WorldWideScience

Sample records for contamination monitoring activities

  1. Contamination monitoring activities in Kanupp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, S S [Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Pakistan)

    1997-06-01

    The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Kanupp) is a 137 MWe pressurized heavy water reactor, designed and erected by the Canadian General Electric Company as a turn key project. The plant is in operation since it was commissioned in the year 1972. It is located at the Arabian Sea Coast about 15 miles to the west of Karachi. During its more than two decades of operation, the plant has generated about 8 billion units of electricity with an average life time availability factor of 60%. In Kanupp, radioactive contamination may exit due to the release of fission product, activation products etc., which may somehow escape from its confinement and may contaminate surface or other media such as air, water etc. In this paper, following items are described: main aspects of contamination, status of contamination monitoring, need of contamination monitoring, radiation protection activity, instruments, contamination, current status of contamination survey materials and their disposal, and environmental monitoring. (G.K.)

  2. An overview of existing raptor contaminant monitoring activities in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ramírez, P; Shore, R F; van den Brink, N W; van Hattum, B; Bustnes, J O; Duke, G; Fritsch, C; García-Fernández, A J; Helander, B O; Jaspers, V; Krone, O; Martínez-López, E; Mateo, R; Movalli, P; Sonne, C

    2014-06-01

    Biomonitoring using raptors as sentinels can provide early warning of the potential impacts of contaminants on humans and the environment and also a means of tracking the success of associated mitigation measures. Examples include detection of heavy metal-induced immune system impairment, PCB-induced altered reproductive impacts, and toxicity associated with lead in shot game. Authorisation of such releases and implementation of mitigation is now increasingly delivered through EU-wide directives but there is little established pan-European monitoring to quantify outcomes. We investigated the potential for EU-wide coordinated contaminant monitoring using raptors as sentinels. We did this using a questionnaire to ascertain the current scale of national activity across 44 European countries. According to this survey, there have been 52 different contaminant monitoring schemes with raptors over the last 50years. There were active schemes in 15 (predominantly western European) countries and 23 schemes have been running for >20years; most monitoring was conducted for >5years. Legacy persistent organic compounds (specifically organochlorine insecticides and PCBs), and metals/metalloids were monitored in most of the 15 countries. Fungicides, flame retardants and anticoagulant rodenticides were also relatively frequently monitored (each in at least 6 countries). Common buzzard (Buteo buteo), common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), tawny owl (Strix aluco) and barn owl (Tyto alba) were most commonly monitored (each in 6-10 countries). Feathers and eggs were most widely analysed although many schemes also analysed body tissues. Our study reveals an existing capability across multiple European countries for contaminant monitoring using raptors. However, coordination between existing schemes and expansion of monitoring into Eastern Europe is needed. This would enable

  3. Contamination monitoring in radiation protection activities in Myanmar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thin, K T; Htoon, S [Yangon Univ. (Myanmar). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    The radioactive contamination in rainwater, seawater, air, milk powder and other eatables were measured with low level counter assembly. The measured activities are found to be very low and well within the maximum permissible level. (author)

  4. Radioactive surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Kei; Minagoshi, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Toru

    1994-01-01

    To reduce radiation exposure and prevent contamination from spreading, each nuclear power plant has established a radiation controlled area. People and articles out of the controlled area are checked for the surface contamination of radioactive materials with surface contamination monitors. Fuji Electric has repeatedly improved these monitors on the basis of user's needs. This paper outlines typical of a surface contamination monitor, a personal surface contamination monitor, an article surface contamination monitor and a laundry monitor, and the whole-body counter of an internal contamination monitor. (author)

  5. Contamination monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamares, A L [Philippine Nuclear Research Inst., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    1997-06-01

    By virture of Republic Act 2067, as amended the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), now renamed Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) is the government agency charged with the regulations and control of radioactive materials in the Philippines. The protection against the hazards of non-ionizing radiation is being monitored by the Radiological Health Service (RHS) of the Department of Health pursuant to the provision of Presidental Decree 480. The RHS issues licenses for possession, handling, and use of x-ray machines and equipment, both industrial and medical, and provide radiation protection training to x-ray technologists and technicians. As part of its regulatory function, the PNRI is charged with the responsibility of assuring that the radiation workers and the public are protected from the hazards associated with the possession, handling, production, manufacturing, and the use of radioactive materials and atomic energy facilities in the Philippines. The protection of radiation workers from the hazards of ionizing radiation has always been a primary concern of PNRI and by limiting the exposure of radiation workers, the risk to population is kept to within acceptable level. In this paper, the following items are described: radiation protection program, radiation protection services, radiation control, and problems encountered/recommendation. (G.K.)

  6. Radiation contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tsutomu; Iba, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    To make sure of no contamination on people, used articles and working uniforms coming out of the radiation controlled area, nuclear power plants are equipped with radioactive contamination monitors. This paper outlines the basic specifications and advantages of our personnel surface contamination monitors to inspect whole-body surface contamination of people coming out, article surface contamination monitors to inspect the surface and inside contamination of used articles brought out, laundry monitors to inspect surface contamination of working uniforms used in the area before and after a wash, and whole-body counters to inspect and measure the internal contamination of a person out of the area. (author)

  7. Use of biological activities to monitor the removal of fuel contaminants - perspective for monitoring hydrocarbon contamination: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil biological activities are vital for the restoration of soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. Their role includes the biotransformation of petroleum compounds into harmless compounds. In this paper, the use of biological activities as potential...

  8. An overview of existing raptor contaminant monitoring activities in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Ramirez, P.; Shore, R.F.; Brink, van den N.W.; Hattum, van B.; Bustnes, J.O.; Duke, G.; Fritsch, C.; Garcia-Fernandez, A.J.; Helander, B.O.; Jaspers, V.; Krone, O.; Martinez-Lopez, E.; Mateo, R.; Movalli, P.; Sonne, C.

    2014-01-01

    Biomonitoring using raptors as sentinels can provide early warning of the potential impacts of contaminants on humans and the environment and also a means of tracking the success of associated mitigation measures. Examples include detection of heavy metal-induced immune system impairment,

  9. Monitoring of transport contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkin, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Organization of monitoring of transport contamination is considered. A particularly thorough monitoring is recommended to be carried out in loading-unloading operations. The monitoring is performed when leaving loading-unloading site and zone under control and prior to preventive examination, technical service or repair. The method of monitoring of auto transport contamination with high-energy β-emitters by means of a special stand permitting the automation of the monitoring process is described [ru

  10. Hand and foot contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakati, R.K.; Kaptral, R.S.; Ananthkrishnan, T.S.; Pansare, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    In order to make quick measurements of beta and gamma contaminations on hands and feet of personnel working in radioactive environments, hand and foot contamination monitors are widely used. This paper describes such a monitor system designed with Intel 8085 based microcomputer. The monitoring and warning system is designed to perform measurement of activity spread over surface of hands and soles of shoes or feet. Even though the system has many features to aid testing and maintainance operation, it is easy to use for unskilled persons. In order to check the contamination, the person stands on platform and inserts both his hands into detector assemblies thereby actuating the sensing switches. After a preset interval, annunciation of clean or contaminated status is declared by the system. (author)

  11. Automatic personnel contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattin, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    United Nuclear Industries, Inc. (UNI) has developed an automatic personnel contamination monitor (APCM), which uniquely combines the design features of both portal and hand and shoe monitors. In addition, this prototype system also has a number of new features, including: micro computer control and readout, nineteen large area gas flow detectors, real-time background compensation, self-checking for system failures, and card reader identification and control. UNI's experience in operating the Hanford N Reactor, located in Richland, Washington, has shown the necessity of automatically monitoring plant personnel for contamination after they have passed through the procedurally controlled radiation zones. This final check ensures that each radiation zone worker has been properly checked before leaving company controlled boundaries. Investigation of the commercially available portal and hand and shoe monitors indicated that they did not have the sensitivity or sophistication required for UNI's application, therefore, a development program was initiated, resulting in the subject monitor. Field testing shows good sensitivity to personnel contamination with the majority of alarms showing contaminants on clothing, face and head areas. In general, the APCM has sensitivity comparable to portal survey instrumentation. The inherit stand-in, walk-on feature of the APCM not only makes it easy to use, but makes it difficult to bypass. (author)

  12. Comparison of active and passive sampling strategies for the monitoring of pesticide contamination in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assoumani, Azziz; Margoum, Christelle; Guillemain, Céline; Coquery, Marina

    2014-05-01

    constants (Rs). Each constant links the mass of the a target contaminant accumulated in the sampler to its concentration in water. At the end of the field application, the Rs are used to calculate the TWA concentration of each target contaminant with the final mass of the contaminants accumulated in the sampler. Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) is a solvent free sample preparation technique dedicated to the analysis of moderately hydrophobic to hydrophobic compounds in liquid and gas samples. It is composed of a magnet enclosed in a glass tube coated with a thick film of polydimethysiloxane (PDMS). We recently developed the in situ application of SBSE as a passive sampling technique (herein named "Passive SBSE") for the monitoring of agricultural pesticides. The aim of this study is to perform the calibration of the passive SBSE in the laboratory, and to apply and compare this technique to active sampling strategies for the monitoring of 16 relatively hydrophobic to hydrophobic pesticides in streams, during 2 1-month sampling campaigns. Time-weighted averaged concentrations of the target pesticides obtained from passive SBSE were compared to the target pesticide concentrations of grab samples, and time-related and flow-dependent samples of the streams. Results showed passive SBSE as an efficient alternative to conventional active sampling strategies.

  13. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Program Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA uses the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring (UCM) program to collect data for contaminants suspected to be present in drinking water, but that do not have...

  14. Monitoring of surface and airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeep Kumar, K S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1997-06-01

    Indian nuclear energy programme aims at total safety in all activities involved in the entire fuel cycle for the occupational workers, members of the public and the environment as a whole. Routine radiation monitoring with clearly laid out procedures are followed for ensuring the safety of workers and public. Radiation monitoring carried out for the nuclear installations comprises of process monitoring, monitoring of effluent releases and also of the radiation protection monitoring of the individuals, work place and environment. Regulations like banning of smoking and consumption of food and drink etc. reduces the risk of direct ingestion even if inadvertent spread of contamination takes place. Though limit of transportable surface contamination is prescribed, the health physicists always follow a ``clean on swipe`` philosophy which compensates any error in the measurement of surface contamination. In this paper, the following items are contained: Necessity of contamination monitoring, accuracy required in the calibration of surface contamination monitors, methodology for contamination monitoring, air monitoring, guidelines for unrestricted release of scrap materials, and problems in contamination monitoring. (G.K.)

  15. Organization of internal contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badreddine, A.

    1986-07-01

    The nuclear energy takes a big part in the world's energy production. The nuclear techniques are used in most fields of life. Nevertheless the use of radioactive materials may cause prejudice to human beings by radiation contamination. The International Commission on Radiological Protection gives the general rules and regulations to avoid this danger. In the publication No. 30, the ICRP gives a metabolic model for the respiratory system and values of Annual Limit of Intake. The ALI for inhalation supposes a standard AMAD (Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter) of 1 um. We have measured the AMAD in a laboratory under different conditions of functioning in order to show its variation. Then we have analysed the effect of this variation on the internal contamination monitoring. Thus we have calculated the Effective Committed Dose (ECD), the ALI, then the Derived Investigation Level (DIL) for different values of AMAD for Whole-Body Counting (WBC)

  16. Alpha contamination assessment for D ampersand D activities: Monitoring inside glove boxes and vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; Bolton, R.D.; Conaway, J.G.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-02-01

    We have developed a new approach to glove box monitoring that involves drawing air out of one glove port through a detection grid that collects ions created in the air inside the glove box by ionizing radiation, especially alpha radiation. The charge deposited on the detection grid by the ions is measured with a sensitive electrometer. The air can be circulated back to the glove box through the other glove port, preventing contamination from leaving the glove box and detector system. Initial experiments using a mock-up constructed of sheet metal indicate that this technology provides the measurement technique needed to perform a defensible, non-invasive measurement of alpha contamination inside glove boxes destined for waste disposal. This can result in an enormous cost savings if a given glove box can be shown to fall into the catagory of Low-Level Waste rather than Trans-Uranic Waste. Considering that hundreds of glove boxes contaminated with plutonium will be taken out of service at various nuclear facilities over the next few years, the potential cost savings associated with disposal as LLW rather than TRU waste are substantial

  17. Status of contamination monitoring in radiation activities of National Atomic Energy Agency (NAEA) in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhariyono, Gatot [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1997-06-01

    National Atomic Energy Agency (NAEA) or Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional (BATAN) is a non departmental governmental agency, headed by a Director General who is directly responsible to the President. Center for Standardization and Radiation Safety Research (CSRSR) is one of the research centers within the deputy for the assessment of nuclear science and technology of the NAEA. The main task of the CSRSR is to implement research and development program, development and services in the field of radiation safety, standardization, dosimetry, radiation health as well as the application of nuclear techniques in medicine, according to the policy confirmed by the director general of BATAN. Task of radiation protection division is to set up programs and to develop radiation protection, personal monitoring system and radiation level of the working areas and their surroundings as well as dose limitation system, to carry out technical up grading of radiation protection officials skill and to help coping with radiation accident. The key factor on contamination monitoring is to reduce human error and mechanical failures. These problems can be achieved to the highest degree by developing knowledge and skill of staffs via trainings or courses on contamination and decontamination, so that they are hoped to become trained and qualified staffs. (G.K.)

  18. Country report on contamination monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyuntulkhuur, Navaangalsan [National Centre for Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology (Mongolia). Central Radiological Laboratory

    1997-06-01

    Mongolia is a non-nuclear country and has currently neither nuclear power plants nor research reactors. This country joined the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA) for the Asia Pacific region for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology in 1993. Various measures has been taken for strengthening of radiation protection, cooperated with several international organizations mainly with IAEA. In Mongolia radioactive substances and sources are used for the following purposes: for research work; medical radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology in hospitals; industrial enterprises for technological processes; and for non-destructive testing in industry. Radiation safety inspection is conducted by the CRL. The inspections consist of verification of compliance with radiation safety requirements and with any additional requirements specified in the authorization of accounting records and a physical check on the presence of radiation sources; check on the work carried out by the radiation safety services to monitor radioactive contamination of the environment; and measurements and sampling. CRL should take much attention for improvement and development of the activities in the field of surface contamination monitoring concerning a wide use of radionuclides in different field of economy. (G.K.)

  19. Alpha contamination assessment for D ampersand D activities: Monitoring pipe interiors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; Conaway, J.G.; MacArthur, D.W.; Vaccarella, J.

