WorldWideScience

Sample records for contamination monitoring equipments

  1. Latin American and Caribbean intercomparison of surface contamination monitoring equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, T S; Ramos, M M O; Laranjeira, A S; Santos, D S; Suarez, R C

    2011-03-01

    In October 2009, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) sponsored an intercomparison exercise of surface contamination monitoring equipment, which was held at the Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes, from the Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria, IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro. This intercomparison was performed to evaluate the calibration accessibility in Latin America and the Caribbean. Thirteen countries within the region and IAEA have sent instruments to be compared, but only five countries and IAEA were considered apt to participate. Analysis of instruments, results and discussions are presented and recommendations are drawn.

  2. Contamination monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamares, A.L. [Philippine Nuclear Research Inst., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    1997-06-01

    By virture of Republic Act 2067, as amended the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), now renamed Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) is the government agency charged with the regulations and control of radioactive materials in the Philippines. The protection against the hazards of non-ionizing radiation is being monitored by the Radiological Health Service (RHS) of the Department of Health pursuant to the provision of Presidental Decree 480. The RHS issues licenses for possession, handling, and use of x-ray machines and equipment, both industrial and medical, and provide radiation protection training to x-ray technologists and technicians. As part of its regulatory function, the PNRI is charged with the responsibility of assuring that the radiation workers and the public are protected from the hazards associated with the possession, handling, production, manufacturing, and the use of radioactive materials and atomic energy facilities in the Philippines. The protection of radiation workers from the hazards of ionizing radiation has always been a primary concern of PNRI and by limiting the exposure of radiation workers, the risk to population is kept to within acceptable level. In this paper, the following items are described: radiation protection program, radiation protection services, radiation control, and problems encountered/recommendation. (G.K.)

  3. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Program Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA uses the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring (UCM) program to collect data for contaminants suspected to be present in drinking water, but that do not have...

  4. Functioning condition monitoring of industrial equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungureanu, N. S.; Petrovan, A.; Ungureanu, M.; Alexandrescu, M.

    2017-02-01

    The paper analyses the theoretical aspects related to monitoring industrial equipment. Are treated issues that concern the choosing of industrial equipment to be monitored, the parameters to be monitored, monitoring mode (local or remote) and the mode of collection and transmission of data.

  5. OSS-1/contamination monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, R.; Triolo, J.; Mcintosh, R.

    1983-01-01

    A 20-cm high, 18-cm wide, and 30-cm long (8x7x12 inch) box weighing about 7 kg (15 lbs) and consuming about 7 watts of power was carried on the OSS-1 pallet to monitor the mass build-up or accretion of condensible, volatile materials on surfaces in the shuttle bay during all phases of ascent, on-orbit, and descent. Passively thermally controlled, the box holds two witness samples and four actively temperature controlled quartz crystal microbalances (TQCM) whose temperature can vary from -60 C to +80 C. Graphs show the accretion indicated by the TQCM during the launch and early orbital phase. Conditions during tail to the Sun, nose to the Sun, and bay to the Sun attitudes of the shuttle during STS-3 are reflected in temperatures indicated by the OSS-1 thermistor. These temperatures influence outgassing rates of various materials as well as measurements made by the contamination monitor package. The parameters that bear on TQCM measurements data are shown in graphs and discussed.

  6. OSS-1/contamination monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, R.; Triolo, J.; McIntosh, R.

    1983-02-01

    A 20-cm high, 18-cm wide, and 30-cm long (8x7x12 inch) box weighing about 7 kg (15 lbs) and consuming about 7 watts of power was carried on the OSS-1 pallet to monitor the mass build-up or accretion of condensible, volatile materials on surfaces in the shuttle bay during all phases of ascent, on-orbit, and descent. Passively thermally controlled, the box holds two witness samples and four actively temperature controlled quartz crystal microbalances (TQCM) whose temperature can vary from -60 C to +80 C. Graphs show the accretion indicated by the TQCM during the launch and early orbital phase. Conditions during tail to the Sun, nose to the Sun, and bay to the Sun attitudes of the shuttle during STS-3 are reflected in temperatures indicated by the OSS-1 thermistor. These temperatures influence outgassing rates of various materials as well as measurements made by the contamination monitor package. The parameters that bear on TQCM measurements data are shown in graphs and discussed.

  7. Contamination monitoring activities in Kanupp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, S.S. [Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Pakistan)

    1997-06-01

    The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Kanupp) is a 137 MWe pressurized heavy water reactor, designed and erected by the Canadian General Electric Company as a turn key project. The plant is in operation since it was commissioned in the year 1972. It is located at the Arabian Sea Coast about 15 miles to the west of Karachi. During its more than two decades of operation, the plant has generated about 8 billion units of electricity with an average life time availability factor of 60%. In Kanupp, radioactive contamination may exit due to the release of fission product, activation products etc., which may somehow escape from its confinement and may contaminate surface or other media such as air, water etc. In this paper, following items are described: main aspects of contamination, status of contamination monitoring, need of contamination monitoring, radiation protection activity, instruments, contamination, current status of contamination survey materials and their disposal, and environmental monitoring. (G.K.)

  8. Data Center Equipment Location and Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Data center equipment location systems include hardware and software to provide information on the location, monitoring, and security of servers and other equipment in equipment racks. The systems provide a wired alternative to the wireless RFID tag system by using electronic ID tags...

  9. Data Center Equipment Location and Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Data center equipment location systems include hardware and software to provide information on the location, monitoring, and security of servers and other equipment in equipment racks. The systems provide a wired alternative to the wireless RFID tag system by using electronic ID tags...

  10. Data center equipment location and monitoring system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    , and runs a software application program that communicates with the equipment rack controllers. The software application program of the central control computer stores IDs of the equipment rack controllers and each of its connected electronic ID tags in a database.; The software application program......A data center equipment location system includes both hardware and software to provide for location, monitoring, security and identification of servers and other equipment in equipment racks. The system provides a wired alternative to the wireless RFID tag system by using electronic ID tags...... connected to each piece of equipment, each electronic ID tag connected directly by wires to a equipment rack controller on the equipment rack. The equipment rack controllers then link over a local area network to a central control computer. The central control computer provides an operator interface...

  11. Standard hydrogen monitoring system equipment installation instructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1996-09-27

    This document provides the technical specifications for the equipment fabrication, installation, and sitework construction for the Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System. The Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System is designed to remove gases from waste tank vapor space and exhaust headers for continual monitoring and remote sample analysis.

  12. Status of contamination monitoring in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Aleya [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Savar, Dacca (Bangladesh)

    1997-06-01

    The applications of radioisotopes and radiation sources to the research and development in medicine, food agriculture, industries and others are rapidly increasing in Bangladesh. The existing major nuclear facilites and allied laboratories of the country include 3 MW TRIGA Mark-2 research reactor for training, research and radioisotope production, 14 MeV neutron generator for nuclear data measurement and elemental analysis via neutron activation, 3 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator for the research and application of nuclear physics, and 50,000 Ci and 5,000 Ci Co-60 irradiators. About 10 Co-60 and Cs-137 teletherapy units are in operation in hospitals. The radioactive contamination of working areas, equipment, protective clothing and skin may result from normal operation and accidents, and contamination monitoring and decontamination are the essential part of radiation protection program. Surface contamination is monitored with Berthold survey meters. Hand and foot monitors have been used. Routine systematic search, continuous air monitoring, the examination of silt movement in Chittagong harbor using Sc-46 tracer and the measurement of tritium contamination for the neutron generator are reported. (K.I.)

  13. Radiation Monitoring Equipment Dosimeter Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Kenneth A.; Golightly, Michael J.; Quam, William

    1992-01-01

    Spacecraft crews risk exposure to relatively high levels of ionizing radiation. This radiation may come from charged particles trapped in the Earth's magnetic fields, charged particles released by solar flare activity, galactic cosmic radiation, energetic photons and neutrons generated by interaction of these primary radiations with spacecraft and crew, and man-made sources (e.g., nuclear power generators). As missions are directed to higher radiation level orbits, viz., higher altitudes and inclinations, longer durations, and increased flight frequency, radiation exposure could well become a major factor for crew stay time and career lengths. To more accurately define the radiological exposure and risk to the crew, real-time radiation monitoring instrumentation, which is capable of identifying and measuring the various radiation components, must be flown. This presentation describes a radiation dosimeter instrument which was successfully flown on the Space Shuttle, the RME-3.

  14. Treatment options for tank farms long-length contaminated equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, W.S.

    1995-10-16

    This study evaluated a variety of treatment and disposal technologies for mixed waste (MW) meeting the following criteria: 1. Single-Shell and Double-Shell Tank System (tank farms) equipment and other debris; 2. length greater than 12 feet; and contaminated with listed MW from the tank farms. This waste stream, commonly referred to as tank farms long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE), poses a unique and costly set of challenges during all phases of the waste management lifecycle.

  15. Country report on contamination monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyuntulkhuur, Navaangalsan [National Centre for Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology (Mongolia). Central Radiological Laboratory

    1997-06-01

    Mongolia is a non-nuclear country and has currently neither nuclear power plants nor research reactors. This country joined the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA) for the Asia Pacific region for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology in 1993. Various measures has been taken for strengthening of radiation protection, cooperated with several international organizations mainly with IAEA. In Mongolia radioactive substances and sources are used for the following purposes: for research work; medical radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology in hospitals; industrial enterprises for technological processes; and for non-destructive testing in industry. Radiation safety inspection is conducted by the CRL. The inspections consist of verification of compliance with radiation safety requirements and with any additional requirements specified in the authorization of accounting records and a physical check on the presence of radiation sources; check on the work carried out by the radiation safety services to monitor radioactive contamination of the environment; and measurements and sampling. CRL should take much attention for improvement and development of the activities in the field of surface contamination monitoring concerning a wide use of radionuclides in different field of economy. (G.K.)

  16. Status on contamination monitoring in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou Quanlu [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)

    1997-06-01

    The air contaminated by radioactive materials in nuclear enterprises and radioactive workplaces and forming radioactive aerosol and the leakage of radioactive materials in operation cause internal exposure damage in workers. It is necessary and important to monitor air and surface contaminations for the health of public and workers, and for protecting environment. At present, many institutes engage in the studies on surface contamination monitoring in China, and the government has formulated the control limits of surface contamination in the Regulations of Radiation Protection. The monitors for surface contamination monitoring are almost home-made. The methods being used often are smear test and placing surface sample test. Scintillation counters, semiconductor detectors and G-M counters have been used for detecting alpha surface contamination. Plastic scintillator meters and thin wall/window G-M counters are used for beta surface contamination. Special detectors have been designed for monitoring low energy nuclides. The status of airborne contamination monitoring in China is reported. As the studies for future, the development of the surface contamination monitor for low energy beta nuclides, especially H-3, the monitoring methods for the special shapes of surfaces, the technology of decontamination and the calibration method and device for on-line radioactive aerosol continuous monitors are taken up. (K.I.)

  17. Bacteriological research for the contamination of equipment in chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Gu; Song, Woon Heung; Kweon, Dae Cheol [Shinhan University, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The purpose is to determine the degree of contamination of the equipment for infection control in chest radiography of the radiology department. We confirmed by chemical and bacterial identification of bacteria of the equipment and established a preventive maintenance plan. Chest X-ray radiography contact area on the instrument patients shoulder, hand, chin, chest lateral radiography patient contact areas with a 70% isopropyl alcohol cotton swab were compared to identify the bacteria before and after sterilization on the patient contact area in the chest radiography equipment of the department. The gram positive Staphylococcus was isolated from side shoots handle before disinfection in the chest radiography equipment. For the final identification of antibiotic tested that it was determined by performing the nobobiocin to the sensitive Staphylococcus epidermidis. Chest radiography equipment before disinfecting the handle side of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria were detected using a disinfectant should be to prevent hospital infections.

  18. Monitoring of airborne contamination using mobile equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkamaa, T.; Toivonen, H.; Nikkinen, M.

    1996-02-01

    Rapid and accurate measurements must be carried out in a nuclear disaster that releases radioactive material into the atmosphere. To evaluate the risk to the people, external dose rate and nuclide-specific activity concentrations in air must be determined. The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) has built an emergency vehicle to accomplish these tasks in the field. The systems and methods to determine the activity concentration in air is described in the report. (23 refs., 21 figs., 9 tabs.).

  19. Monitoring of surface and airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeep Kumar, K.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1997-06-01

    Indian nuclear energy programme aims at total safety in all activities involved in the entire fuel cycle for the occupational workers, members of the public and the environment as a whole. Routine radiation monitoring with clearly laid out procedures are followed for ensuring the safety of workers and public. Radiation monitoring carried out for the nuclear installations comprises of process monitoring, monitoring of effluent releases and also of the radiation protection monitoring of the individuals, work place and environment. Regulations like banning of smoking and consumption of food and drink etc. reduces the risk of direct ingestion even if inadvertent spread of contamination takes place. Though limit of transportable surface contamination is prescribed, the health physicists always follow a ``clean on swipe`` philosophy which compensates any error in the measurement of surface contamination. In this paper, the following items are contained: Necessity of contamination monitoring, accuracy required in the calibration of surface contamination monitors, methodology for contamination monitoring, air monitoring, guidelines for unrestricted release of scrap materials, and problems in contamination monitoring. (G.K.)

  20. Effect of contamination of pharmaceutical equipment on powder triboelectrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilbeck, J; Rowley, G; Carter, P A; Fletcher, E J

    2000-02-15

    Triboelectrification of pharmaceutical powders may cause problems during processing and manufacture due to adhesion/cohesion effects. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of adhered particles and moisture as contact surface contaminants on the electrostatic charging of size fractionated lactose, following contact with a surface, i.e. stainless steel, typically used in pharmaceutical process and manufacturing operations. Replicated experimental runs without cleaning the contact surface showed a successive decrease in the net electronegative charge due to adhered lactose particles. Removal of these contaminating particles by different cleaning methods had a considerable effect on the charge after triboelectrification. The charge on the lactose samples was found to decrease when humidity in the cyclone apparatus was increased from 2 to 100% relative humidity. These results clearly demonstrate that moisture, particulate contamination and method of cleaning of processing equipment during pharmaceutical manufacturing operations may influence the electrostatic behaviour of powders.

  1. Monitoring and evaluation techniques for airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Yihua [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    1997-06-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are of great importance for the purpose of protection of health and safety of workers in nuclear installations. Because airborne contamination is one of the key sources to cause exposure to individuals by inhalation and digestion, and to cause diffusion of contaminants in the environment. The main objectives of monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are: to detect promptly a loss of control of airborne material, to help identify those individuals and predict exposure levels, to assess the intake and dose commitment to the individuals, and to provide sufficient documentation of airborne radioactivity. From the viewpoint of radiation protection, the radioactive contaminants in air can be classified into the following types: airborne aerosol, gas and noble gas, and volatile gas. In this paper, the following items are described: sampling methods and techniques, measurement and evaluation, and particle size analysis. (G.K.)

  2. GLOVEBOX DISMANTLEMENT AND EQUIPMENT PROTECTION IN CONTAMINATED ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Akihiro; Stallings, Ellen; Wilburn, Dianne W.

    2003-02-27

    It has been revealed from the experiences of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) activities that even a small improvement in performance can result in significant risk reduction and cost savings. For example, Race Scan Ear Mic System, which was originally developed for communications between racecar drivers and crews in loud environments, has been successfully applied to D&D work and proved to enhance worker safety and communications. Glovebox dismantlement is an important and costly process in D&D activities of nuclear facilities. Adequate decontamination and size reduction of the gloveboxes are especially important in this activity because they have the potential to reduce risks and costs significantly. This paper presents some simple approaches to support D&D tasks and discusses their potential advantages. Examples discussed include: Repeated shear wiping of large pipes and ducts; Application of thin layers on radiological counters for uninterrupted use; and Partial use of robotics for glovebox dismantling. The paper also discusses schematics for protecting equipment interiors and/or glovebox inner surfaces from contamination, which may result in significant savings and waste minimization upon future dismantlement. Examples discussed include: Smart coating for contamination prevention; and Protecting equipment by geometrically simple cover.

  3. The status on contamination monitoring in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinakhom, Fookiat [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1997-06-01

    Thailand has embarked upon the development of nuclear energy for peaceful utilizations since 1961 when the Atomic Energy for Peace Act was enacted. The Atomic Energy Commission (Thai AEC) was established under section 5 of this Act having power and duty of carrying out matters concerning atomic energy for peace. The applications of nuclear energy in Thailand, at present are exclusively in medicine, education, research and industry. In this paper, the following items are described on contamination monitoring: controllable monitoring, uncontrollable monitoring, standardization of monitoring instruments, and decontamination and waste management. (G.K.)

  4. Environmental Contaminants Monitoring Plan for Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This environmental contaminants monitoring program is designed to assess concentrations, distribution, and biological availability of environmental contaminants on...

  5. Sodium cleaning from sodium contaminated components and operation for experimental equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Kim, T. J.; Nam, H. Y.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.; Choi, J. H

    2007-11-15

    An objective of washing technology development for sodium contaminated equipment is to clean and reuse safely and effectively the used equipment through a washing and maintenance, and recovery of the sodium wastes generated during washing.

  6. An OSEE Based Portable Surface Contamination Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perey, Daniel F.

    1997-01-01

    Many industrial and aerospace processes involving the joining of materials, require sufficient surface cleanliness to insure proper bonding. Processes as diverse as painting, welding, or the soldering of electronic circuits will be compromised if prior inspection and removal of surface contaminants is inadequate. As process requirements become more stringent and the number of different materials and identified contaminants increases, various instruments and techniques have been developed for improved inspection. One such technique based on the principle of Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE) has been explored for a number of years as a tool for surface contamination monitoring. Some of the benefits of OSEE are: it's non-contacting; requires little operator training; and has very high contamination sensitivity. This paper describes the development of a portable OSEE based surface contamination monitor. The instrument is suitable for both hand-held and robotic inspections with either manual or automated control of instrument operation. In addition, instrument output data is visually displayed to the operator and may be output to an external computer for archiving or analysis.

  7. Micro-Accelerometers Monitor Equipment Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Glenn Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Ann Arbor, Michigan-based Evigia Systems to develop a miniaturized accelerometer to account for gravitational effects in space experiments. The company has gone on to implement the technology in its suite of prognostic sensors, which are used to monitor the integrity of industrial machinery. As a result, five employees have been hired.

  8. Non-invasive system for monitoring of the manufacturing equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazăre, A. G.; Belu, N.; Ionescu, L. M.; Rachieru, N.; Misztal, A.

    2017-08-01

    The automotive industry is one of the most important industries in the world that concerns the economy and the world culture. High demand has resulted in increasing of the pressure on the production lines. In conclusion, it is required more careful in monitoring of the production equipment not only for maintenance but also for staff safety and to increase the quality of production. In this paper, we propose a solution for non-invasive monitoring of the industrial equipment operation by measuring the current consumption on energy supply lines. Thus, it is determined the utilization schedule of the equipment and operation mode. Based on these measurements, it’s built an activity report for that equipment, available to the quality management and maintenance team. The solution consists of the current measuring equipment, with self-harvesting capabilities and radio transceiver, and an embedded system which run a server. The current measuring equipment will transmit data about consumption of each energy supply network line where is placed the industrial equipment. So, we have an internal measuring radio network. The embedded system will collect data for the equipment and put in a local data base and it will provide via an intranet application. The entire system not requires any supplementary energy supply and interventions in the factory infrastructure. It is experimented in a company from the automotive industries.

  9. Radioactive standards and calibration methods for contamination monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-06-01

    Contamination monitoring in the facilities for handling unsealed radioactive materials is one of the most important procedures for radiation protection as well as radiation dose monitoring. For implementation of the proper contamination monitoring, radiation measuring instruments should not only be suitable to the purpose of monitoring, but also be well calibrated for the objective qualities of measurement. In the calibration of contamination monitoring instruments, quality reference activities need to be used. They are supplied in different such as extended sources, radioactive solutions or radioactive gases. These reference activities must be traceable to the national standards or equivalent standards. On the other hand, the appropriate calibration methods must be applied for each type of contamination monitoring instruments. In this paper, the concepts of calibration for contamination monitoring instruments, reference sources, determination methods of reference quantities and practical calibration methods of contamination monitoring instruments, including the procedures carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and some relevant experimental data. (G.K.)

  10. Analysis of bacterial contamination on surface of general radiography equipment and CT equipment in emergency room of radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Dong Hee; KIm, Hyeong Gyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Far East University, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    We aim to offer basic materials about infection management through conducting bacterial contamination test about general radiography equipment and CT equipment installed in ER of three general hospitals with 100 sickbeds or more located in Gyeongsangbuk-do Province, and suggest management plan. It had been conducted from 1st December 2015 to 31st December, and objects were general radiography equipment and CT equipment of emergency room located in Gyeongsangbuk-do Province. For general radiography equipment, sources were collected from 4 places such as upper side of control box which employees use most, upper side of exposure button, whole upper side of table which is touching part of patient's skin, upper side of stand bucky's grid, and where patients put their jaws on. For CT equipment, sources were collected from 3 places such as upper side of control box which radiography room employees use most, X-ray exposure button, whole upper side of table which is touching part of patient's skin, and gantry inner. Surface contamination strain found at general radiography equipment in emergency room of radiology are Providencia stuartii(25%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia(18%), Enterobacter cloacae(8%), Pseudomonas species(8%), Staphylococcus epidermidis(8%), Gram negative bacilli(8%), and ungrown bacteria at incubator after 48 hours of incubation (67%) which is the biggest. Most bacteria were found at upper side of stand bucky-grid and stand bucky of radiology's general radiography equipment, and most sources of CT equipment were focused at patient table, which means it is contaminated by patients who have various diseases, and patients who have strains with decreased immunity may get severe diseases. Thus infection prevention should be made through 70% alcohol disinfection at both before test and after test.

  11. Assessment of Self-Contamination During Removal of Personal Protective Equipment for Ebola Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Lisa M; Teal, Lisa J; Sickbert-Bennett, Emily E; Anderson, Deverick J; Sexton, Daniel J; Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Ebola virus disease (EVD) places healthcare personnel (HCP) at high risk for infection during patient care, and personal protective equipment (PPE) is critical. Protocols for EVD PPE doffing have not been validated for prevention of viral self-contamination. Using surrogate viruses (non-enveloped MS2 and enveloped Φ6), we assessed self-contamination of skin and clothes when trained HCP doffed EVD PPE using a standardized protocol. METHODS A total of 15 HCP donned EVD PPE for this study. Virus was applied to PPE, and a trained monitor guided them through the doffing protocol. Of the 15 participants, 10 used alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) for glove and hand hygiene and 5 used hypochlorite for glove hygiene and ABHR for hand hygiene. Inner gloves, hands, face, and scrubs were sampled after doffing. RESULTS After doffing, MS2 virus was detected on the inner glove worn on the dominant hand for 8 of 15 participants, on the non-dominant inner glove for 6 of 15 participants, and on scrubs for 2 of 15 participants. All MS2 on inner gloves was observed when ABHR was used for glove hygiene; none was observed when hypochlorite was used. When using hypochlorite for glove hygiene, 1 participant had MS2 on hands, and 1 had MS2 on scrubs. CONCLUSIONS A structured doffing protocol using a trained monitor and ABHR protects against enveloped virus self-contamination. Non-enveloped virus (MS2) contamination was detected on inner gloves, possibly due to higher resistance to ABHR. Doffing protocols protective against all viruses need to incorporate highly effective glove and hand hygiene agents. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-6.

  12. 40 CFR 267.116 - What must I do with contaminated equipment, structure, and soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment, structure, and soils? 267.116 Section 267.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION..., structure, and soils? You must properly dispose of or decontaminate all contaminated equipment, structures, and soils during the partial and final closure periods. By removing any hazardous wastes or...

  13. Complex Electrical Resistivity for Monitoring DNAPL Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen R. Brown; David Lesmes; John Fourkas

    2003-09-12

    Nearly all Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have landfills and buried waste areas. Of the various contaminants present at these sites, dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) are particularly hard to locate and remove. There is an increasing need for external or non-invasive sensing techniques to locate DNAPLs in the subsurface and to track their spread and monitor their breakdown or removal by natural or engineered means. G. Olhoeft and colleagues have published several reports based on laboratory studies using the complex resistivity method which indicate that organic solvents, notably toluene, PCE, and TCE, residing in clay-bearing soils have distinctive electrical signatures. These results have suggested to many researchers the basis of an ideal new measurement technique for geophysical characterization of DNAPL pollution. Encouraged by these results we proposed to bring the field measurement of complex resistivity as a means of pollution characterization from the conceptual stage to practice. We planned to document the detectability of clay-organic solvent interactions with geophysical measurements in the laboratory, develop further understanding of the underlying physical and chemical mechanisms, and then apply these observations to develop field techniques. As with any new research endeavor we note the extreme importance of trying to reproduce the work of previous researchers to ensure that any effects observed are due to the physical phenomena occurring in the specimen and not due to the particular experimental apparatus or method used. To this end, we independently designed and built a laboratory system, including a sample holder, electrodes, electronics, and data analysis software, for the measurement of the complex electrical resistivity properties of soil contaminated with organic solvents. The capabilities and reliability of this technique were documented. Using various standards we performed measurement accuracy, repeatability, and noise immunity

  14. Data acquisition, remote control and equipment monitoring for ISOLDE RILIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossel, R.E., E-mail: ralf.erik.rossel@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz (Germany); Hochschule RheinMain, Fachbereich Design Informatik Medien, Wiesbaden (Germany); Fedosseev, V.N.; Marsh, B.A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Richter, D. [Hochschule RheinMain, Fachbereich Design Informatik Medien, Wiesbaden (Germany); Rothe, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz (Germany); Wendt, K.D.A. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The requirements for continuous and automated RILIS operation are outlined. • Laser wavelength, power, beam position and pulse timing are continuously monitored. • A network-extended LabVIEW-based equipment operation framework was developed. • The system serves as a foundation for collaborative laser spectroscopy data acquisition. • Example applications have been successfully tested with ISOLDE experiment setups. -- Abstract: With a steadily increasing on-line operation time up to a record 3000 h in the year 2012, the Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is one of the key components of the ISOLDE on-line isotope user facility at CERN. Ion beam production using the RILIS is essential for many experiments due to the unmatched combination of ionization efficiency and selectivity. To meet the reliability requirements the RILIS is currently operated in shift duty for continuous maintenance of crucial laser parameters such as wavelength, power, beam position and timing, as well as ensuring swift intervention in case of an equipment malfunction. A recent overhaul of the RILIS included the installation of new pump lasers, commercial dye lasers and a complementary, fully solid-state titanium:sapphire laser system. The framework of the upgrade also required the setup of a network-extended, LabVIEW-based system for data acquisition, remote control and equipment monitoring, to support RILIS operators as well as ISOLDE users. The system contributes to four key aspects of RILIS operation: equipment monitoring, machine protection, automated self-reliance, and collaborative data acquisition. The overall concept, technologies used, implementation status and recent applications during the 2012 on-line operation period will be presented along with a summary of future developments.

  15. Effect of negative air ions on the potential for bacterial contamination of plastic medical equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Kevin G

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been renewed interest in the use of air ionizers to control the spread of infection in hospitals and a number of researchers have investigated the biocidal action of ions in both air and nitrogen. By comparison, the physical action of air ions on bacterial dissemination and deposition has largely been ignored. However, there is clinical evidence that air ions might play an important role in preventing the transmission of Acinetobacter infection. Although the reasons for this are unclear, it is hypothesized that a physical effect may be responsible: the production of air ions may negatively charge items of plastic medical equipment so that they repel, rather than attract, airborne bacteria. By negatively charging both particles in the air and items of plastic equipment, the ionizers minimize electrostatic deposition on these items. In so doing they may help to interrupt the transmission of Acinetobacter infection in certain healthcare settings such as intensive care units. Methods A study was undertaken in a mechanically ventilated room under ambient conditions to accurately measure changes in surface potential exhibited by items of plastic medical equipment in the presence of negative air ions. Plastic items were suspended on nylon threads, either in free space or in contact with a table surface, and exposed to negative ions produced by an air ionizer. The charge build-up on the specimens was measured using an electric field mill while the ion concentration in the room air was recorded using a portable ion counter. Results The results of the study demonstrated that common items of equipment such as ventilator tubes rapidly developed a large negative charge (i.e. generally >-100V in the presence of a negative air ionizer. While most items of equipment tested behaved in a similar manner to this, one item, a box from a urological collection and monitoring system (the only item made from styrene

  16. Bacterial contamination of inanimate surfaces and equipment in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russotto, Vincenzo; Cortegiani, Andrea; Raineri, Santi Maurizio; Giarratano, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infections are a challenging health problem worldwide, especially when caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. In ICUs, inanimate surfaces and equipment (e.g., bedrails, stethoscopes, medical charts, ultrasound machine) may be contaminated by bacteria, including MDR isolates. Cross-transmission of microorganisms from inanimate surfaces may have a significant role for ICU-acquired colonization and infections. Contamination may result from healthcare workers' hands or by direct patient shedding of bacteria which are able to survive up to several months on dry surfaces. A higher environmental contamination has been reported around infected patients than around patients who are only colonized and, in this last group, a correlation has been observed between frequency of environmental contamination and culture-positive body sites. Healthcare workers not only contaminate their hands after direct patient contact but also after touching inanimate surfaces and equipment in the patient zone (the patient and his/her immediate surroundings). Inadequate hand hygiene before and after entering a patient zone may result in cross-transmission of pathogens and patient colonization or infection. A number of equipment items and commonly used objects in ICU carry bacteria which, in most cases, show the same antibiotic susceptibility profiles of those isolated from patients. The aim of this review is to provide an updated evidence about contamination of inanimate surfaces and equipment in ICU in light of the concept of patient zone and the possible implications for bacterial pathogen cross-transmission to critically ill patients.

  17. Long-length contaminated equipment disposal process path document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-09-30

    The first objective of the LLCE Process Path Document is to guide future users of this system on how to accomplish the cradle-to-grave process for the disposal of long-length equipment. Information will be provided describing the function and approach to each step in the process. Pertinent documentation, prerequisites, drawings, procedures, hardware, software, and key interfacing organizations will be identified. The second objective is related to the decision to lay up the program until funding is made available to complete it or until a need arises due to failure of an important component in a waste tank. To this end, the document will identify work remaining to be completed for each step of the process and open items or issues that remain to be resolved.

  18. Bacterial contamination of inanimate surfaces and equipment in the intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Russotto, V; Cortegiani, A; Raineri, S.; Giarratano, A

    2015-01-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infections are a challenging health problem worldwide, especially when caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. In ICUs, inanimate surfaces and equipment (e.g., bedrails, stethoscopes, medical charts, ultrasound machine) may be contaminated by bacteria, including MDR isolates. Cross-transmission of microorganisms from inanimate surfaces may have a significant role for ICU-acquired colonization and infections. Contamination may result from healthcare wo...

  19. Micro GC's for Contaminant Monitoring in Spacecraft Air Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to create new gas chromatographs (GCs) for contaminant monitoring in spacecraft air that do not require any reagents or special...

  20. The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Contaminants Monitoring Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Alternatives for an environmental contaminants monitoring plan have been developed for the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge). This study...

  1. Cleaning and sanitation of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter processing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Grove, Stephen F; Halik, Lindsay A; Arritt, Fletcher; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-04-01

    Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (∼ 7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (∼ 75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90 °C) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ∼ 3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm(2) remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (<0.16 log CFU/cm(2)). These data suggest that a two-step hot oil clean and isopropanol sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment.

  2. Data acquisition, remote control and equipment monitoring for ISOLDE RILIS

    CERN Document Server

    Rossel, R E; Richter, D; Wendt, K D A; Rothe, S; Marsh, B A

    2013-01-01

    With a steadily increasing on-line operation time up to a record 3000 h in the year 2012, the Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is one of the key components of the ISOLDE on-line isotope user facility at CERN. Ion beam production using the RILIS is essential for many experiments due to the unmatched combination of ionization efficiency and selectivity. To meet the reliability requirements the RILIS is currently operated in shift duty for continuous maintenance of crucial laser parameters such as wavelength, power, beam position and timing, as well as ensuring swift intervention in case of an equipment malfunction. A recent overhaul of the RILIS included the installation of new pump lasers, commercial dye lasers and a complementary, fully solid-state titanium:sapphire laser system. The framework of the upgrade also required the setup of a network-extended, LabVIEW-based system for data acquisition, remote control and equipment monitoring, to support RILIS operators as well as ISOLDE users. The syst...

  3. Monitored Natural Recovery at Contaminated Sediment Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    sediments, precipitation of solids from the water column, and accumulation of the remains of aquatic biota such as plankton , algae, and aquatic...speciation in clams and seaweed from a contaminated marine environment. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 54:586-594. 15 A P P E N D I X B : C O N T A M I N A N T - S

  4. Proximal spectral sensing to monitor phytoremediation of metal - contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rathod, P.H.; Rossiter, D.; Noomen, M.; van der Meer, F.D.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of soil contamination and its long-term monitoring are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of phytoremediation systems. Spectral sensing-based monitoring methods promise obvious benefits compared to field-based methods: lower cost, faster data acquisition and better spatio-temporal

  5. Design and implementation of equipment for monitoring the salinity in the subsoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Norzagaray Campos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical exploration equipments to explore the contaminants and structures geological in the subsoil come from abroad are expensive and sometimes parts for replacement are not available in the market. So it is necessary design apparatus that meet cover these needs. To the monitoring of variations in salinity there is semi-automatic equipment, but it always has difficult to manage. However, is not equipment for the indirect study of salinity in the subsoil. In this work was design equipment for measurement the apparent resistivity in the subsoil, at same time allow know the salinity, as well as the detection of any pollutant in groundwater. For make it, was selected a design of earthing systems, with electronic hardware which were jointed for apply to subsoil a direct current (DC through an array dipole-dipole and vertical electric sounding, with brass and stainless steel electrodes. In the earthing systems the electrodes were collocated in the equidistant line between the detectors of potential and current. A geometric factor (K, that depend on theelectrodes distance and direct current (I injected in the electrodes A and B, was used for measure the potential difference between the electrodes M and N; after was calculate the resistivity point to point for obtain a subsoil tomography geoelectrical. The equipment was calibrated with minimum error (rms < 2% whit respect to curves obtained in similar commercial equipment. On this situation, in this work was modernized and automated an equipment to determine thesalinity of the subsoil. The instrument was tasted in the micro basin Texcoco, State of Mexico, to define the environment geometry formed by alluvial or lake sediments from igneous rocks (andesites, rhyolites and tuffs vitreous or “tepetates” which by its mineralogical composition allowed to the lateral resistivity be associate with free components trace from the aquifer: Cd, Cu, Cr, Co, Ni, Pb or Zn and others. This method constitutes

  6. Modeling, Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Spacecraft Air Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, W. Fred; Skliar, Mikhail; Narayan, Anand; Morgenthaler, George W.; Smith, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    Control of air contaminants is a crucial factor in the safety considerations of crewed space flight. Indoor air quality needs to be closely monitored during long range missions such as a Mars mission, and also on large complex space structures such as the International Space Station. This work mainly pertains to the detection and simulation of air contaminants in the space station, though much of the work is easily extended to buildings, and issues of ventilation systems. Here we propose a method with which to track the presence of contaminants using an accurate physical model, and also develop a robust procedure that would raise alarms when certain tolerance levels are exceeded. A part of this research concerns the modeling of air flow inside a spacecraft, and the consequent dispersal pattern of contaminants. Our objective is to also monitor the contaminants on-line, so we develop a state estimation procedure that makes use of the measurements from a sensor system and determines an optimal estimate of the contamination in the system as a function of time and space. The real-time optimal estimates in turn are used to detect faults in the system and also offer diagnoses as to their sources. This work is concerned with the monitoring of air contaminants aboard future generation spacecraft and seeks to satisfy NASA's requirements as outlined in their Strategic Plan document (Technology Development Requirements, 1996).

  7. An overview of existing raptor contaminant monitoring activities in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ramírez, P; Shore, R F; van den Brink, N W; van Hattum, B; Bustnes, J O; Duke, G; Fritsch, C; García-Fernández, A J; Helander, B O; Jaspers, V; Krone, O; Martínez-López, E; Mateo, R; Movalli, P; Sonne, C

    2014-06-01

    Biomonitoring using raptors as sentinels can provide early warning of the potential impacts of contaminants on humans and the environment and also a means of tracking the success of associated mitigation measures. Examples include detection of heavy metal-induced immune system impairment, PCB-induced altered reproductive impacts, and toxicity associated with lead in shot game. Authorisation of such releases and implementation of mitigation is now increasingly delivered through EU-wide directives but there is little established pan-European monitoring to quantify outcomes. We investigated the potential for EU-wide coordinated contaminant monitoring using raptors as sentinels. We did this using a questionnaire to ascertain the current scale of national activity across 44 European countries. According to this survey, there have been 52 different contaminant monitoring schemes with raptors over the last 50years. There were active schemes in 15 (predominantly western European) countries and 23 schemes have been running for >20years; most monitoring was conducted for >5years. Legacy persistent organic compounds (specifically organochlorine insecticides and PCBs), and metals/metalloids were monitored in most of the 15 countries. Fungicides, flame retardants and anticoagulant rodenticides were also relatively frequently monitored (each in at least 6 countries). Common buzzard (Buteo buteo), common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), tawny owl (Strix aluco) and barn owl (Tyto alba) were most commonly monitored (each in 6-10 countries). Feathers and eggs were most widely analysed although many schemes also analysed body tissues. Our study reveals an existing capability across multiple European countries for contaminant monitoring using raptors. However, coordination between existing schemes and expansion of monitoring into Eastern Europe is needed. This would enable

  8. Evaluation of the secondary radiation impact on personnel during the dismantling of contaminated nuclear equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankunas Gediminas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a numerical analysis of the secondary radiation contribution to the total radiation affecting the operational personnel during the dismantling activities of the contaminated equipment at a nuclear power plant. This study considers a widely applicable Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNPX and real Ignalina nuclear power plant records. A simplified albedo method is investigated in order to analyze the selected geometrical design cases. Additionally, the impact of the secondary radiation on the personnel dose was analyzed. The numerical MCNPX simulation allowed ascertaining the optimal distance between the source and the wall for the working personnel in closed rooms with contaminated equipment. The developed dose rate maps of the secondary radiation showed cross-sectional distribution of the dose rate inside the enclosed area.

  9. Safety analysis report for packaging, onsite, long-length contaminated equipment transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-05-09

    This safety analysis report for packaging describes the components of the long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE) transport system (TS) and provides the analyses, evaluations, and associated operational controls necessary for the safe use of the LLCE TS on the Hanford Site. The LLCE TS will provide a standardized, comprehensive approach for the disposal of approximately 98% of LLCE scheduled to be removed from the 200 Area waste tanks.

  10. Long Length Contaminated Equipment Retrieval System Receiver Trailer and Transport Trailer Operations and Maintenance Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DALE, R.N.

    2000-05-01

    A system to accommodate the removal of long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE) from Hanford underground radioactive waste storage tanks was designed, procured, and demonstrated, via a project activity during the 1990s. The system is the Long Length Contaminated Equipment Removal System (LLCERS). LLCERS will be maintained and operated by Tank Farms Engineering and Operations organizations and other varied projects having a need for the system. The responsibility for the operation and maintenance of the LLCERS Receiver Trailer (RT) and Transport Trailer (TT) resides with the RPP Characterization Project Operations organization. The purpose of this document is to provide vendor supplied operating and maintenance (O & M) information for the RT and TT in a readily retrievable form. This information is provided this way instead of in a vendor information (VI) file to maintain configuration control of the operations baseline as described in RPP-6085, ''Configuration Management Plan for Long Length Contaminated Equipment Receiver and Transport Trailers''. Additional Operations Baseline documents are identified in RPP-6085.

  11. US8,994,532 "Data Center Equipment Location and Monitoring System"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A data center equipment location system includes both hardware and software to provide for location, monitoring, security and identification of servers and other equipment in equipment racks. The system provides a wired alternative to the wireless RFID tag system by using electronic ID tags...

  12. 40 CFR 141.561 - What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails? If there is a failure in the continuous... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails? 141.561 Section 141.561 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  13. Belted kingfishers as ecological monitors of contamination: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landrum, C.L. [North Texas Univ., Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Biology; Ashwood, T.L.; Cox, D.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Aquatic systems serve as transport pathways and reservoirs for most of the contaminants known to be present on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Organisms that live in aquatic systems accumulate some of these contaminants from their food and directly from the water or sediment. A wide array of terrestrial organisms feeds on aquatic organisms and may accumulate contaminants from aquatic prey. The belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon) is a piscivorous and territorial avian species that may be a suitable monitor of contaminant accumulation at specific sites on the ORR. A kingfisher collected on White Oak Lake in 1991 had a {sup 137}Cs concentration of 568 pCi/g in muscle tissue, which exceeds levels found in any other waterfowl collected from the lake. An investigation into the efficacy of using the kingfisher as an ecological indicator of aquatic contaminants on the ORR was initiated in late August 1992. The primary objective of this study was to acquire information concerning the ecology of the kingfisher to determine how the species could be used within the framework of the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A second important objective of the study was to examine the possible somatic and reproductive effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Hg, and various radioactive contaminants on piscivorous birds by reviewing pollution ecology studies conducted on those species.

  14. Ebola virus disease: The use of fluorescents as markers of contamination for personal protective equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Bell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak has created interest in personal protective equipment (PPE content and usage. PPE testing has historically been done by individual component, rather than as a bundle for contact isolation. Fluorescent agents are commonly used in training for infection control techniques. The purpose of our study was to compare 2 PPE bundles and to evaluate the feasibility of fluorescent markers as an assessment tool for PPE effectiveness. Eight healthcare providers volunteered for this preliminary study. Participants were randomized to 1 of 2 PPE bundles that meet current (October 20, 2014 CDC recommendations. One PPE bundle utilized commercial EVD-recommended components. The other PPE bundle used components already available at local hospitals or retail stores. Participants were also randomized to standard or high volume exposures (HVE to simulate fluid splash. Each participant was assisted in PPE donning and doffing by an experienced trainer. A training mannequin was contaminated with fluorescent agents to simulate bodily fluids. Participants were then given clinical tasks to care for the EVD “patient.” De-gowned participants were examined under “black light” for fluorescence indicative of contamination. One participant in each PPE arm had evidence of contamination. One of the contamination events was suspected during the patient care exercise. The other contamination event was not suspected until black light examination. In spite of a large difference in cost of PPE, the two bundle arms performed similarly. Bundle testing using fluorescent markers could help identify optimal PPE systems.

  15. Characterization and monitoring of contaminated sites by multi-geophysical approach (IP, ERT and GPR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, Valeria; Capozzoli, Luigi; Votta, Mario; Rizzo, Enzo

    2014-05-01

    The contamination of soils and groundwater by hydrocarbons, due to blow out, leakage from tank or pipe and oil spill, is a heavy environmental problem because infiltrated oil can persist in the ground for a long time leading to important changes on soils and physical and biogeochemical properties, which impact on ecosystems and shallow aquifers. The existing methods used for the characterization of hydrocarbon contaminated sites are invasive, time consuming and expensive. Therefore, in the last years, there was a growing interest in the use of geophysical methods for environmental monitoring (Börner et al., 1993; Vanhala, 1997; Atekwana et al., 2000; Chambers et al., 2004; Song et al., 2005; French et al., 2009). The goal of this work is to characterize underground contaminant distributions and monitoring a remediation activity using a multi-geophysical approach (cross-hole IP and ERT, GPR). The experiments consist in geophysical measurements both in surface and boreholes, to monitor a simulated hydrocarbon leachate into a ~1 m3 box. The tank is filled with quartz-rich sand (k = 1.16 x 10-12 m2) and it is equipped with six boreholes and 72 stainless steel ring electrodes, at 5 cm spacing, for cross-hole electrical resistivity and time-domain IP measurements. 25 additional stainless steel electrodes were installed at the surface of the tank. Two measurement phases were realized: first, we monitored electrical resistivity, IP, and dielectric conductivity of the uncontaminated soil; the second experimental phase consists in the geophysical monitoring of a crude oil controlled spill. Results showed significant changes in the responses of geoelectrical measurements in presence of a crude oil contamination. Instead IP results give a phase angle distribution related to the presence of hydrocarbon in the system but not so clear in the location of plume. Therefore, to clearly delineate the areas interested by contamination, we estimate the imaginary component of electrical

  16. Design and Development of Hand and Foot Contamination Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Akter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A hand and foot contamination monitor is a health physics instrument to provide detection and measurement of beta-gamma contamination on the palm of each hand and on the bottom surface of both feet/shoes. There are four channels of detection for two hands and two feet. Four G-M detectors have been used in a single unit to cover the whole area of hand and feet. A regulated high voltage DC power supply (900 V has been designed using the PIC12F675 microcontroller to operate the pancake Geiger-Müller detectors. The reading is displayed on a linearly scaled 0-100 Bq/cm2 analog panel meter. The monitor detects beta–gamma radiation emitted by radioactive materials, and if the detected value exceeds a preset level, the monitor sounds an alarm and displays a reading in the respective panel meter. Indicator lamps are used to show the status of contamination. The performance of the system has been tested by using pulse generator and by flat surface radioactive calibration sources. Electronic linearity, detection efficiency, response to the contamination, calibration factor and percentage of error has been measured. Test results were satisfactory and the present system can be used instead of similar imported instruments.

  17. Epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis and the possible role of contamination by dental equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E T; Giwercman, B; Ojeniyi, B;

    1997-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients often suffer from Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection yet the source of this organism is not known. In order to determine whether CF patients might be contaminated with P. aeruginosa from dental equipment, a total of 103 water samples from 25 dental sessions...... in Frederiksberg Municipal Oral Health Care Service were examined. Three samples (2.9%) were positive for P. aeruginosa. Three hundred and twenty-seven water samples from 82 dental sessions from various other Municipal Oral Health Services in Denmark, attended by CF patients, were also examined. Eighteen of 327...... samples (5.5%) from nine sessions (11%) were positive for P. aeruginosa. In one case, genotypically identical (RFLP, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) P. aeruginosa strains were found both in water from the dental equipment and in the CF patients sputum. This indicates a small risk for acquiring P...

  18. Borehole Calibration Facilities to Support Gamma Logging for Hanford Subsurface Investigation and Contaminant Monitoring - 13516

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCain, R.G.; Henwood, P.D.; Pope, A.D.; Pearson, A.W. [S M Stoller Corporation, 2439 Robertson Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Repeated gamma logging in cased holes represents a cost-effective means to monitor gamma-emitting contamination in the deep vadose zone over time. Careful calibration and standardization of gamma log results are required to track changes and to compare results over time from different detectors and logging systems. This paper provides a summary description of Hanford facilities currently available for calibration of logging equipment. Ideally, all logging organizations conducting borehole gamma measurements at the Hanford Site will take advantage of these facilities to produce standardized and comparable results. (authors)

  19. Contamination monitoring and control on ASML MS-VII 157-nm exposure tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma; Gronheid, Roel; Coenen, Jan; Hermans, Jan; Ronse, Kurt G.

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents results of monitoring and control of contaminants in an ASML MS-VII 157nm full-field exposure tool at IMEC, as verified lithographically in terms of field uniformity, lens transmission, CD uniformity, and scattered light. The daily contamination monitoring system utilizes in-line photo-ionization detector, oxygen and moisture analyzers, as well as chemiluminescent detector, and gas chromatograph that is coupled to a mass spectrometer. On a monthly basis, contamination monitoring was performed with thermal desorption-gas chromatographi/mass spectrometric techniques. The following four locations within the optical path of the MS-VII are monitored: source optic assembly, condenser lens optic, 1X relay station, and projection optics box. Contamination control is realized in the system with an on-board purge control unit, which is equipped with gas purifiers that remove contaminants such as H2O, O2, CO, CO2, hydrocarbons, H2, and sulfur compounds. All the observed contaminants have been trending within expected values and no contamination-related tool performance degradation has been observed. The excursions observed in the contaminant concentrations are coincident with tool downtime/maintenance events. Siloxane levels appear to be consistently below 50 ppt in all the monitored locations within the optical path of the tool, except on one occasion when it reached 90 ppt in the projection optics. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentration within the MS-VII enclosure show a stable background level of around 10-25 ppb during weekends and levels of 45-60 ppb (during working days). VOCs concentration variations inside the MS-VII enclosure during the working days correlate well with activities inside the clean room. Air recirculation and low intake of fresh air inside the MS-VII tend to slow down the speed with which the VOCs levels decreases to stable background level, whenever there was a major upward excursion in their concentration. Average light

  20. Insights into Contaminant Leaching Through An Intensive Field Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, D.; Ireson, A. M.; Ali, M.; Steele, C.; Penrod, D.

    2014-12-01

    Risks to groundwater quality from mobile contaminants in the unsaturated zone associated with active or legacy mines present significant challenges for land managers and policy makers worldwide. Unsaturated zone flow processes are a dominant control on contaminant loading. However, the presence of unsaturated zone heterogeneity results in spatially and temporally variable flow pathways, due to capillary breaks and hydraulic barriers forming in various locations. This can result in the development of focused flow paths from where rapid contaminant transport to the water table may occur. In this study we designed an intensive monitoring program to attempt to characterise time-varying flow paths through a highly heterogeneous unsaturated zone through a dense network of combined soil moisture, electric conductivity and temperature probes. Estimations of surface fluxes and soil drainage along with observed water table response at a waste management site in Chalk River, Canada are presented providing insights into flow and transport processes.

  1. Suitable features selection for monitoring thermal condition of electrical equipment using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, A. S. N.; Taib, S.

    2013-11-01

    Monitoring the thermal condition of electrical equipment is necessary for maintaining the reliability of electrical system. The degradation of electrical equipment can cause excessive overheating, which can lead to the eventual failure of the equipment. Additionally, failure of equipment requires a lot of maintenance cost, manpower and can also be catastrophic- causing injuries or even deaths. Therefore, the recognition processof equipment conditions as normal and defective is an essential step towards maintaining reliability and stability of the system. The study introduces infrared thermography based condition monitoring of electrical equipment. Manual analysis of thermal image for detecting defects and classifying the status of equipment take a lot of time, efforts and can also lead to incorrect diagnosis results. An intelligent system that can separate the equipment automatically could help to overcome these problems. This paper discusses an intelligent classification system for the conditions of equipment using neural networks. Three sets of features namely first order histogram based statistical, grey level co-occurrence matrix and component based intensity features are extracted by image analysis, which are used as input data for the neural networks. The multilayered perceptron networks are trained using four different training algorithms namely Resilient back propagation, Bayesian Regulazation, Levenberg-Marquardt and Scale conjugate gradient. The experimental results show that the component based intensity features perform better compared to other two sets of features. Finally, after selecting the best features, multilayered perceptron network trained using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm achieved the best results to classify the conditions of electrical equipment.

  2. Monitoring program for mycotoxin contamination in Uruguayan food and feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, M; Dawson, R; Costarrica, M L

    1996-01-01

    A pilot study for monitoring mycotoxin contamination in food and feeds was implemented by the Technological Laboratory of Uruguay (LATU) with the technical assistance of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The scope of the study was to determine the potential hazard posed by priority food-contaminant and feed-contaminant combinations. The choice of foods and contaminants to be monitored was based on the importance of the food in the total diet, the economic importance of the product and the potential health risk posed by the specific combination. The principal commodities selected were wheat, barley and rice. Also included were com, soy, dairy products, feeds, dried fruits and legumes, oil seeds, cocoa beans and organ meats. Mycotoxins analyzed (TLC/densitometry) were aflatoxins, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol (DON) and ergot alkaloids. The survey results (1993-95) showed differences in both incidence and levels of mycotoxin content for the principal commodities. Of all food/feed categories analyzed, feed had the highest values for all mycotoxins. Samples containing DON in levels above 1000 ng/g were found in all groups. Ochratoxin A was not detected in any of the samples. Rice and soy beans were the categories with lowest aflatoxin incidence. Uruguayan regulatory limits for all toxins analyzed were exceeded for wheat, barley and rice in less than 3, 9 and 7% of samples, respectively. The data on actual mycotoxin levels in different foods will help identify sources of contaminations and areas where control measures should be improved, enable better risk assessment by proper estimation of mycotoxin intake, assist in the establishment of tolerances and adequate guidelines, aid in the implementation of a national program and provide economic benefits by improving grain quality.

  3. Contamination of firefighter personal protective equipment and skin and the effectiveness of decontamination procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fent, Kenneth W; Alexander, Barbara; Roberts, Jennifer; Robertson, Shirley; Toennis, Christine; Sammons, Deborah; Bertke, Stephen; Kerber, Steve; Smith, Denise; Horn, Gavin

    2017-06-21

    Firefighters' skin may be exposed to chemicals via permeation/penetration of combustion byproducts through or around personal protective equipment (PPE) or from the cross-transfer of contaminants on PPE to the skin. Additionally, volatile contaminants can evaporate from PPE following a response and be inhaled by firefighters. Using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as respective markers for non-volatile and volatile substances, we investigated the contamination of firefighters' turnout gear and skin following controlled residential fire responses. Participants were grouped into three crews of twelve firefighters. Each crew was deployed to a fire scenario (one per day, four total) and then paired up to complete six fireground job assignments. Wipe sampling of the exterior of the turnout gear was conducted pre- and post-fire. Wipe samples were also collected from a subset of the gear after field decontamination. VOCs off-gassing from gear were also measured pre-fire, post-fire, and post-decon. Wipe sampling of the firefighters' hands and neck was conducted pre- and post-fire. Additional wipes were collected after cleaning neck skin. PAH levels on turnout gear increased after each response and were greatest for gear worn by firefighters assigned to fire attack and to search and rescue activities. Field decontamination using dish soap, water, and scrubbing was able to reduce PAH contamination on turnout jackets by a median of 85%. Off-gassing VOC levels increased post-fire and then decreased 17-36 minutes later regardless of whether field decontamination was performed. Median post-fire PAH levels on the neck were near or below the limit of detection (< 24 micrograms per square meter [µg/m(2)]) for all positions. For firefighters assigned to attack, search, and outside ventilation, the 75(th) percentile values on the neck were 152, 71.7, and 39.3 µg/m(2), respectively. Firefighters assigned to attack and search had higher

  4. Long Term Remote Monitoring of TCE Contaminated Groundwater at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, C.; Gudavalli, R.; Lagos, L.; Tansel, B.; Varona, J.; Allen, M.

    2004-10-06

    The purpose of this study was to develop a mobile self powered remote monitoring system enhanced for field deployment at Savannah River Site (SRS). The system used a localized power source with solar recharging and has wireless data collection, analysis, transmission, and data management capabilities. The prototype was equipped with a Hydrolab's DataSonde 4a multi-sensor array package managed by a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, with an adequate pumping capacity of water samples for sampling and analysis of Trichloroethylene (TCE) in contaminated groundwater wells at SRS. This paper focuses on a study and technology development efforts conducted at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) to automate the sampling of contaminated wells with a multi-sensor array package developed using COTS (Commercial Off The shelf) parts. Bladder pumps will pump water from different wells to the sensors array, water quality TCE indicator parameters are measured (i.e. pH, redox, ORP, DO, NO3 -, Cl-). In order to increase user access and data management, the system was designed to be accessible over the Internet. Remote users can take sample readings and collect data remotely over a web. Results obtained at Florida International University in-house testing and at a field deployment at the Savannah River Site indicate that this long term monitoring technique can be a feasible solution for the sampling of TCE indicator parameters at remote contaminated sites.

  5. Radiation tolerance assurance of technical equipment in the LHC radiation monitoring for technical equipment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, Thijs; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2005-01-01

    In contrast with other accelerators at CERN, a large amount of technical equipment will be located in the LHC tunnel, the underground areas and in the experimental caverns where they will be exposed to radiation. Nearly all this equipment makes, to a certain extent, use of commercial microelectronics which is extremely sensitive to radiation damage, both instantaneous damage and cumulative damage. Examples in the TS Department are the electronics for the position sensors of the low beta quadrupoles, the access system, the cooling and ventilation units, the electronics for the electrical distribution, the oxygen deficiency monitors and fire detection systems. The basic effects of radiation on electronic systems and components are well understood because similar problems with radiation are encountered in the aerospace and aviation industry. Since 1998, an efficient and original Radiation Tolerance Assurance approach for the LHC machine has been established. Its aim is to minimise the effects of radiation damage...

  6. Decentralized and overall condition monitoring system for large-scale mobile and complex equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Jianjun; Zhang Peilin; Ren Guoquan; Fu Jianping

    2007-01-01

    It is an urgent project to realize online and overall condition monitoring and timely fault diagnosis for large-scale mobile and complex equipment. Moreover, most of the existing large-scale complex equipment has quite insufficient accessibility of examination, although it still has quite a long service life. The decentralized and overall condition monitoring, as a new concept, is proposed from the point of view of the whole system. A set of complex equipment is divided into several parts in terms of concrete equipment. Every part is processed via one detecting unit, and the main detecting unit is connected with other units. The management work and communications with the remote monitoring center have been taken on by it. Consequently, the difficulty of realizing a condition monitoring system and the complexity of processing information is reduced greatly. Furthermore, excellent maintainability of the condition monitoring system is obtained because of the modularization design. Through an application example,the design and realization of the decentralized and overall condition monitoring system is introduced specifically.Some advanced technologies, such as, micro control unit (MCU), advanced RISC machines (ARM), and control area network (CAN), have been adopted in the system. The system's applicability for the existing large-scale mobile and complex equipment is tested.

  7. Contaminant monitoring of hydraulic systems. The need for reliable data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, M.J. [Pall Europe Ltd., Portsmouth (United Kingdom)] Rinkinen, J. [Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The need for both reliable operation of hydraulic and lubrication systems and long component lives has focused users to the benefits of controlling the contamination in the hydraulic fluid. Maximum operating (target) levels are being implemented as part of a condition based maintenance regime. If these are exceeded, maintenance effort is directed to correcting the rise in consummation level, and so make optimum use of resources as maintenance effort is only affected when it is necessary to do so. Fundamental to ibis aspect of condition based monitoring is the provision of accurate and reliable data in the shortest possible time. This way, corrective actions can be implemented immediately so minimising the damage to components. On-line monitoring devices are a way of achieving this and are seeing increased use, but some are affected by the condition of the fluid. Hence, there is a potential for giving incorrect data which will waste time and effort by initiating unnecessary corrective actions. A more disturbing aspect is the effect on the user of continual errors. The most likely effect would be a loss of confidence in the technique or even complete rejection of it and hence the potential benefits will be lost. This presentation explains how contaminant monitoring techniques are applied to ensure that the potential benefits of operating with clean fluids is realised. It examines the sources of error and shows how the user can interrogate the data and satisfy himself of its authenticity. (orig.) 14 refs.

  8. Transmission of hazardous diseases via nanobacterial contamination of medical and dental equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Kolahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nanobacteria (calcifying nanoparticles, nanobes are one of the most controversial issues in contemporary biology. Studies show accumulating evidence on association of nanobacteria with pathologic calcifications such as kidney stone, arterial plaque, calcification of coronary arteries, and cardiac valves calculus. The Hypothesis: Nanobacteria can tolerate harsh conditions extremely well. The apatite mineral layer around the organism and slow metabolism is likely to be the reason for the resistance of nanobacteria. They showed a wide resistance to the several disinfecting and sterilizating chemicals as well as autoclaving, ultraviolet light, microwaves, heating and drying treatments. Hence, it seems logic to postulate that hazardous diseases can be easily transmitted via nanobacterial contamination of medical and dental equipment. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: It is not enough to claim an agent not living according to the standard view on living creatures, as irrelevant to biological safety of cell cultures, or to human and animal health. Although the nature of prions is still under debate and prions are classified as nonliving, they exist and cause diseases, and thus form a serious risk for animal and human health. The risk was recognized only after enormous economical losses. It appears that nanobacteria situation is rather similar, except the fact that nanobacteria appear to cause or contribute to common hazardous diseases of the mankind. Hence, world-widely well-known organizations such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and the World Health Organization should pay more attention to transmission of hazardous diseases via nanobacterial contamination of medical and dental equipment.

  9. Radioactive contamination in monitors received for calibration; Contaminacao em monitores de radiacao recebidos para calibracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Paulo S.; Santos, Gilvan C. dos; Brunelo, Maria Antonieta G.; Paula, Tiago C. de; Pires, Marina A.; Borges, Jose C. [MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., Jardinopolis, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ensaios e Pesquisas em Metrologia (METROBRAS)

    2013-10-01

    The Calibration Laboratory - LABCAL, from the Research Center for Metrology and Testing - METROBRAS, MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., began activities in October 2008 and, in August 2009, decided to establish a procedure for monitoring tests, external and internal, of all packages received from customers, containing instruments for calibration. The aim was to investigate possible contamination radioactive on these instruments. On July 2011, this procedure was extended to packagings of personal thermoluminescent dosemeters - TLD, received by the newly created Laboratory Laboratorio de Dosimetria Pessoal - LDP . In the monitoring procedure were used monitors with external probe, type pancake, MRA brand, models GP - 500 and MIR 7028. During the 37 months in which this investigation was conducted, were detected 42 cases of radioactive contamination, with the following characteristics: 1) just one case was personal dosimeter, TLD type; 2) just one case was not from a packing from nuclear medicine service - was from a mining company; 3) contamination occurred on packs and instruments, located and/or widespread; 4) contamination values ranged from slightly above the level of background radiation to about a thousand fold. Although METROBRAS has facilities for decontamination, in most cases, especially those of higher contamination, the procedure followed was to store the contaminated material in a room used for storage of radioactive sources. Periodically, each package and/or instrument was monitored, being released when the radiation level matched the background radiation. Every contamination detected, the client and/or owner of the instrument was informed. The Brazilian National Energy Commission - CNEN, was informed, during your public consultation for reviewing the standard for nuclear medicine services, held in mid-2012, having received from METROBRAS the statistical data available at the time. The high frequency of contamination detected and the high

  10. Monitoring ecological recovery in a stream impacted by contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, G.R.; Cada, G.F.; Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Past in-ground disposal practices in Bear Creek Valley resulted in contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. A biological monitoring program initiated in 1984 has evaluated the effectiveness of the extensive remedial actions undertaken to address contamination sources. Elements of the monitoring program included toxicity testing with fish and invertebrates, bioaccumulation monitoring, and instream monitoring of streambed invertebrate and fish communities. In the mid 1980`s, toxicity tests on stream water indicated that the headwaters of the stream were acutely toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates as a result of infiltration of a metal-enriched groundwater from ponds used to dispose of acid wastes. Over a twelve year period, measurable toxicity in the headwaters decreased, first becoming non-toxic to larval fish but still toxic to invertebrates, then becoming intermittently toxic to invertebrates. By 1997, episodic toxicity was infrequent at the site that was acutely toxic at the start of the study. Recovery in the fish community followed the pattern of the toxicity tests. Initially, resident fish populations were absent from reaches where toxicity was measured, but as toxicity to fish larvae disappeared, the sites in upper Bear Creek were colonized by fish. The Tennessee dace, an uncommon species receiving special protection by the State of Tennessee, became a numerically important part of the fish population throughout the upper half of the creek, making Bear Creek one of the most significant habitats for this species in the region. Although by 1990 fish populations were comparable to those of similar size reference streams, episodic toxicity in the headwaters coincided with a recruitment failure in 1996. Bioaccumulation monitoring indicated the presence of PCBs and mercury in predatory fish in Bear Creek, and whole forage fish contained elevated levels of cadmium, lead, lithium, nickel, mercury, and uranium.

