensus filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Li, Yanxiao; Sun, Hui; Chen, Zengqiang

    2017-11-01

    The modern civil aircrafts use air ventilation pressurized cabins subject to the limited space. In order to monitor multiple contaminants and overcome the hypersensitivity of the single sensor, the paper constructs an output correction integrated sensor configuration using sensors with different measurement theories after comparing to other two different configurations. This proposed configuration works as a node in the contaminant distributed wireless sensor monitoring network. The corresponding measurement error models of integrated sensors are also proposed by using the Kalman consensus filter to estimate states and conduct data fusion in order to regulate the single sensor measurement results. The paper develops the sufficient proof of the Kalman consensus filter stability when considering the system and the observation noises and compares the mean estimation and the mean consensus errors between Kalman consensus filter and local Kalman filter. The numerical example analyses show the effectiveness of the algorithm. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid monitoring of large groups of internally contaminated people following a radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    In the management of an emergency, it is necessary to assess the radiation exposures of people in the affected areas. An essential component in the programme is the monitoring of internal contamination. Existing fixed installations for the assessment of incorporated radionuclides may be of limited value in these circumstances because they may be inconveniently sited, oversensitive for the purpose, or inadequately equipped and staffed to cope with the large numbers referred to them. The IAEA considered it important to produce guidance on rapid monitoring of large groups of internally contaminated people. The purpose of this document is to provide Member States with an overview on techniques that can be applied during abnormal or accidental situations. Refs and figs

  16. Online calibration method for condition monitoring of nuclear reactor instrumentations based on electrical signature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syaiful Bakhri

    2013-01-01

    Electrical signature analysis currently becomes an alternative in condition monitoring in nuclear power plants not only for stationary components such as sensors, measurement and instrumentation channels, and other components but also for dynamic components such as electric motors, pumps, generator or actuators. In order to guarantee the accuracy, the calibration of monitoring system is a necessary which practically is performed offline, under limited schedules and certain tight procedures. This research aims to introduce online calibration technique for electrical signature condition monitoring in order that the accuracy can be maintained continuously which in turn increases the reactor safety as a whole. The research was performed step by stepin detail from the conventional technique, online calibration using baseline information and online calibration using differential gain adjustment. Online calibration based on differential gain adjustment provides better results than other techniques even tough under extreme gain insertion as well as external disturbances such as supply voltages. (author)

  17. Effective radiological contamination control and monitoring techniques in high alpha environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Kevin C

    2003-02-01

    In the decommissioning of a highly contaminated alpha environment, such as the one at Hanford's 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility, one of the key elements of a successful radiological control program is an integrated safety approach. This approach begins with the job-planning phase where the scope of the work is described. This is followed by a brainstorming session involving engineering and craft to identify how to perform the work in a logical sequence of events. Once the brainstorming session is over, a Job Hazard Analysis is performed to identify any potential problems. Mockups are utilized to enable the craft to get hands on experience and provide feedback and ideas to make the job run smoother. Ideas and experience gained during mockups are incorporated into the task instruction. To assure appropriate data are used in planning and executing the job, our principal evaluation tools included lapel and workplace air sampling, plus continuous air monitors and frequent surveys to effectively monitor job progress. In this highly contaminated alpha environment, with contamination levels ranging from 0.3 Bq cm-2 to approximately 100,000 Bq cm-2 (2,000 dpm per 100 cm2 to approximately 600 million dpm per 100 cm2), with average working levels of 1,600-3,200 Bq cm-2 (10-20 million dpm per 100 cm2) without concomitant ambient radiation levels, control of the spread of contamination is key to keeping airborne levels As Low As Reasonably Achievable.

  18. Instrumentation for the uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Brief descriptions are presented concerning instruments used in uranium mining, including R meter, radon daughter working level counter, radon gas detectors, alpha contamination monitors, air samplers, ore grade evaluators and gamma energy analyzers

  19. Comparison of surface contamination monitors for in vivo measurement of {sup 131}I in thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, S.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M., E-mail: salomao.marques@ymail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The routine handling of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine represents a significant risk of internal exposure to the staff. The IAEA recommends the implementation of monitoring plans for all workers subject to a risk of exposures above 1 mSv per year. However, in Brazil, such recommendation is practically unfeasible due to the lack of a sufficient number of qualified internal dosimetry services over the country. This work presents an alternative based on a simple and inexpensive methodology aimed to perform in-vivo monitoring of {sup 131}I in thyroid using portable surface contamination probes. All models evaluated showed suitable sensitivity for such application. (author)

  20. Comparison of surface contamination monitors for in vivo measurement of 131I in thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M.

    2015-01-01

    The routine handling of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine represents a significant risk of internal exposure to the staff. The IAEA recommends the implementation of monitoring plans for all workers subject to a risk of exposures above 1 mSv per year. However, in Brazil, such recommendation is practically unfeasible due to the lack of a sufficient number of qualified internal dosimetry services over the country. This work presents an alternative based on a simple and inexpensive methodology aimed to perform in-vivo monitoring of 131 I in thyroid using portable surface contamination probes. All models evaluated showed suitable sensitivity for such application. (author)

  1. The radioecological monitoring of the some water ecosystems of the contaminated districts of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvalej, O.D.; Dackevich, P.I.; Komissarov, F.D.; Basharina, L.P.

    2002-01-01

    The main results of the long-term radioecological monitoring of the some water ecosystems of the contaminated districts of Belarus are presented. The main components of water ecosystem (water, suspensions, bottom sediments, water vegetation) were observed. The migration of Cs 137 and Sr 90 on the water-collection areas were investigated in detail. The tendency of Sr 90 increasing in the components of the surface water systems is observed

  2. Monitoring of organic contaminants in sediments using low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Rupert, Yuri

    2016-04-01

    The effective monitoring of soils and groundwater contaminated with organic compounds is an important goal of many environmental restoration efforts. Recent geophysical methods such as electrical resistivity, complex conductivity, and ground penetrating radar have been successfully applied to characterize organic contaminants in the subsurface and to monitor remediation process both in laboratory and in field. Low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a geophysical tool sensitive to the molecular-scale physical and chemical environment of hydrogen-bearing fluids in geological materials and shows promise as a novel method for monitoring contaminant remediation. This laboratory research focuses on measurements on synthetic samples to determine the sensitivity of NMR to the presence of organic contaminants and improve understanding of relationships between NMR observables, hydrological properties of the sediments, and amount and state of contaminants in porous media. Toluene, a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) has been selected as a representative organic contaminant. Three types of porous media (pure silica sands, montmorillonite clay, and various sand-clay mixtures with different sand/clay ratios) were prepared as synthetic sediments. NMR relaxation time (T2) and diffusion-relaxation (D - T2) correlation measurements were performed in each sediment saturated with water and toluene mixed fluid at assorted concentrations (0% toluene and 100% water, 1% toluene and 99% water, 5% toluene and 95% water, 25% toluene and 75% water, and 100% toluene and 0% water) to 1) understand the effect of different porous media on the NMR responses in each fluid mixture, 2) investigate the role of clay content on T2 relaxation of each fluid, 3) quantify the amount hydrocarbons in the presence of water in each sediment, and 4) resolve hydrocarbons from water in D - T2 map. Relationships between the compositions of porous media, hydrocarbon concentration, and hydraulic

  3. Investigation of Stability of Precise Geodetic Instruments Used in Deformation Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Marek; Odziemczyk, Waldemar

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring systems using automated electronic total stations are an important element of safety control of many engineering objects. In order to ensure the appropriate credibility of acquired data, it is necessary that instruments (total stations in most of the cases) used for measurements meet requirements of measurement accuracy, as well as the stability of instrument axis system geometry. With regards to the above, it is expedient to conduct quality control of data acquired using electronic total stations in the context of performed measurement procedures. This paper presents results of research conducted at the Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography at Warsaw University of Technology investigating the stability of "basic" error values (collimation, zero location for V circle, inclination), for two types of automatic total stations: TDA 5005 and TCRP 1201+. Research provided also information concerning the influence of temperature changes upon the stability of investigated instrument's optical parameters. Results are presented in graphical analytic technique. Final conclusions propose methods, which allow avoiding negative results of measuring tool-set geometry changes during conducting precise deformation monitoring measurements.

  4. Subsidence monitoring with geotechnical instruments in the Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, E.; Sarychikhina, O.; Márquez Ramírez, V. H.; Robles, B.; Nava, F. A.; Farfán, F.; García Arthur, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    The Mexicali Valley (northwestern Mexico), situated in the southern part of the San Andreas fault system, is an area with high tectonic deformation, recent volcanism, and active seismicity. Since 1973, fluid extraction, from the 1500-3000 m depth range, at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF), has influenced deformation in the Mexicali Valley area, accelerating the subsidence and causing slip along the traces of tectonic faults that limit the subsidence area. Detailed field mapping done since 1989 (González et al., 1998; Glowacka et al., 2005; Suárez-Vidal et al., 2008) in the vicinity of the CPGF shows that many subsidence induced fractures, fissures, collapse features, small grabens, and fresh scarps are related to the known tectonic faults. Subsidence and fault rupture are causing damage to infrastructure, such as roads, railroad tracks, irrigation channels, and agricultural fields. Since 1996, geotechnical instruments installed by CICESE (Centro de Investigación Ciéntifica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, B.C.) have operated in the Mexicali Valley, for continuous recording of deformation phenomena. Instruments are installed over or very close to the affected faults. To date, the network includes four crackmeters and eight tiltmeters; all instruments have sampling intervals in the 1 to 20 min range. Instrumental records typically show continuous creep, episodic slip events related mainly to the subsidence process, and coseismic slip discontinuities (Glowacka et al., 1999, 2005, 2010; Sarychikhina et al., 2015). The area has also been monitored by levelling surveys every few years and, since the 1990's by studies based on DInSAR data (Carnec and Fabriol, 1999; Hansen, 2001; Sarychikhina et al., 2011). In this work we use data from levelling, DInSAR, and geotechnical instruments records to compare the subsidence caused by anthropogenic activity and/or seismicity with slip recorded by geotechnical instruments, in an attempt to obtain more information

  5. Subsidence monitoring with geotechnical instruments in the Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Glowacka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mexicali Valley (northwestern Mexico, situated in the southern part of the San Andreas fault system, is an area with high tectonic deformation, recent volcanism, and active seismicity. Since 1973, fluid extraction, from the 1500–3000 m depth range, at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF, has influenced deformation in the Mexicali Valley area, accelerating the subsidence and causing slip along the traces of tectonic faults that limit the subsidence area. Detailed field mapping done since 1989 (González et al., 1998; Glowacka et al., 2005; Suárez-Vidal et al., 2008 in the vicinity of the CPGF shows that many subsidence induced fractures, fissures, collapse features, small grabens, and fresh scarps are related to the known tectonic faults. Subsidence and fault rupture are causing damage to infrastructure, such as roads, railroad tracks, irrigation channels, and agricultural fields. Since 1996, geotechnical instruments installed by CICESE (Centro de Investigación Ciéntifica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, B.C. have operated in the Mexicali Valley, for continuous recording of deformation phenomena. Instruments are installed over or very close to the affected faults. To date, the network includes four crackmeters and eight tiltmeters; all instruments have sampling intervals in the 1 to 20 min range. Instrumental records typically show continuous creep, episodic slip events related mainly to the subsidence process, and coseismic slip discontinuities (Glowacka et al., 1999, 2005, 2010; Sarychikhina et al., 2015. The area has also been monitored by levelling surveys every few years and, since the 1990's by studies based on DInSAR data (Carnec and Fabriol, 1999; Hansen, 2001; Sarychikhina et al., 2011. In this work we use data from levelling, DInSAR, and geotechnical instruments records to compare the subsidence caused by anthropogenic activity and/or seismicity with slip recorded by geotechnical instruments, in an attempt to obtain

  6. MONITORING OF THE PERFORMANCE EFFICIENCY OF THE EQUIPMENT AT THE ENTERPRISES OF AVIATION INSTRUMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr P. Dobrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article elaborates the proposals to improve the systems for monitoring performance of the equipment at the enterprises of aviation instrument. The relevance of the study due to the fact that the aviation instrument-making industry of the Russian Federation can play a role as a key factor in enhancing the competitiveness of the national economy. Currently, the global aviation market is fairly saturated, it competition is not between individual companies and between the aviation powers. The role of an efficient industrial production is largely dependent on the amount, structure, technical condition and the level of utilization of fixed assets. Specificity of high-tech high-tech production presupposes the existence of a specific fleet of expensive and unique equipment; a high degree of novelty products, single or small-scale type of production that determines the high cost of production of a unit of production; high demands on the staff . The paper noted that the production capacity is an essential tool for production planning process, which allows to determine the optimal work shifts Park main technological equipment and production program to justify the enterprises of sphere of aviation instrument. On the basis of the modification of OEE method, a stochastic model is proposed, which allows to display the efficiency of the productive capacity of the high-tech enterprises of sphere of aviation instrument in the form of multi-dimensional size and much more accurately identify the relationship between its elements.

  7. Incorporation of personal computers in a research reactor instrumentation system for data monitoring and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopando, L.S.

    1998-01-01

    The research contract was implemented by obtaining off-the shelf personal computer hardware and data acquisition cards, designing the interconnection with the instrumentation system, writing and debugging the software, and the assembling and testing the set-up. The hardware was designed to allow all variables monitored by the instrumentation system to be accessible to the computers, without requiring any major modification of the instrumentation system and without compromising reactor safety in any way. The computer hardware addition was also designed to have no effect on any existing function of the instrumentation system. The software was designed to implement only graphical display and automated logging of reactor variables. Additional functionality could be easily added in the future with software revision because all the reactor variables are already available in the computer. It would even be possible to ''close the loop'' and control the reactor through software. It was found that most of the effort in an undertaking of this sort will be in software development, but the job can be done even by non-computer specialized reactor people working with programming languages they are already familiar with. It was also found that the continuing rapid advance of personal computer technology makes it essential that such a project be undertaken with inevitability of future hardware upgrading in mind. The hardware techniques and the software developed may find applicability in other research reactors, especially those with a generic analog research reactor TRIGA console. (author)

  8. Tritium instrumentation for a fusion reactor power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shank, K.E.; Easterly, C.E.

    1976-09-01

    A review of tritium instrumentation is presented. This includes a discussion of currently available in-plant instrumentation and methods required for sampling stacks, monitoring process streams and reactor coolants, analyzing occupational work areas for air and surface contamination, and personnel monitoring. Off-site instrumentation and collection techniques are also presented. Conclusions are made concerning the adequacy of existing instrumentation in relation to the monitoring needs for fusion reactors

  9. Monitoring for contaminants of emerging concern in drinking water using POCIS passive samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Chris; Hoque, M Ehsanul; Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Helm, Paul; Kleywegt, Sonya

    2014-03-01

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) have been detected in drinking water world-wide. The source of most of these compounds is generally attributed to contamination from municipal wastewater. Traditional water sampling methods (grab or composite) often require the concentration of large amounts of water in order to detect trace levels of these contaminants. The Polar Organic Compounds Integrative Sampler (POCIS) is a passive sampling technology that has been developed to concentrate trace levels of CEC to provide time-weighted average concentrations for individual compounds in water. However, few studies to date have evaluated whether POCIS is suitable for monitoring contaminants in drinking water. In this study, the POCIS was evaluated as a monitoring tool for CEC in drinking water over a period of 2 and 4 weeks with comparisons to typical grab samples. Seven "indicator compounds" which included carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, estrone and sucralose, were monitored in five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in Ontario. All indicator compounds were detected in raw water samples from the POCIS in comparison to six from grab samples. Similarly, four compounds were detected in grab samples of treated drinking water, whereas six were detected in the POCIS. Sucralose was the only compound that was detected consistently at all five plants. The POCIS technique provided integrative exposures of CECs in drinking water at lower detection limits, while episodic events were captured via traditional sampling methods. There was evidence that the accumulation of target compounds by POCIS is a dynamic process, with adsorption and desorption on the sorbent occurring in response to ambient levels of the target compounds in water. CECs in treated drinking water were present at low ng L(-1) concentrations, which are not considered to be a threat to human health.

  10. Strategies for monitoring the emerging polar organic contaminants in water with emphasis on integrative passive sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, Hanna; Lindberg, Richard H; Fick, Jerker

    2009-01-16

    Although polar organic contaminants (POCs) such as pharmaceuticals are considered as some of today's most emerging contaminants few of them are regulated or included in on-going monitoring programs. However, the growing concern among the public and researchers together with the new legislature within the European Union, the registration, evaluation and authorisation of chemicals (REACH) system will increase the future need of simple, low cost strategies for monitoring and risk assessment of POCs in aquatic environments. In this article, we overview the advantages and shortcomings of traditional and novel sampling techniques available for monitoring the emerging POCs in water. The benefits and drawbacks of using active and biological sampling were discussed and the principles of organic passive samplers (PS) presented. A detailed overview of type of polar organic PS available, and their classes of target compounds and field of applications were given, and the considerations involved in using them such as environmental effects and quality control were discussed. The usefulness of biological sampling of POCs in water was found to be limited. Polar organic PS was considered to be the only available, but nevertheless, an efficient alternative to active water sampling due to its simplicity, low cost, no need of power supply or maintenance, and the ability of collecting time-integrative samples with one sample collection. However, the polar organic PS need to be further developed before they can be used as standard in water quality monitoring programs.

  11. Development of floor smear sampler (floor radioactive contamination measuring instrument) for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Minoru; Ito, Haruo; Nozawa, Katsuro; Shinohara, Yotaro; Hashimoto, Hiroshi.

    1980-01-01

    The control of the floor contamination with radioactive substances in nuclear facilities is strictly carried out by smear method, in which the contaminants on floor surfaces are wiped off with filter papers or cloths, and the contamination density on the floor surfaces is measured through their intensity of radioactivity. This wiping work is laborious since it is carried out in leaning-over posture when many samples must be taken in wide floor area. Therefore, to achieve labor saving in this work, an automatic sampler was developed. In the floor smear sampler developed, samples are taken on long band type wiping cloths only by handle operation, and the sample numbers are printed. When many samples are taken in wide floor area, this is especially effective, and the labor saving by 1/3 to 1/2 can be achieved. At present, this sampler is put in practical use in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station. At the time of trial manufacture, the method of wiping, the mechanisms of wiping, cloth feeding and running, the contact pressure and the number of times of wiping affecting wiping efficiency and the required torque of a motor were examined. The developed sampler is that of constant contact pressure, vibration wiping type, and the rate of sampling is 10 sec per one sample. 100 samples can be taken on one roll of wiping cloth. The results of performance test are reported. (Kako, I.)

  12. Long-term ERT monitoring of biogeochemical changes of an aged hydrocarbon contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterina, David; Flores Orozco, Adrian; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2017-06-01

    Adequate management of contaminated sites requires information with improved spatio-temporal resolution, in particular to assess bio-geochemical processes, such as the transformation and degradation of contaminants, precipitation of minerals or changes in groundwater geochemistry occurring during and after remediation procedures. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), a geophysical method sensitive to pore-fluid and pore-geometry properties, permits to gain quasi-continuous information about subsurface properties in real-time and has been consequently widely used for the characterization of hydrocarbon-impacted sediments. However, its application for the long-term monitoring of processes accompanying natural or engineered bioremediation is still difficult due to the poor understanding of the role that biogeochemical processes play in the electrical signatures. For in-situ studies, the task is further complicated by the variable signal-to-noise ratio and the variations of environmental parameters leading to resolution changes in the electrical images. In this work, we present ERT imaging results for data collected over a period of two years on a site affected by a diesel fuel contamination and undergoing bioremediation. We report low electrical resistivity anomalies in areas associated to the highest contaminant concentrations likely due transformations of the contaminant due to microbial activity and accompanying release of metabolic products. We also report large seasonal variations of the bulk electrical resistivity in the contaminated areas in correlation with temperature and groundwater level fluctuations. However, the amplitude of bulk electrical resistivity variations largely exceeds the amplitude expected given existing petrophysical models. Our results suggest that the variations in electrical properties are mainly controlled by microbial activity which in turn depends on soil temperature and hydrogeological conditions. Therefore, ERT can be suggested as

  13. Long-term ERT monitoring of biogeochemical changes of an aged hydrocarbon contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterina, David; Flores Orozco, Adrian; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2017-06-01

    Adequate management of contaminated sites requires information with improved spatio-temporal resolution, in particular to assess bio-geochemical processes, such as the transformation and degradation of contaminants, precipitation of minerals or changes in groundwater geochemistry occurring during and after remediation procedures. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), a geophysical method sensitive to pore-fluid and pore-geometry properties, permits to gain quasi-continuous information about subsurface properties in real-time and has been consequently widely used for the characterization of hydrocarbon-impacted sediments. However, its application for the long-term monitoring of processes accompanying natural or engineered bioremediation is still difficult due to the poor understanding of the role that biogeochemical processes play in the electrical signatures. For in-situ studies, the task is further complicated by the variable signal-to-noise ratio and the variations of environmental parameters leading to resolution changes in the electrical images. In this work, we present ERT imaging results for data collected over a period of two years on a site affected by a diesel fuel contamination and undergoing bioremediation. We report low electrical resistivity anomalies in areas associated to the highest contaminant concentrations likely due transformations of the contaminant due to microbial activity and accompanying release of metabolic products. We also report large seasonal variations of the bulk electrical resistivity in the contaminated areas in correlation with temperature and groundwater level fluctuations. However, the amplitude of bulk electrical resistivity variations largely exceeds the amplitude expected given existing petrophysical models. Our results suggest that the variations in electrical properties are mainly controlled by microbial activity which in turn depends on soil temperature and hydrogeological conditions. Therefore, ERT can be suggested as

  14. Nuclear radiation monitoring instruments for personnel in nuclear disaster for defence needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, P.K.; Vaijapurkar, S.G.; Yadav, Ashok

    2005-01-01

    Ever since the tragedy of nuclear device exploding over Japan by USA in 1945 awareness exists amongst the armed forces personnel all over the world that a requirement of implementing radiological protection is imminent. Towards this adoption of radiological safety programme is a criterion. In a nuclear war disaster scenario, one encounters initial nuclear radiation (gamma and neutron radiations), gamma radiations from fallout, heat and blast. At certain distances Tanks/ armoured vehicles will survive and 4 R/s radiation level sensing to actuate relays for closing the ports of vehicles is essential, leading to reduction in inhalation, ingestion of fallout radioactivity and reduction in radiation dose received by occupants of the vehicle. Towards this sturdy radiation monitors to indicate gamma dose rate of the order of 1000 R/h, gamma and neutron dosimeters of the order of 1000 cGy with reading instruments are to be developed. These must work in harsh environment and sustain JSS 55555 conditions of army. Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur over past one decade has been involved in developing personnel, area and field monitoring instruments like dosimeters, survey meters, which are useful, acceptable to army personnel, armoured and personnel carrier vehicles, field structures/shelters. Technology transfer after satisfaction of armed forces, product ionisation and supply, maintenance, training has been the endeavor of the DRDO. Herein it is proposed to highlight the techno electronics nuclear radiation monitoring sensors and associated electronics systems developed first time in the country and productionised in bulk for Services for implementing personnel protection. The sensors developed and described are - Radiophotoluminescent Glass (RPLG) for gamma radiation dosimetry , neutron sensitive PIN diode for fast neutron dosimetry, gamma radiation sensitive PIN diode, superheated liquid neutron and gamma sensors. The dosimeter, dose rate meter and field/area instruments are

  15. Comparison of active and passive sampling strategies for the monitoring of pesticide contamination in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assoumani, Azziz; Margoum, Christelle; Guillemain, Céline; Coquery, Marina

    2014-05-01

    The monitoring of water bodies regarding organic contaminants, and the determination of reliable estimates of concentrations are challenging issues, in particular for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive. Several strategies can be applied to collect water samples for the determination of their contamination level. Grab sampling is fast, easy, and requires little logistical and analytical needs in case of low frequency sampling campaigns. However, this technique lacks of representativeness for streams with high variations of contaminant concentrations, such as pesticides in rivers located in small agricultural watersheds. Increasing the representativeness of this sampling strategy implies greater logistical needs and higher analytical costs. Average automated sampling is therefore a solution as it allows, in a single analysis, the determination of more accurate and more relevant estimates of concentrations. Two types of automatic samplings can be performed: time-related sampling allows the assessment of average concentrations, whereas flow-dependent sampling leads to average flux concentrations. However, the purchase and the maintenance of automatic samplers are quite expensive. Passive sampling has recently been developed as an alternative to grab or average automated sampling, to obtain at lower cost, more realistic estimates of the average concentrations of contaminants in streams. These devices allow the passive accumulation of contaminants from large volumes of water, resulting in ultratrace level detection and smoothed integrative sampling over periods ranging from days to weeks. They allow the determination of time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations of the dissolved fraction of target contaminants, but they need to be calibrated in controlled conditions prior to field applications. In other words, the kinetics of the uptake of the target contaminants into the sampler must be studied in order to determine the corresponding sampling rate

  16. Sensitivity of radiation monitoring systems in Manila Ports in detecting contamination in foodstuff shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romallosa, Kristine Marie D.; Caseria, Estrella S.; Piquero, Ronald E.; Agustin, Jan Aldrich A.