    1996-02-01

    We have developed a prototype instrument capable of assessing alpha-emitting contamination on interior surfaces of ducts, pipes, tanks, and other enclosed volumes without inserting a probe. Air is drawn through the potentially contaminated volume and then through a detection grid, where ions created in the air by alpha particles are collected and the resulting charge measured with a sensitive electrometer. A filter at the intake end of the contaminated volume excludes externally created ions, so only ions generated inside the volume are detected. We have studied the response of this prototype in initial experiments using calibrated alpha sources with various pipe diameters and configurations, air flows, and source locations in the pipes. The results of these experiments indicate that this method can be an effective approach to assessing internal contamination

  20. Radioactive standards and calibration methods for contamination monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-06-01

    Contamination monitoring in the facilities for handling unsealed radioactive materials is one of the most important procedures for radiation protection as well as radiation dose monitoring. For implementation of the proper contamination monitoring, radiation measuring instruments should not only be suitable to the purpose of monitoring, but also be well calibrated for the objective qualities of measurement. In the calibration of contamination monitoring instruments, quality reference activities need to be used. They are supplied in different such as extended sources, radioactive solutions or radioactive gases. These reference activities must be traceable to the national standards or equivalent standards. On the other hand, the appropriate calibration methods must be applied for each type of contamination monitoring instruments. In this paper, the concepts of calibration for contamination monitoring instruments, reference sources, determination methods of reference quantities and practical calibration methods of contamination monitoring instruments, including the procedures carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and some relevant experimental data. (G.K.)

  1. GSFC contamination monitors for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosso, P. A.; Tveekrem, J. L.; Coopersmith, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the Work Package 3 activities in the area of neutral contamination monitoring for the Space Station. Goddard Space Flight Center's responsibilities include the development of the Attached Payload Accommodations Equipment (APAE), the Polar Orbiting Platform (POP), and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS). GSFC will also develop the Customer Servicing Facility (CSF) in Phase 2 of the Space Station.

  2. Status of contamination monitoring in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Aleya [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Savar, Dacca (Bangladesh)

    1997-06-01

    The applications of radioisotopes and radiation sources to the research and development in medicine, food agriculture, industries and others are rapidly increasing in Bangladesh. The existing major nuclear facilites and allied laboratories of the country include 3 MW TRIGA Mark-2 research reactor for training, research and radioisotope production, 14 MeV neutron generator for nuclear data measurement and elemental analysis via neutron activation, 3 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator for the research and application of nuclear physics, and 50,000 Ci and 5,000 Ci Co-60 irradiators. About 10 Co-60 and Cs-137 teletherapy units are in operation in hospitals. The radioactive contamination of working areas, equipment, protective clothing and skin may result from normal operation and accidents, and contamination monitoring and decontamination are the essential part of radiation protection program. Surface contamination is monitored with Berthold survey meters. Hand and foot monitors have been used. Routine systematic search, continuous air monitoring, the examination of silt movement in Chittagong harbor using Sc-46 tracer and the measurement of tritium contamination for the neutron generator are reported. (K.I.)

  3. Radioactive contamination in monitors received for calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Paulo S.; Santos, Gilvan C. dos; Brunelo, Maria Antonieta G.; Paula, Tiago C. de; Pires, Marina A.; Borges, Jose C.

    2013-01-01

    The Calibration Laboratory - LABCAL, from the Research Center for Metrology and Testing - METROBRAS, MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., began activities in October 2008 and, in August 2009, decided to establish a procedure for monitoring tests, external and internal, of all packages received from customers, containing instruments for calibration. The aim was to investigate possible contamination radioactive on these instruments. On July 2011, this procedure was extended to packagings of personal thermoluminescent dosemeters - TLD, received by the newly created Laboratory Laboratorio de Dosimetria Pessoal - LDP . In the monitoring procedure were used monitors with external probe, type pancake, MRA brand, models GP - 500 and MIR 7028. During the 37 months in which this investigation was conducted, were detected 42 cases of radioactive contamination, with the following characteristics: 1) just one case was personal dosimeter, TLD type; 2) just one case was not from a packing from nuclear medicine service - was from a mining company; 3) contamination occurred on packs and instruments, located and/or widespread; 4) contamination values ranged from slightly above the level of background radiation to about a thousand fold. Although METROBRAS has facilities for decontamination, in most cases, especially those of higher contamination, the procedure followed was to store the contaminated material in a room used for storage of radioactive sources. Periodically, each package and/or instrument was monitored, being released when the radiation level matched the background radiation. Every contamination detected, the client and/or owner of the instrument was informed. The Brazilian National Energy Commission - CNEN, was informed, during your public consultation for reviewing the standard for nuclear medicine services, held in mid-2012, having received from METROBRAS the statistical data available at the time. The high frequency of contamination detected and the high

  4. Status on contamination monitoring in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quanlu, Gou [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)

    1997-06-01

    The air contaminated by radioactive materials in nuclear enterprises and radioactive workplaces and forming radioactive aerosol and the leakage of radioactive materials in operation cause internal exposure damage in workers. It is necessary and important to monitor air and surface contaminations for the health of public and workers, and for protecting environment. At present, many institutes engage in the studies on surface contamination monitoring in China, and the government has formulated the control limits of surface contamination in the Regulations of Radiation Protection. The monitors for surface contamination monitoring are almost home-made. The methods being used often are smear test and placing surface sample test. Scintillation counters, semiconductor detectors and G-M counters have been used for detecting alpha surface contamination. Plastic scintillator meters and thin wall/window G-M counters are used for beta surface contamination. Special detectors have been designed for monitoring low energy nuclides. The status of airborne contamination monitoring in China is reported. As the studies for future, the development of the surface contamination monitor for low energy beta nuclides, especially H-3, the monitoring methods for the special shapes of surfaces, the technology of decontamination and the calibration method and device for on-line radioactive aerosol continuous monitors are taken up. (K.I.)

  5. Development of remote operated floor contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, K.; Gangamohan, M.; Kannan, R.K.; Rajan, S.

    2005-01-01

    Contamination check of floors and walkways in and around Reactor building areas forms an integral part of Radiation Protection Program in Power Stations. Though random swipe check method is adopted for the detection of loose contamination, this method has the disadvantage of leaving the fixed contamination and hotspots undetected. Hence, scanning the area with a sensitive detector, held close to the surface provides positive means for the detection of contamination. Checking large areas and walkways by holding the detector close to the surface involves physical work. Also, areas which are unapproachable due to congestion of equipment, may go uncovered by contamination monitoring in order to eliminate the physical strain involved in such contamination monitoring and to cover unapproachable areas, a small size prototype device that can be operated remotely was fabricated. This device detects contamination instantaneously and accurately. This paper describes design and fabrication of the device used for floor contamination monitoring. (author)

  6. Monitoring of plutonium contaminated solid waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.; Notea, A.

    1977-01-01

    The planning of a system for monitoring Pu contaminated solid waste streams, from the nuclear fuel cycle, is considered on the basis of given facility waste management program. The inter relations between the monitoring system and the waste management objectives are stressed. Selection criteria with pertinent data of available waste monitors are given. Example of monitoring systems planning are presented and discussed

  7. Development of radioactive surface contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Tadao; Hasegawa, Toru; Fukumoto, Keisuke; Ooki, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    In the radiation facilities such as nuclear power plants, surface contamination of the people accessing or articles conveyed in and out of the radiation controlled areas is detected and monitored by installing contamination monitors at the boundary of controlled areas and uncontrolled areas against the expansion of the radioactive materials to out of the facilities. It is required for the surface contamination of articles to be tightened of control criteria as 'Guidelines for discrimination ways of nonradioactive waste (not classified as radioactive waste) generated from nuclear power plants' (hereinafter referred to as 'the Guideline') was established by the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry in August, 2005. It predicts that the control criteria of monitors other than article monitors are also tightened in the future. Fuji electric has been fabricating and delivering surface contamination detecting monitors. Now we are developing the new contamination monitor corresponding to the tightening of the control criteria. 'Large article transfer monitor', 'Clothing monitor' and 'Body surface contamination monitor' are introduced in this article. (author)

  8. Monitoring of overalls and personnel skin contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkin, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Organization of monitoring of overalls and personnel skin contamination wastes is considered. The devices used for this purpose are enumerated. In sanitary sluices through which the personnel leaving the repair zone it is recommended to particularly thoroughly control hand skin contamination and most contaminated parts of overalls (sleeves, breeches lower parts, pockets, stomack region). In sanitary check points during personnel leaving the operator zone monitoring of overalls and skin contamination is performed. The overalls and other individual protective clothing are subjected to control in a special loundry before and after washing (decontamination) [ru

  9. Contamination monitoring: an overview and its objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangena, S.

    2013-04-01

    The study presents and objectively summarises the aspect of contamination monitoring. This envisages reviewing sources of contamination and evaluating the scientific basis for practice specific courses of action for rehabilitation in a bid to restore pristine conditions wherever possible. The practices considered include nuclear medicine, reprocessing plants, fuel production plants, uranium and thorium mining and milling together with near surface disposal facilities (for radioactive waste). It also deals with monitoring sites contaminated as a consequence of past practices. General issues related to the design and operation of monitoring systems during and in the aftermath of a nuclear or radiological accident are also discussed including monitoring for long lived radionuclides widely dispersed in the environment following an accidental release. Thus the above discourse provides a framework for both quantitative and qualitative measures undertaken to enable effective response in the event of radioactive contamination. (au)

  10. Calibration of alpha surface contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, I.S.M. de; Goncalez, O.L.

    1990-01-01

    In this work, the results, as well as the methodology, of the calibration of an alpha surface contamination monitor are presented. The calibration factors are obtained by least-squares fitting with effective variance. (author)

  11. Automated contamination monitoring for hot particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, G.; Case, L.

    1987-01-01

    INS Corp., the largest nuclear laundry company in the United States, has recently developed two types of automated contamination monitoring systems: 1) the Automated Laundry Monitor (ALM), which provides quality assurance monitoring for protective clothing contamination and 2) a low-level automated monitoring system for Plastic Volume Reduction Service (PVRS). The presentation details the inaccuracies associated with hand-probe frisking which led to the development of the ALM. The ALM was designed for 100% quality assurance monitoring of garments to the most stringent customer requirements. A review of why the ALM is essential in verifying the absence of hot particles on garments is given. The final topic addresses the expansion of the ALM technology in support of the INS Plastic Volume Reduction Service by monitoring decontaminated plastics to free release levels. This presentation reviews the design and operation of both monitoring systems

  12. Optimization of monitoring sewage with radionuclide contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    Recommendations on optimization of monitoring contaminated sewage aimed at enviromental protection agxinst radioactive contamination at minimum cost are presented. The way of selecting water sampling technique depends on water composition stability and flow rate. Depending on the type of radionuclide distribution in the sewage one can estimate minimum frequency of sampling or number of samples sufficient for assuring reliability of the conclusion on the excess or non-excess of permissible radioactive contamination levels, as well as analysis assigned accuracy. By irregular contaminated sewage-discharge and possibility of short-term releases of different form and duration, sampling should be accomplished through automatic devices of continuons or periodic operation

  13. Monitoring and evaluation techniques for airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yihua, Xia [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    1997-06-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are of great importance for the purpose of protection of health and safety of workers in nuclear installations. Because airborne contamination is one of the key sources to cause exposure to individuals by inhalation and digestion, and to cause diffusion of contaminants in the environment. The main objectives of monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are: to detect promptly a loss of control of airborne material, to help identify those individuals and predict exposure levels, to assess the intake and dose commitment to the individuals, and to provide sufficient documentation of airborne radioactivity. From the viewpoint of radiation protection, the radioactive contaminants in air can be classified into the following types: airborne aerosol, gas and noble gas, and volatile gas. In this paper, the following items are described: sampling methods and techniques, measurement and evaluation, and particle size analysis. (G.K.)

  14. Monitoring and evaluation techniques for airborne contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yihua

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are of great importance for the purpose of protection of health and safety of workers in nuclear installations. Because airborne contamination is one of the key sources to cause exposure to individuals by inhalation and digestion, and to cause diffusion of contaminants in the environment. The main objectives of monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are: to detect promptly a loss of control of airborne material, to help identify those individuals and predict exposure levels, to assess the intake and dose commitment to the individuals, and to provide sufficient documentation of airborne radioactivity. From the viewpoint of radiation protection, the radioactive contaminants in air can be classified into the following types: airborne aerosol, gas and noble gas, and volatile gas. In this paper, the following items are described: sampling methods and techniques, measurement and evaluation, and particle size analysis. (G.K.)

  15. Background compensation methodologies for contamination monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, Anand; Chaudhury, Probal; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Radiation surveillance program in the various nuclear facilities incorporate contamination monitoring as an important component. Contamination monitoring programs constitute monitoring for alpha and beta contamination of the physical entities associated with the working personnel that include his hands, feet, clothing, shoes as well as the general surface areas in the working environment like floors. All these measurements are fraught with the contribution of the ambient gamma background radiation fields. These inhibit a proper and precise estimation of the contamination concentration being monitored. This paper investigates the efficacy of two methodologies that have been incorporated in two of the contamination monitoring systems developed in the Division. In the first system discussed, a high degree of gamma compensation has been achieved for an uniform exposure of the order of 50 nSv/hr to 100 mSv/hr. In the second system discussed, the degree of gamma compensation achieved is equal to those dictated by the statistical nature of the uncertainties associated with the subtraction of background from the source data. These two methods can be very effectively employed depending on the application requirement. A minimum detection level equivalent to 0.37 Bq/cdm 2 has been achieved in both these cases

  16. The status on contamination monitoring in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinakhom, Fookiat [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1997-06-01

    Thailand has embarked upon the development of nuclear energy for peaceful utilizations since 1961 when the Atomic Energy for Peace Act was enacted. The Atomic Energy Commission (Thai AEC) was established under section 5 of this Act having power and duty of carrying out matters concerning atomic energy for peace. The applications of nuclear energy in Thailand, at present are exclusively in medicine, education, research and industry. In this paper, the following items are described on contamination monitoring: controllable monitoring, uncontrollable monitoring, standardization of monitoring instruments, and decontamination and waste management. (G.K.)

  17. Improvement of personalized Monte Carlo-aided direct internal contamination monitoring: optimization of calculation times and measurement methodology for the establishment of activity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah, Jad

    2011-01-01

    To optimize the monitoring of female workers using in vivo spectrometry measurements, it is necessary to correct the typical calibration coefficients obtained with the Livermore male physical phantom. To do so, numerical calibrations based on the use of Monte Carlo simulations combined with anthropomorphic 3D phantoms were used. Such computational calibrations require on the one hand the development of representative female phantoms of different size and morphologies and on the other hand rapid and reliable Monte Carlo calculations. A library of female torso models was hence developed by fitting the weight of internal organs and breasts according to the body height and to relevant plastic surgery recommendations. This library was next used to realize a numerical calibration of the AREVA NC La Hague in vivo counting installation. Moreover, the morphology-induced counting efficiency variations with energy were put into equation and recommendations were given to correct the typical calibration coefficients for any monitored female worker as a function of body height and breast size. Meanwhile, variance reduction techniques and geometry simplification operations were considered to accelerate simulations. Furthermore, to determine the activity mapping in the case of complex contaminations, a method that combines Monte Carlo simulations with in vivo measurements was developed. This method consists of realizing several spectrometry measurements with different detector positioning. Next, the contribution of each contaminated organ to the count is assessed from Monte Carlo calculations. The in vivo measurements realized at LEDI, CIEMAT and KIT have demonstrated the effectiveness of the method and highlighted the valuable contribution of Monte Carlo simulations for a more detailed analysis of spectrometry measurements. Thus, a more precise estimate of the activity distribution is given in the case of an internal contamination. (author)

  18. ESI nuclear model 271 C contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Iles, W.J.

    1978-06-01

    This instrument is a general purpose contamination monitor, comprising a GM tube connected by a coiled extensible cable to a ratemeter. The scale is marked quasi-logarithmically from 0 to 600 in 'counts per second'. The report falls under the headings: general description, facilities and controls, radiation performance, electrical characteristics, environmental characteristics, mechanical characteristics, summary of performance, conclusions. (U.K.)