  11. Digital monitoring for heavy duty mechanical equipment based on fiber Bragg grating sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The digital monitoring principle and technologies for heavy duty mechanical equipment based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology are introduced in this paper. The fundamentals of new-style FBG sensing technology, including the photorefractive effect of FBG, the physical formation, and the relation between optical properties and grating parameters, are investigated. The plaster, encapsulation and distribution planning of FBG sensor (FBGS), which is used to monitor heavy duty mechanical equipment under abominable environment and extreme conditions, are also studied. In addition, theoretical and experimental researches on the strain, temperature, displacement, and stress transmission characteristics between FBGS and detection interface are presented. The principle and method for temperature compensation in non-uniformity temperature field are described in detail as well. Comparing with the traditional sensing monitoring techniques, the application of FBGS technology on digital monitoring and diagnosis for heavy duty mechanical equipment has a number of significant technical advantages and will make a new breakthrough in this field.

  12. Monitoring of raptors and their contamination levels in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjershaug, Jan Ove; Kålås, John Atle; Nygård, Torgeir; Herzke, Dorte; Folkestad, Alv Ottar

    2008-09-01

    This article summarizes results from raptor monitoring and contamination studies in Norway of the golden eagle, gyrfalcon, white-tailed sea eagle, osprey, peregrine, and merlin. Golden eagle and gyrfalcon populations have been monitored since 1990 as part of the "Monitoring Programme for Terrestrial Ecosystems" (TOV). No long-term trend in the population size or productivity of golden eagle has been shown in any of the 5 study areas. The reproductive output of gyrfalcon is monitored in 3 areas. It is positively correlated with the populations of its main prey species, the rock ptarmigan and the willow ptarmigan. The white-tailed sea eagle population has been monitored since 1974 by the Norwegian Ornithological Society, and the population is increasing. The levels of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls are low in the eggs of both the golden eagle and the gyrfalcon, but elevated levels and effects on reproduction have been indicated for a coastal subpopulation of golden eagle. The pollutant levels in white-tailed sea eagle are lower than in the Baltic population of sea eagles, and shell thinning was never severe overall, but individual eggs have contained pollutant concentrations above critical levels. The levels of pollutants in the bird-eating falcons, peregrine, and merlin were higher than in other species. New emerging pollutants, like brominated diphenylethers and perfluorinated organic compounds, could be detected in all species. By incorporating available published and unpublished data, we were able to produce time trends for pollutants and shell thickness over 4 decades.

  13. Power levels in office equipment: Measurements of new monitors and personal computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, Judy A.; Brown, Richard E.; Nordman, Bruce; Webber, Carrie A.; Homan, Gregory H.; Mahajan, Akshay; McWhinney, Marla; Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2002-05-14

    Electronic office equipment has proliferated rapidly over the last twenty years and is projected to continue growing in the future. Efforts to reduce the growth in office equipment energy use have focused on power management to reduce power consumption of electronic devices when not being used for their primary purpose. The EPA ENERGY STAR[registered trademark] program has been instrumental in gaining widespread support for power management in office equipment, and accurate information about the energy used by office equipment in all power levels is important to improving program design and evaluation. This paper presents the results of a field study conducted during 2001 to measure the power levels of new monitors and personal computers. We measured off, on, and low-power levels in about 60 units manufactured since July 2000. The paper summarizes power data collected, explores differences within the sample (e.g., between CRT and LCD monitors), and discusses some issues that arise in m etering office equipment. We also present conclusions to help improve the success of future power management programs.Our findings include a trend among monitor manufacturers to provide a single very low low-power level, and the need to standardize methods for measuring monitor on power, to more accurately estimate the annual energy consumption of office equipment, as well as actual and potential energy savings from power management.

  14. A Development of Empirical Models for Equipment Condition Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Song Kyu; Baik, Se Jin [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); An, Sang Ha [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    A great deal of effort is recently put into on-line monitoring (OLM), specially using empirical model to detect earlier the fault of components or the calibration reduction/extension of instrument. The empirical model is constructed with historical data obtained during operation and it mainly relies on regression techniques. Various models are used in OLM and the role of models is to describe the relation among signals that have been collected. Ultimate goal of empirical models is to best estimate parameter as soon as possible close to actual value. Typically some of the historical data are used for model training, and some data are used for verification and assessment of model performance. Several different models for OLM of nuclear power systems are currently being used. Examples include the ANL Multivariate State Estimation Techniques (MSET) used in EPI center of SmartSignal, the expert state estimation engine (ESEE) used in SureSense software of Expert Microsystems, Process Evaluation and Analysis by Neural Operators (PEANO) OECD of Halden Reactor Project and linear regression model used in RCP seal integrity monitoring system (SIMON) of KEPCO E and C

  15. Improving hydraulic excavator performance through in line hydraulic oil contamination monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Felix; Harding, Jennifer A.; Glass, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    It is common for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of high value products to provide maintenance or service packages to customers to ensure their products are maintained at peak efficiency throughout their life. To quickly and efficiently plan for maintenance requirements, OEMs require accurate information about the use and wear of their products. In recent decades, the aerospace industry in particular has become expert in using real time data for the purpose of product monitoring and maintenance scheduling. Significant quantities of real time usage data from product monitoring are commonly generated and transmitted back to the OEMs, where diagnostic and prognostic analysis will be carried out. More recently, other industries such as construction and automotive, are also starting to develop capabilities in these areas and condition based maintenance (CBM) is increasing in popularity as a means of satisfying customers' demands. CBM requires constant monitoring of real time product data by the OEMs, however the biggest challenge for these industries, in particular construction, is the lack of accurate and real time understanding of how their products are being used possibly because of the complex supply chains which exist in construction projects. This research focuses on current dynamic data acquisition techniques for mobile hydraulic systems, in this case the use of a mobile inline particle contamination sensor; the aim was to assess suitability to achieve both diagnostic and prognostic requirements of Condition Based Maintenance. It concludes that hydraulic oil contamination analysis, namely detection of metallic particulates, offers a reliable way to measure real time wear of hydraulic components.

  16. Bacterial Contamination of CT Equipment: Use of ATP Detection and Culture Results to Target Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, John; Burch, Debborah; Kucharski, Cheryl; Young, Carol; Kazerooni, Ella A; Davenport, Matthew S

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) monitoring system to minimize surface contamination on inpatient computed tomography (CT) scanners. The bore, table, and wrap of two quaternary care inpatient CT scanners (load/scanner: ~ 30-40 CT examinations/day) were assayed with bacterial cultures and an ATP detection system during six prospective iterative plan-do-check-act improvement cycles from January 6, 2016 to October 12, 2016. Per-cycle sampling was for eight consecutive weekdays. ATP detection was expressed as relative light units (RLUs) through a luciferase reaction, with >350 RLU considered contaminated per manufacturer recommendations. Culture swabs were placed into 6.5% NaCl broth, a Staphylococcus enrichment broth, and incubated aerobically at 37°C for 48 hours. Positive broths were plated to chromogenic Staphylococcus media. Culture rates (Fisher exact test) and RLU values (Mann-Whitney U test) were compared. In Cycle 1, both culture results and median RLU values indicated the wrap was the most contaminated item (positive culture rate: 63% [10/16], median RLU interquartile range: 173 [IQR: 56-640]); however, RLU values were not predictive of per-sample culture results (P = .36). Following iterative improvements, RLU values at Cycle 6 were significantly lower than at peak (P = .02-.04) and within manufacturer's recommendations: all samples: 45 (IQR: 16-87), bore: 26 (IQR: 0-51), table: 68 (IQR: 21-89), wrap: 47 (IQR: 38-121). The Velcro wrap is the most contaminated item on a CT scanner, and special processes may be needed to ensure adequate cleansing. ATP detection is a crude surrogate for bacterial culture results but benefits from speed, reduced cost, and greater statistical power. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CONTAMINATED PROCESS EQUIPMENT REMOVAL FOR THE D&D OF THE 232-Z CONTAMINATED WASTE RECOVERY PROCESS FACILITY AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; MINETTE, M.J.; KLOS, D.B.

    2007-01-25

    This paper describes the unique challenges encountered and subsequent resolutions to accomplish the deactivation and decontamination of a plutonium ash contaminated building. The 232-Z Contaminated Waste Recovery Process Facility at the Plutonium Finishing Plant was used to recover plutonium from process wastes such as rags, gloves, containers and other items by incinerating the items and dissolving the resulting ash. The incineration process resulted in a light-weight plutonium ash residue that was highly mobile in air. This light-weight ash coated the incinerator's process equipment, which included gloveboxes, blowers, filters, furnaces, ducts, and filter boxes. Significant airborne contamination (over 1 million derived air concentration hours [DAC]) was found in the scrubber cell of the facility. Over 1300 grams of plutonium held up in the process equipment and attached to the walls had to be removed, packaged and disposed. This ash had to be removed before demolition of the building could take place.

  18. Tritium contamination and monitoring at Frascati Neutron Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucci, F.; Sandri, S.; Ianni, A. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Dipartimento Ambiente; Vasselli, R. [ANPA, Roma (Italy); Pillon, M.; Bettinali, L. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Dipartimento Energia

    1994-11-01

    The Frascati Neutron Generator (FGN) is a specialised 300 keV, 3 mA direct electrostatic deuteron accelerator which produces about 5-10{sup 1}1 14 MeV neutrons per second by D-T reactions on a tritium-titanium fixed target. This paper concerns the tritium contamination control and monitoring aspects after some months of testing and a preliminary period of operation of the plant. The tritium monitoring system is composed of both on-line and off-line devices to control the tritium concentration in the atmosphere measured from different parts of the plant: vacuum exhaust clean up (VECU) system, stack, etc. The on-line devices are three flux monitors, that sample continuosly the air from up to eight different points in the plant. The passive sampling system is designed to select the chemical form of tritium and to collect respectively HTO and HT in two different cartridges filled with an appropriate drying material. The response of the on-line tritium monitor system are exposed and discussed: some measurements performed with atmosphere dehumidifying apparatus of this system are described and the relevant results are analysed.

  19. Glance traceability – Web system for equipment traceability and radiation monitoring for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos de Azevedo Evora, L H; Pommes, K; Galvão, K K; Maidantchik, C

    2010-01-01

    During the operation, maintenance, and dismantling periods of the ATLAS Experiment, the traceability of all detector equipment must be guaranteed for logistic and safety matters. The running of the Large Hadron Collider will expose the ATLAS detector to radiation. Therefore, CERN must follow specific regulations from both the French and Swiss authorities for equipment removal, transport, repair, and disposal. GLANCE Traceability, implemented in C++ and Java/Java3D, has been developed to fulfill the requirements. The system registers and associates each equipment part to either a functional position in the detector or a zone outside the underground area through a 3D graphical user interface. Radiation control of the equipment is performed using a radiation monitor connected to the system: the local background gets stored and the threshold is automatically calculated. The system classifies the equipment as non radioactive if its radiation dose does not exceed that limit value. History for both location traceabi...

  20. MS-BWME: a wireless real-time monitoring system for brine well mining equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xinqing; Zhu, Tianyu; Qi, Lin; Moga, Liliana Mihaela; Zhang, Xiaoshuan

    2014-10-23

    This paper describes a wireless real-time monitoring system (MS-BWME) to monitor the running state of pumps equipment in brine well mining and prevent potential failures that may produce unexpected interruptions with severe consequences. MS-BWME consists of two units: the ZigBee Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) unit and the real-time remote monitoring unit. MS-BWME was implemented and tested in sampled brine wells mining in Qinghai Province and four kinds of indicators were selected to evaluate the performance of the MS-BWME, i.e., sensor calibration, the system's real-time data reception, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and sensor node lifetime. The results show that MS-BWME can accurately judge the running state of the pump equipment by acquiring and transmitting the real-time voltage and electric current data of the equipment from the spot and provide real-time decision support aid to help workers overhaul the equipment in a timely manner and resolve failures that might produce unexpected production down-time. The MS-BWME can also be extended to a wide range of equipment monitoring applications.

  1. MS-BWME: A Wireless Real-Time Monitoring System for Brine Well Mining Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqing Xiao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a wireless real-time monitoring system (MS-BWME to monitor the running state of pumps equipment in brine well mining and prevent potential failures that may produce unexpected interruptions with severe consequences. MS-BWME consists of two units: the ZigBee Wireless Sensors Network (WSN unit and the real-time remote monitoring unit. MS-BWME was implemented and tested in sampled brine wells mining in Qinghai Province and four kinds of indicators were selected to evaluate the performance of the MS-BWME, i.e., sensor calibration, the system’s real-time data reception, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI and sensor node lifetime. The results show that MS-BWME can accurately judge the running state of the pump equipment by acquiring and transmitting the real-time voltage and electric current data of the equipment from the spot and provide real-time decision support aid to help workers overhaul the equipment in a timely manner and resolve failures that might produce unexpected production down-time. The MS-BWME can also be extended to a wide range of equipment monitoring applications.

  2. Cross-contamination between processing equipment and deli meats by Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Min; Takeuchi, Kazue; Zhang, Lei; Dohm, Cynthia B; Meyer, Joseph D; Hall, Paul A; Doyle, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of luncheon meats by Listeria monocytogenes has resulted in outbreaks of listeriosis and major product recalls. Listeriae can survive on processing equipment such as meat slicers which serve as a potential contamination source. This study was conducted to determine (i) the dynamics of cross-contamination of L. monocytogenes from a commercial slicer and associated equipment onto sliced meat products, (ii) the influence of sample size on the efficacy of the BAX-PCR and U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service enrichment culture assays to detect L. monocytogenes on deli meat, and (iii) the fate of L. monocytogenes on sliced deli meats of different types during refrigerated storage. Three types of deli meats, uncured oven-roasted turkey, salami, and bologna containing sodium diacetate and potassium lactate, were tested. A five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated at ca.10(3) CFU onto the blade of a commercial slicer. Five consecutive meat slices were packed per package, then vacuum sealed, stored at 4 degrees C, and sampled at 1 and 30 days postslicing. Two sample sizes, 25 g and contents of the entire package of meat, were assayed. Total numbers of L. monocytogenes-positive samples, including the two sample sizes and two sampling times, were 80, 9, and 3 for turkey, salami, and bologna, respectively. A higher percentage of turkey meat samples were L. monocytogenes positive when contents of the entire package were assayed than when the 25-g sample was assayed (12.5 and 7.5%, respectively). Lower inoculum populations of ca. 10(1) or 10(2) CFU of L. monocytogenes on the slicer blade were used for an additional evaluation of oven-roasted turkey using two additional sampling times of 60 and 90 days postslicing. L. monocytogenes-positive samples were not detected until 60 days postslicing, and more positive samples were detected at 90 days than at 60 days postslicing. When BAX-PCR and enrichment culture assays were

  3. Removal of Contaminants from Equipment and Debris and Waste Minimization Using the TECHXTRACT(TM) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorg Schwitzgebel; Klaus Schwitzgebel; Michael W. Bonem; Ronald E. Borah

    1998-12-09

    From September, 1996 through July, 1997, EET, Inc. conducted a series of experiments under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Program Research and Development Agreement (PRDA). This project, entitled "Removal of Contaminants from Equipment and Debris and Waste Minimization Using the TECHXTRACT â Technology" was conducted under DOE Contract DE-AC21- 96MC33138, administered by the Federal Energy Technology Center. The contract is divided into two phases - a base phase during which bench scale testing was conducted; and an optional phase for a field demonstration of a full-scale system. This report documents the results from the base phase of the contract. The base phase included the following major elements: - Evaluation of the effectiveness of various decontamination options, using both surrogate and radioactively contaminated samples. - Evaluation of various methods for the treatment of the secondary waste streams from the preferred decontamination system(s). - Evaluation of decontamination effectiveness for concrete rubble. - Preliminary engineering design and cost estimation for a full-scale system. - Preliminary economic analysis of the proposed system versus other currently available options for disposition of the materials. Results from the base phase, which are described in the following report, are very positive. Testing has shown that free release requirements and extremely high decontamination factors can be achieved for a variety of materials and radionuclides. Results for concrete rubble decontamination were less conclusive. The bench scale testing has led to the design of two different systems, both based on the TECHXTRACT â chemistry, for potential full-scale demonstration. Based on the preliminary economic analysis, this system compares favorably with currently available commercial options, including disposal.

  4. The Logistics Equipment Carbon Emission Monitoring System for a Green Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungrim; Park, Byoungkwon; Lee, Byungha; Park, Yongsung; Lee, Changsup; Ha, Jeongsoo

    Recently, due to the global enforcement of obligations to reduce green house gases and various environmental regulations, low carbon green growth strategies are required. Currently, in our country, environment friendly logistics activities are staying in the early stage compared to advanced countries because of our country's large energy consumption type industrial structures. As a measure to respond to the trend of the reinforcement of international environmental regulations in the sector of logistics, active green logistics systems should be established and to solve this problem, this study is intended to develop a monitoring system that can manage the carbon emission of logistics equipment(container truck, discharging equipment etc) in real time using a new technology named IP-RFID. The monitoring system developed in this study can actively manage the carbon emission of individual logistics equipment by attaching IP-Tags that can measure the carbon emission of individual logistics equipment in real time and transmit the information obtained from the measurement directly to users through IP communication. Since carbon emission can be managed by logistics equipment and drivers can check the carbon emission of equipment through this system, the carbon emission generated in the logistics sector may be reduced by using this system.

  5. Machine and lubricant condition monitoring for extended equipment lifetimes and predictive maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukas, M.; Anderson, D.P. [Spectro Incorporated, Littleton, Massachusetts (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Predictive maintenance has gained wide acceptance as a cost cutting strategy in modern industry. Condition monitoring by lubricant analysis is one of the basic tools of a predictive maintenance program along with vibration monitoring, performance monitoring and thermography. In today`s modern power generation, manufacturing, refinery, transportation, mining, and military operations, the cost of equipment maintenance, service, and lubricants are ever increasing. Parts, labor, equipment downtime and lubricant prices and disposal costs are a primary concern in a well run maintenance management program. Machine condition monitoring based on oil analysis has become a prerequisite in most maintenance programs. Few operations can afford not to implement a program if they wish to remain competitive, and in some cases, profitable. This presentation describes a comprehensive Machine Condition Monitoring Program based on oil analysis. Actual operational condition monitoring programs will be used to review basic components and analytical requirements. Case histories will be cited as examples of cost savings, reduced equipment downtime and increased efficiencies of maintenance programs through a well managed oil analysis program. (orig.)

  6. Automatic Distance Monitoring System of Contact Connections in High Voltage Equipment of Electric Power Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Diachenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The developed automatic distance monitoring system of contact connections in high voltage equipment is based on technology of sensor circuits. The paper shows application of control methodology for contact connections in accordance with time rate of conductor temperature changes and contact connection and also direct measurement of transient resistance.

  7. Realization of Radar Equipment Monitoring%雷达设备监控的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段文定

    2012-01-01

    With the increase of the radar station,many kinds of equipment in the radar station need to check and maintenance.Using the communication network which has been built to achieve the radar equipment room monitoring station equipment,and guarantee the safe and stable operation of the equipment,and provide references for the establishment of security control system for all civil aviation.%随着雷达站的增加,站内多种设备需要检查、维护,文中利用已建成的通信网络来实现雷达设备室各个台站设备的监控,保障了设备的安全稳定运行,可为各地民航建立安保监控系统提供参考。

  8. Dynamic monitoring equipment for earthworks and sub grades; Euipos de auscultacion dinamica para obras de tierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez de Sotomayor, R.

    2013-06-01

    This paper take into account some dynamic auscultation equipment s that currently are available in Spain for compaction quality control on earthworks and sub grades. Closed to the equipment description, a deformation modulus calculus approximation has been developed for each of them. A standards checking has been made from national and European point of view. some important research works that have been developed in our country about dynamic monitoring equipment s for quality control in earthworks has been mentioned. In addition to this, some variables are analyzed which have an influence on deformation modulus calculi and a possibility for comparing the equipment modulus calculated with a reference laboratory test has been offered. (Author) 18 refs.

  9. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule 2 (UCMR 2), (2008-2010) Occurrence Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule supporting the second cycle (UCMR 2) of monitoring, conducted under EPA oversight, was published in the Federal Register...

  10. Digital monitoring and health diagnosis for mechanical equipment operation safety based on fiber Bragg grating sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zude ZHOU; Desheng JIANG; Quan LIU

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based on a fiber optic grating sensor developed to be embedded on mechanical equipment for digital monitoring and health diagnosis. The theoretical and experimental researches on the new-style FBG sensor (FBGS) technology, high-speed demodulation, and data transmission are discussed. The transmission characteristics between the FBG and the detection interface, modeling and compensation method for online distributed multi-parameter digital monitoring and methods for data processing, synchronous sampling, and long-term dynamic digital monitoring using embedded technology are also presented. The acquired information by an FBGS can be used for the optimization of maintenance schedules and refinement of mechanical equipment design. It is a chal-lenge to gather real-time data from components working at high speed and in a severe environment of high temperature, high pressure, and high rotation speed. Currently, there are no sensors or technologies available for digital monitoring and health diagnosis under this rigorous situation for use in mechanical engineering operation safety. As a result, this paper introduces an online distributed and integrated digital monitoring system and health diagnosis. The new principle and new method will contribute to modem measurements in science and technology, mechanical engineering, and large mechanical equipment operation safety.

  11. Contamination Control and Monitoring of Tap Water as Fluid in Industrial Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems.......Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems....

  12. Contamination Control and Monitoring of Tap Water as Fluid in Industrial Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems.......Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems....

  13. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

    2010-10-01

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  14. Beryllium contamination and exposure monitoring in an inhalation laboratory setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Caroline; Audusseau, Séverine; Salehi, Fariba; Truchon, Ginette; Chevalier, Gaston; Mazer, Bruce; Kennedy, Greg; Zayed, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Beryllium (Be) is used in several forms: pure metal, beryllium oxide, and as an alloy with copper, aluminum, or nickel. Beryllium oxide, beryllium metal, and beryllium alloys are the main forms present in the workplace, with inhalation being the primary route of exposure. Cases of workers with sensitization or chronic beryllium disease challenge the scientific community for a better understanding of Be toxicity. Therefore, a toxicological inhalation study using a murine model was performed in our laboratory in order to identify the toxic effects related to different particle sizes and chemical forms of Be. This article attempts to provide information regarding the relative effectiveness of the environmental monitoring and exposure protection program that was enacted to protect staff (students and researchers) in this controlled animal beryllium inhalation exposure experiment. This includes specific attention to particle migration control through intensive housekeeping and systematic airborne and surface monitoring. Results show that the protective measures applied during this research have been effective. The highest airborne Be concentration in the laboratory was less than one-tenth of the Quebec OEL (occupational exposure limit) of 0.15 microg/m(3). Considering the protection factor of 10(3) of the powered air-purifying respirator used in this research, the average exposure level would be 0.03 x 10(- 4) microg/m(3), which is extremely low. Moreover, with the exception of one value, all average Be concentrations on surfaces were below the Quebec Standard guideline level of 3 microg/100 cm(2) for Be contamination. Finally, all beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests for the staff were not higher than controls.

  15. Analysis of Bacterial Contamination in Anesthetic Equipments in Operation Room of Vali-E-Asr Hospital of Fasa; Efficiency of Disinfection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abdollahi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Anesthetic equipments could be one of the factors transmitting infection in a surgical operation. We could be prevent infection transmission to a great extend, by providing efficient methods of disinfection of anesthetic equipments. The purpose of the present research is to analyze the bacterial contamination in anesthetic equipment in operation rooms of Vali-e-Asr hospital in Fasa city, Fars province, and evaluate the efficiency of the applied disinfection methods. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional & analytical study, sampling from anesthetic equipment was done by sterile swap and culture on nutrient media, irregularly and randomly, before and after using and washing tools. Used anesthetic equipment in such operation rooms have been washed with Betadine 7.5% by experts and technicians of anesthetic section and were prepared for the next operation. Results: Total contamination was 2.3% in 210 samples taken. 5 culture items indicated the existence of bacterial contamination, among which 2 contamination cases were observed in nasal airway (coagulase negative Staphylococcus, non pathogen Neisseria, 2 contamination cases in red rubber endotracheal tube (nonpathogen Neisseria and Klebsiella pneumonia and 1 contamination case in oxygen mask (Escherichia coli. Conclusion: The very low level of contamination (20-85% contamination in anesthetic equipments in our research is probably due to application of a appropriate disinfection method used by educated personnel in operation rooms. This could have a significant role in decreasing the infection rate in one hand and decreasing expenses and time on the other hand.

  16. Resrad-recycle: a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing radioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-Jy; Kassas, Bassel; Yu, Charley; Amish, John; LePoire, Dave; Chen, Shih-Yew; Williams, W A; Wallo, A; Peterson, H

    2004-11-01

    RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data.

  17. Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Shonka Research Associates, Inc.`s (SRA) Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information management System (SCM/SIMS) is designed to perform alpha and beta radiation surveys of floors and surfaces and document the measured data. The SRA-SCM/SIMS technology can be applied to routine operational surveys, characterization surveys, and free release and site closure surveys. Any large nuclear site can make use of this technology. This report describes a demonstration of the SRA-SCM/SIMS technology. This demonstration is part of the chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology (ST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East`s (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor Facility. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies.

  18. The Use of ‘In Process' Monitoring Equipment in Heat Treatment Today

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dave Plester

    2004-01-01

    This paper looks at how in-process temperature monitoring systems are being increasingly used in heat treatment applications such as surface hardening, annealing, normalizing, tempering etc. We look at the basic equipment required to successfully monitor from within a furnace and how developments such as RF transmission have enhanced the effectiveness of profiling trials to the point where on line adjustments to furnace conditions can be seen and analyzed in real time. We examine how continuous processes can benefit from this type of monitoring and also how routine operations such as furnace surveying in batch furnaces can benefit greatly from in-process monitoring. Advances in software are also considered, showing how packages are now designed to speed up the processing of data in day to day heat treatment operations.

  19. Removal of contaminants from equipment and debris and waste minimization using TechXtract{reg_sign} technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonem, M.W. [EET, Inc., Bellaire, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Under this Program Research and Development Agreement (PRDA), EET, Inc., is extending its proprietary TechXtract{reg_sign} chemical decontamination technology into an effective, economical, integrated contaminant removal system. This integrated system will consist of a series of decontamination baths using the TechXtract{reg_sign} chemical formulas, followed by a waste treatment process that will remove the contaminants from the spent chemicals. Sufficient decontamination will result so that materials can be released without restriction after they have been treated, even those materials that have traditionally been considered to be {open_quotes}undecontaminable.{close_quotes} The secondary liquid waste will then be treated to separate any hazardous and radioactive contaminants, so that the spent chemicals and wastewater can be discharged through conventional, permitted outlets. The TechXtract{reg_sign} technology is a unique process that chemically extracts hazardous contaminants from the surface and substrate of concrete, steel, and other solid materials. This technology has been used successfully to remove contaminants as varied as PCBs, radionuclides, heavy metals, and hazardous organics. The process` advantage over other alternatives is its effectiveness in safe and consistent extraction of subsurface contamination. TechXtract{reg_sign} is a proprietary process developed, owned, and provided by EET, Inc. The objective of the PRDA is to demonstrate on a full-scale basis an economical system for decontaminating equipment and debris, with further treatment of secondary waste streams to minimize waste volumes. Contaminants will be removed from the contaminated items to levels where they can be released for unrestricted use. The entire system will be designed with maximum flexibility and automation in mind.

  20. Radioactive contamination monitoring for the Korean public following Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Wi-Ho; Yoo, Jaeryong; Yoon, Seokwon; Pak, Min-Jeong; Park, Seyong; Kim, Mi-Ryeong; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2013-11-01

    On March 11, 2011, as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake, severe damage to the Fukushima nuclear power plant caused the release of radioactive materials. We conducted radioactive contamination monitoring for Korean residents in Japan and Korean travelers to East Japan after the accident. More than 800 members of the Korean public were surveyed for personal monitoring. Measured levels of external and internal contamination were within the screening levels for each monitoring method.

  1. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites.

  2. Design of online monitoring and forecasting system for electrical equipment temperature of prefabricated substation based on WSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weiran; Miao, Hongxia; Miao, Xuejiao; Xiao, Xuanxuan; Yan, Kuo

    2016-10-01

    In order to ensure the safe and stable operation of the prefabricated substations, temperature sensing subsystem, temperature remote monitoring and management subsystem, forecast subsystem are designed in the paper. Wireless temperature sensing subsystem which consists of temperature sensor and MCU sends the electrical equipment temperature to the remote monitoring center by wireless sensor network. Remote monitoring center can realize the remote monitoring and prediction by monitoring and management subsystem and forecast subsystem. Real-time monitoring of power equipment temperature, history inquiry database, user management, password settings, etc., were achieved by monitoring and management subsystem. In temperature forecast subsystem, firstly, the chaos of the temperature data was verified and phase space is reconstructed. Then Support Vector Machine - Particle Swarm Optimization (SVM-PSO) was used to predict the temperature of the power equipment in prefabricated substations. The simulation results found that compared with the traditional methods SVM-PSO has higher prediction accuracy.

  3. Monitoring of Free Water and Particulate Contamination of F-24 Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    UNCLASSIFIED TABLE OF CONTENTS MONITORING OF FREE WATER AND PARTICULATE CONTAMINATION OF F-24 FUEL INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 480...Destroy this report when no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. UNCLASSIFIED MONITORING OF FREE WATER AND...2. REPORT TYPE Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) August 2014 - June 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Monitoring of Free Water and

  4. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels: FY2013 and FY2014 (revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg D. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Campbell, Scott A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is conducting a field assessment of the potential for contaminated soil to be transported from the Smoky Contamination Area (CA) as a result of storm runoff, which supports National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) efforts to complete regulatory closure of the Soils Corrective Action Unit (CAU) contamination areas. The work is intended to confirm the likely mechanism of transport and determine the meteorological conditions that might cause movement of contaminated soils, as well as determine the particle size fraction that is most closely associated with transported radionuclide-contaminated soils. These data will facilitate the appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring program.

  5. An Updated Methodology for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Integrated Equipment Condition Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hirt, Evelyn H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coles, Garill A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonebrake, Christopher A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ivans, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wootan, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitchell, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) generally include reactors with electric output of ~350 MWe or less (this cutoff varies somewhat but is substantially less than full-size plant output of 700 MWe or more). Advanced SMRs (AdvSMRs) refer to a specific class of SMRs and are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts. Enhancing affordability of AdvSMRs will be critical to ensuring wider deployment, as AdvSMRs suffer from loss of economies of scale inherent in small reactors when compared to large (~greater than 600 MWe output) reactors and the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs will be dominated by operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Technologies that help characterize real-time risk are important for controlling O&M costs. Risk monitors are used in current nuclear power plants to provide a point-in-time estimate of the system risk given the current plant configuration (e.g., equipment availability, operational regime, and environmental conditions). However, current risk monitors are unable to support the capability requirements listed above as they do not take into account plant-specific normal, abnormal, and deteriorating states of active components and systems. This report documents technology developments towards enhancing risk monitors that, if integrated with supervisory plant control systems, can provide the capability requirements listed and meet the goals of controlling O&M costs. The report describes research results on augmenting an initial methodology for enhanced risk monitors that integrate real-time information about equipment condition and POF into risk monitors. Methods to propagate uncertainty through the enhanced risk monitor are evaluated. Available data to quantify the level of uncertainty and the POF of key components are examined for their relevance, and a status update of this data evaluation is described. Finally, we describe potential targets for developing new risk metrics that may be useful for studying trade-offs for economic

  6. RESUME95 Nordic field test of mobile equipment for nuclear fall-out monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, C.; Bresson, J.; Chiffot, T.; Guillot, L. [Centre d`Etudes de Valduc, Direction des Applications Militaires, Commissaiat a L`Energie Atomique, Tille (France)

    1997-12-31

    Nordic Safety Research (NKS) organised in August 1995 a field test of various techniques and instrumentation for monitoring radioactive fall-out. In an emergency situation, after a major release of radioactive material, many different measuring systems are going to be used, ranging from small hand hold intensitometer to complex spectrometer systems. In this test the following type of equipment were tested: Airborne spectrometers; Carborne spectrometers and dose rate meters; In situ spectrometers and intensitometers. Helinuc team was equipped of an airborne system and of a germanium device for in situ measurements. Different tasks were specified for each team: Mapping caesium fall-out and natural activity over two areas of 18 and 5 km{sup 2}; Research of hidden sources. For measurements and data processing the respect of time allowed was strictly controlled for testing the ability of each team. (au).

  7. Physiological monitoring in firefighter ensembles: wearable plethysmographic sensor vest versus standard equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca, Aitor; Roberge, Raymond J; Williams, W Jon; Landsittel, Douglas P; Powell, Jeffrey B; Palmiero, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of a wearable sensor vest for real-time monitoring of physiological responses to treadmill exercise. Ten subjects in standard firefighter ensembles, treadmill exercising at 50% VO(2) max, had heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), skin temperature (T(sk)), oxygen saturation (SaO(2)), tidal volume (V(T)), and minute ventilation (V(E)) recorded concurrently by a wearable plethysmographic sensor vest and standard laboratory physiological monitoring equipment for comparison. A high degree of correlation was noted for most of the measured variables [HR (r = 0.99), RR (r = 0.98), T(sk) (r = 0.98), V(E) (r = 0.88), and SaO(2) (r = 0.79)]. V(T) (r = 0.60) had a moderate correlation, although a paired differences analysis showed a mean paired difference of -0.03 L. This mean paired difference represents a 1.92% variation for V(T). Data from the wearable sensor vest is comparable to data captured from standard laboratory physiological monitoring equipment on subjects wearing standard firefighter ensembles while exercising at a moderate work rate. This study demonstrates the accuracy of the wearable sensor technology for these physiological parameters under these conditions and suggests that it could be useful for actual field studies of firefighters in traditional firefighting gear.

  8. Certified reference materials for organic contaminants for use in monitoring of the aquatic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.; McGovern, E.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last three decades organic contaminants have been of increasing importance in environmental monitoring. Dioxins, furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides have determined the environmental research agenda. This has led to an increasing demand for certified reference

  9. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule 3 (UCMR 3), (2013-2015) Occurrence Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The third Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 3), conducted under EPA oversight, was published in the Federal Register on May 2, 2012. UCMR 3 requires...

  10. 75 FR 8063 - Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY RIN 2040-AF10 Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring... this notice is to announce a public stakeholder meeting to present information to...

  11. DEVELOPING TOOLS FOR MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AT LAKE HARTWELL, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminated sediments pose a risk to human health and the environment . The management of this risk is currently limited practically to three technologies: dredging, capping, and natural recovery. Monitored natural recovery relies on the natural burial and removal mechanisms to...

  12. Monitored Natural Attenuation For Inorganic Contaminants In Ground Water - Technical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attenuation) within the subsurface. In gene...

  13. Technical Report on Preliminary Methodology for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Integrated Equipment Condition Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coles, Garill A.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.

    2013-09-17

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) generally include reactors with electric output of ~350 MWe or less (this cutoff varies somewhat but is substantially less than full-size plant output of 700 MWe or more). Advanced SMRs (AdvSMRs) refer to a specific class of SMRs and are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts. AdvSMRs may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors (LWRs) and SMRs based on integral pressurized water reactor concepts currently being considered. Enhancing affordability of AdvSMRs will be critical to ensuring wider deployment. AdvSMRs suffer from loss of economies of scale inherent in small reactors when compared to large (~greater than 600 MWe output) reactors. Some of this loss can be recovered through reduced capital costs through smaller size, fewer components, modular fabrication processes, and the opportunity for modular construction. However, the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs will be dominated by operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Technologies that help characterize real-time risk are important for controlling O&M costs. Risk monitors are used in current nuclear power plants to provide a point-in-time estimate of the system risk given the current plant configuration (e.g., equipment availability, operational regime, and environmental conditions). However, current risk monitors are unable to support the capability requirements listed above as they do not take into account plant-specific normal, abnormal, and deteriorating states of active components and systems. This report documents technology developments that are a step towards enhancing risk monitors that, if integrated with supervisory plant control systems, can provide the capability requirements listed and meet the goals of controlling O&M costs. The report describes research results from an initial methodology for enhanced risk monitors by integrating real-time information about equipment condition and POF into risk monitors.

  14. Contamination monitoring in radiation protection activities in Myanmar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thin, K.T.; Htoon, S. [Yangon Univ. (Myanmar). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    The radioactive contamination in rainwater, seawater, air, milk powder and other eatables were measured with low level counter assembly. The measured activities are found to be very low and well within the maximum permissible level. (author)

  15. Trace Contaminant Monitor for Air in Spacecraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A need exists for analyzers that can measure trace contaminants in air on board spacecraft. Toxic gas buildup can endanger the crew particularly during long...

  16. Plastic cup traps equipped with light-emitting diodes for monitoring adult Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chang-Chi; Jackson, Charles G; Alexander, Patrick J; Karut, Kamil; Henneberry, Thomas J

    2003-06-01

    Equipping the standard plastic cup trap, also known as the CC trap, with lime-green light-emitting diodes (LED-plastic cup trap) increased its efficacy for catching Bemisia tabaci by 100%. Few Eretmocerus eremicus Rose and Zolnerowich and Encarsia formosa Gahan were caught in LED-plastic cup traps. The LED-plastic cup traps are less expensive than yellow sticky card traps for monitoring adult whiteflies in greenhouse crop production systems and are more compatible with whitefly parasitoids releases for Bemisia nymph control.

  17. MONITORING OF THE PERFORMANCE EFFICIENCY OF THE EQUIPMENT AT THE ENTERPRISES OF AVIATION INSTRUMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr P. Dobrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article elaborates the proposals to improve the systems for monitoring performance of the equipment at the enterprises of aviation instrument. The relevance of the study due to the fact that the aviation instrument-making industry of the Russian Federation can play a role as a key factor in enhancing the competitiveness of the national economy. Currently, the global aviation market is fairly saturated, it competition is not between individual companies and between the aviation powers. The role of an efficient industrial production is largely dependent on the amount, structure, technical condition and the level of utilization of fixed assets. Specificity of high-tech high-tech production presupposes the existence of a specific fleet of expensive and unique equipment; a high degree of novelty products, single or small-scale type of production that determines the high cost of production of a unit of production; high demands on the staff . The paper noted that the production capacity is an essential tool for production planning process, which allows to determine the optimal work shifts Park main technological equipment and production program to justify the enterprises of sphere of aviation instrument. On the basis of the modification of OEE method, a stochastic model is proposed, which allows to display the efficiency of the productive capacity of the high-tech enterprises of sphere of aviation instrument in the form of multi-dimensional size and much more accurately identify the relationship between its elements.

  18. Listeria monocytogenes contamination of the environment and surfaces of the equipment in the meat processing facilities in republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Jankuloski

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes contamination of the environment and surfaces of the equipment was examined in seven meat processing facilities. Up to date prevalence of this foodborn pathogen in meat processing facilities facilities in Republic of Macedonia was unknown. Biofilms are composed from food spoilage microorganisms and food born pathogens. They are located on the surfaces of the equipment that come in contact with food and in facilities environment. Microorganisms in biofilm presenting micro eco system and are source of dissemination and contamination of food born pathogens in final meat products. During the preparation of this study we have covered a 7 meat processing facilities and we took a total of 39 swabs from surfaces that come in direct or indirect contact with food. Listeria monocytogenes was discovered in 10 (25,64% swabs (locations. Prevalence of other Listeria spp. compared with total number of taken samples was 15 (38,46% Listeria innocua, 3 (7,69% Listeria welshimeri and 1 (2,65% isolate Listeria seeligeri.

  19. Occupational safety during the remediation of a contaminated site: monitoring of PCDD/PCDF levels in blood of employees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rottler, H. [Eurofins Oekometric, Bayreuth (Germany); Uffinger, H. [Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft (TBG), Arbeitsmedizinischer Dienst, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    In connection with road construction activities a dioxin contaminated site was discovered during the 1990's in a German city, containing residues of early industrial activities. PCDD/PCDF levels up to 41 ng I-TEQ/g dry matter could be detected in the material with a 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF dominated pattern. This pattern is very similar to samples related to the production and use of chlorine in the early 20{sup th} century. Furthermore, sandy material showing a deviating and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF dominated pattern with an at least a factor of 10 lower concentrations was found. A remediation program was initiated including removal of contaminated soil and installing a drainage layer below the final asphalt layer sealing the site. Occupational safety for employees involved in any on-site activities was of primary importance following regulations for work in contaminated areas and for preventive occupational medicine. Hygiene was strictly obeyed. On-site monitoring via chromatographic dust analysis was performed by surveying engineers. Employees working in contaminated areas wore Air-Filters A2P3 with motor support. The mandatory personal safety equipment included dust-proof protective suits for single use, chemical-proof gloves and boots. In this context, it was the task of the Employer's Liability Insurance Association (Tiefbau- Berufsgenossenschaft, TBG) to strictly control compliance of occupational safety measures. The occupational medical service of this association was commissioned monitoring the health situation of the employees involved. Among other parameters, the corresponding control program included monitoring of PCDD/PCDF blood levels to identify possible alterations.

  20. A miniature MRE isolator for lateral vibration suppression of bridge monitoring equipment: design and verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lujie; Yu, Miao; Fu, Jie; Zhu, Mi; Li, Binshang

    2017-04-01

    The testing accuracy and service life of long-span bridge monitoring equipment declines over time due to the adverse effects of environmental vibration during its operation. Therefore, it is essential to use effective methods to reduce the vibration of these devices. In this paper, inspired by the controllable and field-dependent properties of magnetorheological elastomer (MRE), a miniature laminated MRE isolator is designed and manufactured to provide a relatively stable working environment for the monitoring equipment. The method and process of its specific design are elaborated in detail based on the shape factor, allowable seismic displacement, lateral stiffness, allowable vertical load and analysis of magnetic circuit. Besides, a series of dynamic tests are conducted to obtain the characteristics of the MRE isolator under various loading conditions. The experimental results show that the maximum increase of the effective stiffness is 114.12% with the current increasing from 0 A to 3 A. Consequently, the validity of its design is confirmed by a fuzzy control experiment.

  1. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott A.

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550, Area 8 Smoky Contamination Area (CA), during precipitation runoff events. CAU 550 includes Corrective Action Sites (CASs) 08-23-03, 08-23-04, 08-23-06, and 08-23-07; these CASs are associated with tests designated Ceres, Smoky, Oberon, and Titania, respectively.

  2. The Development of a Sub-Surface Monitoring System for Organic Contamination in Soils and Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Huntley

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem when dealing with environmental contamination is the early detection and subsequent surveillance of the contamination. This paper describes the potential of sub-surface sensor technology for the early detection of organic contaminants in contaminated soils, sediments, and landfill sites. Rugged, low-power hydrocarbon sensors have been developed, along with a data-logging system, for the early detection of phase hydrocarbons in soil. Through laboratory-based evaluation, the ability of this system to monitor organic contamination in water-based systems is being evaluated. When used in conjunction with specific immunoassays, this can provide a sensitive and low-cost solution for long-term monitoring and analysis, applicable to a wide range of field applications.

  3. The Design and Implementation of the Remote Centralized-Monitoring System of Well-Control Equipment Based on RFID Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Bin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, in domestic for the management of well control equipment continue to the traditional way of nameplates identifies and paper-based registration, there are many issues like the separation of data information of device, easy lose, difficult query, confused management and many other problems, which will make the problem device into the well field, and then resulting in well control runaway drilling accident. To solve the above problems, this paper put forward to the integrated remote centralized-monitoring management mode of the well-control equipment. Taking the advantages of IOT technology, adopting the RFID technology, and combining with the remote transmission, this paper designs the remote centralized-monitoring system of well-control equipment based on RFID, which realizes the intelligent management of well-control equipment and meets the actual demand of the well-control equipment safe use and timely scheduling, and it has the ability of field application.

  4. An overview of existing raptor contaminant monitoring activities in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Ramirez, P.; Shore, R.F.; Brink, van den N.W.; Hattum, van B.; Bustnes, J.O.; Duke, G.; Fritsch, C.; Garcia-Fernandez, A.J.; Helander, B.O.; Jaspers, V.; Krone, O.; Martinez-Lopez, E.; Mateo, R.; Movalli, P.; Sonne, C.

    2014-01-01

    Biomonitoring using raptors as sentinels can provide early warning of the potential impacts of contaminants on humans and the environment and also a means of tracking the success of associated mitigation measures. Examples include detection of heavy metal-induced immune system impairment, PCB-induce

  5. Evaluating leaf and canopy reflectance of stressed rice plants to monitor arsenic contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic contamination is a serious problem in rice cultivated soils of many developing countries. Hence, it is critical to monitor and control arsenic uptake in rice plants to avoid adverse effects on human health. This study evaluated the feasibility of using reflectance spectroscopy to monitor ars...

  6. Proximal spectral sensing to monitor phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rathod, Paresh H.; Rossiter, David G.; Noomen, Marleen F.; Meer, van der Freek D.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of soil contamination and its long-term monitoring are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of phytoremediation systems. Spectral sensing-based monitoring methods promise obvious benefits compared to field-based methods: lower cost, faster data acquisition and better spatio-temporal mo

  7. Occurrence of Arcobacter in Iranian poultry and slaughterhouse samples implicates contamination by processing equipment and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshbakht, R; Tabatabaei, M; Shirzad Aski, H; Seifi, S

    2014-01-01

    1. The occurrence of Arcobacter spp. and three pathogenic species of Arcobacter from Iranian poultry carcasses was investigated at different steps of broiler processing to determine critical control points for reducing carcass contamination. 2. Samples were collected from (a) cloaca immediately before processing, (b) different points during processing and (c) at different stations in a processing plant of a slaughterhouse in southern Iran. 3. After enrichment steps in Arcobacter selective broth, DNA of the samples was extracted and three significant pathogen species of Arcobacter were identified based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of 16S rRNA and specific species PCR. 4. Out of a total of 540 samples, 244 (45%) were positive for Arcobacter spp. Arcobacter butzleri was more frequently detected (73% ± 13.9%) than A. cryaeophilus (9% ± 13.9%) and A. skirrowii (4.1%). In addition, co-colonisation (A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus) occurred in 13.9% of the positive samples. 5. The results indicate a high prevalence of Arcobacter in the investigated slaughterhouse and broiler carcasses and that Arcobacter is not a normal flora of the broilers. Evidence for the presence of Arcobacter in the environment and water of processing plants suggests that these are sources of contamination of poultry carcasses. In addition, contamination of the poultry carcasses can spread between poultry meats in different parts and processes of the slaughterhouse (pre-scalding to after evisceration).

  8. Case study sensitivity analysis of transmission spectra for water contaminant monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrakos, S. G.; Yapijakis, C.; Aiken, D.; Shabaev, A.; Ramsey, S.; Peak, J.

    2016-05-01

    Monitoring of contaminants associated with specific water resources using transmission spectra, with respect to types and relative concentrations, requires tracking statistical profiles of water contaminants in terms of spatial-temporal distributions of electromagnetic absorption spectra ranging from the ultraviolet to infrared. For this purpose, correlation between spectral signatures and types of contaminants within specific water resources must be made, as well as correlation of spectral signatures with results of processes for removal of contaminants, such as ozonation. Correlation between absorption spectra and changes in chemical and physical characteristics of contaminants, within a volume of sampled solution, requires sufficient sensitivity. The present study examines the sensitivity of transmission spectra with respect to general characteristics of water contaminants for spectral analysis of water samples.

  9. Present status of contamination monitoring at the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute (DNRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang Van Nguyen [Dalat Nuclear Research Inst. (Viet Nam)

    1997-06-01

    The Dalat nuclear research reactor was renovated and upgraded from the previous TRIGA reactor. In Vietnam, it is a unique nuclear device having suitable neutron flux for the radioisotope production and neutron activation analysis. Soon after the reactor reached its initial criticality in November 1983, a programme has been formed to develop the application of nuclear techniques in various fields. In addition, the use of radioisotopes for diagnostic, therapeutic and other research purposes has been in progress. In order to support these activities, the radiation protection, especially the radiation contamination monitoring has been properly paid attention to. In DNRI, the Radiation Protection Department is responsible for controlling and supervising radiation and working safety for all activities. In this paper, the following items are described on radiation contamination monitoring: controlled area, surface contamination monitoring, and airborne concentration monitoring. (G.K.)

  10. Evaluation of sensitivity evaluation of a contamination monitor for use in monitoring of internal exposure of workers in nuclear medicine; Avaliacao da sensibilidade de um monitor de contaminacao para aplicacao em monitoracao da exposicao interna de trabalhadores em medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Bernando Maranhao; Assis, Janima Cruz de; Oliveira, Salomao Marques de; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida, E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao In Vivo. Div. de Dosimetria

    2014-07-01

    In practice of nuclear medicine, expert personnel routinely handle radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and radiotherapy. The control of intakes of radionuclides by workers can be performed through internal dosimetry techniques, as an integral part of the radiation protection program of the installation. The use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in vivo and in vitro in Brazil is regulated by CNEN-NE Standards and 3:05 CNEN-NN 3.01. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends the establishment of an internal monitoring program on workers, especially those subject to possible exposure to annual effective doses greater than 1 mSv. Note that, currently, in Brazil, are not available qualified laboratories to provide internal monitoring services in all regions in the country, if it were applied by CNEN, the requirement for internal monitoring of workers. This paper presents the development of a simple and low-cost methodology for in vivo monitoring of {sup 131}I in the thyroid. The proposed methodology is the use of portable monitor of surface contamination, equipment available and routinely used in all nuclear medicine services in Brazil. The monitor is calibrated with neck-thyroid simulator developed at the Laboratory of In Vivo Monitoring of IRD/CNEN-RJ. The equipment tested is suitable for application in in vivo occupational monitoring thyroid. This conclusion is based on the fact that the detection system has sufficient sensitivity for monitoring up to seven days after the incorporation of the radionuclide and guarantees {sup 131}I detection in values that result in effective doses below 1 mSv for the exposure scenarios adopted.

  11. High-Performance Contaminant Monitor for Spacecraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vision for Space Exploration demands increasing reliance on real-time trace gas monitors onboard spacecraft. Present grab samples and badges will be inadequate...

  12. Research of on-line monitoring equipment for power capacitor based on wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Qian, Zheng; Yao, Junda; Xia, Jiuyun

    2016-01-01

    As the main electrical component for the reactive power compensation, the power capacitors are widely applied in many fields. And since the insulation condition of power capacitor could be identified accurately by using the on-line monitoring system, it attracts more and more attentions in recent years. In this paper, a novel on-line monitoring equipment for power capacitor based on wireless sensor network is presented. The operation data which includes the current and voltage of every capacitor is collected at first, and then the FFT is utilized to calculate the amplitude and phase of every signal, thus the insulation condition and the fault symptom could all be diagnosed accurately by analyzing the FFT results. In order to realize the effective isolation and the reliable communication between the sensing part and the merging unit, the wireless sensor network is adopted. The high reliability and transmission rate could be realized by using 2.4GHz UHF and 5GHz ISM radio bands. Thus the on-line monitoring system could be manufactured, and the lab test is carried at last. The testing results illustrate that this system could satisfy the requirement of on-site real-time measurement.

  13. Luminescence monitoring of oil or tar contamination for industrial hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammage, Richard B.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1980-09-01

    Synfuel plants produce potentially carcinogenic oils and tars. Exposure of workers to these tars and oils is difficult to avoid completely and occurs via direct contact with dirty surfaces or condensation of escaped fumes onto or within the body. Surface skin measurements are made directly with a near-ultraviolet luminoscope employing a fiber optics lightguide and a stethoscopic cap pressed against the skin. This instrument is especially suitable for measuring ng to μg/cm 2 amounts of residual contamination remaining on the surface of the skin after washing. To minimize the potential for carcinogenicity, the excitating ultraviolet light intensity is only 1/100 th that of sunlight.

  14. Preliminary Study of UAS Equipped with Thermal Camera for Volcanic Geothermal Monitoring in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chio, Shih-Hong; Lin, Cheng-Horng

    2017-07-18

    Thermal infrared cameras sense the temperature information of sensed scenes. With the development of UASs (Unmanned Aircraft Systems), thermal infrared cameras can now be carried on a quadcopter UAV (Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle) to appropriately collect high-resolution thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring in a local area. Therefore, the quadcopter UAS used to acquire thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring has been developed in Taiwan as part of this study to overcome the difficult terrain with highly variable topography and extreme environmental conditions. An XM6 thermal infrared camera was employed in this thermal image collection system. The Trimble BD970 GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) board was also carried on the quadcopter UAV to gather dual-frequency GNSS observations in order to determine the flying trajectory data by using the Post-Processed Kinematic (PPK) technique; this will be used to establish the position and orientation of collected thermal images with less ground control points (GCPs). The digital surface model (DSM) and thermal orthoimages were then produced from collected thermal images. Tests conducted in the Hsiaoyukeng area of Taiwan's Yangmingshan National Park show that the difference between produced DSM and airborne LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data are about 37% between -1 m and 1 m, and 66% between -2 m and 2 m in the area surrounded by GCPs. As the accuracy of thermal orthoimages is about 1.78 m, it is deemed sufficient for volcanic geothermal monitoring. In addition, the thermal orthoimages show some phenomena not only more globally than do the traditional methods for volcanic geothermal monitoring, but they also show that the developed system can be further employed in Taiwan in the future.

  15. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectrophotometry for thin film monitors: Computer and equipment integration for enhanced capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, J. N.; Sedayao, J.; Shergill, G.; Villasol, R.; Haaland, D. M.

    Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) is a valuable technique for monitoring thin films used in semiconductor device manufacture. Determinations of the constituent contents in borophosphosilicate (BPSG), phosphosilicate (PSG), silicon oxynitride (SiON:H,OH), and spin-on-glass (SOG) thin films are a few applications. Due to the nature of the technique, FTIR instrumentation is one of the most extensively computer-dependent pieces of equipment that is likely to be found in a microelectronics plant. In the role of fab monitor or reactor characterization tool, FTIR instruments can rapidly generate large amounts of data. By linking a local FTIR data station to a remote minicomputer its capabilities are greatly improved. We discuss three caused of enhancement. First, the FTIR in the fab area communicates and interacts in real time with the minicomputer: transferring data segments to it, instructing it to perform sophisticated processing, and returning the result to the operator in the fab. Characterizations of PSG thin films by this approach are discussed. Second, the spectra of large numbers of samples are processed locally. The large database is then transmitted to the minicomputer for study by statistical/graphics software. Results of CVD-reactor spatial profiling experiments for plasma SiON are presented. Third, processing of calibration spectra is performed on the minicomputer to optimize the accuracy and precision of a Partial Least Squares analysis mode. This model is then transferred to the data station in the fab. The analysis of BPSG thin films is discussed in this regard. The prospects for fully automated at-line monitoring and for real-time, in-situ monitoring will be discussed.

  16. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrophotometry for thin film monitors: Computer and equipment integration for enhanced capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, J.N.; Sedayao, J.; Shergill, G.; Villasol, R. (Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA (USA)); Haaland, D.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) is a valuable technique for monitoring thin films used in semiconductor device manufacture. Determinations of the constituent contents in borophosphosilicate (BPSG), phosphosilicate (PSG), silicon oxynitride (SiON:H,OH), and spin-on-glass (SOG) thin films are a few applications. Due to the nature of the technique, FTIR instrumentation is one of the most extensively computer-dependent pieces of equipment that is likely to be found in a microelectronics plant. In the role of fab monitor or reactor characterization tool, FTIR instruments can rapidly generate large amounts of data. By linking a local FTIR data station to a remote minicomputer its capabilities are greatly improved. We discuss three caused of enhancement. First, the FTIR in the fab area communicates and interacts in real time with the minicomputer: transferring data segments to it, instructing it to perform sophisticated processing, and returning the result to the operator in the fab. Characterizations of PSG thin films by this approach are discussed. Second, the spectra of large numbers of samples are processed locally. The large database is then transmitted to the minicomputer for study by statistical/graphics software. Results of CVD-reactor spatial profiling experiments for plasma SiON are presented. Third, processing of calibration spectra is performed on the minicomputer to optimize the accuracy and precision of a Partial Least Squares'' analysis mode. This model is then transferred to the data station in the fab. The analysis of BPSG thin films is discussed in this regard. The prospects for fully automated at-line monitoring and for real-time, in-situ monitoring will be discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Preliminary Study of UAS Equipped with Thermal Camera for Volcanic Geothermal Monitoring in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hong Chio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared cameras sense the temperature information of sensed scenes. With the development of UASs (Unmanned Aircraft Systems, thermal infrared cameras can now be carried on a quadcopter UAV (Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle to appropriately collect high-resolution thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring in a local area. Therefore, the quadcopter UAS used to acquire thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring has been developed in Taiwan as part of this study to overcome the difficult terrain with highly variable topography and extreme environmental conditions. An XM6 thermal infrared camera was employed in this thermal image collection system. The Trimble BD970 GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer board was also carried on the quadcopter UAV to gather dual-frequency GNSS observations in order to determine the flying trajectory data by using the Post-Processed Kinematic (PPK technique; this will be used to establish the position and orientation of collected thermal images with less ground control points (GCPs. The digital surface model (DSM and thermal orthoimages were then produced from collected thermal images. Tests conducted in the Hsiaoyukeng area of Taiwan’s Yangmingshan National Park show that the difference between produced DSM and airborne LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data are about 37% between −1 m and 1 m, and 66% between −2 m and 2 m in the area surrounded by GCPs. As the accuracy of thermal orthoimages is about 1.78 m, it is deemed sufficient for volcanic geothermal monitoring. In addition, the thermal orthoimages show some phenomena not only more globally than do the traditional methods for volcanic geothermal monitoring, but they also show that the developed system can be further employed in Taiwan in the future.

  18. Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area: Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA)--Programmatic, Technical, and Regulatory Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Martin, Wayne J.

    2001-07-23

    Natural attenuation processes are commonly used for remediation of contaminated sites. A variety of natural processes occur without human intervention at all sites to varying rates and degrees of effectiveness to attenuate (decrease) the mass, toxicity, mobility, volume, or concentration of organic and inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface water systems. The objective of this review is to identify potential technical investments to be incorporated in the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area Strategic Plan for monitored natural attenuation. When implemented, the technical investments will help evaluate and implement monitored natural attenuation as a remediation option at DOE sites. The outcome of this review is a set of conclusions and general recommendations regarding research needs, programmatic guidance, and stakeholder issues pertaining to monitored natural attenuation for the DOE complex.

  19. Monitoring contaminant strategies: tools, techniques, methodologies and model approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    A century-long history of experiments on solute transport in soils has resulted in a wide range of experimental setups and procedures, as well as methods for interpreting observations which has led to considerable ambiguity regarding monitoring approaches. This presentation will focus on results an...

  20. Thermal dechlorination of heavily PCB-contaminated soils from a sealed site of PCB-containing electrical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xingbao; Ji, Bingjing; Huang, Qifei

    2016-08-01

    A large amount of soils are contaminated by leakage of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from sealed-up PCB-containing electrical equipment in China. Thermal dechlorination of soils contaminated with PCBs at a level of 108 mg g(-1) and PCB77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) as a model isomer in conjunction with calcium oxide was investigated in this study. The PCB dechlorination rate improved with increased temperature and time. The highest dechlorination rate was 85.3 %, and temperature was the main influencing factor. Pentachlorobiphenyl and tetrachlorobiphenyl in soils decreased or disappeared in response to treatment at 350 and 400 °C for 4 h, while monochlorinated biphenyl and biphenyl were detected after the reaction, indicating the presence of a dechlorination/hydrogenation pathway. Discrepancy in chlorine balance was observed after low-temperature thermal dechlorination. The species of dechlorination products were identified as amorphous carbon containing a crystalline graphite plane structure and a carbonyl group-containing polymerized product, demonstrating the existence of a dechlorination/polymerization pathway. The yield of amorphous carbon and high-molecular-weight intermediates increased with heating time. The results showed that the discrepancy in chlorine balance was because of the generation of polymerized products and undetected intermediates.

  1. Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry for thin film monitors: computer and equipment integration for enhanced capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, J. Neal; Sedayao, J.; Shergill, Gurmeet S.; Villasol, R.; Haaland, David M.

    1991-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) is a valuable technique for monitoring thin films used in semiconductor device manufacture. Determinations of the constituent contents in borophosphosilicate (BPSG) phosphosilicate (PSG) silicon oxynitride (SiON:H and spin-on-glass (SOG) thin films are a few applications. Due to the nature of the technique FTIR instrumentation is one of the most extensively computer-dependent pieces of equipment that is likely to be found in a microelectronics plant. In the role of fab monitor or reactor characterization tool FTIR instruments can rapidly generate large amounts of data. Also the drive for greater accuracy and tighter precision is leading to the development of increasingly sophisticated data processing software that tax the computing abilities of most instrument local data stations. By linking a local FTIR data station to a remote minicomputer its capabilities are greatly improved. We discuss three classes of enhancement. First the FTIR in the fab area communicates and interacts in real time with the minicomputer: transferring data segments to it instructing it to perform sophisticated processing and returning the results to the operator in the fab. Characterizations of PSG thin films by this approach are discussed. Second the spectra of large numbers of samples are processed locally. The large database is then transmitted to the minicomputer for study by statistical/graphics software. Results of CVD-reactor spatial profiling experiments for plasma SiON are presented. Third processing of calibration spectra is performed

  2. Second IRMF comparison of surface contamination monitor calibrations 2001-2002

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, C J

    2002-01-01

    The Ionising Radiations Metrology Forum (IRMF) organised a second comparison of surface contamination monitor calibrations in which twenty establishments in the UK participated. The exercise involved the circulation of three surface contamination monitors for calibration using large area reference sources available in the participants' laboratories. The instruments used were a Mini Instruments EP15, a Berthold LB122 and an Electra ratemeter with DP6AD probe. The instrument responses were calculated by the individual participants and submitted to the for analysis along with details of the reference sources used. Details of the estimated uncertainties were also reported. The results are compared and demonstrate generally satisfactory agreement between the participating establishments.

  3. A methodology for auto-monitoring of internal contamination by 131I in nuclear medicine workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, M V S; Dantas, A L A; Dantas, B M

    2007-01-01

    The manipulation of 131I in Nuclear Medicine involves significant risks of internal contamination of the staff. In the event of an accidental contamination, or when the Radiological Protection Program includes routine individual monitoring of internal contamination, it is necessary to implement internal dose estimation through in vivo and in vitro bioassay techniques. Due to the huge extension of the Brazilian country, this type of monitoring becomes unfeasible if all measurements have to be performed at the institutes of the CNEN. Thus, if the Nuclear Medicine Centres (NMC) become able to conduct the monitoring of their employees, this skill would be of great significance. The methodology proposed in this work consists in a simple and inexpensive protocol for auto-monitoring the internal contamination by 131I, using the resources available at the NMC. In order to verify the influence of the phantom in the calibration factor for the measurement of 131I in thyroid, it was performed a comparison among a variety of phantoms commercially available, including the Neck-Thyroid Phantom developed in IRD. A protocol for performing in vivo and in vitro measurements by the NMC was established. The applicability of the individual monitoring techniques was also evaluated by comparing the detection limits with the derived limits associated with the annual dose limits for workers.

  4. Use of biological activities to monitor the removal of fuel contaminants - perspective for monitoring hydrocarbon contamination: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Moderately sensitive Kandeler et al. (1994) Batteries? of bioindicators Microbial bioluminescence, earthwormand seed germination Creosote, heavy, medium and light crude oils. Moderately sensitive. Earthworm4seed germination4 bioluminescence 25?17; 400 mggC01.... However, microbial bioluminescence, microbial biomass/counts and soil respiration have been evaluated as potential tools for monitoring of hydrocarbons (Delistraty, 1984; Kandeler et al., 1994; Steinberg et al., 1995; Van Beelen and Doelman, 1997; Phillips...