    2011-01-01

    During the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan, one of the Philippines' measures to protect the public from radiological hazards of the accident is by monitoring agricultural and food imports for radioactive contamination. In this study, the sensitivity of the mobile Radiation Monitoring System (RM) in Manila Ports in detecting contamination in incoming foodstuff shipments was determined. Large volume synthetic 137 Cs reference sources were used to determine the minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of the RMS. The reference sources have radioactivity concentrations that are comparable to the PNRI guidance level of 1000 Bg/kg for 137 Cs that is destined for general consumption. Results of the MDC measurements show that the RMS units are sensitive enough to detect radioactivity levels that are within the guidance levels provided that a) the minimum package lot is approximately 200 kg, b) the package is positioned at the detector side, and c) the alarm setting of RMS is as calibrated. It was therefore established that the RMS can be used to initially screen incoming foodstuff shipments of possible contamination and thereby help minimize potential radiation exposures to the public. (author)

  17. Long Term Remote Monitoring of TCE Contaminated Groundwater at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, C.; Gudavalli, R.; Lagos, L.; Tansel, B.; Varona, J.; Allen, M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a mobile self powered remote monitoring system enhanced for field deployment at Savannah River Site (SRS). The system used a localized power source with solar recharging and has wireless data collection, analysis, transmission, and data management capabilities. The prototype was equipped with a Hydrolab's DataSonde 4a multi-sensor array package managed by a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, with an adequate pumping capacity of water samples for sampling and analysis of Trichloroethylene (TCE) in contaminated groundwater wells at SRS. This paper focuses on a study and technology development efforts conducted at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) to automate the sampling of contaminated wells with a multi-sensor array package developed using COTS (Commercial Off The shelf) parts. Bladder pumps will pump water from different wells to the sensors array, water quality TCE indicator parameters are measured (i.e. pH, redox, ORP, DO, NO3 -, Cl-). In order to increase user access and data management, the system was designed to be accessible over the Internet. Remote users can take sample readings and collect data remotely over a web. Results obtained at Florida International University in-house testing and at a field deployment at the Savannah River Site indicate that this long term monitoring technique can be a feasible solution for the sampling of TCE indicator parameters at remote contaminated sites

  18. Virtual instrument for controlling and monitoring digitalized power supply in SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Junlong; Chen Huanguang; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Xu Ruinian; Shen Tianjian; Li Deming

    2006-01-01

    The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) needs extremely precise power supplies for their various magnets. A digital controller is being developed for the power converters of the SSRF power supply (PS). In the digital controller, a fully digital pulse-width modulator (PWM) directly controls the power unit insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) of the PS. A program in LabVIEW language has been developed to control and monitor the digital PS via serial communication (RS232) from a PC and to modify its parameters as well. In this article, the software design of the virtual instrument for controlling and monitoring digitalized PS and its associated functions are described, and the essential elements of the program graphical main-VI and sub-VI source code are presented and explained. The communication protocol and the structure of the developed system are also included in this article. (authors)

  19. Instrumentation and control systems for monitoring and data acquisition for thermal recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparicio, J.; Hernandez, E.; Perozo, H. [PDVSA Intevep, S.A. (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Thermal recovery methods are often applied to enhance oil recovery in heavy oil reservoirs, one of its challenges is to control the displacement of the thermal front. Methods are thus implemented to obtain data on the temperatures in the wells at any given time and to monitor other variables so that the behaviour of the thermal front can be predicted. The aim of this paper is to present a new control and instrumentation scheme to measure all of the variables. A software was created using Labview a graphs-based programming language software and PostgreSQL, a database management system. Using this software, sensors can be added or removed at any time; trends can be immediately visualized; and quality of the information is ensured since there is no human intervention in the data collection or processing. This paper presented a software which improves monitoring of all of the variables affecting the behaviour of the thermal front.

  20. Monitoring pesticides residues and contaminants for some leafy vegetables at the market level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, A. B. H.

    2004-03-01

    Pesticide residues and contaminants in selected leafy vegetables, namely (lettuce, garden rocket and salad onion) were monitored at market level in Riyadh City in Saudi Arabia, during the period june to july 2001. Fifteen samples of vegetables from the City vegetable market of Riyadh were collected and subjected to multi-pesticide residue detection and analysis by gas chromatography with mass spectrometer and electron capture detectors (GC/MS,ECD). Results of sample extracts analysis showed that the two vegetables of: garden rocket and salad onion contain pesticide residues and contaminants which have no Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) prescribed by Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) collaborate with World Health and Food and Agriculture Organizations (WHO/FAO). Whereas lettuce vegetable was found free of any identified pesticide residues or contaminants. Garden rocket was shown to contain dibutyl phthalate (0.04 ppm)-steryl chloride (0.02 ppm) tridecane (0.06 ppm)-hexadecane (0.07 ppm)-BIS (ethylhexyl) phthalate (0.006 ppm) and pyridinium, 1-hexyl chloride (0.01 ppm). The salad onion was found to contain 9-octadecanamide (0.13 ppm)-tridecane (0.15 ppm) and tetradecane (0.16 ppm). There are no established MRL s for these pesticides and contaminants detected in garden rocket and salad onion, although when impacts on human health were reviewed some of them were found probably hazardous. (Author)

  1. Uses of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for lichen as bio indicators of environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arribere, M.; Guevara, S.R.; Calvelo, S.

    1994-01-01

    Three species of epiphytic lichens were sampled at NW Patagonia, Argentina, from urban and peripherical forest area environments Sixty lichen samples were analysed individually by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The elements present in the samples were determined by parametric methods at the Neutron Activation Laboratory at Centro Atomico Bariloche, Argentina. All concentration values were normalized to Al concentration. The average normalized concentrations for each element, discriminated by species and environment, are presented in this work. (author). 11 refs, 6 tabs

  2. Nuclear incident monitor criticality alarm instrument for the Savannah River Site: Technical manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is a Department of Energy facility. The facility stores, processes, and works with fissionable material at a number of locations. Technical standards and US Department of Energy orders, require these locations to be monitored by criticality alarm systems under certain circumstances. The Savannah River Site calls such instruments Nuclear Incident Monitors or NIMs. The Sole purpose of the Nuclear Incident Monitor is to provide an immediate evacuation signal in the case of an accidental criticality in order to minimize personnel exposure to radiation. The new unit is the third generation Nuclear Incident Monitor at the Savannah River Site. The second generation unit was developed in 1979. It was designed to eliminate vacuum-tube circuits, and was the first solid state NIM at SRS. The major design objectives of the second generation NIM were to improve reliability and reduce maintenance costs. Ten prototype units have been built and tested. This report describes the design of the new NIM and the testing that took place to verify its acceptability

  3. Method of exchanging cables of neutron monitoring instrumentation tube and folding device of the cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamaki, Kazuo.

    1990-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, a wide range monitor (WRNM) is used instead of a conventional neutron source range monitor (SRM) or an intermediate range monitor (IRM). The WRNM is always fixed to a predetermined position in a reactor core while containing a detection section in a dry tube, different from a conventional monitor. Accordingly, driving devices for the conventional detection section such as in SRM and IRM are not necessary but, when the reactor is operated for a long period of time, it is sometimes necessary to be replaced with new WRNM. According to the present invention, the cable of the detector placed in a neutron instrumentation tube is connected to a cable take-up drum in a take-up device passing through a cask. Then, the cable is taken-up by driving the take-up drum by a driving motor and the WRNM detection section attached to the top end of the cable is contained in the cask. With this constitution, replacing and processing operation for the detection section can be facilitated and operator's exposure dose can be reduced. (I.S.)

  4. Improving global detection of volcanic eruptions using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. J. B. Flower

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions pose an ever-present threat to human populations around the globe, but many active volcanoes remain poorly monitored. In regions where ground-based monitoring is present the effects of volcanic eruptions can be moderated through observational alerts to both local populations and service providers, such as air traffic control. However, in regions where volcano monitoring is limited satellite-based remote sensing provides a global data source that can be utilised to provide near-real-time identification of volcanic activity. This paper details a volcanic plume detection method capable of identifying smaller eruptions than is currently feasible, which could potentially be incorporated into automated volcanic alert systems. This method utilises daily, global observations of sulfur dioxide (SO2 by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI on NASA's Aura satellite. Following identification and classification of known volcanic eruptions in 2005–2009, the OMI SO2 data, analysed using a logistic regression analysis, permitted the correct classification of volcanic events with an overall accuracy of over 80 %. Accurate volcanic plume identification was possible when lower-tropospheric SO2 loading exceeded ∼ 400 t. The accuracy and minimal user input requirements of the developed procedure provide a basis for incorporation into automated SO2 alert systems.

  5. Design, construction and monitoring of temporary storage facilities for removed contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Funaki, Hironori; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Tokizawa, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    Since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident caused by the Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake on March 11, 2011, decontamination work has been conducted in the surrounding environment within the Fukushima prefecture. Removed contaminants including soil, grass and trees are to be stored safely at temporary storage facilities for up to three years, after which they will be transferred to a planned interim storage facility. The decontamination pilot project was carried out in both the restricted and planned evacuation areas in order to assess decontamination methods and demonstrate measures for radiation protection of workers. Fourteen temporary storage facilities of different technical specifications were designed and constructed under various topographic conditions and land use. In order to support the design, construction and monitoring of temporary storage facilities for removed contaminants during the full-scale decontamination within the prefecture of Fukushima, technical know-how obtained during the decontamination pilot project has been identified and summarized in this paper. (author)

  6. Present state of the monitoring for internal contamination at Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaishi, J.; Fukuda, H.; Mizushita, S.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented of internal contamination surveys carried out since 1969 at Tokai Research Establishment. Routine monitoring sometimes revealed significant internal contamination for tritium workers, but almost never for others. The number of subjects for special monitoring varied according to the activities. In 1965, the number of subjects for special monitoring was nearly 300, due to a reactor repair that year. In recent years, the number or special monitoring has been several tens or so. With regard to special monitoring, the workers with significant internal contamination were less than 50%. The internal dose (50 years) estimated for the majority of subjects was of mrem order. During the past 15 years, only several cases of exposure of rem order were found. The highest dose experienced was about 4 rems ( 131 I thyroid) (U.K.)

  7. Overview of the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment monitoring by Bulgarian build instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachev, Tsvetan; Tomov, Borislav; Matviichuk, Yury; Dimitrov, Plamen; Spurny, Frantisek; Ploc, Ondrej; Uchihori, Yukio; Flueckiger, Erwin; Kudela, Karel; Benton, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Humans are exposed to ionizing radiation all the time, and it is known that it can induce a variety of harmful biological effects. Consequently, it is necessary to quantitatively assess the level of exposure to this radiation as the basis for estimating risks for their health. Spacecraft and aircraft crews are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation of galactic and solar origin and to secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere, the vehicle structure and its contents. The aircraft crew monitoring is required by the following recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (ICRP 1990), the European Union (EU) introduced a revised Basic Safety Standards Directive (EC 1997) which, inter alia, included the exposure to cosmic radiation. This approach has been also adopted in other official documents (NCRP 2002). In this overview we present the results of ground based, mountain peaks, aircraft, balloon and rocket radiation environment monitoring by means of a Si-diode energy deposition spectrometer Liulin type developed first in Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS) for the purposes of the space radiation monitoring at MIR and International Space Station (ISS). These spectrometers-dosemeters are further developed, calibrated and used by scientific groups in different countries. Calibration procedures of them are performed at different accelerators including runs in the CERN high-energy reference field, simulating the radiation field at 10 km altitude in the atmosphere and with heavy ions in Chiba, Japan HIMAC accelerator were performed also. The long term aircraft data base were accumulated using specially developed battery operated instrument in 2001-2009 years onboard of A310-300 aircrafts of Czech Air Lines, during 24 about 2 months runs with more than 2000 flights and 13500 flight hours on routes over the Atlantic Ocean mainly. The obtained experimental data are compared with computational models like CARI and EPCARD. The

  8. Multitemporal Monitoring of the Air Quality in Bulgaria by Satellite Based Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Hristo; Borisova, Denitsa

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays the effect on climate changes on the population and environment caused by air pollutants at local and regional scale by pollution concentrations higher than allowed is undisputable. Main sources of gas releases are due to anthropogenic emissions caused by the economic and domestic activities of the inhabitants, and to less extent having natural origin. Complementary to pollutants emissions the local weather parameters such as temperature, precipitation, wind speed, clouds, atmospheric water vapor, and wind direction control the chemical reactions in the atmosphere. It should be noted that intrinsic property of the air pollution is its "transboundary-ness" and this is why the air quality (AQ) is not affecting the population of one single country only. This why the exchange of information concerning AQ at EU level is subject to well established legislation and one of EU flagship initiatives for standardization in data exchange, namely INSPIRE, has to cope with. It should be noted that although good reporting mechanism with regard to AQ is already established between EU member states national networks suffer from a serious disadvantage - they don't form a regular grid which is a prerequisite for verification of pollutants transport modeling. Alternative sources of information for AQ are the satellite observations (i.e. OMI, TOMS instruments) providing daily data for ones of the major contributors to air pollution such as O3, NOX and SO2. Those data form regular grids and are processed the same day of the acquisition so they could be used in verification of the outputs generated by numerical modeling of the AQ and pollution transfer. In this research we present results on multitemporal monitoring of several regional "hot spots" responsible for greenhouse gases emissions in Bulgaria with emphasis on satellite-based instruments. Other output from this study is a method for validation of the AQ forecasts and also providing feedback to the service that prepares

  9. Three-Dimensional Vibration Isolator for Suppressing High-Frequency Responses for Sage III Contamination Monitoring Package (CMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Cutright, S.; Dyke, R.; Templeton, J.; Gasbarre, J.; Novak, F.

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III - International Space Station (ISS) instrument will be used to study ozone, providing global, long-term measurements of key components of the Earth's atmosphere for the continued health of Earth and its inhabitants. SAGE III is launched into orbit in an inverted configuration on SpaceX;s Falcon 9 launch vehicle. As one of its four supporting elements, a Contamination Monitoring Package (CMP) mounted to the top panel of the Interface Adapter Module (IAM) box experiences high-frequency response due to structural coupling between the two structures during the SpaceX launch. These vibrations, which were initially observed in the IAM Engineering Development Unit (EDU) test and later verified through finite element analysis (FEA) for the SpaceX launch loads, may damage the internal electronic cards and the Thermoelectric Quartz Crystal Microbalance (TQCM) sensors mounted on the CMP. Three-dimensional (3D) vibration isolators were required to be inserted between the CMP and IAM interface in order to attenuate the high frequency vibrations without resulting in any major changes to the existing system. Wire rope isolators were proposed as the isolation system between the CMP and IAM due to the low impact to design. Most 3D isolation systems are designed for compression and roll, therefore little dynamic data was available for using wire rope isolators in an inverted or tension configuration. From the isolator FEA and test results, it is shown that by using the 3D wire rope isolators, the CMP high-frequency responses have been suppressed by several orders of magnitude over a wide excitation frequency range. Consequently, the TQCM sensor responses are well below their qualification environments. It is indicated that these high-frequency responses due to the typical instrument structural coupling can be significantly suppressed by a vibration passive control using the 3D vibration isolator. Thermal and contamination

  10. Exposure assessment of process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Dussort, P; Günther, Helmut; Hanlon, Paul; Honda, Hiroshi; Mally, Angela; O'Hagan, Sue; Scholz, Gabriele; Seidel, Albrecht; Swenberg, James; Teeguarden, Justin; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2018-01-01

    Exposure assessment is a fundamental part of the risk assessment paradigm, but can often present a number of challenges and uncertainties. This is especially the case for process contaminants formed during the processing, e.g. heating of food, since they are in part highly reactive and/or volatile, thus making exposure assessment by analysing contents in food unreliable. New approaches are therefore required to accurately assess consumer exposure and thus better inform the risk assessment. Such novel approaches may include the use of biomarkers, physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling-facilitated reverse dosimetry, and/or duplicate diet studies. This review focuses on the state of the art with respect to the use of biomarkers of exposure for the process contaminants acrylamide, 3-MCPD esters, glycidyl esters, furan and acrolein. From the overview presented, it becomes clear that the field of assessing human exposure to process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring is promising and strongly developing. The current state of the art as well as the existing data gaps and challenges for the future were defined. They include (1) using PBK modelling and duplicate diet studies to establish, preferably in humans, correlations between external exposure and biomarkers; (2) elucidation of the possible endogenous formation of the process-related contaminants and the resulting biomarker levels; (3) the influence of inter-individual variations and how to include that in the biomarker-based exposure predictions; (4) the correction for confounding factors; (5) the value of the different biomarkers in relation to exposure scenario's and risk assessment, and (6) the possibilities of novel methodologies. In spite of these challenges it can be concluded that biomarker-based exposure assessment provides a unique opportunity to more accurately assess consumer exposure to process-related contaminants in food and thus to better inform risk assessment.

  11. 1,4-Dioxane drinking water occurrence data from the third unregulated contaminant monitoring rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, David T; Piña, Elizabeth A; Cartwright, Abigail E; Rauch, Sharon R; Hunter Anderson, R; Mohr, Thomas; Connor, John A

    2017-10-15

    This study examined data collected from U.S. public drinking water supplies in support of the recently-completed third round of the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR3) to better understand the nature and occurrence of 1,4-dioxane and the basis for establishing drinking water standards. The purpose was to evaluate whether the occurrence data for this emerging but federally-unregulated contaminant fit with common conceptual models, including its persistence and the importance of groundwater contamination for potential exposure. 1,4-Dioxane was detected in samples from 21% of 4864 PWSs, and was in exceedance of the health-based reference concentration (0.35μg/L) at 6.9% of these systems. In both measures, it ranked second among the 28 UCMR3 contaminants. Although much of the focus on 1,4-dioxane has been its role as a groundwater contaminant, the detection frequency for 1,4-dioxane in surface water was only marginally lower than in groundwater (by a factor of 1.25; pwater (pwater sources tend to be more dilute. Sampling from large systems increased the likelihood that 1,4-dioxane was detected by a factor of 2.18 times relative to small systems (pwater were highly associated with detections of other chlorinated compounds particularly 1,1-dichlorethane (odds ratio=47; pchlorinated solvent stabilizer. Based on aggregated nationwide data, 1,4-dioxane showed evidence of a decreasing trend in concentration and detection frequency over time. These data suggest that the loading to drinking water supplies may be decreasing. However, in the interim, some water supply systems may need to consider improving their treatment capabilities in response to further regulatory review of this compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Radioactive sources and contaminated materials in scrap: monitoring, detection and remedial actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallini, R.; Berna, V.; Bonora, A.; Santini, M.

    1999-01-01

    The scrap recycling in steel and other metal mills represents one of the most relevant activities in the Province of Brescia (Lombardy, Italy). In our Province more than 20 million tonnes of metal scrap are recycled every year by a melting process. Since 1990, many accidents which took place were caused by the unwanted melting of radioactive sources, that were probably hidden in metal scrap. In 1993, the Italian Government stated directives to monitor metal scrap imported from non-EC countries because of the suspicion of the illegal traffic of radioactive materials. In 1996, a law imposed the control of all metal scrap, regardless of their origins. Since 1993, our staff have controlled thousands of railway wagons and trucks. Approximately a hundred steel mills and foundries of aluminium, cooper, brass, etc. have also been controlled and many samples have been collected (flue dust, slag, finished products). During these controls, contaminated areas have been brought to light in two warehouses (Cs 137), in 6 companies (Cs 137 and Am 241), in two landfills of industrial waste (Cs 137) and in a quarry (Cs 137). Up to now the contaminated areas have been cleaned, except for the last one. About 150 radioactive sources on contaminated materials have been found in metal scrap. We found radioactive sources of Co 60, Ra 226, Ir 192, Kr 85, Am 241, while the contamination of metals was mainly due to Ra 226. The situation described above justifies an accurate control of the amount of scrap to reduce the risk of contamination of the workers in the working areas, in the environment and in the general public. (author)

  13. Borehole Calibration Facilities to Support Gamma Logging for Hanford Subsurface Investigation and Contaminant Monitoring - 13516

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCain, R.G.; Henwood, P.D.; Pope, A.D.; Pearson, A.W.

    2013-01-01

    Repeated gamma logging in cased holes represents a cost-effective means to monitor gamma-emitting contamination in the deep vadose zone over time. Careful calibration and standardization of gamma log results are required to track changes and to compare results over time from different detectors and logging systems. This paper provides a summary description of Hanford facilities currently available for calibration of logging equipment. Ideally, all logging organizations conducting borehole gamma measurements at the Hanford Site will take advantage of these facilities to produce standardized and comparable results. (authors)

  14. Borehole Calibration Facilities to Support Gamma Logging for Hanford Subsurface Investigation and Contaminant Monitoring - 13516

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCain, R.G.; Henwood, P.D.; Pope, A.D.; Pearson, A.W. [S M Stoller Corporation, 2439 Robertson Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Repeated gamma logging in cased holes represents a cost-effective means to monitor gamma-emitting contamination in the deep vadose zone over time. Careful calibration and standardization of gamma log results are required to track changes and to compare results over time from different detectors and logging systems. This paper provides a summary description of Hanford facilities currently available for calibration of logging equipment. Ideally, all logging organizations conducting borehole gamma measurements at the Hanford Site will take advantage of these facilities to produce standardized and comparable results. (authors)

  15. Dose rate mapping and quantitative analysis of radioactive deposition with simple monitoring instruments in Finland after the Chernobyl accident.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivukoski, J. [Ministry of the Interior, Rescue Dept., Helsinki (Finland); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: janne.koivukoski@intermin.fi

    2013-03-01

    This article reviews the Finnish dose-rate mapping equipment and the system to process the obtained results, which were used immediately after the 1986 Chernobyl accident. We present the results of the external gamma-radiation monitoring carried out with simple civil-defence gamma monitoring instruments and compare them with the subsequent deposition mapping performed with research-grade instruments. The analysis shows that the quality of radiation mapping is good enough for decision makers to direct protective measures to the right areas. This review also demonstrates that a simple stationary external gamma radiation monitoring network can be effectively used for early warning in radiation emergency situations. (orig.)

  16. Detection and Monitoring of E-Waste Contamination through Remote Sensing and Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garb, Yaakov; Friedlander, Lonia

    2015-04-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of today's fastest growing waste streams, and also one of the more problematic, as this end-of-life product contains precious metals mixed with and embedded in a variety of low value and potentially harmful plastic and other materials. This combination creates a powerful incentive for informal value chains that transport, extract from, and dispose of e-waste materials in far-ranging and unregulated ways, and especially in settings where regulation and livelihood alternatives are sparse, most notably in areas of India, China, and Africa. E-waste processing is known to release a variety of contaminants, such as heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants, including flame retardants, dioxins and furans. In several sites, where the livelihoods of entire communities are dependent on e-waste processing, the resulting contaminants have been demonstrated to enter the hydrological system and food chain and have serious health and ecological effects. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time the usefulness of multi-spectral remote sensing imagery to detect and monitor the release and possibly the dispersal of heavy metal contaminants released in e-waste processing. While similar techniques have been used for prospecting or for studying heavy metal contamination from mining and large industrial facilities, we suggest that these techniques are of particular value in detecting contamination from the more dispersed, shifting, and ad-hoc kinds of release typical of e-waste processing. Given the increased resolution and decreased price of multi-spectral imagery, such techniques may offer a remarkably cost-effective and rapidly responsive means of assessing and monitoring this kind of contamination. We will describe the geochemical and multi-spectral image-processing principles underlying our approach, and show how we have applied these to an area in which we have a detailed, multi-temporal, spatially referenced, and ground

  17. Monitoring of airborne contamination during the handling of technetium-99m and radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eadie, A.S.; Horton, P.W.; Hilditch, T.E.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements have been made using an air sampler to measure airborne radioactivity produced during the routine handling of large activities of technetium-99m, iodine-125 and iodine-131. The results indicate that 99 Tcsup(m) can be safely handled in environments without direct exhaust of the ventilated air but that 125 I and 131 I should always be handled in a ventilated environment such as a fume cupboard or a down-draught work-station of the total-exhaust type. Monitoring of thyroid uptake proves to be the most reliable means of monitoring airborne contamination by these radionuclides, but burdens and radiation doses for typical procedures are well within the maximum permissible limits of the Code of Practice for the Protection of Persons from Ionizing Radiation arising from Medical and Dental Use. (author)

  18. Instrument surveillance and calibration verification through plant wide monitoring using autoassociative neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrest, D.J.; Hines, J.W.; Uhrig, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    The approach to instrument surveillance and calibration verification (ISCV) through plant wide monitoring proposed in this paper is an autoassociative neural network (AANN) which will utilize digitized data presently available in the Safety Parameter Display computer system from Florida Power Corporations Crystal River number 3 nuclear power plant. An autoassociative neural network is one in which the outputs are trained to emulate the inputs over an appropriate dynamic range. The relationships between the different variables are embedded in the weights by the training process. As a result, the output can be a correct version of an input pattern that has been distorted by noise, missing data, or non-linearities. Plant variables that have some degree of coherence with each other constitute the inputs to the network. Once the network has been trained with normal operational data it has been shown to successfully monitor the selected plant variables to detect sensor drift or failure by simply comparing the network inputs with the outputs. The AANN method of monitoring many variables not only indicates that there is a sensor failure, it clearly indicates the signal channel in which the signal error has occurred. (author). 11 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Instrument surveillance and calibration verification through plant wide monitoring using autoassociative neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrest, D J; Hines, J W; Uhrig, R E [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The approach to instrument surveillance and calibration verification (ISCV) through plant wide monitoring proposed in this paper is an autoassociative neural network (AANN) which will utilize digitized data presently available in the Safety Parameter Display computer system from Florida Power Corporations Crystal River number 3 nuclear power plant. An autoassociative neural network is one in which the outputs are trained to emulate the inputs over an appropriate dynamic range. The relationships between the different variables are embedded in the weights by the training process. As a result, the output can be a correct version of an input pattern that has been distorted by noise, missing data, or non-linearities. Plant variables that have some degree of coherence with each other constitute the inputs to the network. Once the network has been trained with normal operational data it has been shown to successfully monitor the selected plant variables to detect sensor drift or failure by simply comparing the network inputs with the outputs. The AANN method of monitoring many variables not only indicates that there is a sensor failure, it clearly indicates the signal channel in which the signal error has occurred. (author). 11 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs.

  20. Alpha contamination assessment for D ampersand D activities: Monitoring inside glove boxes and vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; Bolton, R.D.; Conaway, J.G.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-02-01

    We have developed a new approach to glove box monitoring that involves drawing air out of one glove port through a detection grid that collects ions created in the air inside the glove box by ionizing radiation, especially alpha radiation. The charge deposited on the detection grid by the ions is measured with a sensitive electrometer. The air can be circulated back to the glove box through the other glove port, preventing contamination from leaving the glove box and detector system. Initial experiments using a mock-up constructed of sheet metal indicate that this technology provides the measurement technique needed to perform a defensible, non-invasive measurement of alpha contamination inside glove boxes destined for waste disposal. This can result in an enormous cost savings if a given glove box can be shown to fall into the catagory of Low-Level Waste rather than Trans-Uranic Waste. Considering that hundreds of glove boxes contaminated with plutonium will be taken out of service at various nuclear facilities over the next few years, the potential cost savings associated with disposal as LLW rather than TRU waste are substantial

  1. On-Line Monitoring of Instrument Channel Performance: Volume 3: Applications to Nuclear Power Plant Technical Specification Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.; Rasmussen, B.

    2004-01-01

    This report is a guide for a technical specification change submittal and subsequent implementation of on-line monitoring for safety-related applications. This report is the third in a three-volume set. Volume 1, ''Guidelines for Model Development and Implementation'', presents the various tasks that must be completed to prepare models for and to implement an on-line monitoring system

  2. Present state of the monitoring for internal contamination at Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaishi, J.; Fukuda, H.; Mizushita, S.