  19. Alpha contaminated liquid effluent monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparo, M.; Mattia, B.; Bianchini, E.; Frazzoli, F.V.

    1987-01-01

    The present report takes into consideration the possibility to carry out an in-line control of activity in liquid streams of fuel cycle nuclear plants, epecially for waste streams. The instrument developed for this purpose, has been characterized by means of static and dinamic measurements with Pu and Am bearing solutions. The results so far obtained show that the minimum detectable Pu amount is about .01mg/l and that it is possible to apply such a technique as alarm system able to detect the overcoming of a present threshold of actinides concentrations. The report also presents an approach to the spectra deconvolution in order to determine the amount of single isotopes

  20. Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmage, S.S.; Walton, B.T.

    1991-01-01

    The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants

  1. Emergency preparedness and internal contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Suomela, M.

    2000-01-01

    After the radiation accidents in Chernobyl, Ukraina in 1986 and in Goiania, Brasil in 1987, much resource have been spent on improving emergency preparedness. Especially regarding transfer of information using the most recent techniques and establishment of 24 hour emergency service of radiation safety experts the development has been fast. The very first measures in a possible emergency situation have been trained nationally and internationally. Less attention has been paid to measures in a somewhat later phase. To be able to react fast enough in an emergency situation it is essential to have well documented plans, written instructions and suitable measurement equipment ready for use. Equally important is that there is trained staff prepared to do measurements without delay. In the first phase of a nuclear accident radioactive iodine is of primary concern regarding internal contamination. After the Chernobyl accident the number of childhood thyroidea cancer clearly exceeded the expected number. Reliable direct measurements of I-131 in the thyroidea in Ukraina, Russia and Belarussia were done only to a limited number of children. Many uncertainties are involved in the data used for dose estimation. Later the body burdens of radiocesium or other radionuclides might be of most importance. Normal whole-body counting instruments can be used if only small groups need to be measured. For large groups of people in an emergency situation faster methods are needed. Different types of monitors installed at places where radiation workers are controlled for internal contamination as well as gamma cameras at hospitals can be used. Rapid field measurements of the whole-body and especially of the thyroid can been done with less sophisticated instruments. In the acute phase of a nuclear accident such measurements should be done without delay. Instruments and staff trained to use them should be available and plans for which groups of people to measure prepared. The detection level

  2. [Research on hyperspectral remote sensing in monitoring snow contamination concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xu-guang; Liu, Dian-wei; Zhang, Bai; Du, Jia; Lei, Xiao-chun; Zeng, Li-hong; Wang, Yuan-dong; Song, Kai-shan

    2011-05-01

    Contaminants in the snow can be used to reflect regional and global environmental pollution caused by human activities. However, so far, the research on space-time monitoring of snow contamination concentration for a wide range or areas difficult for human to reach is very scarce. In the present paper, based on the simulated atmospheric deposition experiments, the spectroscopy technique method was applied to analyze the effect of different contamination concentration on the snow reflectance spectra. Then an evaluation of snow contamination concentration (SCC) retrieval methods was conducted using characteristic index method (SDI), principal component analysis (PCA), BP neural network and RBF neural network method, and the estimate effects of four methods were compared. The results showed that the neural network model combined with hyperspectral remote sensing data could estimate the SCC well.

  3. Statistical considerations in practical contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, A.; Gallaghar, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an examination of smear survey practices which indicates that many radiation safety programs are lacking in important aspects of contamination monitoring. In order to satisfy regulatory and potential litigatory requirements, smear surveys should include the measurement and recording of the flowing data: area of each smear and smear procedure (by reference); total counts on smear and counting procedure; total counts on appropriate blanks and description of blank; total counts on standard and specifications of standard; and all counting times. The rationale for these smear survey requirements is obtained by examining the formulation of the minimum detectable amount (MDA) on a smear

  4. Use of a contamination detector to monitor the injected activity in hepatic radio embolization with microspheres of 90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneru Camara, F.; Otal Palacin, A.; Fuentemilla Urio, N.; Olasolo Alonso, J.; Lozares Cordero, S.; Pellejero Pellejero, S.; Miquelez Alonso, S.; Serra Arbeloa, P.; Goni Girones, P.; Martinez de la Cuesta, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper shows a system of measurement of activity in vial in real time very reproducible, free of radiation in the environment and that does not add discomfort to interventionist staff. (Author)

  5. Requirements for internal contamination monitoring units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, E.; Beyer, D.; Doerfel, H.; Erlenbach, H.; Fischbach, G.; Henrichs, K.; Keller, K.D.; Koenig, K.; Riedel, W.; Scheler, R.; Schieferdecker, H.

    1994-01-01

    For the evaluation of internal contamination by officially authorized monitoring units according to section 63 (6) of the German radiation protection ordinance, a directive will be prepared in order to define uniform requirements for the laboratories in charge of incorporation monitoring by appointment of the relevant authorities. These requirements refer to equipment, to performance of measurements, to interpretation of measured values, to quality control as well as to documentation and to delivery of results. The duties of such laboratories comprise measurements of radioactivity, evaluation of intakes of radionuclides and of the resulting internal radiation dose, but also transmission of results to the employer, to the central dose registry, and under certain circumstances to the authorities. Among the requirements to be met by the laboratory for incorporation control are a sufficient measuring efficiency, the implementation of in-house checks, and the participation in intercomparison programs. For the accomplishment of such duties the laboratory needs appropriate apparatus, rooms, facilities, and staffing. (orig.) [de

  6. Portable instrumentation for quantitatively measuring radioactive contamination levels and for monitoring the effectiveness of decontamination and decommissioning activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodzinski, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    Two completely portable high-resolution germanium diode spectrometer systems are described. These detectors are capable of measuring transuranics, activation products, and fission products, including 90 Sr, at sensitivities below the uncontrolled release criteria. The detectors measure x-rays, gamma-rays, or bremsstrahlung radiation as required and have been calibrated for a variety of decontamination and decommissioning scenarios. A description of a new technology for the in-situ determination of 90 Sr is given

  7. Portable instrumentation for quantitatively measuring radioactive contamination levels and for monitoring the effectiveness of decontamination and decommissioning activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodzinski, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    Two completely portable high-resolution germanium diode spectrometer systems are described. These detectors are capable of measuring transuranics, activation products, and fission products, including /sup 90/Sr, at sensitivities below the uncontrolled release criteria. The detectors measure x-rays, gamma-rays, or bremsstrahlung radiation as required and have been calibrated for a variety of decontamination and decommissioning scenarios. A description of a new technology for the in-situ determination of /sup 90/Sr is given.

  8. Monitoring the effects of chelating agents and electrical fields on active forms of Pb and Zn in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbian, Iman; Safari Sinegani, Ali Akbar

    2013-11-01

    The application of electrical fields and chelating agents is an innovative hybrid technology used for the decontamination of soil polluted by heavy metals. The effects of four center-oriented electrical fields and chelating agents on active fractions of lead and zinc were investigated in this pot experiment. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a synthetic chelator and cow manure extract (CME) and poultry manure extract (PME) as natural chelators were applied to the pots (2 g kg(-1)) 30 days after the first irrigation. Two weeks later, four center-oriented electrical fields were applied in each pot (in three levels of 0, 10, and 30 V) for 1 h each day for 14 days. The soil near the cathode and anodes was collected and analyzed as cathodic and anodic soil, respectively. Results indicated that the soluble-exchangeable fraction of lead and zinc were decreased in the cathodic soil, while the carbonate-bound fractions were increased. In the anodic soil, however, the opposite result was observed. EDTA enhanced the soluble-exchangeable form of the metals in both anodic and cathodic soils. Furthermore, the amounts of carbonate-bound heavy metals were increased by the application of CME in both soils. The organic-bound fraction of the metals was increased by the application of natural chelators, while electrical fields had no significant impacts on this fraction.

  9. Applicability of monitored natural attenuation at radioactively contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States with the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support a sustainable nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, including managing the legacy of past practices and accidents. Hence, the IAEA has initiated a comprehensive programme of work covering all aspects of environmental remediation including: - Technical and non-technical factors influencing decision making in environmental remediation; - Site characterization techniques and strategies; - Assessment of remediation technologies; - Assessment of technical options for cleanup of contaminated media; - Post-restoration compliance monitoring; - Assessment of the costs of remediation measures. It has been observed that many measures to remove or contain contamination are inefficient below certain concentrations, in general costly, and of a limited lifetime compared with the half-lives of the radionuclides concerned. Dispersed low level contamination poses a particular challenge to those charged with its remediation. Economic considerations in many Member States also result in constraints being placed on resources available to deal with such contamination. Experience has also shown that many techniques are not efficient below certain concentration thresholds or may entail impacts on certain environmental compartments in addition to those due to the contamination itself. This includes doses received by workers on the remediation project. As a result, the concept of relying on geological media to retain contaminants and/or to 'flatten out' concentration/dose peaks is increasingly being discussed in a remediation context. Technical Reports Series No. 424 (Remediation of Sites with Dispersed Radioactive Contamination) examined a variety of technological options for remediating dispersed contamination and concluded that the approaches can be broadly

  10. Applicability of monitored natural attenuation at radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States with the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support a sustainable nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, including managing the legacy of past practices and accidents. Hence, the IAEA has initiated a comprehensive programme of work covering all aspects of environmental remediation including: - Technical and non-technical factors influencing decision making in environmental remediation; - Site characterization techniques and strategies; - Assessment of remediation technologies; - Assessment of technical options for cleanup of contaminated media; - Post-restoration compliance monitoring; - Assessment of the costs of remediation measures. It has been observed that many measures to remove or contain contamination are inefficient below certain concentrations, in general costly, and of a limited lifetime compared with the half-lives of the radionuclides concerned. Dispersed low level contamination poses a particular challenge to those charged with its remediation. Economic considerations in many Member States also result in constraints being placed on resources available to deal with such contamination. Experience has also shown that many techniques are not efficient below certain concentration thresholds or may entail impacts on certain environmental compartments in addition to those due to the contamination itself. This includes doses received by workers on the remediation project. As a result, the concept of relying on geological media to retain contaminants and/or to 'flatten out' concentration/dose peaks is increasingly being discussed in a remediation context. Technical Reports Series No. 424 (Remediation of Sites with Dispersed Radioactive Contamination) examined a variety of technological options for remediating dispersed contamination and concluded that the approaches can be broadly

  11. The design of hands and feet contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Jiangxue; Shen Yang; Deng Changming; Zhang Jia; Hou Lei; Meng Dan

    2011-01-01

    In order to protect the hands and feet of personnel engaged in nuclear, draw on advanced hands and feet contamination monitor, we design a new radiation protection instrumentation. It describes the composition of the hands and feet contamination monitor, and software program design. It describes the hardware monitor software, firmware and computer programming techniques. If device found your hand and foot surface is contamination, it will prompt you to decontamination, to protect your hands and feet of safety. (authors)

  12. Contamination control by laundry monitor at NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vishwanath P.; Rana, P.K.; Lokeshwar Rao, S.; Managanvi, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power reactor produces electricity as well as small quantity of radioactive waste as gaseous, liquid and solid. The waste contains radionuclides produced by fission and activation in reactor systems with wide spectrum of energy and half life. The long-lived nuclides Sr, Cs, Ba, Iodine and Co etc compared to short-lived are important in view of radiation protection. The radioactive contamination on the materials, human body or other places where it is undesirable is enormously harmful to workers at Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The spread of radioactive from controlled areas is very complex problem for power reactor plant management

  13. Chapter 7. Monitoring of chemical contamination of the environment and analytical-chemical monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojak, L.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter deals with the monitoring of chemical contamination of the environment and analytical-chemical monitoring. There are presented: the concept o monitoring of the environment of the Slovak Republic; unified monitoring system and complex information about state and development of the environment; analytical methods determination of chemical contaminants in the environment

  14. Monitoring of atmospheric contamination by plutonium in laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomarola, J.; Risselin, A.; Feliers, P.

    1965-02-01

    Immediate detection of atmospheric contamination by plutonium is necessary for warning of operators. A precise estimate of the level of this contamination is also necessary in order to give the Medical Section proper information. Experiments have been carried out at CEN-FAR using atmospheric contamination by plutonium monitors. This paper deals successively with: important problems of monitoring, the carrying out of the experiments and the results yielded. (authors) [fr

  15. Radioactive contamination in monitors received for calibration; Contaminacao em monitores de radiacao recebidos para calibracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Paulo S.; Santos, Gilvan C. dos; Brunelo, Maria Antonieta G.; Paula, Tiago C. de; Pires, Marina A.; Borges, Jose C. [MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., Jardinopolis, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ensaios e Pesquisas em Metrologia (METROBRAS)

    2013-10-01

    The Calibration Laboratory - LABCAL, from the Research Center for Metrology and Testing - METROBRAS, MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., began activities in October 2008 and, in August 2009, decided to establish a procedure for monitoring tests, external and internal, of all packages received from customers, containing instruments for calibration. The aim was to investigate possible contamination radioactive on these instruments. On July 2011, this procedure was extended to packagings of personal thermoluminescent dosemeters - TLD, received by the newly created Laboratory Laboratorio de Dosimetria Pessoal - LDP . In the monitoring procedure were used monitors with external probe, type pancake, MRA brand, models GP - 500 and MIR 7028. During the 37 months in which this investigation was conducted, were detected 42 cases of radioactive contamination, with the following characteristics: 1) just one case was personal dosimeter, TLD type; 2) just one case was not from a packing from nuclear medicine service - was from a mining company; 3) contamination occurred on packs and instruments, located and/or widespread; 4) contamination values ranged from slightly above the level of background radiation to about a thousand fold. Although METROBRAS has facilities for decontamination, in most cases, especially those of higher contamination, the procedure followed was to store the contaminated material in a room used for storage of radioactive sources. Periodically, each package and/or instrument was monitored, being released when the radiation level matched the background radiation. Every contamination detected, the client and/or owner of the instrument was informed. The Brazilian National Energy Commission - CNEN, was informed, during your public consultation for reviewing the standard for nuclear medicine services, held in mid-2012, having received from METROBRAS the statistical data available at the time. The high frequency of contamination detected and the high

  16. Monitoring of β-d-Galactosidase Activity as a Surrogate Parameter for Rapid Detection of Sewage Contamination in Urban Recreational Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingun Tryland

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Simple, automated methods are required for rapid detection of wastewater contamination in urban recreational water. The activity of the enzyme β-d-galactosidase (GAL can rapidly (<2 h be measured by field instruments, or a fully automated instrument, and was evaluated as a potential surrogate parameter for estimating the level of fecal contamination in urban waters. The GAL-activity in rivers, affected by combined sewer overflows, increased significantly during heavy rainfall, and the increase in GAL-activity correlated well with the increase in fecal indicator bacteria. The GAL activity in human feces (n = 14 was high (mean activity 7 × 107 ppb MU/hour and stable (1 LOG10 variation, while the numbers of Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci varied by >5 LOG10. Furthermore, the GAL-activity per gram feces from birds, sheep and cattle was 2–3 LOG10 lower than the activity from human feces, indicating that high GAL-activity in water may reflect human fecal pollution more than the total fecal pollution. The rapid method can only be used to quantify high levels of human fecal pollution, corresponding to about 0.1 mg human feces/liter (or 103 E. coli/100 mL, since below this limit GAL-activity from non-fecal environmental sources may interfere.