  5. Biological monitoring of heavy metal contaminations using owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2012-03-01

    Iron, manganese, copper, lead and cadmium were measured in the livers, muscles, kidneys and bones of Eurasian Eagle Owls (Bubo bubo), Brown Hawk Owls (Nixos scutulata) and Collared Scops Owls (Otus lempiji) from Korea. Iron concentrations by tissue within species did not differ, but there were significant differences among tissues across all species. Manganese and copper concentrations in muscles, kidneys and bones, but not livers, differed among species and also differed among tissues in the three owl species. We suggest that manganese and copper concentrations from this study were far below the level associated with their toxicity. Lead concentrations significantly differed among all species for livers and bones, and among tissues for each species. Cadmium concentrations were significantly different among species for all tissues and among tissues in Eurasian Eagle Owls and Collared Scops Owls. For most samples, lead concentrations in livers and bones, and cadmium in livers and kidneys, were within the background levels for wild birds. For some Eurasian Eagle Owls and Collared Scops Owls, lead concentrations were at an acute exposure level, whilst lead concentrations were at a chronic exposure level in Brown Hawk Owls. Cadmium concentrations were at a chronic exposure level in all three owl species. Acute and chronic poisoning was significantly correlated between indicator tissues. We suggest that lead and cadmium contamination in Eurasian Eagle Owls may reflect a Korean source, Brown Hawk Owls may reflect Korean and wintering sites, and Collared Scops Owls may reflect breeding and/or wintering sites. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  6. Toward In Situ Monitoring of Water Contamination by Nitroenergetic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna R. Taft

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We have previously described the application of novel porous organosilicate materials to the preconcentration of nitroenergetic targets from aqueous solution prior to HPLC analysis. The performance of the sorbents and the advantages of these types of materials over commercially available solid phase extraction sorbents have been demonstrated. Here, the development of systems for application of those sorbents to in situ monitoring is described. Considerations such as column pressure, particulate filtration, and component durability are discussed. The diameter of selected column housings, the sorbent bed depth, and the frits utilized significantly impact the utility of the sorbent columns in the prototype system. The impact of and necessity for improvements in the morphological characteristics of the sorbents as they relate to reduction in column pressure are detailed. The results of experiments utilizing a prototype system are presented. Data demonstrating feasibility for use of the sorbents in preconcentration prior to ion mobility spectrometry is also presented.

  7. Technical Needs for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Equipment Condition Assessment for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coble, Jamie B.; Coles, Garill A.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Berglin, Eric J.; Wootan, David W.; Mitchell, Mark R.

    2013-04-04

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs) can provide the United States with a safe, sustainable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The controllable day-to-day costs of aSMRs are expected to be dominated by operation and maintenance costs. Health and condition assessment coupled with online risk monitors can potentially enhance affordability of aSMRs through optimized operational planning and maintenance scheduling. Currently deployed risk monitors are an extension of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For complex engineered systems like nuclear power plants, PRA systematically combines event likelihoods and the probability of failure (POF) of key components, so that when combined with the magnitude of possible adverse consequences to determine risk. Traditional PRA uses population-based POF information to estimate the average plant risk over time. Currently, most nuclear power plants have a PRA that reflects the as-operated, as-modified plant; this model is updated periodically, typically once a year. Risk monitors expand on living PRA by incorporating changes in the day-by-day plant operation and configuration (e.g., changes in equipment availability, operating regime, environmental conditions). However, population-based POF (or population- and time-based POF) is still used to populate fault trees. Health monitoring techniques can be used to establish condition indicators and monitoring capabilities that indicate the component-specific POF at a desired point in time (or over a desired period), which can then be incorporated in the risk monitor to provide a more accurate estimate of the plant risk in different configurations. This is particularly important for active systems, structures, and components (SSCs) proposed for use in aSMR designs. These SSCs may differ significantly from those used in the operating fleet of light-water reactors (or even in LWR-based SMR designs). Additionally, the operating characteristics of aSMRs can present significantly different

  8. Detection of microbial contaminations in drinking water using ATP measurements – evaluating potential for online monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing call for fast and reliable methods for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. The potential for Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements as a real-time analysis for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water...... quality was investigated through simulation of two contamination scenarios, i.e. drinking water contaminated with waste water and surface water at various concentrations. With ATP measurements it was possible to detect waste water diluted 1000-10,000 times in drinking water depending on sensitivity...... of reagent kit. Surface water diluted 100-1000 times was detected in drinking water with ATP measurements. ATP has the potential as an early warning tool, especially in the period when the contamination concentration is high. 2011 © American Water Works Association AWWA WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights...

  9. Detection of microbial contaminations in drinking water using ATP measurements – evaluating potential for online monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing call for fast and reliable methods for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. The potential for Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements as a real-time analysis for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water...... quality was investigated through simulation of two contamination scenarios, i.e. drinking water contaminated with waste water and surface water at various concentrations. With ATP measurements it was possible to detect waste water diluted 1000-10,000 times in drinking water depending on sensitivity...... of reagent kit. Surface water diluted 100-1000 times was detected in drinking water with ATP measurements. ATP has the potential as an early warning tool, especially in the period when the contamination concentration is high. 2011 © American Water Works Association AWWA WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights...

  10. The Thai Anesthesia Incident Monitoring Study (Thai AIMS) of anesthetic equipment failure/malfunction: an analysis of 1996 incident reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaphanyo, Chaiyapruk; Charuluxananan, Somrat; Sriramatr, Dujduen; Pulnitiporn, Aksorn; Sriraj, Wimonrat

    2009-11-01

    The present study is a part of the multi-centered study of model of anesthesia relating adverse events in Thailand by incident report (The Thai Anesthesia Incident Monitoring Study or Thai AIMS). The objective was to identify the frequency distribution, contributing factors, and factors minimizing incident of equipment failure/malfunction. As a prospective descriptive research design, anesthesia providers reported the data as soon as the incidents of equipment failure/malfunction occurred. Standardized forms of incident report were then mailed to the center at Chulalongkorn University and three anesthesiologists reviewed the data. Ninety-two cases of equipment failure/malfunction were reported from 51 hospitals across Thailand Between January and June 2007, 92 incidents of equipment failure/malfunction were reported out of 1996 anesthesia-related incidents (4.6%). Failed/malfunctioned equipment included anesthetic circuit (17.4%), anesthesia machine (15.2%), capnography (15.2%), laryngoscope (15.2%), ventilator (12%), pulse oximeter (8.7%), vaporizer (4.3%), endotracheal tube (3.3%), sodalime (3.3%), and electrocardiogram (2.2%). All 16 anesthetic circuit incidents (100%) were detected by clinical signs whereas five incidents (31.3%) were detected firstly by monitors. All 14 laryngoscope malfunction (100%) were detected solely by clinical signs. Only one out of eight (12.5%) of pulse oximeter incidents was detected by clinical signs before the pulse oximeter itself. Three out of four (75%) incidents of vaporizer were detected by clinical signs before monitors. The majority of equipment malfunction was considered as related to anesthetic (69.6%) and system factors (69.6%) and 71.7% of incidents were preventable. Seventy-four incidents (80.4%) were caused by human error and, specifically, rule-based error in three fourths. Contributing factors were ineffective equipment, haste, lack of experience, ineffective monitors, and inadequate equipment. Factors minimizing

  11. 77 FR 43523 - Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 RIN 2040-AF10 Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems Correction In rule document 2012-9978 appearing on pages 26072... table entitled ``EXHIBIT 1--APPLICABILITY OF UCMR 3 TO WATER UTILITIES BY SYSTEM TYPE AND SIZE'' should...

  12. 77 FR 39182 - Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 RIN 2040-AF10 Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems Correction In rule document 2012-9978 appearing on pages 26072... table entitled ``EXHIBIT 1--APPLICABILITY OF UCMR 3 TO WATER UTILITIES BY SYSTEM TYPE AND SIZE'' should...

  13. 77 FR 26071 - Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... fulfills EPA's obligation under SDWA by identifying 29 unregulated contaminants for monitoring during the... or the State. Changes to the rule language clarify that when identifying a representative well, the... Anion using EPA Method 300.1 (IC/Conductivity) \\6\\ or alternate SM \\7\\ or ASTM Methods: \\8\\ chlorate....

  14. Equipment Monitoring and Diagnostic Technology%设备监测与诊断技术的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凌俊

    2009-01-01

    According to the characteristics of the power industry, power plants in the Aetna Group, set up a system of monitoring and diagnosis of equipment failure, the operation and management of equipment and played a good effect, that the equipment monitoring and diagnostic teehniques applied in the enterprise.%根据电力行业的特点,在安泰集团发电厂建立了相应的设备故障监测诊断体系,对设备的运行管理起到了较好的效果,指出设备监测与诊断技术在企业中应用的必要性.

  15. Integrated risk and recovery monitoring of ecosystem restorations on contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Michael J; Glomb, Stephen J; Harper, David D; Hoelzle, Timothy B; McIntosh, Lisa M; Mulligan, David R

    2016-04-01

    Ecological restorations of contaminated sites balance the human and ecological risks of residual contamination with the benefits of ecological recovery and the return of lost ecological function and ecosystem services. Risk and recovery are interrelated dynamic conditions, changing as remediation and restoration activities progress through implementation into long-term management and ecosystem maturation. Monitoring restoration progress provides data critical to minimizing residual contaminant risk and uncertainty, while measuring ecological advancement toward recovery goals. Effective monitoring plans are designed concurrently with restoration plan development and implementation and are focused on assessing the effectiveness of activities performed in support of restoration goals for the site. Physical, chemical, and biotic measures characterize progress toward desired structural and functional ecosystem components of the goals. Structural metrics, linked to ecosystem functions and services, inform restoration practitioners of work plan modifications or more substantial adaptive management actions necessary to maintain desired recovery. Monitoring frequency, duration, and scale depend on specific attributes and goals of the restoration project. Often tied to restoration milestones, critical assessment of monitoring metrics ensures attainment of risk minimization and ecosystem recovery. Finally, interpretation and communication of monitoring findings inform and engage regulators, other stakeholders, the scientific community, and the public. Because restoration activities will likely cease before full ecosystem recovery, monitoring endpoints should demonstrate risk reduction and a successional trajectory toward the condition established in the restoration goals. A detailed assessment of the completed project's achievements, as well as unrealized objectives, attained through project monitoring, will determine if contaminant risk has been minimized, if injured

  16. Integrated risk and recovery monitoring of ecosystem restorations on contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Michael J.; Glomb, Stephen J.; Harper, David; Hoelzle, Timothy B.; McIntosh, Lisa M.; Mulligan, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological restorations of contaminated sites balance the human and ecological risks of residual contamination with the benefits of ecological recovery and the return of lost ecological function and ecosystem services. Risk and recovery are interrelated dynamic conditions, changing as remediation and restoration activities progress through implementation into long-term management and ecosystem maturation. Monitoring restoration progress provides data critical to minimizing residual contaminant risk and uncertainty, while measuring ecological advancement toward recovery goals. Effective monitoring plans are designed concurrently with restoration plan development and implementation and are focused on assessing the effectiveness of activities performed in support of restoration goals for the site. Physical, chemical, and biotic measures characterize progress toward desired structural and functional ecosystem components of the goals. Structural metrics, linked to ecosystem functions and services, inform restoration practitioners of work plan modifications or more substantial adaptive management actions necessary to maintain desired recovery. Monitoring frequency, duration, and scale depend on specific attributes and goals of the restoration project. Often tied to restoration milestones, critical assessment of monitoring metrics ensures attainment of risk minimization and ecosystem recovery. Finally, interpretation and communication of monitoring findings inform and engage regulators, other stakeholders, the scientific community, and the public. Because restoration activities will likely cease before full ecosystem recovery, monitoring endpoints should demonstrate risk reduction and a successional trajectory toward the condition established in the restoration goals. A detailed assessment of the completed project's achievements, as well as unrealized objectives, attained through project monitoring, will determine if contaminant risk has been minimized, if injured

  17. ELEVATED TEMPERATURE SENSORS FOR ON-LINE CRITICAL EQUIPMENT HEALTH MONITORING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Sebastian

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this research program is to improve high temperature piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) sensor technology to make it useful for instrumentation and health monitoring of current and future electrical power generation equipment. The program will extend the temperature range of the sensor from approximately 700 C to above 1000 C, and ultrasonic coupling to objects at these temperatures will be investigated and tailored for use with the sensor. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) AlN deposition process was successfully transferred from film production on tungsten carbide substrates to titanium alloy and silicon carbide (SiC) substrates in the first year of the program, and additional substrates were evaluated. In the second year of the program, additional substrate research was performed with the goal of improving the performance of using SiC substrates. While greatly improved bandwidth was achieved, sensor survival at elevated temperature remains problematic. The elevated temperature coupling work continued with significant experimentation. Molten glasses were found to work within a limited temperature range, but metal foils applied with heat and pressure were found to have superior performance overall. The final year of the program will be dedicated to making further advances in AlN/ substrate behavior, and the design and implementation of a sensor demonstration experiment at very high temperature in a simulated industrial application.

  18. Elevated Temperature Sensors for On-Line Critical Equipment Health Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Sebastian

    2006-03-31

    The objective of the program was to improve high temperature piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) sensor technology to make it useful for instrumentation and health monitoring of current and future electrical power generation equipment. Improvements were aimed primarily at extending the useful temperature range of the sensor from approximately 700 C to above 1000 C, and investigating ultrasonic coupling to objects at these temperatures and tailoring high temperature coupling for use with the sensor. During the project, the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) AlN deposition process was successfully transferred from film production on tungsten carbide substrates to titanium alloy and silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. Film adhesion under thermal cycling was found to be poor, and additional substrate materials and surface preparations were evaluated. A new, porous SiC substrate improved the performance but not to the point of making the films useful for sensors. Near the end of the program, a new family of high temperature piezoelectric materials came to the attention of the program. Samples of langasite, the most promising member of this family, were obtained and experimental data showed promise for use up to the 1000 C target temperature. In parallel, research successfully determined that metal foil under moderate pressure provided a practical method of coupling ultrasound at high temperature. A conceptual sensor was designed based upon these methods and was tested in the laboratory.

  19. ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT TO MONITORIZE SOME BIOLOGICAL PROCESS OF ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE IN HONEYBEE COLONY AND ITS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SICEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The electronic hive is the result of the scientific researches carried out between2003-2006 by a research project funded by MEdC through the National ProgramRELANSIN, being accomplished by Institute for Beekeeping Research andDevelopment –Bucharest in cooperation with the Polytechnics University fromBucharest –The Center for Electronic Technology and Interconnection Techniquesand the Radio Consult CompanyTo achieve the great complexity of the electronic model adapted to the hive –the“smart” hive, it was necessary to establish the all electronic details which to makepossible to monitorize some very important information from the bee colony andits environment with the help of the honeybees and which to eliminate the errorsthat may occur in the information collection process.Thus, the project aimed to conceive the electronic system in order to collectinformation from inside the hive and from environment too, to storage andtransmit it to a data basis by GSM network in order to be analyzed and processedby users.By this complex electronic system, composed by electronic equipment and thehoney bee colony, which is dynamic and strong related with natural evolution ofvegetation correlated with the climate factors, is possible to identify instantaneousor periodically a large palette of aggression factors as well naturals (acids rains,extreme temperatures, calamities as anthropic factors –accidental chemical orbiologic pollution. The obtained data, electronically quantified and taken out intothe data basis, could offer accurate information about the moisturized areas atdifferent time intervals.

  20. Plasma-based determination of inorganic contaminants in waste of electric and electronic equipment after microwave-induced combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Paola A.; Diehl, Lisarb O.; Oliveira, Jussiane S. S.; Muller, Edson I.; Mesko, Marcia F.; Flores, Erico M. M.

    2015-03-01

    A systematic study was performed for the determination of inorganic contaminants in polymeric waste from electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) for achieving an efficient digestion to minimize interferences in determination using plasma-based techniques. The determination of As, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and also by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) was carried out after digestion using microwave-induced combustion (MIC). Arsenic and Hg were determined by flow-injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-CVG-ICP-MS). Dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) with ammonia was also used for Cr determination. The suitability of MIC for digestion of sample masses up to 400 mg was demonstrated using microcrystalline cellulose as aid for combustion of polymers from waste of EEEs that usually contain flame retardants that impair the combustion. The composition and concentration of acid solutions (HNO3 or HNO3 plus HCl) were evaluated for metals and metalloids and NH4OH solutions were investigated for Br absorption. Accuracy was evaluated by comparison of results with those obtained using high pressure microwave-assisted wet digestion (HP-MAWD) and also by the analysis of certified reference material (CRM) of polymer (EC680k-low-density polyethylene). Bromine determination was only feasible using digestion by MIC once losses were observed when HP-MAWD was used. Lower limits of detection were obtained for all analytes using MIC (from 0.005 μg g- 1 for Co by ICP-MS up to 3.120 μg g-1 for Sb by ICP OES) in comparison to HP-MAWD due to the higher sample mass that can be digested (400 mg) and the use of diluted absorbing solutions. The combination of HNO3 and HCl for digestion showed to be crucial for quantitative recovery of some elements, as Cr and Sb. In addition, suitable agreement of Cr to

  1. A Portable Surface Contamination Monitor Based on the Principle of Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perey, D. F.

    1996-01-01

    Many industrial and aerospace processes involving the joining of materials, require sufficient surface cleanliness to insure proper bonding. Processes as diverse as painting, welding, or the soldering of electronic circuits will be compromised if prior inspection and removal of surface contaminants is inadequate. As process requirements become more stringent and the number of different materials and identified contaminants increases, various instruments and techniques have been developed for improved inspection. One such technique, based on the principle of Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE), has been explored for a number of years as a tool for surface contamination monitoring. Some of the benefits of OSEE are: it is non-contacting; requires little operator training; and has very high contamination sensitivity. This paper describes the development of a portable OSEE based surface contamination monitor. The instrument is suitable for both hand-held and robotic inspections with either manual or automated control of instrument operation. In addition, instrument output data is visually displayed to the operator and may be sent to an external computer for archiving or analysis.

  2. Monitoring source water for microbial contamination: evaluation of water quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Jeanine D; Long, Sharon C

    2007-08-01

    Watershed management programs often rely on monitoring for a large number of water quality parameters to define contaminant issues. While coliforms have traditionally been used to identify microbial contamination, these indicators cannot discriminate among potential contaminant sources. Microbial source tracking (MST) can provide the missing link that implicates the sources of contamination. The objective of this study was to use a weight-of-evidence approach (land use analysis using GIS, sanitary surveys, traditional water quality monitoring, and MST targets) to identify sources of pollution within a watershed that contains a raw drinking water source. For the study watersheds, statistical analyses demonstrated that one measure each of particulate matter (turbidity, particle counts), organic matter (total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, UV(254) absorbance), and indicator organisms (fecal coliforms, enterococci) were adequate for characterizing water quality. While these traditional parameters were useful for assessing overall water quality, they were not intended to differentiate between microbial sources at different locations. In contrast, the MST targets utilized (Rhodococcus coprophilus, sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria, and male-specific coliphages) pinpointed specific sources of microbial pollution. However, these targets could not be used for routine monitoring due to a high percentage of non-detects.

  3. First Results from Contamination Monitoring with the WFC3 UVIS G280 Grism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, B.; Pirzkal, N.; Baggett, S.

    2011-11-01

    The presence of contaminants within the optical light path of the instrument or telescope can alter photometric zeropoints and the observed flux levels of imaging and spectra, particularly at UV wavelengths. Regular monitoring of a spectro-photometric standard star using photometric filters has been used in the past to monitor the presence of contaminants and (when necessary) re-calibrate zeropoints. However, the use of the WFC3 UVIS Grism mode (G280 filter) may provide a more robust early alert detection system for the presence of contaminants, in particular, those that are photo-polymerized from the bright Earth. These contaminants may collect on surfaces in the optical light path of the telescope. The G280 grism is sensitive to light at wavelengths below the cutoff of the bluest UV filter (F218W). In this ISR, we present: 1) the first results from G280 monitoring for the period of 2010-November through 2011-August; 2) the discovery of an anomaly in the WCS header information of sub-array exposures; and 3) an outline for reducing standard G280 grism observations and the specialized case of observations obtained in sub-array mode.

  4. Elevated Temperature Sensors for On-Line Critical Equipment Health Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Sebastian

    2003-09-29

    The objective of this research program is to improve high temperature piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) sensor technology to make it useful for instrumentation and health monitoring of current and future electrical power generation equipment. The program will extend the temperature range of the sensor from approximately 700 C to above 1000 C, and ultrasonic coupling to objects at these temperatures will be investigated and tailored for use with the sensor. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) AlN deposition process was successfully transferred from film production on tungsten carbide substrates to titanium alloy and silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. Further evaluation of the piezoelectric films on titanium caused it to be discarded as a candidate material due to an excessive thermal expansion coefficient mismatch, causing film failure upon reheating from room temperature. Deposition on SiC is proceeding well, with a highly conductive grade of silicon carbide required for practical use. Additional substrate materials, including refractory metals and conductive ceramics, have been considered but are generally not promising in light of the experience with titanium. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was investigated as an alternate means of creating the films as an alternative to CVD. A concurrent effort has focused on investigation of means of coupling ultrasound from the sensor into the test object at high temperature. A literature search combined with preliminary experimentation has resulted in the selection of two methods for coupling: low melting point glasses and metal foil- pressure couplant. The work in the next two years of the program will include continued improvement of the CVD deposition process, experimental testing of films and coupling at high temperatures, and a laboratory demonstration of the sensor in a simulated industrial application

  5. Auditing of Monitoring and Respiratory Support Equipment in a Level III-C Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bergon-Sendin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Random safety audits (RSAs are a safety tool but have not been widely used in hospitals. Objectives. To determine the frequency of proper use of equipment safety mechanisms in relation to monitoring and mechanical ventilation by performing RSAs. The study also determined whether factors related to the patient, time period, or characteristics of the area of admission influenced how the device safety systems were used. Methods. A prospective observational study was conducted in a level III-C Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU during 2012. 87 days were randomly selected. Appropriate overall use was defined when all evaluated variables were correctly programmed in the audited device. Results. A total of 383 monitor and ventilator audits were performed. The Kappa coefficient of interobserver agreement was 0.93. The rate of appropriate overall use of the monitors and respiratory support equipment was 33.68%. Significant differences were found with improved usage during weekends, OR 1.85 (1.12–3.06, p=0.01, and during the late shift (3 pm to 10 pm, OR 1.59 (1.03–2.4, p=0.03. Conclusions. Equipment safety systems of monitors and ventilators are not properly used. To improve patient safety, we should identify which alarms are really needed and where the difficulties lie for the correct alarm programming.

  6. Personal protective equipment for preventing highly infectious diseases due to exposure to contaminated body fluids in healthcare staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Jos H; Ijaz, Sharea; Mischke, Christina; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Mäkelä, Erja; Neuvonen, Kaisa; Edmond, Michael B; Sauni, Riitta; Kilinc Balci, F Selcen; Mihalache, Raluca C

    2016-04-19

    In epidemics of highly infectious diseases, such as Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) or SARS, healthcare workers (HCW) are at much greater risk of infection than the general population, due to their contact with patients' contaminated body fluids. Contact precautions by means of personal protective equipment (PPE) can reduce the risk. It is unclear which type of PPE protects best, what is the best way to remove PPE, and how to make sure HCWs use PPE as instructed. To evaluate which type or component of full-body PPE and which method of donning or removing (doffing) PPE have the least risk of self-contamination or infection for HCWs, and which training methods most increase compliance with PPE protocols. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed up to 8 January 2016), Cochrane Central Register of Trials (CENTRAL up to 20 January 2016), EMBASE (embase.com up to 8 January 2016), CINAHL (EBSCOhost up to 20 January 2016), and OSH-Update up to 8 January 2016. We also screened reference lists of included trials and relevant reviews, and contacted NGOs and manufacturers of PPE. We included all eligible controlled studies that compared the effect of types or components of PPE in HCWs exposed to highly infectious diseases with serious consequences, such as EVD and SARS, on the risk of infection, contamination, or noncompliance with protocols. This included studies that simulated contamination with fluorescent markers or a non-pathogenic virus.We also included studies that compared the effect of various ways of donning or removing PPE, and the effects of various types of training in PPE use on the same outcomes. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed risk of bias in included trials. We intended to perform meta-analyses but we did not find sufficiently similar studies to combine their results. We included nine studies with 1200 participants evaluating ten interventions. Of these, eight trials simulated the exposure with a fluorescent marker or virus or bacteria

  7. Automatic monitoring of the alignment and wear of vibration welding equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spicer, John Patrick; Cai, Wayne W.; Chakraborty, Debejyo; Mink, Keith

    2017-05-23

    A vibration welding system includes vibration welding equipment having a welding horn and anvil, a host machine, a check station, and a welding robot. At least one displacement sensor is positioned with respect to one of the welding equipment and the check station. The robot moves the horn and anvil via an arm to the check station, when a threshold condition is met, i.e., a predetermined amount of time has elapsed or a predetermined number of welds have been completed. The robot moves the horn and anvil to the check station, activates the at least one displacement sensor, at the check station, and determines a status condition of the welding equipment by processing the received signals. The status condition may be one of the alignment of the vibration welding equipment and the wear or degradation of the vibration welding equipment.

  8. In-situ protein determination to monitor contamination in a centrifugal partition chromatograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouiche, Feriel; Faure, Karine

    2017-05-15

    Centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) works with biphasic liquid systems including aqueous two-phase systems. Metallic rotors are able to retain an aqueous stationary phase able to purify proteins. But the adhesion of proteins to solid surface may pose a cross-contamination risk during downstream processes. So it is of utmost importance to ensure the cleanliness of the equipment and detect possible protein contamination in a timely manner. Thereby, a direct method that allows the determination of the effective presence of proteins and the extent of contamination in the metallic CPC rotors was developed. This in-situ method is derived from the Amino Density Estimation by Colorimetric Assay (ADECA) which is based on the affinity of a dye, Coomassie Brillant Blue (CBB), with protonated N(+) groups of the proteins. In this paper, the ADECA method was developed dynamically, on a 25 mL stainless-steel rotor with various extents of protein contaminations using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a fouling model. The eluted CBB dye was quantified and found to respond linearly to BSA contamination up to 70 mg injected. Limits of detection and quantification were recorded as 0.9 mg and 3.1 mg, respectively. While the non-specific interactions between the dye and the rotor cannot currently be neglected, this method allows for in situ determination of proteins contamination and should contribute to the development of CPC as a separation tool in protein purification processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Survey of surface contamination of digital equipment in clean operating room Survey of surface contamination of digital equipment in clean operating room%洁净手术室数字化设备表面污染情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志敏; 章明阳; 马颖; 杨维泽

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解洁净手术室数字化设备的细菌污染状况,拟定合理的防控措施。方法2014年3月选取我院10间手术间共20个单位的数字化设备(包括电脑主机、键盘、鼠标、显示器、条码扫描及打印机)表面进行细菌分布情况及种类监测,4月采取新的防控措施后再次对该设备进行监测分析。结果3月份共检出44份阳性标本,4月共检出8份阳性标本,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);3月检测出病原微生物菌19株,4月未检测到各类病原微生物,实施新防控措施前后差异显著。结论洁净手术室内不同区域数字化设备存在不同差异的细菌污染,采取有效的防控措施能够明显改善污染状况。%Objective To explore the condition of bacterial contamination of digitizing equipment in clean operating room, and de-velop reasonable control measures.Methods In march of 2014 , a total of 20 units of the surface of the digital equipment ( including com-puter host, keyboard, mouse, display, barcode scanning and printer) were selected from 10 operating rooms, bacterial distribution and types were monitored, again after April new prevention and control measures were taken to conduct monitoring and analysis of the device.Results 44positivespecimenswerecheckedoutinMarch,eightmasculinespecimenwerecheckedinApril,thedifferencewasstatisticallysignifi-cant (P<0.05), 19 strains of pathogenic microorganisms bacteria were checked out in March, none of pathogenic microorganisms was detec-ted in April, the significant difference before and after the implementation of the new prevention and control measures.Conclusions There exist different bacterial contamination in the different regions digital devices in the clean operating room, effective prevention and control measures can greatly improve the pollution condition.

  10. Analyses of integrated aircraft cabin contaminant monitoring network based on Kalman consensus filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Li, Yanxiao; Sun, Hui; Chen, Zengqiang

    2017-07-11

    The modern civil aircrafts use air ventilation pressurized cabins subject to the limited space. In order to monitor multiple contaminants and overcome the hypersensitivity of the single sensor, the paper constructs an output correction integrated sensor configuration using sensors with different measurement theories after comparing to other two different configurations. This proposed configuration works as a node in the contaminant distributed wireless sensor monitoring network. The corresponding measurement error models of integrated sensors are also proposed by using the Kalman consensus filter to estimate states and conduct data fusion in order to regulate the single sensor measurement results. The paper develops the sufficient proof of the Kalman consensus filter stability when considering the system and the observation noises and compares the mean estimation and the mean consensus errors between Kalman consensus filter and local Kalman filter. The numerical example analyses show the effectiveness of the algorithm. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Portable RF-Sensor System for the Monitoring of Air Pollution and Water Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonhee Kang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring air pollution including the contents of VOC, O3, NO2, and dusts has attracted a lot of interest in addition to the monitoring of water contamination because it affects directly to the quality of living conditions. Most of the current air pollution monitoring stations use the expensive and bulky instruments and are only installed in the very limited area. To bring the information of the air and water quality to the public in real time, it is important to construct portable monitoring systems and distribute them close to our everyday living places. In this work, we have constructed a low-cost portable RF sensor system by using 400 MHz transceiver to achieve this goal. Accuracy of the measurement was comparable to the ones used in the expensive and bulky commercial air pollution forecast systems.

  12. Comparison of surface contamination monitors for in vivo measurement of 131I in the thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, S. M.; Dantas, A. L. A.; Dantas, B. M.

    2016-07-01

    The routine handling of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine represents a significant risk of internal exposure to the staff. The IAEA recommends the implementation of monitoring plans for all workers subject to a risk of exposures above 1 mSv per year. However, in Brazil, such recommendation is practically unfeasible due to the lack of a sufficient number of qualified internal dosimetry services over the country. This work presents an alternative based on a simple and inexpensive methodology aimed to perform in vivo monitoring of 131I in the thyroid using portable surface contamination probes. Results show that all models evaluated in this work present enough sensitivity for the evaluation of accidental intakes.

  13. Comparison of surface contamination monitors for in vivo measurement of {sup 131}I in thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, S.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M., E-mail: salomao.marques@ymail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The routine handling of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine represents a significant risk of internal exposure to the staff. The IAEA recommends the implementation of monitoring plans for all workers subject to a risk of exposures above 1 mSv per year. However, in Brazil, such recommendation is practically unfeasible due to the lack of a sufficient number of qualified internal dosimetry services over the country. This work presents an alternative based on a simple and inexpensive methodology aimed to perform in-vivo monitoring of {sup 131}I in thyroid using portable surface contamination probes. All models evaluated showed suitable sensitivity for such application. (author)

  14. Shellfish and residual chemical contaminants: hazards, monitoring, and health risk assessment along French coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Marielle; Amiard, Jean-Claude; Arnich, Nathalie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Claisse, Didier; Guérin, Thierry; Vernoux, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    , lindane, triazines, PBDE, and chlorinated paraffins.In France, the results of contaminant monitoring have indicated that Cd, but not lead (environmental matrices that accumulate contaminants. These include both biota and sediment. Example contaminants were studied in a French coastal lagoon (Arcachon Bay) and in an estuary (Bay of Seine), and these were used to illustrate the usefulness of the monitoring programs. Twenty-one pesticidal and biocidal active substances were detected in the waters of Arcachon Bay during the summers from 1999 to 2003, at concentrations ranging from a few nanograms per liter to several hundred nanograms per liter. Most of the detected substances were herbicides, including some that are now banned. Organotin compounds have been detected in similarly semi-enclosed waters elsewhere (bays, estuaries, and harbors).However, the mean concentrations of cadmium, mercury, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene,in transplanted mussels, were below the regulatory limits.In 2007, the mean daily consumption of shellfish in the general French population was estimated to be 4.5 g in adults; however, a wide variation occurs by region and season (INCA 2 study). Tabulated as a proportion of the diet, shellfish consumption represents only 0.16% of overall solid food intake. However, the INCA 2 survey was not well suited to estimating shellfish consumption because of the small number of shellfish consumers sampled. In contrast, the mean consumption rate of bivalve mollusks among adult high consumers of fish and seafood products, i.e., adults who eat fish or seafood at least twice a week, was estimated to be 153 g week-1 (8 kg yr-1). The highest mean consumption is for king scallops (39 g week-1), followed by oysters (34 g week-1) and mussels (22 g week-1). Thus, for high seafood consumers, the contribution of shellfish to inorganic contaminant levels is 1-10% TWI or PTWI for Cd, MeHg, and Sn (up to 19% for Sn), and the arsenic body burden is higher for 22% of individuals studied

  15. Plasma-based determination of inorganic contaminants in waste of electric and electronic equipment after microwave-induced combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Paola A.; Diehl, Lisarb O.; Oliveira, Jussiane S.S.; Muller, Edson I. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, 97105-900, Santa Maria (Brazil); Mesko, Marcia F. [Centro de Ciências Químicas, Farmacêuticas e de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Campus Capão do Leão, 96900-010 Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M., E-mail: ericommf@gmail.com [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, 97105-900, Santa Maria (Brazil)

    2015-03-01

    A systematic study was performed for the determination of inorganic contaminants in polymeric waste from electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) for achieving an efficient digestion to minimize interferences in determination using plasma-based techniques. The determination of As, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and also by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) was carried out after digestion using microwave-induced combustion (MIC). Arsenic and Hg were determined by flow-injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-CVG-ICP-MS). Dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) with ammonia was also used for Cr determination. The suitability of MIC for digestion of sample masses up to 400 mg was demonstrated using microcrystalline cellulose as aid for combustion of polymers from waste of EEEs that usually contain flame retardants that impair the combustion. The composition and concentration of acid solutions (HNO{sub 3} or HNO{sub 3} plus HCl) were evaluated for metals and metalloids and NH{sub 4}OH solutions were investigated for Br absorption. Accuracy was evaluated by comparison of results with those obtained using high pressure microwave-assisted wet digestion (HP-MAWD) and also by the analysis of certified reference material (CRM) of polymer (EC680k—low-density polyethylene). Bromine determination was only feasible using digestion by MIC once losses were observed when HP-MAWD was used. Lower limits of detection were obtained for all analytes using MIC (from 0.005 μg g{sup −1} for Co by ICP-MS up to 3.120 μg g{sup −1} for Sb by ICP OES) in comparison to HP-MAWD due to the higher sample mass that can be digested (400 mg) and the use of diluted absorbing solutions. The combination of HNO{sub 3} and HCl for digestion showed to be crucial for quantitative recovery of some elements, as Cr and Sb

  16. Spectrum correction algorithm for detectors in airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV based on a ratio processing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ye [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Tang, Xiao-Bin, E-mail: tangxiaobin@nuaa.edu.cn [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Equipment Materials Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Peng; Meng, Jia; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Chen, Da [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Equipment Materials Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2015-10-11

    The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) radiation monitoring method plays an important role in nuclear accidents emergency. In this research, a spectrum correction algorithm about the UAV airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV was studied to measure the radioactive nuclides within a small area in real time and in a fixed place. The simulation spectra of the high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and the lanthanum bromide (LaBr{sub 3}) detector in the equipment were obtained using the Monte Carlo technique. Spectrum correction coefficients were calculated after performing ratio processing techniques about the net peak areas between the double detectors on the detection spectrum of the LaBr{sub 3} detector according to the accuracy of the detection spectrum of the HPGe detector. The relationship between the spectrum correction coefficient and the size of the source term was also investigated. A good linear relation exists between the spectrum correction coefficient and the corresponding energy (R{sup 2}=0.9765). The maximum relative deviation from the real condition reduced from 1.65 to 0.035. The spectrum correction method was verified as feasible. - Highlights: • An airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV was developed to measure radionuclide after a nuclear accident. • A spectrum correction algorithm was proposed to obtain precise information on the detected radioactivity within a small area. • The spectrum correction method was verified as feasible. • The corresponding spectrum correction coefficients increase first and then stay constant.

  17. Monitoring of organic contaminants in sediments using low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Rupert, Yuri

    2016-04-01

    The effective monitoring of soils and groundwater contaminated with organic compounds is an important goal of many environmental restoration efforts. Recent geophysical methods such as electrical resistivity, complex conductivity, and ground penetrating radar have been successfully applied to characterize organic contaminants in the subsurface and to monitor remediation process both in laboratory and in field. Low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a geophysical tool sensitive to the molecular-scale physical and chemical environment of hydrogen-bearing fluids in geological materials and shows promise as a novel method for monitoring contaminant remediation. This laboratory research focuses on measurements on synthetic samples to determine the sensitivity of NMR to the presence of organic contaminants and improve understanding of relationships between NMR observables, hydrological properties of the sediments, and amount and state of contaminants in porous media. Toluene, a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) has been selected as a representative organic contaminant. Three types of porous media (pure silica sands, montmorillonite clay, and various sand-clay mixtures with different sand/clay ratios) were prepared as synthetic sediments. NMR relaxation time (T2) and diffusion-relaxation (D - T2) correlation measurements were performed in each sediment saturated with water and toluene mixed fluid at assorted concentrations (0% toluene and 100% water, 1% toluene and 99% water, 5% toluene and 95% water, 25% toluene and 75% water, and 100% toluene and 0% water) to 1) understand the effect of different porous media on the NMR responses in each fluid mixture, 2) investigate the role of clay content on T2 relaxation of each fluid, 3) quantify the amount hydrocarbons in the presence of water in each sediment, and 4) resolve hydrocarbons from water in D - T2 map. Relationships between the compositions of porous media, hydrocarbon concentration, and hydraulic

  18. Performance Assessment and Monitoring of a Permeable Reactive Barrier for the Remediation of a Contaminated Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Zolla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study illustrates the long-term monitoring plan carried out in order to investigate the performance of a zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB at a chlorinated solvents’ site. The cleanup intervention has been undertaken at an industrial landfill located near the city of Turin (Italy and represents the first full-scale application of this technology in Italy. The monitoring plan started in November 2005 with the aim to verify the attainment of the cleanup goals and to evaluate the efficiency status of the PRB. Controls focuses not only on contaminant monitoring but also on the hydraulic and chemical conditions created by the barrier, in order to evaluate potential long term effects of secondary biogeochemical processes (e.g. mineral precipitation, microbially-mediated redox transformation, gas accumulation on PRB performance. The monitoring plan provides controls on groundwater chemistry (target contaminants and geochemical indicators and core sampling for mineralogical analysis of zero-valent iron by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The first, partial results of the monitoring activity are illustrated. Monitoring data clearly indicate that the plume is being adequately captured and treated in order to accomplish the clean-up goals with a good safety margin. However, it results that mineral precipitation and gas phase accumulation could determine, over time, a decreasing in hydraulic conductivity and porosity of the barrier, thus modifying the flow field through the reactive cell. Besides the monitoring controls, further investigations will be performed to assess the occurring microbial process and to evaluate their impact on PRB performance.

  19. Development Progress of On-Line Monitoring Equipment for UF6 Abundance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Monitoring the abundance of UF6 gas flowing in processing pipe is a nondestructive assay technique. It can be judged whether highly enriched uranium is produced by monitoring the abundance of UF6 gas

  20. Evaluation of internal contamination levels after a radiological dispersal device incident using portal monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, R C; Hertel, N E; Ansari, A; Manger, R P; Freibert, E J

    2012-08-01

    Following a radioactive dispersal device (RDD) incident, it may be necessary to evaluate the internal contamination levels of a large number of potentially affected individuals to determine if immediate medical follow-up is necessary. Since the current laboratory capacity to screen for internal contamination is limited, rapid field screening methods can be useful in prioritising individuals. This study evaluated the suitability of a radiation portal monitor for such screening. A model of the portal monitor was created for use with models of six anthropomorphic phantoms in Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5 (MCNP) X-5 Monte Carlo Team (MCNP-A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5. LA-CP-03-0245. Vol. 2. Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2004.). The count rates of the portal monitor were simulated for inhalation and ingestion of likely radionuclides from an RDD for each of the phantoms. The time-dependant organ concentrations of the radionuclides were determined using Dose and Risk Calculation Software Eckerman, Leggett, Cristy, Nelson, Ryman, Sjoreen and Ward (Dose and Risk Calculation Software Ver. 8.4. ORNL/TM-2001/190. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2006.). Portal monitor count rates corresponding to a committed effective dose E(50) of 10 mSv are reported.

  1. Monitoring for contaminants of emerging concern in drinking water using POCIS passive samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Chris; Hoque, M Ehsanul; Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Helm, Paul; Kleywegt, Sonya

    2014-03-01

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) have been detected in drinking water world-wide. The source of most of these compounds is generally attributed to contamination from municipal wastewater. Traditional water sampling methods (grab or composite) often require the concentration of large amounts of water in order to detect trace levels of these contaminants. The Polar Organic Compounds Integrative Sampler (POCIS) is a passive sampling technology that has been developed to concentrate trace levels of CEC to provide time-weighted average concentrations for individual compounds in water. However, few studies to date have evaluated whether POCIS is suitable for monitoring contaminants in drinking water. In this study, the POCIS was evaluated as a monitoring tool for CEC in drinking water over a period of 2 and 4 weeks with comparisons to typical grab samples. Seven "indicator compounds" which included carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, estrone and sucralose, were monitored in five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in Ontario. All indicator compounds were detected in raw water samples from the POCIS in comparison to six from grab samples. Similarly, four compounds were detected in grab samples of treated drinking water, whereas six were detected in the POCIS. Sucralose was the only compound that was detected consistently at all five plants. The POCIS technique provided integrative exposures of CECs in drinking water at lower detection limits, while episodic events were captured via traditional sampling methods. There was evidence that the accumulation of target compounds by POCIS is a dynamic process, with adsorption and desorption on the sorbent occurring in response to ambient levels of the target compounds in water. CECs in treated drinking water were present at low ng L(-1) concentrations, which are not considered to be a threat to human health.

  2. A review on soil cover in Waste and contaminant containment: design, monitoring, and modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng PENG; Huilian JIANG

    2009-01-01

    Soil cover is a widely-used but relatively new method for solid waste containment. Standard while site-specific procedures for cover design, monitoring, and evluation are needed to insure reliable cover performance. This paper presents a review of soil cover types, design principles and procedures, cover monitoring, and long-term performance modeling. Cover types and cover design are introduced with the general concepts and discussed on their specific applicabilities in different circumstances. Detailed discussion is given on unsaturated flow system properties and their field measurements, including meth-ods, apparatuses/equipments and their advantages and disadvantages. Several unsaturated flow simulators are discussed and compared with regards to their simulation capacities for critical parameters closely related to soil cover performance such as runoff, infiltration and evaporation. Finally, research subjects are suggested for future work for better soil cover monitoring and modeling.

  3. Long-term ERT monitoring of biogeochemical changes of an aged hydrocarbon contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterina, David; Flores Orozco, Adrian; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2017-06-01

    Adequate management of contaminated sites requires information with improved spatio-temporal resolution, in particular to assess bio-geochemical processes, such as the transformation and degradation of contaminants, precipitation of minerals or changes in groundwater geochemistry occurring during and after remediation procedures. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), a geophysical method sensitive to pore-fluid and pore-geometry properties, permits to gain quasi-continuous information about subsurface properties in real-time and has been consequently widely used for the characterization of hydrocarbon-impacted sediments. However, its application for the long-term monitoring of processes accompanying natural or engineered bioremediation is still difficult due to the poor understanding of the role that biogeochemical processes play in the electrical signatures. For in-situ studies, the task is further complicated by the variable signal-to-noise ratio and the variations of environmental parameters leading to resolution changes in the electrical images. In this work, we present ERT imaging results for data collected over a period of two years on a site affected by a diesel fuel contamination and undergoing bioremediation. We report low electrical resistivity anomalies in areas associated to the highest contaminant concentrations likely due transformations of the contaminant due to microbial activity and accompanying release of metabolic products. We also report large seasonal variations of the bulk electrical resistivity in the contaminated areas in correlation with temperature and groundwater level fluctuations. However, the amplitude of bulk electrical resistivity variations largely exceeds the amplitude expected given existing petrophysical models. Our results suggest that the variations in electrical properties are mainly controlled by microbial activity which in turn depends on soil temperature and hydrogeological conditions. Therefore, ERT can be suggested as

  4. Assessing environmental contamination around obsolete pesticide stockpiles in West Africa: using the Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus) as a sentinel species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Alexandre; Berny, Philippe; Vey, Danielle; de Buffrénil, Vivian

    2012-02-01

    Environmental contamination caused by obsolete pesticide stocks was assessed using the Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus) as a sentinel species. Organochlorines and organophosphates were quantified by gas chromatography in abdominal fat and the liver, respectively. Results were compared to those obtained from three other sites, characterized by different histories of contamination. None of the previously stocked pesticides were recovered. Low to moderate levels of 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4'-DDE) were quantified in monitors from all sites. Malathion and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (4,4'-DDD) also were detected sporadically. Interindividual variability was substantial. Correlations between pesticide loads and individual characteristics were considered. The nondetection of previously stocked pesticides in the monitors' tissues, their contamination by other pesticides, and the value of V. niloticus as a monitoring tool for environmental contamination are discussed. The results indicate a situation of low concern and draw attention to the importance of local conditions in determining environmental dangers associated with potential pollution sources.

  5. Development of LC/MS/MS Methods for Implementation in US EPA’s Drinking Water Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well-characterized and standardized methods are the foundation upon which monitoring of regulated and unregulated contaminants in drinking water are based. To obtain reliable, high quality data for trace analysis of contaminants, these methods must be rugged, selective and sensit...

  6. A COMPENDIUM OF CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL METHODS FOR ASSESSING AND MONITORING THE REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considering the many organizations which have published methods for monitoring contaminated sediments and the large number of documents on this subject, it can be a formidable task for a superfund project manager to find methods appropriate for his or her contaminated sediment si...

  7. The use of aquatic moss (Fontinalis antipyretica as monitor of contamination in standing and running waters: limits and advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto M. CENCI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to verify whether water moss (Fontinalis antipyretica could be used as a monitor of trace element contamination in lotic and lentic waters. The investigation was split up the into three sequential experimental trials. 1 Experiments have been set up in lab in order to evaluate the amount of trace elements (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu and Hg released by moss during a period of 133 days, under controlled chemical-physical conditions. A release of 64% of Hg, 83% of Cr and 70% of Pb was found, whereas no re lease of Cd and Cu has been observed. 2 Clean moss has successively treated with running water at different pH and then treaded with Cu, Cr, Hg and Pb, in order to evaluate the dynamics of accumulation of trace elements in moss. Specifically, three basins containing 100 liters of Lake Maggiore water were equipped with three distinct pumps (15 l min-1 each ensuring the water circulation into a glass tube were arranged. Afterwards, 105 thallus, equivalent to 4.5 g of Fontinalis antipyretica, were fixed into each glass tube. The accumulation dynamics was calculated by collecting moss and water at the beginning, after 1 h, 6 h, 1 day, 4, 9, 14 and 28 days of the experiment. Results showed that the metals accumulation was significant during the first hour. 3 Samples of clean moss were placed in situ. Nine sites in Lake Orta, characterized by high contents of elements due to the anthropic activities, the Toce River and other minor rivers, have been chosen in order to estimate the ability of moss to accumulate Cu, Cr, Pb and Hg from water, and to localize the metal pollution sources. In three sites the Cu average concentration in Fontinalis antipyretica increased from 167 mg kg-1 dry moss to 2100 mg kg-1 after 14 days and to 2900 mg kg-1 after 28 days. A marked accumulation of Hg was observed in Fontinalis antipyretica located in site no 6 (from an initial concentration of 0.2 mg kg-1 dry moss to 17.7 mg kg-1 after 14 days, and 24.6 mg kg-1

  8. Geochemical landscape strategy in monitoring the areas contaminated by the Chernobyl radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korobova, E.M.; Linnik, V.G. (Department of Geoinformation Investigations, Russian Scientific-Practical and Expert-Analytical Centre (RNEC), Moscow (Russian Federation))

    1993-12-01

    The Chernobyl accident led to radionuclide contamination of vast areas that now need to be monitored; the development of a regional land use strategy is now needed. Landscape geochemistry enables us to structure, classify and map the environmental factors responsible for the redistribution of radionuclides (i.e. soil-forming rocks and soil properties, vegetation cover, types of ground water migration, and vertical and lateral geochemical barriers). Combined with land use information, regional geochemical landscape maps serve as the basis to map in toposequence conditions of mass migration and accumulation in natural and cultivated landscapes. Such mapping makes it easier to choose representative monitoring sites. This type of mapping is also helpful to interrelate and extrapolate the data already obtained on radionuclides' environmental migration for different groups of geochemical landscapes with similar types of contamination, migration and accumulation patterns. A geochemical landscape approach is demonstrated using the example of part of the Bryansk region (Russia), which is considerably contaminated with [sup 134]Cs and [sup 137]Cs.

  9. Development of two mobile laboratories for a routine and accident monitoring of internal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franck, D., E-mail: didier.franck@irsn.fr [IRSN-French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Internal Dosimetry Department, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Berniere, J.; Viltard, D.; Parre, F.; Challeton-de Vathaire, C.; Agarande, M. [IRSN-French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Internal Dosimetry Department, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)

    2012-07-15

    To provide medical surveillance of workers exposed to risk of internal contamination, IRSN (French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety) has developed two mobile laboratories for on-site monitoring. The laboratories are unique in Europe. They meet the new radiation protection requirements for nuclear medicine departments and radiological emergency response. Details of the design, calibration procedures and performance characteristics of these systems in measurements of various types of organs (thyroid, lung and whole body) are described. The sensitivity of the measurements is very close to that achieved in a heavily shielded stationary laboratory. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We describe a new mobile truck developed for in situ monitoring of internal contamination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the technical principle of this truck. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They can carry out in vivo measurements in different types of geometries: thyroid, lung and whole body. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We assess the performances for the measurement of typical radionuclides and contaminations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thanks to the use of specific shielding it has been shown sensitivities quite close to a heavy shielding system.

  10. A tiered, integrated biological and chemical monitoring framework for contaminants of emerging concern in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruya, Keith A; Dodder, Nathan G; Mehinto, Alvine C; Denslow, Nancy D; Schlenk, Daniel; Snyder, Shane A; Weisberg, Stephen B

    2016-07-01

    The chemical-specific risk-based paradigm that informs monitoring and assessment of environmental contaminants does not apply well to the many thousands of new chemicals that are being introduced into ambient receiving waters. We propose a tiered framework that incorporates bioanalytical screening tools and diagnostic nontargeted chemical analysis to more effectively monitor for contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). The framework is based on a comprehensive battery of in vitro bioassays to first screen for a broad spectrum of CECs and nontargeted analytical methods to identify bioactive contaminants missed by the currently favored targeted analyses. Water quality managers in California have embraced this strategy with plans to further develop and test this framework in regional and statewide pilot studies on waterbodies that receive discharge from municipal wastewater treatment plants and stormwater runoff. In addition to directly informing decisions, the data obtained using this framework can be used to construct and validate models that better predict CEC occurrence and toxicity. The adaptive interplay among screening results, diagnostic assessment and predictive modeling will allow managers to make decisions based on the most current and relevant information, instead of extrapolating from parameters with questionable linkage to CEC impacts. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:540-547. © 2015 SETAC.

  11. Bioindicators of contaminant exposure and effect in aquatic and terrestrial monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, Mark J.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    Bioindicators of contaminant exposure presently used in environmental monitoring arc discussed. Some have been extensively field-validated and arc already in routine application. Included are (1) inhibition of brain or blood cholinesterase by anticholinesterase pesticides, (2) induction of hepatic microsomal cytochromes P450 by chemicals such as PAHs and PCBs, (3) reproductive problems such as terata and eggshell thinning, and (4) aberrations of hemoglobin synthesis, including the effects of lead and of certain chlorinated hydrocarbons. Many studies on DNA damage and of histopathological effects, particularly in the form of tumors, have already been completed. There are presently numerous other opportunities for field validation. Bile metabolites of contaminants in fish reveal exposure to contaminants that might otherwise be difficult to detect or quantify. Bile analysis is beginning to be extended to species other than fishes. Assessment of oxidative damage and immune competence appear to be valuable biomarkers. needing only additional field validation for wider use. The use of metallothioneins as biomarkers depends on the development of convenient, inexpensive methodology that provides information not available from measurements of metal ions. The use of stress proteins as biomarkers depends on development of convenient, inexpensive methodology and field validation. Gene arrays and proteomics hold promise as bioindicators for contaminant exposure or effect, particularly because of the large amount of data that could be generated, but they still need extensive development and testing.

  12. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Kang Soo

    1999-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  13. Long-term autonomous resistivity monitoring of oil-contaminated sediments from the Deepwater Horizon spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenan, J. W.; Slater, L. D.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Atekwana, E. A.; Ross, C.; Nolan, J. T.; Atekwana, E. A.; Werkema, D. D.; Fathepure, B.

    2012-12-01

    outside of the contaminated location exhibit relatively uniform resistivity or show clear evidence of seasonal effect. Temperature-corrected resistivity changes show no direct correlation with pore fluid specific conductance changes, suggesting that specific conductance changes (e.g. due to tides) have little influence on imaged resistivity structure. Microbial data suggest that resistivity changes within the contaminated location resulted from biodegradation, showing the presence of native populations capable of degrading aromatic hydrocarbons at salinities ranging from 6 to 15 % NaCl within the contaminated location. Aqueous geochemical measurements performed on samples from the site further indicate that at depth intervals coincident with the resistivity anomaly, marked increases in the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were observed suggesting biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon although other DIC generating processes such as organic matter degradation coupled to sulfate and iron reduction were also prominent. This experiment demonstrates the potential viability of long-term autonomous electrical monitoring as a means of decreasing the frequency of more costly and invasive chemical analysis of natural attenuation.

  14. Monitoring of bacterial contamination of dental unit water lines using adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, A; Tamaki, N; Yokota, K; Matsuyama, M; Kokeguchi, S

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial contamination of dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) was evaluated using ATP bioluminescence analysis and a conventional culture method. Water samples (N=44) from DUWLs were investigated for heterotrophic bacteria by culture on R2A agar, which gave counts ranging from 1.4×10(3) to 2.7×10(5) cfu/mL. The ATP bioluminescence results for DUWL samples ranged from 6 to 1189 relative light units and could be obtained within 1min; these correlated well with the culture results (r=0.727-0.855). We conclude that the results of the ATP bioluminescence assay accurately reflect the results of conventional culture-based testing. This method is potentially useful for rapid and simple monitoring of DUWL bacterial contamination.

  15. 77 FR 41930 - Bleed Air Cleaning and Monitoring Equipment and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... an opportunity to participate in #0;the rule making prior to the adoption of the final rules. #0; #0... Equipment and Technology ACTION: Notice; request for information. SUMMARY: The FAA seeks information from industry developers, manufacturers, and the public related to effective air cleaning technology and...

  16. Mobile means for the monitoring of atmospheric contamination in a reactor building; Moyens mobiles de surveillance de la contamination atmospherique en BR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, S.; Lestang, M. [EDF/DPN/GPRE/IRP, 93 - Saint Denis (France)

    2009-07-01

    After having evoked the context and challenges of contamination monitoring when exploiting nuclear reactors, the authors discuss the representativeness of the atmospheric contamination measurement as it depends on the different physicochemical forms of radionuclides present in the circuits. They indicate the different gaseous or aerosol radioactive elements which are monitored within EDF installations. They discuss the incorporation of monitoring means at the installation design level, briefly present the use of beacons inside and outside the reactor building. They describe how monitoring is organized on the basis of alert threshold adjustments: an investigation threshold and an evacuation threshold. They discuss the beacon (or sensor) selection and indicate recommendations for their implementation for optimization purposes. They indicate where these beacons are installed and evoke the experimentation of networked mobile beacons with data remote transmission

  17. A New Approach to Detection of Systematic Errors in Secondary Substation Monitoring Equipment Based on Short Term Load Forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriano, Javier; Rodríguez, Francisco Javier; Martín, Pedro; Jiménez, Jose Antonio; Vuksanovic, Branislav

    2016-01-12

    In recent years, Secondary Substations (SSs) are being provided with equipment that allows their full management. This is particularly useful not only for monitoring and planning purposes but also for detecting erroneous measurements, which could negatively affect the performance of the SS. On the other hand, load forecasting is extremely important since they help electricity companies to make crucial decisions regarding purchasing and generating electric power, load switching, and infrastructure development. In this regard, Short Term Load Forecasting (STLF) allows the electric power load to be predicted over an interval ranging from one hour to one week. However, important issues concerning error detection by employing STLF has not been specifically addressed until now. This paper proposes a novel STLF-based approach to the detection of gain and offset errors introduced by the measurement equipment. The implemented system has been tested against real power load data provided by electricity suppliers. Different gain and offset error levels are successfully detected.

  18. A New Approach to Detection of Systematic Errors in Secondary Substation Monitoring Equipment Based on Short Term Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Moriano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Secondary Substations (SSs are being provided with equipment that allows their full management. This is particularly useful not only for monitoring and planning purposes but also for detecting erroneous measurements, which could negatively affect the performance of the SS. On the other hand, load forecasting is extremely important since they help electricity companies to make crucial decisions regarding purchasing and generating electric power, load switching, and infrastructure development. In this regard, Short Term Load Forecasting (STLF allows the electric power load to be predicted over an interval ranging from one hour to one week. However, important issues concerning error detection by employing STLF has not been specifically addressed until now. This paper proposes a novel STLF-based approach to the detection of gain and offset errors introduced by the measurement equipment. The implemented system has been tested against real power load data provided by electricity suppliers. Different gain and offset error levels are successfully detected.

  19. Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidullah, S.; Tariq, S.; Shah, M. T.; Bishop, M. P.; Kamp, U.; Olsenholler, J.

    2002-05-01

    Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination Terrorism has temporarily constrained the dynamism of the world it was enjoying before September 11, 2001, but also has opened avenues for people of all ethnicities, creeds, and professions to join hands in combating it. Scientific efforts to combat terrorism are likely to lead to better use of existing scientific knowledge as well as to discoveries that will increase world organization, interconnectivity, and peace promotion. Afghanistan and surrounding regions are major focal points for current anti-terrorist activities of the USA and its allies, including Pakistan. The United States, Pakistan, and Afghanistan have shared many similar political objectives, as well as differences, in cold war and post-cold-war eras, reflected by variable provisions of material aid. It is well recognized that understanding Afghanistan requires comprehension of the Pakistan situation as well, especially for common resources. Water is paramount because it is absolutely vital, but can be contaminated by internal or cross-border terrorism. The Kabul and Indus rivers originate in the Hindu Kush - Himalaya ranges. The Kabul River flows from Afghanistan into Pakistan, and after irrigating Peshawar basin, joins the Indus. The Indus, after its origin in Tibet and flow through the Indian Himalaya, enters Pakistan and flows south as the irrigation lifeblood of the country. Any terroristic addition of radioactive nuclides or contaminants to either river could dramatically impact the dependent riverine ecologies. Monitoring cells thus need to be established at locations in Afghanistan and Pakistan to assess base-line river variances for possible future contamination by terrorists. This paper presents a general view and the physical and chemical parameters of parts of the two rivers, and of the surrounding underground water in Peshawar Basin, including pH, conductivity, total

  20. Monitoring contamination due to materials outgassing by QCM-based sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirri, Fabrizio

    2016-07-01

    F. Dirri, E. Palomba, A. Longobardo, D. Biondi, A. Boccaccini, E. Zampetti, B. Saggin, D. Scaccabarozzi, A. Tortora, A. Nanni, J. Alves, A. Tighe Outgassing from spacecraft materials often occurs and degassing contaminants can degrade critical spacecraft surfaces, such as optical systems, solar panels, thermal radiators and thermal management systems. The main contaminants are the water adsorbed by cold surface, organics from spacecraft structure, electronics, insulation and thrusters firings [1]. Thus, it is fundamental to monitor these low-outgassing rates especially in a long duration mission: Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) based sensors (i.e. single and double crystal configurations) are a suitable instruments to monitor step by step these degradation processes which occur in space conditions. The Contamination Assessment Microbalance (CAM) is a device aimed at monitoring in-orbit contamination of sensitive surfaces and payloads on ESA's future satellites. The device, developed by a consortium of Italian research Institutes, is based on QCM technology, previously considered by NASA and ESA experiments performed on Space Shuttle and satellite missions [2,3,4]. CAM is a low mass (200 grams for the sensor head), low volume (smaller than 5x5x5 cm3 for the sensor head) and low power consumption (less than 1.5 W) sensor. The device is composed by: 1) the Sensor Head, containing a sensing crystal (which measures the deposited contaminant mass), a reference crystal (used as frequency reference), their related Proximity Electronics (PE) and a Temperature Control System (TCS); 2) the Main Electronics Unit (MEU), which acquires the signal in output from Sensor Head unit; 3) the Harness connecting Sensor Head and MEU; 4) the User Interface (UI) to read and display the data. The device shows several improvements, i.e. possibility to measure directly the crystal temperature (with an accuracy better than 0.1°C), large measurable mass range (from 5•10-9 to 7•10-4 g/cm2

  1. Detection and Monitoring of E-Waste Contamination through Remote Sensing and Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garb, Yaakov; Friedlander, Lonia

    2015-04-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of today's fastest growing waste streams, and also one of the more problematic, as this end-of-life product contains precious metals mixed with and embedded in a variety of low value and potentially harmful plastic and other materials. This combination creates a powerful incentive for informal value chains that transport, extract from, and dispose of e-waste materials in far-ranging and unregulated ways, and especially in settings where regulation and livelihood alternatives are sparse, most notably in areas of India, China, and Africa. E-waste processing is known to release a variety of contaminants, such as heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants, including flame retardants, dioxins and furans. In several sites, where the livelihoods of entire communities are dependent on e-waste processing, the resulting contaminants have been demonstrated to enter the hydrological system and food chain and have serious health and ecological effects. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time the usefulness of multi-spectral remote sensing imagery to detect and monitor the release and possibly the dispersal of heavy metal contaminants released in e-waste processing. While similar techniques have been used for prospecting or for studying heavy metal contamination from mining and large industrial facilities, we suggest that these techniques are of particular value in detecting contamination from the more dispersed, shifting, and ad-hoc kinds of release typical of e-waste processing. Given the increased resolution and decreased price of multi-spectral imagery, such techniques may offer a remarkably cost-effective and rapidly responsive means of assessing and monitoring this kind of contamination. We will describe the geochemical and multi-spectral image-processing principles underlying our approach, and show how we have applied these to an area in which we have a detailed, multi-temporal, spatially referenced, and ground

  2. Mobile health in cardiology: a review of currently available medical apps and equipment for remote monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treskes, Roderick Willem; van der Velde, Enno Tjeerd; Barendse, Rogier; Bruining, Nico

    2016-09-01

    Recent developments in implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) and smartphone technology have increased the possibilities for remote monitoring. It is the purpose of this review to give an overview of these new possibilities. Remote monitoring in ICD allows for early detection of lead fractures and remote follow-up of patients. Possible limitations are the lack of standardization and the possible unsafety of the data stored on the ICD. Secondly, remote monitoring of health parameters using smartphone compatible wearables and smartphone medical apps is addressed. Possible limitations include the fact that the majority of smartphone apps are unregulated by the regulatory authorities and privacy issues such as selling of app-generated data to third parties. Lastly, clinical studies with smartphone apps are discussed. Expert commentary: New technologies in ICDs and smartphones have the potential to be used for remote monitoring. However, unreliability of smartphone technology, inadequate legislation and lack of reimbursement impede implementation.