    1980-01-01

    At Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI, over one thousand people work in hot areas such as reactors, accelerators, chemical laboratories and waste treatment plants. The monitoring for internal contamination of this personnel is presented. Routine and special monitoring are carried out. The object of the former is to check for the presence of significant contamination, and that of the latter is to estimate body burden and committed dose equivalent, if necessary. Heavy shield and shadow shield whole body counters, a low energy lung counter and a wound monitor are used to detect the internal contamination due to γ or chi ray emitters, and bioassay technique is used for α or β emitters and uranium. The results of the monitoring until now are presented. (H.K.)

  3. Status of contamination monitoring in radiation activities of National Atomic Energy Agency (NAEA) in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhariyono, Gatot [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1997-06-01

    National Atomic Energy Agency (NAEA) or Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional (BATAN) is a non departmental governmental agency, headed by a Director General who is directly responsible to the President. Center for Standardization and Radiation Safety Research (CSRSR) is one of the research centers within the deputy for the assessment of nuclear science and technology of the NAEA. The main task of the CSRSR is to implement research and development program, development and services in the field of radiation safety, standardization, dosimetry, radiation health as well as the application of nuclear techniques in medicine, according to the policy confirmed by the director general of BATAN. Task of radiation protection division is to set up programs and to develop radiation protection, personal monitoring system and radiation level of the working areas and their surroundings as well as dose limitation system, to carry out technical up grading of radiation protection officials skill and to help coping with radiation accident. The key factor on contamination monitoring is to reduce human error and mechanical failures. These problems can be achieved to the highest degree by developing knowledge and skill of staffs via trainings or courses on contamination and decontamination, so that they are hoped to become trained and qualified staffs. (G.K.)

  4. Geophysical Monitoring of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils Remediated with a Bioelectrochemical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Deqiang; Lu, Lu; Revil, André; Zuo, Yi; Hinton, John; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-08-02

    Efficient noninvasive techniques are desired for monitoring the remediation process of contaminated soils. We applied the direct current resistivity technique to image conductivity changes in sandbox experiments where two sandy and clayey soils were initially contaminated with diesel hydrocarbon. The experiments were conducted over a 230 day period. The removal of hydrocarbon was enhanced by a bioelectrochemical system (BES) and the electrical potentials of the BES reactors were also monitored during the course of the experiment. We found that the variation in electrical conductivity shown in the tomograms correlate well with diesel removal from the sandy soil, but this is not the case with the clayey soil. The clayey soil is characterized by a larger specific surface area and therefore a larger surface conductivity. In sandy soil, the removal of the diesel and products from degradation leads to an increase in electrical conductivity during the first 69 days. This is expected since diesel is electrically insulating. For both soils, the activity of BES reactors is moderately imaged by the inverted conductivity tomogram of the reactor. An increase in current production by electrochemically active bacteria activity corresponds to an increase in conductivity of the reactor.

  5. Evaluation of natural attenuation processes in the groundwater of a tar oil contaminated site: development of a monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borke, P.; Husers, N.; Werner, P.; Leibenath, C.

    2005-01-01

    Tar oil is a complex mixture of mainly aromatic hydrocarbons. It is found in the subsurface of manufactured gas plants (MGP), coking plants or wood preserving facilities. The transportation into the soil and groundwater stands for a severe contamination. This is due to the physico-chemical properties of the DNAPL (dense non aqueous phase liquid) and its mobility in the soil and aquifer system. Additionally most of the contaminants show a low biological degradability and solubility under in situ conditions. Therefore it is known as a long term source of contamination. Nevertheless, natural attenuation (NA) processes are detectable at tar oil contaminated sites. In the thematic network two of the German funding priority KORA (http://www.natural-attenuation.de) these processes are matter of investigation. Four typical contaminated sites were chosen to evaluate under which circumstances monitored natural attenuation (MNA) is applicable. Furthermore enhanced natural attenuation questions are examined. The design of monitoring networks at tar oil contaminated sites plays a significant role in gaining field evidence for natural attenuation as well as documenting the efficiency of the attenuation processes and evaluating the matching of performance goals. Well designed monitoring networks include the placement of monitoring wells in 3D so that 3D flow path, mass balances and an estimation of mass flux can be monitored. As an example the history of the monitoring network of a wood preserving facility is shown. Starting from a risk assessment network to a network for MNA is presented. In this case for example especially the determination of the groundwater flow direction in time and space is connected to the number of observation wells and their location. Moreover in the beginning the observation wells were located according to the assumed centerline of the plume. Because of the variability of the groundwater flow direction and the need to determine mass flux a control plane

  6. Evaluation of the RSG-GAS Alpha-Beta Aerosol Contaminant Monitor Performance Under Reactor Operation Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartoyo, Unggul; Setiawanto, Anto; Sumarno, Yulius

    2000-01-01

    Analysis to evaluate the RSG-GAS alpha-beta aerosol contaminant monitor performance was done. The high potential radiation working area such as in RSG-GAS is important to monitored for personal safety. Further it is necessary to assure that the system monitor is reliable enough under normal conditions as well as emergency condition. The method uses in this analysis are monitoring and comparing with the standard source. The standard course indicator and panel in main control room indicate that the result is 1 x 110 exp 9 Ci/m exp 3. Based on data monitor observation, the RSG-GAS alpha-beta aerosol contaminant monitor system under reactor operation condition has a good enough performance

  7. MUG-OBS - Multiparameter Geophysical Ocean Bottom System : a new instrumental approach to monitor earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    hello, yann; Charvis, Philippe; Yegikyan, Manuk; verfaillie, Romain; Rivet, Diane

    2016-04-01

    Real time monitoring of seismic activity is a major issue for early warning of earthquakes and tsunamis. It can be done using regional scale wired nodes, such as Neptune in Canada and in the U.S, or DONET in Japan. Another approach to monitor seismic activity at sea is to deploying repeatedly OBS array like during the amphibious Cascadia Initiative (four time 1-year deployments), the Japanese Pacific Array (broadband OBSs "ocean-bottom broadband dispersion survey" with 2-years autonomy), the Obsismer program in the French Lesser Antilles (eight time 6-months deployments) and the Osisec program in Ecuador (four time 6-months deployments). These autonomous OBSs are self-recovered or recovered using an ROV. These systems are costly including ship time, and require to recover the OBS before to start working on data. Among the most recent alternative we developed a 3/4 years autonomy ocean bottom system with 9 channels (?) allowing the acquisition of different seismic or environmental parameters. MUG-OBS is a free falling instrument rated down to 6000 m. The installation of the sensor is monitored by acoustic commands from the surface and a health bulletin with data checking is recovered by acoustic during the installation. The major innovation is that it is possible to recover the data any time on demand (regularly every 6-months or after a crisis) using one of the 6 data-shuttles released from the surface by acoustic command using a one day fast cruise boat of opportunity. Since sensors stayed at the same location for 3 years, it is a perfect tool to monitor large seismic events, background seismic activity and aftershock distribution. Clock, drift measurement and GPS localization is automatic when the shuttle reaches the surface. For remote areas, shuttles released automatically and a seismic events bulletin is transmitted. Selected data can be recovered by two-way Iridium satellite communication. After a period of 3 years the main station is self-recovered by

  8. Effects on instruments of the World Health Organization--recommended protocols for decontamination after possible exposure to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy-contaminated tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stanley A; Merritt, Katharine; Woods, Terry O; Busick, Deanna N

    2005-01-15

    It has been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that rigorous decontamination protocols be used on surgical instruments that have been exposed to tissue possibly contaminated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). This study was designed to examine the effects of these protocols on various types of surgical instruments. The most important conclusions are: (1) autoclaving in 1N NaOH will cause darkening of some instruments; (2) soaking in 1N NaOH at room temperature damages carbon steel but not stainless steel or titanium; (3) soaking in chlorine bleach will badly corrode gold-plated instruments and will damage some, but not all, stainless-steel instruments, especially welded and soldered joints. Damage became apparent after the first exposure and therefore long tests are not necessary to establish which instruments will be damaged. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Uveka: a UV exposure monitoring system using autonomous instruments network for Reunion Island citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sébastien, Nicolas; Cros, Sylvain; Lallemand, Caroline; Kurzrock, Frederik; Schmutz, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Reunion Island is a French oversea territory located in the Indian Ocean. This tropical Island has about 840,000 inhabitants and is visited every year by more than 400,000 tourists. On average, 340 sunny days occurs on this island in a whole year. Beyond these advantageous conditions, exposure of the population to ultraviolet radiation constitutes a public health issue. The number of hospitalisations for skin cancer increased by 50% between 2005 and 2010. Health insurance reimbursements due to ophthalmic anomalies caused by the sun is about two million Euros. Among the prevention measures recommended by public health policies, access to information on UV radiation is one of the basic needs. Reuniwatt, supported by the Regional Council of La Reunion, is currently developing the project Uveka. Uveka is a solution permitting to provide in real-time and in short-term forecast (several hours), the UV radiation maps of the Reunion Island. Accessible via web interface and smartphone application, Uveka informs the citizens about the UV exposure rate and its risk according to its individual characteristics (skin phototype, past exposure to sun etc.). The present work describes this initiative through the presentation of the UV radiation monitoring system and the data processing chain toward the end-users. The UV radiation monitoring system of Uveka is a network of low cost UV sensors. Each instrument is equipped with a solar panel and a battery. Moreover, the sensor is able to communicate using the 3G telecommunication network. Then, the instrument can be installed without AC power or access to a wired communication network. This feature eliminates a site selection constraint. Indeed, with more than 200 microclimates and a strong cloud cover spatial variability, building a representative measurement site network in this island with a limited number of instruments is a real challenge. In addition to these UV radiation measurements, the mapping of the surface solar radiation

  10. Review of regulatory requirements relevant to calibration of monitoring instruments in research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomaa, Hassan; Khedr, Ahmed; El-Din Talha, Kamal [Egyptian Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Safety Engineering Dept.

    2015-05-15

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate the regulatory requirements pertaining to calibration of monitoring instruments in research reactors. The regulatory statements concerning this subject in IAEA safety standards and the implementation of such regulations in twelve countries with different levels of nuclear programs are surveyed: Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, Egypt, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, United Kingdom of England and United States of America. In addition, the requirements of ISO/IEC17025 and NUPIC (Nuclear Utilities Procurement Issues Committee) are compared. Seven technical and administrate aspects are suggested as the comparison criteria and the explicit expression of the statements, the level of document (i.e.: act, requirement or guide) are the considered resources. The main differences and similarities between the different approaches are identified in order to provide an input for future development of the national regulations.

  11. Remote sensing optical instrumentation for enhanced space weather monitoring from the L1 and L5 Lagrange points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, S.; Puschmann, K. G.; Luntama, J. P.

    2017-09-01

    As part of the Space Situational Awareness Programme (SSA), ESA has initiated the assessment of two missions currently foreseen to be implemented to enable enhanced space weather monitoring. These missions utilize the positioning of satellites at the Lagrangian L1 and L5 points. These Phase 0 or Pre-Phase A mission studies are about to be completed and will thereby have soon passed the Mission Definition Review. Phase A studies are planned to start in 2017. The space weather monitoring system currently considers four remote sensing optical instruments and several in-situ instruments to analyse the Sun and the solar wind conditions, in order to provide early warnings of increased solar activity and to identify and mitigate potential threats to society and ground, airborne and space based infrastructure. The suggested optical instruments take heritage from ESA and NASA science missions like SOHO, STEREO and Solar Orbiter, but the instruments are foreseen to be optimized for operational space weather monitoring purposes with high reliability and robustness demands. The instruments are required to provide high quality measurements particularly during severe space weather events. The program intends to utilize the results of the on-going ESA instrument prototyping and technology development activities, and to initiate pre-developments of the operational space weather instruments to ensure the required maturity before the mission implementation.

  12. Scanning personnel for internal deposition of radioactive material with personnel contamination whole body friskers and portal monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobdell, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The potential for using personnel contamination devices such as whole body friskers and portal monitors for internal contamination monitoring was evaluated. Internally deposited radioactive material is typically determined with whole body counting systems. Whole body counts have traditionally been performed on personnel when they report for work, on a periodic basis (i.e., annually), when an uptake is suspected, and on termination. These counts incur significant expense. The monitored personnel pass through whole body friskers and portal monitors daily. This investigation was performed to determine if the external contamination monitors could provide an alternative to the more Costly whole body counting. The ability to detect 1% of a DAC for critical radioisotopes was applied as a detection criteria for this investigation. The results of whole body counts were used to identify the typical internal contamination radionuclides. From this list, the radioisotopes that would be the most difficult to measure were identified. From this review, 60 Co and 131 I were determined to be the critical radionuclides. One percent of a DAC for each isotope was placed, one at a time, in a humanoid phantom. The phantom was placed in the whole body frisker and open-quotes countedclose quotes. The phantom was carried through the portal monitor at a speed equivalent to a person walking through the monitor. Frequency of detection was derived for both systems. Practical aspects of integrating this screening system with traditional internal dosimetry programs are discussed

  13. Development of a monitoring instrument to assess the performance of the Swiss primary care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Sonja T; Pittet, Valérie; Cornuz, Jacques; Senn, Nicolas

    2017-11-29

    The Swiss health system is customer-driven with fee-for-service paiement scheme and universal coverage. It is highly performing but expensive and health information systems are scarcely implemented. The Swiss Primary Care Active Monitoring (SPAM) program aims to develop an instrument able to describe the performance and effectiveness of the Swiss PC system. Based on a Literature review we developed a conceptual framework and selected indicators according to their ability to reflect the Swiss PC system. A two round modified RAND method with 24 inter-/national experts took place to select primary/secondary indicators (validity, clarity, agreement). A limited set of priority indicators was selected (importance, priority) in a third round. A conceptual framework covering three domains (structure, process, outcome) subdivided into twelve sections (funding, access, organisation/ workflow of resources, (Para-)Medical training, management of knowledge, clinical-/interpersonal care, health status, satisfaction of PC providers/ consumers, equity) was generated. 365 indicators were pre-selected and 335 were finally retained. 56 were kept as priority indicators.- Among the remaining, 199 were identified as primary and 80 as secondary indicators. All domains and sections are represented. The development of the SPAM program allowed the construction of a consensual instrument in a traditionally unregulated health system through a modified RAND method. The selected 56 priority indicators render the SPAM instrument a comprehensive tool supporting a better understanding of the Swiss PC system's performance and effectiveness as well as in identifying potential ways to improve quality of care. Further challenges will be to update indicators regularly and to assess validity and sensitivity-to-change over time.

  14. Micro-controller based air pressure monitoring instrumentation system using optical fibers as sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, D.; Pegu, D. S.

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes a micro-controller based instrumentation system to monitor air pressure using optical fiber sensors. The principle of macrobending is used to develop the sensor system. The instrumentation system consists of a laser source, a beam splitter, two multi mode optical fibers, two Light Dependent Resistance (LDR) based timer circuits and a AT89S8252 micro-controller. The beam splitter is used to divide the laser beam into two parts and then these two beams are launched into two multi mode fibers. One of the multi mode fibers is used as the sensor fiber and the other one is used as the reference fiber. The use of the reference fiber is to eliminate the environmental effects while measuring the air pressure magnitude. The laser beams from the sensor and reference fibers are applied to two identical LDR based timer circuits. The LDR based timer circuits are interfaced to a micro-controller through its counter pins. The micro-controller samples the frequencies of the timer circuits using its counter-0 and counter-1 and the counter values are then processed to provide the measure of air pressure magnitude.

  15. Caresoil: A multidisciplinar Project to characterize, remediate, monitor and evaluate the risk of contaminated soils in Madrid (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Martín, Alfonso; Antón, Loreto; Granja, Jose Luis; Villarroya, Fermín; Montero, Esperanza; Rodríguez, Vanesa

    2016-04-01

    Soil contamination can come from diffuse sources (air deposition, agriculture, etc.) or local sources, these last being related to anthropogenic activities that are potentially soil contaminating activities. According to data from the EU, in Spain, and particularly for the Autonomous Community of Madrid, it can be considered that heavy metals, toxic organic compounds (including Non Aqueous Phases Liquids, NAPLs) and combinations of both are the main problem of point sources of soil contamination in our community. The five aspects that will be applied in Caresoil Program (S2013/MAE-2739) in the analysis and remediation of a local soil contamination are: 1) the location of the source of contamination and characterization of soil and aquifer concerned, 2) evaluation of the dispersion of the plume, 3) application of effective remediation techniques, 4) monitoring the evolution of the contaminated soil and 5) risk analysis throughout this process. These aspects involve advanced technologies (hydrogeology, geophysics, geochemistry,...) that require new developing of knowledge, being necessary the contribution of several researching groups specialized in the fields previously cited, as they are those integrating CARESOIL Program. Actually two cases concerning hydrocarbon spills, as representative examples of soil local contamination in Madrid area, are being studied. The first is being remediated and we are monitoring this process to evaluate its effectiveness. In the second location we are defining the extent of contamination in soil and aquifer to define the most effective remediation technique.

  16. ON-Line Monitoring of Instrument Channel Performance: Volume 3: Applications to Nuclear Power Plant Technical Specification Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E Davis, B Rasmussen

    2004-12-31

    This report is a guide for a technical specification change submittal and subsequent implementation of on-line monitoring for safety-related applications. This report is the third in a three-volume set. Volume 1, ''Guidelines for Model Development and Implementation'', presents the various tasks that must be completed to prepare models for and to implement an on-line monitoring system.

  17. The Hamburg polonium-210 case. Monitoring of internal contaminations in a malevolent act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalheimer, A.; Koenig, K.; Nosske, D.; Schaefer, I.

    2009-01-01

    The dead of Alexander Litvinenko in London in the late 2006 was linked with the visit of Dimitri Kovtun. So an investigation was started by the Hamburg Police. As the presence of polonium-210 was uncertain, the action was supported by the Federal Defense against Nuclear Hazards (NGA) of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). Radiation measurements in some flats in Hamburg confirmed the suspicion of polonium-210 contaminations. As incorporations by ingestion or inhalation could not generally be excluded, the Coordinating Office on Incorporation Monitoring of the BfS (Leitstelle Inkorporationsueberwachung des BfS) was requested to clarify this issue. The BfS office then coordinated the required bioassay analyses of urine samples carried out at four officially appointed in-vitro laboratories for incorporation monitoring. The group of people to be examined included the members of the family involved living in the contaminated flats, the emergency forces, as well as potentially exposed members of the public. The calculation of the internal dose was based on standard assumptions and also conducted by the BfS. The internal radiation doses proved to be within the range of radiation doses due to natural exposures. Retrospectively it should be stressed that the collaboration and cooperation of all institutions involved in the operation in Hamburg was extremely good despite their differing organisational structures. As a result of the incident in Hamburg various middle and long-term measures have been taken since then by the BfS Coordinating Office on Incorporation Monitoring. (orig.)

  18. Monitoring of Urban Soil Contamination under Various Technogenic Impact: Comparison of the Two Seaside Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnychenko, Mykola; Krivitska, Ivetta; Hladkikh, Yevgenia

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the research was to show how the environmental policy of city can affect the quality of soils. Studies were carried out simultaneously in the two cities of Ukrainian coast of the Azov Sea, which are significantly different in terms of technogenic impact. Berdyansk is a well known resort and wellness center, but until recently around 30 petrochemical, machine-building and other enterprises were located there. The largest industrial center Mariupol, where emissions from enterprises to the atmosphere exceed 300 thousand tons per year, is located about 60 km from Berdyansk in similar natural conditions. Observations of soil contamination was performed on 60 monitoring sites not less than 2500 m2, located in industrial, administrative, cultural, residential and recreational zones of each city. The time series of observations: the first stage in 2002-2003, the second in 2007-2008, third in 2012-2014. The available forms of heavy metals in the soils were determined by atomic-absorption method after extraction of buffer solution with pH 4.8 as well as 1 N HCl. The content of mineral salts in a water extract was measured titrimetrically. The content of heavy metals in grass vegetation and phytotoxicity of soil was determined in 50% of monitoring sites. Since 2002-2003, the level of soil contamination in the industrial zones of Berdyansk gradually decreased, but heavy metals began accumulate in soils of residential, cultural and administrative areas, and especially, in recreation objects. Probably, this is related to the reduction of the industrial sector and the increase of resort and tourist business. Consequently, the content of cadmium, chromium, and nickel in soils is reduced, but the content of micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Mn) increases. Currently the contamination of plants becomes less so the quality of local agricultural products is improved. In contrast to this, due to the intensive activity of the enterprises of iron and steel industry in Mariupol the level

  19. Methodology for bioremediation monitoring of oil wastes contaminated soils by using vegetal bio indicators; Metodologia para monitoramento de biorremediacao de solos contaminados com residuos oleosos com bioindicadores vegetais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento Neto, Durval; Carvalho, Francisco Jose Pereira de Campos [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia do Solo]. E-mail: fjcampos@cce.ufpr.br

    1998-07-01

    This work studies the development of a methodology for the evaluation of the bioremediation status of oil waste contaminated soils, by using vegetal bioindicators for the bioremediation process monitoring, and evaluation of the environmental impacts on the contaminated areas.

  20. Evaluation of targeted and untargeted effects-based monitoring tools to assess impacts of contaminants of emerging concern on fish in the South Platte River, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers in the arid Western United States face increasing influences from anthropogenic contaminants due to population growth, urbanization, and drought. To better understand and more effectively track the impacts of these contaminants, biologically-based monitoring tools are incr...

  1. Postrelease monitoring of radio-instrumented sea otters in Prince William Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnett, C.; Rotterman, L.M.; Stack, C.; Monson, Daniel H.; Bayha, Keith; Kormendy, Jennifer

    1990-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that were captured in western Prince William Sound (PWS) or the Gulf of Alaska, treated, and held in captivity at the temporary rehabilitation centers established in response to the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill were instrumented with radio transmitters, released into eastern PWS, and monitored by radiotelemetry. We undertook the present study to gain information for guiding the release of the remaining captive otters and evaluating the efficacy of sea otter rehabilitation after exposure to crude oil. Radio transmitters were attached to the flippers of seven sea otters released in May 1989 and monitored for periods of a few hours to more than 60 days. However, little was learned about the fate of these animals because the radio transmitters used proved unreliable. Forty-five additional sea otters from the rehabilitation centers were implanted with radio transmitters, released into northeastern PWS and monitored for 8 months. During the first 20 days after the first release of these implanted otters (n = 21), they were more mobile than wild-caught and released sea otters studied in PWS, from 1984 through 1990. All were alive and vigorous at the end of the 20-day period. Tracking of all 45 implanted sea otters during the 8-month period showed that the otters remained highly mobile. Many (46.6%) crossed into western PWS. However, by the end of the 8 months, 12 of the instrumented otters were dead and 9 were missing. One radio failed. These mortality and missing rates are much higher than those normally observed for adult sea otters in PWS. The death rate was highest in winter. These data suggest that, despite the tremendous amount of money and energy directed toward the treatment and care of these animals, the sea otters released from the centers were not completely rehabilitated, that is, not returned to a normal state. We recommend that future policies focus on preventing otters from becoming oiled, rather than attempting to treat them

  2. Microseismic Monitoring Using Sparse Surface Network of Broadband Instruments: Western Canada Shale Play Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenier, E.; Baturan, D.; Karimi, S.

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring of seismicity related to oil and gas operations is routinely performed nowadays using a number of different surface and downhole seismic array configurations and technologies. Here, we provide a hydraulic fracture (HF) monitoring case study that compares the data set generated by a sparse local surface network of broadband seismometers to a data set generated by a single downhole geophone string. Our data was collected during a 5-day single-well HF operation, by a temporary surface network consisting of 10 stations deployed within 5 km of the production well. The downhole data was recorded by a 20 geophone string deployed in an observation well located 15 m from the production well. Surface network data processing included standard STA/LTA event triggering enhanced by template-matching subspace detection, grid search locations which was improved using the double-differencing re-location technique, as well as Richter (ML) and moment (Mw) magnitude computations for all detected events. In addition, moment tensors were computed from first motion polarities and amplitudes for the subset of highest SNR events. The resulting surface event catalog shows a very weak spatio-temporal correlation to HF operations with only 43% of recorded seismicity occurring during HF stages times. This along with source mechanisms shows that the surface-recorded seismicity delineates the activation of several pre-existing structures striking NNE-SSW and consistent with regional stress conditions as indicated by the orientation of SHmax. Comparison of the sparse-surface and single downhole string datasets allows us to perform a cost-benefit analysis of the two monitoring methods. Our findings show that although the downhole array recorded ten times as many events, the surface network provides a more coherent delineation of the underlying structure and more accurate magnitudes for larger magnitude events. We attribute this to the enhanced focal coverage provided by the surface

  3. Optimization of internal contamination monitoring programmes by studying uncertainties linked to dosimetric assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davesne, Estelle

    2010-01-01

    To optimise the protection of workers against ionizing radiations, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends the use of dose constraint and limits. To verify the compliance of the means of protection with these values when a risk of internal contamination exists, monitoring programmes formed of periodic bioassay measurements are performed. However, uncertainty in the dose evaluation arises from the variability of the activity measurement and from the incomplete knowledge of the exposure conditions. This uncertainty was taken into account by means of classical, Bayesian and possibilist statistics. The developed methodology was applied to the evaluation of the potential exposure during nuclear fuel preparation or mining; and to the analysis of the monitoring programme of workers purifying plutonium in AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant. From the measurement decision threshold, the minimum dose detectable (MDD) by the programme with a given confidence level can be calculated through the software OPSCI. It is shown to be a useful support in the optimisation of monitoring programmes when seeking a compromise between their sensitivity and their costs. (author)

  4. Evaluating Leaf and Canopy Reflectance of Stressed Rice Plants to Monitor Arsenic Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varaprasad Bandaru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination is a serious problem in rice cultivated soils of many developing countries. Hence, it is critical to monitor and control arsenic uptake in rice plants to avoid adverse effects on human health. This study evaluated the feasibility of using reflectance spectroscopy to monitor arsenic in rice plants. Four arsenic levels were induced in hydroponically grown rice plants with application of 0, 5, 10 and 20 µmol·L−1 sodium arsenate. Reflectance spectra of upper fully expanded leaves were acquired over visible and infrared (NIR wavelengths. Additionally, canopy reflectance for the four arsenic levels was simulated using SAIL (Scattering by Arbitrarily Inclined Leaves model for various soil moisture conditions and leaf area indices (LAI. Further, sensitivity of various vegetative indices (VIs to arsenic levels was assessed. Results suggest that plants accumulate high arsenic amounts causing plant stress and changes in reflectance characteristics. All leaf spectra based VIs related strongly with arsenic with coefficient of determination (r2 greater than 0.6 while at canopy scale, background reflectance and LAI confounded with spectral signals of arsenic affecting the VIs’ performance. Among studied VIs, combined index, transformed chlorophyll absorption reflectance index (TCARI/optimized soil adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI exhibited higher sensitivity to arsenic levels and better resistance to soil backgrounds and LAI followed by red edge based VIs (modified chlorophyll absorption reflectance index (MCARI and TCARI suggesting that these VIs could prove to be valuable aids for monitoring arsenic in rice fields.