  17. MCO Monitoring activity description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEXTON, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel remaining from Hanford's N-Reactor operations in the 1970s has been stored under water in the K-Reactor Basins. This fuel will be repackaged, dried and stored in a new facility in the 200E Area. The safety basis for this process of retrieval, drying, and interim storage of the spent fuel has been established. The monitoring of MCOS in dry storage is a currently identified issue in the SNF Project. This plan outlines the key elements of the proposed monitoring activity. Other fuel stored in the K-Reactor Basins, including SPR fuel, will have other monitoring considerations and is not addressed by this activity description

  18. Rapid monitoring for transuranic contaminants during buried waste retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Shaw, P.G.; Randolph, P.D.; Amaro, C.R.; Pawelko, R.J.; Thompson, D.N.; Loomis, G.G.

    1991-03-01

    This document reports results of research performed in support of possible future transuranic waste retrieval operations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The focus of this research was to evaluate various methods of performing rapid and, as much as possible, ''on-line'' quantitative measurements of 239 Pu or 241 Am, either as airborne or loose contamination. Four different alpha continuous air monitors were evaluated for lower levels of detection of airborne 239 Pu. All of the continuous air monitors were evaluated by sampling ambient air. In addition, three of the continuous air monitors were evaluated by sampling air synthetically laden with clean dust and dust spiked with 239 Pu. Six methods for making quantitative measurements of loose contamination were investigated. They were: (1) microwave digestion followed by counting in a photon electron rejecting alpha liquid scintillation spectrometer, (2) rapid radiochemical separation followed by alpha spectrometry, (3) measurement of the 241 Am 59 keV gamma ray using a thin window germanium detector, (4) measurement of uranium L-shell x-rays, (5) gross alpha counting using a large-area Ag activated ZnS scintillator, and (6) direct counting of alpha particles using a large-area ionization chamber. 40 refs., 42 figs., 24 tabs

  19. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels: FY2015 and FY2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Campbell, Scott A [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is conducting a field assessment of the potential for contaminated soil to be transported from the Smoky Contamination Area (CA) as a result of storm runoff. This activity supports Nevada Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) efforts to complete regulatory closure of the Soils Corrective Action Unit (CAU) contamination areas. The work is intended to confirm the likely mechanism of transport and determine the meteorological conditions that might cause movement of contaminated soils, as well as determine the particle size fraction that is most closely associated with transported radionuclide-contaminated soils. These data will facilitate the appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring program.

  20. Absorption-Edge-Modulated Transmission Spectra for Water Contaminant Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6390--16-9675 Absorption- Edge -Modulated Transmission Spectra for Water Contaminant...ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Absorption- Edge -Modulated Transmission Spectra for Water Contaminant Monitoring...contaminants, within a volume of sampled solution, requires sufficient sensitivity. The present study examines the sensitivity of absorption- edge

  1. Micro GC's for Contaminant Monitoring in Spacecraft Air, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to create new gas chromatographs (GCs) for contaminant monitoring in spacecraft air that do not require any reagents or special...

  2. 1988 Monitoring Activities Review (MAR) of the environmental monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The EGandG Idaho Environmental Monitoring (EM) Unit is responsible for coordinating and conducting environmental measurements of radioactive and hazardous contaminants around facilities operated by EGandG Idaho. The EM Unit has several broad program objectives, which include complying with regulatory standards and developing a basis for estimating future impacts of operations at EGandG Idaho facilities. To improve program planning and to provide bases for technical improvement of the monitoring program, the EGandG Environmental Monitoring organization has regularly used the Monitoring Activities Review (MAR) process since 1982. Each MAR is conducted by a committee of individuals selected for their experience in the various types of monitoring performed by the EM organization. Previous MAR studies have focused on procedures for all currently monitored media except biota. Biotic monitoring was initiated following the last MAR. This report focuses on all currently monitored media, and includes the first review of biotic monitoring. The review of biotic monitoring has been conducted at a level of detail consistent with initial MAR reports for other parts of the Waste Management Program Facilities Environmental Monitoring Program. The review of the biotic monitoring activities is presented in Section 5.5 of this report. 21 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Device for contamination monitoring against radiation contamination of people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rische, U.W.; Gerlach, R.

    1986-01-01

    The monitor has detector devices at an angle to each other made as a rigid component which can be rotated around a vertical axis in the angle between the joined detector devices. A reset drive which can be tensioned is provided at the axis of rotation. If it is in its rest position, a platform is situated as floor plate with a foot detector between the vertical detector devices. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Improvement of a device for monitoring the contamination of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, Albert.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this invention is to make it possible to monitor the contamination of surfaces by a light weight portable device and enabling the alpha, beta and gamma radiation contamination to be detected. The detection probe which is connected by a single lead to the box is adapted, in each particular case, to the radiation mode emitted by the contaminated surfaces and the box is provided with a special leak-proof socket for connecting the probe and includes means for assessing the counting rate of the radiation given off, depending on the mode of the radiations emitted by the contaminated surfaces and the intensity of the count rate [fr

  5. Monitor for alpha beta contamination of hands; Moniteur de contamination alpha beta des mains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guitton, J

    1958-07-01

    The following specifications of hands alpha beta contamination monitor are presented: the position of the hands, the detection and separation of alpha and beta, the information processing, the programming, the results presentation and general characteristics. (A.L.B.)

  6. Device for contamination monitoring against radiation contamination of people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rische, U.W.; Gerlach, R.

    1986-01-01

    The monitor has only two detector columns at an angle to one another and possibly divided in height, whose detectors are divided in the vertical direction in a middle range depending on a reference shape. The units formed by the subdivision equal the effect produced by the subdivision in approximation to the reference shape in evaluation. By including the detector columns divided into several detectors in height, a detector of about half the width is produced at a level above the threshold. Underarm boxes are provided at the outer edge of this detector, which are directed obliquely upwards. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Biological monitoring of environmental contaminants (plants). Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, M.A.S.

    1986-01-01

    Knowledge of contaminant concentrations does not necessarily indicate their significance to plant populations and communities within ecosystems. Accumulation within plants facilitates analysis of contaminants which may be present at very low levels in the environment and may show the spatial distribution and changes in the level of contamination with time. Effects on species distribution within plant communities and visible injury to foliage may also be related to contamination. Species can be selected appropriate to the area and the contaminant to be monitored. Species used to investigate the input of contaminants from atmospheric deposition, for example, may differ from those used to assess transfer through food webs. Mosses and lichens have been particularly widely used in many countries to show distribution of metals and radionuclides on local and regional scales and of pesticide contamination. Visible injury to foliage of higher plant species may reflect atmospheric concentrations of gaseous pollutants and monitoring networks of transplanted sensitive species can provide information on contaminant levels on a regional scale. Changes in species composition, especially of lichens, have also been related to the degree of contamination.

  8. Proximal spectral sensing to monitor phytoremediation of metal - contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rathod, P.H.; Rossiter, D.; Noomen, M.; van der Meer, F.D.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of soil contamination and its long-term monitoring are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of phytoremediation systems. Spectral sensing-based monitoring methods promise obvious benefits compared to field-based methods: lower cost, faster data acquisition and better spatio-temporal

  9. Present status of contamination monitoring at the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute (DNRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Hoang Van [Dalat Nuclear Research Inst. (Viet Nam)

    1997-06-01

    The Dalat nuclear research reactor was renovated and upgraded from the previous TRIGA reactor. In Vietnam, it is a unique nuclear device having suitable neutron flux for the radioisotope production and neutron activation analysis. Soon after the reactor reached its initial criticality in November 1983, a programme has been formed to develop the application of nuclear techniques in various fields. In addition, the use of radioisotopes for diagnostic, therapeutic and other research purposes has been in progress. In order to support these activities, the radiation protection, especially the radiation contamination monitoring has been properly paid attention to. In DNRI, the Radiation Protection Department is responsible for controlling and supervising radiation and working safety for all activities. In this paper, the following items are described on radiation contamination monitoring: controlled area, surface contamination monitoring, and airborne concentration monitoring. (G.K.)

  10. Fuel performance evaluation through iodine activity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantharaman, K.; Chandra, R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the failed fuel detection system is to keep a watch on fuel behaviour during operation. This paper describes the evaluation of fuel behaviour by monitoring the activities of various isotopes of iodine both during steady state and during a reactor shutdown. The limitations of this approach also has been explained. The monitoring of tramp uranium for different types of release, namely fixed contamination and continuous release from fuel, is also presented. (author)

  11. Experiences in monitoring airborne radioactive contamination in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezawa, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Yabe, A.

    1980-01-01

    The following results were obtained at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) from experience in air monitoring at the hot cells for handling highly radioactive materials, the glove box containing plutonium and the cell for producing 99 Mo. (1) The ratios of activities of airborne dust to those of whole dust were of the order of 10 -2 for the semi-volatile form of 125 Sb, and 10 -3 to 10 -4 for the particulate form of 137 Cs, 144 Ce and 144 Pr, when irradiated fuels were cut in the hot cells. (2) The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of airborne particle size distributions varied from O.4 to 15 μm with changing geometric standard deviation (sigmasub(g)) 1.7 to 7, depending on types of metallurgical treatment of fuels and on kinds of work in the cells. (3) A resuspension factor (the ratio of the concentration of airborne contamination to the surface contamination) was found to be 4x10 -8 to approximately 2x10 -7 cm -1 for plutonium oxide deposited on the floor surface. (4) The collection efficiency of the charcoal-loaded filter paper for airborne radioiodine, consisting of 60% inorganic and 40% organic iodide, was over 95% under conditions of relative humidity 40 to approximately 80% and face velocity 50 cm/sec, during the production of 99 Mo. (H.K.)

  12. Modeling, Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Spacecraft Air Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, W. Fred; Skliar, Mikhail; Narayan, Anand; Morgenthaler, George W.; Smith, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    Control of air contaminants is a crucial factor in the safety considerations of crewed space flight. Indoor air quality needs to be closely monitored during long range missions such as a Mars mission, and also on large complex space structures such as the International Space Station. This work mainly pertains to the detection and simulation of air contaminants in the space station, though much of the work is easily extended to buildings, and issues of ventilation systems. Here we propose a method with which to track the presence of contaminants using an accurate physical model, and also develop a robust procedure that would raise alarms when certain tolerance levels are exceeded. A part of this research concerns the modeling of air flow inside a spacecraft, and the consequent dispersal pattern of contaminants. Our objective is to also monitor the contaminants on-line, so we develop a state estimation procedure that makes use of the measurements from a sensor system and determines an optimal estimate of the contamination in the system as a function of time and space. The real-time optimal estimates in turn are used to detect faults in the system and also offer diagnoses as to their sources. This work is concerned with the monitoring of air contaminants aboard future generation spacecraft and seeks to satisfy NASA's requirements as outlined in their Strategic Plan document (Technology Development Requirements, 1996).

  13. A Coupled model for ERT monitoring of contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuling; Zhang, Bo; Gong, Shulan; Xu, Ya

    2018-02-01

    The performance of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) system is usually investigated using a fixed resistivity distribution model in numerical simulation study. In this paper, a method to construct a time-varying resistivity model by coupling water transport, solute transport and constant current field is proposed for ERT monitoring of contaminated sites. Using the proposed method, a monitoring model is constructed for a contaminated site with a pollution region on the surface and ERT monitoring results at different time is calculated by the finite element method. The results show that ERT monitoring profiles can effectively reflect the increase of the pollution area caused by the diffusion of pollutants, but the extent of the pollution is not exactly the same as the actual situation. The model can be extended to any other case and can be used to scheme design and results analysis for ERT monitoring.

  14. Considerations of selection suggested for internal contamination monitoring in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz S, R.; Lopez B, G.; Placeres V, C.; Arado L, J.; Jova S, L.

    1996-01-01

    A method for calculating effective risk of radionuclide intake and hypothetical annual dose that will receive a person who works with unsealed sources is proposed. Calculated committed dose equivalent and metabolic characteristic of radionuclides permit to select the type of monitoring 'in vivo' and/or 'in vitro'. The method was applied to 396 workers from 28 institutions, where 20 radionuclides in 124 different products for 266 applications are used. From this study 62% of the workers had to be monitored for internal contamination, meanly by 'in vitro' monitoring. In practices of Nuclear Medicine and other medical uses 75% of the workers had to be monitored. These results permitted to corroborate the criteria for internal contamination monitoring program carried out by Center for Hygiene and Radiation Protection and permitted to identify needs for control of radionuclides intakes. (authors).5 refs., 3 figs

  15. Atmospheric air contamination monitoring. Monitoring station ASS-500, GIG Katowice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, B.

    1993-01-01

    The results obtained during the period of 1991-1993 in monitoring station ASS-500 working in Katowice have been presented. The concentration of 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 40 K, 7 Be and dustiness in atmospheric air have been shown. Some proposals about the modifications of monitoring station ASS-500 have been introduced. 3 figs, 5 tabs

  16. Understanding Fluid and Contaminant Movement in the Unsaturated Zone Using the INEEL Vadose Zone Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J. M.; Mattson, E. D.; Sisson, J. B.; Magnuson, S. O.