  3. PCDD/F and WHO-PCB contamination in an industrialized area in Brazil. First results of atmospheric monitoring and the use of Tillandsia usneoides (L) as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, M. de S. [Dept. de Geoquimica, Univ. Federal Fluminense. Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Waller, U.; Reifenhaeuser, W.; Koerner, W. [Bavarian Environmental Protection Agency, Augsburg (Germany); Torres, J.P.; Malm, O. [Inst. de Biofisica, CCS-UFRJ. Ilha do Fundao, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-09-15

    A major issue of concern in developing countries like Brazil is to conciliate increasing industrialization rates to secure health and environmental standards already required to promote the free market among countries. This was pointed out during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 (Agenda 21). There it became clear that Brazil needs to develop better methods and techniques for environmental monitoring in order to control pollution sources and promote sustainable development. Among dozens of different kinds of persistent organic pollutants, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are a matter of great concern due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicological properties. PCDD and PCDF are unwanted by-products from the combustion of organic material containing trace amounts of chlorine set free in both stationary thermal sources and diffuse fuel burning. They can also be present as unwanted by-products of various industrial and metallurgical processes and metal recycling and smelters. PCB are ubiquitous contaminants of the environment and can be produced during thermal processes. In spite of their high environmental persistence and relevance in human health concerns, legal aspects regarding maximum emission limits and control of these contaminants are absent in Brazil at present. Moreover, the absence of adequately equipped laboratories and human resources together with the high costs associated hampers the research and monitoring of these contaminants in Brazil. The present work is a first report of the monitoring of total deposition rates of PCDD/PCDF and PCB in Volta Redonda City, a highly industrialized area in Rio de Janeiro State. Simultaneously, the use of an endemic Bromeliad species, Tillandsia usneoides (L), an epiphytic bromeliad, as a possible bio-monitor for persistent organochlorine compounds was investigated.

  4. Importance of heterocylic aromatic compounds in monitored natural attenuation for coal tar contaminated aquifers: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Philipp; Sagner, Anne; Tiehm, Andreas; Martus, Peter; Wendel, Thomas; Grathwohl, Peter

    2011-11-01

    NSO heterocycles (HET) are typical constituents of coal tars. However, HET are not yet routinely monitored, although HET are relatively toxic coal tar constituents. The main objectives of the study is therefore to review previous studies and to analyse HET at coal tar polluted sites in order to assess the relevance of HET as part of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) or any other long-term monitoring programme. Hence, natural attenuation of typical HET (indole, quinoline, carbazole, acridine, methylquinolines, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, benzofuran, dibenzofuran, methylbenzofurans, dimethylbenzofurans and xanthene) were studied at three different field sites in Germany. Compound-specific plume lengths were determined for all main contaminant groups (BTEX, PAH and HET). The results show that the observed plume lengths are site-specific and are above 250 m, but less than 1000 m. The latter, i.e. the upper limit, however mainly depends on the level of investigation, the considered compound, the lowest measured concentration and/or the achieved compound-specific detection limit and therefore cannot be unequivocally defined. All downstream contaminant plumes exhibited HET concentrations above typical PAH concentrations indicating that some HET are generally persistent towards biodegradation compared to other coal tar constituents, which results in comparatively increased field-derived half-lives of HET. Additionally, this study provides a review on physicochemical and toxicological parameters of HET. For three well investigated sites in Germany, the biodegradation of HET is quantified using the centre line method (CLM) for the evaluation of bulk attenuation rate constants. The results of the present and previous studies suggest that implementation of a comprehensive monitoring programme for heterocyclic aromatic compounds is relevant at sites, if MNA is considered in risk assessment and for remediation.

  5. Status of contamination monitoring in radiation activities of National Atomic Energy Agency (NAEA) in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhariyono, Gatot [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1997-06-01

    National Atomic Energy Agency (NAEA) or Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional (BATAN) is a non departmental governmental agency, headed by a Director General who is directly responsible to the President. Center for Standardization and Radiation Safety Research (CSRSR) is one of the research centers within the deputy for the assessment of nuclear science and technology of the NAEA. The main task of the CSRSR is to implement research and development program, development and services in the field of radiation safety, standardization, dosimetry, radiation health as well as the application of nuclear techniques in medicine, according to the policy confirmed by the director general of BATAN. Task of radiation protection division is to set up programs and to develop radiation protection, personal monitoring system and radiation level of the working areas and their surroundings as well as dose limitation system, to carry out technical up grading of radiation protection officials skill and to help coping with radiation accident. The key factor on contamination monitoring is to reduce human error and mechanical failures. These problems can be achieved to the highest degree by developing knowledge and skill of staffs via trainings or courses on contamination and decontamination, so that they are hoped to become trained and qualified staffs. (G.K.)

  6. Monitoring Anaerobic TCE Degradation by Evanite Cultre in Column Packed with TCE-Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, J.; Han, K.; Ahn, G.; Park, S.; Kim, N.; Ahn, H.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a long-term common groundwater pollutant because the compound with high density is slowly released into groundwater. Physical and chemical remediation processes have been used to clean-up the contaminant, but novel remediation technology is required to overcome a low efficiency of the traditional treatment process. Many researchers focused on biological process using an anaerobic TCE degrading culture, dehalococcoides spp., but it still needs to evaluate whether the process can be applied into field scale under aerobic condition. Therefore, in this work we examined two different types (i.e., Natural attenuation and bioaugmentation) of biological remediation process in anaerobic column packed with TCE-contaminated soil. A TCE degradation by indigenous microorganisms was confirmed by monitoring TCE and the metabolites (c-DCE, VC, ETH). However, TCE was transformed and stoichiometry amount of c-DCE was produced, and VC and ETH was not detected. To test bioaugmentation of Evanite culture containing dehalococcoides spp., Evanite culture was injected into the column and TCE degradation to c-DCE, VC, ETH was monitored. We are evaluating the transport of the Evanite culture in the column by measuring TCE and VC reductases. In the result, the TCE was completely degraded to ETH using hydrogen as electron donor generate by hydrogen-production fermentation from formate.

  7. Analytical Applications of Nanomaterials in Monitoring Biological and Chemical Contaminants in Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Min-Cheol; Kim, Young-Rok

    2016-09-28

    The detection of food pathogens is an important aspect of food safety. A range of detection systems and new analytical materials have been developed to achieve fast, sensitive, and accurate monitoring of target pathogens. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of selected nanomaterials and their applications in food, and place focus on the monitoring of biological and chemical contaminants in food. The unique optical and electrical properties of nanomaterials, such as gold nanoparticles, nanorods, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, graphenes, nanopores, and polydiacetylene nanovesicles, are closely associated with their dimensions, which are comparable in scale to those of targeted biomolecules. Furthermore, their optical and electrical properties are highly dependent on local environments, which make them promising materials for sensor development. The specificity and selectivity of analytical nanomaterials for target contaminants can be achieved by combining them with various biological entities, such as antibodies, oligonucleotides, aptamers, membrane proteins, and biological ligands. Examples of nanomaterial-based analytical systems are presented together with their limitations and associated developmental issues.

  8. Monitoring arsenic contamination in agricultural soils with reflectance spectroscopy of rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tiezhu; Liu, Huizeng; Wang, Junjie; Chen, Yiyun; Fei, Teng; Wu, Guofeng

    2014-06-03

    The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and to investigate the mechanism for rapidly monitoring arsenic (As) contamination in agricultural soils with the reflectance spectra of rice plants. Several data pretreatment methods were applied to improve the prediction accuracy. The prediction of soil As contents was achieved by partial least-squares regression (PLSR) using laboratory and field spectra of rice plants, as well as linear regression employing normalized difference spectral index (NDSI) calculated from fild spectra. For laboratory spectra, the optimal PLSR model for predicting soil As contents was achieved using Savitzky-Golay smoothing (SG), first derivative and mean center (MC) (root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP)=14.7 mg kg(-1); r=0.64; residual predictive deviation (RPD)=1.31). For field spectra, the optimal PLSR model was also achieved using SG, first derivative and MC (RMSEP=13.7 mg kg(-1); r=0.71; RPD=1.43). In addition, the NDSI with 812 and 782 nm obtained a prediction accuracy with r=0.68, RMSEP=13.7 mg kg(-1), and RPD=1.36. These results indicated that it was feasible to monitor the As contamination in agricultural soils using the reflectance spectra of rice plants. The prediction mechanism might be the relationship between the As contents in soils and the chlorophyll-a/-b contents and cell structure in leaves or canopies of rice plants.

  9. Geophysical Monitoring of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils Remediated with a Bioelectrochemical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Deqiang; Lu, Lu; Revil, André; Zuo, Yi; Hinton, John; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-08-01

    Efficient noninvasive techniques are desired for monitoring the remediation process of contaminated soils. We applied the direct current resistivity technique to image conductivity changes in sandbox experiments where two sandy and clayey soils were initially contaminated with diesel hydrocarbon. The experiments were conducted over a 230 day period. The removal of hydrocarbon was enhanced by a bioelectrochemical system (BES) and the electrical potentials of the BES reactors were also monitored during the course of the experiment. We found that the variation in electrical conductivity shown in the tomograms correlate well with diesel removal from the sandy soil, but this is not the case with the clayey soil. The clayey soil is characterized by a larger specific surface area and therefore a larger surface conductivity. In sandy soil, the removal of the diesel and products from degradation leads to an increase in electrical conductivity during the first 69 days. This is expected since diesel is electrically insulating. For both soils, the activity of BES reactors is moderately imaged by the inverted conductivity tomogram of the reactor. An increase in current production by electrochemically active bacteria activity corresponds to an increase in conductivity of the reactor.

  10. Assessment of population external irradiation doses with consideration of Rospotrebnadzor bodies equipment for monitoring of photon radiation dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides review of equipment and methodology for measurement of photon radiation dose; analysis of possible reasons for considerable deviation between the Russian Federation population annual effective external irradiation doses and the relevant average global value. Data on Rospotrebnadzor bodies dosimetry equipment used for measurement of gamma radiation dose are collected and systematized. Over 60 kinds of dosimeters are used for monitoring of population external irradiation doses. Most of dosimeters used in the country have gas-discharge detectors (Geiger-Mueller counters, minor biochemical annunciators, etc. which have higher total values of own background level and of space radiation response than the modern dosimeters with scintillation detectors. This feature of dosimeters is apparently one of most plausible reasons of a bit overstating assessment of population external irradiation doses. The options for specification of population external irradiation doses assessment are: correction of gamma radiation dose measurement results with consideration of dosimeters own background level and space radiation response, introduction of more up-to-date dosimeters with scintillation detectors, etc. The most promising direction of research in verification of population external irradiation doses assessment is account of dosimetry equipment.

  11. Biospeckle laser portable equipment monitoring water behavior at coffee tree leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botega, J. V. L.; Braga, R. A.; Machado, M. P. P.; Lima, L. A.; Rabelo, G. F.; Cardoso, R. R.

    2010-09-01

    Water is a noble natural resource and its monitoring and control are key to an efficient and responsible use concerning with the impacts in the ambient. Particularly in irrigation processes there are many approaches to monitor the water consumption, nevertheless the access of water demand in an irrigated crop presents some challenges to the routine methods. The effort to develop a non-destructive methodology associated with the ability to be handle, unfolds the way to the adoption of optical techniques. The biospeckle laser phenomenon can be elected as one of the potential instruments to access the water content in a leaf and to associate this information to the water demand. The sensitiveness of the biospeckle patterns related to biological activities is the basis of the hypothesis which concerns the monitoring of water activity in a leaf. This work evaluated the feasibility to implement the biospeckle laser as a tool to measure the water content in a leaf and to relate it with the demand of water in a perennial crop, such as coffee trees. Complementary it was tested the ability and the robustness of the proposed protocol in a portable assembly. Plants of coffee crop, coffee arabica trees, were prepared to be monitored during water stress. The proposed monitoring were carried out in leaves without detach them from the plant, within 5 consecutive days. The results presented a significant relation between the water content reduction and the biospeckle values.

  12. Heavy metal contamination characteristic of soil in WEEE (waste electrical and electronic equipment) dismantling community: a case study of Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damrongsiri, Seelawut; Vassanadumrongdee, Sujitra; Tanwattana, Puntita

    2016-09-01

    Sue Yai Utit is an old community located in Bangkok, Thailand which dismantles waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The surface soil samples at the dismantling site were contaminated with copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) higher than Dutch Standards, especially around the WEEE dumps. Residual fractions of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni in coarse soil particles were greater than in finer soil. However, those metals bonded to Fe-Mn oxides were considerably greater in fine soil particles. The distribution of Zn in the mobile fraction and a higher concentration in finer soil particles indicated its readily leachable character. The concentration of Cu, Pb, and Ni in both fine and coarse soil particles was mostly not significantly different. The fractionation of heavy metals at this dismantling site was comparable to the background. The contamination characteristics differed from pollution by other sources, which generally demonstrated the magnification of the non-residual fraction. A distribution pathway was proposed whereby contamination began by the deposition of WEEE scrap directly onto the soil surface as a source of heavy metal. This then accumulated, corroded, and was released via natural processes, becoming redistributed among the soil material. Therefore, the concentrations of both the residual and non-residual fractions of heavy metals in WEEE-contaminated soil increased.

  13. Monitoring the effect of poplar trees on petroleum-hydrocarbon and chlorinated-solvent contaminated ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmeyer, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    At contaminated groundwater sites, poplar trees can be used to affect groundwater levels, flow directions, and ultimately total groundwater and contaminant flux to areas downgradient of the trees. The magnitude of the hydrologic changes can be monitored using fundamental concepts of groundwater hydrology, in addition to plant physiology-based approaches, and can be viewed as being almost independent of the contaminant released. The affect of poplar trees on the fate of groundwater contaminants, however, is contaminant dependent. Some petroleum hydrocarbons or chlorinated solvents may be mineralized or transformed to innocuous compounds by rhizospheric bacteria associated with the tree roots, mineralized or transformed by plant tissues in the transpiration stream or leaves after uptake, or passively volatilized and rapidly dispersed or oxidized in the atmosphere. These processes also can be monitored using a combination of physiological- or geochemical-based field or laboratory approaches. When combined, such hydrologic and contaminant monitoring approaches can result in a more accurate assessment of the use of poplar trees to meet regulatory goals at contaminated groundwater sites, verify that these goals continue to be met in the future, and ultimately lead to a consensus on how the performance of plant-based remedial strategies (phytoremediation) is to be assessed.

  14. Stable isotope fractionation analysis as a tool to monitor biodegradation in contaminated acquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Morasch, Barbara; Griebler, Christian; Richnow, Hans H.

    2004-12-01

    The assessment of biodegradation in contaminated aquifers has become an issue of increasing importance in the recent years. To some extent, this can be related to the acceptance of intrinsic bioremediation or monitored natural attenuation as a means to manage contaminated sites. Among the few existing methods to detect biodegradation in the subsurface, stable isotope fractionation analysis (SIFA) is one of the most promising approaches which is pronounced by the drastically increasing number of applications. This review covers the recent laboratory and field studies assessing biodegradation of contaminants via stable isotope analysis. Stable isotope enrichment factors have been found that vary from no fractionation for dioxygenase reactions converting aromatic hydrocarbons over moderate fractionation by monooxygenase reactions ( ɛ=-3‰) and some anaerobic studies on microbial degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons ( ɛ=-1.7‰) to larger fractionations by anaerobic dehalogenation reactions of chlorinated solvents ( ɛ=between -5‰ and -30‰). The different isotope enrichment factors can be related to the respective biochemical reactions. Based on that knowledge, we discuss under what circumstances SIFA can be used for a qualitative or even a quantitative assessment of biodegradation in the environment. In a steadily increasing number of cases, it was possible to explain biodegradation processes in the field based on isotope enrichment factors obtained from laboratory experiments with pure cultures and measured isotope values from the field. The review will focus on the aerobic and anaerobic degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents as the major contaminants of groundwater. Advances in the instrumental development for stable isotope analysis are only mentioned if it is important for the understanding of the application.

  15. A Framework for Intelligent Condition-based Maintenance of Rotating Equipment using Mechanical Condition Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahan B. Mohammadreza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ideal end result of maintenance strategy is to increase profitability, improve product quality and ensure safety conditions. In condition-based maintenance (CBM, asset health is monitored regularly to maximize reliability and availability by determining necessary maintenance at the right time. Review of recent studies shows most of developed approaches propose a standalone system for each stage of maintenance system. In order to standardize a generic architecture for machinery CBM, this paper attempts to introduce an intelligent framework consisting of several functional modules, starting from data acquisition and ending to advisory generation, with the emphasis on approaches of condition monitoring and maintenance decision-making.

  16. Monitoring of Urban Soil Contamination under Various Technogenic Impact: Comparison of the Two Seaside Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnychenko, Mykola; Krivitska, Ivetta; Hladkikh, Yevgenia

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the research was to show how the environmental policy of city can affect the quality of soils. Studies were carried out simultaneously in the two cities of Ukrainian coast of the Azov Sea, which are significantly different in terms of technogenic impact. Berdyansk is a well known resort and wellness center, but until recently around 30 petrochemical, machine-building and other enterprises were located there. The largest industrial center Mariupol, where emissions from enterprises to the atmosphere exceed 300 thousand tons per year, is located about 60 km from Berdyansk in similar natural conditions. Observations of soil contamination was performed on 60 monitoring sites not less than 2500 m2, located in industrial, administrative, cultural, residential and recreational zones of each city. The time series of observations: the first stage in 2002-2003, the second in 2007-2008, third in 2012-2014. The available forms of heavy metals in the soils were determined by atomic-absorption method after extraction of buffer solution with pH 4.8 as well as 1 N HCl. The content of mineral salts in a water extract was measured titrimetrically. The content of heavy metals in grass vegetation and phytotoxicity of soil was determined in 50% of monitoring sites. Since 2002-2003, the level of soil contamination in the industrial zones of Berdyansk gradually decreased, but heavy metals began accumulate in soils of residential, cultural and administrative areas, and especially, in recreation objects. Probably, this is related to the reduction of the industrial sector and the increase of resort and tourist business. Consequently, the content of cadmium, chromium, and nickel in soils is reduced, but the content of micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Mn) increases. Currently the contamination of plants becomes less so the quality of local agricultural products is improved. In contrast to this, due to the intensive activity of the enterprises of iron and steel industry in Mariupol the level

  17. Monitoring of (reactive) ion etching (RIE) with reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzen, Lars; Richter, Johannes [Research Group Integrated Optoelectronics and Microoptics (IOE), Physics Department, Kaiserslautern University of Technology, PO Box 3049, D-67653 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Fouckhardt, Henning, E-mail: fouckhar@physik.uni-kl.de [Research Group Integrated Optoelectronics and Microoptics (IOE), Physics Department, Kaiserslautern University of Technology, PO Box 3049, D-67653 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Wahl, Michael; Kopnarski, Michael [Institut für Oberflächen- und Schichtanalytik (IFOS) GmbH, Trippstadter Str. 120, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Experimental results on the application of reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) to the monitoring of (reactive) ion etching of monocrystalline semiconductor samples are described. To show the potential of this technique RAS signals collected during etching of GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As multilayer samples are compared to RAS data obtained before during molecular-beam epitaxial (MBE) growth of these very samples. A change of the RIE-RAS spectrum can be attributed to a change of material composition. And the current etch depth can be monitored with an accuracy at least down to several tens of nanometers – f. e. by recording the average reflected intensity.

  18. Waste assaying and radiation monitoring equipment at the waste management centre of NPP Leningrad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šokčić-Kostić Marina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The waste accumulated in the past at the Nuclear Power Plant Leningrad has to be sorted and packed in an optimal way. In the area of waste treatment and management, the completeness and quality of direct monitoring are of the outmost importance for the validity of, and confidence in, both practicable waste management options and calculations of radiological impacts. Special monitoring systems are needed for this purpose. Consistent with the scale of work during the waste treatment procedures and the complexity of the plant data have to be collected from characteristic parts in various treatment stages. To combine all the information, a tracking procedure is needed during the waste treatment process to characterize the waste for interim and/or final disposal. RWE NUKEM GmbH has developed special customer-tailored systems which fulfill the specifications required by plant operation and by the authorities.

  19. Study on a New Technique of On-line Monitoring of Oil Contamination Level Using Computer Vision Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Qun-zhang; ZUO Hong-fu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper,a new technique of capturing the images of debris in lubrication or hydraulic oil using micro-imaging and computer vision techniques is introduced.By way of image processing,the size and distribution of debris are obtained,and then the oil contamination level is also obtained.Because the information of oil contamination is obtained directly from the images of debris by this method,the monitoring result is more intuitive and reliable.

  20. Evaluating Leaf and Canopy Reflectance of Stressed Rice Plants to Monitor Arsenic Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaru, Varaprasad; Daughtry, Craig S; Codling, Eton E; Hansen, David J; White-Hansen, Susan; Green, Carrie E

    2016-06-18

    Arsenic contamination is a serious problem in rice cultivated soils of many developing countries. Hence, it is critical to monitor and control arsenic uptake in rice plants to avoid adverse effects on human health. This study evaluated the feasibility of using reflectance spectroscopy to monitor arsenic in rice plants. Four arsenic levels were induced in hydroponically grown rice plants with application of 0, 5, 10 and 20 µmol·L(-1) sodium arsenate. Reflectance spectra of upper fully expanded leaves were acquired over visible and infrared (NIR) wavelengths. Additionally, canopy reflectance for the four arsenic levels was simulated using SAIL (Scattering by Arbitrarily Inclined Leaves) model for various soil moisture conditions and leaf area indices (LAI). Further, sensitivity of various vegetative indices (VIs) to arsenic levels was assessed. Results suggest that plants accumulate high arsenic amounts causing plant stress and changes in reflectance characteristics. All leaf spectra based VIs related strongly with arsenic with coefficient of determination (r²) greater than 0.6 while at canopy scale, background reflectance and LAI confounded with spectral signals of arsenic affecting the VIs' performance. Among studied VIs, combined index, transformed chlorophyll absorption reflectance index (TCARI)/optimized soil adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI) exhibited higher sensitivity to arsenic levels and better resistance to soil backgrounds and LAI followed by red edge based VIs (modified chlorophyll absorption reflectance index (MCARI) and TCARI) suggesting that these VIs could prove to be valuable aids for monitoring arsenic in rice fields.

  1. Monitored Natural Attenuation of ino9rganic Contaminants Treatability Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crapse, K

    2004-05-19

    The identification and quantification of key natural attenuation processes for inorganic contaminants at D-Area is detailed herein. Two overarching goals of this evaluation of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remediation strategy were (1) to better define the availability of inorganic contaminants as potential sources for transport to groundwater and uptake by environmental receptors and (2) to understand the site-specific mechanisms controlling attenuation of these inorganic contaminants through tandem geochemical and biological characterization. Data collected in this study provides input for more appropriate site groundwater transport models. Significant natural attenuation is occurring at D-Area as evidenced by relatively low aqueous concentrations of constituents of concern (COCs) (Be, Ni, U, and As) at all locations characterized and the decrease in groundwater concentrations with increasing distance from the source. The observed magnitude of decrease in groundwater concentrations of COCs with distance from the D-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basin (DCPRB) could not be accounted for by the modeled physical attenuation processes of dilution/dispersion. This additional attenuation, i.e., the observed difference between the groundwater concentrations of COCs and the modeled physical attenuation, is due to biogeochemical processes occurring at the D-Area. In tandem geochemical and microbiological characterization studies designed to evaluate the mechanisms contributing to natural attenuation, pH was the single parameter found to be most predictive of contaminant attenuation. The increasing pH with distance from the source is likely responsible for increased sorption of COCs to soil surfaces within the aquifer at D-Area. Importantly, because the sediments appear to have a high buffering capacity, the acid emanating from the DCPRB has been neutralized by the soil, and these conditions have led to large Kd values at the site. Two major types of soils are present at

  2. Effective solutions for monitoring the electrostatic separation of metal and plastic granular waste from electric and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senouci, Khouira; Medles, Karim; Dascalescu, Lucian

    2013-02-01

    The variability of the quantity and purity of the recovered materials is a serious drawback for the application of electrostatic separation technologies to the recycling of granular wastes. In a series of previous articles we have pointed out how capability and classic control chart concepts could be employed for better mastering the outcome of such processes. In the present work, the multiple exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) control chart is introduced and shown to be more effective than the Hotelling T2 chart for monitoring slow varying changes in the electrostatic separation of granular mixtures originating from electric and electronic equipment waste. The operation of the industrial process was simulated by using a laboratory roll-type electrostatic separator and granular samples resulting from shredded electric cable wastes. The 25 tests carried out during the observation phase enabled the calculation of the upper and lower control limits for the two control charts considered in the present study. The 11 additional tests that simulated the monitoring phase pointed out that the MEWMA chart is more effective than Hotelling's T(2) chart in detecting slow varying changes in the outcome of a process. As the reverse is true in the case of abrupt alterations of monitored process performances, simultaneous usage of the two control charts is strongly recommended. While this study focused on a specific electrostatic separation process, using the MEWMA chart together with the well known Hotelling's T(2) chart should be applicable to the statistical control of other complex processes in the field of waste processing.

  3. Non-invasive monitoring of the degradation of organic contaminants: A laboratory investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Perrine M.; Bloem, Esther; Philippe, Romain; Binley, Andrew; French, Helen K.

    2016-04-01

    Degradation of organic chemicals under various fluid saturation conditions is a process highly relevant to the protection of groundwater quality. Redox potential drives the degradation of organic compounds; its variation affects the water chemistry, gas release and also the geo-electrical signature. This study explores how non-invasive measurements sensitive to geo-electrical properties provides quantitative information about the in-situ redox conditions. Our laboratory experiment focuses on the degradation of de-icing chemicals commonly used, for example, in Norwegian airports. The experiment was conducted in a number of (1.0x0.5x0.4 m) sand boxes. Two ends of each box was contaminated with propylene glycol, an aircraft deicing fluid. Each source was placed near the water table under static hydraulic conditions. At one side of the tank, a conductor linking the contamination zone, near the water table and the unsaturated zone with a low water content, was placed to improve the degradation by facilitating the electron exchange. At the other side, degradation occurred under natural conditions. Each box was equipped with 288 electrodes, distributed on six faces to perform 3D resistivity measurements. In addition, self-potential measurements were taken from electrodes on the sand surface. Four observation wells were installed above and below the water table to provide more information on the degradation processes. Moreover, measurements of carbon dioxide on the surface were performed as higher concentrations were expected where the pollutant degraded. We would like to present and discuss a selection of the preliminary results of 3D electrical resistivity and self-potential techniques from our laboratory setup.

  4. The roles of vibration analysis and infrared thermography in monitoring air-handling equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzbach, Richard N.

    2003-04-01

    Industrial and commercial building equipment maintenance has not historically been targeted for implementation of PdM programs. The focus instead has been on manufacturing, aerospace and energy industries where production interruption has significant cost implications. As cost-effectiveness becomes more pervasive in corporate culture, even office space and labor activities housed in large facilities are being scrutinized for cost-cutting measures. When the maintenance costs for these facilities are reviewed, PdM can be considered for improving the reliability of the building temperature regulation, and reduction of maintenance repair costs. An optimized program to direct maintenance resources toward a cost effective and pro-active management of the facility can result in reduced operating budgets, and greater occupant satisfaction. A large majority of the significant rotating machinery in a large building environment are belt-driven air handling units. These machines are often poorly designed or utilized within the facility. As a result, the maintenance staff typically find themselves scrambling to replace belts and bearings, going from one failure to another. Instead of the reactive-mode maintenance, some progressive and critical institutions are adopting predictive and proactive technologies of infrared thermography and vibration analysis. Together, these technologies can be used to identify design and installation problems, that when corrected, significantly reduce maintenance and increase reliability. For critical building use, such as laboratories, research facilities, and other high value non-industrial settings, the cost-benefits of more reliable machinery can contribute significantly to the operational success.

  5. Application of GIS technologies to monitor secondary radioactive contamination in the Delegen mountain massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipbeki, O.; Kabzhanova, G.; Kurmanova, G.; Alipbekova, Ch.

    2016-06-01

    The territory of the Degelen mountain massif is located within territory of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and it is an area of ecological disaster. Currently there is a process of secondary radioactive contamination that is caused by geodynamic processes activated at the Degelen array, violation of underground hydrological cycles and as a consequence, water seepage into the tunnels. One of the methods of monitoring of geodynamic processes is the modern technology of geographic information systems (GIS), methods of satellite radar interferometry and high accuracy satellite navigation system in conjunction with radioecological methods. This paper discusses on the creation of a GIS-project for the Degelen array, facilitated by quality geospatial analysis of the situation and simulation of the phenomena, in order to maximize an objective assessment of the radiation situation in this protected area.

  6. Monitoring of radioactive contamination in Polish surface waters in 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplińska, M; Kardaś, M; Rubel, B; Fulara, A; Adamczyk, A

    The (90)Sr and (137)Cs contamination in Polish surface waters has been monitoring since 1994. Surface water samples from six lakes and the Vistula and Oder Rivers were collected in spring and autumn 2012 and 2013. The mean (90)Sr and (137)Cs concentrations were 3.92 ± 0.40 and 4.49 ± 2.00 mBq L(-1), respectively. Correlations were identified between the radionuclide concentrations and meteorological conditions and the original fallout distribution from the Chernobyl disaster. The annual average radionuclide concentrations were not significantly different from the concentrations found between 1994 and 2011. The (137)Cs and (90)Sr concentrations have been decreasing only slowly.

  7. Corrosion Sensor for Monitoring the Service Condition of Chloride-Contaminated Cement Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Jing Ba

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A corrosion sensor for monitoring the corrosion state of cover mortar was developed. The sensor was tested in cement mortar, with and without the addition of chloride to simulate the adverse effects of chloride-contaminated environmental conditions on concrete structures. In brief, a linear polarization resistance method combined with an embeddable reference electrode was utilized to measure the polarization resistance (Rp using built-in sensor electrodes. Subsequently, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range of 1 kHz to 50 kHz was used to obtain the cement mortar resistance (Rs. The results show that the polarization resistance is related to the chloride content and Rs; ln (Rp is linearly related to the Rs values in mortar without added chloride. The relationships observed between the Rp of the steel anodes and the resistance of the surrounding cement mortar measured by the corrosion sensor confirms that Rs can indicate the corrosion state of concrete structures.

  8. Corrosion sensor for monitoring the service condition of chloride-contaminated cement mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuang; Ba, Heng-Jing

    2010-01-01

    A corrosion sensor for monitoring the corrosion state of cover mortar was developed. The sensor was tested in cement mortar, with and without the addition of chloride to simulate the adverse effects of chloride-contaminated environmental conditions on concrete structures. In brief, a linear polarization resistance method combined with an embeddable reference electrode was utilized to measure the polarization resistance (Rp) using built-in sensor electrodes. Subsequently, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range of 1 kHz to 50 kHz was used to obtain the cement mortar resistance (Rs). The results show that the polarization resistance is related to the chloride content and Rs; ln (Rp) is linearly related to the Rs values in mortar without added chloride. The relationships observed between the Rp of the steel anodes and the resistance of the surrounding cement mortar measured by the corrosion sensor confirms that Rs can indicate the corrosion state of concrete structures.

  9. Combining modeling and monitoring to study fecal contamination in a small rural catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougeard, Morgane; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Teillon, Anna; Belloir, Jérôme; Le Mennec, Cécile; Thome, Sterenn; Durand, Gael; Pommepuy, Monique

    2011-09-01

    The present study sought to identify Escherichia coli sources in a small catchment and to use the agro-hydrological model soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) to estimate their impact on river water quality. The innovative aspects of this research are to assess the hourly variations of fecal contamination and to take these variations into account in the model to provide a better evaluation of river quality. Thus, water samples were taken weekly at the river outlet (n = 4) and 24-h monitoring sessions were performed during low and high-flow periods (n = 74). E. coli variations were found to be primarily linked to rainfall and not to resuspension mechanisms. Subdaily fluctuations and deviations were ±0.33 log(10) cfu/100 mL and ±0.70 log(10) cfu/100 mL for dry (3 mm/day) weather, respectively. After river flow calibration, all known pollution sources (septic systems, manure spreading, farm discharges) were introduced into SWAT. The model reproduced the fecal contamination in the river and the use of subdaily deviations allowed us to evaluate the simulation quality and compare grab samplings with simulated daily E. coli concentration, thus confirming that the performance of the model is better when additional information on hourly concentration variations is used.

  10. Inspection and monitoring plan, contaminated groundwater seeps 317/319/ENE Area, Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-11

    During the course of completing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) in the 317/319/East-Northeast (ENE) Area of Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E), groundwater was discovered moving to the surface through a series of groundwater seeps. The seeps are located in a ravine approximately 600 ft south of the ANL-E fence line in Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve. Samples of the seep water were collected and analyzed for selected parameters. Two of the five seeps sampled were found to contain detectable levels of organic contaminants. Three chemical species were identified: chloroform (14--25 {micro}g/L), carbon tetrachloride (56--340 {micro}g/L), and tetrachloroethylene (3--6 {micro}g/L). The other seeps did not contain detectable levels of volatile organics. The nature of the contaminants in the seeps will also be monitored on a regular basis. Samples of surface water flowing through the bottom of the ravine and groundwater emanating from the seeps will be collected and analyzed for chemical and radioactive constituents. The results of the routine sampling will be compared with the concentrations used in the risk assessment. If the concentrations exceed those used in the risk assessment, the risk calculations will be revised by using the higher numbers. This revised analysis will determine if additional actions are warranted.

  11. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for the monitoring of she-donkey's milk contamination or adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Muccilli, Vera; Saletti, Rosaria; Foti, Salvatore

    2013-02-01

    Donkey's milk (DM), representing a safe and alternative food in both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated cow's milk protein allergy, can be categorized as precious pharma-food. Moreover, an economically relevant interest for the use of DM in cosmetology is also developing. The detection of adulterations and contaminations of DM is a matter of fundamental importance from both an economic and allergenic standpoint, and, to this aim, fast and efficient analytical approaches to assess the authenticity of this precious nutrient are desirable. Here, a rapid matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based method aimed to the detection of bovine or caprine milk in raw DM is reported. The presence of the extraneous milks was revealed by monitoring the protein profiles of the most abundant whey proteins, α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and β-lactoglobulin, used as molecular markers. The possibility of obtaining a quantitative analysis of the level of cow or goat milk in DM based on the MALDI-TOF peak areas of α-LAs was also explored. The results showed that the experimental quantitative values were in good agreement with the real composition of each mixture. As pretreatment of the milk samples is not required, and owing to the speed and the high sensitivity of MALDI-MS, the protocol here reported could represent a reliable method for routine analyses aimed to assess the absence of contamination in raw fresh DM samples.

  12. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Yoshiro [Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; (1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); (2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, `86), and (3) in european countries (to may 31, `86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; (4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (({sup 134}Cs + {sup 137}Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, (5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; (6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; (7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export`s country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  13. An analysis of the composition and metal contamination of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenvall, Erik, E-mail: erik.stenvall@chalmers.se [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Tostar, Sandra [Department of Industrial Materials Recycling, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Boldizar, Antal [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Foreman, Mark R.StJ. [Department of Industrial Materials Recycling, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Möller, Kenneth [Chemistry and Materials Technology, SP, 50115 Borås (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    The compositions of three WEEE plastic batches of different origin were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, and the metal content was determined with inductively coupled plasma. The composition analysis of the plastics was based mainly on 14 samples collected from a real waste stream, and showed that the major constituents were high impact polystyrene (42 wt%), acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene copolymer (38 wt%) and polypropylene (10 wt%). Their respective standard deviations were 21.4%, 16.5% and 60.7%, indicating a considerable variation even within a single batch. The level of metal particle contamination was found to be low in all samples, whereas wood contamination and rubber contamination were found to be about 1 wt% each in most samples. In the metal content analysis, iron was detected at levels up to 700 ppm in the recyclable waste plastics fraction, which is of concern due to its potential to catalyse redox reactions during melt processing and thus accelerate the degradation of plastics during recycling. Toxic metals were found only at very low concentrations, with the exception of lead and cadmium which could be detected at 200 ppm and 70 ppm levels, respectively, but these values are below the current threshold limits of 1000 ppm and 100 ppm set by the Restriction of Hazardous Substances directive.

  14. An analysis of the composition and metal contamination of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenvall, Erik; Tostar, Sandra; Boldizar, Antal; Foreman, Mark R StJ; Möller, Kenneth

    2013-04-01

    The compositions of three WEEE plastic batches of different origin were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, and the metal content was determined with inductively coupled plasma. The composition analysis of the plastics was based mainly on 14 samples collected from a real waste stream, and showed that the major constituents were high impact polystyrene (42 wt%), acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (38 wt%) and polypropylene (10 wt%). Their respective standard deviations were 21.4%, 16.5% and 60.7%, indicating a considerable variation even within a single batch. The level of metal particle contamination was found to be low in all samples, whereas wood contamination and rubber contamination were found to be about 1 wt% each in most samples. In the metal content analysis, iron was detected at levels up to 700 ppm in the recyclable waste plastics fraction, which is of concern due to its potential to catalyse redox reactions during melt processing and thus accelerate the degradation of plastics during recycling. Toxic metals were found only at very low concentrations, with the exception of lead and cadmium which could be detected at 200 ppm and 70 ppm levels, respectively, but these values are below the current threshold limits of 1000 ppm and 100 ppm set by the Restriction of Hazardous Substances directive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PCDDF and pesticides monitoring in a dioxin contaminated area in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalhaes, G.; Azevedo, J.A.; Azevedo, G.; Machado, M.; Brooks, P. [Analytical Solutions, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-09-15

    During the 40's and 50's there had been a hexachlorocyclohexane(HCH) industry in Duque de Caxias, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Duque de Caxias is a very important borough within the state's political and administrative structure. It is located in a strategic point connecting Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. It also holds one of Brazil's greatest petroleum refineries. For 20 years, this factory (which is located next to an orphanage called Cidade dos Meninos, an area belonging to the Ministry of Social Assistance) produced thousands of tons of HCH and also other pesticides, such as DDT, DDD and DDE. In the beginning of the 60's, the industry had its activities stopped1. In 1989, significant amounts of HCH had been found by local inspectors in Duque de Caxias, where it had been being sold for use in agriculture. Once the product's usage had already been prohibited in Brazil, after a investigation authorities found that it would come from the inactive industry. Both environmental and public health institutions decided to use a mixture of lime and soil, in order to destroy the residues and organic compounds found in the old plant. Such procedure would cause a greater problem, for the lime used wouldn't meet the right proportions of the large area and its contaminated soil. In addition, it also affected the water supply and the local population. The consequences have been disastrous. Data referring to breastfeeding and blood revealed alarming pesticide rates that endangered the local people health conditions both in short and long term. After 14 years, monitoring is still necessary in that region so it is possible to control contamination and its damage related to secondary reactions, climatic effects and soil structure. For this reason, a monitoring program has been developed in order to investigate the rates of certain pesticides and PCDD/F in locations near the contamination field.

  16. Integrated monitoring approach to investigate the contamination, mobilization and risks of sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölscher, Jens; Schulte, Achim; Terytze, Konstantin

    2017-04-01

    The use of surface water bodies for manufacturing purposes has been common not only in Germany since the beginning of industrialization, and this has led to a high accumulation of different chemical contaminants in the sediments of aquatic ecosystems. In particular, water bodies with very low flow conditions like the "Rummelsburger See", an anabranch of the Spree River located in the centre of Berlin, have been highly affected. Given that, it has become necessary to obtain improved knowledge concerning the current sediment dynamics, the rate of sedimentation and the current level of contamination and toxicity compared to earlier conditions. Against this background, a survey was set up, consisting of an integrated monitoring approach that focuses on hydraulics, sediment dynamics and contamination, including boundary conditions, such as weather and motor-boat activities to find information, which would help design appropriate treatment in the future. To detect the spatial distribution of pollutants in the sediment, over 200 sediment samples were collected via drill cores at 16 locations. The upper 15 cm of each drill core was systematically divided into 5 layers (each of 3 cm) for separate examination. The investigation of sediment deposition and remobilisation rates was accomplished by installing 18 sediment traps. The presence of selected heavy metals and organic pollutants in the sediments was determined for every sampling location and layer of the drill cores, as well as for all sediment traps. Changes in boundary conditions which influence the spatial and temporal distribution of deposition and resuspension were monitored by placing devices within the water body and taking different mobile measurements (3-D flow conditions, oxygen, turbidity, chlorophyll-a, temperature). The analysis of sediment and suspended matter included the determination of the total content of inorganic (Hg, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn) and organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  17. Demolition and removal of radioactively contaminated concrete soil: Aerosol control and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.; Grace, A.C. III

    1995-12-01

    From 1963 to 1985, two concrete-lined ponds were used to reduce the volume of radioactive liquids from the Institute`s research programs. Following withdrawal of the {open_quotes}hot ponds{close_quotes} from active use, the residual sludges and plastic liners of the ponds were removed and shipped to a radioactive waste disposal site. From 1987 to 1994, the concrete structures remained undisturbed pending environmental restoration on the site. Restoration began in 1994 and was completed in 1995. Restoration involved mechanical breakup and removal of the concrete structures and removal of areas of contaminated soils from the site. This report describes the design and results of the aerosol control and monitoring program that was conducted to ensure protection of workers and the environment during the restoration process. The aerosol control and monitoring strategy developed for remediation of the ITRI hot ponds was successful both in preventing dispersion of radioactive dusts and in demonstrating that exposures of workers and offsite releases were within statutory limits.

  18. Ecotoxicity monitoring and bioindicator screening of oil-contaminated soil during bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weihang; Zhu, Nengwu; Cui, Jiaying; Wang, Huajin; Dang, Zhi; Wu, Pingxiao; Luo, Yidan; Shi, Chaohong

    2016-02-01

    A series of toxicity bioassays was conducted to monitor the ecotoxicity of soils in the different phases of bioremediation. Artificially oil-contaminated soil was inoculated with a petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortium containing Burkholderia cepacia GS3C, Sphingomonas GY2B and Pandoraea pnomenusa GP3B strains adapted to crude oil. Soil ecotoxicity in different phases of bioremediation was examined by monitoring total petroleum hydrocarbons, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of seed germination and plant growth), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and bacterial luminescence. Although the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration in soil was reduced by 64.4%, forty days after bioremediation, the phytotoxicity and Photobacterium phosphoreum ecotoxicity test results indicated an initial increase in ecotoxicity, suggesting the formation of intermediate metabolites characterized by high toxicity and low bioavailability during bioremediation. The ecotoxicity values are a more valid indicator for evaluating the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques compared with only using the total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations. Among all of the potential indicators that could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of plant height, shoot weight and root fresh weight), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and luminescence of P. phosphoreum were the most sensitive.

  19. Field validation of radon monitoring as a screening methodology for NAPL-contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, J.E.; Ortega, M.F.; Chacon, E.; Mazadiego, L.F. [Grupo de Geoquimica Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Minas, Alenza 4, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Miguel, E. de [Grupo de Geoquimica Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Minas, Alenza 4, 28003 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: eduardo.demiguel@upm.es

    2008-09-15

    Screening methodologies aim at improving knowledge about subsurface contamination processes before expensive intrusive operations, i.e. drilling and core-sampling, well installation and development, sampling of groundwater and free-phase product, are implemented. Blind field tests carried out at a hydrocarbon storage and distribution center in NE Spain suggest that Rn monitoring can be effectively used to locate the boundaries of subsurface accumulations of NAPLs. Sixty seven measurements of Rn in soil air were performed with a SARAD RTM 2100 current-ionization alpha-particle spectrometer following a 10 m square grid. Reductions of {sup 222}Rn concentration above a pool of LNAPL due to the preferential partition of Rn into the organic phase were spatially analyzed and resolved to yield the surface contour of the NAPL source zone. This surface trace of the source zone agreed well with the extent and situation inferred from measurements of free-phase thickness taken at eight monitoring wells at the site. Moreover, the good repeatability (as measured by replicate measurements at the same sampling point) and spatial resolution of the technique suggest that the boundaries of the plume can be delineated at the sub-decametre level.

  20. Non-destructive mobile monitoring of microbial contaminations on meat surfaces using porphyrin fluorescence intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durek, J; Fröhling, A; Bolling, J; Thomasius, R; Durek, P; Schlüter, O K

    2016-05-01

    A non-destructive mobile system for meat quality monitoring was developed and investigated for the possible application along the whole production chain of fresh meat. Pork and lamb meat was stored at 5 °C for up to 20 days post mortem and measured with a fluorescence spectrometer. Additionally, the bacterial influence on the fluorescence signals was evaluated by different experimental procedures. Fluorescence of NADH and different porphyrins could be correlated to the growth of diverse bacteria and hence used for contamination monitoring. The increase of porphyrin fluorescence started after 9 days p.m. for pork and after 2 days p.m. for lamb meat. Based on the results, a mobile fluorescence system was built and compared with the laboratory system. The corrected function of the meat slices showed a root mean square error of 1156.97 r.u. and a mean absolute percentage error of 12.59%; for lamb the values were 470.81 r.u. and 15.55%, respectively. A mobile and non-invasive measurement system would improve the microbial security of fresh meat.

  1. In-situ, long-term monitoring system for radioactive contaminants

    CERN Document Server

    Durham, J S; McKeever, S W S

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the project entitled ''In-situ, Long-term Monitoring System for Radioactive Contaminants.'' Phase one of this effort included four objectives, each with specific success criteria. The first objective was to produce dosimetry grade fibers and rods of aluminum oxide. The success criterion for this milestone was the production of aluminum oxide rods and fibers that have a minimum measurable dose (MMD) of 100 mrem or less. This milestone was completed and the MMD for the rods was measured to be 1.53 mrem. Based on the MMD, the ability of the sensor to measure sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs, sup 9 sup 0 Sr/ sup 9 sup 0 Y, and sup 9 sup 9 Tc was evaluated. It was determined that the sensor can measure the release limit of these radionuclides (50 pCi/cm sup 3) in 150 h, 200 h, and 54,000 h, respectively. The monitor is adequate for measuring sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 9 sup 0 Sr/ sup 9 sup 0 Y but is unsuitable for measuring sup 9 sup 9 Tc in soil. The second objective ...

  2. Understanding transport pathways in a river system - Monitoring sediments contaminated by an incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, S.; Kleisinger, C.; Hillebrand, G.; Claus, E.; Schwartz, R.; Carls, I.; Winterscheid, A.; Schubert, B.

    2016-12-01

    Experiments to trace transport of sediments and suspended particulate matter on a river scale are an expensive and difficult venture, since it causes a lot of official requirements. In spring 2015, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were released during restoration works at a bridge in the upper part of the Elbe River, near the Czech-German border. In this study, the particle-bound PCB-transport is applied as a tracer for monitoring transport pathways of suspended solids (SS) along a whole river stretch over 700 km length. The incident was monitored by concentration measurements of seven indicator PCB congeners along the inland part of the Elbe River as well as in the Elbe estuary. Data from 15 monitoring stations (settling tanks) as well as from two longitudinal campaigns (grab samples) along the river in July and August 2015 are considered. The total PCB load is calculated for all stations on the basis of monthly contaminant concentrations and daily suspended sediment concentrations. Monte-Carlo simulations assess the uncertainties of the calculated load. 1D water levels and GIS analysis were used to locate temporal storage areas for the SS. It is shown that the ratio of high versus low chlorinated PCB congeners is a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load of the incident from the long-term background signal. Furthermore, the reduction of total PCB load within the upper Elbe indicates that roughly 24% of the SS were transported with the water by wash load. Approximately 600 km downstream of the incident site, the PCB-marked wash load was first identified in July 2015. PCB load transported intermittently in suspension was detected roughly 400 km downstream of the incident site by August 2015. In the Elbe Estuary, PCB-marked SS were only found upstream of the steep slope of water depth (approx. 4 to 15 m) within Hamburg harbor that acts as a major sediment sink. Here, SS from the inland Elbe are mixed with lowly contaminated marine material, which may mask the

  3. Experimental analysis of the environmental contamination of electrical equipment; Analisis experimental de la contaminacion ambiental en equipos electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campillo Ruiz, Maria Teresa; Ponce Velez, Marco Antonio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper is a summary of the main causes that originate the contamination problems in insulating materials. This as the result of different studies performed in experimental testing stations, as well as in transmission, distribution and laboratory power lines by the Departamento de Materiales of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se muestra un resumen de los principales factores que originan los problemas de contaminacion en aislamientos. Esto, como resultado de diversos estudios realizados tanto en estaciones de prueba experimentales como en lineas de transmision, distribucion y laboratorio por el Departamento de Materiales del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE).

  4. Cross-borehole ERT monitoring of a tracer injection into chlorinated-solvent contaminated fractured mudstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J.; Slater, L. D.; Johnson, T. C.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Imbrigiotta, T. E.; Johnson, C. D.; Lacombe, P.; Lane, J. W., Jr.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Shapiro, A. M.; Tiedeman, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    There is a need to monitor remedial injections in contaminated fractured rock to determine if targeted areas have been reached and to monitor treatment effectiveness. While detailed information can be obtained at boreholes, these locations are limited; determining connectivity in fracture networks is difficult and borehole monitoring locations may miss the injection entirely. The primary and secondary domains in fractured rock have hydraulic conductivities that differ by orders of magnitude such that tracer injections commonly have rapid breakthrough followed by extended tailings. Often, it is presumed that the tracer is transported into dead-end pore spaces or unknown inter-connected networks and/or sorbed into the primary porosity. Cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), guided by information from borehole geophysical logging and hydraulic testing, has the potential to monitor the fate of tracer injections between borehole locations. ERT has been under-exploited in fractured rock due to: (1) a lack of available 3D codes, (2) a lack of computing resources to accommodate a large number of model parameters, and (3) limitations of regularization constraints used in ERT modeling for representing fractured rock settings along with a full understanding of these constraints. Recognizing numerous advances in ERT imaging and building on our previous studies, we present results from a field-scale ERT experiment in fractured rock. We use ERT to monitor a conductive tracer injection in a fractured mudstone at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in New Jersey. A custom-built electrode array included inflatable bladders to isolate fractures within each borehole and allowed for discrete water sampling and injection. By injecting the tracer in pulses and collecting 3D ERT measurements following each pulse, we were able to (1) avoid rapid breakthrough and large dilution rates and thus maintain a high conductivity contrast, and (2) characterize ambient flow by

  5. Comparison of PoraPak Rxn RP and XAD-2 adsorbents for monitoring dissolved hydrophobic organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omara, Mark; Holsen, Thomas M; Xia, Xiaoyan; Pagano, James J; Crimmins, Bernard S; Hopke, Philip K

    2014-11-01

    Accurate determination of the levels of dissolved hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) is an important step in estimating the dynamics of their inputs and losses in aqueous systems. This study explores an alternative method for efficiently sampling dissolved HOCs while mitigating a number of sampling artifacts associated with traditional methods. The adsorption characteristics of a new polymeric resin, PoraPak Rxn RP (PPR), were assessed using sorption isotherm experiments and fixed bed adsorption studies. The adsorption capacities and breakthrough times for four model contaminants (phenol, p-nitrophenol, naphthalene, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol) were proportional to the contaminant's hydrophobicity. The ability of PPR to isolate dissolved polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in real samples was compared with that of XAD-2, a well-known macroporous polymer that suffers from high background contamination. The results indicated that the PPR resin can be effectively used for monitoring HOCs, with low ∑PCB levels in blanks, decreasing solvent use, and reducing extraction times.

  6. 高压输变电设备污闪防范措施%The High-voltage Power Transmission Equipment Contamination Flashover Precautions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红黎

    2012-01-01

    During the Spring Festival in 2011, the Jiaodong region experienced rare sea fog weather invasion, the occurrence of a large area of contamination flashover power outages in some areas. This paper introduced pollution flashover characteristics, and through the accident analysis, it proposed the antifouling flash measures for high-voltage power transmission equipment.%2011年春节期间,胶东地区遭遇少见的海雾天气侵袭,部分地区发生大面积的污闪停电事故。介绍了污闪特点,通过事故分析,提出高压输变电设备防污闪措施。

  7. 2017 Update on the WFC3/UVIS Stability and Contamination Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, C. E.; Gosmeyer, C. M.; Baggett, S.

    2017-06-01

    The photometric throughput of the UVIS detector on WFC3 is monitored each cycle for its stability as a function of time, wavelength, as well as to check for any evidence of contamination on the CCD windows, which would manifest as a decrease in throughput strongest in the bluest filters. This program has been in place since the installation of WFC3 in 2009, historically making periodic observations of the spectrophotometric standard GRW+70d5824 (GRW70) in several key filters from 200 nm to 600 nm, with red filters acting as a control. This is a follow up report to the last analysis of the temporal stability of UVIS (Gosmeyer et al., 2014), since which several major changes to the program and data analysis have been implemented. Due to recent work suggesting a low-level, long-term variability for GRW70, another spectrophotometric standard star - GD153 - has been added to the program and is now analyzed in conjunction with GRW70. Data are now processed with the latest version of the CALWF3 calibration pipeline (v. 3.4), which has several new features that represent a paradigm shift in calibration methodology. Finally, the data analysis software, which was previously entirely IRAF based, was re-written in Python. We find a steady decline in the count rate for most filters but no evidence for contamination, which would manifest as a wavelength-dependent effect, impacting bluer filters more strongly. These declines range from 0.01% to 0.3% per year, and are stronger in longer wavelength filters. Similar temporal changes are found for both stars, and the long-term trends in throughput agree with previous trends derived in 2014.

  8. Veterinary pharmaceutical contamination in mixed land use watersheds: from agricultural headwater to water monitoring watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrézic, A; Jardé, E; Soulier, A; Carrera, L; Marengue, E; Cailleau, A; Le Bot, B

    2017-12-31

    Veterinary pharmaceuticals, widely used in intensive livestock production, may contaminate surface waters. Identifying their sources and pathways in watersheds is difficult because i) most veterinary pharmaceuticals are used in human medicine as well and ii) septic or sewer wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) can release pharmaceuticals into surface water, even in agricultural headwater watersheds. This study aimed to analyze the spatiotemporal variability of animal-specific, mixed-use, and human-specific pharmaceuticals, from agricultural headwaters with intensive livestock production and a WWTP to a watershed used for Water Framework Directive monitoring. Grab sampling was performed during one hydrological year upstream and downstream from a WWTP and at three dates in seven nested watersheds with areas of 1.9-84.1km(2). Twenty pharmaceuticals were analyzed. Animal-specific pharmaceuticals were detected at all sampling dates upstream and downstream from the WWTP and at concentrations higher than those of human-specific pharmaceuticals. The predominance of animal-specific and mixed-use pharmaceuticals vs. human-specific pharmaceuticals observed at these sampling points was confirmed at the other sampling points. Animal-specific pharmaceuticals were detected mainly during runoff events and periods of manure spreading. A large percentage of mixed-use pharmaceuticals could come from animal sources, but it was difficult to determine. Mixed-use and human-specific pharmaceuticals predominated in the largest watersheds when runoff decreased. In areas of intensive livestock production, mitigation actions should focus on agricultural headwater watersheds to decrease the number of pathways and the transfer volume of veterinary pharmaceuticals, which can be the main contaminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring of butyltin contamination in coastal waters of Asian developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Takahashi, Shin; Monirith, In; Ismail, Ahmad; Muchtar, Muswerry; Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J; Subramanian, Annamalai; Prudente, Maricar; Hue, Nguyen Duc; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2002-10-01

    Butyltin compounds (BTs) including mono-, di-, and tributyltin and total tin (sigmaSn), were determined in green mussels (Perna viridis) from various Asian developing countries, such as Cambodia, China (Hong Kong and southern China), Malaysia, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam, to elucidate the contamination status, distribution, and possible sources and to assess the risks on aquatic organisms and humans. Butyltin compounds were detected in green mussels collected from all the sampling location investigated, suggesting widespread contamination of BTs along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. Among butyltin derivatives, tributyltin (TBT) was the predominant compound, indicating its ongoing usage and recent exposures in Asian coastal waters. Higher concentrations of BTs were found in mussels collected at locations with intensive maritime activities, implying that the usage of TBT as a biocide in antifouling paints was a major source of BTs. In addition, relatively high concentrations of BTs were observed in mussels from aquaculture areas in Hong Kong and Malaysia, as it has been reported in Thailand. With the recent improvement in economic status in Asia, it is probable that an increase in TBT usage will occur in aquaculture. Although contamination levels were generally low in mussel samples from most of the Asian developing countries, some of those from polluted areas in Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand revealed levels comparable to those in developed nations. Furthermore, the concentrations of TBT in some mussels from polluted areas exceeded the threshold for toxic effects on organisms and estimated tolerable average residue levels as seafoods for human consumption. A significant correlation was observed between the concentrations of sigmaBTs and sigmaSn in mussels, and sigmaBTs were made up mostly 100% of sigmaSn in mussels taken from locations having intensive maritime/human activities. This suggests that

  10. Monitoring of radioactive contamination and radiation exposure. Tasks, technical aspects, implementation; Ueberwachung radioaktiver Kontamination und Strahlenexposition. Aufgaben, Techniken, Umsetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, A.

    2005-07-01

    Monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Germany started in the early Fifties with measurements of radioactive fallout, i.e. mainly airborne particles and precipitation. Since then, scientists of laboratories, universities, research institutions and authorities have become aware of the danger of increasing environmental radioactivity. The Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) was commissioned by law with monitoring of radioactivity in atmosphere and precipitation on a large-scale basis as part of general preventive health protection. This brochure informs on the tasks, techniques and implementation of monitoring of radioactive contamination and radiation exposure. (orig.)

  11. Monitoring priority substances, other organic contaminants and heavy metals in a volcanic aquifer from different sources and hydrological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevez, Esmeralda, E-mail: eestevez@proyinves.ulpgc.es [Dpt. Física (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Agrifood and Phytopathological Laboratory (Cabildo de Gran Canaria), 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain); Cabrera, María del Carmen, E-mail: mcarmen.cabrera@ulpgc.es [Dpt. Física (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); IMDEA Water Institute, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Fernández-Vera, Juan Ramón, E-mail: jrfernandezv@grancanaria.com [Agrifood and Phytopathological Laboratory (Cabildo de Gran Canaria), 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain); Molina-Díaz, Antonio, E-mail: amolina@ujaen.es [Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Robles-Molina, José, E-mail: jroblesmol@gmail.com [Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino, E-mail: mp.palaciosdiaz@ulpgc.es [Dpt. de Patología Animal, Producción Animal, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2016-05-01

    Irrigation with reclaimed water (R) is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of semi-arid areas. Results obtained during a two years monitoring network (2009–2011) in Gran Canaria are presented, including the analysis of chemical parameters, N and S isotopes, priority substances (2008/105/EC, 2013/39/EU), other organic contaminants and heavy metals in groundwater and R used to irrigate a golf course. The aims of this work are to evaluate the contamination in a volcanic aquifer, relate the presence of organic contaminants and heavy metals with the hydrogeochemistry and identify pollution sources in the area. No priority substance exceeded the EU thresholds for surface water, although seventeen were detected in R. The most frequent compounds were hexachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. These compounds were detected at low concentration, except chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, terbuthylazine, diuron, terbutryn, procymidone, atrazine and propazine exceeded the European threshold concentration for pesticides in groundwater (100 ng L{sup −1}). Therefore, the priority substances chlorpyrifos ethyl and diuron must be included in monitoring studies. The priority pesticides chlorfenvinphos and diazinon were always detected in R but rarely in groundwater. Besides, the existence of contaminants not related to the current R irrigation has been identified. Absence of environmental problems related to heavy metals can be expected. The relationship among contaminant presence, hydrogeochemistry, including the stable isotopic prints of δ{sup 18}O, δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 34}S and preferential recharge paths has been described. The coastal well shows high values of EC, nitrate, a variable chemistry, and 50% of organic contaminants detected above 100 ng L{sup −1}. The well located in the recharge area presents a stable hydrochemistry, the lowest value of δ{sup 15}N and the lowest contaminants occurrence. The area is an example of a complex

  12. Modeling the Costs and Environmental Benefits of Disposal Options for End-of-Life Electronic Equipment: The Case of Used Computer Monitors

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Karen; Macauley, Molly; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Cline, Sarah; Holsinger, Heather

    2001-01-01

    Managing the growing quantity of used electronic equipment poses challenges for waste management officials. In this paper, we focus on a large component of the electronic waste stream—computer monitors—and the disposal concerns associated with the lead embodied in cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used in most monitors. We develop a policy simulation model of consumers’ disposal options based on the costs of these options and their associated environmental impacts. For the stock of monitors disposed o...

  13. Field-based detection and monitoring of uranium in contaminated groundwater using two immunosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, S.J.; Yu, H.; Williams, K.H.; Morris, S.A.; Long, P.E.; Blake, D.A.

    2009-05-01

    Field-based monitoring of environmental contaminants has long been a need for environmental scientists. Described herein are two kinetic exclusion-based immunosensors, a field portable sensor (FPS) and an inline senor, that were deployed at the Integrated Field Research Challenge Site of the U.S. Department of Energy in Rifle, CO. Both sensors utilized a monoclonal antibody that binds to a U(VI)-dicarboxyphenanthroline complex (DCP) in a kinetic exclusion immunoassay format. These sensors were able to monitor changes of uranium in groundwater samples from {approx} 1 {micro}M to below the regulated drinking water limit of 126 nM (30 ppb). The FPS is a battery-operated sensor platform that can determine the uranium level in a single sample in 5-10 min, if the instrument has been previously calibrated with standards. The average minimum detection level (MDL) in this assay was 0.33 nM (79 ppt), and the MDL in the sample (based on a 1:200?1:400 dilution) was 66?132 nM (15.7?31.4 ppb). The inline sensor, while requiring a grounded power source, has the ability to autonomously analyze multiple samples in a single experiment. The average MDL in this assay was 0.12 nM (29 ppt), and the MDL in the samples (based on 1:200 or 1:400 dilutions) was 24?48 nM (5.7?11.4 ppb). Both sensor platforms showed an acceptable level of agreement (r{sup 2} = 0.94 and 0.76, for the inline and FPS, respectively) with conventional methods for uranium quantification.

  14. Young-of-the-year fish as a prospective bioindicator for aquatic environmental contamination monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveny, Daniel; Turek, Jan; Grabic, Roman; Golovko, Oksana; Koba, Olga; Fedorova, Ganna; Grabicova, Katerina; Zlabek, Vladimir; Randak, Tomas

    2016-10-15

    Toxic metals (Hg, Cd, Pb) and fifteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in different fish samples at two locations on the Elbe River in the Czech Republic. The muscle tissue of the two adult fish species most commonly used as bioindicators in central Europe and whole body homogenates of various species of young-of-the-year (YOY) fish were used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential to replace adult fish muscle tissue with YOY fish for contamination monitoring. All of the toxic metals and five of the fifteen PFASs were found in the YOY fish samples while only mercury and PFOS were detected in the muscle tissue of adults. The concentration of total mercury (THg) in the YOY fish homogenates ranged between 0.014 and 0.062 μg g(-1). Of the spectrum of analysed pollutants, only the THg concentrations were lower in YOY fish homogenates than in adult muscle tissue. The cadmium concentration varied from 0.004 to 0.024 μg g(-1) and the lead concentration varied from 0.032 to 0.396 μg g(-1) in YOY fish homogenates, while in most of the adult samples, Cd and Pb were below the detection limit of the analytical methods employed. The PFOS concentrations in YOY fish homogenates were comparable to the concentrations frequently found in adult liver tissue. These results show that mixed shoals of YOY fish can be successfully used for aquatic bio-monitoring. Interspecific variability in the concentrations of the target pollutants in YOY fish whole body homogenates is usually lower than the intraspecific variability of the concentrations of the pollutants in adult fish muscle. YOY fish were found to be a suitable bioindicator and have several advantages compared to adult fish.