  5. Program of individual monitoring of the internal contamination and their implementation in the Republic the Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Bejerano, Gladys M.; Capote Ferrera, Eduardo; Fernandez Gomez, Isis M.; Acosta Rodriguez, Nancy; Carrazana Gonzalez, Jorge A.; Cruz Suarez, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In different Cuban institutions linked fundamentally to the medical practice of nuclear medicine and the investigations, it is worked with sources open of ionizing radiations, that which makes indispensable the existence of a system of radiological surveillance that includes the control radiological individual of the received doses as a result of the occupational, such exhibition that is guaranteed that the exhibition of the Hard-working Exposed Occupationally, stay inside the recommended limits, in the International Basic Norms of Protection against the Ionizing radiations and safe-deposit of the Sources of Radiation (NBIS) and in turn adopted in the Norma Cuban. From the year 1986 in the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations is carried out in way centralized this control; but with the inconvenience of not being able to carry out the same one to workers from the domestic interior when not being feasible the transfer of these toward its headquarters, reason why the doses were ignored received in an important number of these. In and of itself the Laboratory of Internal Contamination of this institution in these years has developed managed works to define firstly, for each institution, the program of monitoring of the internal contamination of its workers using for it the methodology recommended by the OIEA where the potential doses are evaluated that for incorporation these they receive and whose results suggested the introduction of a program of individual monitoring as behavior to continue in most of the institutions. In correspondence with it was designed and established a program that included the study of feasibility of the existent equipment in the institutions to carry out the monitoring of the internal contamination using technical of measuring in vivo and in vitro, as it corresponds, their calibration, the establishment of procedures that respond to the requirements of a System of Quality for the Norma ISO/IEC 17025 and

  6. Monitored Natural Attenuation of ino9rganic Contaminants Treatability Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crapse, K

    2004-05-19

    The identification and quantification of key natural attenuation processes for inorganic contaminants at D-Area is detailed herein. Two overarching goals of this evaluation of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remediation strategy were (1) to better define the availability of inorganic contaminants as potential sources for transport to groundwater and uptake by environmental receptors and (2) to understand the site-specific mechanisms controlling attenuation of these inorganic contaminants through tandem geochemical and biological characterization. Data collected in this study provides input for more appropriate site groundwater transport models. Significant natural attenuation is occurring at D-Area as evidenced by relatively low aqueous concentrations of constituents of concern (COCs) (Be, Ni, U, and As) at all locations characterized and the decrease in groundwater concentrations with increasing distance from the source. The observed magnitude of decrease in groundwater concentrations of COCs with distance from the D-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basin (DCPRB) could not be accounted for by the modeled physical attenuation processes of dilution/dispersion. This additional attenuation, i.e., the observed difference between the groundwater concentrations of COCs and the modeled physical attenuation, is due to biogeochemical processes occurring at the D-Area. In tandem geochemical and microbiological characterization studies designed to evaluate the mechanisms contributing to natural attenuation, pH was the single parameter found to be most predictive of contaminant attenuation. The increasing pH with distance from the source is likely responsible for increased sorption of COCs to soil surfaces within the aquifer at D-Area. Importantly, because the sediments appear to have a high buffering capacity, the acid emanating from the DCPRB has been neutralized by the soil, and these conditions have led to large Kd values at the site. Two major types of soils are present at

  7. Sensitive Multi-Species Emissions Monitoring: Infrared Laser-Based Detection of Trace-Level Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steill, Jeffrey D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Huang, Haifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hoops, Alexandra A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Patterson, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Birtola, Salvatore R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Jaska, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Strecker, Kevin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Chandler, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bisson, Soott [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes our development of spectroscopic chemical analysis techniques and spectral modeling for trace-gas measurements of highly-regulated low-concentration species present in flue gas emissions from utility coal boilers such as HCl under conditions of high humidity. Detailed spectral modeling of the spectroscopy of HCl and other important combustion and atmospheric species such as H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 O, NO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 demonstrates that IR-laser spectroscopy is a sensitive multi-component analysis strategy. Experimental measurements from techniques based on IR laser spectroscopy are presented that demonstrate sub-ppm sensitivity levels to these species. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify HCl at ppm levels with extremely high signal-to-noise even under conditions of high relative humidity. Additionally, cavity ring-down IR spectroscopy is used to achieve an extremely high sensitivity to combustion trace gases in this spectral region; ppm level CH 4 is one demonstrated example. The importance of spectral resolution in the sensitivity of a trace-gas measurement is examined by spectral modeling in the mid- and near-IR, and efforts to improve measurement resolution through novel instrument development are described. While previous project reports focused on benefits and complexities of the dual-etalon cavity ring-down infrared spectrometer, here details on steps taken to implement this unique and potentially revolutionary instrument are described. This report also illustrates and critiques the general strategy of IR- laser photodetection of trace gases leading to the conclusion that mid-IR laser spectroscopy techniques provide a promising basis for further instrument development and implementation that will enable cost-effective sensitive detection of multiple key contaminant species simultaneously.

  8. An alarm instrument for monitoring leakage of oil storage tanks and the location of their leak position using radioisotope tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Qingqian; Sun Xiaolei; Hu Xusheng

    1990-01-01

    Usually it is difficult to find out gasoline leakage at the bottom of a storage tank from the very beginning. In order to solve this problem, a leak-monitoring technique and an instrument based on the detection of nuclear radiation have been successfully developed. The instrument possesses high sensitivity, short reaction time, excellent stability and rellability. When very small leaks at the bottom of a tank appear, the instrument will show a leak signal and give an alarm. In the meantime, however, the tank can be still used until the preparations for repairing are completed. Then its leak position can be accurately located by using radioisotope tracers

  9. Comparison of two freshwater turtle species as monitors of radionuclide and chemical contamination: DNA damage and residue analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers-Schoene, L.; Shugart, L.R.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Walton, B.T.

    1993-01-01

    Two species of turtles that occupy different ecological niches were compared for their usefulness as monitors of freshwater ecosystems where both low-level radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants are present. The pond slider (Trachemys scripta) and common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) were analyzed for the presence of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co, and Hg, radionuclides and chemicals known to be present at the contaminated site, and single-strand breaks in liver DNA. The integrity of the DNA was examined by the alkaline unwinding assay, a technique that detects strand breaks as a biological marker of possible exposure to genotoxic agents. This measure of DNA damage was significantly increased in both species of turtles at the contaminated site compared with turtles of the same species at a reference site, and shows that contaminant-exposed populations were under more severe genotoxic stress than those at the reference site. The level of strand breaks observed at the contaminated site was high and in the range reported for other aquatic species exposed to deleterious concentrations of genotoxic agents such as chemicals and ionizing radiation. Statistically significantly higher concentrations of radionuclides and Hg were detected in the turtles from the contaminated area. Mercury concentrations were significantly higher in the more carnivorous snapping turtle compared with the slider; however, both species were effective monitors of the contaminants

  10. Radiological Monitoring Equipment For Real-Time Quantification Of Area Contamination In Soils And Facility Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. V. Carpenter; Jay A. Roach; John R Giles; Lyle G. Roybal

    2005-01-01

    The environmental restoration industry offers several systems that perform scan-type characterization of radiologically contaminated areas. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed and deployed a suite of field systems that rapidly scan, characterize, and analyze radiological contamination in surface soils. The base system consists of a detector, such as sodium iodide (NaI) spectrometers, a global positioning system (GPS), and an integrated user-friendly computer interface. This mobile concept was initially developed to provide precertification analyses of soils contaminated with uranium, thorium, and radium at the Fernald Closure Project, near Cincinnati, Ohio. INL has expanded the functionality of this basic system to create a suite of integrated field-deployable analytical systems. Using its engineering and radiation measurement expertise, aided by computer hardware and software support, INL has streamlined the data acquisition and analysis process to provide real-time information presented on wireless screens and in the form of coverage maps immediately available to field technicians. In addition, custom software offers a user-friendly interface with user-selectable alarm levels and automated data quality monitoring functions that validate the data. This system is deployed from various platforms, depending on the nature of the survey. The deployment platforms include a small all-terrain vehicle used to survey large, relatively flat areas, a hand-pushed unit for areas where maneuverability is important, an excavator-mounted system used to scan pits and trenches where personnel access is restricted, and backpack- mounted systems to survey rocky shoreline features and other physical settings that preclude vehicle-based deployment. Variants of the base system include sealed proportional counters for measuring actinides (i.e., plutonium-238 and americium-241) in building demolitions, soil areas, roadbeds, and process line routes at the Miamisburg Closure

  11. Application of GIS technologies to monitor secondary radioactive contamination in the Delegen mountain massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipbeki, O.; Kabzhanova, G.; Kurmanova, G.; Alipbekova, Ch.

    2016-06-01

    The territory of the Degelen mountain massif is located within territory of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and it is an area of ecological disaster. Currently there is a process of secondary radioactive contamination that is caused by geodynamic processes activated at the Degelen array, violation of underground hydrological cycles and as a consequence, water seepage into the tunnels. One of the methods of monitoring of geodynamic processes is the modern technology of geographic information systems (GIS), methods of satellite radar interferometry and high accuracy satellite navigation system in conjunction with radioecological methods. This paper discusses on the creation of a GIS-project for the Degelen array, facilitated by quality geospatial analysis of the situation and simulation of the phenomena, in order to maximize an objective assessment of the radiation situation in this protected area.

  12. Monitoring of radioactive contamination in food and the environment 1986-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liland, Astrid; Skuterud, Lavrans; Bergan, Tone; Forseth, Torbjoern; Gaare, Eldar; Hellstroem, Turid

    2001-01-01

    The results from the national monitoring of radioactive contamination in food and the environment 1986-1998 are presented. The average 137Cs concentration is decreasing in cow's and goat's milk, sheep, reindeer and fresh water fish. Pasture and fungi are, on the contrary, not showing a general decreasing trend. The radioactivity in food and humans has been decreasing since 1987. The effective dose from intake is estimated to 0.02 mSv for an average Norwegian in 1998. Vulnerable groups may have received doses up to 0.4 mSv. One cannot rule out the possibility that some individuals in these groups have received doses superior to 1 mSv/year. (Author)

  13. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels: FY2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Campbell, Scott A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is conducting a field assessment of the potential for contaminated soil to be transported from the Smoky Site Contamination Area (CA) as a result of storm runoff. This activity supports U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Nevada Program (EM-NV) efforts to establish post-closure monitoring plans for the Smoky Site Soils Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550. The work is intended to confirm the likely mechanism of transport and determine the meteorological conditions that might cause the movement of contaminated soils, as well as determine the particle size fraction that is most closely associated with transported radionuclide-contaminated soils. These data will facilitate the design of the appropriate post-closure monitoring program. In 2011, DRI installed a meteorological monitoring station on the west side of the Smoky Site CA and a hydrologic (runoff) monitoring station within the CA, near the east side. Air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, precipitation, solar radiation, barometric pressure, soil temperature, and soil water content are collected at the meteorological station. The maximum, minimum, and average or total values (as appropriate) for each of these parameters are recorded for each 10-minute interval. The maximum, minimum, and average water depth in the flume installed at the hydrology station are also recorded for every 10-minute interval. This report presents data collected from these stations during fiscal year (FY) 2017. During the FY2017 reporting period, the warmest months were June, July, and August and the coldest were December and January. Solar radiation showed the same seasonal trend, although the months with the most solar radiation were May and June. Monthly mean wind speeds were highest in the spring (April and May). Winds were generally from the southwest during the summer and from the northwest throughout the remainder of the year. The monthly average

  14. Monitoring of metallic contaminants in energy drinks using ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Serpil; Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Kilic, Murat

    2018-03-09

    In this study, an improved method was validated for the determination of some metallic contaminants (arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), Mn, and antimony (Sb)) in energy drinks using inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The validation procedure was applied for the evaluation of linearity, repeatability, recovery, limit of detection, and quantification. In addition, to verify the trueness of the method, it was participated in an interlaboratory proficiency test for heavy metals in soft drink organized by the LGC (Laboratory of the Government Chemist) Standard. Validated method was used to monitor for the determination of metallic contaminants in commercial energy drink samples. Concentrations of As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Fe, Ni, Cu, Mn, and Sb in the samples were found in the ranges of 0.76-6.73, 13.25-100.96, 0.16-2.11, 9.33-28.96, 334.77-937.12, 35.98-303.97, 23.67-60.48, 5.45-489.93, and 0.01-0.42 μg L -1 , respectively. The results were compared with the provisional guideline or parametric values of the elements for drinking waters set by the WHO (World Health Organization) and EC (European Commission). As, Cd, Cu, and Sb did not exceed the WHO and EC provisional guideline or parametric values. However, the other elements (Cr, Pb, Fe, Ni, and Mn) were found to be higher than their relevant limits at various levels.

  15. Monitoring psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria contamination in a ready-to-eat vegetable salad production environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothakos, Vasileios; Snauwaert, Cindy; De Vos, Paul; Huys, Geert; Devlieghere, Frank

    2014-08-18

    A study monitoring lactic acid bacteria contamination was conducted in a company producing fresh, minimally processed, packaged and ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable salads (stored at 4°C) in order to investigate the reason for high psychrotrophic LAB levels in the products at the end of shelf-life. Initially, high microbial counts exceeding the established psychrotrophic thresholds (>10(7)-10(8)CFU/g) and spoilage manifestations before the end of the shelf-life (7days) occurred in products containing an assortment of sliced and diced vegetables, but within a one year period these spoilage defects became prevalent in the entire processing plant. Environmental sampling and microbiological analyses of the raw materials and final products throughout the manufacturing process highlighted the presence of high numbers of Leuconostoc spp. in halved and unseeded, fresh sweet bell peppers provided by the supplier. A combination of two DNA fingerprinting techniques facilitated the assessment of the species diversity of LAB present in the processing environment along with the critical point of their introduction in the production facility. Probably through air mediation and surface adhesion, mainly members of the strictly psychrotrophic species Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum and L. gelidum subsp. gelidum were responsible for the cross-contamination of every vegetable handled within the plant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inspection and monitoring plan, contaminated groundwater seeps 317/319/ENE Area, Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    During the course of completing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) in the 317/319/East-Northeast (ENE) Area of Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E), groundwater was discovered moving to the surface through a series of groundwater seeps. The seeps are located in a ravine approximately 600 ft south of the ANL-E fence line in Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve. Samples of the seep water were collected and analyzed for selected parameters. Two of the five seeps sampled were found to contain detectable levels of organic contaminants. Three chemical species were identified: chloroform (14--25 microg/L), carbon tetrachloride (56--340 microg/L), and tetrachloroethylene (3--6 microg/L). The other seeps did not contain detectable levels of volatile organics. The nature of the contaminants in the seeps will also be monitored on a regular basis. Samples of surface water flowing through the bottom of the ravine and groundwater emanating from the seeps will be collected and analyzed for chemical and radioactive constituents. The results of the routine sampling will be compared with the concentrations used in the risk assessment. If the concentrations exceed those used in the risk assessment, the risk calculations will be revised by using the higher numbers. This revised analysis will determine if additional actions are warranted

  17. Global styrene oligomers monitoring as new chemical contamination from polystyrene plastic marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Bum Gun; Koizumi, Koshiro; Chung, Seon-Yong; Kodera, Yoichi; Kim, Jong-Oh; Saido, Katsuhiko

    2015-12-30

    Polystyrene (PS) plastic marine pollution is an environmental concern. However, a reliable and objective assessment of the scope of this problem, which can lead to persistent organic contaminants, has yet to be performed. Here, we show that anthropogenic styrene oligomers (SOs), a possible indicator of PS pollution in the ocean, are found globally at concentrations that are higher than those expected based on the stability of PS. SOs appear to persist to varying degrees in the seawater and sand samples collected from beaches around the world. The most persistent forms are styrene monomer, styrene dimer, and styrene trimer. Sand samples from beaches, which are commonly recreation sites, are particularly polluted with these high SOs concentrations. This finding is of interest from both scientific and public perspectives because SOs may pose potential long-term risks to the environment in combination with other endocrine disrupting chemicals. From SOs monitoring results, this study proposes a flow diagram for SOs leaching from PS cycle. Using this flow diagram, we conclude that SOs are global contaminants in sandy beaches around the world due to their broad spatial distribution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. AE monitoring instrumentation for high performance superconducting dipoles and quadrupoles, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Y.

    1986-01-01

    In the past year and a half, attention has been focused on the development of instrumentation for on-line monitoring of high-performance superconducting dipoles and quadrupoles. This instrumentation has been completed and satisfactorily demonstrated on a prototype Fermi dipole. Conductor motion is the principal source of acoustic emission (AE) and the major cause of quenches in the dipole, except during the virgin run when other sources are also present. The motion events are mostly microslips. The middle of the magnet is most susceptible to quenches. This result agrees with the peak field location in the magnet. In the virgin state the top and bottom of the magnet appeared acoustically similar but diverged after training, possibly due to minute structural asymmetry, for example differences in clamping and welding strength; however, the results do not indicate any major structural defects. There is good correlation between quench current and AE starting current. The correlation is reasonable if mechanical disturbances are indeed responsible for quench. Based on AE cumulative history, the average frictional power dissipation in the whole dipole winding is estimated to be approx. 10 (MU)W cm(-3). We expect to implement the following in the next phase of this project: Application of room-temperature techniques to detecting structural defects in the dipole; application of the system to other dipoles and quadrupoles in the same series to compare their performances; and further investigation of AE starting current approx. quench current relationship. Work has begun on the room temperature measurements. Preliminary Stress Wave Factor measurements have been made on a model dipole casing.

  19. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Yoshiro

    1997-01-01

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; 1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); 2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, '86), and 3) in european countries (to may 31, '86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; 4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (( 134 Cs + 137 Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, 5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; 6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; 7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export's country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  20. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Yoshiro [Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; (1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); (2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, `86), and (3) in european countries (to may 31, `86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; (4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (({sup 134}Cs + {sup 137}Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, (5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; (6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; (7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export`s country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  1. High Temperature Logging and Monitoring Instruments to Explore and Drill Deep into Hot Oceanic Crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denchik, N.; Pezard, P. A.; Ragnar, A.; Jean-Luc, D.; Jan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Drilling an entire section of the oceanic crust and through the Moho has been a goal of the scientific community for more than half of a century. On the basis of ODP and IODP experience and data, this will require instruments and strategies working at temperature far above 200°C (reached, for example, at the bottom of DSDP/ODP Hole 504B), and possibly beyond 300°C. Concerning logging and monitoring instruments, progress were made over the past ten years in the context of the HiTI ("High Temperature Instruments") project funded by the european community for deep drilling in hot Icelandic geothermal holes where supercritical conditions and a highly corrosive environment are expected at depth (with temperatures above 374 °C and pressures exceeding 22 MPa). For example, a slickline tool (memory tool) tolerating up to 400°C and wireline tools up to 300°C were developed and tested in Icelandic high-temperature geothermal fields. The temperature limitation of logging tools was defined to comply with the present limitation in wireline cables (320°C). As part of this new set of downhole tools, temperature, pressure, fluid flow and casing collar location might be measured up to 400°C from a single multisensor tool. Natural gamma radiation spectrum, borehole wall ultrasonic images signal, and fiber optic cables (using distributed temperature sensing methods) were also developed for wireline deployment up to 300°C and tested in the field. A wireline, dual laterolog electrical resistivity tool was also developed but could not be field tested as part of HiTI. This new set of tools constitutes a basis for the deep exploration of the oceanic crust in the future. In addition, new strategies including the real-time integration of drilling parameters with modeling of the thermo-mechanical status of the borehole could be developed, using time-lapse logging of temperature (for heat flow determination) and borehole wall images (for hole stability and in-situ stress determination

  2. PCDDF and pesticides monitoring in a dioxin contaminated area in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalhaes, G.; Azevedo, J.A.; Azevedo, G.; Machado, M.; Brooks, P. [Analytical Solutions, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-09-15

    During the 40's and 50's there had been a hexachlorocyclohexane(HCH) industry in Duque de Caxias, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Duque de Caxias is a very important borough within the state's political and administrative structure. It is located in a strategic point connecting Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. It also holds one of Brazil's greatest petroleum refineries. For 20 years, this factory (which is located next to an orphanage called Cidade dos Meninos, an area belonging to the Ministry of Social Assistance) produced thousands of tons of HCH and also other pesticides, such as DDT, DDD and DDE. In the beginning of the 60's, the industry had its activities stopped1. In 1989, significant amounts of HCH had been found by local inspectors in Duque de Caxias, where it had been being sold for use in agriculture. Once the product's usage had already been prohibited in Brazil, after a investigation authorities found that it would come from the inactive industry. Both environmental and public health institutions decided to use a mixture of lime and soil, in order to destroy the residues and organic compounds found in the old plant. Such procedure would cause a greater problem, for the lime used wouldn't meet the right proportions of the large area and its contaminated soil. In addition, it also affected the water supply and the local population. The consequences have been disastrous. Data referring to breastfeeding and blood revealed alarming pesticide rates that endangered the local people health conditions both in short and long term. After 14 years, monitoring is still necessary in that region so it is possible to control contamination and its damage related to secondary reactions, climatic effects and soil structure. For this reason, a monitoring program has been developed in order to investigate the rates of certain pesticides and PCDD/F in locations near the contamination field.

  3. Sentinel Wraps: Real-Time Monitoring of Food Contamination by Printing DNAzyme Probes on Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Hanie; Ali, M Monsur; Su, Hsuan-Ming; Filipe, Carlos D M; Didar, Tohid F

    2018-04-24

    Here, we report the development of a transparent, durable, and flexible sensing surface that generates a fluorescence signal in the presence of a specific target bacterium. This material can be used in packaging, and it is capable of monitoring microbial contamination in various types of food products in real time without having to remove the sample or the sensor from the package. The sensor was fabricated by covalently attaching picoliter-sized microarrays of an E. coli-specific RNA-cleaving fluorogenic DNAzyme probe (RFD-EC1) to a thin, flexible, and transparent cyclo-olefin polymer (COP) film. Our experimental results demonstrate that the developed (RFD-EC1)-COP surface is specific, stable for at least 14 days under various pH conditions (pH 3-9), and can detect E. coli in meat and apple juice at concentrations as low as 10 3 CFU/mL. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our sensor is capable of detecting bacteria while still attached to the food package, which eliminates the need to manipulate the sample. The developed biosensors are stable for at least the shelf life of perishable packaged food products and provide a packaging solution for real-time monitoring of pathogens. These sensors hold the potential to make a significant contribution to the ongoing efforts to mitigate the negative public-health-related impacts of food-borne illnesses.

  4. Demolition and removal of radioactively contaminated concrete soil: Aerosol control and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.; Grace, A.C. III

    1995-12-01

    From 1963 to 1985, two concrete-lined ponds were used to reduce the volume of radioactive liquids from the Institute`s research programs. Following withdrawal of the {open_quotes}hot ponds{close_quotes} from active use, the residual sludges and plastic liners of the ponds were removed and shipped to a radioactive waste disposal site. From 1987 to 1994, the concrete structures remained undisturbed pending environmental restoration on the site. Restoration began in 1994 and was completed in 1995. Restoration involved mechanical breakup and removal of the concrete structures and removal of areas of contaminated soils from the site. This report describes the design and results of the aerosol control and monitoring program that was conducted to ensure protection of workers and the environment during the restoration process. The aerosol control and monitoring strategy developed for remediation of the ITRI hot ponds was successful both in preventing dispersion of radioactive dusts and in demonstrating that exposures of workers and offsite releases were within statutory limits.

  5. Ecotoxicity monitoring and bioindicator screening of oil-contaminated soil during bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weihang; Zhu, Nengwu; Cui, Jiaying; Wang, Huajin; Dang, Zhi; Wu, Pingxiao; Luo, Yidan; Shi, Chaohong

    2016-02-01

    A series of toxicity bioassays was conducted to monitor the ecotoxicity of soils in the different phases of bioremediation. Artificially oil-contaminated soil was inoculated with a petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortium containing Burkholderia cepacia GS3C, Sphingomonas GY2B and Pandoraea pnomenusa GP3B strains adapted to crude oil. Soil ecotoxicity in different phases of bioremediation was examined by monitoring total petroleum hydrocarbons, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of seed germination and plant growth), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and bacterial luminescence. Although the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration in soil was reduced by 64.4%, forty days after bioremediation, the phytotoxicity and Photobacterium phosphoreum ecotoxicity test results indicated an initial increase in ecotoxicity, suggesting the formation of intermediate metabolites characterized by high toxicity and low bioavailability during bioremediation. The ecotoxicity values are a more valid indicator for evaluating the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques compared with only using the total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations. Among all of the potential indicators that could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of plant height, shoot weight and root fresh weight), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and luminescence of P. phosphoreum were the most sensitive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Combining Geoelectrical Measurements and CO 2 Analyses to Monitor the Enhanced Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils: A Field Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Noel , Cécile; Gourry , Jean-Christophe; Deparis , Jacques; Blessing , Michaela; Ignatiadis , Ioannis; Guimbaud , Christophe

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers can be successfully remediated through enhanced biodegradation. However, in situ monitoring of the treatment by piezometers is expensive and invasive and might be insufficient as the information provided is restricted to vertical profiles at discrete locations. An alternative method was tested in order to improve the robustness of the monitoring. Geophysical methods, electrical resistivity (ER) and induced polarization (IP), were combi...

  7. Understanding transport pathways in a river system - Monitoring sediments contaminated by an incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, S.; Kleisinger, C.; Hillebrand, G.; Claus, E.; Schwartz, R.; Carls, I.; Winterscheid, A.; Schubert, B.