    2002-01-01

    DOE has hundreds of contaminated facilities and waste sites requiring cleanup and/or long-term monitoring. These contaminated sites reside in unsaturated soils (i.e. the vadose zone) above the water table. Some of these sites will require active remediation activities or removal while other sites will be placed under institutional controls. In either case, evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation strategy or institutional controls will require monitoring. Classical monitoring strategies implemented at RCRA/CERCLA sites require ground water sampling for 30 years following closure. The overall effectiveness of ground water sampling is diminished due to the fact that by the time you detect chemical transport from a waste site, a major contamination plume likely exists in the vadose zone and the aquifer. This paper suggests a more effective monitoring strategy through monitoring near the contaminant sites within the vadose zone. Vadose zone monitoring allows for quicker detection of potential contaminant transport. The INEEL Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) is becoming an accepted, cost effective monitoring technology for assessing contaminant transport at DOE facilities. This paper describes the technologies employed in the VZMS and describes how it was used at several DOE facilities. The INEEL VZMS has provided the information in developing and validating both conceptual and risk assessment models of contaminant transport at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Hanford site. These DOE sites exhibit a broad range of meteorologic, hydrologic and geologic conditions representative of various common geologic environments. The VZMS is comprised of advanced tensiometers, water content sensors, temperature sensors and soil and gas samplers. These instruments are placed at multiple depths in boreholes and allows for the detection of water movement in the

  17. Workplace monitoring for radiation and contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiations cannot be seen, felt or sensed by the human body in any way but excessive exposure to them may have adverse health effects. In order to avoid excessive exposure, appropriate and efficient radiation measuring instruments are needed. This Module explains the basic terminology associated with such measuring instruments and describes the principal types, their construction and typical applications in the workplace. It is important to ensure not only that monitoring is carried out where there is a potential radiation exposure but also that the monitoring instrument is appropriate to the task and that the user places correct interpretations on the results obtained. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Some of the instrument tests and calibrations described in this Module require the services of a qualified expert

  18. Mobile Monitoring System for Nuclear Contamination Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broide, A.; Sheinfeld, M.; Marcus, E.; Wengrowicz, U.; Tirosh, D.

    2002-01-01

    In case of a nuclear accident, it is essential to have extensive knowledge concerning the nature of the radioactive plume expansion, for further analysis. For this purpose a mobile monitoring system may provide important data about the plume characteristics. An advanced Mobile Monitoring System is under development at the Nuclear Research Center-Negev. The system is composed of a network of mobile stations, typically installed onboard vehicles, which transmit radiation measurements along with position information to a central station. The mobile network's communications infrastructure is based on Motorola Mobile Logic Unit devices, which are state-of-the-art reliable modems with an integrated Global Positioning System module. The radiation measurements received by the central station are transferred to a risk assessment program, which evaluates the expected hazards to the populated areas located in the estimated plume's expansion direction

  19. Automation system for tritium contaminated surface monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Curuia, Marian; Raceanu, Mircea; Enache, Adrian; Stefanescu, Ioan; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2005-01-01

    The low energy of betas makes tritium difficult to detect. However, there are several methods used in tritium detection, such as liquid scintillation and ionization chambers. Tritium on or near a surface can be also detected using proportional counter and, recently, solid state devices. The paper presents our results in the design and achievement of a surface tritium monitor using a PIN photodiode as a solid state charged particle detector to count betas emitted from the surface. That method allows continuous, real-time and non-destructively measuring of tritium. (authors)

  20. Workplace monitoring for radiation and contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Ionizing radiations cannot be seen, felt or sensed by the human body in any way but excessive exposure to them may have adverse health effects. Radiation measuring instruments are needed in order to detect the presence of such radiations and avoid excessive exposure. The use of appropriate and efficient instruments enables exposures to be controlled and the doses received to be kept as low as reasonably achievable. This Manual explains the basic terminology associated with such measuring instruments and describes the principal types, their construction and typical applications in the workplace. It is important to ensure not only that monitoring is carried out where there is a potential radiation exposure but also that the monitoring instrument is appropriate to the task and that the user places correct interpretations on the results obtained. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Some of the instrument tests and calibrations described in this Manual require the services of a qualified expert

  1. Contaminant immobilization via microbial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The aim of this study was to search the literature to identify biological techniques that could be applied to the restoration of contaminated groundwaters near uranium milling sites. Through bioremediation it was hypothesized that the hazardous heavy metals could be immobilized in a stable, low-solubility form, thereby halting their progress in the migrating groundwater. Three basic mechanisms were examined: reduction of heavy metals by microbially produced hydrogen sulfide; direct microbial mediated reduction; and biosorption

  2. Belted kingfishers as ecological monitors of contamination: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landrum, C.L.

    1993-03-01

    Aquatic systems serve as transport pathways and reservoirs for most of the contaminants known to be present on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Organisms that live in aquatic systems accumulate some of these contaminants from their food and directly from the water or sediment. A wide array of terrestrial organisms feeds on aquatic organisms and may accumulate contaminants from aquatic prey. The belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon) is a piscivorous and territorial avian species that may be a suitable monitor of contaminant accumulation at specific sites on the ORR. A kingfisher collected on White Oak Lake in 1991 had a 137 Cs concentration of 568 pCi/g in muscle tissue, which exceeds levels found in any other waterfowl collected from the lake. An investigation into the efficacy of using the kingfisher as an ecological indicator of aquatic contaminants on the ORR was initiated in late August 1992. The primary objective of this study was to acquire information concerning the ecology of the kingfisher to determine how the species could be used within the framework of the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A second important objective of the study was to examine the possible somatic and reproductive effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Hg, and various radioactive contaminants on piscivorous birds by reviewing pollution ecology studies conducted on those species

  3. Belted kingfishers as ecological monitors of contamination: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landrum, C.L. [North Texas Univ., Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Biology; Ashwood, T.L.; Cox, D.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Aquatic systems serve as transport pathways and reservoirs for most of the contaminants known to be present on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Organisms that live in aquatic systems accumulate some of these contaminants from their food and directly from the water or sediment. A wide array of terrestrial organisms feeds on aquatic organisms and may accumulate contaminants from aquatic prey. The belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon) is a piscivorous and territorial avian species that may be a suitable monitor of contaminant accumulation at specific sites on the ORR. A kingfisher collected on White Oak Lake in 1991 had a {sup 137}Cs concentration of 568 pCi/g in muscle tissue, which exceeds levels found in any other waterfowl collected from the lake. An investigation into the efficacy of using the kingfisher as an ecological indicator of aquatic contaminants on the ORR was initiated in late August 1992. The primary objective of this study was to acquire information concerning the ecology of the kingfisher to determine how the species could be used within the framework of the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A second important objective of the study was to examine the possible somatic and reproductive effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Hg, and various radioactive contaminants on piscivorous birds by reviewing pollution ecology studies conducted on those species.

  4. Monitoring of airborne contamination using mobile equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkamaa, T; Toivonen, H; Nikkinen, M

    1996-02-01

    Rapid and accurate measurements must be carried out in a nuclear disaster that releases radioactive material into the atmosphere. To evaluate the risk to the people, external dose rate and nuclide-specific activity concentrations in air must be determined. The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) has built an emergency vehicle to accomplish these tasks in the field. The systems and methods to determine the activity concentration in air is described in the report. (23 refs., 21 figs., 9 tabs.).

  5. Monitoring of airborne contamination using mobile equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkamaa, T.; Toivonen, H.; Nikkinen, M.

    1996-02-01

    Rapid and accurate measurements must be carried out in a nuclear disaster that releases radioactive material into the atmosphere. To evaluate the risk to the people, external dose rate and nuclide-specific activity concentrations in air must be determined. The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) has built an emergency vehicle to accomplish these tasks in the field. The systems and methods to determine the activity concentration in air is described in the report. (23 refs., 21 figs., 9 tabs.)

  6. Wireless Sensor Network Based Subsurface Contaminant Plume Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    Sensor Network (WSN) to monitor contaminant plume movement in naturally heterogeneous subsurface formations to advance the sensor networking based...time to assess the source and predict future plume behavior. This proof-of-concept research aimed at demonstrating the use of an intelligent Wireless

  7. Air contamination control as an element of state environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.

    1993-01-01

    The results of air contamination control on the base of gamma and beta radioactivity of aerosols collected on filters and in precipitation samples have been shown. The data have been gathered from 12 monitoring stations in Poland during 1993. No significant differences between actual results and those obtained in previous years have been noticed. 4 figs, 1 tab

  8. Contamination monitor as a nuclear stethoscope for community nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M.M.; Sharma, S.K.; Sharma, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    A portable contamination monitor has been modified for use as an in vivo counting probe. The evaluation by physical parameters and clinical studies shows its suitability for a variety of diagnostic studies. The correlation equations for thyroid uptake measurement have been worked out for whole range of values. Its use as a versatile nuclear stethoscope is envisaged. (author)

  9. Application of effective variance method for contamination monitor calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalez, O.L.; Freitas, I.S.M. de.

    1990-01-01

    In this report, the calibration of a thin window Geiger-Muller type monitor for alpha superficial contamination is presented. The calibration curve is obtained by the method of the least-squares fitting with effective variance. The method and the approach for the calculation are briefly discussed. (author)

  10. Thermoexoemission detectors for monitoring radioactive contamination of industrial waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obukhov, V.T.; Sobolev, I.A.; Khomchik, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Detectors on base of BeO(Na) monocrystals with thermoemission to be used for monitoring radioactive contamination of industrial waste waters are suggested. The detectors advantages are sensitivity to α and low-ehergy β radiations, high mechanical strength and wide range of measurements. The main disadvantage is the necessity of working in red light

  11. Monitoring bacterial faecal contamination in waters using multiplex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monitoring of sanitary quality or faecal pollution in water is currently based on quantifying some bacterial indicators such as Escherichia coli and faecal enterococci. Using a multiplex real-time PCR assay for faecal enterococci and Bacteroides spp., the detection of faecal contamination in non-treated water can be done in a ...

  12. Development of a calibration system for surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marechal, M.H.H.; Barbosa, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A calibration system for surface contamination monitors is developed, aiming supply the existence demand of these instruments. A experimental arrangement and a methodology are described. The advantages of use this system for calibration routine optimization are also discussed. (C.G.C.)

  13. Body-surface contamination monitoring preparatory to monitoring for internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, W.; Klucke, H.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements in the whole-body counter of the SAAS are routinely preceded by a thorough inspection of the patients for body-surface contamination to protect the sensitive counting equipment against becoming contaminated and to avoid a falsified indication of incorporated radionuclides. The measuring system employed for these examinations is described. (author)

  14. Design and Development of Hand and Foot Contamination Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Akter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A hand and foot contamination monitor is a health physics instrument to provide detection and measurement of beta-gamma contamination on the palm of each hand and on the bottom surface of both feet/shoes. There are four channels of detection for two hands and two feet. Four G-M detectors have been used in a single unit to cover the whole area of hand and feet. A regulated high voltage DC power supply (900 V has been designed using the PIC12F675 microcontroller to operate the pancake Geiger-Müller detectors. The reading is displayed on a linearly scaled 0-100 Bq/cm2 analog panel meter. The monitor detects beta–gamma radiation emitted by radioactive materials, and if the detected value exceeds a preset level, the monitor sounds an alarm and displays a reading in the respective panel meter. Indicator lamps are used to show the status of contamination. The performance of the system has been tested by using pulse generator and by flat surface radioactive calibration sources. Electronic linearity, detection efficiency, response to the contamination, calibration factor and percentage of error has been measured. Test results were satisfactory and the present system can be used instead of similar imported instruments.

  15. The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative--Performance Monitoring for DOE Environmental Remediation and Contaminant Containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, W. J.; Venedam, R. J.; Lohrstorfer, C. F.; Weeks, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    The Advanced Monitoring System Initiative (AMSI) is a new approach to accelerate the development and application of advanced sensors and monitoring systems in support of Department of Energy needs in monitoring the performance of environmental remediation and contaminant containment activities. The Nevada Site Office of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Bechtel Nevada manage AMSI, with funding provided by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM). AMSI has easy access to unique facilities and capabilities available at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including the Hazardous Materials (HazMat) Spill Center, a one-of-a-kind facility built and permitted for releases of hazardous materials for training purposes, field-test detection, plume dispersion experimentation, and equipment and materials testing under controlled conditions. AMSI also has easy access to the facilities and considerable capabilities of the DOE and NNSA National Laboratories, the Special Technologies Laboratory, Remote Sensing Laboratory, Desert Research Institute, and Nevada Universities. AMSI provides rapid prototyping, systems integration, and field-testing, including assistance during initial site deployment. The emphasis is on application. Important features of the AMSI approach are: (1) customer investment, involvement and commitment to use - including definition of needs, desired mode of operation, and performance requirements; and (2) employment of a complete systems engineering approach, which allows the developer to focus maximum attention on the essential new sensing element or elements while AMSI assumes principal responsibility for infrastructure support elements such as power, packaging, and general data acquisition, control, communication, visualization and analysis software for support of decisions. This presentation describes: (1) the needs for sensors and performance monitoring for environmental systems as seen by the DOE Long Term Stewardship Science and

  16. Testing of portal monitors for personnel contamination control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.O.; Gupta, V.P.; Stevenson, R.L.; Stalker, A.C.; Baker, K.R.; Littleton, M.L.; Rich, B.L.

    1983-04-01

    This is a report of an INPO-funded evaluation of state-of-the-art portal monitors used to detect personnel contamination. The project developed techniques and procedures to evaluate the performance and sensitivity of the portal monitors which provided data for intercomparison. An additional accomplishment was development of a methodology to assist manufacturers and users to optimize the monitor settings, and to provide technical basis for the eventual use of fixed monitors to replace frisking for contamination control. The monitors tested utilize thin-window gas-flow proportional counters sensitive to beta and gamma radiation. Various tests were performed: (1) background count rate and the statistical variability, (2) detector efficiency at different distances, (3) moving source sensitivity for various size sources and speeds, and (4) false alarm rates at different background levels. A model has been developed for the moving source measurements to compare the experimental data, and to test whether it is possible to adequately model the behavior of a portal monitor response to a moving source. The model results with the actual test results are compared

  17. Monitoring of tritium-contaminated surfaces, including skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surette, R A; Wood, M J

    1994-05-01

    We have examined various commercially available tritium surface contamination monitors along with different swipe media and techniques for direct and indirect (swipe) monitoring of contaminated surfaces, including skin. None of the methods or instruments evaluated were more sensitive than the swipe and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method. Swipe measurements with open-window proportional counters were, in general, less than half as sensitive as LSC, but have the advantages of having the results available almost immediately, and no sample preparation is required. The Nuclear Measurement Corporation`s PC-55 is the most suitable instrument we tested for the analysis of routine swipe measurement. The PC-55 was about one third as sensitive as LSC when used with Ontario Hydro filter paper swipe media. Surface contamination measurement results can be obtained within minutes using the PC-55, compared to hours using LSC. The selection of swipe media for use with proportional counter-based instruments is critical. A medium that is electrically insulating can develop an electrostatic charge on its surface; this may alter the field gradient in the detector and may adversely influence the results. Although the PC-55 is sufficiently sensitive and very convenient, operational experience with the instrument is needed before recommending that it replace current LSC methods. The PC-55`s susceptibility to internal tritium contamination may limit its practical usefulness. Because of the complexity of using live animals to evaluate direct and indirect methods for assessing skin contamination, pig skin was investigated as a possible substitute. We concluded that, for the first few hours post-exposure, pig skin mimics the kinetics of animal skin that has contacted a tritium-contaminated surface. (author). 30 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  18. Monitoring of tritium-contaminated surfaces, including skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surette, R.A.; Wood, M.J.