  15. Equipment Parameters Application Solution Based on the Equipment Centralized Monitoring System and the Equipment Operation and Maintenance Platform%基于设备集中监控系统和设备运维平台的设备参数应用解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗科坚

    2014-01-01

    ATC equipment parameters have a great significance to equipment normal operation for the reason that ATC equipment pa-rameters reflect the equipment status. Recording relevant parameters of the daily equipment operation status is an important work of the e-quipment maintenance personnel. Currently, there are many problems such as the high maintenance costs of equipment parameters and low efficiency of manual records, even some missing, mistaken fill records or inevitably appearing non-standard records. In order to solve these problems, this paper presents an equipment parameters application solution based on the equipment centralized monitoring system and the equipment operation and maintenance platform, considering the Central South ATC equipment centralized monitoring system and equipment operation and maintenance platform for the analysis and processing of the equipment parameters, providing a more intuitive graphical showing way for the maintenance personnel, and providing a more intuitive and effective analytical tools. This equipment pa-rameters application solution can help to improve the reliability and accuracy of maintenance of equipment parameters, and reduce costs of equipment operation and maintenance.%空管设备参数反映设备的运行状况,对设备的正常运行具有重要意义。记录设备日常运行的相关参数是设备维护人员的重要工作内容,设备参数的维护成本高,人工记录效率低,漏填、误填或记录不规范的情况不可避免出现等,为了解决这些问题,本文提出一种基于设备集中监控系统和设备运行维护平台的设备参数应用解决方案,综合考虑中南空管设备集中监控系统和设备运行维护平台,对设备参数进行分析处理,以更直观的图形方式展现给使用人员,提供直观有效的分析手段,有利于提高设备参数维护的可靠性和准确性、降低设备运维成本。

  16. Monitoring of Fasciola Species Contamination in Water Dropwort by cox1 Mitochondrial and ITS-2 rDNA Sequencing Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In-Wook; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Quan, Juan-Hua; Ryu, Jae-Gee; Sun, Rubing; Lee, Young-Ha

    2015-10-01

    Fascioliasis, a food-borne trematode zoonosis, is a disease primarily in cattle and sheep and occasionally in humans. Water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica), an aquatic perennial herb, is a common second intermediate host of Fasciola, and the fresh stems and leaves are widely used as a seasoning in the Korean diet. However, no information regarding Fasciola species contamination in water dropwort is available. Here, we collected 500 samples of water dropwort in 3 areas in Korea during February and March 2015, and the water dropwort contamination of Fasciola species was monitored by DNA sequencing analysis of the Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica specific mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2). Among the 500 samples assessed, the presence of F. hepatica cox1 and 1TS-2 markers were detected in 2 samples, and F. hepatica contamination was confirmed by sequencing analysis. The nucleotide sequences of cox1 PCR products from the 2 F. hepatica-contaminated samples were 96.5% identical to the F. hepatica cox1 sequences in GenBank, whereas F. gigantica cox1 sequences were 46.8% similar with the sequence detected from the cox1 positive samples. However, F. gigantica cox1 and ITS-2 markers were not detected by PCR in the 500 samples of water dropwort. Collectively, in this survey of the water dropwort contamination with Fasciola species, very low prevalence of F. hepatica contamination was detected in the samples.

  17. Migration of contaminants in groundwater at a landfill: A case study. 2. Groundwater monitoring devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, J. A.; Gillham, R. W.; Anderson, E. G.; Johnson, P. E.

    1983-05-01

    Six types of devices for groundwater monitoring were used on an experimental basis in the investigation of the plume of contamination in the unconfined sandy aquifer at the Borden landfill. These include: standpipe piezometers, water-table standpipes, an auger-head sampler, suction-type and positive-displacement-type multilevel point-samplers, and bundle-piezometers. With the exception of the first two, each of these devices provides a means of obtaining vertical sample profiles of groundwater from a single borehole. The auger-head sampler, which is a device that is attached to the cutting head of conventional continuous-flight hollow-stem augers, yields samples from relatively undisturbed aquifer zones as the augers are advanced downward in the borehole from one depth of sampling to another. This method is a rapid means of aquiring water-quality profiles for mapping the distribution of a contaminant plume. The other three profiling devices can be used to establish permanent networks for groundwater-quality monitoring. A suction-type multilevel sampler consists of twenty or more narrow polyethylene or polypropylene tubes contained in a PVC casing that is capped at the bottom. Each tube extends to a different depth and is attached to a small screened sampling point that extends through the casing to draw water from the aquifer when suction is applied. A positive-displacement multilevel sampler is similar except that each sampling point is connected to a positive-displacement pumping device located inside the PVC casing adjacent to the screen. Use of the suction-type multilevel sampler is limited to zones where the water table is less than the suction-lift depth of 8 or 9 m. The positive-displacement sampler can be used even if the water table is at a much greater depth. A bundle-piezometer consists of 1.2-cm O.D. flexible polyethylene tubes, each with a short screened section at the bottom, fastened as a bundle around a semi-rigid center-piezometer constructed of

  18. Combining Geoelectrical Measurements and CO2 Analyses to Monitor the Enhanced Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils: A Field Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Noel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers can be successfully remediated through enhanced biodegradation. However, in situ monitoring of the treatment by piezometers is expensive and invasive and might be insufficient as the information provided is restricted to vertical profiles at discrete locations. An alternative method was tested in order to improve the robustness of the monitoring. Geophysical methods, electrical resistivity (ER and induced polarization (IP, were combined with gas analyses, CO2 concentration, and its carbon isotopic ratio, to develop a less invasive methodology for monitoring enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons. The field implementation of this monitoring methodology, which lasted from February 2014 until June 2015, was carried out at a BTEX-polluted site under aerobic biotreatment. Geophysical monitoring shows a more conductive and chargeable area which corresponds to the contaminated zone. In this area, high CO2 emissions have been measured with an isotopic signature demonstrating that the main source of CO2 on this site is the biodegradation of hydrocarbon fuels. Besides, the evolution of geochemical and geophysical data over a year seems to show the seasonal variation of bacterial activity. Combining geophysics with gas analyses is thus promising to provide a new methodology for in situ monitoring.

  19. Non-target screening analyses of organic contaminants in river systems as a base for monitoring measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzbauer, J.

    2009-04-01

    Organic contaminants discharged to the aquatic environment exhibit a high diversity with respect to their molecular structures and the resulting physico-chemical properties. The chemical analysis of anthropogenic contamination in river systems is still an important feature, especially with respect to (i) the identification and structure elucidation of novel contaminants, (ii) to the characterisation of their environmental behaviour and (iii) to their risk for natural systems. A huge proportion of riverine contamination is caused by low-molecular weight organic compounds, like pesticides plasticizers, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, technical additives etc. Some of them, like PCB or PAH have already been investigated thoroughly and, consequently, their behaviour in aqueous systems is very well described. Although analyses on organic substances in river water traditionally focused on selected pollutants, in particular on common priority pollutants which are monitored routinely, the occurrence of further contaminants, e.g. pharmaceuticals, personal care products or chelating agents has received increasing attention within the last decade. Accompanied, screening analyses revealing an enormous diversity of low-molecular weight organic contaminants in waste water effluents and river water become more and more noticed. Since many of these substances have been rarely noticed so far, it will be an important task for the future to study their occurrence and fate in natural environments. Further on, it should be a main issue of environmental studies to provide a comprehensive view on the state of pollution of river water, in particular with respect to lipophilic low molecular weight organic contaminants. However, such non-target-screening analyses has been performed only rarely in the past. Hence, we applied extended non-target screening analyses on longitudinal sections of the rivers Rhine, Rur and Lippe (Germany) on the base of GC/MS analyses. The investigations

  20. Monitoring of organic contaminants in sediments from the Korean coast: Spatial distribution and temporal trends (2001-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Gu; Moon, Hyo Bang; Choi, Minkyu; Yu, Jun

    2011-06-01

    Spatial and temporal trends of organic contaminants in sediments along the Korean coast were estimated through a nationwide environmental monitoring program from 2001 to 2007. The concentrations of organic contaminants in sediments along the Korean coast were relatively low or moderate compared with foreign studies. The mean detection frequencies of organic contaminants during the seven years were highest for PAHs and PCDD/Fs, followed by PCBs, DDTs, TBT and HCHs in decreasing order. Based on published sediment quality guidelines, the ecological risks of persistent organic pollutants in sediments along the Korean coast were low, despite exceedances of the ERL at 2-6 sites for DDTs, and the TEL at 9-18 sites for PCDD/Fs. Nonparametric tests to assess temporal trends revealed significant decreasing trends for PCBs and PCDD/Fs at four and three sites, respectively (pcontaminants.

  1. Monitoring of butter and ghee (clarified butter fat) for pesticidal contamination from cotton belt of Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Beena; Singh, Jagdeep; Singh, Shashi; Kathpal, T S

    2005-06-01

    Butter (45) and ghee (55) samples were collected from rural and urban areas of cotton growing belt of Haryana and analysed for detecting the residues of organochlorine, synthetic pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides. The estimation was carried out by using multi residue analytical technique employing GC-ECD and GC-NPD systems equipped with capillary columns. Butter samples were comparatively more contaminated (97%) than ghee (94%), showing more contamination with organochlorine insecticides from urban samples. About 11% samples of butter showed endosulfan residues above MRL value and 2% samples had residues of synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphates each above their respective MRL values. In ghee, residues of HCH & DDT both and of endosulfan exceeded the MRL values in 5 and 20% samples, respectively. Among organophosphates, only chlorpyriphos was detected with 9% samples showing its residue above MRL value. Irrespective of contamination levels, residues above the MRL values were more in ghee. More extensive study covering other agricultural regions/zones of Haryana has been suggested to know the overall scenario of contamination of milk products.

  2. Real-Time Novel Holographic Monitoring of Airborne Trace Contaminants Onboard Space Vessels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New challenges and mission requirements constantly emerge, establishing the need for versatile equipment and instruments to perform the new/expanded tasks....

  3. Zero-tension lysimeters: An improved design to monitor colloid-facilitated contaminant transport in the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, M.L.; Scharf, R.L.; Shang, C.

    1995-04-24

    There is increasing evidence that mobile colloids facilitate the long-distance transport of contaminants. The mobility of fine particles and macromolecules has been linked to the movement of actinides, organic contaminants, and heavy metals through soil. Direct evidence for colloid mobility includes the presence of humic materials in deep aquifers as well as coatings of accumulated clay, organic matter, or sesquioxides on particle or aggregate surfaces in subsoil horizons of many soils. The potential for colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants from hazardous-waste sites requires adequate monitoring before, during, and after in-situ remediation treatments. Zero-tension lysimeters (ZTLs) are especially appropriate for sampling water as it moves through saturated soil, although some unsaturated flow events may be sampled as well. Because no ceramic barrier or fiberglass wick is involved to maintain tension on the water (as is the case with other lysimeters), particles suspended in the water as well as dissolved species may be sampled with ZTLs. In this report, a ZTL design is proposed that is more suitable for monitoring colloid-facilitated contaminant migration. The improved design consists of a cylinder made of polycarbonate or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) that is placed below undisturbed soil material. In many soils, a hydraulically powered tube may be used to extract an undisturbed core of soil before placement of the lysimeter. In those cases, the design has significant advantages over conventional designs with respect to simplicity and speed of installation. Therefore, it will allow colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants to be monitored at more locations at a given site.

  4. Design of Power Supply Monitoring System for Fire Protection Equipment%消防设备电源监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春丽

    2015-01-01

    对消防设备电源监控系统相关规范及标准进行分析及梳理,分析归纳消防设备电源、消防设备电源监控系统的定义及作用,结合某大型城市综合体工程,介绍消防设备电源监控系统的设置场所、范围、部位、布线等设计。%Relevant national regulations and standards regarding power supply monitoring system for fire protection equipment are analyzed and summarized. Definitions and functions of power supply for fire protection equipments and power supply monitoring systems for fire protection equipment are analyzed and summarized. Based on a large urban complex project, the setting place, range, location, wiring and other designs of power supply monitoring system for fire protection equipment are introduced.

  5. Assessment of the Extraction Methods for Monitoring Phthalate Emerging Contaminants in Groundwater and Tap Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotto, I.; Padilla, I. Y.; De Jesús, N. H.; Torres, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Trace organic contaminants such as phthalates, among other chemicals of emerging concerns, have not historically been considered as pollutants but are being detected in water, posing a potential risk to public health and the environment. One of the most common phthalates of particular concern is di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer normally found in plastics and consumer products, including: cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, food packages, water bottles, and wiring cables. DEHP has been associated with preterm birth, a major cause of neonatal mortality and health complications. This study aims at monitoring the presence and concentration of DEHP and other phthalates in groundwater and tap water systems in Puerto Rico, which has one of the highest rates of preterm birth in the U.S. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggests a liquid-liquid extraction method that uses methylene chloride as the preferred organic solvent for the extractions. This work presents modified EPA methods that reduce the volume of sample and solvent used, lower the time of analysis, increase productivity, and decrease hazards and waste. Distribution coefficient of DEHP between methylene chloride and water are estimated and related to sample extraction efficiency. Research results indicate that DEHP is in fact distributed between water and methylene chloride with a distribution coefficient average value of 1.24. The study concludes that the sample and solvent volumes have influence on the efficiency but have not an effect on the distribution coefficient. The tests show higher extraction efficiencies for lower DEHP concentrations and higher extraction volumes. Results from the water analysis show presence of DEHP in 55% of groundwater and 44% of tap water samples, indicating a potential exposure through water.

  6. Monitoring radio-frequency heating of contaminated soils using electrical resistance tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Daily, W.D.

    1993-09-01

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) was used to monitor a radio-frequency heating process for the insitu remediation of volatile organic compounds from subsurface water and soil at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. A dipole antenna located in a horizontal well in the unsaturated zone was used to heat a contaminated clay layer. The heat-induced changes were tomographically imaged by their effects on the formation electrical resistivity. The resistivity changes observed appear to be related to heating and vaporization of the pore water, formation of steam condensate, and infiltration of rainwater through the heated zones and adjacent areas. There is a clear asymmetry downward in the resistivity decreases associated with the heating process. The resistivity decreases observed in the vicinity of the heating well are believed to be caused by the heating and downward migration of warm water originally located within a radius of a few feet around the heating well; the magnitude of the change is between 10--20%. The decreasing resistivity implies an increasing rate of radio wave attenuation as heating progressed; therefore, the rate of energy deposition around the heating well increased while the penetration distance of the radio waves decreased. Saturation changes in the clay near the antenna during heating were estimated to be 50--55% based on the observed resistivity decreases. Resistivity changes observed at distances greater than 3 meters to one side of the antenna appear to be related to rainwater infiltration. We propose that gaps in near surface clay layers allow rainwater to migrate downward and reach the top of clay rich zone penetrated by the antenna borehole. The water may then accumulate along the top of the clay.

  7. RADIATION HYGIENIC MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT OF POPULATION DOSES IN RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED AREAS OF TULA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Chichura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal. The analyses of radiation hygienic monitoring conducted in Tula region territories affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident regarding cesium-137 and strontium- 90 in the local foodstuffs and the analyses of populational annual effective dose. The materials and methods. The survey was conducted in Tula Region since 1997 to 2015. Over that period, more than fifty thousand samples of the main foodstuffs from the post-Chernobyl contaminated area were analyzed. Simultaneously with that, the external gamma - radiation dose rate was measured in the fixed control points. The dynamics of cesium -137 and strontium-90 content in foodstuffs were assessed along with the maximum values of the mean annual effective doses to the population and the contribution of the collective dose from medical exposures into the structure of the annual effective collective dose to the population. The results. The amount of cesium-137 and strontium -90 in the local foodstuffs was identified. The external gamma- radiation dose rate values were found to be stable and not exceeding the natural fluctuations range typical for the middle latitudes of Russia’s European territory. The maximum mean annual effective dose to the population reflects the stable radiation situation and does not exceed the permissible value of 1 mSv. The contribution of the collective dose from medical exposures of the population has been continuously reducing as well as the average individual dose to the population per one medical treatment under the annual increase of the medical treatments quantities. The conclusion. There is no exceedance of the admissible levels of cesium-137 and strontium- 90 content in the local foodstuffs. The mean annual effective dose to the population has decreased which makes it possible to transfer the settlements affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident to normal life style. This is covered by the draft concept of the settlements’ transfer to normal life style.

  8. Canberra C7/PC Hands and Feet Contamination Monitor Application in Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant%堪培拉C7/PC手脚污染监测仪在秦山三期的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何理

    2013-01-01

    It introduces the working principle of equipment and proportional counter and the hands and feet contamination monitor tube,special technology and then focuses on the hands and feet contamination monitor have included the background count "fast following" tracking measurement time,determination,final alarm value determination and the actual measurement results of the analysis are explained and analyzed in detail the.At the end of the fault and the hands and feet contamination monitor comprises a probe low count,probe calibration and source selection,foot probe cannot measure described the necessary analysis.%首先介绍了手脚污染监测仪的设备组成和正比计数管工作原理,接着主要对手脚污染监测仪所拥有的特殊技术包括本底计数“fast following”跟踪技术、测量时间的确定、最终报警值的确定和实际测量中结果的分析等作了比较详细的解释和分析.最后对手脚污染监测仪运行中出现的故障包括探头低计数、探头标定和标定源的选择、脚部探头无法测量进行了必要的分析阐述.

  9. Decontamination Strategy for Large Area and/or Equipment Contaminated with Chemical and Biological Agents using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoske, Richard [ORNL; Kennedy, Patrick [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Smith, Rob R [ORNL; Huxford, Theodore J [ORNL; Bonavita, Angelo M [ORNL; Engleman, Greg [ORNL; Vass, Arpad Alexander [ORNL; Griest, Wayne H [ORNL; Ilgner, Ralph H [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    A strategy for the decontamination of large areas and or equipment contaminated with Biological Warfare Agents (BWAs) and Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) was demonstrated using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL) photolysis system. This strategy offers an alternative that is potentially quicker, less hazardous, generates far less waste, and is easier to deploy than those currently fielded by the Department of Defense (DoD). For example, for large frame aircraft the United States Air Force still relies on the combination of weathering (stand alone in environment), air washing (fly aircraft) and finally washing the aircraft with Hot Soapy Water (HSW) in an attempt to remove any remaining contamination. This method is laborious, time consuming (upwards of 12+ hours not including decontamination site preparation), and requires large amounts of water (e.g., 1,600+ gallons for a single large frame aircraft), and generates large amounts of hazardous waste requiring disposal. The efficacy of the HEAL system was demonstrated using diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP) a G series CWA simulant, and Bacillus globigii (BG) a simulant of Bacillus anthracis. Experiments were designed to simulate the energy flux of a field deployable lamp system that could stand-off 17 meters from a 12m2 target area and uniformly expose a surface at 1360 W/m2. The HEAL system in the absence of a catalyst reduced the amount of B. globigii by five orders of magnitude at a starting concentration of 1.63 x 107 spores. In the case of CWA simulants, the HEAL system in the presence of the catalyst TiO2 effectively degraded DIMP sprayed onto a 100mm diameter Petri dish in 5 minutes.

  10. Use of dual-head gamma camera in radionuclide internal contamination monitoring on radiation workers from a nuclear medicine department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Brandan, M.E., E-mail: alejandro.rodriguez.laguna@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Instituto de Fisica; Trujillo-Zamudio, F.E.; Estrada-Lobato, E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    As a part of an internal dosimetry program that is performed at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology - Nuclear Medicine Department, in the present work we suggest a procedure for the routinely monitoring of internal contamination on radiation workers and nuclear medicine staff. The procedure is based on the identification and quantification of contaminating radionuclides in human body by using a dual-head whole-body gamma camera. The results have shown that the procedures described in this study can be used to implement a method to quantify minimal accumulated activity in the main human organs to evaluate internal contamination with radionuclides. The high sensitivity of the uncollimated gamma camera is advantageous for the routinely detection and identification of small activities of internal contamination. But, the null spatial resolution makes impossible the definition of contaminated region of interest. Then, the use of collimators is necessary to the quantification of incorporated radionuclides activities in the main human organs and for the internal doses assessment. (author)

  11. Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring Trace Contaminant Control Through FY 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Pruitt, M. W.; Wheeler, R. M.; Monje, O.

    2013-01-01

    Trace contaminant control has been a concern of spacecraft designers and operators from early in the progression of manned spaceflight. Significant technological advancement has occurred since the first designs were implemented in the 1960s, culminating in the trace contaminant control system currently in use aboard the International Space Station as part of the atmosphere revitalization system.

  12. Percepção de monitores do PET-Saúde sobre sua formação e trabalho em equipe interdisciplinar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cardoso Lisboa Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se identificar e analisar as representações sociais de monitores do PET-Saúde da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG, Brasil, que atuam na linha de pesquisa Saúde na Escola, concernente à influência dessa vivência na sua formação e no seu olhar sobre o trabalho em equipe interdisciplinar. O trajeto metodológico delineou as representações sociais dos monitores após vivenciarem o projeto. As respostas dos relatórios dos monitores foram digitalizadas e importadas para o programa NVivo10, categorizadas e analisadas por meio do discurso do sujeito coletivo. Levantaram-se dados de 33 monitores do PET-Saúde na Escola, que constituíram 16 componentes representacionais positivamente relacionados a sua formação (n=9 e ao trabalho em equipe interdisciplinar (n=7. Verificou-se que a vivência no referido projeto promoveu diferenciais relevantes na formação desses futuros profissionais de saúde, com percepções favoráveis ao trabalho em equipe interdisciplinar, atentas às demandas sociais do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS.

  13. Oil sensor system for online condition monitoring of technical equipment and machines; Oelsensorsystem zur Echtzeit-Zustandsueberwachung von technischen Anlagen und Maschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gegner, Juergen [SKF GmbH, Schweinfurt (Germany); Kuipers, Ulrich [Fachhochschule Suedwestfalen, Hagen (Germany); Mauntz, Manfred [cmc Instruments GmbH, Eschborn (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    A novel oil sensor system is introduced for the continuous online measurement of the oil quality via the parameters electrical conductivity and relative permittivity for the evaluation of component wear and oil aging. The determination of contamination and decrease of lubricant quality permits on-demand maintenance. Since the conductivity of the oil is considerably lower compared to impurities, there is a direct correlation to the degree of contamination. Moisture content in oil or the decomposition of additives is quantified by an accurate measurement of the relative permittivity. Important applications are the online lubricant condition monitoring in (industrial) gearboxes, hydraulic systems, turbines, generators, and transformers. (orig.)

  14. Towards a Long-Term Strategy for Voluntary-Based Internal Radiation Contamination Monitoring: A Population-Level Analysis of Monitoring Prevalence and Factors Associated with Monitoring Participation Behavior in Fukushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Ozaki, Akihiko; Murakami, Michio; Hodgson, Susan; Blangiardo, Marta; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Morita, Tomohiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2017-04-09

    Following Japan's 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident, we assessed voluntary-based monitoring behavior in Minamisoma City-located 10-40 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant-to inform future monitoring strategies. The monitoring in Minamisoma included occasional free of charge internal-radiation-exposure measurements. Out of around 70,000 individuals residing in the city before the incident, a total of 45,788 residents (female: 52.1%) aged ≥21 were evaluated. The monitoring prevalence in 2011-2012 was only 30.2%, and this decreased to 17.9% in 2013-2014. Regression analyses were performed to estimate factors associated with the monitoring prevalence and participation behavior. The results show that, in comparison with the age cohort of 21-30 years, the cohort of 71-80 and ≥81 years demonstrated significantly lower monitoring prevalence; female residents had higher monitoring prevalence than male residents; those who were living in evacuation zones at the time of the incident had higher monitoring prevalence than those who lived outside any of the evacuation zones; for those living outside Fukushima and neighboring Prefectures post-incident monitoring prevalence decreased significantly in 2013-2014. Our findings inform the discussion on the concepts of radiation risk perception and accessibility to monitoring and societal decision-making regarding the maintenance of the monitoring program with low monitoring prevalence. We also stress the possibility that the monitoring can work both to check that internal contamination levels are within acceptable limits, and as a risk communication tool, alleviating individuals' concern and anxiety over radiation contamination.

  15. Changes in the processing of heavy {alpha}-contaminated equipment at the Marcoule center; L'evolution du conditionnement des gros materiels contamines en {alpha} sur le centre de Marcoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyfried, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1969-07-01

    The processing of heavy {alpha}-contaminated equipment at the Marcoule Centre has been carried out for a long time by a rather expensive 'manual' method. It has become necessary to reduce these costs by using more automated methods. Two studies which have been carried out have shown that when the amount of waste to be treated is large and is composed mainly of plastic material, it is possible to design economic installations using cooling and shock demolition, conventional compaction leading to rather poor results. For average quantities, a cutting-up reservoir, used also for other purposes, makes it possible to solve these processing problems at Marcoule. The costs involved are much lower than those previously required in the case of so-called 'manual' methods. (author) [French] Le conditionnement du gros materiel contamine en {alpha} a longtemps ete effectue sur le Centre de Marcoule par une methode 'manuelle' assez couteuse. Il est apparu necessaire de chercher a reduire les couts en utilisant des methodes plus automatisees. Deux etudes ont permis de montrer que lorsque les quantites a traiter sont grandes et interessent surtout des dechets plastiques, on pouvait concevoir economiquement des installations utilisant le refroidissement et choc, le compactage classique donnant des resultats assez decevants. Pour les quantites moyennes, une piscine de decoupage, utilisable d'ailleurs a d'autres fins, permet de resoudre, a Marcoule, le probleme du conditionnement. Les frais sont tres inferieurs a ceux anciennement engages avec les methodes 'manuelles'. (auteur)

  16. The control, monitor, and alarm system for the ICT equipment of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Fulvio; Fioretti, Valentina; Tanci, Claudio; Conforti, Vito; Tacchini, Alessandro; Leto, Giuseppe; Gallozzi, Stefano; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Trifoglio, Massimo; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Zoli, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI is an Italian flagship project whose first goal is the realization of an end-to-end telescope prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The prototype will be installed in Italy during Fall 2014. A second goal will be the realization of the ASTRI/CTA mini-array which will be composed of seven SST-2M telescopes placed at the CTA Southern Site. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment necessary to drive the infrastructure for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype is being designed as a complete and stand-alone computer center. The design goal is to obtain basic ICT equipment that might be scaled, with a low level of redundancy, for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array, taking into account the necessary control, monitor and alarm system requirements. The ICT equipment envisaged at the Serra La Nave observing station in Italy, where the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype will operate, includes computers, servers and workstations, network devices, an uninterruptable power supply system, and air conditioning systems. Suitable hardware and software tools will allow the parameters related to the behavior and health of each item of equipment to be controlled and monitored. This paper presents the proposed architecture and technical solutions that integrate the ICT equipment in the framework of the Observatory Control System package of the ASTRI/CTA Mini- Array Software System, MASS, to allow their local and remote control and monitoring. An end-toend test case using an Internet Protocol thermometer is reported in detail.

  17. A Novel Quantitative Sampling Technique for Detection and Monitoring of Clostridium difficile Contamination in the Clinical Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shanom; Muzslay, Monika; Wilson, Peter

    2015-08-01

    The horizontal transmission of Clostridium difficile in the hospital environment is difficult to establish. Current methods to detect C. difficile spores on surfaces are not quantitative, lack sensitivity, and are protracted. We propose a novel rapid method to detect and quantify C. difficile contamination on surfaces. Sponge swabbing was compared to contact plate sampling to assess the in vitro recovery of C. difficile ribotype 027 contamination (∼10(0), 10(1), or 10(2) CFU of spores) from test surfaces (a bed rail, a stainless steel sheet, or a polypropylene work surface). Sponge swab contents were concentrated by vacuum filtration, and the filter membrane was plated onto selective agar. The efficacy of each technique for the recovery of C. difficile from sites in the clinical environment that are touched at a high frequency was evaluated. Contact plates recovered 19 to 32% of the total contamination on test surfaces, whereas sponge swabs recovered 76 to 94% of the total contamination, and contact plates failed to detect C. difficile contamination below a detection limit of 10 CFU/25 cm(2) (0.4 CFU/cm(2)). In use, contact plates failed to detect C. difficile contamination (0/96 contact plates; 4 case wards), while sponge swabs recovered C. difficile from 29% (87/301) of the surfaces tested in the clinical environment. Approximately 74% (36/49) of the area in the vicinity of the patient was contaminated (∼1.34 ± 6.88 CFU/cm(2) C. difficile spores). Reservoirs of C. difficile extended to beyond the areas near the patient: a dirty utility room sink (2.26 ± 5.90 CFU/cm(2)), toilet floor (1.87 ± 2.40 CFU/cm(2)), and chair arm (1.33 ± 4.69 CFU/cm(2)). C. difficile was present on floors in ∼90% of case wards. This study highlights that sampling with a contact plate may fail to detect C. difficile contamination and result in false-negative reporting. Our sponge sampling technique permitted the rapid and quantitative measurement of C. difficile contamination on

  18. 可穿戴健康监测设备现状和技术分析%Current Status of Wearable Health Monitoring Equipment and Technical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雨晨; 金心宇; 沈剑峰

    2015-01-01

    概述可穿戴健康监控设备的已有产品和研发中产品,比较其功能,介绍应用技术、试用技术、研究技术现状,指出现阶段可穿戴健康监测设备存在的问题并对发展进行展望。%〔Abstract〕 The paper describes existing products of wearable health monitoring equipment and products in research and development , compares their functions and introduces the status quo of applied technology , technology on trial and research technology .It points out present problems in wearable health monitoring equipment and predicts its development .

  19. Monitoring of selected essential elements and contaminants at sheep and cow farms in Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina TUNEGOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate the actual contamination of selected area of Slovakia, in view of its environmental character referred both to the suitability or unsuitability of the use of milk from this area, to other food processing. This article deals with analysis of the content of selected compounds in soil, feed and milk, at the cow and sheep farms. Village in Eastern Slovakia, Tulčík, was the area of investigation. This area is characterized as an area with mild disturbance of environment. 11 compounds have been analyzed (calcium, selenium, cadmium, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyls – congeners 138, 153, 180, and pesticides - p,p´ DDE, Endosulfan I., Beta-HCH, aflatoxin M1. Samples of soil were collected once a year (spring season, samples of feeds and milk were collected two-times a year (spring and autumn season. Analysis of samples was performed in Eurofins Bel/Novamann (Nové Zámky, Slovak Republic. Analyses were performed by routine methods, according to the valid methodologies. Levels of compounds were obtained and then results have been compared with the most acceptable limits in according to applicable legislation. At both farms, 73.08% (38 samples of analyzed compounds were below the limit of quantification (LOQ and 26.92% (14 samples of compounds were quantifiable. The most significant differences between monitored farms were recorded in soil (27 720 mg·kg-1 Ca, feed (27 620 mg·kg-1 Ca and milk (960 mg·kg-1 Ca. The high content of calcium in soil and feed did not affect the content of calcium in milk. The results showed that the content of toxic elements, polychorinated biphenyls, pesticides and aflatoxin M1 in analyzed area of Eastern Slovakia was very low and under the limit of quantification. It can be concluded, that the use of milk from this area for direct use or for dairy products is appropriate and poses no health risk to the consumers.

  20. Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring, SoilCAM project highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, H. K.; Van Der Zee, S. E.; Wehrer, M.; Godio, A.; Pedersen, L. B.; Tsocano, G.

    2013-12-01

    The SoilCAM project (2008- 2012, EU-FP7-212663) aimed at improving methods for monitoring subsurace contaminant distribution and biodegradation. Two test sites were chosen, Oslo airport Gardermoen, Norway where de-icing agents infiltrate the soil during snowmelt and the Trecate site in Italy where an inland crude oil spill occurred in 1994. A number of geophysical investigation techniques were combined with soil and water sampling techniques. Data obtained from time-lapse measurements were further analysed by numerical modelling of flow and transport at different scales in order to characterise transport processes in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Laboratory experiments provided physical and biogeochemical data for model parameterisation and to select remediation methods. The geophysical techniques were used to map geological heterogeneities and to conduct time-lapse measurements of processes in the unsaturated zone. Both cross borehole and surface electrodes were used for electrical resistivity and induced polarisation surveys. Results showed clear indications of areas highly affected by de-icing chemicals along the runway at Oslo airport. The time lapse measurements along the runway at the airport showed infiltration patterns during snowmelt and were used to validate 2D unsaturated flow and transport simulations using SUTRA. The simulations illustrate the effect of layering geological structures and membranes, buried parallel to the runway, on the flow pattern. Complex interaction between bio-geo-chemical processes in a 1D vertical profile along the runway were described with the ORCHESTRA model. Smaller scale field site measurements revealed increase of iron and manganese during degradation of de-icing chemicals. At the Trecate site a combination of georadar, electrical resistivity and radio magneto telluric provided a broad outline of the geology down to 50 m. Anomalies in the Induced polarisation and electrical resistivity data from the cross borehole

  1. Water quality monitoring in a bathing area of Civitavecchia (Latium, Italy) using Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) as a tracer of faecal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonia, Alice; Bonamano, Simone; Caruso, Gabriella; Stefani', Chiara; Consalvi, Natalizia; Piermattei, Viviana; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Marcelli, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Coastal urban bathing areas are often affected by events of faecal contamination, caused by the discharge of untreated wastewaters during the bathing season that can increase the risk for public health. Monitoring the quality of recreational waters is still closely linked to time-consuming seawater sampling and laboratory analysis, not allowing promptly management interventions. To face this issue, the European environmental policies strongly promote the development of coastal observing systems, above all in the Southern European Seas (SES). Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) has been increasingly used as a tracer of bacterial loads, since wastewaters are characterized by a large amount of organic compounds. The aim of this work was to study the relation between CDOM and Escherichia coli abundance, giving relevance to bacterial physiological state detected using both the standard culture method and the innovative fluorescent antibody technique. Attention has been paid also on the expression of extracellular enzymatic activity by the total microbial community to explore the role of bacteria in the decomposition processes of dissolved organic matter. Data were collected during summer 2015 and 2016 in a bathing area of Civitavecchia at increasing distances from the discharge point. The results confirm the usefulness of CDOM measurements as a proxy of faecal pollution in bathing areas. In this perspective, the low-cost stand-alone systems equipped with CDOM fluorescence sensors developed by the Laboratory of Experimental Oceanology and Marine Ecology (Tuscia University) (Marcelli et al., 2014) could allow the continous monitoring of water quality, increasing the capabilities of the Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System (C-CEMS) in the analysis of pollution events. Thanks to the integration of in situ fixed stations, high-resolution satellites imagery and numerical models, C-CEMS provides a management tool to support the stakeholders for timely

  2. Evaluation of black-billed magpies as monitors of environmental contamination : Monthly report for March 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Monthyl report for March on the project "Evaluation of Black-billed Magpies as Indicators of Environmental Contamination at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal." The purpose...

  3. Evaluation of black-billed magpies as monitors of environmental contamination : Work plan 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Preliminary proposal and work plan for the project "Evaluation of Black-billed Magpies as Indicators of Environmental Contamination at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal"....

  4. Ten-Year Monitored Natural Recovery of Lead-Contaminated Mine Tailing in Klity Creek, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenrat, Tanapon; Otwong, Ashijya; Chantharit, Aphichart; Lowry, Gregory V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Klity Creek has become Thailand’s first official remediation ordered by the court in 2013, 15 years after the spill of lead (Pb)-contaminated mine tailing into the creek. The Pollution Control Department (PCD) decided to restore the creek through monitored natural recovery (MNR) since 2006 but has not been successful. Interestingly, the most recent remediation plan in 2015 will still apply MNR to five out of the seven portions of the creek, despite no scientific feasibility evaluation of using MNR to restore the creek. Objective: This study qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated the feasibility of using MNR to clean up the creek in order to protect the Klity children from excess Pb exposure. Methods: We analyzed the physical and chemical transformation of Pb contaminated sediment in the creek and developed a remedial action goal and cleanup level using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic model (IEUBK). We empirically determined the natural recovery (NR) potentials and rates using 10 years of data monitoring the water and sediment samples from eight monitoring stations (KC1 to KC8). Results: Klity Creek has NR potential for water except at KC2, which is closest to the spill and the other improperly managed Pb sources. However, the creek has no NR potential for sediment except at the KC8 location (NR rate = 11.1 ± 3.0 × 10–3 month–1) farthest from the spill. Conclusion: The MNR method is not suitable to use as the sole remedial approach for Klity Creek (KC2 to KC7). Although MNR is applicable at KC8, it may require up to 377 ± 76 years to restore the sediment to the background Pb concentration. Citation: Phenrat T, Otwong A, Chantharit A, Lowry GV. 2016. Ten-year monitored natural recovery of lead-contaminated mine tailing in Klity Creek, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. Environ Health Perspect 124:1511–1520; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP215 PMID:27157823

  5. Biological Monitoring of Pesticides, Heavy Metals and Other Contaminants at Rocky Mountain Arsenal : Phase 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses phase one of three ecological monitoring efforts to occur on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal. These monitoring efforts are a part of a larger...

  6. Performance of passive samplers for monitoring estuarine water column concentrations: 2. Emerging contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Monique M; Burgess, Robert M; Suuberg, Eric M; Cantwell, Mark G; Pennell, Kelly G

    2013-10-01

    Measuring dissolved concentrations of emerging contaminants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and triclosan, can be challenging due to their physicochemical properties resulting in low aqueous solubilities and association with particles. Passive sampling methods have been applied to assess dissolved concentrations in water and sediments primarily for legacy contaminants. Although the technology is applicable to some emerging contaminants, the use of passive samplers with emerging contaminants is limited. In the present study, the performance of 3 common passive samplers was evaluated for sampling PBDEs and triclosan. Passive sampling polymers included low-density polyethylene (PE) and polyoxymethylene (POM) sheets, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers. Dissolved concentrations were calculated using measured sampler concentrations and laboratory-derived partition coefficients. Dissolved tri-, tetra-, and pentabrominated PBDE congeners were detected at several of the study sites at very low pg/L concentrations using PE and POM. Calculated dissolved water concentrations of triclosan ranged from 1.7 ng/L to 18 ng/L for POM and 8.8 ng/L to 13 ng/L for PE using performance reference compound equilibrium adjustments. Concentrations in SPME were not reported due to lack of detectable chemical in the PDMS polymer deployed. Although both PE and POM were found to effectively accumulate emerging contaminants from the water column, further research is needed to determine their utility as passive sampling devices for emerging contaminants.

  7. 核磁共振设备运行监控系统的研制%Development of an Operation Monitoring System for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓

    2016-01-01

    无人值守核磁共振设备若发生意外断电,会对设备造成一定损害。本文针对以上问题研制了核磁共振运行监控系统,系统采用AVR单片机对市电进行意外断电监测,通过GSM/GPRS模块向接收终端如固话、手机发送语音及短消息。应用结果表明,该系统能实时监控核磁共振设备供电情况,为设备安全运行发挥了重要作用,具有较高的使用价值。%Sudden power outage would cause great harm to the unattended nuclear magnetic resonance equipment. In view of this problem, an operation monitoring system for nuclear magnetic resonace was developed in this paper, which adopted AVR microcontroller to monitor the sudden power outage and sent SMS (Short Message Service) or voice information to terminals such as ifxed and mobile phones via the GSM/GPRS module. According to the results, the system realized real-time monitoring of the power supply of the nuclear magnetic resonance equipment and had played an important role in safe operation of the equipment, which was of great signiifcance in practice.

  8. Monitoring of radionuclides contamination of soils in Shatsk National Natural Park (Volyn Region, Ukraine) during 1994-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrabovskyy, V. E-mail: grabovsky@rd.wups.lviv.ua; Dzendzelyuk, O.; Katerynchuk, I.; Furgala, Y

    2004-07-01

    The results of studies of radionuclide contamination of the soils in the western part of the territory of Shatsk National Natural Park (ShNNP), Volyn region, Ukraine, performed during 1994-2001 are presented. Based on the experimental results, the three-dimensional plot of the {sup 137}Cs density contamination for the soils at the territory under investigation has been constructed. The monitoring during 1994-2001 of the {sup 137}Cs vertical distributions in the different kinds of soils from the Park and the forecasting of the distribution changes of the depth down to 50 cm for the sod loamy sandy gleyed loamy sand soil of the Park up to 2086 have been performed.

  9. Remediating radium contaminated legacy sites: Advances made through machine learning in routine monitoring of “hot” particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Adam, E-mail: a.l.varley@stir.ac.uk [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Tyler, Andrew, E-mail: a.n.tyler@stir.ac.uk [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Smith, Leslie, E-mail: l.s.smith@cs.stir.ac.uk [Department of Computing Science and Mathematics, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Dale, Paul, E-mail: paul.dale@sepa.org.uk [Scottish Environmental Protection Agency, Radioactive Substances, Strathallan House, Castle Business Park, Stirling FK9 4TZ (United Kingdom); Davies, Mike, E-mail: Mike.Davies@nuvia.co.uk [Nuvia Limited, The Library, Eight Street, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RL (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    The extensive use of radium during the 20th century for industrial, military and pharmaceutical purposes has led to a large number of contaminated legacy sites across Europe and North America. Sites that pose a high risk to the general public can present expensive and long-term remediation projects. Often the most pragmatic remediation approach is through routine monitoring operating gamma-ray detectors to identify, in real-time, the signal from the most hazardous heterogeneous contamination (hot particles); thus facilitating their removal and safe disposal. However, current detection systems do not fully utilise all spectral information resulting in low detection rates and ultimately an increased risk to the human health. The aim of this study was to establish an optimised detector-algorithm combination. To achieve this, field data was collected using two handheld detectors (sodium iodide and lanthanum bromide) and a number of Monte Carlo simulated hot particles were randomly injected into the field data. This allowed for the detection rate of conventional deterministic (gross counts) and machine learning (neural networks and support vector machines) algorithms to be assessed. The results demonstrated that a Neural Network operated on a sodium iodide detector provided the best detection capability. Compared to deterministic approaches, this optimised detection system could detect a hot particle on average 10 cm deeper into the soil column or with half of the activity at the same depth. It was also found that noise presented by internal contamination restricted lanthanum bromide for this application. - Highlights: • Land contaminated with radium is hazardous to human health. • Routine monitoring permits identification and removal of radioactive hot particles. • Current alarm algorithms do not provide reliable hot particle detection. • Spectral processing using Machine Learning significantly improves detection.

  10. A simplified approach for monitoring hydrophobic organic contaminants associated with suspended sediment: Methodology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants, although frequently detected in bed sediment and in aquatic biota, are rarely detected in whole-water samples, complicating determination of their occurrence, load, and source. A better approach for the investigation of hydrophobic organic contaminants is the direct analysis of sediment in suspension, but procedures for doing so are expensive and cumbersome. We describe a simple, inexpensive methodology for the dewatering of sediment and present the results of two case studies. Isolation of a sufficient mass of sediment for analyses of organochlorine compounds and PAHs is obtained by in-line filtration of large volumes of water. The sediment is removed from the filters and analyzed directly by standard laboratory methods. In the first case study, suspended-sediment sampling was used to determine occurrence, loads, and yields of contaminants in urban runoff affecting biota in Town Lake, Austin, TX. The second case study used suspended-sediment sampling to locate a point source of PCBs in the Donna Canal in south Texas, where fish are contaminated with PCBs. The case studies demonstrate that suspended-sediment sampling can be an effective tool for determining the occurrence, load, and source of hydrophobic organic contaminants in transport.

  11. A simplified approach for monitoring hydrophobic organic contaminants associated with suspended sediment: methodology and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B J; Van Metre, P C

    2003-04-01

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants, although frequently detected in bed sediment and in aquatic biota, are rarely detected in whole-water samples, complicating determination of their occurrence, load, and source. A better approach for the investigation of hydrophobic organic contaminants is the direct analysis of sediment in suspension, but procedures for doing so are expensive and cumbersome. We describe a simple, inexpensive methodology for the dewatering of sediment and present the results of two case studies. Isolation of a sufficient mass of sediment for analyses of organochlorine compounds and PAHs is obtained by in-line filtration of large volumes of water. The sediment is removed from the filters and analyzed directly by standard laboratory methods. In the first case study, suspended-sediment sampling was used to determine occurrence, loads, and yields of contaminants in urban runoff affecting biota in Town Lake, Austin, TX. The second case study used suspended-sediment sampling to locate a point source of PCBs in the Donna Canal in south Texas, where fish are contaminated with PCBs. The case studies demonstrate that suspended-sediment sampling can be an effective tool for determining the occurrence, load, and source of hydrophobic organic contaminants in transport.

  12. Early-stage bioassay for monitoring radioactive contamination in living livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Toshiro; Sawano, Kaita; Kishimoto, Miori; Furuhama, Kazuhisa; Yamada, Kazutaka

    2012-12-01

    Soil samples from the ground surface and feces and blood from a mixed-breed male pig were collected on April 10, 2011 at a farm within 20 km of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The radioactivity of each sample was measured using a Ge semiconductor detector. Despite the fact that the pig had been fed non-contaminated imported feed, (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in the feces, and (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in the blood clots. Because it is considerably difficult to measure radioactive contamination in the edible muscle of living livestock, bioassays are an option for the screening of radioactive contamination in living livestock to ensure food safety.

  13. Regional monitoring of lead and cadmium contamination in a tropical grazing land site, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkpian, Preeda; Leong, Shing Tet; Laortanakul, Preecha; Thunthaisong, Nasavan

    2003-06-01

    An investigation was carried out to monitor Pb and Cd contamination in grazing land located near a highway. Environmental media at different distances from highway (soil, grass, water, cow's forage, fertilizer, manure and milk samples) were collected from three sampling locations. Soil and grass were characterized by high metal mobility (soil with Pb: 5.25 +/- 0.71-14.59 +/- 1.17 mg kg(-1), dry mass and Cd: 0.038-0.33 +/- 0.04 mg kg(-1), dry mass and grass with Pb: 0.76 +/- 0.05-6.62 +/- 0.18 mg kg(-1), dry mass and Cd: 0.17+/- 0.01-0.73 +/- 0.09 mg kg(-1), dry mass). One-way analysis of variane (ANOVA) was applied to find out the correlation between metal (total and bioavailable) concentrations in the soil and the distance from roadside. In most cases, the finding showed that plants growing nearer to the highway are usually exposed to more heavy metal accumulations than those away from the highway. In addition, a correlation was established between plant available metal concentrations and plant metal uptake concentrations. Analysis of fertilizer and manure showed considerable amount of metals (fertilizer with Pb: 1.53 +/- 0.06 mg kg(-1) and Cd: 0.038 mg kg(-1) and manure with Pb: 2.55-3.34 mg kg(-1) and Cd: 0.14-0.31 mg kg(-1)). Long-.term simultaneous application of fertilizer and manure on the commercial farm showed higher metal accumulation in the soil and plants than those of co-operative farm. Considerable concentrations of metals (Pb: 1.60-2.94 mg kg(-1) and Cd: 0.025-0.19 mg kg(-1)) were observed in fodder. The finding clearly demonstrated that there are seasonal variation in total daily metal intake by individual cow (Pb: 109.37 mg day(-1) (dry), 273.47 mg day(-1) (rainy) and Cd: 2.02 mg day(-1) (dry), 19.62 mg day(-1) (rainy)). The provisional tolerable weekly intake of heavy metals in cows is 390 microg Pb and 28 microg Cd per kg body weight in the rainy season and 156 microg Pb and 2 microg Cd per kg body weight in the dry season. The levels of metals

  14. Contamination profile for staphylococci and its enterotoxins and monitorization of the conditions of hygiene in a 'coalho' cheese production line

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, MD; Nassu, RT; PEREIRA, JL; de Andrade, APC; Kuaye, AY

    2008-01-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the contamination by staphylococci and its enterotoxins as well as to monitor the Conditions of hygiene from a coalho cheese production like, using ATP bioluminescence assay. Staphylococcus sp. population varied from < ICFU mL(-1), in pasteurized milk to 1.5 x 10(7)CFU mL(-1) in raw milk, whereas coagulase-positive staphylococci count ranged from < ICFU mL(-1), in pasteurized milk to 5.0 x 10(6)CFU mL(-1) in raw milk. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were detec...

  15. Monitoring of Individual Doses of Populations Residing in the Territories Contaminated after Chernobyl Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumak, V.V.; Likhtarev, I.A.; Pavlenko, J.V. [Acad of Medical Science of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1999-07-01

    To provide instrumental validation of radioecological dosimetric models used for estimation of external doses to the Chernobyl population, about 1000 direct dose measurements were conducted in 1996-1997 in 54 settlements in contaminated territories of Ukraine. The areas covered by the measurements have {sup 137}Cs contamination density ranging from 55 to 491 kBq.m{sup -2}. Individual dose measurements were conducted using standard LiF dosemeters, type Harshaw 8814 (TLD-100), and automated TLD system Harshaw 8800. Relatively low contamination and, thus, an unfavourable 'Chernobyl/natural background' dose ratio, called for sophisticated analysis of experimental results. Linear regression of dose relative to {sup 137}Cs contamination density which was conducted in two different ways provided consistent results. Annual background dose, as derived from the results of individual dose measurements, is about 1.1 mSv per annum; the Chernobyl related component is expressed by the rate of 1.24-1.3 {mu}Sv per kBq.m{sup -2} per annum. These results are in reasonable agreement with somewhat conservative modelling parameters which are assumed to be 1.91 {mu}Sv per kBq.m{sup -2} per annum for the case of the rural population. (author)

  16. Development of a multistrain bacterial bioreporter platform for the monitoring of hydrocarbon contaminants in marine environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tecon, R.; Beggah, S.; Czechowska, K.; Sentchilo, V.; Chronopoulou, P.M.; McGenity, T.J.; van der Meer, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are common contaminants in marine and freshwater aquatic habitats, often occurring as a result of oil spillage. Rapid and reliable on-site tools for measuring the bioavailable hydrocarbon fractions, i.e., those that are most likely to cause toxic effects or are available for

  17. Development of a multistrain bacterial bioreporter platform for the monitoring of hydrocarbon contaminants in marine environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tecon, R.; Beggah, S.; Czechowska, K.; Sentchilo, V.; Chronopoulou, P.M.; McGenity, T.J.; van der Meer, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are common contaminants in marine and freshwater aquatic habitats, often occurring as a result of oil spillage. Rapid and reliable on-site tools for measuring the bioavailable hydrocarbon fractions, i.e., those that are most likely to cause toxic effects or are available for b

  18. Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring contamination of persistent organochlorine compounds in coastal waters of Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monirith, In; Ueno, Daisuke; Takahashi, Shin; Nakata, Haruhiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Subramanian, Annamalai; Karuppiah, Subramanian; Ismail, Ahmad; Muchtar, Muswerry; Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J; Prudente, Maricar; Hue, Ngyen Duc; Tana, Touch Seang; Tkalin, Alexander V; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2003-03-01

    Contamination of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were examined in mussels collected from coastal waters of Asian countries such as Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Far East Russia, Singapore, and Vietnam in 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2001 to elucidate the contamination status, distribution and possible pollution sources and to assess the risks on aquatic organisms and human. OCs were detected in all mussels collected from all the sampling sites investigated. Considerable residue levels of p,p(')-DDT and alpha-HCH were found in mussels and the concentrations of DDTs and HCHs found in mussels from Asian developing countries were higher than those in developed nations suggesting present usage of DDTs and HCHs along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. On the other hand, lower concentrations of PCBs detected in mussels from Asian developing countries than those in developed countries indicate that PCBs contamination in mussels is strongly related to industrial and activities. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive report on monitoring OCs pollution in the Asia-Pacific region.

  19. Self-potential monitoring of a crude oil contaminated site (Trecate, Italy): first results of the modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, V.; Rizzo, E.; Titov, K.; Maineult, A.; Lapenna, V.

    2012-04-01

    The contamination of soils and groundwater by hydrocarbon, due to blow out, leakage from tank or pipe and oil spill, is a heavy environmental problem because infiltrated oil can persist in the ground for a long time. The existing methods used for the remediation of these contaminated sites are invasive, time consuming and expensive. Therefore, in the last years, there was a growing interest in the use of geophysical methods for environmental monitoring (Atekwana et al., 2000; Chambers et al., 2004; Song et al., 2005; French et al., 2009). A particular attention is given to the self-potential (SP) method because SP is sensitive to the contaminant chemistry and redox processes generated by bacteria during the biodegradation (Atekwana et al., 2004; Naudet and Revil, 2005; Revil et al., 2010). Here we show the results of SP investigations carried out at Trecate site (Italy). This site was affected by a crude oil contamination from a well blowout in 1994. Four SP surveys (October 2009, March 2010, October 2010, and March 2011) were conducted at the site, both in the contaminated and uncontaminated regions. Significant changes are observed between SP data collected at different times. In particular, we found mostly negative electrical potential in October surveys and positive electrical potential in March surveys. The SP distributions can be interpreted as the superposition of many components, including a horizontal water-flow in the saturated shallow aquifer toward South-East, the infiltration movement of water in the unsaturated zone and, possibly, the oxidation-reduction phenomena due to bacterial activity. As the groundwater flow usually produces SP linear trends, the data were detrended by linear regression, taking into account the measured piezometric heads in the aquifer. The detrended SP data show that the SP distribution within the contaminated zone is generally bipolar in October: the southern part of the contaminated area is characterized by negative values

  20. A two-week monitoring of self-reported arousal, worry and attribution among persons with annoyance attributed to electrical equipment and smells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Roger; Carlsson Eek, Frida; Osterberg, Kai; Orbaek, Palle; Karlson, Björn

    2008-08-01

    Non-patients attributing annoyance to either smells (smell annoyed; SA, n= 29) or electrical equipment (electrically annoyed; EA, n= 17), or both (generally annoyed; GA, n= 38), were monitored for 2 weeks through daily self-ratings of arousal (stress), sleep disturbances, health complaints, worry about hypersensitivity reactions, avoidance behaviors, and attributions of health complaints to electrical equipment and smells. In parallel, a demographically matched reference group was followed (n= 56). GA persons reported higher arousal (stress), more subjective health complaints, and more sleep disturbances than the other groups. About 60% in the GA and EA groups reported intentional avoidance behavior, compared to 31% in the SA group and 2% of the referents. Worry and attribution to environmental factors was also more frequent among GA persons than in the other groups. Thus, even at sub-clinical levels, environmental annoyance generalized to several triggers seems to be associated with behaviors commonly observed among patients with idiopathic environmental intolerance.

  1. Computer-monitoring equipment of Gyros' lifespan test%陀螺寿命试验计算机监测设备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广莹; 徐丽娜; 刘海涛; 邓正隆

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a design scheme of computer-monitoring equipment of Gyros' lifespan test. The design of this equipment is to auto-detectmany Single-Degree-of-Freedom Gyros' running conditions under long-term continuous working and complete the test of Gyros' lifespan. Based on the reliability analysis, the implement of its hardware is given.%介绍了陀螺寿命试验计算机监测设备的设计方案。此监测设备的研制目的是为了用于在长期、连续工作条件下,自动监控多个单自由度陀螺的运转情况,完成寿命试验。在进行设备可靠性分析的基础上,给出了其硬件实现。

  2. Unmanned aerial vehicles for the assessment and monitoring of environmental contamination: An example from coal ash spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Max; Silman, Miles

    2016-11-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) offer new opportunities to monitor pollution and provide valuable information to support remediation. Their low-cost, ease of use, and rapid deployment capability make them ideal for environmental emergency response. Here we present a UAV-based study of the third largest coal ash spill in the United States. Coal ash from coal combustion is a toxic industrial waste material present worldwide. Typically stored in settling ponds in close proximity to waterways, coal ash poses significant risk to the environment and drinking water supplies from both chronic contamination of surface and ground water and catastrophic pond failure. We sought to provide an independent estimate of the volume of coal ash and contaminated water lost during the rupture of the primary coal ash pond at the Dan River Steam Station in Eden, NC, USA and to demonstrate the feasibility of using UAVs to rapidly respond to and measure the volume of spills from ponds or containers that are open to the air. Using structure-from-motion (SfM) imagery analysis techniques, we reconstructed the 3D structure of the pond bottom after the spill, used historical imagery to estimate the pre-spill waterline, and calculated the volume of material lost. We estimated a loss of 66,245 ± 5678 m(3) of ash and contaminated water. The technique used here allows rapid response to environmental emergencies and quantification of their impacts at low cost, and these capabilities will make UAVs a central tool in environmental planning, monitoring, and disaster response.

  3. Honeybees and honey as monitors for heavy metal contamination near thermal power plants in Mugla, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silici, Sibel; Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, 6 honeydew samples of known geographical and botanical origins and 11 honeybee samples were analyzed to detect possible contamination by the thermoelectric power plants in Mugla, Turkey. The contents of trace elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after application of microwave digestion. The samples from the thermal power plants, which were 10-22 km away from the hives, that did not cause pollution in honeydew honeys were also analyzed. The levels of copper, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc, manganese, iron, chromium, nickel, and aluminum were similar to the values found in other recent studies in literature. However, it was found that the contamination levels of the toxic elements such as Pb and Cd in honeybee samples measured relatively higher than that of honey samples. The study concludes that honeybees may be better bioindicators of heavy metal pollution than honey.

  4. Aflatoxin B1 contamination in feed from Puglia and Basilicata regions (Italy): 5 years monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, V; Clausi, M T; Franchino, C; De Pace, R

    2016-11-01

    During a 5-year period from 2010 to 2014, n = 919 samples of feed and raw materials were analyzed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination using accredited ELISA screening methods. Only 0.76 % of these samples were non-compliant with maximum levels set by the European Union Regulation 32/2002. Non-compliant samples were mainly from the province of Bari (n = 3 samples, mean AFB1 value 7.03 μg/kg), although the highest AFB1 levels were found in two samples from the provinces of Foggia and Brindisi, at 32.6 ± 3.6 μg/kg and 31.0 ± 4.0 μg/kg, respectively. Mean AFB1 levels in samples contaminated but compliant with the limits ranged from 1.4 to 2.2 μg/kg. Considering the great importance of climate conditions in mycotoxins production, during crops production and during the critical phases of materials storage and/or transport, to better understand the variability in contamination levels, the analytical results were reviewed in term of temperature and relative environmental humidity in the sampling areas. Correlations between aflatoxin B1 levels in feed and these climate factors might explain seasonal and annual variations in contamination levels. The data from the present study provide useful suggestions for the organization of targeted monitoring plans and the protection of consumers, as well as for improvement in the quality standards of zootechnological activities and feed industry.

  5. Monitoring of environmental contaminants in air and precipitation, annual report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Nizzetto, Pernilla Bohlin; Aas, Wenche; Warner, Nicholas Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This report presents results from 2014 for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals from the rural air- and precipitation chemistry monitoring network in Norway. These results are compared to previous years.

  6. Monitoring of Aflatoxin contamination at market food chain in East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina A. Rahmianna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Peanut is a cheapest source of protein especially for developing countries communities and mostly it obtained from traditional markets. Earlier studies showed that aflatoxin incidence was relatively less at the farmer/trader levels while it is significantly higher at retail levels especially in traditional markets. Present study was conducted to understand the factors leading to the post-harvest building up of aflatoxin in peanuts sold in traditional market and in supermarket. This study was carried out at Pasuruan regency, East Java Province, Indonesia from March 2005 to June 2006. During study period peanut grains were collected from wholesalers, retailers and supermarkets at three months interval. In each sampling point, 2kg of grains was obtained and then was divided into eight parts for the analysis of parameters namely seed moisture content, physical quality, Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin B1 contamination. The results showed that seed water contents at wholesalers, collectors, and retailers in traditional wet markets were almost lower than 10%. They were thus ‘safe’ from aflatoxin B1 contamination as seed moisture contents were below the aflatoxin risk zone. Time of sampling did not affect the level of aflatoxin B1 contamination. Under controlled condition generated from air-tight container, the influence of seed moisture content and A. flavus infection on aflatoxin production was significant.

  7. Using Optically Stimulated Electron Emission as an Inspection Method to Monitor Surface Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingbloom, Mike S.

    2008-01-01

    During redesign of the Space Shuttle reusable solid rocket motor (RSRM), NASA amended the contract with ATK Launch Systems (then Morton Thiokol Inc.) with Change Order 966 to implement a contamination control and cleanliness verification method. The change order required: (1) A quantitative inspection method (2) A written record of actual contamination levels versus a known reject level (3) A method that is more sensitive than existing methods of visual and black light inspection. Black light inspection is only useful for inspection of contaminants that fluoresce near the 365 nm spectral line and is not useful for inspection of most silicones that will not produce strong fluorescence. Black light inspection conducted by a qualified inspector under controlled light is capable of detecting Conoco HD-2 grease in gross amounts and is very subjective due to operator sensitivity. Optically stimulated electron emission (OSEE), developed at the Materials and Process Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), was selected to satisfy Change Order 966. OSEE offers several important advantages over existing laboratory methods with similar sensitivity, e.g., spectroscopy and nonvolatile residue sampling, which provide turn around time, real time capability, and full coverage inspection capability. Laboratory methods require sample gathering and in-lab analysis, which sometimes takes several days to get results. This is not practical in a production environment. In addition, these methods do not offer full coverage inspection of the large components

  8. Vadose zone studies at an industrial contaminated site: the vadose zone monitoring system and cross-hole geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez de Vera, Natalia; Beaujean, Jean; Jamin, Pierre; Nguyen, Frédéric; Dahan, Ofer; Vanclooster, Marnik; Brouyère, Serge

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve risk characterization and remediation measures for soil and groundwater contamination, there is a need to improve in situ vadose zone characterization. However, most available technologies have been developed in the context of agricultural soils. Such methodologies are not applicable at industrial sites, where soils and contamination differ in origin and composition. In addition, most technologies are applicable only in the first meters of soils, leaving deeper vadose zones with lack of information, in particular on field scale heterogeneity. In order to overcome such difficulties, a vadose zone experiment has been setup at a former industrial site in Belgium. Industrial activities carried out on site left a legacy of soil and groundwater contamination in BTEX, PAH, cyanide and heavy metals. The experiment comprises the combination of two techniques: the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VMS) and cross-hole geophysics. The VMS allows continuous measurements of water content and temperature at different depths of the vadose zone. In addition, it provides the possibility of pore water sampling at different depths. The system is formed by a flexible sleeve containing monitoring units along its depth which is installed in a slanted borehole. The flexible sleeve contains three types of monitoring units in the vadose zone: Time Domain Transmissometry (TDT), which allows water content measurements; Vadose Sampling Ports (VSP), used for collecting water samples coming from the matrix; the Fracture Samplers (FS), which are used for retrieving water samples from the fractures. Cross-hole geophysics techniques consist in the injection of an electrical current using electrodes installed in vertical boreholes. From measured potential differences, detailed spatial patterns about electrical properties of the subsurface can be inferred. Such spatial patterns are related with subsurface heterogeneities, water content and solute concentrations. Two VMS were

  9. 10 CFR 835.1101 - Control of material and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....1101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Radioactive Contamination Control... section, material and equipment in contamination areas, high contamination areas, and airborne radioactivity areas shall not be released to a controlled area if: (1) Removable surface contamination levels on...