    2016-12-01

    Experiments to trace transport of sediments and suspended particulate matter on a river scale are an expensive and difficult venture, since it causes a lot of official requirements. In spring 2015, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were released during restoration works at a bridge in the upper part of the Elbe River, near the Czech-German border. In this study, the particle-bound PCB-transport is applied as a tracer for monitoring transport pathways of suspended solids (SS) along a whole river stretch over 700 km length. The incident was monitored by concentration measurements of seven indicator PCB congeners along the inland part of the Elbe River as well as in the Elbe estuary. Data from 15 monitoring stations (settling tanks) as well as from two longitudinal campaigns (grab samples) along the river in July and August 2015 are considered. The total PCB load is calculated for all stations on the basis of monthly contaminant concentrations and daily suspended sediment concentrations. Monte-Carlo simulations assess the uncertainties of the calculated load. 1D water levels and GIS analysis were used to locate temporal storage areas for the SS. It is shown that the ratio of high versus low chlorinated PCB congeners is a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load of the incident from the long-term background signal. Furthermore, the reduction of total PCB load within the upper Elbe indicates that roughly 24% of the SS were transported with the water by wash load. Approximately 600 km downstream of the incident site, the PCB-marked wash load was first identified in July 2015. PCB load transported intermittently in suspension was detected roughly 400 km downstream of the incident site by August 2015. In the Elbe Estuary, PCB-marked SS were only found upstream of the steep slope of water depth (approx. 4 to 15 m) within Hamburg harbor that acts as a major sediment sink. Here, SS from the inland Elbe are mixed with lowly contaminated marine material, which may mask the

  8. Validation of ozone monitoring instrument ultraviolet index against ground-based UV index in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyimbwa, Dennis; Dahlback, Arne; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Chen, Yi-Chun; Stamnes, Jakob J; Frette, Øyvind; Hamre, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) overpass solar ultraviolet (UV) indices have been validated against the ground-based UV indices derived from Norwegian Institute for Air Research UV measurements in Kampala (0.31° N, 32.58° E, 1200 m), Uganda for the period between 2005 and 2014. An excessive use of old cars, which would imply a high loading of absorbing aerosols, could cause the OMI retrieval algorithm to overestimate the surface UV irradiances. The UV index values were found to follow a seasonal pattern with maximum values in March and October. Under all-sky conditions, the OMI retrieval algorithm was found to overestimate the UV index values with a mean bias of about 28%. When only days with radiation modification factor greater than or equal to 65%, 70%, 75%, and 80% were considered, the mean bias between ground-based and OMI overpass UV index values was reduced to 8%, 5%, 3%, and 1%, respectively. The overestimation of the UV index by the OMI retrieval algorithm was found to be mainly due to clouds and aerosols.

  9. On indoor radon contamination monitoring with SSNTDs: Experimental results concerning plate-out and self-plate-out effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigazzi, G.; Hadler, J.C.; Paulo, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the alpha activities of 222 Rn and its daughters were performed, both inside a glass recipient and in closed rooms, employing SSNTDs (CR-39 and nuclear emulsion). The experimental results presented here show that plate-out and self-plate-out effects should be taken into account when SSNTDs are employed in indoor radon contamination monitoring. (orig.)

  10. Contamination of estuaries from failing septic tank systems: difficulties in scaling up from monitored individual systems to cumulative impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Phillip; Lucas, Steven

    2018-02-03

    Aquaculture in many coastal estuaries is threatened by diffuse sources of runoff from different land use activities. The poor performance of septic tank systems (STS), as well as runoff from agriculture, may contribute to the movement of contaminants through ground and surface waters to estuaries resulting in oyster contamination, and following their consumption, impacts to human health. In monitoring individual STS in sensitive locations, it is possible to show that nutrients and faecal contaminants are transported through the subsurface in sandy soils off-site with little attenuation. At the catchment scale however, there are always difficulties in discerning direct linkages between failing STS and water contamination due to processes such as effluent dilution, adsorption, precipitation and vegetative uptake. There is often substantial complexity in detecting and tracing effluent pathways from diffuse sources to water bodies in field studies. While source tracking as well as monitoring using tracers may assist in identifying potential pathways from STS to surface waters and estuaries, there are difficulties in scaling up from monitored individual systems to identify their contribution to the cumulative impact which may be apparent at the catchment scale. The processes which may be obvious through monitoring and dominate at the individual scale may be masked and not readily discernible at the catchment scale due to impacts from other land use activities.

  11. Recent developments for field monitoring of alpha-emitting contaminants in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlquist, A.J.; Umbarger, C.J.; Stoker, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has adapted two field methods to assess rapidly locations and concentrations of alpha-emitting contaminants in soil. (1) A ZnS scintillator is used for gross-alpha measurements on soil samples. Sample preparation and the calibration and detection limits of the system are discussed, and results of gross-alpha analysis are compared with results of a 239 Pu radiochemistry analysis. (2) A Phoswich detector is used as a field survey instrument because it can detect lower levels of radioactivity than the FIDLER probe. The electronics are carried in a truck and the probe is connected by an umbilical cord. The system electronics are calibrated with an energy window of 12-40 keV which allows detection of Pu, Am, Th (using daughter L X-rays of the alpha-emitters) and 137 Cs (using its daughter 32 keV X-rays). The bremsstrahlung from 90 Sr can also be detected. (author)

  12. Validation of low-cost ozone measurement instruments suitable for use in an air-quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, David E; Henshaw, Geoff S; Bart, Mark; Laing, Greer; Wagner, John; Naisbitt, Simon; Salmond, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel low-cost instrument that uses a sensor based on conductivity changes of heated tungstic oxide, which is capable of accurately measuring ambient concentrations of ozone. A combination of temperature steps and air flow-rate steps is used to continually reset and re-zero the sensor. A two-stage calibration procedure is presented, in which a nonlinear transformation converts sensor resistance to a signal linear in ozone concentration, then a linear correlation is used to align the calibration with a reference instrument. The required calibration functions specific for the sensor, and control system for air flow rate and sensor temperature, are housed with the sensor in a compact, simple-to-exchange assembly. The instrument can be operated on solar power and uses cell phone technology to enable monitoring in remote locations. Data from field trials are presented here to demonstrate that both the accuracy and the stability of the instrument over periods of months are within a few parts-per-billion by volume. We show that common failure modes can be detected through measurement of signals available from the instrument. The combination of long-term stability, self-diagnosis, and simple, inexpensive repair means that the cost of operation and calibration of the instruments is significantly reduced in comparison with traditional reference instrumentation. These instruments enable the economical construction and operation of ozone monitoring networks of accuracy, time resolution and spatial density sufficient to resolve the local gradients that are characteristic of urban air pollution. (paper)

  13. Contamination Event Detection with Multivariate Time-Series Data in Agricultural Water Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchi Mao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Time series data of multiple water quality parameters are obtained from the water sensor networks deployed in the agricultural water supply network. The accurate and efficient detection and warning of contamination events to prevent pollution from spreading is one of the most important issues when pollution occurs. In order to comprehensively reduce the event detection deviation, a spatial–temporal-based event detection approach with multivariate time-series data for water quality monitoring (M-STED was proposed. The M-STED approach includes three parts. The first part is that M-STED adopts a Rule K algorithm to select backbone nodes as the nodes in the CDS, and forward the sensed data of multiple water parameters. The second part is to determine the state of each backbone node with back propagation neural network models and the sequential Bayesian analysis in the current timestamp. The third part is to establish a spatial model with Bayesian networks to estimate the state of the backbones in the next timestamp and trace the “outlier” node to its neighborhoods to detect a contamination event. The experimental results indicate that the average detection rate is more than 80% with M-STED and the false detection rate is lower than 9%, respectively. The M-STED approach can improve the rate of detection by about 40% and reduce the false alarm rate by about 45%, compared with the event detection with a single water parameter algorithm, S-STED. Moreover, the proposed M-STED can exhibit better performance in terms of detection delay and scalability.

  14. 2017 Update on the WFC3/UVIS Stability and Contamination Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, C. E.; Gosmeyer, C. M.; Baggett, S.

    2017-06-01

    The photometric throughput of the UVIS detector on WFC3 is monitored each cycle for its stability as a function of time, wavelength, as well as to check for any evidence of contamination on the CCD windows, which would manifest as a decrease in throughput strongest in the bluest filters. This program has been in place since the installation of WFC3 in 2009, historically making periodic observations of the spectrophotometric standard GRW+70d5824 (GRW70) in several key filters from 200 nm to 600 nm, with red filters acting as a control. This is a follow up report to the last analysis of the temporal stability of UVIS (Gosmeyer et al., 2014), since which several major changes to the program and data analysis have been implemented. Due to recent work suggesting a low-level, long-term variability for GRW70, another spectrophotometric standard star - GD153 - has been added to the program and is now analyzed in conjunction with GRW70. Data are now processed with the latest version of the CALWF3 calibration pipeline (v. 3.4), which has several new features that represent a paradigm shift in calibration methodology. Finally, the data analysis software, which was previously entirely IRAF based, was re-written in Python. We find a steady decline in the count rate for most filters but no evidence for contamination, which would manifest as a wavelength-dependent effect, impacting bluer filters more strongly. These declines range from 0.01% to 0.3% per year, and are stronger in longer wavelength filters. Similar temporal changes are found for both stars, and the long-term trends in throughput agree with previous trends derived in 2014.

  15. Study and monitoring of the contamination of cultivated soils; Etude et controle de la contamination des sols cultives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovard, P.; Grauby, A.

    1960-07-15

    Arable lands are directly concerned by radioactive fallouts as a large part of radio-elements is fixed in the soil first centimetres in which roots of many plants are growing. The authors report the study of fixations at the level of roots, of the movements of radio-elements in the soil solution at their neighbourhood, and of the influence of leaching (by rainfalls or irrigation). Variations of soil content in calcium and strontium have been achieved to highlight dispersion and inhibition factors. The authors present the implemented experimental method, i.e. how soils have been contaminated, how crop pots have been prepared, and how the experiment is performed. Experiments are performed by using ray grass as a crop. The authors assessed radioactive uptake by aerial parts of the plant, studied the rhizosphere, and discussed radiographies obtained on different pots (contaminated, seeded or not, watered or not, with addition of different quantities of strontium or calcium compound)

  16. Monitoring priority substances, other organic contaminants and heavy metals in a volcanic aquifer from different sources and hydrological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Fernández-Vera, Juan Ramón; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino

    2016-05-01

    Irrigation with reclaimed water (R) is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of semi-arid areas. Results obtained during a two years monitoring network (2009-2011) in Gran Canaria are presented, including the analysis of chemical parameters, N and S isotopes, priority substances (2008/105/EC, 2013/39/EU), other organic contaminants and heavy metals in groundwater and R used to irrigate a golf course. The aims of this work are to evaluate the contamination in a volcanic aquifer, relate the presence of organic contaminants and heavy metals with the hydrogeochemistry and identify pollution sources in the area. No priority substance exceeded the EU thresholds for surface water, although seventeen were detected in R. The most frequent compounds were hexachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. These compounds were detected at low concentration, except chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, terbuthylazine, diuron, terbutryn, procymidone, atrazine and propazine exceeded the European threshold concentration for pesticides in groundwater (100ngL(-1)). Therefore, the priority substances chlorpyrifos ethyl and diuron must be included in monitoring studies. The priority pesticides chlorfenvinphos and diazinon were always detected in R but rarely in groundwater. Besides, the existence of contaminants not related to the current R irrigation has been identified. Absence of environmental problems related to heavy metals can be expected. The relationship among contaminant presence, hydrogeochemistry, including the stable isotopic prints of δ(18)O, δ(15)N and δ(34)S and preferential recharge paths has been described. The coastal well shows high values of EC, nitrate, a variable chemistry, and 50% of organic contaminants detected above 100ngL(-1). The well located in the recharge area presents a stable hydrochemistry, the lowest value of δ(15)N and the lowest contaminants occurrence. The area is an example of a complex volcanic media with several

  17. GE/NOMADICS IN-WELL MONITORING SYSTEM FOR VERTICAL PROFILING OF DNAPL CONTAMINANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald E. Shaffer; Radislav Potyralio; Joseph Salvo; Timothy Sivavec; Lloyd Salsman

    2003-04-01

    This report describes the Phase I effort to develop an Automated In Well Monitoring System (AIMS) for in situ detection of chlorinated volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in groundwater. AIMS is composed of 3 primary components: (a) sensor probe, (b) instrument delivery system, and (c) communication/recharging station. The sensor probe utilizes an array of thickness shear mode (TSM) sensors coated with chemically-sensitive polymer films provides a low-cost, highly sensitive microsensor platform for detection and quantification. The instrument delivery system is used to position the sensor probe in 2 inch or larger groundwater monitoring wells. A communication/recharging station provides wireless battery recharging and communication to enable a fully automated system. A calibration curve for TCE in water was built using data collected in the laboratory. The detection limit of the sensor probe was 6.7 ppb ({micro}g/L) for TCE in water. A preliminary field test was conducted at a GE remediation location and a pilot field test was performed at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS). The AIMS system was demonstrated in an uncontaminated (i.e., ''clean'') 2-inch well and in a 4-inch well containing 163.5 ppb of TCE. Repeat measurements at the two wells indicated excellent day-to-day reproducibility. Significant differences in the sensor responses were noted between the two types of wells but they did not closely match the laboratory calibration data. The robustness of the system presented numerous challenges for field work and limited the scope of the SRS pilot field test. However, the unique combination of trace detection (detection limits near the MCL, minimum concentration level) and size (operations in 2-inch or larger groundwater wells) is demonstration of the promise of this technology for long-term monitoring (LTM) applications or rapid site characterization. Using the lessons learned from the

  18. Exercise of laboratory comparison for contamination monitor calibration between LNMRI/IRD and LCR/UERJ - 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, T.S.; David, M.

    2016-01-01

    This work was motivated by the need to decide on the best methodology to be applied in the next contamination monitor calibration comparisons with the Brazilian network of calibration radiation monitors. The calibration factor was chosen as a response calibration performed in the four monitors used in this comparison because it does not require the detector area or probe thereby reducing an important variable. It was observed that the variation of the positioning system may have an influence up to 10% in calibration. The results obtained for the calibration factor showed a difference of up to 31.2%. (author)

  19. Monitoring priority substances, other organic contaminants and heavy metals in a volcanic aquifer from different sources and hydrological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Fernández-Vera, Juan Ramón; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino

    2016-01-01

    Irrigation with reclaimed water (R) is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of semi-arid areas. Results obtained during a two years monitoring network (2009–2011) in Gran Canaria are presented, including the analysis of chemical parameters, N and S isotopes, priority substances (2008/105/EC, 2013/39/EU), other organic contaminants and heavy metals in groundwater and R used to irrigate a golf course. The aims of this work are to evaluate the contamination in a volcanic aquifer, relate the presence of organic contaminants and heavy metals with the hydrogeochemistry and identify pollution sources in the area. No priority substance exceeded the EU thresholds for surface water, although seventeen were detected in R. The most frequent compounds were hexachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. These compounds were detected at low concentration, except chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, terbuthylazine, diuron, terbutryn, procymidone, atrazine and propazine exceeded the European threshold concentration for pesticides in groundwater (100 ng L"−"1). Therefore, the priority substances chlorpyrifos ethyl and diuron must be included in monitoring studies. The priority pesticides chlorfenvinphos and diazinon were always detected in R but rarely in groundwater. Besides, the existence of contaminants not related to the current R irrigation has been identified. Absence of environmental problems related to heavy metals can be expected. The relationship among contaminant presence, hydrogeochemistry, including the stable isotopic prints of δ"1"8O, δ"1"5N and δ"3"4S and preferential recharge paths has been described. The coastal well shows high values of EC, nitrate, a variable chemistry, and 50% of organic contaminants detected above 100 ng L"−"1. The well located in the recharge area presents a stable hydrochemistry, the lowest value of δ"1"5N and the lowest contaminants occurrence. The area is an example of a complex volcanic media with

  20. Monitoring priority substances, other organic contaminants and heavy metals in a volcanic aquifer from different sources and hydrological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevez, Esmeralda, E-mail: eestevez@proyinves.ulpgc.es [Dpt. Física (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Agrifood and Phytopathological Laboratory (Cabildo de Gran Canaria), 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain); Cabrera, María del Carmen, E-mail: mcarmen.cabrera@ulpgc.es [Dpt. Física (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); IMDEA Water Institute, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Fernández-Vera, Juan Ramón, E-mail: jrfernandezv@grancanaria.com [Agrifood and Phytopathological Laboratory (Cabildo de Gran Canaria), 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain); Molina-Díaz, Antonio, E-mail: amolina@ujaen.es [Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Robles-Molina, José, E-mail: jroblesmol@gmail.com [Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino, E-mail: mp.palaciosdiaz@ulpgc.es [Dpt. de Patología Animal, Producción Animal, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2016-05-01

    Irrigation with reclaimed water (R) is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of semi-arid areas. Results obtained during a two years monitoring network (2009–2011) in Gran Canaria are presented, including the analysis of chemical parameters, N and S isotopes, priority substances (2008/105/EC, 2013/39/EU), other organic contaminants and heavy metals in groundwater and R used to irrigate a golf course. The aims of this work are to evaluate the contamination in a volcanic aquifer, relate the presence of organic contaminants and heavy metals with the hydrogeochemistry and identify pollution sources in the area. No priority substance exceeded the EU thresholds for surface water, although seventeen were detected in R. The most frequent compounds were hexachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. These compounds were detected at low concentration, except chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, terbuthylazine, diuron, terbutryn, procymidone, atrazine and propazine exceeded the European threshold concentration for pesticides in groundwater (100 ng L{sup −1}). Therefore, the priority substances chlorpyrifos ethyl and diuron must be included in monitoring studies. The priority pesticides chlorfenvinphos and diazinon were always detected in R but rarely in groundwater. Besides, the existence of contaminants not related to the current R irrigation has been identified. Absence of environmental problems related to heavy metals can be expected. The relationship among contaminant presence, hydrogeochemistry, including the stable isotopic prints of δ{sup 18}O, δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 34}S and preferential recharge paths has been described. The coastal well shows high values of EC, nitrate, a variable chemistry, and 50% of organic contaminants detected above 100 ng L{sup −1}. The well located in the recharge area presents a stable hydrochemistry, the lowest value of δ{sup 15}N and the lowest contaminants occurrence. The area is an example of a complex

  1. Environmental Contamination Genetic Consequences Monitoring on the Former Semipalatinsk Test Site: General Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seisebaev, A.T.; Bakhtin, M.M.; Zhapbasov, R.Zh.

    1998-01-01

    For an objective assessment of nuclear test consequences for the environment it is necessary, together with the investigation of radiation situation, to study live biological systems, particularly the genetic effects of chronic ionizing radiation. The long staying of plants and animals on the territories with the elevated radiation background level can lead to the change of organism genetic system. In this connection the monitoring of chronically exposed natural populations is of particular interest and can serve as the objective indicator of the scale of natural biota genetic damage. Basing on the results obtained during plant and animal studies one can indirectly assess the hazard of people genetic damage. Besides, studying the mutational process on natural populations exposed to the chronic ionizing radiation one can reveal new regularities, which are impossible to be detected in the laboratory conditions, and new aspects of radiation genetics. The issue of radiation adaptation of organisms affected by the various doses of ionizing radiation is very acute. The prerequisite of organism adaptation to the certain radiation background is genetic heterogeneity of individuals comprising the population and selection of radiation-induced individuals, which are the carriers of the mutation of high radioresistance. The uniqueness of the Semipalatinsk Test site and the necessity of long-term investigations of the nuclear test consequences for the environment demand the elaboration of principles for organization and utilization of natural population genetic monitoring. Radiation-genetic monitoring is the long-term observation of palpitation gene pool conditions, assessment and forecast of their spatial and time alteration, determination of limits of changes admitted under the condition of environmental radioactive contamination. It includes a series of the main research directions and has quite certain methodological peculiarities. In this paper we discuss the tasks of

  2. 40 CFR 63.1023 - Instrument and sensory monitoring for leaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be used during that day's monitoring. (ii) A calibration gas other than methane in air may be used if... or more of the compounds to be measured in air. (5) Monitoring performance. Monitoring shall be... devices) or § 63.1031(f) (alternative compressor standard). (d) Sensory monitoring methods. Sensory...

  3. Lunar Atmosphere Probe Station: A Proof-of-Concept Instrument Package for Monitoring the Lunar Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Stewart, K. P.; Burns, J. O.; Farrell, W. M.; Giersch, L.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Hicks, B. C.; Polisensky, E. J.; Hartman, J. M.; Nesnas, I.; Weiler, K.; Kasper, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent, the extent of contributions from volatile outgassing from the Moon, and its behavior over time, including response to the solar wind and modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) are based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, *in situ*, the vertical extent of the lunar exosphere over time. We provide an update on a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report or commercial ventures. The instrument concept is simple, consisting of an antenna implemented as a metal deposited on polyimide film and receiver. We illustrate various deployment mechanisms and performance of a prototype in increasing lunar analog conditions. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of dust impactors. The Lunar University Network for Astrophysical Research consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. Artist's impression of the Lunar Atmosphere Probe Station.

  4. A global catalogue of large SO2 sources and emissions derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Fioletov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur dioxide (SO2 measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI satellite sensor processed with the new principal component analysis (PCA algorithm were used to detect large point emission sources or clusters of sources. The total of 491 continuously emitting point sources releasing from about 30 kt yr−1 to more than 4000 kt yr−1 of SO2 per year have been identified and grouped by country and by primary source origin: volcanoes (76 sources; power plants (297; smelters (53; and sources related to the oil and gas industry (65. The sources were identified using different methods, including through OMI measurements themselves applied to a new emission detection algorithm, and their evolution during the 2005–2014 period was traced by estimating annual emissions from each source. For volcanic sources, the study focused on continuous degassing, and emissions from explosive eruptions were excluded. Emissions from degassing volcanic sources were measured, many for the first time, and collectively they account for about 30 % of total SO2 emissions estimated from OMI measurements, but that fraction has increased in recent years given that cumulative global emissions from power plants and smelters are declining while emissions from oil and gas industry remained nearly constant. Anthropogenic emissions from the USA declined by 80 % over the 2005–2014 period as did emissions from western and central Europe, whereas emissions from India nearly doubled, and emissions from other large SO2-emitting regions (South Africa, Russia, Mexico, and the Middle East remained fairly constant. In total, OMI-based estimates account for about a half of total reported anthropogenic SO2 emissions; the remaining half is likely related to sources emitting less than 30 kt yr−1 and not detected by OMI.

  5. Principal components based support vector regression model for on-line instrument calibration monitoring in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, In Yong; Ha, Bok Nam; Lee, Sung Woo; Shin, Chang Hoon; Kim, Seong Jun

    2010-01-01

    In nuclear power plants (NPPs), periodic sensor calibrations are required to assure that sensors are operating correctly. By checking the sensor's operating status at every fuel outage, faulty sensors may remain undetected for periods of up to 24 months. Moreover, typically, only a few faulty sensors are found to be calibrated. For the safe operation of NPP and the reduction of unnecessary calibration, on-line instrument calibration monitoring is needed. In this study, principal component based auto-associative support vector regression (PCSVR) using response surface methodology (RSM) is proposed for the sensor signal validation of NPPs. This paper describes the design of a PCSVR-based sensor validation system for a power generation system. RSM is employed to determine the optimal values of SVR hyperparameters and is compared to the genetic algorithm (GA). The proposed PCSVR model is confirmed with the actual plant data of Kori Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 and is compared with the Auto-Associative support vector regression (AASVR) and the auto-associative neural network (AANN) model. The auto-sensitivity of AASVR is improved by around six times by using a PCA, resulting in good detection of sensor drift. Compared to AANN, accuracy and cross-sensitivity are better while the auto-sensitivity is almost the same. Meanwhile, the proposed RSM for the optimization of the PCSVR algorithm performs even better in terms of accuracy, auto-sensitivity, and averaged maximum error, except in averaged RMS error, and this method is much more time efficient compared to the conventional GA method

  6. Marine oil pollution and beached bird surveys: the development of a sensitive monitoring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camphuysen, C.J.; Heubeck, M.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most obvious adverse effects of (chronic) pollution of the world's oceans and seas with mineral oil is the mortality of seabirds. Systematic surveys of beachcast corpses of birds ('beached bird surveys') have been used in many parts of the world to document the effect of oil pollution, but particularly so in Western Europe and in parts of North America. In this paper, the history, current schemes, methods and possible (future) use of beached bird surveys are described and discussed, because the value of beached bird surveys has been hotly disputed. Oil pollution is known since the late 19 th century, while the first beached bird surveys were conducted in the 1920s. Due to the amount of man-power needed for these surveys, most beached bird survey programs thrived only through the work of a large number of volunteers. However, most programs have resulted in substantial amounts of high quality data, often covering many consecutive years. One of the main shortcomings of many beached bird survey programs was the emphasis on stranded bird numbers rather than on relative measures, such as oil rates (percentage of corpses oiled of all corpses found). Sources of pollution, particularly so in chronically polluted regions such as the North Sea, the Baltic, the Mediterranean and the waters around Newfoundland, are insufficiently known, but could be studied through a sampling program connected to beached bird surveys. Suggestions for standardization of methods are presented, which could lead to a global and highly sensitive monitoring instrument of marine oil pollution. (Author)

  7. A Global Catalogue of Large SO2 Sources and Emissions Derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioletov, Vitali E.; McLinden, Chris A.; Krotkov, Nickolay; Li, Can; Joiner, Joanna; Theys, Nicolas; Carn, Simon; Moran, Mike D.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite sensor processed with the new principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm were used to detect large point emission sources or clusters of sources. The total of 491 continuously emitting point sources releasing from about 30 kt yr(exp -1) to more than 4000 kt yr(exp -1) of SO2 per year have been identified and grouped by country and by primary source origin: volcanoes (76 sources); power plants (297); smelters (53); and sources related to the oil and gas industry (65). The sources were identified using different methods, including through OMI measurements themselves applied to a new emission detection algorithm, and their evolution during the 2005- 2014 period was traced by estimating annual emissions from each source. For volcanic sources, the study focused on continuous degassing, and emissions from explosive eruptions were excluded. Emissions from degassing volcanic sources were measured, many for the first time, and collectively they account for about 30% of total SO2 emissions estimated from OMI measurements, but that fraction has increased in recent years given that cumulative global emissions from power plants and smelters are declining while emissions from oil and gas industry remained nearly constant. Anthropogenic emissions from the USA declined by 80% over the 2005-2014 period as did emissions from western and central Europe, whereas emissions from India nearly doubled, and emissions from other large SO2-emitting regions (South Africa, Russia, Mexico, and the Middle East) remained fairly constant. In total, OMI-based estimates account for about a half of total reported anthropogenic SO2 emissions; the remaining half is likely related to sources emitting less than 30 kt yr(exp -1) and not detected by OMI.