    1994-05-01

    We have examined various commercially available tritium surface contamination monitors along with different swipe media and techniques for direct and indirect (swipe) monitoring of contaminated surfaces, including skin. None of the methods or instruments evaluated were more sensitive than the swipe and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method. Swipe measurements with open-window proportional counters were, in general, less than half as sensitive as LSC, but have the advantages of having the results available almost immediately, and no sample preparation is required. The Nuclear Measurement Corporation's PC-55 is the most suitable instrument we tested for the analysis of routine swipe measurement. The PC-55 was about one third as sensitive as LSC when used with Ontario Hydro filter paper swipe media. Surface contamination measurement results can be obtained within minutes using the PC-55, compared to hours using LSC. The selection of swipe media for use with proportional counter-based instruments is critical. A medium that is electrically insulating can develop an electrostatic charge on its surface; this may alter the field gradient in the detector and may adversely influence the results. Although the PC-55 is sufficiently sensitive and very convenient, operational experience with the instrument is needed before recommending that it replace current LSC methods. The PC-55's susceptibility to internal tritium contamination may limit its practical usefulness. Because of the complexity of using live animals to evaluate direct and indirect methods for assessing skin contamination, pig skin was investigated as a possible substitute. We concluded that, for the first few hours post-exposure, pig skin mimics the kinetics of animal skin that has contacted a tritium-contaminated surface. (author). 30 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  19. A portable contamination monitor with a numerical display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.R.

    1980-10-01

    A portable contamination monitor, its performance and application are described. The monitor is equipped with two 15.5 cm 2 'pancake' type Geiger-Mueller counters with thin windows ( 2 ). The summed counting rate is displayed in the range 0.2000 counts/s on a liquid crystal digital voltmeter. Every tenth pulse is signaled by flashing an LED and emitting a short (0.1 s) pulse of sound. The efficiencies for detecting a variety of α-, β- and γ- emitters have been measured and are reported. Data on the effects of varying battery voltage and temperature are also reported. (auth)

  20. Development and application of techniques for monitoring the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, C.; Hawar, J.; Samson, R.

    1994-01-01

    A series of tests was designed to examine bioremediation potential in soil and to monitor performance during the treatment operation. Physical and chemical characterization of the soil provides information on the types of organics, their concentrations, and whether interfering materials are present. Microbiological assessment involves culturing of bacterial populations in the soil and examination of the colonies to determine which have the genetic potential to degrade the soil contaminants. Catabolic gene probes are used to survey viable bacteria from petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Such soils consistently demonstrate the presence of bacteria possessing the genetic capability to degrade simple straight-chain alkanes and aromatics. Mineralization and respirometric studies are indicators of the biological activity in the soil, and can be directed at microbial activity towards specific substrates. Gene probe monitoring of a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil during biopile treatment demonstrated that hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial numbers and activity were temperature dependent. The results showed that the activity of the indigenous bacteria as measured by hexadecane mineralization also correlated with the disappearance of the oil and grease. The application of this protocol has provided a useful means to screen contaminated soils for bacteria with desirable catabolic properties and to monitor pollutant-degrading bacteria during biotreatment. 15 refs., 10 figs

  1. Evaluation of surface contamination due to alpha using large area contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavayya, M.

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive contamination at work places is evaluated routinely using either the swipe sampling technique or a contamination monitor. Commercially available alpha probes used for the purpose are usually circular and have a face diameter of 50 or 100 mm. Square faced probes are also available. A thin aluminized mylar membrane of thickness 0.45 to 0.9 mg.cm -2 is used to screen the phosphor in the alpha probe to protect it from external light. The membrane cuts off more alphas from low energy emitters than from higher energy alpha emitters. Moreover the response of the detector for alphas originating at all points under the detector face is not uniform, especially when the large area alpha monitors are used. These factors can introduce errors as high as 40% into the measurements. This paper aims to quantify these errors and describe a procedure to overcome the limitations. (author)

  2. Post monitoring of a cyclodextrin remeditated chlorinated solvent contaminated aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanford, W. J.

    2006-12-01

    Hydroxypropyl-â-cyclodextrin (HPâCD) has been tested successfully in the laboratory and in the field for enhanced flushing of low-polarity contaminants from aquifers. The cyclodextrin molecule forms a toroidal structure, which has a hydrophobic cavity. Within this cavity, organic compounds of appropriate shape and size can form inclusion complexes, which is the basis for the use of cyclodextrin in groundwater remediation. The hydrophilic exterior of the molecule makes cyclodextrin highly water-soluble. The solubility of cyclodextrins can be further enhanced by adding functional groups, such as hydroxypropyl groups, to the cyclodextrin core. The aqueous solubility of HPâCD exceeds 950 g/L. These high solubilities are advantageous for field applications because they permit relatively high concentrations of the flushing agent. In order for cyclodextrin to become a feasible remediative alternative, it must be demonstrate a short term resistance to biodegradation during field application, but ultimately biodegrade so as not to pose a long term presence in the aquifer. The potential for degradation of cyclodextrin as well as changes in the chlorinated solvents and groundwater geochemistry were examined during the post monitoring of a field demonstration in a shallow aquifer at Little Creek Naval Amphibious Base in Virginia. It was found that a portion of the cyclodextrin remaining in the aquifer after the cessation of field activities biodegraded during the 425 days of post monitoring. This degradation also led to the degradation of the chlorinated solvents trichloroethylene and 1,1-trichloroethane through both biological and chemical processes. The aquifer remained anaerobic with average dissolved oxygen levels below 0.5 mg/L. Dissolved nitrate and sulfate concentrations within the cyclodextrin plume decreased due their being used as terminal electron acceptors during the degradation of the cyclodextrin. The concentrations of total iron at the field site showed no

  3. Value activity monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alencar Silva, P.

    2013-01-01

    Current value modeling ontologies are grounded on the economic premise that profit sharing is a critical condition to be assessed during the configuration of a value constellation. Such a condition ought to be reinforced through a monitoring mechanism design, since a value model expresses only

  4. Optimisation of internal contamination monitoring programme by integration of uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davesne, E.; Casanova, P.; Chojnacki, E.; Paquet, F.; Blanchardon, E.

    2011-01-01

    Potential internal contamination of workers is monitored by periodic bioassay measurements interpreted in terms of intake and committed effective dose by the use of biokinetic and dosimetric models. After a prospective evaluation of exposure at a workplace, a suitable monitoring programme can be defined by choosing adequate measurement techniques and frequency. In this study, the sensitivity of a programme is evaluated by the minimum intake and dose, which may be detected with a given level of confidence by taking into account uncertainties on exposure conditions and measurements. This is made for programme optimisation, which is performed by comparing the sensitivities of different alternative programmes. These methods were applied at the AREVA NC reprocessing plant and support the current monitoring programme as the best compromise between the cost of the measurements and the sensitivity of the programme. (authors)

  5. Using tree swallows to monitor impacts of aquatic contamination in Great Lakes areas of concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patnode, K.A.; Bodenstein, B.; Hetzel, R.; Pearson, S.

    1995-01-01

    Tree swallows were used to evaluate movement and potential impacts of contaminants from sediments in Newton Creek (diesel range organics: DROs) and Sheboygan River (PCBs), tributaries to Lake Superior and Lake Michigan, respectively. Contaminated sites occurred along the course of each river, while reference sites were located upstream or on a nearby river. Productivity was monitored and eggs, day 1 nestlings, and day 12 nestlings were collected from each nest. Whole body or egg homogenates were analyzed for PCBs or DROs. EROD activity in livers from day 12 nestlings is being determined for both PCB and DRO exposures. In the Newton Creek study, hatching success was similar for DRO and reference sites. DROs were detected in gastrointestinal tracts of 1 nestling from the reference and 1 from the contaminated site. DROs were not detected in any egg samples. In the Sheboygan River study, hatching success rates differed between 1 reference and 1 contaminated river segment. PCB daily accumulation rates from day 1 to day 12 nestlings were computed for Sheboygan River. All nestlings at reference nests had negative rates due to growth dilution effects. Preliminary analyses indicate the average rate for nestlings from contaminated segments of the river was 220.3 ng/g/day. These 1995 findings will be combined with 1996 data to evaluate the effectiveness of tree swallows for monitoring ecosystem impacts of aquatic contaminants in Wisconsin

  6. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller Julianne J.; Mizell Steve A.; Nikolich George; Campbell Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550, Area 8 Smoky Contamination Area (CA), during precipitation runoff events. CAU 550 includes Corrective Action Sites (CASs) 08-23-03, 08-23-04, 08-23-06, and 08-23-07; these CASs are associated with tests designated Ceres, Smoky, Oberon, and Titania, respectively.

  7. Contaminant monitoring of hydraulic systems. The need for reliable data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, M.J. Rinkinen, J. [Pall Europe Ltd., Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The need for both reliable operation of hydraulic and lubrication systems and long component lives has focused users to the benefits of controlling the contamination in the hydraulic fluid. Maximum operating (target) levels are being implemented as part of a condition based maintenance regime. If these are exceeded, maintenance effort is directed to correcting the rise in consummation level, and so make optimum use of resources as maintenance effort is only affected when it is necessary to do so. Fundamental to ibis aspect of condition based monitoring is the provision of accurate and reliable data in the shortest possible time. This way, corrective actions can be implemented immediately so minimising the damage to components. On-line monitoring devices are a way of achieving this and are seeing increased use, but some are affected by the condition of the fluid. Hence, there is a potential for giving incorrect data which will waste time and effort by initiating unnecessary corrective actions. A more disturbing aspect is the effect on the user of continual errors. The most likely effect would be a loss of confidence in the technique or even complete rejection of it and hence the potential benefits will be lost. This presentation explains how contaminant monitoring techniques are applied to ensure that the potential benefits of operating with clean fluids is realised. It examines the sources of error and shows how the user can interrogate the data and satisfy himself of its authenticity. (orig.) 14 refs.

  8. Contaminant monitoring of hydraulic systems. The need for reliable data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, M.J. [Pall Europe Ltd., Portsmouth (United Kingdom)] Rinkinen, J. [Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The need for both reliable operation of hydraulic and lubrication systems and long component lives has focused users to the benefits of controlling the contamination in the hydraulic fluid. Maximum operating (target) levels are being implemented as part of a condition based maintenance regime. If these are exceeded, maintenance effort is directed to correcting the rise in consummation level, and so make optimum use of resources as maintenance effort is only affected when it is necessary to do so. Fundamental to ibis aspect of condition based monitoring is the provision of accurate and reliable data in the shortest possible time. This way, corrective actions can be implemented immediately so minimising the damage to components. On-line monitoring devices are a way of achieving this and are seeing increased use, but some are affected by the condition of the fluid. Hence, there is a potential for giving incorrect data which will waste time and effort by initiating unnecessary corrective actions. A more disturbing aspect is the effect on the user of continual errors. The most likely effect would be a loss of confidence in the technique or even complete rejection of it and hence the potential benefits will be lost. This presentation explains how contaminant monitoring techniques are applied to ensure that the potential benefits of operating with clean fluids is realised. It examines the sources of error and shows how the user can interrogate the data and satisfy himself of its authenticity. (orig.) 14 refs.

  9. Monitoring of raptors and their contamination levels in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjershaug, Jan Ove; Kålås, John Atle; Nygård, Torgeir; Herzke, Dorte; Folkestad, Alv Ottar

    2008-09-01

    This article summarizes results from raptor monitoring and contamination studies in Norway of the golden eagle, gyrfalcon, white-tailed sea eagle, osprey, peregrine, and merlin. Golden eagle and gyrfalcon populations have been monitored since 1990 as part of the "Monitoring Programme for Terrestrial Ecosystems" (TOV). No long-term trend in the population size or productivity of golden eagle has been shown in any of the 5 study areas. The reproductive output of gyrfalcon is monitored in 3 areas. It is positively correlated with the populations of its main prey species, the rock ptarmigan and the willow ptarmigan. The white-tailed sea eagle population has been monitored since 1974 by the Norwegian Ornithological Society, and the population is increasing. The levels of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls are low in the eggs of both the golden eagle and the gyrfalcon, but elevated levels and effects on reproduction have been indicated for a coastal subpopulation of golden eagle. The pollutant levels in white-tailed sea eagle are lower than in the Baltic population of sea eagles, and shell thinning was never severe overall, but individual eggs have contained pollutant concentrations above critical levels. The levels of pollutants in the bird-eating falcons, peregrine, and merlin were higher than in other species. New emerging pollutants, like brominated diphenylethers and perfluorinated organic compounds, could be detected in all species. By incorporating available published and unpublished data, we were able to produce time trends for pollutants and shell thickness over 4 decades.

  10. Activity monitoring of alpha-bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.; Bondar, L.

    1980-01-01

    The paper aims at the survey on the actual situation in activity monitoring of alpha-bearing wastes. Homogeneous materials such as liquid-, gaseous- and homogeneous solid wastes are amenable to destructive analyses of representative samples. Available destructive analyses methods are sensitive and precise enough to cope with all requirements in alpha-waste monitoring. The more difficult problems are encountered with alpha-contaminated solids, when representative sampling is not practicable. Non-destructive analysis techniques are applied for monitoring this category of solid wastes. The techniques for nondestructive analysis of alpha-bearing wastes are based on the detection of gamma and/or neutron-emission of actinides. Principles and a theory of non-destructive radiometric assay of plutonium contaminated solid waste streams are explained. Guidelines for the calibration of instruments and interpretation of experimental data are given. Current theoretical and experimental development work in this problem area is reviewed. Evaluations concerning capabilities and limitations of monitoring systems for alpha-bearing solid wastes are very complex and out of the scope of this paper

  11. Active airborne contamination control using electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veatch, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    In spite of our best efforts, radioactive airborne contamination continues to be a formidable problem at many of the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex sites. For workers that must enter areas with high levels of airborne contamination, personnel protective equipment (PPE) can become highly restrictive, greatly diminishing productivity. Rather than require even more restrictive PPE for personnel in some situations, the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is actively researching and developing methods to aggressively combat airborne contamination hazards using electrophoretic technology. With appropriate equipment, airborne particulates can be effectively removed and collected for disposal in one simple process. The equipment needed to implement electrophoresis is relatively inexpensive, highly reliable, and very compact. Once airborne contamination levels are reduced, less PPE is required and a significant cost savings may be realized through decreased waste and maximized productivity. Preliminary ''cold,'' or non-radioactive, testing results at the RFP have shown the technology to be effective on a reasonable scale, with several potential benefits and an abundance of applications

  12. Feasibility of using fiber optics for monitoring ground water contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschfeld, T.; Deaton, T.; Milanovich, F.; Klainer, S.M.