  10. OPC UA技术在冶金设备监测系统中的应用%Application of OPC UA Technology in Monitoring System for Metallurgical Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜泽苗; 孔庆奎; 范瑜

    2014-01-01

    OPC UA技术在工业控制方面有着不可替代的优势,主要体现在其跨平台性和实时性上,可以方便地解决工业现场监控过程中各个子系统和底层设备之间互操作以及互通信的难题。结合冶金现场设备监测系统的搭建,对OPC UA技术规范进行了研究,开发了OPC UA客户端和服务器,实现了对冶金设备运行状态的实时监测并及时制定故障应对方案的目的。 OPC UA技术在信息建模与跨平台方面的强大优势预示着基于OPC UA技术的集成系统必将成为今后的开发热点。%The technology of OPC UA has irreplaceable superior in industrial control area, especially its cross platform and real time performance;the difficulties of the interoperability and intercommunication among all the subsystems and bottom layer equipment in industrial field monitoring. The specifications of OPC US technology is researched combining with the establishment of monitoring system for metallurgy field equipment;and client and server of OPC UA are developed for implementing real time monitoring for the operation status of metallurgy equipment and failure timely responded scheme. The outstanding superior of OPC UA in information modeling and cross-platform indicates that the integrated systems based on OPC UA will definitely become the hot spots of development in the future.

  11. Design and Implementation of Wearable ECG Monitoring Equipment%可穿戴心电监护设备设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝宇虹; 牛群

    2016-01-01

    为了满足心脏病患者日益增长的心电监护需求,设计了一种可穿戴式的心电监护设备来满足患者日常生活的心电监护功能。设备设计包括硬件和软件2部分,硬件方面采用柔性织物电极、AD8232芯片和STM32微控制器实现对心电信号的采集、A/D转换和传输功能;软件方面借用小波变换在心电信号去噪和识别方面的优势,获得清晰的心电信号和心率,并实现对症状的初步诊断;最后设计了基于 LabVIEW平台的友好人机交互界面,可以直观、清楚的显示心电信号的实时波形,当前患者的R R间期和心率参数。利用本设备对几位志愿者进行测试,得到了良好的结果,可以实现患者日常心电监护。%In order to meet the growing demand of patients with heart diseases for ECG monitoring, this paper designs wearable ECG monitoring equipment to achieve the ECG monitoring function of daily life for patients.The equipment design comprises hardware and software design.In terms of hardware,the flexible fabric electrode,AD8232 chip and STM32 microcontroller are used to implement the functions of ECG signal acquisition,A/D conversion and transmission;In term of software,the advantages of the wavelet transformation in ECG signal denoising and identification are utilized to obtain a clear ECG signal and heart rate,and realize the preliminary diagnosis of the symptoms.Finally,a friendly human computer inter-action interface based on the LabVIEW platform can display real time ECG signal waveform,the current RR inter phase and the heart rate in patients intuitively and clearly.Several volunteers are tested with the equipment. Good results are obtained.The equipment can realize patients'daily ECG monitoring.

  12. A low cost mid-infrared sensor for on line contamination monitoring of lubricating oils in marine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Kullmann, F.; Holzki, M.; Sigloch, S.; Klotzbuecher, T.; Spiesen, J.; Tommingas, T.; Weismann, P.; Kimber, G.

    2010-04-01

    The chemical and physical condition of oils in marine engines must be monitored to ensure optimum performance of the engine and to avoid damage by degraded oil not adequately lubricating the engine. Routine monitoring requires expensive laboratory testing and highly skilled analysts. This work describes the adaptation and implementation of a mid infrared (MIR) sensor module for continued oil condition monitoring in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines. The developed sensor module will help to reduce costs in oil analysis by eliminating the need to collect and send samples to a laboratory for analysis. The online MIR-Sensor module measures the contamination of oil with water, soot, as well as the degradation indicated by the TBN (Total Base Number) value. For the analysis of water, TBN, and soot in marine engine oils, four spectral regions of interest have been identified. The optical absorption in these bands correlating with the contaminations is measured simultaneously by using a four-field thermopile detector, combined with appropriate bandpass filters. Recording of the MIR-absorption was performed in a transmission mode using a flow-through cell with appropriate path length. Since in this case no spectrometer is required, the sensor including the light source, the flowthrough- cell, and the detector can be realised at low cost and in a very compact manner. The optical configuration of the sensor with minimal component number and signal intensity optimisation at the four-field detector was implemented by using non-sequential ray tracing simulation. The used calibration model was robust enough to predict accurately the value for soot, water, and TBN concentration for two-stroke and four-stroke engine oils. The sensor device is designed for direct installation on the host engine or machine and, therefore, becoming an integral part of the lubrication system. It can also be used as a portable stand-alone system for machine fluid analysis in the field.

  13. Chronic contamination assessment integrating biomarkers' responses in transplanted mussels--a seasonal monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, C D S; Martín-Díaz, M L; Catharino, M G M; Cesar, A; Choueri, R B; Taniguchi, S; Abessa, D M S; Bícego, M C; Vasconcellos, M B A; Bainy, A C D; Sousa, E C P M; Delvalls, T A

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to provide the first biomonitoring integrating biomarkers and bioaccumulation data in São Paulo coast, Brazil and, for this purpose, a battery of biomarkers of defense mechanisms was analyzed and linked to contaminants' body burden in a weigh-of-evidence approach. The brown mussel Perna perna was selected to be transplanted from a farming area (Caraguatatuba) to four possibly polluted sites: Engenho D'Água, DTCS (Dutos e Terminais do Centro-Oeste de São Paulo) oil terminal (Sao Sebastiao zone), Palmas Island, and Itaipu (It; Santos Bay zone). After 3 months of exposure in each season, mussels were recollected and the cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)- and CYP3A-like activities, glutathione-S-transferase and antioxidants enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) were analyzed in gills. The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes, and nonessential metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, and Hg) in whole tissue were also analyzed and data were linked to biomarkers' responses by multivariate analysis (principal component analysis-factor analysis). A representation of estimated factor scores was performed to confirm the factor descriptions and to characterize the studied stations. Biomarkers exhibited most significant alterations all year long in mussels transplanted to It, located at Santos Bay zone, where bioaccumulation of organic and inorganic compounds was detected. This integrated approach using transplanted mussels showed satisfactory results, pointing out differences between sites, seasons, and critical areas, which could be related to land-based contaminants' sources. The influence of natural factors and other contaminants (e.g., pharmaceuticals) on biomarkers' responses are also discussed.

  14. Remediation and its effect represented on long term monitoring data at a chlorinated ethenes contaminated site, Wonju, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Sun; Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2016-04-01

    A research for the contamination of chlorinated ethenes such as trichloroethylene (TCE) at an industrial complex, Wonju, Korea, was carried out based on 17 rounds of groundwater quality data collection from 2009 to 2015. Remediation technologies such as soil vapor extraction, soil flushing, biostimulation, and pump-and-treat have been applied to eliminate the contaminant sources of trichloroethylene (TCE) and to prevent the migration of TCE plume from remediation target zones to groundwater discharge area like a stream. The remediation efficiency according to the remedial actions was evaluated by tracing a time-series of plume evaluation and temporal mass discharge at three transects (Source, Transect-1, Transect-2) which was assigned along the groundwater flow path. Also, based on long term monitoring data, dissolved TCE concentration and mass of residual TCE in the initial stage of disposal were estimated to evaluate the efficiency of in situ remediation. The results of temporal and spatial monitoring before remedial actions showed that a TCE plume originating from main and local source zones continues to be discharged to a stream. However, from the end of intensive remedial actions from 2012 to 2013, the aqueous concentrations of TCE plume present at and around the main source areas decreased significantly. Especially, during the intensive remediation period, the early average mass discharge (26.58 g/day) at source transect was decreased to average 4.99 g/day. Estimated initial dissolved concentration and residual mass of TCE in the initial stage of disposal decreased rapidly after an intensive remedial action in 2013 and it is expected to be continuously decreased from the end of remedial actions to 2020. This study demonstrates that long term monitoring data are useful in assessing the effectiveness of remedial actions at chlorinated ethenes contaminated site. Acknowledgements This project is supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment under "The GAIA

  15. Sedentary nestlings of Wood Stork as monitors of mercury contamination in the gold mining region of the Brazilian Pantanal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassif Del Lama, Silvia, E-mail: dsdl@ufscar.br [Laboratorio Genetica de Aves, Departamento de Genetica e Evolucao, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Dosualdo Rocha, Cristiano [Laboratorio Genetica de Aves, Departamento de Genetica e Evolucao, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Figueiredo Jardim, Wilson [Institute of Chemistry, State University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13083-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tsai, Jo-Szu; Frederick, Peter Crawford [Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, P.O. Box 110430, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Sedentary organisms that are at top trophic levels allow inference about the level of local mercury contamination. We evaluated mercury contamination in feather tissue of nestling Wood Storks (Mycteria americana), sampled in different parts of the Brazilian Pantanal that were variably polluted by mercury releases from gold mining activities. Levels of mercury in feathers sampled in seven breeding colonies were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and the mean value of mercury concentration was 0.557 {mu}g/g, dry weight (n=124), range 0.024-4.423 {mu}g/g. From this total sample, 21 feathers that represent 30% of nestlings collected in Porto da Fazenda and Tucum colonies, in the northern region, ranged from 1.0 to 4.43 {mu}g/g, dry weight (median value=1.87 {mu}g/g). We found significant differences among regions (H=57.342; p=0<0.05). Results suggest that permanently flooded areas, or along mainstream rivers are more contaminated by mercury than dry areas, regardless of the distance from the gold mining center, which is located in the northern Pantanal. Highest values found in nestlings feathers were similar to those found in feathers of adult birds and in tissues of adult mammals that are less sedentary and were captured in the same region of Pantanal. These findings indicate that mercury released has been biomagnified and it is present in high concentrations in tissues of top consumers. We suggest a program to monitor mercury availability in this ecosystem using sedentary life forms of top predators like Wood Storks or other piscivorous birds. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sedentary stork nestlings were used for the first time to show local mercury contamination of Pantanal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differences were found among regions but they are not explained only by distance from the gold mining. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Permanently flooded areas and areas along mainstream rivers are more contaminated than dry areas. Black

  16. Laser Monitoring Of Phytoextraction Enhancement Of Lead Contaminated Soil Adopting EDTA And EDDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M.; Abdelhamied, M.; Hanafy, A. H.; Fantoni, R.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    Removal of heavy metals (HMs) such as Pb from soil, wastewater, and air is essential for environment and human health. Phytoremediation is a well established technology based on the use of certain green plants for contaminants removal from soil, wastewater as well as air. Scented geranium, Pelargonium zonal, is a flowering plant recently used in HMs removal from contaminated soil. In the present work, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and EDDS (S, S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid) were used as chemical assistants providing higher Pb availability for extraction by plant roots. Lead was artificially added to the planting media, peatmoss, at different concentrations. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to follow up Pb relative concentrations in peatmoss as well as plant shoots, at different sampling times during the experiment period. Laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF), has been also used to evaluate chlorophyll formation and photosynthetic apparatus status in geranium plants. Such measurements were performed on geranium plants grown under various Pb levels, as well as EDTA and EDDS combinations. The combined effect of EDTA and EDDS was found to enhance Pb extraction with time. Good correlation was found between LICF results and chlorophyll (a) (Chl.a) concentrations in plant tissues extracted by chemical analysis.

  17. Ecotoxicity monitoring of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil during bioremediation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Tomás; Vosáhlová, Simona; Matejů, Vít; Kovácová, Nora; Novotný, Cenek

    2007-01-01

    The ecotoxicity of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil originating from a brownfield site was evaluated during a 17-month biodegradation pilot test. The initial concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in the soil was 6380 microg/g dry weight. An amount of 200 kg soil was inoculated with 1.5 L of the bacterial preparation GEM-100 containing Pseudomonas sp. and Acinetobacter sp. strains (5.3 x 10(10) CFU.mL(-1)) adapted to diesel fuel. The concentration of TPHs in the soil decreased by 65.5% after bioremediation. Different organisms such as the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, terrestrial plants Sinapis alba, Lactuca sativa, and Hordeum vulgare, the water plant Lemna minor, the earthworm Eisenia fetida, and the crustacean Heterocypris incongruens were used for ecotoxicity evaluation. The highest toxicity was detected in the first period of bioremediation. However, certain toxic effects were detectable during the whole bioremediation process. The contact tests with plants, earthworms, and crustaceans were the most sensitive of all of the bioassays. Therefore, the contact tests performed directly on soil samples were shown to be a better tool for ecotoxicity evaluation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil than the tests performed on soil elutriates. The ecotoxicity measured by the responses of the tests did not always correlate with the decrease in TPH concentrations in the soil during bioremediation.

  18. Contaminant monitoring of biota downstream of a radioactive liquid waste treatment facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, K.D.; Biggs, J.R.; Fresquez, P.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Environment, Safety, and Health Div.

    1996-12-31

    Small mammals, plants, and sediments were sampled at one upstream location (Site 1) and two downstream locations (Site 2 and Site 3) from the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) outfall {number_sign}051-051 in Mortandad Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. The purpose of the sampling was to identify radionuclides potentially present, to quantitatively estimate and compare the amount of radionuclide uptake at specific locations (Site 2 and Site 3) within Mortandad Canyon to an upstream site (Site 1), and to identify the primary mode (inhalation/ingestion or surface contact) of contamination to small mammals. Three composite samples of at least five animals per sample were collected at each site. The pelt was separated from the carcass of each animal and both were analyzed independently. In addition, three composite samples were also collected for plants and sediments at each site. Samples were analyzed for americium ({sup 241}Am), strontium ({sup 90}Sr), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu), and total uranium (U). With the exception of total U, all mean radionuclide concentrations in small mammal carcasses and sediments were significantly higher at Site 2 than Site 1 or Site 3. No differences were detected in the mean radionuclide concentration of plant samples between sites. However, some radionuclide concentrations found at all three sites were higher than regional background. No differences were found between mean carcass radionuclide concentrations and mean pelt radionuclide concentrations, indicating that the two primary modes of contamination may be equally occurring.

  19. Field Evaluation of Cereal Combine Harvesters Processing Losses on JD-955 and JD-1165 Combines Equipped with Grain Loss Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Mostofi Sarkari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Grain loss monitors are installed on combine harvester and make it possible to measure grain loss on different parts of the combine. The instrument permits the operator to adjust a proper ground speed to keep grain loss within an acceptable range. In this study a loss monitoring system was implemented to measure grain losses continuously on straw walker and sieves. Two grain loss monitors (KEE and TeeJet were installed behind the straw walker and the sieves of JD-955 and JD-1165 combine harvesters. Harvesting performance parameters such as combine total and processing losses were then measured. To evaluate the precision and accuracy of the instruments, the measured and monitored losses were compared and investigated. The results of a two-year research showed that the average processing loss of the combine harvesters with 10-12% grain moisture content and 750 rpm drum speed was 0.82% which is whitin the acceptable range recommended by ASAE Standard No. S343.3. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the measured and monitored values of processing loss.

  20. Design of intelligent monitoring system for medical equipment%医疗设备智能监控系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明; 奚卫东

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Intelligent monitoring system of medical equipment can realize the intelligent dynamic management to equipment in the hospital wireless or wired network environment. Methods: Use of communication network, intelligent call, system monitoring and other means of science and technology to design the intelligent micro device state sensor. Results:System is mainly for hospital equipment, which can capture and management of medical equipment data. When the elderly have abnormal condition, it can send information through intelligent system, through identification and location, to realize the construction of equipment state information. Conclusion: Intelligent sensor in the system application can achieve the sharing of resources; realize the whole hand or full coverage of the intelligent health network system, providing an effective guarantee for the health of the masses.%目的:建立医疗设备智能监控系统,使医院在无线覆盖或有线网络的环境下,实现设备的智能化动态管理。方法:利用通讯网络、智能呼叫及系统监测等科技手段,设计医疗设备智能状态传感器。结果:针对医院医疗设备,将其数据进行采集和管理。当出现异常状况时可通过智能系统发出相关信息,通过身份识别与定位,实现设备状态的信息化。结论:智能传感器在系统的运用中可做到资源共享,实现了全方位、全覆盖的智能医院物联网系统,为医院的医疗服务提供了有效的保障。

  1. Standard Practice for Sampling Gas Blow Down Systems and Components for Particulate Contamination by Automatic Particle Monitor Method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes how to connect, prepare, and sample pressurized gas systems (having up to 19.1-mm (0.75-in.) diameter lines) for particulate contamination by using an automatic monitor. 1.2 The values stated in MKS units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For hazard statements, see Section 5.

  2. Superficial groundwater contamination by artificial radionuclides by the nuclear site of Saluggia (Vercelli, Italy): radiological monitoring activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzio, Laura

    2009-12-01

    During the last 15 y, by the Saluggia (Vercelli, Italy) nuclear site, episodes of contamination of the superficial groundwater happened due to artificial radionuclides. The local network of radiological monitoring around the nuclear site, managed by Arpa Piemonte from the late 1980s, highlighted the presence of (60)Co, (90)Sr, (137)Cs and (3)H during this period. The object of this paper was to give particular evidence not to analytical aspects, but to the methodical approach used to solve the problems that arose. In fact, the intrinsic hydro-geological vulnerability of the zone, the typology and conditions of the plants (all very old) and the presence of the 'Acquedotto del Monferrato' tap water well field, one of the most important in Piemonte, at approximately 2 km downstream of the site, made the situation very difficult to approach.

  3. Using blood plasma for monitoring organochlorine contaminants in juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, from the lower Columbia River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, D T; Webb, M A H; Fink, A K; Kushner, L R; Feist, G W; Fitzpatrick, M S; Foster, E P; Schreck, C B

    2008-09-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticide concentrations in blood plasma samples from 88 juvenile white sturgeon collected from the lower Columbia River were measured and compared to plasma sex steroid and OC tissue levels previously measured in corresponding fish. Significant squared correlation coefficients between summation operator DDT concentrations in sturgeon plasma and gonads and livers were 0.37 and 0.32, respectively. Significant negative correlations between plasma testosterone concentration and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in male fish (r(2)=0.26), plasma 17beta estradiol concentration and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in female fish (r(2)=0.38) and condition factor and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in all fish were found (r(2)=0.17). These results suggest that blood plasma may be a suitable nondestructive method for monitoring adult sturgeon population for persistent OC contaminants.

  4. Characterization and calibration of a novel detection system for real time monitoring of radioactive contamination in water processed at water treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carconi, P; De Felice, P; Fazio, A; Petrucci, A; Lunardon, M; Moretto, S; Stevanato, L; Cester, D; Pastore, P

    2017-08-01

    Characterization and calibration measurements were carried out at the National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology of ENEA on the TAp WAter RAdioactivity (TAWARA) Real Time Monitor system recently developed for real time monitoring of radioactive contamination in water processed at water treatment facilities. Reference radiations and radionuclides were chosen in order to reflect energy ranges and radiation types of the major water radioactive contaminants possibly arising from environmental, industrial or terroristic origin. The following instrument parameters were tested: sensitivity, selectivity, background, short/long term stability, linearity with respect to activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiple imputation for assessment of exposures to drinking water contaminants: evaluation with the Atrazine Monitoring Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachael M; Stayner, Leslie T; Demirtas, Hakan

    2014-10-01

    Drinking water may contain pollutants that harm human health. The frequency of pollutant monitoring may occur quarterly, annually, or less frequently, depending upon the pollutant, the pollutant concentration, and community water system. However, birth and other health outcomes are associated with narrow time-windows of exposure. Infrequent monitoring impedes linkage between water quality and health outcomes for epidemiological analyses. To evaluate the performance of multiple imputation to fill in water quality values between measurements in community water systems (CWSs). The multiple imputation method was implemented in a simulated setting using data from the Atrazine Monitoring Program (AMP, 2006-2009 in five Midwestern states). Values were deleted from the AMP data to leave one measurement per month. Four patterns reflecting drinking water monitoring regulations were used to delete months of data in each CWS: three patterns were missing at random and one pattern was missing not at random. Synthetic health outcome data were created using a linear and a Poisson exposure-response relationship with five levels of hypothesized association, respectively. The multiple imputation method was evaluated by comparing the exposure-response relationships estimated based on multiply imputed data with the hypothesized association. The four patterns deleted 65-92% months of atrazine observations in AMP data. Even with these high rates of missing information, our procedure was able to recover most of the missing information when the synthetic health outcome was included for missing at random patterns and for missing not at random patterns with low-to-moderate exposure-response relationships. Multiple imputation appears to be an effective method for filling in water quality values between measurements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring the Extent of Contamination from Acid Mine Drainage in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain Using Hyperspectral Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuncion Riaza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring mine waste from sulfide deposits by hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to predict surface water quality by quantitatively estimating acid drainage and metal contamination on a yearly basis. In addition, analysis of the mineralogy of surface crusts rich in soluble salts can provide a record of annual humidity and temperature. In fact, temporal monitoring of salt efflorescence from mine wastes at a mine site in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (Huelva, Spain has been achieved using hyperspectral airborne Hymap data. Furthermore, climate variability estimates are possible based on oxidation stages derived from well-known sequences of minerals, by tracing sulfide oxidation intensity using archive spectral libraries. Thus, airborne and spaceborne hyperspectral remote sensing data can be used to provide a short-term record of climate change, and represent a useful set of tools for assessing environmental geoindicators in semi-arid areas. Spectral and geomorphological indicators can be monitored on a regular basis through image processing, supported by field and laboratory spectral data. In fact, hyperspectral image analysis is one of the methods selected by the Joint Research Centre of the European Community (Ispra, Italy to study abandoned mine sites, in order to assess the enforcement of the European Mine Waste Directive (2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council 15 March 2006 on the management of waste from extractive industries (Official Journal of the European Union, 11 April 2006. The pyrite belt in Andalucia has been selected as one of the core mission test sites for the PECOMINES II program (Cracow, November 2005, using imaging spectroscopy; and this technique is expected to be implemented as a monitoring tool by the Environmental Net of Andalucía (REDIAM, Junta de Andalucía, Spain.

  7. Works carried out to correct and monitor water contamination; Actuaciones para la correccion y el seguimiento de la contaminacion hidrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayora, C.; Guijarro, A.; Domenech, C.; Fernandez, I.; Gomez, P.; Manzano, M.; Mora, A.; Moreno, L.; Navarrete, P.; Sanchez, M.; Serrano, J.

    2001-07-01

    The works carried out to correct or control the impact of the Aznalcollar mine spill on water is described. The chapter refers both to the surface water retained in Entremuros between walls area since the very first moment, to the Guadiamar river water, and to groundwater in the aquifers affected by the spill. Most of the water retained in Entremuros after the spill was treated in situ by the IGME in an emergency plant, and afterwards was evacuated to the Guadalquivir river through the Canal de Aguas Minimas (low water canal). The water was cleaned by adding sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide to small volumes which allowed to settle afterwards. The treatment and evacuation activities lasted around one month. The impact of the spill on the river water resulted in the immediate acidification, reaching pH values around 4 between the failed dam and Aznalcazar village. Also, dissolved oxygen was eliminated, suspended solids increased up to 30 g/L and dissolved heavy metals reached concentrations close to those of the original spilled water. However, after a few days the dissolved oxygen concentrations were recovered, most of the solid particles settled down, and pH started slowly to increase. the fast collection of the mud settled down on the river margins prevented the continuous contamination of the river. However, the Agrio river sector between the failed dam and the Agrio-Guadiamar river junction is still contaminated with acid and heavy metals. It is assumed the discharge of contaminated water from the alluvial aquifer into the river bed. To the s of the Agrio-Guadiamar junction the main threat to river water quality is the disposal of urban and agro-industrial untreated waste water. Looking to the impact on groundwater, only the above mentioned sector of the Agrio river alluvial aquifer is widely contaminated. This pollution is probably due both to the 1998 spill and the previous leakage from the tailings dam, and it is presently under study. Between the Agrio

  8. The Thirty Years’ Results of Radiation Hygienic Monitoring of Tula Region territories contaminated due to the Chernobyl NPP accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Boldyreva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of Tula Region areas were contaminated after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The article provides the thirty years’ results of radiation hygienic monitoring of the Chernobyl accidental fallout - affected areas in Tula Region. The radiation situation is assessed at the initial accidental period and at the current stage. The initial levels of gamma - radiation dose intensity (up to 35 mcSv/hr are identified for the period of the “iodine” hazard along with the tabular data on the dose intensity relative stabilization by the beginning of August 1986 due to iodine-131 decay. The information is presented regarding iodine-131 tentative maximum permissible level exceedance in the dairy products of the two most contaminated regional areas - Plavskoye and Arsenievskoye. The article also provides the laboratory data on the total beta - activity in the foodstuffs in 1986-1987 and cesium-137 maximum permissible level exceedence in 1986. The radionuclide maximum permissible level exceedances in foodstuffs were registered only in 1986 due to the plants surface contamination whereas in the forest mushrooms those exceedances were repeatedly found until 2004. The black earths and grey forest soils had a benign impact upon the intensity of the radionuclide transfer into plants which resulted in the formation of internal radiation doses.At the current stage, the content of cesium-137 and strontium- 90 in the foodstuffs can only be quantified by a radiochemical method. The table covers all the districts within the boundaries of radiation contaminated zones. The radiochemical studies indicate the main dose - forming products. The article contains the table of internal and external radiation doses of the population in Plavsk town over 1986-1990 and displays the factors impacting population’s internal and external exposure. The Chernobyl - affected exposure dose of the population is mostly attributed to the external radiation and, for over twenty years, it

  9. Monitoring of the declining trend of Polychlorobifenyls concentration in milk of contaminated dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Six pregnant heifers, coming from a herd with a history of high concentration of polychlorobifenyls (PCB into the milk, were fed with a very low-PCB diet starting from the 6th month of pregnancy. After parturition cows were milked for at least 190 d with a maximum of 270 d. Diet was made of: corn silage (31.7% of DMI, dehydrated alfalfa (13.3% of DMI, grass hay (3.7% of DMI and concentrate (51.3% of DMI. The average DMI was 23.12 kg/d. Milk production was recorded and samples of milk and blood were taken and analyzed for PCB (18, 28, 31, 52, 44, 101, 149, 118, 153, 138, 180 and 194 congeners content using a GC-MS technique. The average milk yield (kg/d of the 6 cows was 26.0, 22.5, 23.2, 24.5, 28.9, 29.3. The maximum PCB concentration of 100 ng/g of fat allowed by the Italian law was reached after 144-209 d of lactation. One animal after 204 days had a PCB concentration of 102 ng/g fat. If log10 of PCB concentration (ppb in milk fat is regressed against days in milking (DIM the following significant equation was obtained: log10 PCB (ng/g of milk fat= 2.796 -0.00474 DIM; r2 0.72; P<0.01 The initial level of contamination is not the main factor affecting the time required in order for PCB to return to below the legal threshold of 100 ng/g fat, while daily milk yield significantly affects PCB excretion. Body condition and energy balance could be important factors affecting PCB excretion. In the presence of high contamination, about 6 months of lactation are required in order to obtain milk with a sufficiently low PCB content. Among the seven congeners considered by Italian legislation, PCB 101, PCB 118, PCB 138, PCB 153 constitute almost all the PCBs found in tissues and milk, with a much smaller presence of PCB 180, and the numbers of the congeners PCB 28 and PCB 52 are almost insignificant, probably because they accumulate little in the body. The congeners PCB 138 and PCB 153 are those most frequently found. For PCB 138 the liver is the principal

  10. Evaluation of HPGe spectrometric devices in monitoring the level of radioactive contamination in metallurgical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, A.; Arnold, D.; Burda, O.; De Felice, P.; Garcia-Toraño, E.; Mejuto, M.; Peyres, V.; Šolc, J.; Vodenik, B.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the tests of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) based gamma spectrometers employed for radioactivity control carried out on a daily basis in steel factories. This new application of this type of detector is part of the Joint Research Project (JRP) MetroMETAL supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The final purpose of the project was the improvement and standardisation of the measurement methods and systems for the control of radioactivity of recycled metal scraps at the beginning of the working process and for the certification of the absence of any radioactive contamination above the clearance levels (IAEA-TECDOC-8S5) in final steel products, Clearance levels for radionuclides in solid materials: application of exemption principles). Two prototypes based on HPGe detectors were designed and assembled to suit the needs of steel mills which had been examined previously. The evaluation of the two prototypes, carried out at three steel factories with standard sources of 60Co, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra and 241Am in three different matrices (slag, fume dust and cast steel) and with samples provided on-site by the factories, was successful. The measurements proved the superiority of the prototypes over the scintillation detectors now commonly used regarding energy resolution and multi-nuclide identification capability. The detection limits were assessed and are presented as well.

  11. Chapter 8 Tool for monitoring hydrophilic contaminants in water: polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, David A.; Huckins, James N.; Petty, Jimmie D.; Jones-Lepp, Tammy L.; Stuer-Lauridsen, Frank; Getting, Dominic T.; Goddard, Jon P.; Gravell, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The development of the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) provides environmental scientists and policy makers a tool for assessing the presence and potential impacts of the hydrophilic component of these organic contaminants. The POCIS provides a means for determining the time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations of targeted chemicals that can be used in risk assessments to determine the biological impact of hydrophilic organic compounds (HpOCs) on the health of the impacted ecosystem. Field studies have shown that the POCIS has advantages over traditional sampling methods in sequestering and concentrating ultra-trace to trace levels of chemicals over time resulting in increased method sensitivity, ability to detect chemicals with a relatively short residence time or variable concentrations in the water, and simplicity in use. POCIS extracts can be tested using bioassays and can be used in organism dosing experiments for determining toxicological significance of the complex mixture of chemicals sampled. The POCIS has been successfully used worldwide under various field conditions ranging from stagnant ponds to shallow creeks to major river systems in both fresh and brackish water.

  12. [Use of bioindicators for assessing and monitoring pesticides contamination in streams and rivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Ana Rosa Linde; Buss, Daniel Forsin; de Alburquerque, Carla; Inácio, Alan Ferreira; Freire, Marina Moreira; Egler, Mariana; Mugnai, Riccardo; Baptista, Darcilio Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present an analysis of the main bioindicators that are currently used to assess the environmental impact of pollution in water resources. The simple quantification of chemicals in the environment is not enough to reveal the real effects of contamination on ecosystems, making necessary the assessment of the biological effects that pollution causes at different hierarchical levels. The bioindicators used in this article on two case studies comprehend different hierarchical levels: in case study 1, three organization levels were utilized: individual, cellular and molecular, to detect the early effects of exposition to environmental pollutants in three hydrographic basins. By observing the inhibition of AChE activity in fish it was possible to assess the effects of organophosphorate and carbamate pesticides, showing the effects of agricultural activities. In case study 2, we present an assessment at the macroinvertebrate community level using the Extended Biotic Index. We discuss the advantages and limitations in the production of reliable data that could be used in the implementation of adequate actions to protect and/or recover ecosystems.

  13. Use of the land snail Helix aspersa for monitoring heavy metal soil contamination in Northeast Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larba, R; Soltani, N

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of anthropogenic activities on soil quality using the land snail Helix aspersa as a bioindicator. Soil samples and snails were collected from several sites in Northeast Algeria during the summer and winter of 2010. All of the sites were chosen due to their proximity to industrial factories-a potential source of soil pollution via heavy metal contamination. The concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Mn, and Fe) in soil samples was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Activity levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), indicators of oxidative stress and neurotoxicity, respectively, were measured in snails collected from each site. GST and AChE activity were found to vary between sites and by season. The highest levels of GST activity were registered during the summer at sites closest to potential sources of pollution. AChE activity levels also peaked during the summer with the highest values recorded at the site in El Hadjar. These increased levels of bioindicative stress response correlated with increasing metal concentration in soil samples collected at each site.

  14. Evaluation of HPGe spectrometric devices in monitoring the level of radioactive contamination in metallurgical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrucci, A., E-mail: andrea.petrucci@enea.it [ENEA – Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazione Ionizzanti, Rome (Italy); Arnold, D.; Burda, O. [PTB – Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); De Felice, P. [ENEA – Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazione Ionizzanti, Rome (Italy); Garcia-Toraño, E.; Mejuto, M.; Peyres, V. [CIEMAT – Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Šolc, J. [CMI – Czech Metrology Institute, Radiova 1a, 102 00 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Vodenik, B. [IJS – Laboratory for Radioactivity Measurements, Institute Jožef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana Slovenia (Slovenia)

    2015-10-11

    This paper presents the results of the tests of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) based gamma spectrometers employed for radioactivity control carried out on a daily basis in steel factories. This new application of this type of detector is part of the Joint Research Project (JRP) MetroMETAL supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The final purpose of the project was the improvement and standardisation of the measurement methods and systems for the control of radioactivity of recycled metal scraps at the beginning of the working process and for the certification of the absence of any radioactive contamination above the clearance levels (IAEA-TECDOC-8S5) in final steel products, Clearance levels for radionuclides in solid materials: application of exemption principles). Two prototypes based on HPGe detectors were designed and assembled to suit the needs of steel mills which had been examined previously. The evaluation of the two prototypes, carried out at three steel factories with standard sources of {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 241}Am in three different matrices (slag, fume dust and cast steel) and with samples provided on-site by the factories, was successful. The measurements proved the superiority of the prototypes over the scintillation detectors now commonly used regarding energy resolution and multi-nuclide identification capability. The detection limits were assessed and are presented as well.

  15. Passive sampling methods for the measurement of organic chemical contaminants and application to monitoring discharges from the offshore oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, Christopher

    2009-07-01

    The presence of persistent organic pollutants in the environment has been of increasing concern and is subject to control through several international conventions. The ability of these compounds to accumulate in biological systems and cause adverse effects at vanishingly low concentrations requires comprehensive and cost-effective monitoring methods. Passive sampling techniques show promise to fulfill several of these requirements, with time integrated sampling that compensates for fluctuating discharges, and (equivalent) large volume samples that provide the low detection limits necessary. Additionally, they do not suffer from some of the complicating issues associated with using biological monitoring methods. Operational discharges from the offshore oil industry represent a significant point source of such pollutants to the marine environment. Concerns surrounding these discharges in the North Sea are due to a combination of the proved toxicity of several of the chemical components present, the increasing volume of the discharges in line with the age of the fields, and the lack of knowledge of the overall long term effects. As such they warrant investigation, and sensitive techniques are required to monitor levels in situ. The main objectives of this dissertation were; i) provide sampling rate data for environmentally important compounds; ii) test the applicability of an empirical uptake model for these compounds; iii) examine the effects of membrane fouling on uptake; iv) measure contaminant concentrations in the receiving waters around oil platforms; v) assess the biological relevance of passive sampler accumulations. In order to achieve these objectives, a suite of laboratory experiments were carried out using flow through exposures of passive samplers to known concentrations of contaminants. These exposures included comparisons between uptake of contaminants in fouled and non-fouled samplers and in fish. Field deployments of passive samplers were performed

  16. Highlights from the SoilCAM project: Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, H. K.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Wehrer, M.; Godio, A.; Pedersen, L. B.; Toscano, G.

    2012-04-01

    The SoilCAM project (Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring 2008-2012, EU-FP7-212663) is aimed at improving current methods for monitoring contaminant distribution and biodegradation in the subsurface. At two test sites, Oslo airport Gardermoen in Norway and the Trecate site in Italy, a number of geophysical techniques, lysimeter and other soil and water sampling techniques as well as numerical flow and transport modelling have been combined at different scales in order to characterise flow transport processes in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Laboratory experiments have provided data on physical and bio-geo-chemical parameters for use in models and to select remediation methods. The geophysical techniques were used to map geological heterogeneities and also conduct time-lapse measurements of processes in the unsaturated zone. Both cross borehole and surface electrodes were used for electrical resistivity and induced polarisation surveys. The geophysical surveys showed clear indications of areas highly affected by de-icing chemicals along the runway at Oslo airport. The time lapse measurements along the runway at the airport show infiltration patterns during snowmelt and are used to validate 2D unsaturated flow and transport simulations using SUTRA. The Orchestra model is used to describe the complex interaction between bio-geo-chemical processes in a 1D profile along the runway. The presence of installations such as a membrane along the runway highly affects the flow pattern and challenges the capacity of the numerical code. Smaller scale field site measurements have revealed the increase of iron and manganese during degradation of de-icing chemicals. The use of Nitrate to increase red-ox potential was tested, but results have not been analysed yet. So far it cannot be concluded that degradation process can be quantified indirectly by geophysical monitoring. At the Trecate site a combination of georadar, electrical

  17. GE/NOMADICS IN-WELL MONITORING SYSTEM FOR VERTICAL PROFILING OF DNAPL CONTAMINANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald E. Shaffer; Radislav Potyralio; Joseph Salvo; Timothy Sivavec; Lloyd Salsman

    2003-04-01

    This report describes the Phase I effort to develop an Automated In Well Monitoring System (AIMS) for in situ detection of chlorinated volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in groundwater. AIMS is composed of 3 primary components: (a) sensor probe, (b) instrument delivery system, and (c) communication/recharging station. The sensor probe utilizes an array of thickness shear mode (TSM) sensors coated with chemically-sensitive polymer films provides a low-cost, highly sensitive microsensor platform for detection and quantification. The instrument delivery system is used to position the sensor probe in 2 inch or larger groundwater monitoring wells. A communication/recharging station provides wireless battery recharging and communication to enable a fully automated system. A calibration curve for TCE in water was built using data collected in the laboratory. The detection limit of the sensor probe was 6.7 ppb ({micro}g/L) for TCE in water. A preliminary field test was conducted at a GE remediation location and a pilot field test was performed at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS). The AIMS system was demonstrated in an uncontaminated (i.e., ''clean'') 2-inch well and in a 4-inch well containing 163.5 ppb of TCE. Repeat measurements at the two wells indicated excellent day-to-day reproducibility. Significant differences in the sensor responses were noted between the two types of wells but they did not closely match the laboratory calibration data. The robustness of the system presented numerous challenges for field work and limited the scope of the SRS pilot field test. However, the unique combination of trace detection (detection limits near the MCL, minimum concentration level) and size (operations in 2-inch or larger groundwater wells) is demonstration of the promise of this technology for long-term monitoring (LTM) applications or rapid site characterization. Using the lessons learned from the

  18. 测控设备web网络服务器化研究%Research web server monitoring and control equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡羽; 张凤登

    2012-01-01

    为实现利用Internet自带的客户端浏览器对现场设备进行远程监控的目的,设计并实施了新型web网络服务器化远程测控系统.系统中测控设备内嵌嵌入式Web服务器,既能自身作为测控终端直接采集数据,又能通过CAN总线与其他测控器进行组网,实现类似网关的功能.硬件设计主要包括:嵌入式web服务器模块、测控器模块以及其接口模块设计与实施.软件设计主要选用Linux操作系统和嵌入式Web服务器Boa实现CGI技术,设计添加CAN控制器驱动程序后完成IE浏览器与嵌入式web服务器以及测控器三者之间的通信.利用该系统进行温度测试,实验成功并能满足实时性,充分表明利用Internet浏览器、嵌入式Web服务器组建并控制CAN网络的新型远程测控系统的先进性与可行性.%In order to monitoring the field devices by the Internet browser, designed and achieved the new web server longdistance observe and control system. In the system, the field device can be used as a control node directly collect data, also can be extend gateway function compatible with the CAN bus. The hardware includes the embedded web server module, the monitoring terminal module and the interfaces module of them. The software used the Linux operating system for OS and BOA for the embedded web server to achieve the CGI technology. After extend CAN controller, the communication between the IE browser, the field device embedded web server and the monitoring terminal can be achieved. Testing temperature measurement by this system, it is successful and can meet the real-time monitoring requirements. The research can show the advance and the feasibility of the new long-distance observe and control system using the Internet browser, web server and the CAN bus.

  19. [Ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring: critical review of methodology: (equipment, reproducibility, standards), clinical importance and personal experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonard, P; Fiasse, R; Tomé, G; Dive, C

    1990-01-01

    The authors review the recent literature about the methodology of oesophageal pH monitoring, which has a high sensitivity and a high specificity for assessing gastro-oesophageal reflux. Combined electrodes offer most advantages. Ambulatory recording should be done in hospital under standard conditions (meals), particularly for clinical studies. The best clinical indication is to detect pathological reflux in case of atypical symptoms with negative oesophagoscopy. The authors give their normal values in a series of measurements with two systems as well as their results in a series of cases of oesophagitis of various grades.

  20. Sensitive Multi-Species Emissions Monitoring: Infrared Laser-Based Detection of Trace-Level Contaminants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steill, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes our development of spectroscopic chemical analysis techniques and spectral modeling for trace-gas measurements of highly-regulated low-concentration species present in flue gas emissions from utility coal boilers such as HCl under conditions of high humidity. Detailed spectral modeling of the spectroscopy of HCl and other important combustion and atmospheric species such as H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 O, NO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 demonstrates that IR-laser spectroscopy is a sensitive multi-component analysis strategy. Experimental measurements from techniques based on IR laser spectroscopy are presented that demonstrate sub-ppm sensitivity levels to these species. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify HCl at ppm levels with extremely high signal-to-noise even under conditions of high relative humidity. Additionally, cavity ring-down IR spectroscopy is used to achieve an extremely high sensitivity to combustion trace gases in this spectral region; ppm level CH 4 is one demonstrated example. The importance of spectral resolution in the sensitivity of a trace-gas measurement is examined by spectral modeling in the mid- and near-IR, and efforts to improve measurement resolution through novel instrument development are described. While previous project reports focused on benefits and complexities of the dual-etalon cavity ring-down infrared spectrometer, here details on steps taken to implement this unique and potentially revolutionary instrument are described. This report also illustrates and critiques the general strategy of IR- laser photodetection of trace gases leading to the conclusion that mid-IR laser spectroscopy techniques provide a promising basis for further instrument development and implementation that will enable cost-effective sensitive detection of multiple key contaminant species simultaneously.

  1. Sensitive Multi-Species Emissions Monitoring: Infrared Laser-Based Detection of Trace-Level Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steill, Jeffrey D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Huang, Haifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hoops, Alexandra A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Patterson, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Birtola, Salvatore R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Jaska, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Strecker, Kevin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Chandler, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bisson, Soott [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes our development of spectroscopic chemical analysis techniques and spectral modeling for trace-gas measurements of highly-regulated low-concentration species present in flue gas emissions from utility coal boilers such as HCl under conditions of high humidity. Detailed spectral modeling of the spectroscopy of HCl and other important combustion and atmospheric species such as H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 O, NO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 demonstrates that IR-laser spectroscopy is a sensitive multi-component analysis strategy. Experimental measurements from techniques based on IR laser spectroscopy are presented that demonstrate sub-ppm sensitivity levels to these species. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify HCl at ppm levels with extremely high signal-to-noise even under conditions of high relative humidity. Additionally, cavity ring-down IR spectroscopy is used to achieve an extremely high sensitivity to combustion trace gases in this spectral region; ppm level CH 4 is one demonstrated example. The importance of spectral resolution in the sensitivity of a trace-gas measurement is examined by spectral modeling in the mid- and near-IR, and efforts to improve measurement resolution through novel instrument development are described. While previous project reports focused on benefits and complexities of the dual-etalon cavity ring-down infrared spectrometer, here details on steps taken to implement this unique and potentially revolutionary instrument are described. This report also illustrates and critiques the general strategy of IR- laser photodetection of trace gases leading to the conclusion that mid-IR laser spectroscopy techniques provide a promising basis for further instrument development and implementation that will enable cost-effective sensitive detection of multiple key contaminant species simultaneously.

  2. Country report for the regional (RCA) training workshop on contamination monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shantha, T.H.S. [Atomic Energy Authority (Sri Lanka)

    1997-06-01

    The Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) is the organization in Sri Lanka responsible for the regulatory and development of applications in nuclear technology. AEA was established in 1969 by the AEA Act No. 19 of 1969 and at present it is under the Ministry of Science, Technology and Human Resources Development. As a developing country, Sri Lanka still needs technical assistance to support the development of application in nuclear technology. So far this country doesn`t have any type of nuclear reactors. Most of activities in Sri Lanka are in health sector using x-ray and radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In addition to that few number of radioisotopes are used in industrial and research institutes. In this paper, the following items are described: radiation protection activities, emergency preparation and planning, food testing program, and nuclear technique in monitoring industrial pollution. (G.K.)

  3. Monitoring six-phase ohmic heating of contaminated soils using electrical resistance tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Daily, W.D.

    1994-09-01

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) was used to monitor six-phase ohmic heating used for the insitu remediation of volatile organic compounds from subsurface water and soil at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The changes in electrical conductivity caused by six-phase ohmic-heating in a clay layer located in the vadose zone were monitored during a period of approximately 2 months, before, during and after heating. From an array of electrodes located in 4 boreholes, we collected electrical resistivity data between five pairs of adjacent holes pairs. This data was used to calculate tomographs which showed the electrical conductivity changes along five vertical planes. The difference tomographs show the combined effects of moisture redistribution and heating caused by six-phase heating and vapor extraction. The tomographs show that most of the clay layer increased in electrical conductivity during the first 3 weeks of the 4 week long heating phase. At this time, the electrical conductivities near the center of the heating array were twice as large as the pre-heat conductivities. Then the electrical conductivity started to decrease for portions of the clay layer closest to the vapor extraction well. We propose that the conductivity decreases are due to the removal of moisture by the heating and vacuum extraction. Parts of the clay layer near the extraction well reached electrical conductivities as low as 40% of the pre-heating values. We propose that these regions of lower than ambient electrical conductivities are indicators of regions where the vapor removal by vacuum extraction was most effective. At the end of the heating phase, our estimates suggest that the clay saturation may have dropped to as low as 10% based on the observed conductivity changes.

  4. Innovative Methods for Integrating Knowledge for Long-Term Monitoring of Contaminated Groundwater Sites: Understanding Microorganism Communities and their Associated Hydrochemical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, P. J.; Rizzo, D. M.; Druschel, G.; O'Grady, P.; Stevens, L.

    2005-12-01

    This interdisciplinary study integrates hydrochemical and genome-based data to estimate the redox processes occurring at long-term monitoring sites. Groundwater samples have been collected from a well-characterized landfill-leachate contaminated aquifer in northeastern New York. Primers from the 16S rDNA gene were used to amplify Bacteria and Archaea in groundwater taken from monitoring wells located in clean, fringe, and contaminated locations within the aquifer. PCR-amplified rDNA were digested with restriction enzymes to evaluate terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) community profiles. The rDNA was cloned, sequenced, and partial sequences were matched against known organisms using the NCBI Blast database. Phylogenetic trees and bootstrapping were used to identify classifications of organisms and compare the communities from clean, fringe, and contaminated locations. We used Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models to incorporate microbial data with hydrochemical information for improving our understanding of subsurface processes.

  5. Evaluate the use of space monitoring methods for the study of the ecological state of the territory contaminated with heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroik G.A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of modern Earth remote sensing systems are investigated in the space environmental monitoring of areas, contaminated with heavy metals, and the best of them are identified. The most informative E-field radiation spectrum zones for remote indication of heavy metals are identified and the special spectral indexes are offered.

  6. A potential approach for monitoring drinking water quality from groundwater systems using organic matter fluorescence as an early warning for contamination events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stedmon, Colin; Seredyńska-Sobecka, Bożena; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus;

    2011-01-01

    at levels equivalent to the addition of 60 μg C/L in drinking water with a TOC concentration of 3.3 mg C/L. The results of this study suggest that these types of drinking water systems, which are vulnerable to microbial contamination due to the lack of disinfectant treatment, can be easily monitored using...

  7. Measurement result of the neutron monitor onboard Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment - Attached Payload (SEDA-AP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, K.; Matsumoto, H.; Okudaira, O.; Obara, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Muraki, Y.

    2011-12-01

    To support future space activities, it is very important to acquire the space environmental data which causes the degradation of space parts and spacecraft anomalies. Such data are useful for spacecraft design and manned space activity. Space Environment Data Acquisition - Attached Payload (SEDA-AP) measures the space environment around the International Space Station (ISS) by being attached to the Exposed Facility(EF) of the Japanese Experimental Module ("Kibo"). The Neutron Monitor (NEM) is one of the detectors in SEDA-AP. This instrument was developed to measure the solar neutrons which are produced by solar flare event. The solar neutron is a good indicator to clarify the acceleration mechanism of charged particles at the solar flare. Because of the energy of solar neutron is not influenced by the interplanetary magnetic field, it has the information of the energy of the accelerated charged particle directly. We have been analyzing the neutron data at several M or X class solar flare from September 2009. The mission objectives, instrumentation and measurement status of the neutron monitor are reported.

  8. Characterization of contaminated soils using a x-ray fluorescence equipment; Caracterizacion de suelos contaminados mediante un equipo portatil de fluorescencia de rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quindos, L. S.; Fuente, I.; Sainz, C.; Queral, I.

    2006-07-01

    Fast and accurate material identification is required in many areas of the metal industry as well as surveillance of contaminated areas. The portable X-ray analyzer described in this paper consists of a hand-held probe and electronic unit. The system is configured with three excitation sources, such as ''241 Am, ''109Cd and ''55 Fe, which provides excellent performance for common elements to be controlled in contaminated soils. Data about measurements developed with this device in field as well as in the laboratory are shown in this paper. (Author)

  9. 测距系统(DME)的开场监测方法探索%Monitoring Method of Distance Measuring Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛珂; 叶淋美

    2016-01-01

    At present,the working state assessment of Distance Measuring Equipment(DME)is mainly via conduction testing and DME self-inspection,which is lack of effective open-field test and assessment method. In this paper,according to the frequency domain parameter identification of the DME response signal,we designed an open-field test methods based on radio monitoring equipment with statistics of typical parametersto evaluate the status of DME,as well as the specific details on test steps.%目前,对测距仪(DME)设备的工作状态评估主要是通过设备的传导测试以及DME设备本身的自检来实现,尚缺乏运用监测手段进行开场监测和评估的有效方法。本文通过对DME地面台应答信号的频域参数进行开场监测,并对结果进行统计分析来实现对设备工作状态的监测评估,具有一定的现实意义。

  10. Biomagnetic monitoring of heavy metals contamination in deposited atmospheric dust, a case study from Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, Samira; Khademi, Hossein; Cano, Angel Faz; Acosta, Jose A

    2016-05-15

    Tree leaves are considered as one of the best biogenic dust collectors due to their ability to trap and retain particulate matter on their surfaces. In this study, the magnetic susceptibility (MS) and the concentration of selected heavy metals of plane tree (Platanus orientalis L.) leaves and deposited atmospheric dust, sampled by an indirect and a direct method, respectively, were determined to investigate the relationships between leaf magnetic parameters and the concentration of heavy metals in deposited atmospheric dust. The objective was to develop a biomagnetic method as an alternative to the common ones used for determining atmospheric heavy metal contaminations. Plane tree leaves were monthly sampled on the 19th of May to November, 2012 (T1-T7), for seven months from 21 different sites in the city of Isfahan, central Iran. Deposited atmospheric dust samples were also collected using flat glass surfaces from the same sites on the same dates, except for T1. MS (χlf, χhf) values in washed (WL) and unwashed leaves (UL) as well as Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in UL and deposited atmospheric dust samples were determined. The results showed that the MS content with a biogenic source was low with almost no significant change during the sampling period, while an increasing trend was observed in the MS content of UL samples due to the deposition of heavy metals and magnetic particles on leaf surfaces throughout the plant growth. The latter type of MS content could be reduced through washing off by rain. Most heavy metals examined, as well as the Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) in UL, showed statistically significant correlations with MS values. The correlation between heavy metals content in atmospheric dust deposited on glass surfaces and leaf MS values was significant for Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn. Moreover, the similarity observed between the spatial distribution maps of leaf MS and deposited atmospheric dust PLI provided convincing evidence regarding

  11. Application of diagnosis and monitoring area contaminated by petroleum derivatives; Aplicacao da tecnica de caminhamento eletrico em area contaminada por derivados de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Cesar Augusto [Pos-graduacao em Geociencias em Meio Ambiente, IGCE - UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: cesargeologia@yahoo.com.br; Dourado, Joao Carlos; Braga, Antonio Celso de Oliveira [Dept. de Geologia Aplicada, IGCE - UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: jdourado@rc.unesp.br, acobraga@rc.unesp.br

    2006-07-15

    Geophysical methods are useful technic of geological investigation, thoroughly employed to diagnosis and monitoring contaminated areas, in conjunction with direct techniques of investigation such as chemical analyses. Among these, electric resistivity is more usually used in studies of contaminants in soil and groundwater, due to the high contrast of electric properties between the soil and the pollutant types frequently found, essentially constituted of composed organic and inorganic. Geophysical studies in impacted areas by petroleum products may be describe by anomalies of both low resistivity and high resistivities, confirmed as contaminant by chemical analyses. This apparent contradiction can reflect processes of degradation of the contaminants, directly associated with its residence time in the soil, through the generation of by-products that change the physical properties of the soil and groundwater, principally for the mineral dissolution by action of organic acids and by formation of minerals of oxides and hydroxides minerals. Natural attenuation defines a series of physical, chemical and biological processes that allow the degradation, dispersion and dilution of contaminants in a natural form, in other words, free from human intervention. This paper presents the application of electrical profiling technique in a contaminated industrial area for benzene, toluene, xylene, 1,2 dichloroethene and inorganic salts and it discusses the physical alterations of the contaminated soil through the obtained results, under the optics of the Natural Attenuation in course in the area of study. (author)

  12. Groundwater resource vulnerability and spatial variability of nitrate contamination: Insights from high density tubewell monitoring in a hard rock aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvaneshwari, Sriramulu; Riotte, Jean; Sekhar, M; Mohan Kumar, M S; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Duprey, Jean Louis; Audry, Stephane; Giriraja, P R; Praveenkumarreddy, Yerabham; Moger, Hemanth; Durand, Patrick; Braun, Jean-Jacques; Ruiz, Laurent

    2017-02-01

    Agriculture has been increasingly relying on groundwater irrigation for the last decades, leading to severe groundwater depletion and/or nitrate contamination. Understanding the links between nitrate concentration and groundwater resource is a prerequisite for assessing the sustainability of irrigated systems. The Berambadi catchment (ORE-BVET/Kabini Critical Zone Observatory) in Southern India is a typical example of intensive irrigated agriculture and then an ideal site to study the relative influences of land use, management practices and aquifer properties on NO3 spatial distribution in groundwater. The monitoring of >200 tube wells revealed nitrate concentrations from 1 to 360mg/L. Three configurations of groundwater level and elevation gradient were identified: i) NO3 hot spots associated to deep groundwater levels (30-60m) and low groundwater elevation gradient suggest small groundwater reserve with absence of lateral flow, then degradation of groundwater quality due to recycling through pumping and return flow; ii) high groundwater elevation gradient, moderate NO3 concentrations suggest that significant lateral flow prevented NO3 enrichment; iii) low NO3 concentrations, low groundwater elevation gradient and shallow groundwater indicate a large reserve. We propose that mapping groundwater level and gradient could be used to delineate zones vulnerable to agriculture intensification in catchments where groundwater from low-yielding aquifers is the only source of irrigation. Then, wells located in low groundwater elevation gradient zones are likely to be suitable for assessing the impacts of local agricultural systems, while wells located in zones with high elevation gradient would reflect the average groundwater quality of the catchment, and hence should be used for regional mapping of groundwater quality. Irrigation with NO3 concentrated groundwater induces a "hidden" input of nitrogen to the crop which can reach 200kgN/ha/yr in hotspot areas, enhancing

  13. Evaluation of microbial population and functional genes during the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil as an effective monitoring approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Aiyoub; Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the abundance and diversity of soil n-alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterial communities. It also investigated the quantity of the functional genes, the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the identified bacterial communities and the effect that such HGT can have on biostimulation process. Illumina sequencing was used to detect the microbial diversity of petroleum-polluted soil prior to the biostimulation process, and quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine changes in the bacterial community and functional genes (alkB, phnAc and nah) expressions throughout the biostimulation of petroleum-contaminated soil. The illumine results revealed that γ-proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and δ-proteobacteria were the most dominant bacterial phyla in the contaminated site, and that most of the strains were Gram-negative. The results of the gene expression results revealed that gram-negative bacteria and alkB are critical to successful bioremediation. Failure to maintain the stability of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and functional gene will reduce the extend to which alkanes and PAHs are degraded. According to the results of the study, the application of a C:N:P ratio of was 100:15:1 in the biodegradation experiment resulted in the highest rate at which petroleum hydrocarbons were biodegraded. The diversity of pollutant-degrading bacteria and the effective transfer of degrading genes among resident microorganisms are essential factors for the successful biostimulation of petroleum hydrocarbons. As such, screening these factors throughout the biostimulation process represents an effective monitoring approach by which the success of the biostimulation can be assessed.

  14. Improving the Efficiency of Administrative Decision-Making when Monitoring Reliability and Safety of Oil and Gas Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemenkova Maria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodology of rapid assessment of reliability index was developed based on system analysis of technological parameters. Within functioning of on-line monitoring system of reliability index of industrial facility this method allows to increase efficiency of making managerial decisions on technical and preventive maintenance. The technique is based on the analysis of technological parameters of operational modes of pipeline transport facilities registered by dispatcher controls. The created technique can be used by the operating, research, design institutes and oil and gas transport enterprises when declaring industrial safety. The received mathematical models allow federal services of supervision, the independent expert organizations to predict the development of reliability in the registered block of dispatching data either in real time mode, or taking into account the dynamics of service conditions of the object.

  15. Two-Year Operational Evaluation Of A Consumer Electronics-Based Data Acquisition System For Equipment Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoy, Blake W. [ORNL; Phillips, Larry D. [ORNL; Wetherington Jr, G Randall [ORNL; Damiano, Brian [ORNL; Green, Craig [ORNL

    2017-04-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has performed a two-year evaluation of the performance of an in-house developed consumer electronics-based data acquisition system (DAS). The main advantage of this approach compared to conventional instrumentation grade systems is cost; instrument grade data acquisition systems average costs range from $800 to $2,000 per channel compared to a range of $200 - $400 per channel for a consumer electronics-based system. The DAS is operated as a full-time in-situ vibration monitor. The resulting data stream is streamed over the ORNL network, at an aggregate rate of approximately 2 megabytes/s, to a Linux server. The server includes the capability to implement event-triggered data stores, as well as real-time files for the implementation of continuous display monitoring of the spectra. Detailed spectral analysis is performed post event. The DAS is installed on a large industrial chiller and cooling water pump associated with ORNL’s Titan supercomputer. These mechanical systems include rotating components that operate at fundamental frequencies within the range of 30 Hz to over 3 KHz. Evaluation of the DAS data over a two-year operating period leads to the conclusion that for many industrial processes this system could form the basis for a cost effective means of obtaining operating health data in real time from rotating machinery. The deployment has also shown that the DAS technology is reliable. Furthermore, because the cost of the DAS is low, the other significant advantage of this approach is that the DAS can be deployed in a dedicated manner and operated on a full-time basis.

  16. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part I: spatial and temporal patterns of contaminants, and design of screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R

    2008-08-01

    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the USA. In this three part series, spatial and temporal patterns in water quality data are utilized to develop, compare, and evaluate the economic performance of alternative place-based monitoring approaches to current monitoring practice. Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), a common list of over 90 contaminants is analyzed nationwide using EPA-authorized laboratory procedures. National and state-level summaries of SDWA data have shown that not all contaminants occur in all places at all times. This hypothesis is confirmed and extended by showing that only a few (less than seven) contaminants are of concern in any one of 19 Iowa surface water systems studied. These systems collectively serve about 350,000 people and their sizes vary between 1,200 and 120,000. The distributions of contaminants found in these systems are positively skewed, with many non-detect measurements. A screening strategy to identify such contaminants in individual systems is presented. These findings have significant implications not only for the design of alternative monitoring programs, but also in multi-billion-dollar decisions that influence the course of future drinking water infrastructure, repair, and maintenance investments.

  17. Organohalogen diffuse contamination in Firenze and Prato groundwater bodies. investigative monitoring and definition of background values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Menichetti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The experience of the Environmental Protection Agency of Tuscany in the determination of background values start from 2009 with various substances such as metals, non-metals and inorganic, dioxins and various matrices such as soil, groundwater, inland surface waters and coastal marine sediments. The methodologies supplied in literature have been interpreted and integrated to meet the requirements of current legislation and needs for remediation, diffuse pollution and excavated earth in specific areas. The method for diffuse pollution described here focuses on the use of statistical and geostatistical tools and what we present in this paper are some early results of interest obtained from two case studies in the Florence and in the Prato area. The study has been carried out on concentrations of tetrachlorethylene in the two groundwater bodies by identifying a number of frequency classes in the distribution. Each class has been hypothesized as corresponding to a distinct process. The occurrence both in space and time of the classes has been analysed and discussed critically concluding for a background value that has been found similar between the two zones. The investigation conducted on two monitoring stations representing hot-spots, with values in excess on background value has enabled to map spatial distribution of concentrations and to separate plumes from diffuse pollution area. The two areas show some peculiarities: Florence area shows advanced dehalogenation and a clear spatial continuity, whereas in Prato area it is limited with poor spatial continuity suggesting a spreading with vertical motions from still active primary or secondary sources. Observing how the methodological structure would require, to be fully predictive, a greater number of samples, however, the present work want to constitute a first contribution for management of areas subject to diffuse pollution.

  18. Monitoring the aftermath of Flint drinking water contamination crisis: Another case of sampling bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goovaerts, Pierre

    2017-07-15

    The delay in reporting high levels of lead in Flint drinking water, following the city's switch to the Flint River as its water supply, was partially caused by the biased selection of sampling sites away from the lead pipe network. Since Flint returned to its pre-crisis source of drinking water, the State has been monitoring water lead levels (WLL) at selected "sentinel" sites. In a first phase that lasted two months, 739 residences were sampled, most of them bi-weekly, to determine the general health of the distribution system and to track temporal changes in lead levels. During the same period, water samples were also collected through a voluntary program whereby concerned citizens received free testing kits and conducted sampling on their own. State officials relied on the former data to demonstrate the steady improvement in water quality. A recent analysis of data collected by voluntary sampling revealed, however, an opposite trend with lead levels increasing over time. This paper looks at potential sampling bias to explain such differences. Although houses with higher WLL were more likely to be sampled repeatedly, voluntary sampling turned out to reproduce fairly well the main characteristics (i.e. presence of lead service lines (LSL), construction year) of Flint housing stock. State-controlled sampling was less representative; e.g., sentinel sites with LSL were mostly built between 1935 and 1950 in lower poverty areas, which might hamper our ability to disentangle the effects of LSL and premise plumbing (lead fixtures and pipes present within old houses) on WLL. Also, there was no sentinel site with LSL in two of the most impoverished wards, including where the percentage of children with elevated blood lead levels tripled following the switch in water supply. Correcting for sampling bias narrowed the gap between sampling programs, yet overall temporal trends are still opposite.