  8. A simple low-cost microcontroller-based photometric instrument for monitoring chloroplast movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Robert; Königer, Martina; Schjeide, Brit-Maren; Dikmak, George; Kohler, Susan; Harris, Gary C

    2006-03-01

    A new microcontroller-based photometric instrument for monitoring blue light dependent changes in leaf transmission (chloroplast movement) was developed based on a modification of the double-beam technique developed by Walzcak and Gabrys [(1980) Photosynthetica 14: 65-72]. A blue and red bicolor light emitting diode (LED) provided both a variable intensity blue actinic light and a low intensity red measuring beam. A phototransistor detected the intensity of the transmitted measuring light. An inexpensive microcontroller independently and precisely controlled the light emission of the bicolor LED. A typical measurement event involved turning off the blue actinic light for 100 mus to create a narrow temporal window for turning on and measuring the transmittance of the red light. The microcontroller was programmed using LogoChip Logo (http://www.wellesley.edu/Physics/Rberg/logochip/) to record fluence rate response curves. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was utilized to correlate the changes in leaf transmission with intercellular chloroplast position. In the dark, the chloroplasts in the spongy mesophyll exhibited no evident asymmetries in their distribution, however, in the palisade layer the cell surface in contact with the overlying epidermis was devoid of chloroplasts. The low light dependent decrease in leaf transmittance in dark acclimated leaves was correlated with the movement of chloroplasts within the palisade layer into the regions previously devoid of chloroplasts. Changes in leaf transmittance were evident within one minute following the onset of illumination. Minimal leaf transmittance was correlated with chloroplasts having retreated from cell surfaces perpendicular to the incident light (avoidance reaction) in both spongy and palisade layers.

  9. Instrumentation Recommendations for Volcano Monitoring at U.S. Volcanoes Under the National Volcano Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Seth C.; Freymueller, Jeff T.; LaHusen, Richard G.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Poland, Michael P.; Power, John A.; Schmidt, David A.; Schneider, David J.; Stephens, George; Werner, Cynthia A.; White, Randall A.

    2008-01-01

    As magma moves toward the surface, it interacts with anything in its path: hydrothermal systems, cooling magma bodies from previous eruptions, and (or) the surrounding 'country rock'. Magma also undergoes significant changes in its physical properties as pressure and temperature conditions change along its path. These interactions and changes lead to a range of geophysical and geochemical phenomena. The goal of volcano monitoring is to detect and correctly interpret such phenomena in order to provide early and accurate warnings of impending eruptions. Given the well-documented hazards posed by volcanoes to both ground-based populations (for example, Blong, 1984; Scott, 1989) and aviation (for example, Neal and others, 1997; Miller and Casadevall, 2000), volcano monitoring is critical for public safety and hazard mitigation. Only with adequate monitoring systems in place can volcano observatories provide accurate and timely forecasts and alerts of possible eruptive activity. At most U.S. volcanoes, observatories traditionally have employed a two-component approach to volcano monitoring: (1) install instrumentation sufficient to detect unrest at volcanic systems likely to erupt in the not-too-distant future; and (2) once unrest is detected, install any instrumentation needed for eruption prediction and monitoring. This reactive approach is problematic, however, for two reasons. 1. At many volcanoes, rapid installation of new ground-1. based instruments is difficult or impossible. Factors that complicate rapid response include (a) eruptions that are preceded by short (hours to days) precursory sequences of geophysical and (or) geochemical activity, as occurred at Mount Redoubt (Alaska) in 1989 (24 hours), Anatahan (Mariana Islands) in 2003 (6 hours), and Mount St. Helens (Washington) in 1980 and 2004 (7 and 8 days, respectively); (b) inclement weather conditions, which may prohibit installation of new equipment for days, weeks, or even months, particularly at

  10. Evaluation of the current fast neutron flux monitoring instrumentation applied to LFR demonstrator ALFRED. Capabilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepore, Luigi; Remetti, Romolo; Cappelli, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Among Gen IV projects for future nuclear power plants, Lead Fast Reactors (LFR) seem to be a very interesting solution due to their benefits in terms of fuel cycle, coolant-safety and waste management. The novelty of the matter causes some open issues about coolant chemical aspect, structural aspects, monitoring instrumentation, etc. Particularly hard neutron flux spectra would make traditional neutron instrumentation unfit to all reactor conditions, i.e. source, intermediate, and power range. Identification of new models of nuclear instrumentation specialized for LFR neutron flux monitoring asks for an accurate evaluation of the environment the sensor will work in. In this study, thermal-hydraulics and chemical conditions for LFR core environment will be assumed, as the neutron flux will be studied extensively by means of the Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX. The core coolant’s high temperature drastically reduces the candidate instrumentation, because only some kind of fission chambers and Self Powered Neutron Detectors can be operated in such an environment. This work aims to evaluate the capabilities of the available instrumentation (usually designed for Sodium Fast Reactors, SFRs) when exposed to the neutron spectrum derived from ALFRED, a pool-type small-power LFR project to demonstrate the feasibility of this technology into the European framework. This paper shows that such instruments do follow the power evolution, but they are not completely suitable to detect the whole range of reactor power. Some improvements are then possible in order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, by optimizing each instrument in the range of reactor power, such to get the best solution. Some new detector designs are here proposed, and the possibilities for prototyping and testing by means of a fast reactor investigated. (author)

  11. Monitoring airborne biotic contaminants in the indoor environment of pig and poultry confinement buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Li, Xiangzhen; Yang, Xufei; Shinkai, Takumi; Zhang, Yuanhui; Wang, Xinlei; Mackie, Roderick I

    2012-06-01

    Given the growing concerns over human and animal health issues related to confined animal feeding operations, an in-depth examination is required to monitor for airborne bacteria and associated antibiotic resistance genes. Our 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing revealed that the airborne microbial community skewed towards a higher abundance of Firmicutes (> 59.2%) and Bacteroidetes (4.2-31.4%) within the confinement buildings, while the office environment was predominated by Proteobacteria (55.2%). Furthermore, bioaerosols in the confinement buildings were sporadically associated with genera of potential pathogens, and these genera were more frequently observed in the bioaerosols of pig and layer hen confinement than the turkey confinement buildings and office environment. High abundances of tetracycline resistance genes (9.55 × 10(2) to 1.69 × 10(6) copies ng(-1) DNA) were also detected in the bioaerosols sampled from confinement buildings. Bacterial lineages present in the poultry bioaerosols clustered apart from those present in the pig bioaerosols and among the different phases of pig production, suggesting that different livestock as well as production phase were associated with a distinct airborne microbial community. By understanding the diversity of biotic contaminants associated with the different confinement buildings, this study facilitates the implementation of better management strategies to minimize potential health impacts on both livestock and humans working in this environment. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Long-term electrical resistivity monitoring of recharge-induced contaminant plume behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperikova, Erika; Hubbard, Susan S; Watson, David B; Baker, Gregory S; Peterson, John E; Kowalsky, Michael B; Smith, Meagan; Brooks, Scott

    2012-11-01

    Geophysical measurements, and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data in particular, are sensitive to properties that are related (directly or indirectly) to hydrological processes. The challenge is in extracting information from geophysical data at a relevant scale that can be used to gain insight about subsurface behavior and to parameterize or validate flow and transport models. Here, we consider the use of ERT data for examining the impact of recharge on subsurface contamination at the S-3 ponds of the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Tennessee. A large dataset of time-lapse cross-well and surface ERT data, collected at the site over a period of 12 months, is used to study time variations in resistivity due to changes in total dissolved solids (primarily nitrate). The electrical resistivity distributions recovered from cross-well and surface ERT data agrees well, and both of these datasets can be used to interpret spatiotemporal variations in subsurface nitrate concentrations due to rainfall, although the sensitivity of the electrical resistivity response to dilution varies with nitrate concentration. Using the time-lapse surface ERT data interpreted in terms of nitrate concentrations, we find that the subsurface nitrate concentration at this site varies as a function of spatial position, episodic heavy rainstorms (versus seasonal and annual fluctuations), and antecedent rainfall history. These results suggest that the surface ERT monitoring approach is potentially useful for examining subsurface plume responses to recharge over field-relevant scales. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Monitoring of Fasciola Species Contamination in Water Dropwort by cox1 Mitochondrial and ITS-2 rDNA Sequencing Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In-Wook; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Quan, Juan-Hua; Ryu, Jae-Gee; Sun, Rubing; Lee, Young-Ha

    2015-10-01

    Fascioliasis, a food-borne trematode zoonosis, is a disease primarily in cattle and sheep and occasionally in humans. Water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica), an aquatic perennial herb, is a common second intermediate host of Fasciola, and the fresh stems and leaves are widely used as a seasoning in the Korean diet. However, no information regarding Fasciola species contamination in water dropwort is available. Here, we collected 500 samples of water dropwort in 3 areas in Korea during February and March 2015, and the water dropwort contamination of Fasciola species was monitored by DNA sequencing analysis of the Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica specific mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2). Among the 500 samples assessed, the presence of F. hepatica cox1 and 1TS-2 markers were detected in 2 samples, and F. hepatica contamination was confirmed by sequencing analysis. The nucleotide sequences of cox1 PCR products from the 2 F. hepatica-contaminated samples were 96.5% identical to the F. hepatica cox1 sequences in GenBank, whereas F. gigantica cox1 sequences were 46.8% similar with the sequence detected from the cox1 positive samples. However, F. gigantica cox1 and ITS-2 markers were not detected by PCR in the 500 samples of water dropwort. Collectively, in this survey of the water dropwort contamination with Fasciola species, very low prevalence of F. hepatica contamination was detected in the samples.

  14. Geotechnical instrumentation requirements for at-depth testing and repository monitoring in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    Minimum required geotechnical measurements for confirmation of repository performance include thermal and thermomechanical responses; changes in stress, strain, and displacements; and pore pressure and groundwater flow characteristics. Conditions expected in tuff are: maximum rock temperatures of less than 250 0 C, stresses less than 100 MPa, strains between +-0.01 mm/mm, and pore pressures less than 35 KPa in the unsaturated zone where hydraulic head is not the primary contributor. The paper describes instrumentation needed to make the desired measurements. In general, the instrumentation and data system are required to be stable and reliable for tens of years. Designs must consider requirements for temperature stability, temperature expansion compensation, moisture resistance, and long-term durability in mining-type environments. Severe requirements such as these suggest consideration of techniques for in-situ replacement of instrumentation. State-of-the-art instrumentation is briefly described along with a discussion of needs for refinement, replacement/recalibration and instrumentation development

  15. Combining Geoelectrical Measurements and CO2 Analyses to Monitor the Enhanced Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils: A Field Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Noel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers can be successfully remediated through enhanced biodegradation. However, in situ monitoring of the treatment by piezometers is expensive and invasive and might be insufficient as the information provided is restricted to vertical profiles at discrete locations. An alternative method was tested in order to improve the robustness of the monitoring. Geophysical methods, electrical resistivity (ER and induced polarization (IP, were combined with gas analyses, CO2 concentration, and its carbon isotopic ratio, to develop a less invasive methodology for monitoring enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons. The field implementation of this monitoring methodology, which lasted from February 2014 until June 2015, was carried out at a BTEX-polluted site under aerobic biotreatment. Geophysical monitoring shows a more conductive and chargeable area which corresponds to the contaminated zone. In this area, high CO2 emissions have been measured with an isotopic signature demonstrating that the main source of CO2 on this site is the biodegradation of hydrocarbon fuels. Besides, the evolution of geochemical and geophysical data over a year seems to show the seasonal variation of bacterial activity. Combining geophysics with gas analyses is thus promising to provide a new methodology for in situ monitoring.

  16. An Integrated Monitoring System Through 3d Laser Scanner and Traditional Instruments for Load Test on Arch Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, D.; Ferrando, I.

    2017-05-01

    The experimental campaign represents an example of how the careful design of the different test phases and the choice of the needed instrumentation are fundamental aspects to obtain a proper interpretation of the results, for future application on the real structures. Additionally, the present work represents a successful example of a combined monitoring system, integrating the traditional and innovative technical instrumentation for loading tests and geomatics survey techniques. The monitoring system has been designed with the aim of defining the load carrying capacity of a masonry arch bridge scaled model and to test the performances of a new retrofitting method. In particular, two different configuration have been considered: a first one with isolated arch and a second one with gravel fill on the arch.

  17. AN INTEGRATED MONITORING SYSTEM THROUGH 3D LASER SCANNER AND TRADITIONAL INSTRUMENTS FOR LOAD TEST ON ARCH BRIDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The experimental campaign represents an example of how the careful design of the different test phases and the choice of the needed instrumentation are fundamental aspects to obtain a proper interpretation of the results, for future application on the real structures. Additionally, the present work represents a successful example of a combined monitoring system, integrating the traditional and innovative technical instrumentation for loading tests and geomatics survey techniques. The monitoring system has been designed with the aim of defining the load carrying capacity of a masonry arch bridge scaled model and to test the performances of a new retrofitting method. In particular, two different configuration have been considered: a first one with isolated arch and a second one with gravel fill on the arch.

  18. International systems for harmonization and quality control by in vivo monitoring and quality control by in vivo monitoring of internal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatova, I [National Radiation Protection Inst., Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    After the Chernobyl accident, whole body counting for the monitoring of internal contamination of the population was widely used. In many cases, great discrepancy occurred between in vivo measured values and predicted ones from model calculations. This situation was very similar to the situation in environmental monitoring, however, by sample measurement, quality assurance and quality control of the measurement procedure is much easier than by whole body counting. In addition to it, unlike in environmental monitoring, use of semiconductor detectors by whole counting was rather limited in this time so there were few laboratories which were able to distinguish up to 20 radionuclides by which people from the vicinity of Chernobyl were internally contaminated. Therefore, effort was undertaken by many international organization to summarize current status of whole body counting and to estimate uncertainty and sensitivity of different devices. In this paper efforts to harmonize an interpretation of measured results is given. Whole body counting laboratory of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) in Prague participates in the above mentioned intercomparisons with good results and scientists from NRPI have participated in the preparation of 3 international recommendations concerning measurement of internal contamination (author).

  19. A telemedicine instrument for Internet-based home monitoring of thoracoabdominal motion in patients with respiratory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Junior, Evert Pereira; Esteves, Guilherme Pompeu; Dames, Karla Kristine; Melo, Pedro Lopes de

    2011-01-01

    Changes in thoracoabdominal motion are highly prevalent in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Home care services that use telemedicine techniques and Internet-based monitoring have the potential to improve the management of these patients. However, there is no detailed description in the literature of a system for Internet-based monitoring of patients with disturbed thoracoabdominal motion. The purpose of this work was to describe the development of a new telemedicine instrument for Internet-based home monitoring of thoracoabdominal movement. The instrument directly measures changes in the thorax and abdomen circumferences and transfers data through a transmission control protocol/Internet protocol connection. After the design details are described, the accuracy of the electronic and software processing units of the instrument is evaluated by using electronic signals simulating normal subjects and individuals with thoracoabdominal motion disorders. The results obtained during in vivo studies on normal subjects simulating thoracoabdominal motion disorders showed that this new system is able to detect a reduction in abdominal movement that is associated with abnormal thoracic breathing (p telemedicine scenarios, which can reduce the costs of assistance offered to patients with respiratory diseases.

  20. Air Monitoring Leads to Discovery of New Contamination at Radioactive Waste Disposal Site (Area G) at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraig, D.H.; Conrad, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    Air monitoring at Area G, the low-level radioactive waste disposal area at Los Alamos National Laboratory, revealed increased air concentrations of 239 Pu and 241 Am at one location along the north boundary. This air monitoring location is a couple of meters north of a dirt road used to access the easternmost part of Area G. Air concentrations of 238 Pu were essentially unaffected, which was puzzling because the 238 Pu and 239 Pu are present in the local, slightly contaminated soils. Air concentrations of these radionuclides increased about a factor of ten in early 1995 and remained at those levels until the first quarter of 1996. During the spring of 1996 air concentrations again increased by a factor of about ten. No other radionuclides were elevated and no other Area G stations showed elevations of these radionuclides. After several formal meetings didn't provide an adequate cause for the elevations, a gamma survey was performed and showed a small area of significant contamination just south of the monitor location. We found in February, 1995, a trench for a water line had been dug within a meter of so of the air stations. Then, during early 1996, the dirt road was rerouted such that its new path was directly over the unknown contamination. It appears that the trenching brought contaminated material to the surface and caused the first rise in air concentrations and then the rerouting of the road over the contamination caused the second rise, during 1996. We also found that during 1976 and 1977 contaminated soils from the clean-up of an old processing facility had been spread over the filled pits in the vicinity of the air monitors. These soils were very low in 238Pu which explains why we saw very little 238 Pu in the increased air concentrations. A layer of gravel and sand was spread over the contaminated area. Although air concentrations of 239 Pu and 241 Am dropped considerably, the y have not returned to pre-1995 levels

  1. Monitoring of elemental composition of honey from selected regions of Ghana using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boateng, R.

    2015-01-01

    Honey is a sweet, thick and viscid fluid collected from beehives and usually found in cells of the honey comb. It is produced from nectar collected from various flowers by honeybees and processed. Among the important uses, pure and undiluted honey serves as natural sweetener and contains a broad variety of vitamins for human consumption. Due to its global demand, monitoring of the quality of honey is of great significance. In this study, honey samples were collected systematically from farmers and retailers in the Brong Ahafo, Ashanti and Greater Accra regions of Ghana. The sampling was done along the farmer-to-trader channels, to assess the quality of honey produced from various regions and to trace the sources of elemental contamination. Physicochemical studies; pH, electrical conductivity and specific gravity were done. The levels of selected toxic heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, V, Cr, As) and essential metals (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, Fe, Co) in the honey samples were analysed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) was also employed to determine elements such as Pb, Co, Cr and Fe. All the honey samples were found to be acidic, with pH ranging from 3.60 to 6.10. The acidity of honey is significant as it inhibits the growth of microorganisms. The values agrees favourably with the permitted pH limits of 3.40 to 3.60 for good quality honey, set by the National Honey Board of United States. The electrical conductivities measured ranged from 11.9 μS/cm to 44.4 μS/cm. The values were within the acceptable limits set by Ghana Standards Authority and other organizations (<800 μS/cm). The specific gravity of the honey samples analysed ranged from 1.297 to 2.031. These values were higher than the values (1.2081 to 1.2270) reported in Libyan Honey. However, these values were closer to the average specific gravity (1.425) value reported in other studies. These variations in the specific gravity may be related to

  2. Zero-tension lysimeters: An improved design to monitor colloid-facilitated contaminant transport in the vadose zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.L.; Scharf, R.L.; Shang, C.

    1995-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that mobile colloids facilitate the long-distance transport of contaminants. The mobility of fine particles and macromolecules has been linked to the movement of actinides, organic contaminants, and heavy metals through soil. Direct evidence for colloid mobility includes the presence of humic materials in deep aquifers as well as coatings of accumulated clay, organic matter, or sesquioxides on particle or aggregate surfaces in subsoil horizons of many soils. The potential for colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants from hazardous-waste sites requires adequate monitoring before, during, and after in-situ remediation treatments. Zero-tension lysimeters (ZTLs) are especially appropriate for sampling water as it moves through saturated soil, although some unsaturated flow events may be sampled as well. Because no ceramic barrier or fiberglass wick is involved to maintain tension on the water (as is the case with other lysimeters), particles suspended in the water as well as dissolved species may be sampled with ZTLs. In this report, a ZTL design is proposed that is more suitable for monitoring colloid-facilitated contaminant migration. The improved design consists of a cylinder made of polycarbonate or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) that is placed below undisturbed soil material. In many soils, a hydraulically powered tube may be used to extract an undisturbed core of soil before placement of the lysimeter. In those cases, the design has significant advantages over conventional designs with respect to simplicity and speed of installation. Therefore, it will allow colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants to be monitored at more locations at a given site

  3. Degradation of chlorpyrifos contaminated soil by bioslurry reactor operated in sequencing batch mode: bioprocess monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, S. Venkata; Sirisha, K.; Rao, N. Chandrasekhara; Sarma, P.N.; Reddy, S. Jayarama

    2004-01-01

    Bioslurry reactor (SS-SBR) was studied for the degradation of chlorpyrifos contaminated soil using native mixed microflora, by adopting sequencing batch mode (anoxic-aerobic-anoxic) operation. Reactor operation was monitored for a total cycle period of 72 h consisting of 3 h of FILL, 64 h REACT, 2 h of SETTLE, and 3 h of DECANT with chlorpyrifos concentrations of 3000 μg/g, 6000 μg/g and 12000 μg/g. At 3000 μg/g of chlorpyrifos concentration, 91% was degraded after 72 h of the cycle period, whereas in the case of 6000 μg/g of chlorpyrifos, 82.5% was degraded. However, for 12000 μg/g of chlorpyrifos, only 14.5% degradation was observed. The degradation rate was rapid at lower substrate concentration and 12000 μg/g of substrate concentration was found to be inhibitory. Chlorpyrifos removal rate was slow during the initial phase of the sequence operation. Half-life of chlorpyrifos degradation (t 0.5 ) was estimated to be 6.3 h for 3000 μg/g of substrate, 17.5 h for 6000 μg/g and 732.2 h for 12000 μg/g. Process performance was assessed by monitoring chlorpyrifos concentration and biochemical process parameters viz., pH, oxidation and reduction potential (ORP), dissolved oxygen (DO), oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and microbial count (CFU) during sequence operation. From the experimental data obtained it can be concluded that the rate-limiting step with the bioslurry phase reactor in the process of chlorpyrifos degradation may be attributed to the concentration of substrate present in either soil or liquid phase. Periodic operations (SBR) by varying individual components of substrate with time in each process step place micro-organisms under nutritional changes from feast to famine and maintains a wide distribution in the population of micro-organisms resulting in high uptake of the substrate in the bioslurry reactor

  4. Degradation of chlorpyrifos contaminated soil by bioslurry reactor operated in sequencing batch mode: bioprocess monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, S. Venkata [Biochemical and Environmental Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Sirisha, K. [Electrochemical Research Laboratories, Department of Chemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Rao, N. Chandrasekhara [Biochemical and Environmental Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Sarma, P.N. [Biochemical and Environmental Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Reddy, S. Jayarama [Electrochemical Research Laboratories, Department of Chemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India)]. E-mail: profjreddy_s@yahoo.co.in

    2004-12-10

    Bioslurry reactor (SS-SBR) was studied for the degradation of chlorpyrifos contaminated soil using native mixed microflora, by adopting sequencing batch mode (anoxic-aerobic-anoxic) operation. Reactor operation was monitored for a total cycle period of 72 h consisting of 3 h of FILL, 64 h REACT, 2 h of SETTLE, and 3 h of DECANT with chlorpyrifos concentrations of 3000 {mu}g/g, 6000 {mu}g/g and 12000 {mu}g/g. At 3000 {mu}g/g of chlorpyrifos concentration, 91% was degraded after 72 h of the cycle period, whereas in the case of 6000 {mu}g/g of chlorpyrifos, 82.5% was degraded. However, for 12000 {mu}g/g of chlorpyrifos, only 14.5% degradation was observed. The degradation rate was rapid at lower substrate concentration and 12000 {mu}g/g of substrate concentration was found to be inhibitory. Chlorpyrifos removal rate was slow during the initial phase of the sequence operation. Half-life of chlorpyrifos degradation (t{sub 0.5}) was estimated to be 6.3 h for 3000 {mu}g/g of substrate, 17.5 h for 6000 {mu}g/g and 732.2 h for 12000 {mu}g/g. Process performance was assessed by monitoring chlorpyrifos concentration and biochemical process parameters viz., pH, oxidation and reduction potential (ORP), dissolved oxygen (DO), oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and microbial count (CFU) during sequence operation. From the experimental data obtained it can be concluded that the rate-limiting step with the bioslurry phase reactor in the process of chlorpyrifos degradation may be attributed to the concentration of substrate present in either soil or liquid phase. Periodic operations (SBR) by varying individual components of substrate with time in each process step place micro-organisms under nutritional changes from feast to famine and maintains a wide distribution in the population of micro-organisms resulting in high uptake of the substrate in the bioslurry reactor.

  5. A near infrared instrument to monitor relative hemoglobin concentrations of human bone tissue in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Syed Mahfuzul; Khambatta, Faram; Vaithianathan, Tharshan; Thomas, John C.; Clark, Jillian M.; Marshall, Ruth

    2010-04-01

    A continuous wave near infrared instrument has been developed to monitor in vivo changes in the hemoglobin concentration of the trabecular compartment of human bone. The transmitter uses only two laser diodes of wavelengths 685 and 830 nm, and the receiver uses a single silicon photodiode operating in the photovoltaic mode. The functioning of the instrument and the depth of penetration of the near infrared signals was determined in vitro using tissue-equivalent phantoms. The instrument achieves a depth of penetration of approximately 2 cm for an optode separation of 4 cm and, therefore, has the capacity to interrogate the trabecular compartment of human bone. The functioning of the instrument was tested in vivo to evaluate the relative oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations of the proximal tibial bone of apparently healthy, normal weight, adult subjects in response to a 3 min on, 5 min off, vascular occlusion protocol. The traces of the relative Hb and HbO2 concentrations obtained were reproducible in controlled conditions. The instrument is relatively simple and flexible, and offers an inexpensive platform for further studies to obtain normative data for healthy cohorts, and to evaluate disease-specific performance characteristics for cohorts with vasculopathies of bone.

  6. EU-wide monitoring survey on emerging polar organic contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Robert; Carvalho, Raquel; António, Diana C; Comero, Sara; Locoro, Giovanni; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Ghiani, Michela; Lettieri, Teresa; Blaha, Ludek; Jarosova, Barbora; Voorspoels, Stefan; Servaes, Kelly; Haglund, Peter; Fick, Jerker; Lindberg, Richard H; Schwesig, David; Gawlik, Bernd M

    2013-11-01

    In the year 2010, effluents from 90 European wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for 156 polar organic chemical contaminants. The analyses were complemented by effect-based monitoring approaches aiming at estrogenicity and dioxin-like toxicity analyzed by in vitro reporter gene bioassays, and yeast and diatom culture acute toxicity optical bioassays. Analyses of organic substances were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) or gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Target microcontaminants were pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), veterinary (antibiotic) drugs, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), organophosphate ester flame retardants, pesticides (and some metabolites), industrial chemicals such as benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), iodinated x-ray contrast agents, and gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging agents; in addition biological endpoints were measured. The obtained results show the presence of 125 substances (80% of the target compounds) in European wastewater effluents, in concentrations ranging from low nanograms to milligrams per liter. These results allow for an estimation to be made of a European median level for the chemicals investigated in WWTP effluents. The most relevant compounds in the effluent waters with the highest median concentration levels were the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and sucralose, benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), several organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers (e.g. tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate; TCPP), pharmaceutical compounds such as carbamazepine, tramadol, telmisartan, venlafaxine, irbesartan, fluconazole, oxazepam, fexofenadine, diclofenac, citalopram, codeine, bisoprolol, eprosartan, the antibiotics trimethoprim, ciprofloxacine, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycine, the insect repellent N,N'-diethyltoluamide (DEET), the pesticides

  7. Monitoring PAH contamination in water: Comparison of biological and physico-chemical tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeault, A.; Gourlay-Francé, C.