    1984-06-01

    The report contains the results of the initial feasibility study for a research program undertaken to develop the technology needed to use fiber optics for monitoring groundwater contaminants. The technology appears especially well suited to the requirements of detection monitoring where a few indicator parameters can be measured continuously by sensors placed down small-diameter monitoring wells. Data are generated at a remote, centrally located fluorimeter, connected to the sampling sites by inexpensive optical fibers. The analytical method is laser-induced fluorescence which gives the desired sensitivity. The optrode, a chemical system and/or a mechanical device at the distal end of a fiber optic, furnishes the needed specificity. Various fiber and optrode configurations have been evaluated and their applications to groundwater monitoring are discussed. Feasibility is shown for physical measurements such as temperature, pressure and pH. Chemical detection and quantification of the actinides, inorganic and organic chlorides, sulfates, alcohols, aldehydes, pesticides and tracer materials are presented. Finally, it is shown that the need for smaller diameter wells (as compared to conventional sampling methods), and the ability to make up to 50 unattended in situ measurements, using a reasonably priced centralized fluorometer system connected to the sampling sites by inexpensive optical fibers, results in acceptable economy

  13. Tritium contamination and monitoring at Frascati Neutron Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucci, F.; Sandri, S.; Ianni, A. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Dipartimento Ambiente; Vasselli, R. [ANPA, Roma (Italy); Pillon, M.; Bettinali, L. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Dipartimento Energia

    1994-11-01

    The Frascati Neutron Generator (FGN) is a specialised 300 keV, 3 mA direct electrostatic deuteron accelerator which produces about 5-10{sup 1}1 14 MeV neutrons per second by D-T reactions on a tritium-titanium fixed target. This paper concerns the tritium contamination control and monitoring aspects after some months of testing and a preliminary period of operation of the plant. The tritium monitoring system is composed of both on-line and off-line devices to control the tritium concentration in the atmosphere measured from different parts of the plant: vacuum exhaust clean up (VECU) system, stack, etc. The on-line devices are three flux monitors, that sample continuosly the air from up to eight different points in the plant. The passive sampling system is designed to select the chemical form of tritium and to collect respectively HTO and HT in two different cartridges filled with an appropriate drying material. The response of the on-line tritium monitor system are exposed and discussed: some measurements performed with atmosphere dehumidifying apparatus of this system are described and the relevant results are analysed.

  14. Tritium contamination and monitoring at Frascati Neutron Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucci, F.; Sandri, S.; Ianni, A.; Pillon, M.; Bettinali, L.

    1994-11-01

    The Frascati Neutron Generator (FGN) is a specialised 300 keV, 3 mA direct electrostatic deuteron accelerator which produces about 5-10 1 1 14 MeV neutrons per second by D-T reactions on a tritium-titanium fixed target. This paper concerns the tritium contamination control and monitoring aspects after some months of testing and a preliminary period of operation of the plant. The tritium monitoring system is composed of both on-line and off-line devices to control the tritium concentration in the atmosphere measured from different parts of the plant: vacuum exhaust clean up (VECU) system, stack, etc. The on-line devices are three flux monitors, that sample continuosly the air from up to eight different points in the plant. The passive sampling system is designed to select the chemical form of tritium and to collect respectively HTO and HT in two different cartridges filled with an appropriate drying material. The response of the on-line tritium monitor system are exposed and discussed: some measurements performed with atmosphere dehumidifying apparatus of this system are described and the relevant results are analysed

  15. Environmental geophysics and geochemistry for contamination mapping and monitoring 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tai Sup; Lee, Sang Kyu; Hong, Young Kook [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1995-12-01

    This study aims to provide the technologies which can be practically used for contamination mapping and monitoring. To accomplish this goal, the geophysical and geochemical expertise and techniques commonly used in the mineral resources exploration are employed. In the first year of the three-year-long project, the purpose of the study is to introduce the optimum methodologies among the geophysical and geochemical techniques to tackle the various cases of environmental contamination. To achieve the purpose, case studies of the developed countries were surveyed and analyzed through the various kinds of literatures. The followings are categorized to be solved by geophysical methods: 1) delineation of water system pollution by acid mine drainage and distributions of waste rocks in the closed mine area, 2) defining boundaries of subsurface contamination due to oil seepage, 3) zoning of sea water intrusion in the seashore or subsurface geology highly containing salt, 4) locating of buried metallic wastes such as pipes and drums which can cause the secondary pollution by corrosion, and 5) outlining of the subsurface area polluted by leachate from the landfill. To experiment the above items, various geophysical methods were applied to the corresponding test sites. From these experiments, the applicabilities of the respective geophysical method were analyzed, and the optimum methods were derived for the various pollution types. Furthermore, electric and electromagnetic surveys data processing software were developed to quantitatively interpret and highly resolve the geology. The environmental assignments which can be solved by geochemical methods include: 1) drainage pollution by coal mine effluents, 2)subsurface contamination of oil-spill, 3) sea water intrusion, 4) dispersion of toxic heavy metallic elements in the metal mines, and 5) radon environmental geochemistry. The appropriate test sites for applying the geochemical methods were selected. (Abstract Truncated)

  16. Present state of the monitoring for internal contamination at Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaishi, J.; Fukuda, H.; Mizushita, S.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented of internal contamination surveys carried out since 1969 at Tokai Research Establishment. Routine monitoring sometimes revealed significant internal contamination for tritium workers, but almost never for others. The number of subjects for special monitoring varied according to the activities. In 1965, the number of subjects for special monitoring was nearly 300, due to a reactor repair that year. In recent years, the number or special monitoring has been several tens or so. With regard to special monitoring, the workers with significant internal contamination were less than 50%. The internal dose (50 years) estimated for the majority of subjects was of mrem order. During the past 15 years, only several cases of exposure of rem order were found. The highest dose experienced was about 4 rems ( 131 I thyroid) (U.K.)

  17. Determination of contamination operational value by routine monitoring in research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomao, Edeilson; Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; Mattos, Maria Fernanda S.S.; Daros, Kellen Adriana Curci

    2008-01-01

    The radioisotopes have a large spectrum of applicability in many areas of science, as in medicine, agriculture and industry in general. In the biological area, the radioisotopes have brought many benefits to study physiological processes in living organisms and in vitro. The most radioisotopes used in biological research are emitters of radiation of low energy, mainly β, and are used as unsealed sources. The manipulation of these radioisotopes generates radioactive wastes and eventually can cause contamination in the areas of handling or even occasionally in areas to which access is not controlled. According to CNEN-NE-3.02 standard is necessary and mandatory the exposure and contamination levels control in the areas of handling of unsealed sources. The goal of the work is to establish how often the monitoring should be done through the survey of the contamination and exposure levels, in areas designed to manipulate 32 P and how this monitoring can contribute to the improvement the conditions of radiological protection. From the twenty eight research laboratories registered by 'Nucleo de Protecao Radiologica' (NPR) were selected four where the activities are not restrict to 32 P biological assays. The levels of contamination and exposure were evaluated using monitors GM and the layout of laboratories containing the points to be tracker defined based on the researchers' routine. At each point three values were obtained to measure the rate of contamination on the surface and exposure rate. The measures were made twice a week before and after the radioisotope manipulation. Based on these data was possible to establish the range from 0,306 to 0,678 Bq.cm -2 as operational average level to the superficial contamination. The average exposure rate measured was 5.16 n C/Kg.h. The results were important to demonstrating to researchers how they can contribute to the improvement of radiological protection conditions. (author)

  18. Development of custom LCD based portable survey/contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Equipments for carrying out radiation survey measurements for alpha, beta and gamma radiations have evolved considerably with the advancements in Electronics overtime. There are 2 major classes of portable instruments available from most manufacturers - (a) Analog indicator type (b) Direct digital readout type. Analog meters give a direct quantifying feel to radiation levels though they are not rich features nor they have smartness like a digital meter. Digital versions have advantages of direct readout numerically and configurable as per users requirements. To achieve best features of both the techniques a dual indicator type LCD module comprising of Analog indicating LCD segments and digital readout indicating 7 segments has been developed. This LCD comprising of LCD glass and its display driver has been deployed across various types of survey meters and contamination monitors manufactured by Nucleonix. This display now facilitates direct readout of dose rate/count rate in various units simultaneously in both analog LCD scale and direct digital indication. (author)

  19. Active Job Monitoring in Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Eileen; Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in high energy physics (HEP) including multi-core jobs and multi-core pilots require data centres to gain a deep understanding of the system to monitor, design, and upgrade computing clusters. Networking is a critical component. Especially the increased usage of data federations, for example in diskless computing centres or as a fallback solution, relies on WAN connectivity and availability. The specific demands of different experiments and communities, but also the need for identification of misbehaving batch jobs, requires an active monitoring. Existing monitoring tools are not capable of measuring fine-grained information at batch job level. This complicates network-aware scheduling and optimisations. In addition, pilots add another layer of abstraction. They behave like batch systems themselves by managing and executing payloads of jobs internally. The number of real jobs being executed is unknown, as the original batch system has no access to internal information about the scheduling process inside the pilots. Therefore, the comparability of jobs and pilots for predicting run-time behaviour or network performance cannot be ensured. Hence, identifying the actual payload is important. At the GridKa Tier 1 centre a specific tool is in use that allows the monitoring of network traffic information at batch job level. This contribution presents the current monitoring approach and discusses recent efforts and importance to identify pilots and their substructures inside the batch system. It will also show how to determine monitoring data of specific jobs from identified pilots. Finally, the approach is evaluated.

  20. Nuclear electronic components of surface contamination monitor based on multi-electrode proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiangyang; Zhang Yong; Han Shuping; Rao Xianming; Fang Jintu

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear electronic components applying in Portal Monitor and Hands and Feet Surface Contamination Monitor were based on modern integrated circuit are introduced. The detailed points in circuit design and manufacturing technique are analyzed

  1. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule 2 (UCMR 2), (2008-2010) Occurrence Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule supporting the second cycle (UCMR 2) of monitoring, conducted under EPA oversight, was published in the Federal Register...

  2. Caresoil: A multidisciplinar Project to characterize, remediate, monitor and evaluate the risk of contaminated soils in Madrid (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Martín, Alfonso; Antón, Loreto; Granja, Jose Luis; Villarroya, Fermín; Montero, Esperanza; Rodríguez, Vanesa

    2016-04-01

    Soil contamination can come from diffuse sources (air deposition, agriculture, etc.) or local sources, these last being related to anthropogenic activities that are potentially soil contaminating activities. According to data from the EU, in Spain, and particularly for the Autonomous Community of Madrid, it can be considered that heavy metals, toxic organic compounds (including Non Aqueous Phases Liquids, NAPLs) and combinations of both are the main problem of point sources of soil contamination in our community. The five aspects that will be applied in Caresoil Program (S2013/MAE-2739) in the analysis and remediation of a local soil contamination are: 1) the location of the source of contamination and characterization of soil and aquifer concerned, 2) evaluation of the dispersion of the plume, 3) application of effective remediation techniques, 4) monitoring the evolution of the contaminated soil and 5) risk analysis throughout this process. These aspects involve advanced technologies (hydrogeology, geophysics, geochemistry,...) that require new developing of knowledge, being necessary the contribution of several researching groups specialized in the fields previously cited, as they are those integrating CARESOIL Program. Actually two cases concerning hydrocarbon spills, as representative examples of soil local contamination in Madrid area, are being studied. The first is being remediated and we are monitoring this process to evaluate its effectiveness. In the second location we are defining the extent of contamination in soil and aquifer to define the most effective remediation technique.

  3. Strategies for monitoring the emerging polar organic contaminants in water with emphasis on integrative passive sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, Hanna; Lindberg, Richard H; Fick, Jerker

    2009-01-16

    Although polar organic contaminants (POCs) such as pharmaceuticals are considered as some of today's most emerging contaminants few of them are regulated or included in on-going monitoring programs. However, the growing concern among the public and researchers together with the new legislature within the European Union, the registration, evaluation and authorisation of chemicals (REACH) system will increase the future need of simple, low cost strategies for monitoring and risk assessment of POCs in aquatic environments. In this article, we overview the advantages and shortcomings of traditional and novel sampling techniques available for monitoring the emerging POCs in water. The benefits and drawbacks of using active and biological sampling were discussed and the principles of organic passive samplers (PS) presented. A detailed overview of type of polar organic PS available, and their classes of target compounds and field of applications were given, and the considerations involved in using them such as environmental effects and quality control were discussed. The usefulness of biological sampling of POCs in water was found to be limited. Polar organic PS was considered to be the only available, but nevertheless, an efficient alternative to active water sampling due to its simplicity, low cost, no need of power supply or maintenance, and the ability of collecting time-integrative samples with one sample collection. However, the polar organic PS need to be further developed before they can be used as standard in water quality monitoring programs.

  4. Long-term ERT monitoring of biogeochemical changes of an aged hydrocarbon contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterina, David; Flores Orozco, Adrian; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2017-06-01

    Adequate management of contaminated sites requires information with improved spatio-temporal resolution, in particular to assess bio-geochemical processes, such as the transformation and degradation of contaminants, precipitation of minerals or changes in groundwater geochemistry occurring during and after remediation procedures. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), a geophysical method sensitive to pore-fluid and pore-geometry properties, permits to gain quasi-continuous information about subsurface properties in real-time and has been consequently widely used for the characterization of hydrocarbon-impacted sediments. However, its application for the long-term monitoring of processes accompanying natural or engineered bioremediation is still difficult due to the poor understanding of the role that biogeochemical processes play in the electrical signatures. For in-situ studies, the task is further complicated by the variable signal-to-noise ratio and the variations of environmental parameters leading to resolution changes in the electrical images. In this work, we present ERT imaging results for data collected over a period of two years on a site affected by a diesel fuel contamination and undergoing bioremediation. We report low electrical resistivity anomalies in areas associated to the highest contaminant concentrations likely due transformations of the contaminant due to microbial activity and accompanying release of metabolic products. We also report large seasonal variations of the bulk electrical resistivity in the contaminated areas in correlation with temperature and groundwater level fluctuations. However, the amplitude of bulk electrical resistivity variations largely exceeds the amplitude expected given existing petrophysical models. Our results suggest that the variations in electrical properties are mainly controlled by microbial activity which in turn depends on soil temperature and hydrogeological conditions. Therefore, ERT can be suggested as

  5. Long-term ERT monitoring of biogeochemical changes of an aged hydrocarbon contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterina, David; Flores Orozco, Adrian; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2017-06-01

    Adequate management of contaminated sites requires information with improved spatio-temporal resolution, in particular to assess bio-geochemical processes, such as the transformation and degradation of contaminants, precipitation of minerals or changes in groundwater geochemistry occurring during and after remediation procedures. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), a geophysical method sensitive to pore-fluid and pore-geometry properties, permits to gain quasi-continuous information about subsurface properties in real-time and has been consequently widely used for the characterization of hydrocarbon-impacted sediments. However, its application for the long-term monitoring of processes accompanying natural or engineered bioremediation is still difficult due to the poor understanding of the role that biogeochemical processes play in the electrical signatures. For in-situ studies, the task is further complicated by the variable signal-to-noise ratio and the variations of environmental parameters leading to resolution changes in the electrical images. In this work, we present ERT imaging results for data collected over a period of two years on a site affected by a diesel fuel contamination and undergoing bioremediation. We report low electrical resistivity anomalies in areas associated to the highest contaminant concentrations likely due transformations of the contaminant due to microbial activity and accompanying release of metabolic products. We also report large seasonal variations of the bulk electrical resistivity in the contaminated areas in correlation with temperature and groundwater level fluctuations. However, the amplitude of bulk electrical resistivity variations largely exceeds the amplitude expected given existing petrophysical models. Our results suggest that the variations in electrical properties are mainly controlled by microbial activity which in turn depends on soil temperature and hydrogeological conditions. Therefore, ERT can be suggested as

  6. HUMAN ACTIVITY MONITORING USING SMARTPHONE

    OpenAIRE

    TOKALA, SAI SUJIT; ROKALA, RANADEEP

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the project is to develop an algorithm which will classify the activity performed by a human who is carrying a smart phone. The day to day life made humans very busy at work and during daily activities, mostly elderly people who are at home have an important need to monitor their activity by others when they are alone, if they are inactive for a long time without movement, or in some situations like if they have fallen down, became unconscious for sometime or seized with a car...