  19. Application of Equipment Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis%设备状态监测与故障诊断技术的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋弦弋; 孙启阔; 殷丽娟; 唐晓军

    2011-01-01

    With the features of high running speed, high frequency of load change and low rolling temperature of roll piece, the high-speed wire rod mill device's main faults are focused on the bearing failure and gear failure of main driving equipments, which account for above 50 percent of total fault time. Taking a pre-finishing mill in a high-speed wire rod mill factory as a research object, its condition was monitored and fault diagnosis was made according to the obtained spectrum. The on-site practical inspection results were basically in consistent with the diagnosis results. It is indicated that to apply the technology of equipment condition monitoring and fault diagnosis to high-speed wire rod mill, the purpose of prevention is achieved, the over and less maintenance are effectively avoided. Not only equipment failures are reduced, but also the maintenance cost is reduced. The operating rate is improved greatly. It provides a reliable guarantee for smooth production.%高速线材厂轧机具有运转速度高、载荷变化频繁、所轧制轧件温度低的特点,设备的主要故障是主传动设备的轴承、齿轮失效故障,占总设备故障时间的50%以上.以某高速线材厂的一台预精轧机为研究对象,对其状态进行监测,并根据得到的频谱图进行故障诊断.现场实际检查结果与诊断结果基本一致,说明:将设备状态监测与故障诊断技术应用于高速线材轧机,能达到预防为主的目的,有效避免了过维修和欠维修,既减少了设备故障又降低了维修费用,大大提高了作业率,为生产的顺利进行提供了可靠的保障.

  20. International journal of food contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2014-01-01

    The International Journal of Food Contamination publishes baseline, monitoring data, indicating the qualitative and quantitative presence of microbiological and chemical contaminants in foods, animal...

  1. On-line sensor monitoring for chemical contaminant attenuation during UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hye-Weon; Anumol, Tarun; Park, Minkyu; Pepper, Ian; Scheideler, Jens; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-09-15

    A combination of surrogate parameters and indicator compounds were measured to predict the removal efficiency of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) using low pressure (LP)-UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process (AOP), engaged with online sensor-based monitoring system. Thirty-nine TOrCs were evaluated in two distinct secondary wastewater effluents in terms of estimated photochemical reactivity, as a function of the rate constants of UV direct photolysis (kUV) and hydroxyl radical (OH) oxidation (kOH). The selected eighteen TOrCs were classified into three groups that served as indicator compounds: Group 1 for photo-susceptible TOrCs but with minor degradation by OH oxidation (diclofenac, fluoxetine, iohexol, iopamidol, iopromide, simazine and sulfamethoxazole); Group 2 for TOrCs susceptible to both direct photolysis and OH oxidation (benzotriazole, diphenhydramine, ibuprofen, naproxen and sucralose); and Group 3 for photo-resistant TOrCs showing dominant degradation by OH oxidation (atenolol, carbamazepine, DEET, gemfibrozil, primidone and trimethoprim). The results indicate that TOC (optical-based measurement), UVA254 or UVT254 (UV absorbance or transmittance at 254 nm), and total fluorescence can all be used as suitable on-line organic surrogate parameters to predict the attenuation of TOrCs. Furthermore, the automated real-time monitoring via on-line surrogate sensors and equipped with the developed degradation profiles between sensor response and a group of TOrCs removal can provide a diagnostic tool for process control during advanced treatment of reclaimed waters.

  2. Quality monitoring and assessment of mercury contamination in water and sediments of the Botafogo river, PE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Moraes Ferreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid 80's, the riverside population of Rio Botafogo, in the Santa Cruz channel, Itamaracá has undergone critical environmental situations due to poorly planned growth and inadequate soil occupation, and as a consequence, a loss in environmental quality resulted. In 1963, an industry for production of chlorine and caustic soda produced by electrolytic cell of mercury was installed in the Botafogo river. By mid-1987, a discharge of inorganic mercury between 22 and 35 tones of mercury in this river was estimated. In addition to this industry, others of different types were installed in recent years along the sides of this river. Based on previous studies, we conducted a new assessment of contaminated sites, comparing the changes over the years concerning the quality of water and sediment of the Botafogo river, in which the locations of collection, the need to increase the network of environmental monitoring were investigated. The parameters defined for analysis of water were: pH, dissolved oxygen (OD, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, ammonia and phosphorus concentration, color, turbidity and mercury content. It was monitored the concentration of mercury in the sediments. The values of pH, turbidity, DO, BOD and ammonia usually showed values within the limits established by CONAMA Resolution No 357. Color parameters have remained consistently high, probably caused by continuous withdrawal of sand before the points of collection. The content of phosphorus was high, until the beginning of 2005, and remained within standards required by legislation until the end of this research. In the studied area, it has been installed, since 1963, an industry for chlorine and caustic soda production, which uses in its manufacturing process electrolytic cell of mercury. In this experiment, the impact of mercury has been observed.

  3. An assessment and evaluation for recycle/reuse of contaminated process and metallurgical equipment at the DOE Rocky Flats Plant Site -- Building 865. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    An economic analysis of the potential advantages of alternatives for recycling and reusing equipment now stored in Building 865 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado has been conducted. The inventory considered in this analysis consists primarily of metallurgical and process equipment used before January 1992, during development and production of nuclear weapons components at the site. The economic analysis consists of a thorough building inventory and cost comparisons for four equipment dispositions alternatives. The first is a baseline option of disposal at a Low Level Waste (LLW) landfill. The three alternatives investigated are metal recycling, reuse with the government sector, and release for unrestricted use. This report provides item-by-item estimates of value, disposal cost, and decontamination cost. The economic evaluation methods documented here, the simple cost comparisons presented, and the data provided as a supplement, should provide a foundation for D&D decisions for Building 865, as well as for similar D&D tasks at RFP and at other sites.

  4. Egg laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Yee, Julie L.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intra-clutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. We examined the influence of egg laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last egg laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg laying order were inconsistent among species and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were literature and, among 17 species studied, mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75%-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, we determined that to accurately estimate a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests, it would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy).

  5. Monitoring contaminants of emerging concern from tertiary wastewater treatment plants using passive sampling modelled with performance reference compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Ehsanul Hoque, M; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2016-12-01

    The Lake Simcoe watershed in Ontario, Canada is an important recreational area and a recharge zone for groundwater resources. Lake Simcoe is a relatively shallow lotic system that has been impacted by urban development, recreation, industry and agriculture. As part of a watershed management plan, six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in this catchment basin were selected to measure the inputs of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) of wastewater origin. These WWTPs were recently upgraded to tertiary treatment for phosphorus removal. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to monitor for hydrophilic and hydrophobic CECs, respectively, in treated and untreated wastewater. The passive samplers were calibrated with performance reference compounds (PRCs) by measuring the loss of deuterated beta blocker drugs spiked into POCIS and the loss of PCB congeners spiked into SPMDs over the course of 14-day deployment periods. From the PRC data, field sampling rates of CECs were determined and applied to estimate time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations and mass loadings in mg/day/1000 members of the population serviced. In treated wastewater, TWA concentrations of an antibiotic, sulfamethoxazole, the prescription drugs, carbamazepine, naproxen and gemfibrozil, and the non-prescription drug, ibuprofen, were estimated to be in the low (77 %), possibly because of the tertiary treatment technologies. Therefore, the mass loadings for these personal care products were all <5 mg/day/1000 people. Overall, this study indicates that tertiary treatment technologies designed for phosphorus removal do not entirely remove the target CECs.

  6. Monitoring trace metal contaminants in green mussel, Perna viridis from the coastal waters of Karnataka, southwest coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumar, Geetha; Krishnakumar, P K; Bhat, G S

    2006-08-01

    The green mussel (Perna viridis) is widely distributed in the coastal waters of Asia and is used in mussel watch programmes for monitoring environmental contaminants throughout the region. Green mussels representing different size groups and habitats were sampled from their natural beds at 28 locations in the inshore waters of Karnataka (southwest coast of India) to analyze the tissue concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Tissue concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, and Pb were significantly higher in smaller mussels than in the larger size group. Significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ni were observed in mussels sampled from intertidal beds when compared to mussels from the subtidal beds. The sampling sites were categorized into industrial sites (IS), urban sites (US), and nonurban sites (NS) based on principal component analysis of metal concentrations in mussel. Spatial variations in tissue concentrations of all metals were observed except for Zn. Generally, the levels of toxic trace metals like Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cr in the whole tissue of P. viridis were within safe limits throughout the coast of Karnataka. However, relatively high concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Pb were observed in the whole tissue of green mussels collected from the industrial sites (IS), which may be derived from a variety of anthropogenic activities.

  7. A potential approach for monitoring drinking water quality from groundwater systems using organic matter fluorescence as an early warning for contamination events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedmon, Colin A; Seredyńska-Sobecka, Bożena; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Le Tallec, Nicolas; Waul, Christopher K; Arvin, Erik

    2011-11-15

    The fluorescence characteristics of natural organic matter in a groundwater based drinking water supply plant were studied with the aim of applying it as a technique to identify contamination of the water supply. Excitation-emission matrices were measured and modeled using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and used to identify which wavelengths provide the optimal signal for monitoring contamination events. The fluorescence was characterized by four components: three humic-like and one amino acid-like. The results revealed that the relative amounts of two of the humic-like components were very stable within the supply plant and distribution net and changed in a predictable fashion depending on which wells were supplying the water. A third humic-like component and an amino acid-like component did not differ between wells. Laboratory contamination experiments with wastewater revealed that combined they could be used as an indicator of microbial contamination. Their fluorescence spectra did not overlap with the other components and therefore the raw broadband fluorescence at the wavelengths specific to their fluorescence could be used to detect contamination. Contamination could be detected at levels equivalent to the addition of 60 μg C/L in drinking water with a TOC concentration of 3.3 mg C/L. The results of this study suggest that these types of drinking water systems, which are vulnerable to microbial contamination due to the lack of disinfectant treatment, can be easily monitored using online organic matter fluorescence as an early warning system to prompt further intensive sampling and appropriate corrective measures.

  8. 无线心电监护设备在医院的应用%Application of Wireless ECG Monitoring Equipment in Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆靓亮

    2014-01-01

    目的:目前医院患者日益增多,为了减少了医护人员的工作负担,提高医护人员工作效率和服务质量,设计了一种基于无线传感网络的心电监护设备。方法采用Zigbee、嵌入式C语言和visual studio等技术进行硬件和软件开发。结果通过测试表明,无线心电监护系统具有传输距离远、消耗功率低的特点。结论无线心电监护系统为医院的推广应用提供了基础,同时指出了该系统有待解决的问题,以及进一步研究的方向。%Objective At present, the number of patients is increasing. In order to reduce the burden for health care workers and improve work ef iciency and quality of health care services, an ECG monitoring equipment was designed based on wireless sensor networks. Methods Zigbee was used for hardware development. Software was developed using embedded C language and visual studio. Results The test showed that the wireless ECG monitoring system had the characteristics of long transmission distance and low power consumption. Conclusion Wireless ECG monitoring system provided the basis for the hospital's application. Also the problem which the system needs to be solved and the direction for further research was pointed out.

  9. 47 CFR 36.126 - Circuit equipment-Category 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... equipment. (6) Composite sets and repeating coils. (7) Program transmission amplifiers, monitoring devices... equipment is general use, while audio program transmission amplifiers, bridges, monitoring devices and... jurisdictions shall be updated annually. Information Origination/Termination (IOT) Equipment...

  10. 基于红外扫描监控技术的激光监听检测设备%Laser monitoring detection equipment based on infrared scanning monitoring technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明; 赵晓叶; 田亚慧; 倪屹

    2015-01-01

    This project is mainly for the detection of laser monitoring equipment.This project uses the method of infrared scanning monitoring, using the principles,such as the"cat eye effect"of the optical system like lens, to realize the detection of laser monitoring device, it can be used to realize the information protection in the secret meeting strict and effectively.In addition, it also can be used in the military for capturing sniper.This project can realize the detectable distance reaches 300 meters, if using a telephoto lens, such as 500 mm focal length lens, the distance will be up to 1 km.%本项目主要是针对激光监听设备的检测. 本项目采用了红外扫描监控法,利用镜头等光学系统的"猫眼效应"等原理来实现对激光监听设备的探测,可用于机密会议中实现严而有效的信息防护.除此之外,也可用于军事中狙击手方位的捕捉.本项目可以实现的可检测距离达到300 m,如果采用长焦距镜头,比如500 mm的焦距镜头,距离将达1 km.

  11. Three-Dimensional Vibration Isolator for Suppressing High-Frequency Responses for Sage III Contamination Monitoring Package (CMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Cutright, S.; Dyke, R.; Templeton, J.; Gasbarre, J.; Novak, F.

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III - International Space Station (ISS) instrument will be used to study ozone, providing global, long-term measurements of key components of the Earth's atmosphere for the continued health of Earth and its inhabitants. SAGE III is launched into orbit in an inverted configuration on SpaceX;s Falcon 9 launch vehicle. As one of its four supporting elements, a Contamination Monitoring Package (CMP) mounted to the top panel of the Interface Adapter Module (IAM) box experiences high-frequency response due to structural coupling between the two structures during the SpaceX launch. These vibrations, which were initially observed in the IAM Engineering Development Unit (EDU) test and later verified through finite element analysis (FEA) for the SpaceX launch loads, may damage the internal electronic cards and the Thermoelectric Quartz Crystal Microbalance (TQCM) sensors mounted on the CMP. Three-dimensional (3D) vibration isolators were required to be inserted between the CMP and IAM interface in order to attenuate the high frequency vibrations without resulting in any major changes to the existing system. Wire rope isolators were proposed as the isolation system between the CMP and IAM due to the low impact to design. Most 3D isolation systems are designed for compression and roll, therefore little dynamic data was available for using wire rope isolators in an inverted or tension configuration. From the isolator FEA and test results, it is shown that by using the 3D wire rope isolators, the CMP high-frequency responses have been suppressed by several orders of magnitude over a wide excitation frequency range. Consequently, the TQCM sensor responses are well below their qualification environments. It is indicated that these high-frequency responses due to the typical instrument structural coupling can be significantly suppressed by a vibration passive control using the 3D vibration isolator. Thermal and contamination

  12. Online Monitoring Information Forecast for Secondary Equipment Based on GRNN%基于GRNN的二次设备在线监测信息预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金; 苗帅; 陶文伟; 张喜铭; 丁坚勇; 朱海龙

    2016-01-01

    In allusion to continuous information in online monitoring information of grid secondary equipment such as power source voltage,device temperature,CPU usage rate and so on,generalized regression neural network (GRNN)is used for forecasting changes of the information. By comparing predicted value and actual value,relative error curve is obtained. It is verified higher veracity of GRNN in forecast by comparing with back propagation (BP)neural network and radial basis function (RBF)neural network. Meanwhile,this paper discusses to take relevance of online monitoring information of sec-ondary equipment into consideration as well as relate temperature to CPU usage rate for prediction. According to compari-son results,it is proved that it is useful to improve veracity of state prediction by taking relevance of information into consid-eration.%针对电网二次设备在线监测信息中连续变化的信息,如电源电压、装置温度、CPU 使用率等,应用广义回归神经网络(generalized regression neural network,GRNN)对这些信息在线监测值进行预测,通过对比预测值和实际值,得出相对误差曲线;再与反向传播算法(back propagation,BP)神经网络和径向基函数(radial basis function,RBF)神经网络进行对比,验证了 GRNN在预测中具有更高的准确性。同时,探讨了将二次设备在线监测信息的关联性考虑进预测中,将温度和CPU使用率关联并进行预测,与之前的预测结果进行对比,证明将信息之间的关联性考虑到预测中去有助于提高状态预测的准确性。

  13. Pilot Test of Hot Gas Decontamination of Explosives-Contaminated Equipment at Hawthorne Army Ammunition Plant (HWAAP), Hawthorne, Nevada. Appendices. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    in turn couples with N, N-dimethyl-l-naphthylamine to produce an azo- dye . This dye is determined from its absorbance at 510 um. C3 N3 N3 0 9...used. For 0, monitors that cannae analyza using asn Oreat or ’yrlte anialyse as specifications end test ptocedures are zr a.achbutngscnnro sctaz eln 3

  14. Uptake of lead, zinc, cadmium, and copper by the pulmonate mollusc, Helix aspersa Muller, and its relevance to the monitoring of heavy metal contamination of the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughtrey, P.J.; Martin, M.H.

    1977-01-13

    The occurrence of lead, zinc, cadmium, and copper in individuals of Helix aspersa from two sites of varying degrees of contamination was studied. Zinc, cadmium, and copper were shown to increase in a linear fashion with animal weight. The rate of uptake for zinc and cadmium in particular was significantly greater at the more contaminated site. Statistical analysis of the data, using correlation and regression techniques, provided information on apparent intermetallic effects. It is concluded that because metal uptake and body weight show a positive linear relationship only the use of animals of similar weight and/or size can be used for monitoring purposes. Even then, different patterns of uptake into different organs and interactions between metal uptakes are such as to seriously question the use of Helix, and other molluscs, for monitoring purposes unless specific organs from comparably sized and/or aged animals are used.

  15. Evaluation of Using Caged Clams to Monitor Contaminated Groundwater Exposure in the Near-Shore Environment of the Hanford Site 300 Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Kyle B.; Poston, Ted M.; Tiller, Brett L.

    2008-01-31

    The Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) has been identified as an indicator species for locating and monitoring contaminated groundwater in the Columbia River. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a field study to explore the use of caged Asiatic clams to monitor contaminated groundwater upwelling in the 300 Area near-shore environment and assess seasonal differences in uranium uptake in relation to seasonal flow regimes of the Columbia River. Additional objectives included examining the potential effects of uranium accumulation on growth, survival, and tissue condition of the clams. This report documents the field conditions and procedures, laboratory procedures, and statistical analyses used in collecting samples and processing the data. Detailed results are presented and illustrated, followed by a discussion comparing uranium concentrations in Asiatic clams collected at the 300 Area and describing the relationship between river discharge, groundwater indicators, and uranium in clams. Growth and survival, histology, and other sources of environmental variation also are discussed.

  16. A review on emerging contaminants in wastewaters and the environment: current knowledge, understudied areas and recommendations for future monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Bruce; Barden, Ruth; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    This review identifies understudied areas of emerging contaminant (EC) research in wastewaters and the environment, and recommends direction for future monitoring. Non-regulated trace organic ECs including pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and personal care products are focused on due to ongoing policy initiatives and the expectant broadening of environmental legislation. These ECs are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, mainly derived from the discharge of municipal wastewater effluents. Their presence is of concern due to the possible ecological impact (e.g., endocrine disruption) to biota within the environment. To better understand their fate in wastewaters and in the environment, a standardised approach to sampling is needed. This ensures representative data is attained and facilitates a better understanding of spatial and temporal trends of EC occurrence. During wastewater treatment, there is a lack of suspended particulate matter analysis due to further preparation requirements and a lack of good analytical approaches. This results in the under-reporting of several ECs entering wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) and the aquatic environment. Also, sludge can act as a concentrating medium for some chemicals during wastewater treatment. The majority of treated sludge is applied directly to agricultural land without analysis for ECs. As a result there is a paucity of information on the fate of ECs in soils and consequently, there has been no driver to investigate the toxicity to exposed terrestrial organisms. Therefore a more holistic approach to environmental monitoring is required, such that the fate and impact of ECs in all exposed environmental compartments are studied. The traditional analytical approach of applying targeted screening with low resolution mass spectrometry (e.g., triple quadrupoles) results in numerous chemicals such as transformation products going undetected. These can exhibit similar toxicity to the parent EC, demonstrating the necessity

  17. 牵张设备远程智能化监控系统的研究%The Research of a Intelligent Monitor Control System for Tension String Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠贤; 孙立州; 刘文邦; 张斌

    2011-01-01

    Taking the tension stringing equipment as study object, using wireless GPRS technology, MSP430 technology, state monitoring, signal processing, information technology and theory, the remote wireless monitoring and management system of tension stringing equipment was researched and developed. Intelligent, network-based control is realized in traditional tension stringing equipment.%以牵张设备为研究对象,利用无线通讯GPRS技术、MSP430单片机技术、状态监测、信号处理、信息化技术与理论,研究与开发了牵张设备远程无线监测管理控制系统,使传统的牵张设备现场液压控制实现了智能化、网络化控制.

  18. Design and application of the verification platform for power quality monitoring equipment%电能质量监测设备的检定平台设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈罡; 陶顺; 陈聪; 王康宁; 肖湘宁

    2015-01-01

    搭建了一个电能质量监测设备的检定平台,该平台围绕IEC61000-4-30所提出的测量方法、测量准确度和稳态性能三个方面对电能质量监测设备进行检定,可以为国内相应电能质量监测设备入网检定规范提供参考. 此外,根据检定的内容设计相应的波形库并进行了实验. 经实验证明,该平台可以完成各项电能质量指标的校准检定,具有一定的工程实用价值.%This paper sets up a verification platform for power quality monitoring equipment, the platform can test power quality monitoring equipment from the following three aspects: measurement method, measurement accuracy and steady-state verification, which is proposed by IEC 61000-4-30.It can also provide a reference for specification of power quality monitoring equipment.Besides, according to the contents of verification, a waveform database can be built and used for test.The following experiments proved that the platform can fulfill all verification tests of power quality monitoring equipment, which has some practical value.

  19. Automatic Web-Based, Radio-Network System To Monitor And Control Equipment For Investigating Gas Flux At Water - Air Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, N. T.; Silverstein, S.; Wik, M.; Beckman, P.; Crill, P. M.; Bastviken, D.; Varner, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). Robust measurements of natural GHG emissions are vital for evaluating regional to global carbon budgets and for assessing climate feedbacks on natural emissions to improve climate models. Diffusive and ebullitive (bubble) transport are two major pathways of gas release from surface waters. To capture the high temporal variability of these fluxes in a well-defined footprint, we designed and built an inexpensive automatic device that includes an easily mobile diffusive flux chamber and a bubble counter, all in one. Besides a function of automatically collecting gas samples for subsequent various analyses in the laboratory, this device utilizes low cost CO2 sensor (SenseAir, Sweden) and CH4 sensor (Figaro, Japan) to measure GHG fluxes. To measure the spatial variability of emissions, each of the devices is equipped with an XBee module to enable a local radio communication DigiMesh network for time synchronization and data readout at a server-controller station on the lakeshore. Software of this server-controller is operated on a low cost Raspberry Pi computer which has a 3G connection for remote monitoring - controlling functions from anywhere in the world. From field studies in Abisko, Sweden in summer 2014 and 2015, the system has resulted in measurements of GHG fluxes comparable to manual methods. In addition, the deployments have shown the advantage of a low cost automatic network system to study GHG fluxes on lakes in remote locations.

  20. The Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus; Squamata: Varanidae) as a sentinel species for lead and cadmium contamination in sub-Saharan wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciliberti, Alexandre [Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Vetagro-Sup, Campus Veterinaire de Lyon, 1 avenue Bourgelat, F-69280 Marcy-l' Etoile, UMR 1233 Mycotoxines et Toxicologie Comparee des Xenobiotiques (France); Berny, Philippe, E-mail: p.berny@vetagro-sup.fr [Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Vetagro-Sup, Campus Veterinaire de Lyon, 1 avenue Bourgelat, F-69280 Marcy-l' Etoile, UMR 1233 Mycotoxines et Toxicologie Comparee des Xenobiotiques (France); Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure [Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Vetagro-Sup, Campus Veterinaire de Lyon, 1 avenue Bourgelat, F-69280 Marcy-l' Etoile (France); Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5558, Laboratoire de Biometrie et Biologie Evolutive, F-69622, Villeurbanne (France); Buffrenil, Vivian de [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CC 48, 57 rue Cuvier, F-75005 Paris, Departement Histoire de la Terre, UMR 7207 CR2P (France)

    2011-10-15

    Wetland pollution is a matter of concern in sub-Saharan Africa. Though regularly exploited, the Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus), a large amphibious lizard, is not threatened. This work aims at assessing the value of this varanid as a sentinel species in surveys of environmental contamination by metals. Lead and cadmium quantifications were performed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrophotometry in bone, intestine, kidney, liver and muscle in 71 monitors from three unevenly polluted sites in Mali and Niger, plus a reference site. The effects of sex, size and fat reserves as well as factors related to the sampling strategy (tissue sampled, sampling site) were studied with a mixed linear model. Metal contamination is moderate at the four sites but clear differences nevertheless occur. Lead levels are generally maximal in bone, with a gender-independent median value 320 ng.g{sup -1}. Median cadmium concentrations never exceed 70.2 ng.g{sup -1} in females (kidney) and 57.5 ng.g{sup -1} in males (intestine). Such levels should have no detrimental effects on the monitors. Lead and cadmium levels in muscles are generally below 200 and 20 ng.g{sup -1}, respectively, and should provoke no health hazard to occasional consumers of monitor meat. Metal organotropisms are consistent with those observed in other studies about Squamates: for lead: bone > [kidney, intestine, liver] > muscle in males and [bone, kidney] > [intestine, liver] > muscle in females; for cadmium: [liver, intestine, kidney] > [bone, muscle] for both genders. Females are more contaminated, especially in their kidneys. In this tissue, median values in ng.g{sup -1} are 129.7 and 344.0 for lead and 43.0 and 70.2 for cadmium, for males and females, respectively. Nile monitors can reveal subtle differences in local pollution by metals; moreover, the spatial resolution of the pollution indication that they give seems to be very sharp. The practical relevance of this new tool is thus validated.

  1. Geophysical technique and groundwater monitoring to detect leachate contamination in the surrounding area of a landfill--Londrina (PR--Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Deize Dias; Silva, Sandra M C P; Fernandes, Fernandes; Teixeira, Raquel S; Celligoi, André; Dall'Antônia, Luiz Henrique

    2012-12-30

    The aim of the present study was to define leachate plume by using two techniques: geophysical and groundwater sampling in order to evaluate groundwater contamination. After performing a topographic survey and using geophysics, the leachate plume was identified. With this data, the wells for groundwater monitoring were located. Groundwater samples were analyzed for: COD, BOD, pH, alkalinity, conductivity, TKN and heavy metals. Through the electroresistivity method it was possible to define the shape of plume contamination. This method was important to locate the groundwater monitoring wells. The results of the physicochemical parameters showed the suitability of the geophysical study. The highest values of electric conductivity and alkalinity correspond to the wells located in the area interpreted as contaminated by leachate in the map of the resistivity. Even with seasonal variations, BOD values are low if compared to Brazilian environmental regulations, but COD values are higher up to 40 times the values of BOD. The concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cd and Cu in the groundwater are below the limits established by the potable water quality standards in Brazil, except for Pb whose concentration in groundwater were higher if compared to Brazilian legislation.

  2. Aquatic Global Passive Sampling (AQUA-GAPS) Revisited: First Steps toward a Network of Networks for Monitoring Organic Contaminants in the Aquatic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Rainer; Muir, Derek; Zeng, Eddy Y; Bao, Lian-Jun; Allan, Ian J; Arinaitwe, Kenneth; Booij, Kees; Helm, Paul; Kaserzon, Sarit; Mueller, Jochen F; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Smedes, Foppe; Tsapakis, Manolis; Wong, Charles S; You, Jing

    2017-02-07

    Organic contaminants, in particular persistent organic pollutants (POPs), adversely affect water quality and aquatic food webs across the globe. As of now, there is no globally consistent information available on concentrations of dissolved POPs in water bodies. The advance of passive sampling techniques has made it possible to establish a global monitoring program for these compounds in the waters of the world, which we call the Aquatic Global Passive Sampling (AQUA-GAPS) network. A recent expert meeting discussed the background, motivations, and strategic approaches of AQUA-GAPS, and its implementation as a network of networks for monitoring organic contaminants (e.g., POPs and others contaminants of concern). Initially, AQUA-GAPS will demonstrate its operating principle via two proof-of-concept studies focused on the detection of legacy and emerging POPs in freshwater and coastal marine sites using both polyethylene and silicone passive samplers. AQUA-GAPS is set up as a decentralized network, which is open to other participants from around the world to participate in deployments and to initiate new studies. In particular, participants are sought to initiate deployments and studies investigating the presence of legacy and emerging POPs in Africa, Central, and South America.

  3. Monitoring Framework Design for Logistics Equipment Based on RFID%基于RFID的物流装备信息监控网络平台设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘富春; 周受钦

    2012-01-01

    Containers are the core equipment of the logistics transportation in the world,and over 90 percent of the international transportation is accomplished by containers. The effectiveness of logistics and custom clearance it due to the lag in technology of intelligence and informationization of the container transportation,and unable to monitor in visualized mode. It investigates the developments of the monitoring and management of the smart containers based on the RFID technique,and designs the system platform for internet of things based on the smart containers. This platform can make the overall supply chain information unopposed, and can enhance the effectiveness of the modern logistics. This research provides the perfect product and technique scheme for smart container applications.%集装箱是全球物流运输的核心装备,全球国际货运90%以上都是通过集装箱完成,目前集装箱运输的智能化和信息化技术落后,从而导致物流效率低、海关通关效率低且做不到实时可视化监控.文中基于射频识别和嵌入式徽控制器技术开发了用于托盘和集装箱等物流装备的智能数据采集终端,进而设计了基于智能集装箱的现代物流装备物联网系统平台.该平台的广泛应用使现代物流系统的整个供应链信息流畅通,实现了可视化监控,大幅度提高了现代物流效率.为行业应用提供智能集装箱成熟产品和技术方案.

  4. Method of On-Line Monitoring for Insulation of Power Equipment%电力设备绝缘性在线监测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵振英; 李宝华

    2011-01-01

    为了减小电力设备绝缘性在线监测装置安装和维护的难度,降低现场干扰对测量精度的影响,提出了一种利用无线传感器网络(WSN:Wireless Sensor Networks)通信及授时、采用相关性算法计算介质损耗角的新方法.详细阐述了方法的测量原理、同步测量授时方法,对相关性算法计算相角进行了理论论证,并导出软件实现公式,设计了用于验证该方法的在线监测系统.通过对比得出,相关性算法比FFT(Fast Fourier Transformation)算法的效率提高了128倍,且精度更高.现场模拟实验表明,基于该方法的监测系统对介质损耗因素tanδ的测量精度达到了 0.039%,较QS1西林电桥法具有更强的抗干扰能力.%In order to reduce the influence caused by interference on site and the difficulty to install the system, an on-line monitoring method based on WSN ( Wireless Sensor Networks ) and correlation algorithm is designed to measure dielectric loss in high-voltage electricity equipments. It provided detail introductions to the system measuring principle and synchronization sampling. Theoretical demonstration to phase calculation with correlation algorithm is supplied and the design of on-line monitoring system based on such algorithm is represented. Compared with FFT ( Fast Fourier Transformation ) algorithm, the efficiency of correlation algorithm is 128 times higher. On-site simulation experiments show that the measurement precision of dielectric loss factor tan δ has reached 0. 039% , and the system has better anti-interference than QS1 furbenicillin bridge.

  5. 输变电设备监测装置运行故障及可用性分析%Monitoring Device Fault and Availability Analysis of Electric Transmission and Transformation Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永奇

    2016-01-01

    In allusion to the current situation of lower availability ratio of electric transmission and transformation equipment online monitor-ing device at present, introduction was made to the practical application of monitoring device. This paper analyzed the fault causes of electric transmission and transformation equipment generated in the respects of communications, power supply, sensors and workstations, and presented fault handling measures, so as to improve the availability of electric transmission and transformation equipment online monitoring device.%针对目前输变电设备在线监测装置可用率较低的现状,介绍了监测装置的实际应用情况,分析了输变电设备在线监测装置在通信、供电电源、传感器及工作站等方面故障产生的原因,并提出了相应的处理措施,以提高输变电设备监测装置的可用率。

  6. Subsurface Contamination Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Yuan

    2001-11-16

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the

  7. Subsurface Contamination Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Yuan

    2001-12-12

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the

  8. VAMOS: The verification and monitoring options study: Current research options for in-situ monitoring and verification of contaminant remediation and containment within the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betsill, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, R.D. [Tech Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Verification and Monitoring Options Study Project (VAMOS) was established to identify high-priority options for future vadose-zone environmental research in the areas of in-situ remediation monitoring, post-closure monitoring, and containment emplacement and verification monitoring. VAMOS examined projected needs not currently being met with applied technology in order to develop viable monitoring and verification research options. The study emphasized a compatible systems approach to reinforce the need for utilizing compatible components to provide user friendly site monitoring systems. To identify the needs and research options related to vadose-zone environmental monitoring and verification, a literature search and expert panel forums were conducted. The search included present drivers for environmental monitoring technology, technology applications, and research efforts. The forums included scientific, academic, industry, and regulatory environmental professionals as well as end users of environmental technology. The experts evaluated current and future monitoring and verification needs, methods for meeting these needs, and viable research options and directions. A variety of high-priority technology development, user facility, and technology guidance research options were developed and presented as an outcome of the literature search and expert panel forums.

  9. Electrical Ground Support Equipment Fabrication, Specification for

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Erik C.

    2014-01-01

    This document specifies parts, materials, and processes used in the fabrication, maintenance, repair, and procurement of electrical and electronic control and monitoring equipment associated with ground support equipment (GSE) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

  10. Research on Efifcacy and Safety of Medical Mobile Communication Monitoring Equipment%医用移动通信监测设备有效性和安全性的分析和监管研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周平

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the structure and electrical security features of medical mobile communication monitoring equipment, and analyzes the regulatory direction in the future. In order to ensure the safety use of the equipment, this paper suggests conducting standardize research on the efifcacy and safety of the equipment, and formulating relevant standards to realize standardized production.%本文主要对医用移动通信监测设备的结构特征及电气安全特征进行介绍,并对其未来的监管方向进行分析。建议对其有效性和安全性进行标准化研究,并制定相关标准进行规范生产以保障用械安全。

  11. Construction Equipment Monitoring System of the Optimization Control and Energy-saving%浅议建筑设备监控系统的优化控制与节能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀杰

    2012-01-01

    At present, our country construction equipment monitoring system already get more extensive application. But the fact is not very ideal, construction equipment monitoring system engineering from design, construction, commissioning, checking to operation management and so on each link in not norms of behavior, so that effective operation and management of equipment in the role of the systems rarely. Building lighting, heating, air conditioning, water supply system, office equipment and elevator of equipment such as energy consumption ~11 always be accompanied by the use of the building process and happen. In the whole life cycle of building, building materials and construction process of the consumption of energy resources accounts for only the total energy consumption by 20% or so, most of the energy consumption in buildings happened during operation. Building operation consumption can be through the advanced construction equipment monitoring system optimal management science, for saving energy Building operation consumption can be through the advanced construction equipment monitoring system optimal management science, for saving energy.%目前,我国建筑设备监控系统已得到较广泛的应用。但实际情况并不是非常理想,建筑设备监控系统工程从设计、施工、调试、验收到运行管理等各个环节都存在不规范的行为,以致有效投运并在设备管理上发挥作用的系统很少。建筑物照明、采暖、空调、给排水系统、办公设备和电梯等设备的能耗将一直伴随建筑物的使用过程。在建筑的全生命周期中,建筑材料和建造过程所消耗的能源一般只占其总能源消耗的20%左右,大部分能源消耗发生在建筑物运行过程中。建筑运行能耗可通过先进的建筑设备监控系统进行科学优化管理,实现节能降耗。

  12. Mussel-based monitoring of trace metal and organic contaminants along the east coast of China using Perna viridis and Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, C.N.; Lam, J.C.W.; Zheng, G.J.; Connell, D.W.; Monirith, I.; Tanabe, S.; Richardson, B.J.; Lam, P.K.S

    2004-01-01

    Green lipped mussels, Perna viridis, and blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were collected from seven locations along the east coast of China in September and October 2001. The mussel tissues were analyzed for metals (Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn, Cu, Fe and Hg), and trace organic contaminants including organochlorine compounds (OCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; based on 24 individual PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). Maximum concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn, Cu, Fe and Hg in the mussel tissues were 0.14, 26.76, 5.31, 15.72, 4.78, 2.93, 7.40, 231.0, 54.17, 1002 and 317.3 {mu}g/g dry weight respectively. Levels of DDTs, PAHs, PCBs and PHCs in the mussel samples were 14-640, 456-3495, 1-13 ng/g and 621-2863 {mu}g/g dry weight, respectively. Results of this study indicated that contaminant levels were, in general, higher or at least comparable to those reported in other local or regional studies. Mussel samples collected in Chongming Dao in Shanghai and Jiao Zhou Wan in Qingdao had significantly higher levels of metal and trace organic contaminants among the seven sampling stations. Examination of the contaminant profiles suggests that PHCs originated from petrogenic sources, while both petrogenic and pyrolytic sources were important for PAHs. The generally high levels of metals and organochlorine compounds are probably the result of increasingly intense industrial activities along the east coast of China. An assessment of potential risks to human health due to consumption of the mussels was undertaken for the metals, PCBs, DDTs and chlordanes, and the results indicated that all metals, except Ni, could pose a health risk to heavy seafood consumers, while Hg appears to be of concern even for low level consumers. - Mussel-based monitoring revealed trace metal and organic contaminants which pose potential human health risks.

  13. Environmental contaminants in freshwater fish and their risk to piscivorous wildlife based on a national monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, J.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Chojnacki, K.A.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental concentrations were measured in piscivorous and benthivorous fish at 111 sites from large U.S. river basins. Potential contaminant sources such as urban and agricultural runoff, industrial discharges, mine drainage, and irrigation varied among the sampling sites. Our objectives were to provide summary statistics for chemical contaminants and to determine if contaminant concentrations in the fish were a risk to wildlife that forage at these sites. Concentrations of dieldrin, total DDT, total PCBs, toxaphene, TCDD-EQ, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium, and zinc exceeded toxicity thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife in samples from at least one site; most exceedences were for total PCBs, mercury, and zinc. Chemical concentrations in fish from the Mississippi River Basin exceeded the greatest number of toxicity thresholds. Screening level wildlife risk analysis models were developed for bald eagle and mink using no adverse effect levels (NOAELs), which were derived from adult dietary exposure or tissue concentration studies and based primarily on reproductive endpoints. No effect hazard concentrations (NEHC) were calculated by comparing the NOAEL to the food ingestion rate (dietary-based NOAEL) or biomagnification factor (tissue-based NOAEL) of each receptor. Piscivorous wildlife may be at risk from a contaminant if the measured concentration in fish exceeds the NEHC. Concentrations of most organochlorine residues and elemental contaminants represented no to low risk to bald eagle and mink at most sites. The risk associated with pentachloroanisole, aldrin, Dacthal, methoxychlor, mirex, and toxaphene was unknown because NOAELs for these contaminants were not available for bald eagle or mink. Risk differed among modeled species and sites. Our screening level analysis indicates that the greatest risk to piscivorous wildlife was from total DDT, total PCBs, TCDD-EQ, mercury, and selenium. Bald eagles

  14. Multimedia Classroom Management System based on Real-time Monitoring of Equipment Status%基于设备状态实时监测的多媒体教室管理系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙进康; 张学平

    2014-01-01

    基于设备状态实时监测技术,开发一种对多媒体教室设备进行技术状态实时监测、运行数据自动采集、管理程序关联控制的集成管理系统,阐述系统的功能与架构,介绍关键技术的实现,给出系统的应用模式。%According to the technology of equipment status real-time monitoring, a integrated management system is developed, including multimedia classroom equipment status real-time monitoring, data automatic collection, management procedures associated control. It expounds the system function architecture, introduces the key technology of implementation, and gives the application of the system model.

  15. 基于GS M与AR M的船用设备远程监控系统%Remote Monitoring and Control System for Shipborne Equipment Based on GSM and ARM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子晗; 李维嘉

    2016-01-01

    Based on the mature communication technology of GSM,the remote monitoring and control system for shipborne equipment uses relevant communication modules combined with the ARM processor and the pro-gramming software MDK to achieve collection,packaging and sending of the operating parameters and fault messa-ges of the shipborne equipment.The information processing and monitoring interfaces programmed by VC++en-able the monitoring personnel to master the operating parameters and faults of the equipment based on the indicator lights and prompt messages on the screen thus improving the level of intelligent ship management.%基于全球移动通信系统GSM的成熟通信技术,采用相关通信模块与ARM处理器相配合,使用MDK软件进行程序编写,完成了船用设备工作参数与故障信息的收集、打包以及发送工作.基于VC++语言所编写的信息处理与监控界面,使监控人员可以通过屏幕上的指示灯和提示信息,对设备的工作参数、故障问题加以掌控,提高了船舶智能化管理的水平.

  16. Heavy metals bioaccumulation in selected tissues of red swamp crayfish: An easy tool for monitoring environmental contamination levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goretti, E; Pallottini, M; Ricciarini, M I; Selvaggi, R; Cappelletti, D

    2016-07-15

    In this paper we explored the heavy metal bioaccumulation (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in Procambarus clarkii, a crayfish recently suggested as a potential bioindicator for metals pollution in freshwater systems. The present study is focused on crayfishes populations caught in a heavily polluted industrial and in a reference sites (Central Italy), though the results are generalized with a thorough analysis of literature metadata. In agreement with the literature, the hepatopancreas (Hep, detoxification tissues) of the red swamp crayfish showed a higher concentration of heavy metals in comparison to the abdominal muscle (AbM, not detoxification tissues) in the sites under scrutiny. Hep/AbM concentration ratio was dependent on the specific metal investigated and on its sediment contamination level. Specifically we found that Hep/AbM ratio decreases as follows: Cd (11.7)>Cu (5.5)>Pb (3.6)>Zn (1.0) and Pb (4.34)>Cd (3.66)>Zn (1.69)>Cu (0.87) for the industrial and reference sites, respectively. The analysis of our bioaccumulation data as well as of literature metadata allowed to elaborate a specific contamination index (Toxic Contamination Index, TCI), dependent only on the bioaccumulation data of hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle. In the industrial site, TCI expressed values much higher than the unit for Cd and Cu, confirming that these metals were the main contaminants; in contrast for lower levels of heavy metals, as those observed in the reference site for Cu, Zn and Pb, the index provided values below unit. TCI is proposed as a useful and easy tool to assess the toxicity level of contaminated sites by heavy metals in the environmental management.

  17. [Hygienic maintenance of water mist-generating equipment that couples directly to the tap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamatake, Michiko; Aoki, Rie; Yamazaki, Mitsugu; Ohnishi, Kenjiro; Matsumoto, Kazutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Water mist is usually generated using equipment directly connected to the water tap, as its installation is relatively easy. However, there is no legal regulation regarding the maintenance of this equipment, and the quality of the mist has not been sufficiently well investigated. In this study, we sought to establish methods that allow the hygienic maintenance of this equipment. We monitored the use of the mist generating equipment in five of the 61 institutions in the jurisdiction of Ichinomiya Health Center, examined the resulting water quality, and tested for Legionella bacteria in the mist. If equipment was found to contain bacteria, the contaminated part was identified by counting the number of bacteria in the water after sequentially washing and disinfecting parts of the equipment. We also identified the predominant bacterial species. In the water mists from three of 5 institutions, the number of bacteria greatly exceeded that permitted for drinking-water, even though the residual chlorine level was >0.1 mg/l. However, no Legionella bacteria were detected. Brevundimonas species were predominant in the water mists at each institute. The hose was found to be the contaminated component in each case. Our findings suggest that the number of bacteria in the water mist exceeded the drinking-water quality standard, even with a residual chlorine level of >0.1 mg/l. This study also revealed the importance of the continued drainage of water, following suitable cleaning and disinfection for maintenance of the mist-generating equipment.

  18. 内加热移动床生物质炭化中试设备监控系统开发%Monitoring and control system development for pilot-scale moving bed biomass carbonization equipment with internal heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛宏斌; 赵立欣; 孟海波; 姚宗路

    2015-01-01

    consumption as well as difficulty in control of process parameters with biomass carbonization equipment, based on the development of moving bed biomass carbonization equipment with internal heating, monitoring and control system was developed by using the software platform of Kingview, and feedback control mechanism and cascade control technology the system are adopted. The monitoring and control system mainly includes feeding control system, the carbonization environment monitoring system, biochar discharging control system, and other auxiliary software system, etc. The main and deputy controllers for monitoring carbonization temperature and furnace pressure are respectively positional PID and incremental PID. Production test results show that monitoring and control system is stable and reliable, which can realize orderly control of equipment operation and directional control of carbonization environment. Compared with no monitoring system, equipment productivity increases by 18.3%, and the carbon yield increases by 2.3 points. Development and application of the monitor and control system provides technical support for the industrialization promotion of related equipments. In automatic work mode of the monitoring and control system, control mechanism and the control algorithm are the main influence factors in order to realize directional process control of the biochar. On the one hand, we need further optimize process parameters of different materials through a lot of production test under internal heating condition, on the other hand, we need further analysis the influence of control parameters (such as negative pressure, the air inlet opening, air inlet position, etc.) on the carbonization environment (such as carbonization temperature, heating rate, catalyst, etc.), and optimize the environment of coking equipment control mechanism and algorithm.%针对目前生物质炭化设备生产率低、炭化工艺参数控制困难等问题,在研制内加热移动床生物质

  19. Environmental Monitoring and Analysis of Faecal Contamination in an Urban Setting in the City of Bari (Apulia Region, Italy: Health and Hygiene Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tempesta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence of pathogens in public areas in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy. To determine the degree of environmental contamination, samples of dog faeces and bird guano were collected from different areas in the city of Bari (park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school. A total of 152 canine faecal samples, in 54 pools, and two samples of pigeon guano from 66 monitored sites were examined. No samples were found in 12 areas spread over nine sites. Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in seven canine and two pigeon guano samples. Salmonella species were not found.  On the other hand, four of 54 canine faecal samples were positive for reovirus. Thirteen canine faecal samples were positive for parasite eggs: 8/54 samples contained Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs and 5/54 samples contained Ancylostoma caninum eggs. Our study showed that public areas are often contaminated by potentially zoonotic pathogens.

  20. [Monitoring of contamination of foodstuffs with elements noxious to human health. Part II. Mineral waters, soft drinks, fruits, nuts, rice, soybeans, fish and seafood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Starska, Krystyna; Mania, Monika; Brulińska-Ostrowska, Elzbieta; Biernat, Urszula; Karłowski, Kazimierz

    2010-01-01

    Results of the 5-years cycle (2004-2008) monitoring investigations on food contamination with elements noxious to human health, involving testing of mineral waters and soft drinks (226 samples), fruits (467 samples), rice (234 samples), soybeans (236 samples), nuts and peanuts (237 samples), fish and seafood (237 samples) are discussed. The parties involved in testing were: laboratories of State Sanitary Inspection and the national reference laboratory of the Department of Food and Consumer Articles Research of National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. The reported metals contents did not give rise to health concerns, remaining generally below the levels set forth in food legislation and being comparable with contamination levels reported in other European countries; and for cadmium--often lower. Health hazard assessment was performed taking into account the mean contamination levels obtained and average domestic consumption of these food products groups in Poland. The highest intake expressed as the percentage of provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) was obtained for mercury in fish, which has reached mean 3.2% PTWI. Controlled fish consumption recommendations should be adhered to by prospective mothers, pregnant women, breast-feeding women and young children. Lead and arsenic intake with mineral waters and soft drinks comprises approx. 15% of total intake of these elements with food.

  1. Monitoring the bio-stimulation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by measurements of soil electrical properties, and CO2 content and its 13C/12C isotopic signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, C.; Gourry, J.; Ignatiadis, I.; Colombano, S.; Dictor, M.; Guimbaud, C.; Chartier, M.; Dumestre, A.; Dehez, S.; Naudet, V.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminated soils represent an environmental issue as it impacts on ecosystems and aquifers. Where significant subsurface heterogeneity exists, conventional intrusive investigations and groundwater sampling can be insufficient to obtain a robust monitoring of hydrocarbon contaminants, as the information they provide is restricted to vertical profiles at discrete locations, with no information between sampling points. In order to obtain wider information in space volume on subsurface modifications, complementary methods can be used like geophysics. Among geophysical methods, geoelectrical techniques such as electrical resistivity (ER) and induced polarization (IP) seem the more promising, especially to study the effects of biodegradation processes. Laboratory and field geoelectrical experiments to characterize soils contaminated by oil products have shown that mature hydrocarbon-contaminated soils are characterized by enhanced electrical conductivity although hydrocarbons are electrically resistive. This high bulk conductivity is due to bacterial impacts on geological media, resulting in changes in the chemical and physical properties and thus, to the geophysical properties of the ground. Moreover, microbial activity induced CO2 production and isotopic deviation of carbon. Indeed, produced CO2 will reflect the pollutant isotopic signature. Thus, the ratio δ13C(CO2) will come closer to δ13C(hydrocarbon). BIOPHY, project supported by the French National Research Agency (ANR), proposes to use electrical methods and gas analyses to develop an operational and non-destructive method for monitoring in situ biodegradation of hydrocarbons in order to optimize soil treatment. Demonstration field is located in the South of Paris (France), where liquid fuels (gasoline and diesel) leaked from some tanks in 1997. In order to stimulate biodegradation, a trench has been dug to supply oxygen to the water table and thus stimulate aerobic metabolic bioprocesses. ER and

  2. Monitoring and assessment of toxic metals in Gulf War oil spill contaminated soil using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, T; Gondal, M A

    2008-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied for the detection of toxic metals in oil spill contaminated soil (OSCS). The OSCS samples were collected from Khursania Saudi Arabia along the coast of Persian Gulf exposed to oil spills in 1991 Gulf war. Environmentally important elements like Aluminum Magnesium, Calcium, Chromium, Titanium, Strontium, Iron, Barium, Sodium, potassium, Zirconium and Vanadium from the contaminated soil have been detected. Optimal experimental conditions for analysis were investigated. The LIBS system was calibrated using standard samples containing these trace elements. The results obtained using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) were compared with the results obtained using Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICP). The concentrations of some elements (Ba and Cr) were found higher than permissible safe limits. Health risks associated with exposure to such toxic elements are also discussed.

  3. Endocrine disrupting compounds and other emerging contaminants in the environment: A survey on new monitoring strategies and occurrence data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, M.; Eljarrat, E.; Lopez de Alda, M.J.; Barcelo, D. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, c/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-02-01

    An overview of Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) procedures, used for the effect-based analysis of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in environmental samples, is presented. Future trends in advanced chemical analysis of EDCs and some emerging contaminants are outlined. The review also gives an overview of concentration levels found in environmental samples and discusses the correlation of calculated estrogenicity (based on chemical analysis of target EDCs) with that measured by various bioassays. (orig.)

  4. Monitoring of selected priority and emerging contaminants in the Guadalquivir River and other related surface waters in the province of Jaén, South East Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Molina, José; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The province of Jaén counts with four natural parks, numerous rivers, reservoirs and wetlands; moreover, it is probably the region with higher olive oil production in the world, which makes this zone a proper target to be studied based on the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/CE. The aim of this survey is to monitor a total number of 373 compounds belonging to different families (pesticides, PAHs, nitrosamines, drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals and life-style compounds) in surface waters located at different points of the province of Jaén. Among these compounds some priority organic substances (regulated by the EU Directive 2008/105/EC) and pollutants of emerging concern (not regulated yet) can be found. A liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) method covering 340 compounds was developed and applied, together with a gas chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method which enabled the analysis of 63 organic contaminants (30 of these compounds are analyzed by LC-TOFMS as well). From April 2009 to November 2010 a total of 83 surface water samples were collected (rivers, reservoirs and wetlands). In this period numerous organic contaminants were detected, most of them at the ng L(-1) level. The most frequently priority substances found were chlorpyrifos ethyl, diuron and hexachlorobenzene. Within the other groups, the most frequently detected compounds were: terbuthylazine, oxyfluorfen, desethyl terbuthylazine, diphenylamine (pesticide family); fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene (PAHs group), codeine, paracetamol (pharmaceuticals compounds) and caffeine, nicotine (life-style compounds). As is could be expected, the total concentration of emerging contaminants is distinctly larger than that of priority pollutants, highlighting the importance of continuing with the study of their presence, fate and effects in aquatic environments. However, concentration levels (at the ng per liter level) are low in

  5. Environmental contaminants programs on-refuge investigations sub-activity: Final report year 6: Nationwide malfromed amphibian monitoring project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2004, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) personnel monitored five National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in Region 6, which included Alamosa NWR and Arapaho NWR...

  6. Environmental contaminants programs on-refuge investigations sub-activity: Final report year 5: Nationwide malfromed amphibian monitoring project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2004, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) personnel monitored five National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in Region 6, which included Alamosa NWR and Arapaho NWR...

  7. Validation of an integrative methodology to assess and monitor reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes in contaminated aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia-Estelle eTarnawski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation of tetra-and trichloroethene-contaminated aquifers is frequently hampered due to incomplete dechlorination to the more toxic dichloroethene (DCE and vinyl chloride (VC, indicating insufficient knowledge about the biological mechanisms related to aquifer functioning. A methodology based on the joint analysis of geochemical and microbiological datasets was developed to assess the presence of the biochemical potential for complete reductive dechlorination to harmless ethene and to explain the reasons for which degradation often stalls at the more toxic intermediates. This methodology is composed of three successive steps, with i the acquisition of geochemical data including chlorinated ethenes, ii the detailed analysis of the bacterial community structures as well as the biochemical potential for complete dechlorination using microcosms and molecular detection of organohalide-respiring bacteria and key reductive dehalogenases, and iii a statistical Multiple Factor Analysis combining the above mentioned abiotic and biotic variables in a functional modelling of the contaminated aquifer. The methodology was validated by analyzing two chlorinated ethenes-contaminated sites. Results from the first site showed that the full biochemical potential for ethene production was present in situ. However, redox potential was overall too high and locally manganese reduction out-competed chlorinated ethenes reduction, explaining the reasons for the local accumulation of DCE and VC to a lesser extent. The second contaminated aquifer was under bioremediation by successive cheese whey injections. Analysis demonstrated that cheese whey additions led to increasingly reduced redox conditions and that hampered reductive dechlorination was not due to competition with other anaerobic respiration processes. Complete reductive dechlorination to ethene was preferentially occurring under methanogenic conditions. DCE and VC accumulation was probably induced first

  8. 基于无线网络的动车组检修设备监视信息系统设计%Design of the EMUs Equipments Monitor Information System Based on Wireless Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高静涛; 宫涛; 秦传鑫; 徐澎

    2011-01-01

    With the beginning of EMUs, the equipments of EMUs have been the important guarantee for the EMUs security.Many of the equipments of EMUs are on-line and nearby the railway, and many railway branches have no standby.But existing equipment management Information system (EMIS) has not been able to reflect the real time Information of equipment state.By the base of the existing EMIS, this system used wireless network, PDA and the technology of code identify.There is not only the function of EMUs equipments curriculum vitae, but also the function of real time monitor to equipments.%随着动车组列车的开行,动车组检修没备已经成为动车组安全运行的重要保障.动车组检修设备多为在线设备或轨边设备,且多数站段都没有备用设备,而现有的铁路车辆段设备管理信息系统已经不能实时反映设备状态.该系统建立在现有设备管理信息系统的基础上,利用无线网络、PDA设备以及条码识别技术设计,不仅具有动车组检修设备履历簿功能,而且增加了设备实时监视功能.

  9. Internal contamination monitoring through measurements in vivo at whole body contamination unity of IRD-CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Monitoracao da contaminacao interna atraves de medicoes in vivo na Unidade de Contador de Corpo Inteiro do IRD-CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Ana Leticia A.; Lucena, Eder A.; Dantas, Bernardo M., E-mail: adantas@ird.gov.b, E-mail: eder@ird.gov.b, E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao In Vivo. Servico de Monitoracao Individual Interna

    2011-10-26

    The present work approaches the internal contamination monitoring capacity through measurements performed at the Whole-body Counter Unity of the in-vivo monitoring laboratory (LABMIV) of the IRD-CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, present thr main parameters related to the monitoring techniques developed, and the the available instrumentation for identification and quantification in vivo of photon emitter radionuclides with energy in the range of 10-3000 keV, incorporated by workers and public individuals

  10. Bioassay battery interlaboratory investigation of emerging contaminants in spiked water extracts - Towards the implementation of bioanalytical monitoring tools in water quality assessment and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, Carolina; Ottermanns, Richard; Keiter, Steffen; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Bluhm, Kerstin; Brack, Werner; Breitholtz, Magnus; Buchinger, Sebastian; Carere, Mario; Chalon, Carole; Cousin, Xavier; Dulio, Valeria; Escher, Beate I; Hamers, Timo; Hilscherová, Klára; Jarque, Sergio; Jonas, Adam; Maillot-Marechal, Emmanuelle; Marneffe, Yves; Nguyen, Mai Thao; Pandard, Pascal; Schifferli, Andrea; Schulze, Tobias; Seidensticker, Sven; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Tang, Janet; van der Oost, Ron; Vermeirssen, Etienne; Zounková, Radka; Zwart, Nick; Hollert, Henner

    2016-11-01

    Bioassays are particularly useful tools to link the chemical and ecological assessments in water quality monitoring. Different methods cover a broad range of toxicity mechanisms in diverse organisms, and account for risks posed by non-target compounds and mixtures. Many tests are already applied in chemical and waste assessments, and stakeholders from the science-police interface have recommended their integration in regulatory water quality monitoring. Still, there is a need to address bioassay suitability to evaluate water samples containing emerging pollutants, which are a current priority in water quality monitoring. The presented interlaboratory study (ILS) verified whether a battery of miniaturized bioassays, conducted in 11 different laboratories following their own protocols, would produce comparable results when applied to evaluate blinded samples consisting of a pristine water extract spiked with four emerging pollutants as single chemicals or mixtures, i.e. triclosan, acridine, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA). Assays evaluated effects on aquatic organisms from three different trophic levels (algae, daphnids, zebrafish embryos) and mechanism-specific effects using in vitro estrogenicity (ER-Luc, YES) and mutagenicity (Ames fluctuation) assays. The test battery presented complementary sensitivity and specificity to evaluate the different blinded water extract spikes. Aquatic organisms differed in terms of sensitivity to triclosan (algae > daphnids > fish) and acridine (fish > daphnids > algae) spikes, confirming the complementary role of the three taxa for water quality assessment. Estrogenicity and mutagenicity assays identified with high precision the respective mechanism-specific effects of spikes even when non-specific toxicity occurred in mixture. For estrogenicity, although differences were observed between assays and models, EE2 spike relative induction EC50 values were comparable to the literature, and E2/EE2

  11. Comprehensive GC²/MS for the monitoring of aromatic tar oil constituents during biodegradation in a historically contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilieva, Viktoriya; Scherr, Kerstin E; Edelmann, Eva; Hasinger, Marion; Loibner, Andreas P

    2012-02-20

    The constituents of tar oil comprise a wide range of physico-chemically heterogeneous pollutants of environmental concern. Besides the sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons defined as priority pollutants by the US-EPA (EPA-PAHs), a wide range of substituted (NSO-PAC) and alkylated (alkyl-PAC) aromatic tar oil compounds are gaining increased attention for their toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and/or teratogenic properties. Investigations on tar oil biodegradation in soil are in part hampered by the absence of an efficient analytical tool for the simultaneous analysis of this wide range of compounds with dissimilar analytical properties. Therefore, the present study sets out to explore the applicability of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC²/MS) for the simultaneous measurement of compounds with differing polarity or that are co-eluting in one-dimensional systems. Aerobic tar oil biodegradation in a historically contaminated soil was analyzed over 56 days in lab-scale bioslurry tests. Forty-three aromatic compounds were identified with GC²/MS in one single analysis. The number of alkyl chains on a molecule was found to prime over alkyl chain length in hampering compound biodegradation. In most cases, substitution of carbon with nitrogen and oxygen was related to increased compound degradation in comparison to unalkylated and sulphur- or unsubstituted PAH with a similar ring number.The obtained results indicate that GC²/MS can be employed for the rapid assessment of a large variety of structurally heterogeneous environmental contaminants. Its application can contribute to facilitate site assessment, development and control of microbial cleanup technologies for tar oil contaminated sites.

  12. Remediation of PCB contaminated soils at Saglek, Labrador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskell, B.; Bordin, D. [Bennett Environmental Inc., Oakville, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated soils were discovered in Saglek in 1986. This paper describes a contract awarded to Bennett Environmental Inc., by the Department of National Defense for the removal of all contaminated soils and debris in the area. Key tasks included removal of all stockpiles of PCB contaminated soil; collection, cleaning and sorting of debris for containerization and removal; remediation of potential contaminated soils beneath the stockpiles; and reinstatement of the staging and clean stone deposition zone area to its natural state. Planning of the project was outlined, including details of partnering sessions and workshops, as well as details of community meetings held in Nain. Details of startup and pre-environmental monitoring were also provided. An outline of the containerization unit used during the project was presented, as well as ship cycle times and soil sampling procedures. Washing and water treatment procedures were reviewed, as well as details of the on-site laboratory, equipped with personal exposure monitoring; an ambient air monitoring network; water sampling and analysis; and continuous monitoring to assess potential exposure to PCB to conform to alarm levels and implement mitigation measures. Shipping procedures were reviewed as well as soil treatment processes at a facility in Cornwall, Ontario. It was concluded that the remediation of the site was successful. All contaminated material was removed and treated. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  13. [Air quality monitoring on the International Space Station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomova, A A; Mukhamedieva, L N; Mikos, K N

    2006-01-01

    Chemical contamination of air in space cabins occurs mainly due to permanent offgassing of equipment and materials, and leaks. Methods and means of qualitative and quantitative air monitoring on the ISS are powerful enough as for routine so emergency (e.g. local fire, toxic leak) air control. The ISS air quality has suited to the adopted standards and crew safety requirements. Yet, there is a broad field of action toward improvement of the space cabin air monitoring.

  14. Surrogate parameters for rapid monitoring of contaminant removal for activated sludge treatment plants for para rubber and seafood industries in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panalee Chevakidagarn

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at using surrogate parameters for rapid monitoring of contaminant removed of activated sludge treatment plant for para rubber and seafood industries in Southern Thailand. Wastewaters from these industries contain high organic concentrations and chemicals. The activated sludge process (AS is usually applied as a treatment process. However, plant operators generally lack the understanding and means to control the treatment plants because of a continuous monitoring system is not employed and the monitoring parameters are time consuming. UV absorbency at various wavelengths was used in this study as a surrogate parameters, for predicting the removal capacity of each plant. COD, BOD, suspended solids and nitrate-nitrogen concentrations could be estimated reliably without being time consuming. The results showed that UV absorbency at 220 nm can be used as a parameter to predict nitrate-nitrogen concentrations which less than 15 mg/L. That at 550 nm is for predicting suspended solids concentration and that at 260 nm is for COD predict.

  15. Equipment for gas conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, K.; Matsumoto, I.

    1983-01-28

    Equipment is proposed for vapor conversion of hydrocarbons (Uv), possibly in a mixture with air, in order to produce an inorganic gas, which chiefly consists of H2 and COx. It consists of a reaction pipe made of an inorganic refractory ceramic and equipped along the wall circumference with heaters. The reaction pipe is filled with a combined, multilayer catalyst (Kt) carrier, made of gamma-A1203 which in the transverse cross section has a multipore reticular or fibrous structure. Replacement of the traditional steel (St) materials for the walls of the reaction pipe with ceramic materials reduces the output of the hydrocarbon which contaminates the surface (Pv) of the catalyst; the use of a multilayer carrier for the catalyst made of gamma-A1203 with a porous reticular or fibrous structure reduces the pressure losses in the reactor and facilitates the replacement of the spent catalyst. The equipment is designed for vapor conversion of natural gas, C3H8, and vapors of kerosene, naphtha and so on.

  16. Occurrence and persistence of organic emerging contaminants and priority pollutants in five sewage treatment plants of Spain: two years pilot survey monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, M J Martínez; Gomez, M J; Herrera, S; Hernando, M D; Agüera, A; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2012-05-01

    This work summarized all results obtained during almost two-years of a monitoring programme carried out in five municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) located in the north, centre and south-east of Spain. The study evaluated the occurrence and persistence of a group of 100 organic compounds belonging to several chemical groups (pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides and metabolites). The average removal efficiencies of the STPs studied varied from 20% (erythromycin) to 99% (acetaminophen). In analysed samples, we identified a large number of compounds at mean range concentrations between 7-59,495 ng/L and 5-32,720 ng/L for influent and effluent samples, respectively. This study also identified 20 of the mostly detected and persistent compounds in wastewater effluent, of which hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, gemfibrozil, galaxolide and three metabolites (fenofibric acid, 4-AAA and 4-FAA), presented the highest average contribution percentages, in relation to the total load of contaminants for the different STPs effluent studied.