    2013-01-01

    The suitability of biological methods and chemical-based passive samplers to determine exposure to PAHs was tested by deploying zebra mussels and SPMDs along the Seine River over 11 months. The concentration of 13 PAHs was analyzed every month in both water and mussels. The sum of the PAH concentrations in mussels, initially at 299 ng g dry wt −1 , reached 2654, 3972 and 3727 ng g −1 at the end of exposure in the three sampling points taken through the river. The respective SPMD-available concentrations of TPAHs reached 9, 52 and 34 ng L −1 . Results showed seasonal variations of total PAH concentrations in the mussels, characterized by a decrease during spawning. The non-achievement of steady state concentration that was observed in mussels may be accounted for by the temporal variation of environmental concentrations. Thus, a bioaccumulation model based on kinetic rather than simple equilibrium partitioning was found to be more appropriate to describe PAH content in mussels. Moreover, biodynamic kinetic modeling proved useful to better understand the uptake and loss processes of pyrene. It clearly shows that these processes are markedly influenced by the biological state of the zebra mussels. The most realistic hypothesis is that the temporal variation of the biodynamic parameters may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolization of PAHs during spawning. Since SPMD passive samplers cannot integrate such biological factors, they are poor predictors of PAH bioavailability in mussels. - Highlights: • PAH contamination was monitored by deploying mussels and SPMDs over 11 months along the Seine River. • 5–6 ring PAHs which could not be quantified in spot samples, were measured in SPMDs. • PAH concentrations in the mussels decreased during spawning. • Temporal variation of bioaccumulated PAH may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolism during spawning. • Biodynamic model was allowed to explain the bioaccumulation

  8. Assessment of the Extraction Methods for Monitoring Phthalate Emerging Contaminants in Groundwater and Tap Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotto, I.; Padilla, I. Y.; De Jesús, N. H.; Torres, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Trace organic contaminants such as phthalates, among other chemicals of emerging concerns, have not historically been considered as pollutants but are being detected in water, posing a potential risk to public health and the environment. One of the most common phthalates of particular concern is di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer normally found in plastics and consumer products, including: cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, food packages, water bottles, and wiring cables. DEHP has been associated with preterm birth, a major cause of neonatal mortality and health complications. This study aims at monitoring the presence and concentration of DEHP and other phthalates in groundwater and tap water systems in Puerto Rico, which has one of the highest rates of preterm birth in the U.S. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggests a liquid-liquid extraction method that uses methylene chloride as the preferred organic solvent for the extractions. This work presents modified EPA methods that reduce the volume of sample and solvent used, lower the time of analysis, increase productivity, and decrease hazards and waste. Distribution coefficient of DEHP between methylene chloride and water are estimated and related to sample extraction efficiency. Research results indicate that DEHP is in fact distributed between water and methylene chloride with a distribution coefficient average value of 1.24. The study concludes that the sample and solvent volumes have influence on the efficiency but have not an effect on the distribution coefficient. The tests show higher extraction efficiencies for lower DEHP concentrations and higher extraction volumes. Results from the water analysis show presence of DEHP in 55% of groundwater and 44% of tap water samples, indicating a potential exposure through water.

  9. Monitoring PAH contamination in water: Comparison of biological and physico-chemical tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeault, A., E-mail: bourgeault@ensil.unilim.fr; Gourlay-Francé, C.

    2013-06-01

    The suitability of biological methods and chemical-based passive samplers to determine exposure to PAHs was tested by deploying zebra mussels and SPMDs along the Seine River over 11 months. The concentration of 13 PAHs was analyzed every month in both water and mussels. The sum of the PAH concentrations in mussels, initially at 299 ng g{sub dry} {sub wt}{sup −1}, reached 2654, 3972 and 3727 ng g{sup −1} at the end of exposure in the three sampling points taken through the river. The respective SPMD-available concentrations of TPAHs reached 9, 52 and 34 ng L{sup −1}. Results showed seasonal variations of total PAH concentrations in the mussels, characterized by a decrease during spawning. The non-achievement of steady state concentration that was observed in mussels may be accounted for by the temporal variation of environmental concentrations. Thus, a bioaccumulation model based on kinetic rather than simple equilibrium partitioning was found to be more appropriate to describe PAH content in mussels. Moreover, biodynamic kinetic modeling proved useful to better understand the uptake and loss processes of pyrene. It clearly shows that these processes are markedly influenced by the biological state of the zebra mussels. The most realistic hypothesis is that the temporal variation of the biodynamic parameters may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolization of PAHs during spawning. Since SPMD passive samplers cannot integrate such biological factors, they are poor predictors of PAH bioavailability in mussels. - Highlights: • PAH contamination was monitored by deploying mussels and SPMDs over 11 months along the Seine River. • 5–6 ring PAHs which could not be quantified in spot samples, were measured in SPMDs. • PAH concentrations in the mussels decreased during spawning. • Temporal variation of bioaccumulated PAH may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolism during spawning. • Biodynamic model was allowed to explain

  10. RADIATION HYGIENIC MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT OF POPULATION DOSES IN RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED AREAS OF TULA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Chichura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal. The analyses of radiation hygienic monitoring conducted in Tula region territories affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident regarding cesium-137 and strontium- 90 in the local foodstuffs and the analyses of populational annual effective dose. The materials and methods. The survey was conducted in Tula Region since 1997 to 2015. Over that period, more than fifty thousand samples of the main foodstuffs from the post-Chernobyl contaminated area were analyzed. Simultaneously with that, the external gamma - radiation dose rate was measured in the fixed control points. The dynamics of cesium -137 and strontium-90 content in foodstuffs were assessed along with the maximum values of the mean annual effective doses to the population and the contribution of the collective dose from medical exposures into the structure of the annual effective collective dose to the population. The results. The amount of cesium-137 and strontium -90 in the local foodstuffs was identified. The external gamma- radiation dose rate values were found to be stable and not exceeding the natural fluctuations range typical for the middle latitudes of Russia’s European territory. The maximum mean annual effective dose to the population reflects the stable radiation situation and does not exceed the permissible value of 1 mSv. The contribution of the collective dose from medical exposures of the population has been continuously reducing as well as the average individual dose to the population per one medical treatment under the annual increase of the medical treatments quantities. The conclusion. There is no exceedance of the admissible levels of cesium-137 and strontium- 90 content in the local foodstuffs. The mean annual effective dose to the population has decreased which makes it possible to transfer the settlements affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident to normal life style. This is covered by the draft concept of the settlements’ transfer to normal life style.

  11. Monitoring organic contaminants in eggs of glaucous and glaucous-winged gulls (Larus hyperboreus and Larus glaucescens) from Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Becker, Paul R.; Ellisor, Michael B.; Moors, Amanda J.; Pugh, Rebecca S.; Roseneau, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Gull eggs have been used to monitor contaminants in many parts of the world. The Seabird Tissue Archival and Monitoring Project (STAMP) is a long-term program designed to track trends in pollutants in northern marine environments using seabird eggs. Glaucous and glaucous-winged gull (Larus hyperboreus and Larus glaucescens) eggs collected in 2005 from seven Alaskan colonies were analyzed for organic contaminants. Concentrations ranged from below detection limits to 322 ng g -1 wet mass in one egg for 4,4'-DDE and differed among the samples collected in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering and Chukchi Seas. Chick growth and survival rates may be affected by the contaminant levels found in the eggs, but the eggs should be safe for human consumption if they are eaten in small quantities. STAMP plans to continue collecting and banking gull eggs for future real-time and retrospective analyses. - Organic contaminant concentrations in Alaskan gull eggs could possibly be affecting chick growth and survival rates, but the eggs should be safe for humans to eat in small quantities

  12. Pressure monitoring and characterization of external sources of contamination at the site of the payment drinking water epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besner, Marie-Claude; Broséus, Romain; Lavoie, Jean; Giovanni, George Di; Payment, Pierre; Prévost, Michèle

    2010-01-01

    The 1990s epidemiological studies by Payment and colleagues suggested that an increase in gastrointestinal illnesses observed in the population consuming tap water from a system meeting all water quality regulations might be associated with distribution system deficiencies. In the current study, the vulnerability of this distribution system to microbial intrusion was assessed by characterizing potential sources of contamination near pipelines and monitoring the frequency and magnitude of negative pressures. Bacterial indicators of fecal contamination were recovered more frequently in the water from flooded air-valve vaults than in the soil or water from pipe trenches. The level of fecal contamination in these various sources was more similar to levels from river water rather than wastewater. Because of its configuration, this distribution system is vulnerable to negative pressures when pressure values out of the treatment plant reach or drop below 172 kPa (25 psi), which occurred nine times during a monitoring period of 17 months. The results from this investigation suggest that this distribution system is vulnerable to contamination by intrusion. Comparison of the frequency of occurrence of negative pressure events and repair rates with data from other distribution systems suggests that the system studied by Payment and colleagues is not atypical.

  13. Development of an expert system for the taking into account of uncertainties in the monitoring of internal contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davesne, E.; Blanchardon, E.; Casanova, P.; Chojnacki, E.; Paquet, F.

    2010-01-01

    Internal contaminations may result from professional exposure and they can be monitored by anthropo-radiometric and radio-toxicological measurements which are interpreted in terms of embedded activity and effective dose by means of biokinetic and dosimetric models. In spite of standards, some uncertainties in the dosimetric interpretation of radio-toxicological measurements may remain. The authors report the development of a software (OPSCI code) which takes into account uncertainties related to the worker internal dosimetry, the calculation of the minimum detectable dose related to an exposure, and the development of a data monitoring programme

  14. Environmental contaminants in food. Volume II-part a: working papers. I. Priority setting of toxic substances for guiding monitoring programs. II. Five case studies of environmental food contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume contains working papers written for Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to assist in preparation of the report Environmental Contaminants in Food. The contents include: (1) Priority setting of toxic substances for guiding monitoring programs; and (2) Five case studies of environmental food contamination

  15. Geotechnical instrumentation requirements for atdepth testing and repository monitoring in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper outlines geotechnical instrumentation requirements for the possible establishment of a nuclear waste repository in tuff on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has specified a continuing program to confirm performance during the operational period of the repository, which could last 50 years. Minimum required geotechnical measurements for confirmation of performance include thermal and thermomechanical responses; changes in stress, strain, and displacements; and pore pressure and groundwater flow characteristics. Conditions expected in tuff are: maximum rock temperatures of less than 250 0 C, stresses less than 100 MPa, strains between + or -0.01 mm/mm, and pore pressures less than 35 KPa in the unsaturated zone where hydraulic head is not the primary contributor. The paper describes instrumentation needed to make the desired measurements. In general, the instrumentation and data system are required to be stable and reliable for tens of years. Designs must consider requirements for temperature stability, temperature expansion compensation, moisture resistance, and long-term durability in mining-type environments. Severe requirements such as these suggest consideration of techniques for in-situ replacement of instrumentation. State-of-the-art instrumentation is briefly described along with a discussion of needs for refinement, replacement/recalibration and instrumentation development

  16. Use of dual-head gamma camera in radionuclide internal contamination monitoring on radiation workers from a nuclear medicine department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Brandan, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    As a part of an internal dosimetry program that is performed at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology - Nuclear Medicine Department, in the present work we suggest a procedure for the routinely monitoring of internal contamination on radiation workers and nuclear medicine staff. The procedure is based on the identification and quantification of contaminating radionuclides in human body by using a dual-head whole-body gamma camera. The results have shown that the procedures described in this study can be used to implement a method to quantify minimal accumulated activity in the main human organs to evaluate internal contamination with radionuclides. The high sensitivity of the uncollimated gamma camera is advantageous for the routinely detection and identification of small activities of internal contamination. But, the null spatial resolution makes impossible the definition of contaminated region of interest. Then, the use of collimators is necessary to the quantification of incorporated radionuclides activities in the main human organs and for the internal doses assessment. (author)

  17. Measurement of new operational quantities with radiation protection instruments designed for working area monitoring and for individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigent, R.; Chary, J.; Chemtob, M.

    1992-01-01

    The ICRP recommended a dose limitation system based on numerical evaluation of the dose equivalent to organs or tissues, H T , which are used to calculate the effective dose, H E , by weighting. The ICRU proposed new operational quantities accessible to measurement which are conservative with respect to these recommendations. The objective of this paper is to recall briefly the basic recommendations and to find out if radiation protection instruments presently used calibrated in terms of the previous quantities are capable to measure these new quantities. A dozen of practical cases are presented. (author)

  18. Measurement of new operational quantities with radiation protection instruments designed for working area monitoring and for individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigent, R.; Chary, J.; Chemtob, M.; Lebouleux, P.

    1992-01-01

    The ICRP recommended a dose limitation system based on numerical evaluation of the dose equivalent to organs or tissues, H T , which are used to calculate the effective dose, H E , by weighting. The ICRU proposed new operational quantities accessible to measurement which are conservative with respect to these recommendations. The objective of this paper is to recall briefly the basic recommendations and to find out if radiation protection instruments presently used calibrated in terms of the previous quantities are capable to measure these new quantities. A dozen of practical cases are presented

  19. IN-SITU, LONG-TERM MONITORING SYSTEM FOR RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, James S.; McKeever, Stephen W.S.; Akselrod, Mark S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the project entitled ''In-situ, Long-term Monitoring System for Radioactive Contaminants.'' Phase one of this effort included four objectives, each with specific success criteria. The first objective was to produce dosimetry grade fibers and rods of aluminum oxide. The success criterion for this milestone was the production of aluminum oxide rods and fibers that have a minimum measurable dose (MMD) of 100 mrem or less. This milestone was completed and the MMD for the rods was measured to be 1.53 mrem. Based on the MMD, the ability of the sensor to measure 137 Cs, 90 Sr/ 90 Y, and 99 Tc was evaluated. It was determined that the sensor can measure the release limit of these radionuclides (50 pCi/cm 3 ) in 150 h, 200 h, and 54,000 h, respectively. The monitor is adequate for measuring 137 Cs and 90 Sr/ 90 Y but is unsuitable for measuring 99 Tc in soil. The second objective was to construct a prototype sensor (dosimeter and fiber optic channel). There were three success criteria for this milestone: (1) Perform measurements with the sensor for both gamma and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 10% or less; (2) Demonstrate the ability of the sensor to discriminate between gamma and beta radiation; and (3) Obtain similar or relatable results for differing lengths of fiber optic cable. These milestones were met. The sensor was able to measure gamma radiation repeatedly with a standard deviation of 3.15% and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 2.85%. Data is presented that demonstrates that an end cap can be used to discriminate between beta plus gamma radiation using beta radiation from a 90 Sr/ 90 Y source, and gamma radiation alone. It is shown that some amount of attenuation occurs in longer fiber optic cables, but it is unclear if the attenuation is due to poor alignment of the dosimeter and the cable. This issue will be investigated further when more dosimeters are available so that the dosimeters

  20. IN-SITU, LONG-TERM MONITORING SYSTEM FOR RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, James S.; McKeever, Stephen W.S.; Akselrod, Mark S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the project entitled ''In-situ, Long-term Monitoring System for Radioactive Contaminants.'' Phase one of this effort included four objectives, each with specific success criteria. The first objective was to produce dosimetry grade fibers and rods of aluminum oxide. The success criterion for this milestone was the production of aluminum oxide rods and fibers that have a minimum measureable dose (MMD) of 100 mrem or less. This milestone was completed and the MMD for the rods was measured to be 1.53 mrem. Based on the MMD, the ability of the sensor to measure 137 Cs, 90 Sr/ 90 Y, and 99 Tc was evaluated. It was determined that the sensor can measure the release limit of these radionuclides (50 pCi/cm 3 ) in 150 h, 200 h, and 54,000 h, respectively. The monitor is adequate for measuring 137 Cs and 90 Sr/ 90 Y but is unsuitable for measuring 99 Tc in soil. The second objective was to construct a prototype sensor (dosimeter and fiber optic channel). There were three success criteria for this milestone: (1) Perform measurements with the sensor for both gamma and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 10% or less; (2) Demonstrate the ability of the sensor to discriminate between gamma and beta radiation; and (3) Obtain similar or relatable results for differing lengths of fiber optic cable. These milestones were met. The sensor was able to measure gamma radiation repeatedly with a standard deviation of 3.15% and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 2.85%. Data is presented that demonstrates that an end cap can be used to discriminate between beta plus gamma and gamma radiation. It is shown that some amount of attenuation occurs in longer fiber optic cables, but it is unclear if the attenuation is due to poor alignment of the dosimeter and the cable. This issue will be investigated further when more dosimeters are available so that the dosimeters can be permanently attached to the longer cables. The third

  1. From Landsat through SLI: Ball Aerospace Instrument Architecture for Earth Surface Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, P. R.; Gilmore, A. S.; Malone, K. J.; Kampe, T. U.; Good, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Landsat legacy spans more than forty years of moderate resolution, multi-spectral imaging of the Earth's surface. Applications for Landsat data include global environmental change, disaster planning and recovery, crop and natural resource management, and glaciology. In recent years, coastal water science has been greatly enhanced by the outstanding on-orbit performance of Landsat 8. Ball Aerospace designed and built the Operational Land Imager (OLI) instrument on Landsat 8, and is in the process of building OLI 2 for Landsat 9. Both of these instruments have the same design however improved performance is expected from OLI 2 due to greater image bit depth (14 bit on OLI 2 vs 12 bit on OLI). Ball Aerospace is currently working on two novel instrument architectures applicable to Sustainable Land Imaging for Landsat 10 and beyond. With increased budget constraints probable for future missions, technological improvements must be included in future instrument architectures to enable increased capabilities at lower cost. Ball presents the instrument architectures and associated capabilities enabling new science in past, current, and future Landsat missions.

  2. Innovative technologies (DIY instruments and data sonification) for engaging volunteers to participate in marine environmental monitoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piera, J.

    2016-02-01

    In recent years the promotion of marine observations based on volunteer participation, known as Citizen Science, has provided environmental data with unprecedented resolution and coverage. The Citizen Science based approach has the additional advantage to engage people by raising awareness and knowledge of marine environmental problems. The technological advances in embedded systems and sensors, enables citizens to create their own devices (known as DIY, Do-It-Yourself, technologies) for monitoring the marine environment. Within the context of the CITCLOPS project (www.citclops.eu), a DIY instrument was developed to monitor changes on water transparency as a water quality indicator. The instrument, named KdUINO, is based on quasi-digital sensors controlled by an open-hardware (Arduino) board. The sensors measure light irradiance at different depth and the instrument automatically calculates the light diffuse attenuation Kd coefficient to quantify the water transparency. The buoy construction is an ideal activity for creative STEM programming. Several workshops in high schools were done to show to the students how to construct their own buoy. Some of them used the buoy to develop their own scientific experiments. In order to engage students more motivated in artistic disciplines, the research group developed also a sonification system that allows creating music and graphics using KdUINO measurements as input data.

  3. Milk and serum standard reference materials for monitoring organic contaminants in human samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M; Eppe, Gauthier; Focant, Jean-François; Hamilton, Coreen; Heckert, N Alan; Heltsley, Rebecca M; Hoover, Dale; Keller, Jennifer M; Leigh, Stefan D; Patterson, Donald G; Pintar, Adam L; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A

    2013-02-01

    Four new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of chemical contaminant measurements required for human biomonitoring studies, SRM 1953 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1954 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum. These materials were developed as part of a collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with both agencies contributing data used in the certification of mass fraction values for a wide range of organic contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners. The certified mass fractions of the organic contaminants in unfortified samples, SRM 1953 and SRM 1957, ranged from 12 ng/kg to 2200 ng/kg with the exception of 4,4'-DDE in SRM 1953 at 7400 ng/kg with expanded uncertainties generally <14 %. This agreement suggests that there were no significant biases existing among the multiple methods used for analysis.

  4. Monitoring of Soil Contamination by Heavy Metals in the Impact Zone of Copper-Nickel Smelter on the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashulina, G. M.

    2018-04-01

    The results of landscape monitoring of the concentrations of acid-extractable Ni, Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn in soils of the local impact zone of the Severonikel industrial complex on the Kola Peninsula are discussed. The aim of monitoring studies was to reveal the spatial and temporal regularities of variation in the degree of soil contamination by heavy metals. In 2001-2011, the concentrations of acid-extractable compounds of the elements in the upper part of organic soil horizons around this plant exceeded their background concentrations by two orders of magnitude for Cu and Co and by three orders of magnitude for Ni. The degree of topsoil contamination with Ni, Cu, and Co generally corresponded to the distance of the plots from the contamination source and to the modern technogenic load. However, because of the long period of the emissions, their extreme amounts, and complex composition, indirect factors—the degree of technogenic soil degradation, the loss of soil organic matter, saturation of the surface soil layers by the contaminating metals, and competitive relationships between the elements—also affect soil contamination level. The concentrations of all the studied metals in the topsoil are characterized by considerable (1.5 to 7 times) variability in their long-term dynamics. The most important factors of this variability for Ni, Cu, and Co are the organic matter content of the samples and the amount of atmospheric precipitation in the year preceding the sampling. An inverse relationship between element concentrations in the soils and the amount of atmospheric precipitation attests to the dynamic nature and reversible character of the accumulation of heavy metals in the soils.

  5. Real-Time Novel Holographic Monitoring of Airborne Trace Contaminants Onboard Space Vessels, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New challenges and mission requirements constantly emerge, establishing the need for versatile equipment and instruments to perform the new/expanded tasks....

  6. Radiation protection instrumentation. Monitoring equipment. Atmospheric radioactive iodine in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This international standard applies to portable or installed equipment for the monitoring of radioactive iodine (such as I-131 or I-125) in air in the environment of nuclear installations during normal operation, during design basis events, and in emergency situations. The monitoring involves continuous sample trapping and, where adequate, automatic start of sampling. The document deals with radioactive iodine monitor design, testing procedures, and documentation. Appended tables refer to the reference and normal testing conditions, tests in normal testing conditions, tests during changes of the affecting quantities, and tests of changes in the air circuit. (P.A.)

  7. Development of a Wearable Instrumented Vest for Posture Monitoring and System Usability Verification Based on the Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Yen; Chou, Wen-Cheng; Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Lin, Chung-Chih; Lee, Ming-Yih

    2016-01-01

    Body posture and activity are important indices for assessing health and quality of life, especially for elderly people. Therefore, an easily wearable device or instrumented garment would be valuable for monitoring elderly people’s postures and activities to facilitate healthy aging. In particular, such devices should be accepted by elderly people so that they are willing to wear it all the time. This paper presents the design and development of a novel, textile-based, intelligent wearable vest for real-time posture monitoring and emergency warnings. The vest provides a highly portable and low-cost solution that can be used both indoors and outdoors in order to provide long-term care at home, including health promotion, healthy aging assessments, and health abnormality alerts. The usability of the system was verified using a technology acceptance model-based study of 50 elderly people. The results indicated that although elderly people are anxious about some newly developed wearable technologies, they look forward to wearing this instrumented posture-monitoring vest in the future. PMID:27999324

  8. Development of a Wearable Instrumented Vest for Posture Monitoring and System Usability Verification Based on the Technology Acceptance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Yen; Chou, Wen-Cheng; Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Lin, Chung-Chih; Lee, Ming-Yih

    2016-12-17

    Body posture and activity are important indices for assessing health and quality of life, especially for elderly people. Therefore, an easily wearable device or instrumented garment would be valuable for monitoring elderly people's postures and activities to facilitate healthy aging. In particular, such devices should be accepted by elderly people so that they are willing to wear it all the time. This paper presents the design and development of a novel, textile-based, intelligent wearable vest for real-time posture monitoring and emergency warnings. The vest provides a highly portable and low-cost solution that can be used both indoors and outdoors in order to provide long-term care at home, including health promotion, healthy aging assessments, and health abnormality alerts. The usability of the system was verified using a technology acceptance model-based study of 50 elderly people. The results indicated that although elderly people are anxious about some newly developed wearable technologies, they look forward to wearing this instrumented posture-monitoring vest in the future.

  9. The monitoring of radioactive contamination and radiation exposure in the environment in Germany- tasks, techniques, realizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.

    1998-01-01

    A brief historical account of the development of the monitoring of radioactivity in the environment in Germany is given. The aims of monitoring and the tasks, classified according to the possible sources of release, are presented and the methods required are described. The monitoring systems, set up on the basis of different legal principles, are presented and the technical realization of these including their current state of development, is described. Finally, an account is given of the coordination of the national monitoring systems which is at present in progress, as well as of the integration of these monitoring systems into international monitoring and information networks. (author)

  10. Monitoring of selected essential elements and contaminants at sheep and cow farms in Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina TUNEGOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate the actual contamination of selected area of Slovakia, in view of its environmental character referred both to the suitability or unsuitability of the use of milk from this area, to other food processing. This article deals with analysis of the content of selected compounds in soil, feed and milk, at the cow and sheep farms. Village in Eastern Slovakia, Tulčík, was the area of investigation. This area is characterized as an area with mild disturbance of environment. 11 compounds have been analyzed (calcium, selenium, cadmium, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyls – congeners 138, 153, 180, and pesticides - p,p´ DDE, Endosulfan I., Beta-HCH, aflatoxin M1. Samples of soil were collected once a year (spring season, samples of feeds and milk were collected two-times a year (spring and autumn season. Analysis of samples was performed in Eurofins Bel/Novamann (Nové Zámky, Slovak Republic. Analyses were performed by routine methods, according to the valid methodologies. Levels of compounds were obtained and then results have been compared with the most acceptable limits in according to applicable legislation. At both farms, 73.08% (38 samples of analyzed compounds were below the limit of quantification (LOQ and 26.92% (14 samples of compounds were quantifiable. The most significant differences between monitored farms were recorded in soil (27 720 mg·kg-1 Ca, feed (27 620 mg·kg-1 Ca and milk (960 mg·kg-1 Ca. The high content of calcium in soil and feed did not affect the content of calcium in milk. The results showed that the content of toxic elements, polychorinated biphenyls, pesticides and aflatoxin M1 in analyzed area of Eastern Slovakia was very low and under the limit of quantification. It can be concluded, that the use of milk from this area for direct use or for dairy products is appropriate and poses no health risk to the consumers.