  17. Monitoring biodegradation of ethene and bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes at a contaminated site using compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundle, S.O.C.; Johnson, T.; Lacrampe-Couloume, G.; Perez-De-Mora, A.; Duhamel, M.; Edwards, E.A.; McMaster, M.L.; Cox, E.; Revesz, K.; Lollar, B. Sherwood

    2012-01-01

    Chlorinated ethenes are commonly found in contaminated groundwater. Remediation strategies focus on transformation processes that will ultimately lead to nontoxic products. A major concern with these strategies is the possibility of incomplete dechlorination and accumulation of toxic daughter products (cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), vinyl chloride (VC)). Ethene mass balance can be used as a direct indicator to assess the effectiveness of dechlorination. However, the microbial processes that affect ethene are not well characterized and poor mass balance may reflect biotransformation of ethene rather than incomplete dechlorination. Microbial degradation of ethene is commonly observed in aerobic systems but fewer cases have been reported in anaerobic systems. Limited information is available on the isotope enrichment factors associated with these processes. Using compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) we determined the enrichment factors associated with microbial degradation of ethene in anaerobic microcosms (ε = −6.7‰ ± 0.4‰, and −4.0‰ ± 0.8‰) from cultures collected from the Twin Lakes wetland area at the Savannah River site in Georgia (United States), and in aerobic microcosms (ε = −3.0‰ ± 0.3‰) from Mycobacterium sp. strain JS60. Under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, CSIA can be used to determine whether biotransformation of ethene is occurring in addition to biodegradation of the chlorinated ethenes. Using δ13C values determined for ethene and for chlorinated ethenes at a contaminated field site undergoing bioremediation, this study demonstrates how CSIA of ethene can be used to reduce uncertainty and risk at a site by distinguishing between actual mass balance deficits during reductive dechlorination and apparent lack of mass balance that is related to biotransformation of ethene.

  18. Monitoring biodegradation of ethene and bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes at a contaminated site using compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundle, Scott O C; Johnson, Tiffany; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Pérez-de-Mora, Alfredo; Duhamel, Melanie; Edwards, Elizabeth A; McMaster, Michaye L; Cox, Evan; Révész, Kinga; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

    2012-02-07

    Chlorinated ethenes are commonly found in contaminated groundwater. Remediation strategies focus on transformation processes that will ultimately lead to nontoxic products. A major concern with these strategies is the possibility of incomplete dechlorination and accumulation of toxic daughter products (cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), vinyl chloride (VC)). Ethene mass balance can be used as a direct indicator to assess the effectiveness of dechlorination. However, the microbial processes that affect ethene are not well characterized and poor mass balance may reflect biotransformation of ethene rather than incomplete dechlorination. Microbial degradation of ethene is commonly observed in aerobic systems but fewer cases have been reported in anaerobic systems. Limited information is available on the isotope enrichment factors associated with these processes. Using compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) we determined the enrichment factors associated with microbial degradation of ethene in anaerobic microcosms (ε = -6.7‰ ± 0.4‰, and -4.0‰ ± 0.8‰) from cultures collected from the Twin Lakes wetland area at the Savannah River site in Georgia (United States), and in aerobic microcosms (ε = -3.0‰ ± 0.3‰) from Mycobacterium sp. strain JS60. Under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, CSIA can be used to determine whether biotransformation of ethene is occurring in addition to biodegradation of the chlorinated ethenes. Using δ(13)C values determined for ethene and for chlorinated ethenes at a contaminated field site undergoing bioremediation, this study demonstrates how CSIA of ethene can be used to reduce uncertainty and risk at a site by distinguishing between actual mass balance deficits during reductive dechlorination and apparent lack of mass balance that is related to biotransformation of ethene.

  19. Monitoring the metabolic status of geobacter species in contaminated groundwater by quantifying key metabolic proteins with Geobacter-specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jiae; Ueki, Toshiyuki; Miletto, Marzia; Lovley, Derek R

    2011-07-01

    Simple and inexpensive methods for assessing the metabolic status and bioremediation activities of subsurface microorganisms are required before bioremediation practitioners will adopt molecular diagnosis of the bioremediation community as a routine practice for guiding the development of bioremediation strategies. Quantifying gene transcripts can diagnose important aspects of microbial physiology during bioremediation but is technically challenging and does not account for the impact of translational modifications on protein abundance. An alternative strategy is to directly quantify the abundance of key proteins that might be diagnostic of physiological state. To evaluate this strategy, an antibody-based quantification approach was developed to investigate subsurface Geobacter communities. The abundance of citrate synthase corresponded with rates of metabolism of Geobacter bemidjiensis in chemostat cultures. During in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater the quantity of Geobacter citrate synthase increased with the addition of acetate to the groundwater and decreased when acetate amendments stopped. The abundance of the nitrogen-fixation protein, NifD, increased as ammonium became less available in the groundwater and then declined when ammonium concentrations increased. In a petroleum-contaminated aquifer, the abundance of BamB, an enzyme subunit involved in the anaerobic degradation of mono-aromatic compounds by Geobacter species, increased in zones in which Geobacter were expected to play an important role in aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. These results suggest that antibody-based detection of key metabolic proteins, which should be readily adaptable to standardized kits, may be a feasible method for diagnosing the metabolic state of microbial communities responsible for bioremediation, aiding in the rational design of bioremediation strategies.

  20. Monitoring the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a co-contaminated soil using stable isotope labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawra, Anna; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Watzinger, Andrea; Soja, Gerhard; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Conventional remediation techniques like "dig and dump" are costly and limited in scale. Plant- and microbe-based alternatives, e.g. phytoremediation options, offer a cheap and environmentally friendly approach that can be applied on larger areas. However, the application of phytoremediation techniques to co-contaminated sites may be hindered due to a potential inhibition of biodegradation processes by the presence of heavy metals in soil. Therefore, the objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that the degradation of organic pollutants can be enhanced by immobilising potentially toxic heavy metals. This study aims to identify the influence of heavy metal immobilisation on the degradation of organic pollutants, and to determine chemical, physical and biological measures further accelerating these processes. The influence of heavy metals on organic pollutant degradation dynamics is assessed using 13C-phospholipid fatty acid analysis (13C-PLFA). Application of 13C-labeled phenanthrene allows the identification of microbial groups responsible for the degradation process. For metal immobilisation and enhanced biodegradation, distinct mineral and organic soil amendments (iron oxides, gravel sludge, biochar) are deployed, partly in combination with fast-growing and pollution-tolerant woody plants (willow, black locust and alder). Results of an incubation batch experiment show a fast degradation of the phenanthrene label within the first two weeks by various microbial groups (gram negative bacteria as indicated by the cy17:0 peak) resulting in a decrease by up to 80% of the total PAH concentration (Σ 16 EPA PAHs) measured in soil. A similar trend was observed in the greenhouse pot experiment, whereby heavy metal accumulation in the woody plants growing on the co-contaminated soil significantly varied with plant species (willow > black locust, alder).

  1. 智能监控系统在压装设备中的应用%Application of Intelligent Monitoring System in the Press-fit Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐平; 李美玲; 薛鹏; 邹立文; 史旭洲

    2013-01-01

    The Interference assembly process was applied widely in the industrial production line,its rationality had a direct im-pact on product performance,but the ordinary press-fit equipment could not detect whether the assembly had been placed in place or not and the amount of interference between the assembly. The intelligent press-fit equipment was described,through the using of the feature that the fitting force and stroke had corresponding coordinate relations in the work process of the press-fit equipment,the intelli-gent control system was used. The problems of the ordinary press-fit equipment are solved,the quality of products is improved,and re-duced the rejection rate of the press-fitted products is reduced.%在工业化生产线上,过盈装配工艺应用广泛,其合理性直接影响产品的性能,而普通压机无法检测装配件是否放置到位和装配件之间的过盈量。文中所述的智能压机通过利用压装设备工作过程中压装力和行程有对应坐标关系的特点,应用智能化的控制系统,解决了普通压机存在的问题,提高了压装产品的质量、降低了产品的废品率。

  2. Research on on line monitoring and condition based maintenance technology of power primary equipment%电力一次设备的在线监测及其状态检修技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金兴武

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,the on-line monitoring and condition based maintenance technology of power primary equipment are studied,hoping that this research can promote the development of China's electric power industry to a certain extent.%本文就电力一次设备的在线监测及其状态检修技术进行了具体研究,希望这一研究能够在一定程度上推动我国电力事业的相关发展.

  3. Perspective of Using the Results of Monitoring and Modeling of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant's Cooling Pond as Analogue for the US DOE Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faybishenko, B.; Voitsekhovich, O. V.; Bugay, D.; Skalskjj, A.; Shestopalov, V. M.; Zheleznyak, M.; Kashparov, V. A.; Antropov, A. S.; Kireev, S. I.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Ivanov, Y.; Oskolkov, B.; Marra, J.; Jannik, T.; Farfan, E.; Monken-Fernandes, H.; Hinton, T.; Smith, J.; Onishi, Y.; Konoplev, A.

    2010-12-01

    Although there are many contaminated sites that may be suitable candidates for providing analogue information for the development and testing of environmental modeling and risk assessment approaches, of particular scientific and practical interests is the feasibility study of planned decommissioning and remediation of the highly contaminated Chernobyl Cooling Pond (CP), located within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ). The presence of the CP has caused an artificially high groundwater table within the ChEZ. After the planned cessation of water pumping from the Pripyat River to the CP, substantial areas of sediments, containing 137Cs, 90Sr, and hot particles with U, Pu, and Am. will be exposed to the atmosphere, and the groundwater level is expected to decline by as much as 7 m. The areal extent of the exposed zone, the dissolution rate, mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides will vary over time, depending on the dynamics of seepage losses from the pond and climatic conditions. The objective of the presentation is to discuss hydrological and geochemical processes, a conceptual model, and the results and perspectives of numerical modeling of coupled surface water-groundwater flow and transport, including the parameter estimation and uncertainty evaluation for various decommissioning and remediation options of the CP. In particular, the results of 1D, 2D, and 3D simulations of radionuclide transport in surface water and groundwater will be discussed, along with the evaluation of Kd parameters from the results of field monitoring and modeling of seasonal variations of 137Cs concentrations in pond water and sediments. It will be shown that the results of field monitoring and modeling of the Chernobyl CP can be used as analogue for several US DOE sites to improve scientific and practical understanding of subsurface hydrological and geochemical processes, as well as to obtain a better understanding of processes affecting natural attenuation of radionuclides in

  4. Efficiency of cleaning procedure of milking equipment and bacterial quality of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sandrucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cleaning and sanitation of milking equipment could be consider a critical point in the milking procedure because a cleaning failure could influence the level of bacteria contamination of bulk tank milk. Aim of the study is to monitor the cleaning procedures of milking systems in 7 dairy cows farms in Lombardy and to find a relation between efficacy of cleaning system and the bacterial quality of bulk tank milk, remaining washing water through milking equipment and teat cup surface. Cleaning procedures were monitored with Lactocorder, that measured: duration, water temperature, turbulence, percentage of water in pipes, water conductivity of pre- and post-rinse and detergent phases. Results showed that the monitored farms the most of the cleaning parameters were lower than recommendations, in particular maximum water temperature (42.1±9.9°C and percentage of water during detergent phase (76.1±13.9 %. A maximum temperature of detergent phase <40°C determined a high Standard Plate Count (SPC, thermoduric bacteria and Coliform Count (CC of bulk tank milk, SPC and CC of teat cup surface. The research indicated that monitoring the efficiency of cleaning milking equipment with proper tools provide useful information about possible sources of contamination of bulk tank milk. Improving cleaning milking efficiency allow to improve milk quality.

  5. Benzo[a]pyrene contamination in Rostov Region of Russian Federation: A 10-year retrospective of soil monitoring under the effect of long-term technogenic pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Sushkova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work was to study the main tendencies in the accumulation and distribution of benzo[a]pyrene in soils of the affected zone of the Novocherkassk regional power plant. Studies were conducted on the soils of monitoring plots subjected to Novocherkassk regional power plant emissions. Monitoring plots were established at different distances from the Novocherkassk regional power plant (1.0–20.0 km. Regularities in the accumulation and distribution of benzo[a]pyrene in chernozemic, meadow-chernozemic, and alluvial soils under the effect of aerotechnogenic emissions from the Novocherkassk regional power plant have been revealed on the basis of long-term monitoring studies (from 2002 to 2011. The tendencies in the distribution and accumulation of BaP in the studied soils coincided during the 10 years of monitoring studies. It has been found the 5-km zone to the northwest from the power station, which coincides with the predominant wind direction, is most subjected to contamination by benzo[a]pyrene, with the maximum accumulation at a distance of about 1.6 km from the source. Dynamics of pollutant accumulation in soils depends on number of Novocherkassk regional power plant emissions. The content of benzo[a]pyrene in the soil is an indicator of the technogenic load impact on the areas, for which the combustion products of hydrocarbon fuel are the major pollutants. A gradual decrease of the pollutant content in the soils was revealed during the period from 2002 to 2011. It explained by the significant decrease in the volume of pollutant emissions from the plant and the self-purification capacity of soils and mechanisms of benzo[a]pyrene degradation.

  6. Literature Review of the State of the Art for Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) for a Series of Oil Quality Monitoring Sensors for Shipboard Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    development of new technologies for application in platform specific lubricating oil condition monitoring systems. The current study is primarily focused on...technologies requises comprennent : technologies de capteurs , options de transmission de données, conception d’un réseau d’acquisition de données, options...technologies, as well as the development of new technologies for application in platform specific lubricating oil condition monitoring systems. The

  7. Rulison: radiation contamination clearance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    Under contract with Austral Oil Company, Eberline Instrument Corporation provided supervision and technicians to radiologically support the well plugging and site abandonment activities at the Project Rulison site during the period September 1, 1976 through October 12, 1976. The purpose of the support was to identify and prepare for removal of all radioactively contaminated materials remaining on site. The emplacement and reentry wells were successfully plugged without a serious radiological incident. There was no measurable radiation exposure above natural background to participating personnel. Decontamination and monitoring procedures assured that no equipment or material was improperly released to unrestricted use. A review of the history of project operations, the conduct of comprehensive sampling programs, and an extensive final survey, ensures that the extent of radioactivity on the site is identified and that such activity is well below established guide lines. Except for appropriate restrictions regarding deep drilling, the radiological condition of the Project Rulison site permits its return to unrestricted use.

  8. Monitoring of Emerging and Legacy Contaminants in Groundwater and Tap Water of the Karst Region in Northern Puerto Rico for Assessment of Sources and Fate and Transport Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, I. Y.; Cotto, I.; Torres, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The karst aquifer region of northern Puerto Rico is the area with the highest groundwater extraction in the island. Urban and industrial development has led to extensive contamination of the groundwater in the region. Of particular concern, is the presence of emerging and legacy organic contaminants, such as phthalates and chlorinated organic compounds (CVOCs), because there high risk for exposure and adverse health impact. Variable sources and the heterogeneous and dynamic conditions of karst groundwater systems, limits the ability to properly assess and manage the water quality of these precious water resources. This work develops a monitoring and water analysis scheme to assess spatial-temporal exposure of hazardous contaminants trough karst water in northern Puerto Rico. Groundwater and tap water are sampled in the region and analyzed for phthalates, CVOCs, and common ions. Detections and concentrations of phthalates and CVOCs are determined by using modified EPA methods, which rely on liquid-liquid extractions and gas chromatography techniques. The modified methods have reduced the volume of samples and solvent waste, decreased the time of analysis, increased analysis outcomes, and lower potential for hazardous exposure. Results show intermittent presence of di-ethyl, di-butyl and di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalates in 36% of the groundwater and 53% of tap water samples, with detected concentrations ranging between 0.1-88.7 μg/L. These results indicate that karst groundwater can serve as a route of exposure for phthalates, but there are additional disperse sources in the water system. CVOCs are detected in groundwater at much higher frequencies (50%) than phthalates, and include trichloromethane (TCM), carbon tetrachloride (CT), trichloroethylene (TCE), and tetrachloroethylene (TCE). CVOCs, except for TCM, are found at lower frequencies on tap water (5.8%) than groundwater (27%). TCM is detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in tap water (56.8%) than

  9. 基于物联网的桔小实蝇诱捕监测装备设计及试验%Design and test of remote monitoring equipment for bactrocera dorsalis trapping based on internet of things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖德琴; 傅俊谦; 邓晓晖; 冯健昭; 殷建军; 可欣荣

    2015-01-01

    For bactrocera dorsalis field monitoring, the current method had some disadvantages: a heavy workload, low efficiency, poor reliability, low accuracy, and it could not large-scale and fast monitor the orchard pest situation in real time. Agriculture experts eager to have a solution to automatically count the number of bactrocera dorsalis and remotely observe the trapping result in real time to reduce their labor so that they could focus more on the study of the characteristics of insects. Therefore, combining the image target detection technology and the target tracking technology to develop an automated counting system by using a video image sensor would be necessary. In order to realize the real-time monitoring, the bactrocera dorsalis trapping, and a rapid diagnosis, an IOT-Based remote monitoring equipment for bactrocera dorsalis trapping was provided in this paper. The equipment included a trap monitoring device, a solar power supply device, and the monitoring control device. The trap monitoring device was comprised of a top cover, a transparent funnel, a trap bottle, a LED, and a camera;the solar energy device was comprised of a solar panel, a storage battery, and a solar panel bracket;the bactrocera dorsalis monitoring control system device was comprised of a Fit-pc controller, a 3G communication module, and the independent software for counting bactrocera dorsalis’ numbers. This equipment combined machine vision technology and telecommunication technology with solar power technology. The purpose of the equipment was to achieve a whole function for bactrocera dorsalis trap monitoring with plant diseases and insect pests information collection, together with processing, transmission, and self-supply. It could monitor the trapping process and precise calculation of the number of bactrocera dorsalis anytime and anywhere, and also automatically transmit the results to the remote server or store it in a local storage card. For object extraction,this paper used

  10. Drilling equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyevodin, Yu.M.; Kholosha, Ye.G.; Leshchenko, A.G.; Timchenko, A.I.

    1979-01-10

    The invention refers to units designed for extracting minerals by mechanical action on the face by a cutting tool. There is a known drills which includes a pulse device which contains a combustion chamber, cylinder, piston-percussion tool and cutting tool. The combustion chamber and the sub-piston cavity of the cylinder are connected by a channel in which there is a distributor. Its shortcoming is the fact that the pulse device does not guarantee the necessary motion of the actuating mechanism for its velocity and frequency of the shocks on the cutting tool. This reduces the efficiency of the operation and limits the area of application. The purpose of the proposed invention is to improve productivity of the device. This is achieved because the head of the drill is equipped with a 2-piston pulse device which contains 2-combustion chambers, 2 working cylinders, 2 piston percussion instruments, a rod with gas-conducting and connecting channels for interconnection of the sub-piston cavities and combustion chambers of both cylinders. The spent gases of one cylinder are used for closing the combustion chamber of the second cylinder.

  11. Online Monitoring and Intelligent Fault Diagnosis Technology for Secondary Equipment in Intelligent Substation%智能变电站二次设备在线监测与智能诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓明

    2016-01-01

    介绍了二次设备在线监测及智能诊断的技术实现思路、体系架构,提出并分析了工程实施中设备配置及具体功能实现方案,通过二次回路的链路、协议、模型等多角度多方位的分析得出故障定位判定逻辑。研究结果对二次设备在线监测与智能诊断的实施具有借鉴和指导意义。%Introduction was made to the technology implementation idea and architecture of online monitoring and intelligent fault diagnosis. This paper proposed and analyzed the equipment conifguration and speciifc function realization scheme in project implementation. Through the analysis of link, protocol and model etc multi-dimension, this paper obtained the fault location judgment logic. The achievement is of certain ref-erence value for the study on secondary equipment online monitoring and intelligent fault diagnosis.

  12. 面向装备健康状态监测的传感器布置优化研究%Study on layout optimization of sensor for equipment health condition monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 李伟

    2012-01-01

    To improve the equipment health management level, layout optimization of condition monitoring sensor is studied. On the basis of analyzing main influencing factors, optimizes average comprehensive sensitivity of fault condition using sensor. Considering cost, fault rate and missed detection risk as constraint conditions, the ant colony algorithm is used to calculate the optimal solution. Optimization of type quantity and placement of sensor is realized, reliability of condition monitoring is improved, which lay a foundation for health management of equipment.%为了更好地对装备进行健康管理,从状态监测传感器布置优化的角度开展研究,在分析主要影响因素的基础上,利用传感器对故障状态的平均综合敏感度进行优化,同时考虑成本、故障率和漏检危害性作为约束条件,利用蚁群算法进行最优解的计算,实现传感器类型、数量和布点位置的优化,提高状态监测的可靠性,为装备健康管理奠定基础.

  13. 面向装备制造业的装配过程监控模型研究%Research on Assembly Process Monitoring Models in the Equipment Manufacturing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永和

    2014-01-01

    The necessity of the research on assembly process monitoring systemwas presented based on an analysis of production characteristics of the equipment manufacturing industryand advantages and disadvantages of the MES function. According to the current situation of enterprises,an overall scheme of FRID-based data acquisition system for the equipment manufacturing industry was proposed,in which a real-time status model for assembly process is set up. This scheme may provide a theoretical reference for enterprises that wish to develop RFID-based status monitoring systems.%在分析装备制造业生产制造特点、MES功能优势及不足的基础上,指出进行装配过程监控系统研究的必要性。针对企业现状,提出了基于 RFID 的装备制造业数据采集系统总体方案,建立了装配生产过程的实时状态模型,为企业研发基于RFID的状态监测系统提供了理论参考和依据。

  14. Raman spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring mesoscale continuous-flow organic synthesis: Equipment interface and assessment in four medicinally-relevant reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor A. Hamlin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An apparatus is reported for real-time Raman monitoring of reactions performed using continuous-flow processing. Its capability is assessed by studying four reactions, all involving formation of products bearing α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moieties; synthesis of 3-acetylcoumarin, Knoevenagel and Claisen–Schmidt condensations, and a Biginelli reaction. In each case it is possible to monitor the reactions and also in one case, by means of a calibration curve, determine product conversion from Raman spectral data as corroborated by data obtained using NMR spectroscopy.

  15. Active bio-monitoring of contamination in aquatic systems--an in situ translocation experiment applying the PICT concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Stefanie; Sans-Piché, Frédéric; Streck, Georg; Altenburger, Rolf; Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild

    2011-01-17

    The environmental risk assessment of toxicants is often derived from chemical monitoring, based on single species tests performed in the laboratory. However, to provide ecologically relevant information, community approaches are required. The aim of this study was to causally link prometryn exposure to community-level effects in complex field situations and to identify response times of adaptation to pollution and recovery from pollution. For this reason sensitivity shifts in communities were detected and related to structural changes within the periphyton community. Furthermore, it was intended to illustrate the possibility of a combined approach of community translocation and sensitivity assessment for active monitoring of polluted sites. Periphyton was grown at a reference (R) and at a polluted (P) site of the river Elbe basin for 26 days, was subsequently transferred from the polluted site to the reference site and vice versa. Sensitivity of communities to prometryn was determined according to the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT)-concept in short-term tests by measuring photosynthesis inhibition and was related to structural changes in algal class and diatom species composition. Exposure to prometryn was determined using polar organic integrative samplers (POCIS), giving time-weighted average concentrations. Environmental concentrations of prometryn were significantly higher at the polluted site compared to the reference site. Communities grown at the polluted site showed a higher tolerance to prometryn in comparison to the reference site. 17 Days after the translocation to the reference site, EC(50) decreased 2-fold compared to the non-translocated P-community of the same age. By contrast, EC(50) of the community grown at the reference site was 5 times higher after 17 days exposure at the polluted site. Furthermore, P-R communities were less sensitive to prometryn (higher EC(50)) than R-P communities, 24 days after translocation. These changes in

  16. Sampling artifacts in active air sampling of semivolatile organic contaminants: Comparing theoretical and measured artifacts and evaluating implications for monitoring networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melymuk, Lisa; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Prokeš, Roman; Kukučka, Petr; Klánová, Jana

    2016-10-01

    The effects of sampling artifacts are often not fully considered in the design of air monitoring with active air samplers. Semivolatile organic contaminants (SVOCs) are particularly vulnerable to a range of sampling artifacts because of their wide range of gas-particle partitioning and degradation rates, and these can lead to erroneous measurements of air concentrations and a lack of comparability between sites with different environmental and sampling conditions. This study used specially adapted filter-sorbent sampling trains in three types of active air samplers to investigate breakthrough of SVOCs, and the possibility of other sampling artifacts. Breakthrough volumes were experimentally determined for a range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sampling volumes from 300 to 10,000 m(3), and sampling durations of 1-7 days. In parallel, breakthrough was estimated based on theoretical sorbent-vapor pressure relationships. The comparison of measured and theoretical determinations of breakthrough demonstrated good agreement between experimental and estimated breakthrough volumes, and showed that theoretical breakthrough estimates should be used when developing air monitoring protocols. Significant breakthrough in active air samplers occurred for compounds with vapor pressure >0.5 Pa at volumes Sample volumes between 700 and 10,000 m(3) may lead to breakthrough for compounds with vapor pressures between 0.005 and 0.5 Pa. Breakthrough is largely driven by sample volume and compound volatility (therefore indirectly by temperature) and is independent of sampler type. The presence of significant breakthrough at "typical" sampling conditions is relevant for air monitoring networks, and may lead to under-reporting of more volatile SVOCs.

  17. Monitoring and modeling of contaminant loads and levels in Norwegian sea 2011; Tilfoerselsprogrammet 2011. Overvaakingav tilfoersler og miljoetilstand i Norskehavet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Norman W.; Heldal, Hilde Elise; Maage, Amund; Aas, Wenche; Graefert, Torbjoern; Schrum, Corinna; Boitsov, Stepan; Breivik, Knut; Iosjpe, Mikhail; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Skogen, Morten; Hoegaasen, Tore; Eckhardt, Sabine; Christiansen, Anne Bjoerkenes; Daae, Kjersti L.; Durand, Dominique; Ledang, Anna Birgitta; Jaccard, Pierre Francois

    2012-07-01

    This report describes the calculation of the supply of oil, hazardous chemicals and radioactive substances from seven sources of seven regions in the Norwegian part of the Norwegian Sea. The data from the various sources used to calculate the concentrations of pollutants in the water column throughout the defined area of the Norwegian Sea (3 dimensions) and calculate the transport of Hg, PCB153 and BaP in and out of each of the seven regions. This transport flux is huge compared with inputs and will alternately be a net source or net sink of each region. The main feature is that the supply is dominated by the fallout from the atmosphere is balanced by decomposition and sedimentation in the water column plus exports / imports from adjacent waters. It is relatively small supply of hazardous substances. With few exceptions, for the supply of air the biggest contribution of mercury, lead, cadmium, chromium, arsenic, PCBs (PCB-153) and PAH (benzo [a] pyrene) to all regions. Exception contributions of land for chromium in mid-Norway and contributions from seabed for lead and chromium from more central parts of the Norwegian Sea. Ship traffic dominates regard. supply of oil. Supply air from the major contribution of radionuclides plutonium-239 240 and strontium-90 in the eastern part of the Norwegian Sea. Otherwise, Sellafield is the dominant source. Contaminants in sediment and cod were largely of low to moderate concentrations. The concentration of radioactive substances in water, sediment and cod were low and comparable with results from other studies in the Norwegian Sea. There are still large gaps in knowledge and uncertainties in both the data and the estimates of supplies. It is especially important to improved figures for inflows into the oceans via air and enhancement of the marine transport and dispersion models.(eb)

  18. Multiparametric monitoring of microbial faecal pollution reveals the dominance of human contamination along the whole Danube River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, A K T; Reischer, G H; Jakwerth, S; Savio, D; Ixenmaier, S; Toth, E; Sommer, R; Mach, R L; Linke, R; Eiler, A; Kolarevic, S; Farnleitner, A H

    2017-11-01

    The microbial faecal pollution of rivers has wide-ranging impacts on a variety of human activities that rely on appropriate river water quality. Thus, detailed knowledge of the extent and origin of microbial faecal pollution is crucial for watershed management activities to maintain safe water use. In this study, the microbial faecal pollution levels were monitored by standard faecal indicator bacteria (SFIB) along a 2580 km stretch of the Danube, the world's most international river, as well as the Danube's most important tributaries. To track the origin of faecal pollution, host-associated Bacteroidetes genetic faecal marker qPCR assays for different host groups were applied in concert with SFIB. The spatial resolution analysis was followed by a time resolution analysis of faecal pollution patterns over 1 year at three selected sites. In this way, a comprehensive faecal pollution map of the total length of the Danube was created, combining substantiated information on both the extent and origin of microbial faecal pollution. Within the environmental data matrix for the river, microbial faecal pollution constituted an independent component and did not cluster with any other measured environmental parameters. Generally, midstream samples representatively depicted the microbial pollution levels at the respective river sites. However, at a few, somewhat unexpected sites, high pollution levels occurred in the lateral zones of the river while the midstream zone had good water quality. Human faecal pollution was demonstrated as the primary pollution source along the whole river, while animal faecal pollution was of minor importance. This study demonstrates that the application of host-associated genetic microbial source tracking markers in concert with the traditional concept of microbial faecal pollution monitoring based on SFIB significantly enhances the knowledge of the extent and origin of microbial faecal pollution patterns in large rivers. It constitutes a

  19. 地质灾害监测设备太阳能高效供电技术研究%Research on Solar Energy Efficient Power Supply Technology in Geohazards Monitoring Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兆义; 庹先国; 王洪辉; 钟佳迅; 张贵宇

    2011-01-01

    With the study of geological disaster monitoring equipment power supply, proposed a kind of method based on solar energy efficient power supply. Adopts charging management chip LT3652 integrated MPPT technology, which realize the maximum power point tracking automatically. This system extracted the peak power from the photovoltaic panels driving load directly. At the same time charge for the energy reserves units, ensuring maintain work when photovoltaic panels output power is zero. Geohazards monitoring power supply system was tested in downtown of Chengdu in Sichuan province (light intensity 81001ux to 876001ux) with photovoltaic cells 30W and lead-acid battery 12V/70Ah. When the load is 0.6W/SV, solar power system for a maximum charge current 1.47A, which can maintain the monitoring equipment works continuously 15 rainy days, improving the long-term of geohazards monitoring equipment.%通过对地质灾害监测设备供电情况的研究,提出一种基于太阳能的高效供电方法,即采用集成MPPT技术的充电管理芯片LT3652,自动实现最大功率点跟踪,从光伏电池抽取峰值功率,直接驱动负载,同时给能量储备单元充电,以保证在光伏电池输出功率为零时,维持负载工作.地质灾害监测供电系统选用了30W的光伏电池,12V/70Ah的铅酸免维护蓄电池,在四川省成都市区(光照强度为81001ux至876001ux)进行了测试,当负载为0.6W/5V时,太阳能供电系统最大充电电流为1.47A,设备可连续工作15个阴雨天,提高了地质灾害监测设备的长效性.

  20. Design of the Remote Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis System for Power Electronic Equipment%电力电子设备远程监控与故障诊断系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马皓; 韩思亮

    2005-01-01

    针对电力电子设备中监控与故障诊断实时性要求高、数据传输量大、诊断原因复杂的特点,提出了一种具有强兼容性的基于工控机(IPC)和PLC现场控制分布式远程监控与故障诊断系统的新思路.结合电力电子技术、故障诊断技术以及网络技术,设计开发了一种三层C/S结构与Internet结合的电力电子设备远程监控与故障诊断网络系统,着重介绍了具有强兼容性的系统结构、现场监控兼容性设计、数据采集子系统和实时监控子系统等各部分子系统的设计和通信协议设计开发.%To meet the requirement of highly real-time, tremendous data transferring and complicated diagnostic causes of remote monitoring and fault diagnosis with power electronic equipment, a novel idea of distributed system with industrial PC (IPC) and PLC controlling field terminal is proposed in this paper. Based on the techniques of power electronics, fault diagnosis and network, a remote monitoring and fault diagnosis system with combination of a three-layer C/S structure and Internet is presented, which achieves with high compatibility between different equipment. Furthermore, the paper focuses on the discussion about the structure of compatible systems, the compatibility design of remote monitoring and the realization of field control equipment, such as the data collection sub-system, the real-time monitoring sub-system, the fault diagnosis sub-system and the data disposal and management sub-system, and the design of the data transferring sub-system and the communication protocol format.This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 50207008).

  1. Aquatic Equipment Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, Ruth

    Equipment usually used in water exercise programs is designed for variety, intensity, and program necessity. This guide discusses aquatic equipment under the following headings: (1) equipment design; (2) equipment principles; (3) precautions and contraindications; (4) population contraindications; and (5) choosing equipment. Equipment is used…

  2. Monitoring of emerging contaminants (pharmaceuticals, Personal Care Products, surfactants and heavy metals) in a quaternary detritic aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, L.; Valdes-Abellan, J.; Jiménez-Martínez, J.

    2012-04-01

    The presence of 209 emerging compounds, surfactants, priority substances according to the 2008/105/EC Directive, 10 heavy metals and microbiological organisms in blended water and aquifer samples was investigated in a quaternary aquifer. The effects of these compounds over the environment are not clear in many cases, but many of them have been classified as endocrine disruptor compounds, EDC. Their presence in the media is controlled in one hand by their transformation and/or removal rates and, on the other hand, by their continuous release into the media, due to the broad use of these in many human activities (pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides, heavy metals, LAS and others). The attention of this work focusses on the presence and fate of these substances in the vadose zone and the aquifer. The aquifer catchment (81km2) located in SE Spain presents a high natural salinity (with EC values of ~7,500 μS cm-1, and high concentrations of chloride, sulphate and sodium), making it unsuitable to be used as drinking water or irrigation. Two sampling campaigns (February and June 2011) in wells and springs have been carried out top characterize physic-chemical, microbiological and emerging contaminants presence in the aquifer. A total of 209 emerging pollutants grouped into the following classes were analysed: 125 pharmaceutical compounds (Phs), 20 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Dioxins, 46 pesticides, 3 volatile priority pollutants as well as the most commonly used anionic surfactants were identified for further analysis. Heavy metals included: Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, Ni, Zn, Sn, Pt, Pd and Tl. Results showed that 39 out of all compounds were detected: 11 pharmaceuticals, 9 PAHs, 19 pesticides, 4 surfactants and 4 heavy metals. Two of the compounds, endosulfan-α and Ni, were detected in concentrations above the allowed regulation. Although results are limited to 2 sampling campaigns, it is important to note that surfactants (LAS), pesticides PAHs and

  3. LDRD report: Smoke effects on electrical equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TANAKA,TINA J.; BAYNES JR.,EDWARD E.; NOWLEN,STEVEN P.; BROCKMANN,JOHN E.; GRITZO,LOUIS A.; SHADDIX,CHRISTOPHER R.

    2000-03-01

    Smoke is known to cause electrical equipment failure, but the likelihood of immediate failure during a fire is unknown. Traditional failure assessment techniques measure the density of ionic contaminants deposited on surfaces to determine the need for cleaning or replacement of electronic equipment exposed to smoke. Such techniques focus on long-term effects, such as corrosion, but do not address the immediate effects of the fire. This document reports the results of tests on the immediate effects of smoke on electronic equipment. Various circuits and components were exposed to smoke from different fields in a static smoke exposure chamber and were monitored throughout the exposure. Electrically, the loss of insulation resistance was the most important change caused by smoke. For direct current circuits, soot collected on high-voltage surfaces sometimes formed semi-conductive soot bridges that shorted the circuit. For high voltage alternating current circuits, the smoke also tended to increase the likelihood of arcing, but did not accumulate on the surfaces. Static random access memory chips failed for high levels of smoke, but hard disk drives did not. High humidity increased the conductive properties of the smoke. The conductivity does not increase linearly with smoke density as first proposed; however, it does increase with quantity. The data can be used to give a rough estimate of the amount of smoke that will cause failures in CMOS memory chips, dc and ac circuits. Comparisons of this data to other fire tests can be made through the optical and mass density measurements of the smoke.

  4. MGR COMPLIANCE PROGRAM GUIDANCE PACKAGE FOR RADIATION PROTECTION EQUIPMENT, INSTRUMENTATION AND FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-02-01

    This Compliance Program Guidance Package identifies the regulatory guidance and industry codes and standards addressing radiation protection equipment, instrumentation, and support facilities considered to be appropriate for radiation protection at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Included are considerations relevant to radiation monitoring instruments, calibration, contamination control and decontamination, respiratory protection equipment, and general radiation protection facilities. The scope of this Guidance Package does not include design guidance relevant to criticality monitoring, area radiation monitoring, effluent monitoring, and airborne radioactivity monitoring systems since they are considered to be the topics of specific design and construction requirements (i.e., ''fixed'' or ''built-in'' systems). This Guidance Package does not address radiation protection design issues; it addresses the selection and calibration of radiation monitoring instrumentation to the extent that the guidance is relevant to the operational radiation protection program. Radon and radon progeny monitoring instrumentation is not included in the Guidance Package since such naturally occurring radioactive materials do not fall within the NRC's jurisdiction at the MGR.

  5. Incrementing the reliability of equipment through an Effective monitoring program in the health of the systems of the CLV; Incrementando la confiabilidad de equipos a traves de un programa de monitoreo efectivo en la salud de los sistemas de la CLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreda L, I.; Ortiz M, N. [CFE, Central Laguna Verde, Veracruz (Mexico)]. e-mail: ibl9a87b@cfe.gob.mx

    2007-07-01

    The search of the excellence in the behavior of equipment is a continuous effort in the nuclear industry, it is for this reason that the readiness and dependability of equipment is of great importance in the Laguna Verde Central, today in day the equipment dependability has been affecting the capacity to generate power in the power station and any reduction in the power it affects the capacity factor of the plant and it increases the operation cost. With the continuous improvements that are carried out of the process of equipment reliability, by means of the identification of critical equipment, monitoring, effective maintenance and a long term planning in important equipment for the safety and dependability of the operation, are possible to prevent affectations of the plant and not planned stops. (Author)

  6. Use of fluorescence EEM to monitor the removal of emerging contaminants in full scale wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgroi, Massimiliano; Roccaro, Paolo; Korshin, Gregory V; Greco, Valentina; Sciuto, Sebastiano; Anumol, Tarun; Snyder, Shane A; Vagliasindi, Federico G A

    2017-02-05

    This study investigated the applicability of different techniques for fluorescence excitation/emission matrices data interpretations, including peak-picking method, fluorescence regional integration and PARAFAC modelling, to act as surrogates in predicting emerging trace organic compounds (ETOrCs) removal during conventional wastewater treatments that usually comprise primary and secondary treatments. Results showed that fluorescence indexes developed using alternative methodologies but indicative of a same dissolved organic matter component resulted in similar predictions of the removal of the target compounds. The peak index defined by the excitation/emission wavelength positions (λex/λem) 225/290nm and related to aromatic proteins and tyrosine-like fluorescence was determined to be a particularly suitable surrogate for monitoring ETOrCs that had very high removal rates (average removal >70%) (i.e., triclosan, caffeine and ibuprofen). The peak index defined by λex/λem=245/440nm and the PARAFAC component with wavelength of the maxima λex/λem=245, 350/450, both identified as humic-like fluorescence, were found remarkably well correlated with ETOrCs such as atenolol, naproxen and gemfibrozil that were moderately removed (51-70% average removal). Finally, the PARAFAC component with wavelength of the maxima λex/λem=<240, 315/380 identified as microbial humic-like fluorescence was the only index correlated with the removal of the antibiotic trimethoprim (average removal 68%).

  7. Evaluation of the homogeneity of reference flat sources used in calibration of surface contamination monitors; Avaliacao da homogeneidade das fontes planas de referencia utilizadas na calibracao de monitores de contaminacao de superficie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Junior, I.A.; Xavier, M.; Siqueira, P.T.D.; Potiens, M.P.A., E-mail: iremarjr@ipen.br, E-mail: mxavier@ipen.br, E-mail: ptsiquei@ipen.br, E-mail: mppalbu@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the uniformity of the wide area reference sources of the Calibration Laboratory of Instruments (LCI-IPEN) used in the calibration of surface contamination monitors, according the recommendations of the ISO 8769 standard and the NRPB. In this work used six wide area reference sources of 150 cm{sup 2} of {sup 241}Am, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y and {sup 99}Tc with reference dates between 1996 and 1997 and three sources of 100 cm{sup 2} of {sup 14}C, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co were used with reference dates 2007. Measurements were performed with a radiation monitor of the Thermo, model FH40GX with a pancake probe, model FHZ732GM. We also made several models on paper with the objective of define each measurement position and an aluminum plate with a square hole (6.25 cm{sup 2}) in its center, allowing the passage of the radiation only through the hole. Each wide area reference source was positioned in setup and measurements were performed in order to cover the entire surface of the source. The values of the uniformity obtained partially confirm previous data obtained in another study conducted by LCI-IPEN, showing that some wide area reference sources 150 cm{sup 2} in disagree with ISO 8769. In the former work, just the source of {sup 241}Am (7.3%) was within the range specified by the standard, now have sources of {sup 241}Am (5.7%), {sup 137}Cs (8.8%), {sup 90}Sr+{sup 9}'0Y (8, 8%) and {sup 99}Tc (9.2%) with values within the specified uniformity. The sources of {sup 14}C (53.3%) and {sup 36}Cl (16.6%) were outside the specified. The wide area reference sources of 100 cm{sup 2}, show disagreement in values of uniformity of the sources {sup 14}C (46.7%) and {sup 60}Co (10.4%). The values of the uniformity of the wide area reference sources show that some fonts can not be used in calibrations, because not in accordance with the value of uniformity specified in ISO 8769:2010, this is a conditions

  8. Inventory of Tank Farm equipment stored or abandoned aboveground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, S.C.; Lakes, M.E.

    1994-10-12

    This document provides an inventory of Tank Farm equipment stored or abandoned aboveground and potentially subject to regulation. This inventory was conducted in part to ensure that Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) does not violate dangerous waste laws concerning storage of potentially contaminated equipment/debris that has been in contact with dangerous waste. The report identifies areas inventoried and provides photographs of equipment.

  9. Contaminant analysis automation demonstration proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, M.G.; Schur, A.; Heubach, J.G.

    1993-10-01

    The nation-wide and global need for environmental restoration and waste remediation (ER&WR) presents significant challenges to the analytical chemistry laboratory. The expansion of ER&WR programs forces an increase in the volume of samples processed and the demand for analysis data. To handle this expanding volume, productivity must be increased. However. The need for significantly increased productivity, faces contaminant analysis process which is costly in time, labor, equipment, and safety protection. Laboratory automation offers a cost effective approach to meeting current and future contaminant analytical laboratory needs. The proposed demonstration will present a proof-of-concept automated laboratory conducting varied sample preparations. This automated process also highlights a graphical user interface that provides supervisory, control and monitoring of the automated process. The demonstration provides affirming answers to the following questions about laboratory automation: Can preparation of contaminants be successfully automated?; Can a full-scale working proof-of-concept automated laboratory be developed that is capable of preparing contaminant and hazardous chemical samples?; Can the automated processes be seamlessly integrated and controlled?; Can the automated laboratory be customized through readily convertible design? and Can automated sample preparation concepts be extended to the other phases of the sample analysis process? To fully reap the benefits of automation, four human factors areas should be studied and the outputs used to increase the efficiency of laboratory automation. These areas include: (1) laboratory configuration, (2) procedures, (3) receptacles and fixtures, and (4) human-computer interface for the full automated system and complex laboratory information management systems.

  10. Application of a fiber-optic NIR-EFA sensor system for in situ monitoring of aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerck, J; Roth, S; Kraemer, K; Scholz, M; Klaas, N

    2001-05-07

    Interaction of analyte molecules with the evanescent wave of light guided in optical fibers is among the most promising novel sensing schemes that can be applied for environmental monitoring and on-line process analysis. By combining this measuring principle with the solid-phase extraction of analyte molecules into the polymer cladding of a fiber, it is possible to perform direct absorption measurements in the cladding, if the fiber is adapted to a conventional spectrometer/photometer. A big advantage of this arrangement is that the measurement is scarcely disturbed by matrix effects (background absorption of water in IR measurements, stray light due to turbidity in the sample). By using near-infrared (NIR) evanescent field absorption (EFA) measurements in quartz glass fibers coated with a hydrophobic silicone membrane it is possible to design and construct sensors for monitoring apolar hydrocarbons (HCs) in aqueous matrices.The paper presents a fiber-optic sensor system for the determination of aromatic HCs in groundwater or industrial wastewater. Generally, this instrument is suitable for quantitative in situ monitoring of pollutants such as aromatic solvents, fuels, mineral oils or chlorinated HCs with relatively low water saturation solubility (typically between 0.01 and 10 g l(-1)). The sensor probe is connected via all-silica fibers to a filter photometer developed at the IFIA, thus, allowing even remote analysis in a monitoring well. This portable instrument provides a total concentration signal of the organic compounds extracted into the fiber cladding by measuring the integral absorption at the 1st C--H overtone bands in the NIR spectral range. In situ measurements with the sensor system were performed in a groundwater circulation well at the VEGAS research facility of the University of Stuttgart (Germany). The NIR-EFA sensor system was tested within the frame of an experiment that was carried through in a tank containing sandy gravel with a groundwater

  11. Biological monitoring as a useful tool for the detection of a coal-tar contamination in bitumen-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Angerer, J.; Pesch, B.; Marczynski, B.; Hahn, J.U.; Spickenheuer, A.; Preuss, R.; Ruhl, R.; Rode, P.; Bruning, T. [Institute at the Ruhr University of Bochum, Bochum (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In our research project entitled 'Chemical irritative and/or genotoxic effect of fumes of bitumen under high processing temperatures on the airways,' 73 mastic asphalt workers exposed to fumes of bitumen and 49 construction nonexposed workers were analyzed and compared with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and exposure-related health effects. In order to assess the internal exposure the monohydroxylated metabolites of pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and phenanthrene, 1-, 2- and 9-, and 3- and 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (OHPH) were determined in pre- and post-shift urinary samples. Significantly higher concentrations 1-OHP and OHPH were detected in the post-shift urine samples of 7 mastic asphalt workers working on the same construction site compared to the reference workers and all other 66 mastic asphalt workers. The adjusted mean OHPH in the reference, 66 mastic worker, and 7 worker subgroups was 1022, 1544, and 12919 ng/g creatinine (crn) respectively, indicating a marked rise in the 7 worker subgroup. In addition, there was a more than 12-fold increase of PAH metabolites from pre- to post-shift in these 7 workers, whereas in the other mastic asphalt workers there was only a twofold rise in PAH-metabolite concentration between pre- and post-shift values. The analysis of a drilling core from the construction site of the seven workers led to the detection of the source for this marked PAH exposure during the working shift as being coal tar plates, which were, without knowledge of the workers and coordinators, the underground material of the mastic asphalt layer. The evaluation of the stationary workplace concentration showed enhanced levels of phenanthrene, pyrene, fluorene, anthracene, and acenaphthene during working shifts at the construction site of these seven workers. Our study shows that biological monitoring is also a useful tool for the detection of unrecognized sources with high PAH concentrations.

  12. Biological monitoring as a useful tool for the detection of a coal-tar contamination in bitumen-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Angerer, Jürgen; Pesch, Beate; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Hahn, Jens Uwe; Spickenheuer, Anne; Preuss, Ralf; Rühl, Reinhold; Rode, Peter; Brüning, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In our research project entitled "Chemical irritative and/or genotoxic effect of fumes of bitumen under high processing temperatures on the airways," 73 mastic asphalt workers exposed to fumes of bitumen and 49 construction nonexposed workers were analyzed and compared with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and exposure-related health effects. In order to assess the internal exposure the monohydroxylated metabolites of pyrene, 1- hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and phenanthrene, 1-, 2- and 9-, and 3- and 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (OHPH) were determined in pre- and post-shift urinary samples. Significantly higher concentrations 1-OHP and OHPH were detected in the post-shift urine samples of 7 mastic asphalt workers working on the same construction site compared to the reference workers and all other 66 mastic asphalt workers. The adjusted mean OHPH in the reference, 66 mastic worker, and 7 worker subgroups was 1022, 1544, and 12919 ng/g creatinine (crn) respectively, indicating a marked rise in the 7 worker subgroup. In addition, there was a more than 12-fold increase of PAH metabolites from pre- to post-shift in these 7 workers, whereas in the other mastic asphalt workers there was only a twofold rise in PAH-metabolite concentration between pre- and post-shift values. The analysis of a drilling core from the construction site of the seven workers led to the detection of the source for this marked PAH exposure during the working shift as being coal tar plates, which were, without knowledge of the workers and coordinators, the underground material of the mastic asphalt layer. The evaluation of the stationary workplace concentration showed enhanced levels of phenanthrene, pyrene, fluorene, anthracene, and acenaphthene during working shifts at the construction site of these seven workers. Our study shows that biological monitoring is also a useful tool for the detection of unrecognized sources with high PAH concentrations.

  13. Research and Application of Power Equipment Panoramic Intelligent Monitoring Information Model%电力设备全景智能监测信息模型研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟瑞聪; 谢善益; 范颖; 周刚

    2015-01-01

    为了实现电力设备在线监测系统与调度自动化系统、生产管理信息系统等互联互通和数据融合,提出了适用于在线监测应用的电力设备全景智能监测信息模型的解决方案。以 IEC 61850 SCL 和 IEC 61970/61968 CIM模型为基础,以统一设备编码及命名为索引,实现了信息模型的无缝拼接。同时提出基于模型源端维护的信息交互技术,有效解决了在线监测模型、调度自动化模型、生产管理信息模型与电力设备全景智能监测信息模型之间的模型转换和数据接入问题,实现了信息模型的自动化、智能化维护。%In order to achieve the interconnection and data fusion between the online monitoring system,the energy management system and the management information system,this paper proposed the solution of power equipment panoramic intelligent monitoring information model which is suitable for online monitoring application. The information model based on IEC 61850 SCL model and IEC 61970 /61968 CIMmodel achieved model splicing by using unified device code and name as index.Mean while the information exchange technology based on model source maintaining was proposed.The problem of model transformation and data access was solved between online monitoring model,scheduling automation model,production management information model and power equipment panoramic intelligent monitoring information model.The automated maintenance and intelligent maintenance of information model were achieved.

  14. 物联网技术在输变电设备状态监测中的应用%Application of the internet of things technology in power transmission equipments condition monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹一家; 何杰; 黄小庆; 张志丹

    2012-01-01

    Smart grid is one of the most important application fields in the internet of things (IOT). On the basis of integrated analysis of basic concept and research hotspot of IOT, the paper preliminary studies the application prospects of IOT in on-line monitoring of power transmission and distribution equipment, electric vehicle and smart home. Then, with intelligent monitoring, condition assessment and life cycle management of transmission and distribution equipment as background, architecture of the internet of power transmission and distribution equipment is proposed, including intelligent perception layer, data communication layer, information integration layer, smart application layer. Key technologies, such as integrated intelligent monitoring device, coding and labeling system, communication technology, panoramic information modeling, information processing, life cycle management, security problems and standardization, are further discussed in detail. And then research directions and existing problems of these technologies are finally given.%智能电网是物联网应用的最重要领域之一.在分析物联网概念及研究热点的基础上,初步探讨物联网在智能电网中输变电设备在线监测、电动汽车和智能家居的应用前景,以输变电设备智能监测、状态评估和全寿命周期管理为背景,提出包括智能感知层、数据通信层、信息整合层和智能应用层的输变电设备物联网体系架构,并详细探讨体系架构中所涉及到的若干关键技术,主要包括一体化智能监测装置、编码和标识体系、通信技术、全景信息建模、信息处理技术、全寿命周期管理、安全威胁与措施以及标准化,指出这些技术的研究方向和存在问题.

  15. Some Case Studies on Metal-Microbe Interactions to Remediate Heavy Metals- Contaminated Soils in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Hyo-Taek

    2015-04-01

    Conventional physicochemical technologies to remediate heavy metals-contaminated soil have many problems such as low efficiency, high cost and occurrence of byproducts. Recently bioremediation technology is getting more and more attention. Bioremediation is defined as the use of biological methods to remediate and/or restore the contaminated land. The objectives of bioremediation are to degrade hazardous organic contaminants and to convert hazardous inorganic contaminants to less toxic compounds of safe levels. The use of bioremediation in the treatment of heavy metals in soils is a relatively new concept. Bioremediation using microbes has been developed to remove toxic heavy metals from contaminated soils in laboratory scale to the contaminated field sites. Recently the application of cost-effective and environment-friendly bioremediation technology to the heavy metals-contaminated sites has been gradually realized in Korea. The merits of bioremediation include low cost, natural process, minimal exposure to the contaminants, and minimum amount of equipment. The limitations of bioremediation are length of remediation, long monitoring time, and, sometimes, toxicity of byproducts for especially organic contaminants. From now on, it is necessary to prove applicability of the technologies to contaminated sites and to establish highly effective, low-cost and easy bioremediation technology. Four categories of metal-microbe interactions are generally biosorption, bioreduction, biomineralization and bioleaching. In this paper, some case studies of the above metal-microbe interactions in author's lab which were published recently in domestic and international journals will be introduced and summarized.

  16. Groundwater level monitoring sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses groundwater level monitoring activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Groundwater level monitoring will be conducted at 129 sites within the WAG. All of the sites will be manually monitored on a semiannual basis. Forty-five of the 128 wells, plus one site in White Oak Lake, will also be equipped with automatic water level monitoring equipment. The 46 sites are divided into three groups. One group will be equipped for continuous monitoring of water level, conductivity, and temperature. The other two groups will be equipped for continuous monitoring of water level only. The equipment will be rotated between the two groups. The data collected from the water level monitoring will be used to support determination of the contaminant flux at WAG 6.

  17. Front Room Monitoring System Multi Quad Analytical Equipment%前端机房监看系统多画面分割器设备解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟红英

    2015-01-01

    多画面分割器作为有线电视前端机房播监看系统的核心处理部件,其性能对整个机房监控系统的有效性和稳定性起着举足轻重的作用,阐述了多画面分割器的主要评测指标,并结合国内外主流产品的功能与性能进行分析。%Multi Quad as cable headend broadcast monitor core processing component of the system,its per-formance is slightly superior to the effectiveness and stability of the whole room monitoring system plays an im-portant role.This paper reviews the main indicators of more elaborate Quad,and combined with the function-ality and performance of mainstream products at home and abroad for analysis.

  18. Apparatus and method for time-integrated, active sampling of contaminants in fluids demonstrated by monitoring of hexavalent chromium in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Isaac B; Driver, Erin M; Halden, Rolf U

    2016-06-15

    Annual U.S. expenditures of $2B for site characterization invite the development of new technologies to improve data quality while reducing costs and minimizing uncertainty in groundwater monitoring. This work presents a new instrument for time-integrated sampling of environmental fluids using in situ solid-phase extraction (SPE). The In Situ Sampler (IS2) is an automated submersible device capable of extracting dissolved contaminants from water (100s-1000smL) over extended periods (hours to weeks), retaining the analytes, and rejecting the processed fluid. A field demonstration of the IS2 revealed 28-day average concentration of hexavalent chromium in a shallow aquifer affected by tidal stresses via sampling of groundwater as both liquid and sorbed composite samples, each obtained in triplicate. In situ SPE exhibited 75±6% recovery and an 8-fold improvement in reporting limit. Relative to use of conventional methods (100%), beneficial characteristics of the device and method included minimal hazardous material generation (2%), transportation cost (10%), and associated carbon footprint (2%). The IS2 is compatible with commercial SPE resins and standard extraction methods, and has been certified for more general use (i.e., inorganics and organics) by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) of the U.S. Department of Defense.

  19. Ensuring the continuity of care of cardiorespiratory diseases at home. Monitoring equipment and medical data exchange over semantically annotated web services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyropoulos, B; Tzavaras, A; Botsivaly, M; Koutsourakis, K

    2010-01-01

    A significant portion of care related to cardiorespiratory diseases is provided at home, usually but not exclusively, after the discharge of a patient from hospital. It is the purpose of the present study to present the technical means which we have developed, in order to support the adaptation of the continuity of care of cardiorespiratory diseases at home. We have developed an integrated system that includes: first, a prototype laptop-based portable monitoring system that comprises low-cost commercially available components, which enable the periodical or continuous monitoring of vital signs at home; second, software supporting medical decision-making related to tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation, as well as fuzzy-rules-based software supporting home-ventilation optimization; third, a typical continuity of care record (CCR) adapted to support also the creation of a homecare plan; and finally, a prototype ontology, based upon the HL7 clinical document architecture (CDA), serving as basis for the development of semantically annotated web services that allow for the exchange and retrieval of homecare information. The flexible design and the adaptable data-exchange mechanism of the developed system result in a useful and standard-compliant tool, for cardiorespiratory disease-related homecare. The ongoing laboratory testing of the system shows that it is able to contribute to an effective and low-cost package solution, supporting patient supervision and treatment. Furthermore, semantic web technologies prove to be the perfect solution for both the conceptualization of a continuity of care data exchange procedure and for the integration of the structured medical data.

  20. Design and application of small inverter equipment monitoring and managing system%户用小型逆变器监测管理系统开发及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏鲲; 丁晓波; 王楠; 许颇

    2014-01-01

    In order to manage the smal inverter equipment efficiently, a monitoring system based on the smal power inverter was designed. The STM32F103ZET6 was used as the communication MCU and the software with good real-time response developed in Windows Presentation Foundation as the Internet monitoring platform. Real-time state of the inverters could be monitored by the system, and history information database for the users could be established. Then the inverter state through the internet coule be monitored. The result shows that this system is stable and convenient for users to manage the smal inverter online.%为了通过PC机和网络有效监管小型逆变器,以小功率户用小型光伏逆变器为研究对象,设计了上位机通讯监测系统。该系统以STM32F103ZET6作为逆变器的监测通讯主控,基于Blue Tooth V2.1协议,在集成于Microsoft Visual Studio中的WPF开发环境中完成了具有良好实时响应特性的Internet监测平台。该系统可实时监测逆变器的当前状态,建立被控对象的历史信息数据库,并以图表形式供用户查询,使用户能够通过网络远程监测逆变器并及时了解设备的运行状态。工业应用表明该系统运行稳定,便于户用小型逆变器的远端在线管理。

  1. Monitoring madness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankinship, S.

    2006-01-15

    High quality continuous emission monitoring capability can be as essential as high quality emission control equipment. Future mercury monitoring and control requirements add to the justification for better CEMS. The article discusses two prominent mercury measurement methods - the cold vapour atomic absorptive spectrometer (CVAAs) and the atomic absorptive spectrometer (AFS). It stresses the importance of maintaining a CEMS. 1 photo.

  2. THE CONTROL MEASURES AND MONITORING FOR BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF MEDICALLY USED WATER IN DENTAL DEPARTMENTS%口腔科医疗用水细菌污染控制与监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵卫东; 李艳娟; 郑岗; 魏慧

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the hygiene quality of medically used water in dental department and to discuss control measures for bacterial contamination. Methods Water sampling and bacterial detection tests were used to monitor the hygiene quality of medically used water in dental department of this hospital and to compare effects of different control measures. Results During January 2008 to December 2009, in the medically used water in dental department of this hospital, the qualified rate of hygiene quality of dental handpiece water was 23. 1% , that was 42. 0% for the three ways syringe. From March 2010 to September 2010, after filters were equipped, the qualified rate of hygiene quality of dental hand-piece water was 24. 7% , that was 36. 1% for the three ways syringe,50. 0% for the water source and 100% for the washing water. Conclusion The hygiene quality of medically used water in dental department of this hospital is poor and the water quality is associated with municipal water supply. The water quality improvements are not distinct simply plusing filters so comprehensive management measures should be taken.%目的 了解口腔科医疗用水卫生质量状况,探讨其细菌污染控制措施.方法 通过收集水样和细菌检验方法,对本医院口腔科医疗用水卫生质量进行了监测,比较不同控制措施的效果.结果 在2008年1月-2009年12月期间,本医院口腔科医疗用水中,手机喷水卫生质量合格率为23.1%,三用枪喷水卫生质量合格率为42.0%.2010年3-9月,口腔科医疗用水加过滤装置后,手机喷水卫生质量合格率为24.7%,三用枪喷水合格率为36.1%,水源水质量合格率为50.0%,洗涤用水合格率为100%.结论 医院口腔科医疗用水卫生质量堪忧,其水质直接受市政供水水质影响,简单加过滤器效果改善不明显,需要综合管理措施.

  3. Overview of Dynamic Monitoring System of Bullet Train Control Equipment%动车组列控设备动态监测系统概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊翠萍

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the main functions of the dynamic monitoring system of the column control, and expounds the function of the system in detail, and provides the first time data, which is the scientific guidance for the safety operation of the high speed railway, make sure safe operation of railway.%笔者通过对列控动态监测系统的主要功能的介绍,并结合具体案例对系统功能进行详尽阐述,有效地发挥动态监测系统的实时监测功能,为列控车载设备故障处理提供第一时间的数据资料,科学的指导作业人员对列控车载设备故障进行应急处理,保证了高速铁路动车组的安全运行。

  4. Assessment of metal contamination in a small mining- and smelting-affected watershed: high resolution monitoring coupled with spatial analysis by GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coynel, Alexandra; Blanc, Gérard; Marache, Antoine; Schäfer, Jörg; Dabrin, Aymeric; Maneux, Eric; Bossy, Cécile; Masson, Matthieu; Lavaux, Gilbert

    2009-05-01

    The Riou Mort River watershed (SW France), representative of a heavily polluted, small, heterogeneous watershed, represents a major source for the polymetallic pollution of the Lot-Garonne-Gironde fluvial-estuarine system due to former mining and ore-treatment activities. In order to assess spatial distribution of the metal/metalloid contamination in the watershed, a high resolution hydrological and geochemical monitoring were performed during one year at four permanent observation stations. Additionally, thirty-five stream sediment samples were collected at representative key sites and analyzed for metal/metalloid (Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, As, Sb, Mo, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Th, U and Hg) concentrations. The particulate concentrations in water and stream sediments show high spatial differences for most of the studied elements suggesting strong anthropogenic and/or lithogenic influences; for stream sediments, the sequence of the highest variability, ranging from 100% to 300%, is the following: Mo metalloid maps generated by GIS tool were used to establish relationships between elements, to identify metal/metalloid sources and localize geochemical anomalies attributed to local geochemical background, urban and industrial activities. Finally, this study presents an approach to assess anthropogenic trace metal inputs within this watershed by combining lithology-dependent geochemical background values, metal/metalloid concentrations in stream sediments and mass balances of element fluxes at four key sites. The strongest anthropogenic contributions to particulate element fluxes are 90-95% for Cd, Zn and Hg in downstream sub-catchments. The localisation of anthropogenic metal/metalloid sources in restricted areas offers a great opportunity to further significantly reduce metal emissions and restore the Lot-Garonne-Gironde fluvial-estuarine ecosystem.

  5. Equipment. Out of order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, C

    2000-08-17

    The NHS has underinvested in equipment for more than 20 years. Most hospitals have inadequate equipment inventories. More than half the anaesthetic machines in use are more than five years old and should be replaced. Almost a fifth of the equipm