  11. Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring, SoilCAM project highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, H. K.; Van Der Zee, S. E.; Wehrer, M.; Godio, A.; Pedersen, L. B.; Tsocano, G.

    2013-12-01

    The SoilCAM project (2008- 2012, EU-FP7-212663) aimed at improving methods for monitoring subsurace contaminant distribution and biodegradation. Two test sites were chosen, Oslo airport Gardermoen, Norway where de-icing agents infiltrate the soil during snowmelt and the Trecate site in Italy where an inland crude oil spill occurred in 1994. A number of geophysical investigation techniques were combined with soil and water sampling techniques. Data obtained from time-lapse measurements were further analysed by numerical modelling of flow and transport at different scales in order to characterise transport processes in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Laboratory experiments provided physical and biogeochemical data for model parameterisation and to select remediation methods. The geophysical techniques were used to map geological heterogeneities and to conduct time-lapse measurements of processes in the unsaturated zone. Both cross borehole and surface electrodes were used for electrical resistivity and induced polarisation surveys. Results showed clear indications of areas highly affected by de-icing chemicals along the runway at Oslo airport. The time lapse measurements along the runway at the airport showed infiltration patterns during snowmelt and were used to validate 2D unsaturated flow and transport simulations using SUTRA. The simulations illustrate the effect of layering geological structures and membranes, buried parallel to the runway, on the flow pattern. Complex interaction between bio-geo-chemical processes in a 1D vertical profile along the runway were described with the ORCHESTRA model. Smaller scale field site measurements revealed increase of iron and manganese during degradation of de-icing chemicals. At the Trecate site a combination of georadar, electrical resistivity and radio magneto telluric provided a broad outline of the geology down to 50 m. Anomalies in the Induced polarisation and electrical resistivity data from the cross borehole

  12. Design, Validation, and Use of an Evaluation Instrument for Monitoring Systemic Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, Kathryn; Boone, William; Kahle, Jane Butler; Fraser, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the design, development, validation, and use of an instrument that measures student attitudes and several environmental dimensions (i.e., standards-based teaching, home support, and peer support). Indicates that the classroom environment (standards-based teaching practices) was the strongest independent predictor of both achievement and…

  13. 40 CFR 65.104 - Instrument and sensory monitoring for leaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the representative composition of the process fluid not each individual organic compound in the stream...)(ii) of this section. (i) Mixtures of methane in air at a concentration no more than 2,000 parts per... calibration gas other than methane in air may be used if the instrument does not respond to methane or if the...

  14. Novel mass spectrometric instrument for gaseous and particulate characterization and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggiola, M.J.

    1993-04-01

    Under contract DE-AC21-92MC29116, SRI International will develop a unique new instrument that will be capable of providing real-time (< l minute), quantitative, chemical characterization of gaseous and particulate pollutants generated from DOE waste cleanup activities. The instrument will be capable of detecting and identifying volatile organic compounds, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and transuranic species released during waste cleanup activities. The instrument will be unique in its ability to detect and quantify in real-time these diverse pollutants in both vapor and particulate form. The instrument to be developed under this program will consist of several major components: (1) an isokinetic sampler capable of operating over a wide range of temperatures (up to 500 K) and flow rates; (2) a high pressure to low pressure transition and sampling region that efficiently separates particles from vapor-phase components for separate, parallel analyses; (3) two small mass spectrometers, one optimized for organic analysis using a unique field ionization source and one optimized for particulate characterization using thermal pyrolysis and electron-impact ionization (EI); and (4) a powerful personal computer for control and data acquisition

  15. Operational test procedure for pumping and instrumentation control skid SALW-6001B monitor and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.F.

    1995-11-01

    This OTP shall verify and document that the monitor and control system comprised of PICS SALW-6001B PLC, 242S PLC, Operator Control Station, and communication network is functioning per operational requirements

  16. Latest nuclear monitoring instrumentation and control system and its planned application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Seishiro; Sato, Toshifumi; Ikeda, Jun

    2002-01-01

    With the recent rapid progress made in electronic devices used in digital monitoring and control systems, Toshiba has developed special-purpose digital monitoring equipment and human-machine interface equipment that meet the special requirement of high reliability and long-term supply and maintainability for nuclear power plants, and is scheduled to apply these new products to actual nuclear power plants. Moreover, for the in-core sensor, which is a special-purpose product for nuclear power plants, Toshiba has been developing a new local power range monitor (LPRM) detector as the comprehensive result of improvements made up to now, and has developed the first domestic gamma-thermo (GT) detector as a pivot of the next-generation neutron monitoring system. (author)

  17. Field sampling for monitoring migration and defining the areal extent of chemical contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Skalski, J.R.; Eberhardt, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.

    1984-11-01

    Initial research on compositing, field designs, and site mapping oriented toward detecting spills and migration at commercial low-level radioactive or chemical waste sites is summarized. Results indicate that the significance test developed to detect samples containing high levels of contamination when they are mixed with several other samples below detectable limits (composites), will be highly effective with large sample sizes when contaminant levels frequently or greatly exceed a maximum acceptable level. These conditions of frequent and high contaminant levels are most likely to occur in regions of a commercial waste site where the priors (previous knowledge) about a spill or migration are highest. Conversely, initial investigations of Bayes sampling strategies suggest that field sampling efforts should be inversely proportional to the priors (expressed as probabilities) for the occurrence of contamination

  18. Comparison of Passive Samplers for Monitoring Dissolved Organic Contaminants in Water Column Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonionic organic contaminants (NOCs) are difficult to measure in the water column due to their inherent chemical properties resulting in low water solubility and high particle activity. Traditional sampling methods require large quantities of water to be extracted and interferen...

  19. Sweeping total reflection X-ray fluorescence optimisation to monitor the metallic contamination into IC manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borde, Yannick; Danel, Adrien; Roche, Agnes; Veillerot, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Among the methods available on the market today to control as metallic contamination in integrated circuit manufacturing, Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence mode appears a very good method, providing fast and entire wafer mapping. With the goal of a pertinent use of Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence in advanced Integrated Circuit manufacturing this work discusses how acceptable levels of contamination specified by the production (low levels to be detected) can be taken into account. The relation between measurement results (surface coverage, throughput, low limit of detection, limit of quantification, quantification of localized contamination) and Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence parameters (number of measurement points and integration time per point) is presented in details. In particular, a model is proposed to explain the mismatch between actual surface contamination in a localized spot on wafer and Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence reading. Both calibration and geometric issues have been taken into account

  20. A Novel Design of Needle Aspiration Biopsy Monitoring Instrument (NAOMI Tested on a Low Cost Chest Phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surakusumah Rino Ferdian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Needle biopsy is a medical intervention method for taking a lung tissue sample that suspected as a cancer. The disadvantage is the physicians directly visualize the anatomical structures in an open surgery for lung cancer biopsy procedure. There is a need to develop an instrument that may help the physician to guarantee the accuracy and efficiency while performing needle aspiration biopsy. Therefore, a needle aspiration biopsy monitoring instrument or named as NAOMI is proposed. It consists of a microcontroller system, an IMU sensor, an ultrasonic ranging module, a bluetooth module, and a 9V lithium battery. The experimental testing consist of performance testing, functional testing using chest phantom, and user acceptances. The results showed that the NAOMI improve the accuracy and efficiency while performing the needle biopsy operation.

  1. High‐resolution mass spectrometry of skin mucus for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fathead minnows exposed to wastewater effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    High‐resolution mass spectrometry is advantageous for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fish exposed to complex wastewater effluent. We evaluated this technique using skin mucus from male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales pr...

  2. Performance of passive samplers for monitoring estuarine water column concentrations: 2. Emerging contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Monique M; Burgess, Robert M; Suuberg, Eric M; Cantwell, Mark G; Pennell, Kelly G

    2013-10-01

    Measuring dissolved concentrations of emerging contaminants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and triclosan, can be challenging due to their physicochemical properties resulting in low aqueous solubilities and association with particles. Passive sampling methods have been applied to assess dissolved concentrations in water and sediments primarily for legacy contaminants. Although the technology is applicable to some emerging contaminants, the use of passive samplers with emerging contaminants is limited. In the present study, the performance of 3 common passive samplers was evaluated for sampling PBDEs and triclosan. Passive sampling polymers included low-density polyethylene (PE) and polyoxymethylene (POM) sheets, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers. Dissolved concentrations were calculated using measured sampler concentrations and laboratory-derived partition coefficients. Dissolved tri-, tetra-, and pentabrominated PBDE congeners were detected at several of the study sites at very low pg/L concentrations using PE and POM. Calculated dissolved water concentrations of triclosan ranged from 1.7 ng/L to 18 ng/L for POM and 8.8 ng/L to 13 ng/L for PE using performance reference compound equilibrium adjustments. Concentrations in SPME were not reported due to lack of detectable chemical in the PDMS polymer deployed. Although both PE and POM were found to effectively accumulate emerging contaminants from the water column, further research is needed to determine their utility as passive sampling devices for emerging contaminants. © 2013 SETAC.

  3. Review: The Use of Real-Time Fluorescence Instrumentation to Monitor Ambient Primary Biological Aerosol Particles (PBAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehael J. Fennelly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP encompass many particle types that are derived from several biological kingdoms. These aerosol particles can be composed of both whole living units such as pollen, bacteria, and fungi, as well as from mechanically formed particles, such as plant debris. They constitute a significant proportion of the overall atmospheric particle load and have been linked with adverse health issues and climatic effects on the environment. Traditional methods for their analysis have focused on the direct capture of PBAP before subsequent laboratory analysis. These analysis types have generally relied on direct optical microscopy or incubation on agar plates, followed by time-consuming microbiological investigation. In an effort to address some of these deficits, real-time fluorescence monitors have come to prominence in the analysis of PBAP. These instruments offer significant advantages over traditional methods, including the measurement of concentrations, as well as the potential to simultaneously identify individual analyte particles in real-time. Due to the automated nature of these measurements, large data sets can be collected and analyzed with relative ease. This review seeks to highlight and discuss the extensive literature pertaining to the most commonly used commercially available real-time fluorescence monitors (WIBS, UV-APS and BioScout. It discusses the instruments operating principles, their limitations and advantages, and the various environments in which they have been deployed. The review provides a detailed examination of the ambient fluorescent aerosol particle concentration profiles that are obtained by these studies, along with the various strategies adopted by researchers to analyze the substantial data sets the instruments generate. Finally, a brief reflection is presented on the role that future instrumentation may provide in revolutionizing this area of atmospheric research.

  4. Air pollution monitoring of an urban dust in Daejeon city, Korea by using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Sam Chung; Sun-Ha Kim; Jong-Hwa Moon; Hark-Rho Kim; Jong-Myoung Lim; Jin-Hong Lee

    2008-01-01

    For air pollution monitoring, about 1300 airborne particulate matter samples were collected by using a low volume air sampler and a polycarbonate filter at two sampling sites in an urban region, Daejeon, the middle of Korea from 2003 to 2006. Mass concentrations of the black carbon were measured using a smoke stain reflectometer. The concentrations of 24 elements in the collected samples were analyzed by using instrumental neutron activation analysis, and its temporal trends and enrichment factors were investigated under different environmental conditions. Analytical control was carried out by using certified reference materials. (author)

  5. Investigation of the Use of "Cucumis Sativus" for Remediation of Chromium from Contaminated Environmental Matrices: An Interdisciplinary Instrumental Analysis Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lynsey R.; Edwards, Michael R.; Farmer, Russell; Greenly, Kathryn J.; Hensler, Sherri; Jenkins, Scott E.; Joyce, J. Michael; Mann, Jason A.; Prentice, Boone M.; Puckette, Andrew E.; Shuford, Christopher M.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rhoten, Melissa C.

    2009-01-01

    An interdisciplinary, semester-long project is presented in which students grow Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants from seeds and study the ability of the plants to remediate a heavy metal from contaminated soil or water or both. Phytoremediation strategies for environmental cleanup are presented as possible alternatives to chemical based clean-up…

  6. Possible extensions of XIA's digital spectrometer technology to portable and remote monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warburton, W.K.; Darknell, D.A.; Hubbard-Nelson, B.

    1998-01-01

    The XIA DXP-4C is a 4 channel, CAMAC based, X-ray spectrometer which digitally processes directly digitized preamplifier signals. The DXP-4C was designed for instrumenting multi-detector arrays for synchrotron radiation applications, and optimized for very high count rates at a low cost per detector channel. This produced a very compact and low power (3.4 W/channel) instrument for its count rate and MCA capabilities, which thus provides a strong basis for portable applications. Because all functions are digitally controlled, it can be readily adapted to various user interfaces, including remote access interfaces. Here the authors describe the design and examine approaches to lowering its power to 50 mW/channel. They then consider the issues in applying it to three typical portable or remote spectrometry applications

  7. Instrumentation to Monitor Transient Periodic Developing Flow in Non-Newtonian Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.

    2013-11-15

    Staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have conducted mixing and mobilization experiments with non-Newtonian slurries that exhibit Bingham plastic and shear thinning behavior and shear strength. This paper describes measurement techniques applied to identify the interface between flowing and stationary regions of non-Newtonian slurries that are subjected to transient, periodic, developing flows. Techniques were developed to identify the boundary between the flowing and stationary regions, time to mix, characteristic velocities of the flow field produced by the symmetrically spaced nozzles, and the velocity of the upwell formed in the center of the tank by the intersection of flow from four symmetrically spaced nozzles that impinge upon the tank floor. Descriptions of the instruments and instrument performance are presented. These techniques were an effective approach to characterize mixing phenomena, determine mixing energy required to fully mobilize vessel contents and to determine mixing times for process evaluation.

  8. The modern instrumentation used for monitoring and controlling the main parameters of the regenerative electro-mechano-hydraulic drive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, Corneliu; Drumea, Petrin; Krevey, Petrica

    2009-01-01

    In this work is presented the modern instrumentation used for monitoring and controlling the main parameters for one regenerative drive system, used to recovering the kinetic energy of motor vehicles, lost in the braking phase, storing and using this energy in the starting or accelerating phases. Is presented a Romanian technical solution for a regenerative driving system, based on a hybrid solution containing a hydro-mechanic module and an existing thermal motor drive, all conceived as a mechatronics system. In order to monitoring and controlling the evolution of the main parameters, the system contains a series of sensors and transducers that provide the moment, rotation, temperature, flow and pressure values. The main sensors and transducers of the regenerative drive system, their principal features and tehnical conecting solutions are presented in this paper, both with the menaging electronic and informational subsystems.

  9. Revising the WHO verbal autopsy instrument to facilitate routine cause-of-death monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitao, Jordana; Chandramohan, Daniel; Byass, Peter; Jakob, Robert; Bundhamcharoen, Kanitta; Choprapawon, Chanpen; de Savigny, Don; Fottrell, Edward; França, Elizabeth; Frøen, Frederik; Gewaifel, Gihan; Hodgson, Abraham; Hounton, Sennen; Kahn, Kathleen; Krishnan, Anand; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Masanja, Honorati; Nichols, Erin; Notzon, Francis; Rasooly, Mohammad Hafiz; Sankoh, Osman; Spiegel, Paul; AbouZahr, Carla; Amexo, Marc; Kebede, Derege; Alley, William Soumbey; Marinho, Fatima; Ali, Mohamed; Loyola, Enrique; Chikersal, Jyotsna; Gao, Jun; Annunziata, Giuseppe; Bahl, Rajiv; Bartolomeus, Kidist; Boerma, Ties; Ustun, Bedirhan; Chou, Doris; Muhe, Lulu; Mathai, Matthews

    2013-01-01

    Objective Verbal autopsy (VA) is a systematic approach for determining causes of death (CoD) in populations without routine medical certification. It has mainly been used in research contexts and involved relatively lengthy interviews. Our objective here is to describe the process used to shorten, simplify, and standardise the VA process to make it feasible for application on a larger scale such as in routine civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems. Methods A literature review of existing VA instruments was undertaken. The World Health Organization (WHO) then facilitated an international consultation process to review experiences with existing VA instruments, including those from WHO, the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health in Developing Countries (INDEPTH) Network, InterVA, and the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC). In an expert meeting, consideration was given to formulating a workable VA CoD list [with mapping to the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) CoD] and to the viability and utility of existing VA interview questions, with a view to undertaking systematic simplification. Findings A revised VA CoD list was compiled enabling mapping of all ICD-10 CoD onto 62 VA cause categories, chosen on the grounds of public health significance as well as potential for ascertainment from VA. A set of 221 indicators for inclusion in the revised VA instrument was developed on the basis of accumulated experience, with appropriate skip patterns for various population sub-groups. The duration of a VA interview was reduced by about 40% with this new approach. Conclusions The revised VA instrument resulting from this consultation process is presented here as a means of making it available for widespread use and evaluation. It is envisaged that this will be used in conjunction with automated models for assigning CoD from VA data, rather than involving physicians. PMID

  10. Point-of-care instrument for monitoring tissue health during skin graft repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjar, R. S.; Seetamraju, M.; Zhang, J.; Feinberg, S. E.; Wolf, D. E.

    2011-06-01

    We have developed the necessary theoretical framework and the basic instrumental design parameters to enable mapping of subsurface blood dynamics and tissue oxygenation for patients undergoing skin graft procedures. This analysis forms the basis for developing a simple patch geometry, which can be used to map by diffuse optical techniques blood flow velocity and tissue oxygenation as a function of depth in subsurface tissue.skin graft, diffuse correlation analysis, oxygen saturation.

  11. Monitoring of Radionuclide Contamination in Food Samples in Malaysia due to Daiichi Reactor Accident in Fukushima, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurrul Assyikeen Mohd Jaffary; Wo, Y.M.; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2015-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, a serious accident occurred in Daiichi nuclear reactor plant, Fukushima, Japan which caused radioactive materials been released into the atmosphere in the form of aerosols and dust particles. Sea water around the plant was also found contaminated with high radioactivity readings. These radioactive materials could be transported by the winds and ocean current across international borders and cannot be controlled by human. Thus, a continuous monitoring activity of radionuclide content in the air and sea water needs to be conducted by the authorities. In addition to radioactivity monitoring, Malaysia should also control the entry of contaminated food in order to prevent radionuclide ingestion by human. The radionuclide 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs were used as a measure of pollution levels and counted with gamma spectrometry using standard analysis method suggested by AOAC International. In this paper, details description of the role of Radiochemical and Environment Group, Nuclear Malaysia who is responsible in analyzing the radioactivity in the food samples due to Fukushima Daiichi, Japan accident was included. The radioactivity limit adopted and analysis results from this monitoring were discussed. (author)

  12. Remediating radium contaminated legacy sites: Advances made through machine learning in routine monitoring of “hot” particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Adam, E-mail: a.l.varley@stir.ac.uk [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Tyler, Andrew, E-mail: a.n.tyler@stir.ac.uk [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Smith, Leslie, E-mail: l.s.smith@cs.stir.ac.uk [Department of Computing Science and Mathematics, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Dale, Paul, E-mail: paul.dale@sepa.org.uk [Scottish Environmental Protection Agency, Radioactive Substances, Strathallan House, Castle Business Park, Stirling FK9 4TZ (United Kingdom); Davies, Mike, E-mail: Mike.Davies@nuvia.co.uk [Nuvia Limited, The Library, Eight Street, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RL (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    The extensive use of radium during the 20th century for industrial, military and pharmaceutical purposes has led to a large number of contaminated legacy sites across Europe and North America. Sites that pose a high risk to the general public can present expensive and long-term remediation projects. Often the most pragmatic remediation approach is through routine monitoring operating gamma-ray detectors to identify, in real-time, the signal from the most hazardous heterogeneous contamination (hot particles); thus facilitating their removal and safe disposal. However, current detection systems do not fully utilise all spectral information resulting in low detection rates and ultimately an increased risk to the human health. The aim of this study was to establish an optimised detector-algorithm combination. To achieve this, field data was collected using two handheld detectors (sodium iodide and lanthanum bromide) and a number of Monte Carlo simulated hot particles were randomly injected into the field data. This allowed for the detection rate of conventional deterministic (gross counts) and machine learning (neural networks and support vector machines) algorithms to be assessed. The results demonstrated that a Neural Network operated on a sodium iodide detector provided the best detection capability. Compared to deterministic approaches, this optimised detection system could detect a hot particle on average 10 cm deeper into the soil column or with half of the activity at the same depth. It was also found that noise presented by internal contamination restricted lanthanum bromide for this application. - Highlights: • Land contaminated with radium is hazardous to human health. • Routine monitoring permits identification and removal of radioactive hot particles. • Current alarm algorithms do not provide reliable hot particle detection. • Spectral processing using Machine Learning significantly improves detection.

  13. Remediating radium contaminated legacy sites: Advances made through machine learning in routine monitoring of “hot” particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, Adam; Tyler, Andrew; Smith, Leslie; Dale, Paul; Davies, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The extensive use of radium during the 20th century for industrial, military and pharmaceutical purposes has led to a large number of contaminated legacy sites across Europe and North America. Sites that pose a high risk to the general public can present expensive and long-term remediation projects. Often the most pragmatic remediation approach is through routine monitoring operating gamma-ray detectors to identify, in real-time, the signal from the most hazardous heterogeneous contamination (hot particles); thus facilitating their removal and safe disposal. However, current detection systems do not fully utilise all spectral information resulting in low detection rates and ultimately an increased risk to the human health. The aim of this study was to establish an optimised detector-algorithm combination. To achieve this, field data was collected using two handheld detectors (sodium iodide and lanthanum bromide) and a number of Monte Carlo simulated hot particles were randomly injected into the field data. This allowed for the detection rate of conventional deterministic (gross counts) and machine learning (neural networks and support vector machines) algorithms to be assessed. The results demonstrated that a Neural Network operated on a sodium iodide detector provided the best detection capability. Compared to deterministic approaches, this optimised detection system could detect a hot particle on average 10 cm deeper into the soil column or with half of the activity at the same depth. It was also found that noise presented by internal contamination restricted lanthanum bromide for this application. - Highlights: • Land contaminated with radium is hazardous to human health. • Routine monitoring permits identification and removal of radioactive hot particles. • Current alarm algorithms do not provide reliable hot particle detection. • Spectral processing using Machine Learning significantly improves detection

  14. Evaluation of broadband surface solar irradiance derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, P.; Sneep, M.; Veefkind, J.P.; Stammes, P.; Levelt, P.F.

    2014-01-01

    Surface solar irradiance (SSI) data are important for planning and estimating the production of solar power plants. Long-term high quality surface solar radiation data are needed for monitoring climate change. This paper presents a new surface solar irradiance dataset, the broadband (0.2–4 ?m)

  15. Implementation of an Integrated, Portable Transformer Condition Monitoring Instrument in the Classroom and On-Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, B.; Dey, D.; Chakravorti, S.

    2010-01-01

    The development of integrated, portable, transformer condition monitoring (TCM) equipment for classroom demonstrations as well as for student exercises conducted in the field is discussed. Demonstrations include experimentation with real-world transformers to illustrate concepts such as polarization and depolarization current through oil-paper…

  16. Virtual-Instrument-Based Online Monitoring System for Hands-on Laboratory Experiment of Partial Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Subrata

    2017-01-01

    Online monitoring of high-voltage (HV) equipment is a vital tool for early detection of insulation failure. Most insulation failures are caused by partial discharges (PDs) inside the HV equipment. Because of the very high cost of establishing HV equipment facility and the limitations of electromagnetic interference-screened laboratories, only a…

  17. Novel instrumentation for real-time monitoring using miniaturized flow systems with integrated biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freaney, R.; McShane, A.; Keaveny, T.V.; McKenna, M.; Rabenstein, K.; Scheller, F.W.; Pfeiffer, D.; Urban, G.; Moser, I.; Jobst, G.; Manz, A.; Verpoorte, E.; Widmer, M.W.; Diamond, D.; Dempsey, E.; Saez De Viteri, F.J.; Smyth, M.

    1997-01-01

    A prototype miniaturized Total Chemical Analysis System (μTAS) has been developed and applied to on-line monitoring of glucose and lactate in the core blood of anaesthetized dogs. The system consists of a highly efficient microdialysis sampling interface sited in a small-scale extracorporeal shunt

  18. Early-stage bioassay for monitoring radioactive contamination in living livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Toshiro; Sawano, Kaita; Kishimoto, Miori; Furuhama, Kazuhisa; Yamada, Kazutaka

    2012-12-01

    Soil samples from the ground surface and feces and blood from a mixed-breed male pig were collected on April 10, 2011 at a farm within 20 km of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The radioactivity of each sample was measured using a Ge semiconductor detector. Despite the fact that the pig had been fed non-contaminated imported feed, (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in the feces, and (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in the blood clots. Because it is considerably difficult to measure radioactive contamination in the edible muscle of living livestock, bioassays are an option for the screening of radioactive contamination in living livestock to ensure food safety.

  19. In-situ protein determination to monitor contamination in a centrifugal partition chromatograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouiche, Feriel; Faure, Karine

    2017-05-15

    Centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) works with biphasic liquid systems including aqueous two-phase systems. Metallic rotors are able to retain an aqueous stationary phase able to purify proteins. But the adhesion of proteins to solid surface may pose a cross-contamination risk during downstream processes. So it is of utmost importance to ensure the cleanliness of the equipment and detect possible protein contamination in a timely manner. Thereby, a direct method that allows the determination of the effective presence of proteins and the extent of contamination in the metallic CPC rotors was developed. This in-situ method is derived from the Amino Density Estimation by Colorimetric Assay (ADECA) which is based on the affinity of a dye, Coomassie Brillant Blue (CBB), with protonated N + groups of the proteins. In this paper, the ADECA method was developed dynamically, on a 25 mL stainless-steel rotor with various extents of protein contaminations using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a fouling model. The eluted CBB dye was quantified and found to respond linearly to BSA contamination up to 70 mg injected. Limits of detection and quantification were recorded as 0.9 mg and 3.1 mg, respectively. While the non-specific interactions between the dye and the rotor cannot currently be neglected, this method allows for in situ determination of proteins contamination and should contribute to the development of CPC as a separation tool in protein purification processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiometric monitoring of contaminated scrap metals imported in Italy. Technical and regulatory features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobici, F.; Piermattei, S.; Susanna, A.

    1996-01-01

    During these last ten years there have been occasional reports of mishaps from trafficking of contaminated scraps or containing radioactive sources. Recently an increase of events indicated that the problem becomes more important as to generate possible consequences, from a radiation protection standpoint, for workers and general public. Following the detection of contaminated metal scraps in some recycling industries and in some consignments entering the Italian borders, the competent Authorities laid down rules to put the matter under control. In this paper technical and regulatory features are discussed. (author)