  7. Contamination Control and Monitoring of Tap Water as Fluid in Industrial Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems.......Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems....

  8. Requirements for internal contamination monitoring units; Anforderungen an Inkorporationsmessstellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, E. [GSF, Inst. fuer Biophysikalische Strahlenforschung, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Beyer, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Abt. ASS (Germany); Doerfel, H. [Hauptabteilung Sicherheit, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Erlenbach, H. [Zentralstelle fuer Sicherheitstechnik NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany); Fischbach, G. [Siemens Brennelementewerk, Hanau (Germany); Henrichs, K. [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany); Keller, K.D. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Tuebingen (Germany); Koenig, K. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, ISH, Neuherberg (Germany); Riedel, W. [Freie Univ. Berlin, Klinikum Steglitz (Germany); Scheler, R. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, FB Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany); Schieferdecker, H. [Hauptabteilung Sicherheit, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    For the evaluation of internal contamination by officially authorized monitoring units according to section 63 (6) of the German radiation protection ordinance, a directive will be prepared in order to define uniform requirements for the laboratories in charge of incorporation monitoring by appointment of the relevant authorities. These requirements refer to equipment, to performance of measurements, to interpretation of measured values, to quality control as well as to documentation and to delivery of results. The duties of such laboratories comprise measurements of radioactivity, evaluation of intakes of radionuclides and of the resulting internal radiation dose, but also transmission of results to the employer, to the central dose registry, and under certain circumstances to the authorities. Among the requirements to be met by the laboratory for incorporation control are a sufficient measuring efficiency, the implementation of in-house checks, and the participation in intercomparison programs. For the accomplishment of such duties the laboratory needs appropriate apparatus, rooms, facilities, and staffing. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Ermittlung der Koerperdosen nach Paragraph 63 StrlSchV sind fuer die gemaess Abs. 6 von der zustaendigen Behoerde zu bestimmenden Messstellen in einer Richtlinie einheitliche Anforderungen festzulegen. Diese beziehen sich auf deren Ausstattung, die Durchfuehrung der Messungen, Auswertungen und Qualitaetskontrollen sowie die Aufzeichnung und Uebermittlung der Ergebnisse. Die Aufgaben der Messstellen umfassen die Messungen der Radioaktivitaet im Koerper bzw. in Koerperausscheidungen, die Ermittlung der Zufuhr an Radionukliden sowie der daraus resultierenden Koerperdosis und die Weiterleitung der Ergebnisse an den Auftraggeber, an das zentrale Dosisregister und in bestimmten Faellen an die Behoerde. Zu den von einer Messstelle zu erfuellenden Anforderungen gehoeren eine ausreichende Messeffektivitaet, die Durchfuehrung von Eigenkontrollen

  9. Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Shonka Research Associates, Inc.`s (SRA) Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information management System (SCM/SIMS) is designed to perform alpha and beta radiation surveys of floors and surfaces and document the measured data. The SRA-SCM/SIMS technology can be applied to routine operational surveys, characterization surveys, and free release and site closure surveys. Any large nuclear site can make use of this technology. This report describes a demonstration of the SRA-SCM/SIMS technology. This demonstration is part of the chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology (ST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East`s (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor Facility. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies.

  10. Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Shonka Research Associates, Inc.'s (SRA) Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information management System (SCM/SIMS) is designed to perform alpha and beta radiation surveys of floors and surfaces and document the measured data. The SRA-SCM/SIMS technology can be applied to routine operational surveys, characterization surveys, and free release and site closure surveys. Any large nuclear site can make use of this technology. This report describes a demonstration of the SRA-SCM/SIMS technology. This demonstration is part of the chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology (ST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East's (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor Facility. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies

  11. Hand Monitor for Simultaneous Measurements of Alpha and Beta Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, I.Oe.; Braun, J.; Soederlund, B.

    1960-11-01

    An instrument is described which measures α and β contamination of the hands simultaneously. This has been achieved by using as detectors 8 flow counters paired in 4 units of two chambers, one unit for each side of the hand. The inner chamber of every unit (adjacent to the hands) delivers α-pulses, the outer chambers deliver β-pulses. When two finger contacts are pushed the detectors are closing around the hands and the measurement is started. Audible and visual warnings operate when the MPL is exceeded. Similar warnings ope.rate if hands are removed before the end of the counting period. The activity levels are logarithmically indicated on four pointer instruments, which are automatically zeroed when the next measurement is started. The instrument is now commercially available

  12. Hand Monitor for Simultaneous Measurements of Alpha and Beta Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, I Oe; Braun, J; Soederlund, B

    1960-11-15

    An instrument is described which measures {alpha} and {beta} contamination of the hands simultaneously. This has been achieved by using as detectors 8 flow counters paired in 4 units of two chambers, one unit for each side of the hand. The inner chamber of every unit (adjacent to the hands) delivers {alpha}-pulses, the outer chambers deliver {beta}-pulses. When two finger contacts are pushed the detectors are closing around the hands and the measurement is started. Audible and visual warnings operate when the MPL is exceeded. Similar warnings ope.rate if hands are removed before the end of the counting period. The activity levels are logarithmically indicated on four pointer instruments, which are automatically zeroed when the next measurement is started. The instrument is now commercially available.

  13. Study of monitoring protection of radionuclides contamination in organism by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Kang Baoan; He Guangren

    1987-01-01

    In view of the exceptionally important role of the medical radiation protection in human health, the authors try to study on the monitoring of internal contamination of radionuclides in organism by different autoradiographic methods, such as: monitoring of the body retention of isolated or combined radionuclides by freezing microautoradiography; monitoring of blood, bone marrow and excreta radioactive samples by smear autoradiography; differentiation of two radionuclides contamination by double radionuclide autoradiography; especially, monitoring of low level of radionuclides contamination by fluorescence sensitization autoradiography. The sensitivity of autoradiographic formation was increased by the scintillator by 10 times

  14. Eco-monitoring of highly contaminated areas: historic heavy metal contamination in tree ring records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baross, Norbert; Jordán, Győző; Albert, Julianna; Abdaal, Ahmed; Anton, Attila

    2014-05-01

    This study examines and compares tree rings of trees grown in a mining area highly contaminated with heavy metals. Tree rings offers an excellent opportunity for eco-monitoring polluted areas. Contamination dispersion from the source to the receptors can be studied in time and space. The sampled area is located in the eastern part of the Matra Mts. of the Inner-Carpathian calc-alkaline Volcanic Arc (Hungary) with abundant historical ore (Pb, Zn, Cu, etc.) mining in the area. Dense forests are composed of the most typical association of the Turkey oak (Quercus cerris). Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), European black pine (Pinus nigra), oak (Quercus robur), beech (Fagus sylvatica), and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) also occurs in the landscape. Sampled trees are located within a 1km radius of the abandoned historic ore mines. Sample sites were located above the old mines and waste rock heaps, under the waste rock heaps and on the floodplain of the Ilona Creek. The sampled trees were selected by the following criteria: the tree should be healthy, showing no signs of thunderbolt or diseases and having a minimum diameter of 50 cm. Samples were taken with a tree borer at the height of 150 cm. At the same time, soil samples were also taken near the trees in a 25 cm depth. Prior to laboratory analysis, the samples measured and air dried. Every fifth years tree ring was taken from the samples under microscope, working backwards from the most recent outer ring (2012, the year of the sampling). Samples were digested with a mixture of H2SO4 and H2O2m in Teflon vessels in a microwave unit. The samples were analyzed by ICP-OES instrument. The results were evaluated with statistical method. Results revealed a consistent picture showing distinct locations and years of the contamination history in the former mining area. Some elements are built into the trees more efficiently than other elements depending on mobility in the soil solution that is influenced by soil chemical properties

  15. On indoor radon contamination monitoring with SSNTDs: Experimental results concerning plate-out and self-plate-out effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigazzi, G.; Hadler, J.C.; Paulo, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the alpha activities of 222 Rn and its daughters were performed, both inside a glass recipient and in closed rooms, employing SSNTDs (CR-39 and nuclear emulsion). The experimental results presented here show that plate-out and self-plate-out effects should be taken into account when SSNTDs are employed in indoor radon contamination monitoring. (orig.)

  16. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites

  17. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites.

  18. Geophysical Monitoring of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils Remediated with a Bioelectrochemical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Deqiang; Lu, Lu; Revil, André; Zuo, Yi; Hinton, John; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-08-02

    Efficient noninvasive techniques are desired for monitoring the remediation process of contaminated soils. We applied the direct current resistivity technique to image conductivity changes in sandbox experiments where two sandy and clayey soils were initially contaminated with diesel hydrocarbon. The experiments were conducted over a 230 day period. The removal of hydrocarbon was enhanced by a bioelectrochemical system (BES) and the electrical potentials of the BES reactors were also monitored during the course of the experiment. We found that the variation in electrical conductivity shown in the tomograms correlate well with diesel removal from the sandy soil, but this is not the case with the clayey soil. The clayey soil is characterized by a larger specific surface area and therefore a larger surface conductivity. In sandy soil, the removal of the diesel and products from degradation leads to an increase in electrical conductivity during the first 69 days. This is expected since diesel is electrically insulating. For both soils, the activity of BES reactors is moderately imaged by the inverted conductivity tomogram of the reactor. An increase in current production by electrochemically active bacteria activity corresponds to an increase in conductivity of the reactor.

  19. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels: FY2013 and FY2014 (revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg D. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Campbell, Scott A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is conducting a field assessment of the potential for contaminated soil to be transported from the Smoky Contamination Area (CA) as a result of storm runoff, which supports National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) efforts to complete regulatory closure of the Soils Corrective Action Unit (CAU) contamination areas. The work is intended to confirm the likely mechanism of transport and determine the meteorological conditions that might cause movement of contaminated soils, as well as determine the particle size fraction that is most closely associated with transported radionuclide-contaminated soils. These data will facilitate the appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring program.

  20. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Yoshiro

    1997-01-01

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; 1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); 2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, '86), and 3) in european countries (to may 31, '86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; 4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (( 134 Cs + 137 Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, 5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; 6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; 7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export's country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  1. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Yoshiro [Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; (1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); (2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, `86), and (3) in european countries (to may 31, `86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; (4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (({sup 134}Cs + {sup 137}Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, (5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; (6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; (7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export`s country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  2. Monitoring of airborne contamination during the handling of technetium-99m and radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eadie, A.S.; Horton, P.W.; Hilditch, T.E.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements have been made using an air sampler to measure airborne radioactivity produced during the routine handling of large activities of technetium-99m, iodine-125 and iodine-131. The results indicate that 99 Tcsup(m) can be safely handled in environments without direct exhaust of the ventilated air but that 125 I and 131 I should always be handled in a ventilated environment such as a fume cupboard or a down-draught work-station of the total-exhaust type. Monitoring of thyroid uptake proves to be the most reliable means of monitoring airborne contamination by these radionuclides, but burdens and radiation doses for typical procedures are well within the maximum permissible limits of the Code of Practice for the Protection of Persons from Ionizing Radiation arising from Medical and Dental Use. (author)

  3. Contamination control research activities for space optics in JAXA RANDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Contamination control research activities for space optics projects in JAXA R&D are described. More accurate contamination control techniques are requested because of intensified recent science mission requirements. One approach to control the contamination effects is analysis by software. JAXA has been developing a contamination analytical tool "J-SPICE" (Japanese Spacecraft Induced Contamination analysis software) as well as experiment facilities to improve the J-SPICE. A reflection model in J-SPICE has been experimentally verified and outgassing model data has been acquired by a facility. JAXA has developed a facility which could determine the influence of the contamination at a specific wavelength by combining a vacuum chamber with an I-R spectrometer and performed an experiment to inspect the effect of baking. Space material exposure experiment results reveal the actual thickness of the contamination layer in ISS orbit.

  4. IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS - ACTIVE CAPPING TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A.; Roberts, J.; Paller, M.; Reible, D.

    2010-09-02

    Active capping is a relatively new approach for treating contaminated sediments. It involves applying chemically reactive amendments to the sediment surface. The main role of active caps is to stabilize contaminants in contaminated sediments, lower the bioavailable pool of contaminants, and reduce the release of contaminants to the water column. Metals are common contaminants in many marine and fresh water environments as a result of industrial and military activities. The mobile, soluble forms of metals are generally considered toxic. Induced chemical precipitation of these metals can shift toxic metals from the aqueous phase to a solid, precipitated phase which is often less bioavailable. This approach can be achieved through application of sequestering agents such as rock phosphates, organoclays, zeolites, clay minerals, and biopolymers (e.g., chitosan) in active capping technology. Active capping holds great potential for a more permanent solution that avoids residual risks resulting from contaminant migration through the cap or breaching of the cap. In addition to identifying superior active capping agents, research is needed to optimize application techniques, application rates, and amendment combinations that maximize sequestration of contaminants. A selected set of active capping treatment technologies has been demonstrated at a few sites, including a field demonstration at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. This demonstration has provided useful information on the effects of sequestering agents on metal immobilization, bioavailability, toxicity, and resistance to mechanical disturbance.

  5. In Situ Remediation Of Contaminated Sediments - Active Capping Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, A.; Roberts, J.; Paller, M.; Reible, D.

    2010-01-01

    Active capping is a relatively new approach for treating contaminated sediments. It involves applying chemically reactive amendments to the sediment surface. The main role of active caps is to stabilize contaminants in contaminated sediments, lower the bioavailable pool of contaminants, and reduce the release of contaminants to the water column. Metals are common contaminants in many marine and fresh water environments as a result of industrial and military activities. The mobile, soluble forms of metals are generally considered toxic. Induced chemical precipitation of these metals can shift toxic metals from the aqueous phase to a solid, precipitated phase which is often less bioavailable. This approach can be achieved through application of sequestering agents such as rock phosphates, organoclays, zeolites, clay minerals, and biopolymers (e.g., chitosan) in active capping technology. Active capping holds great potential for a more permanent solution that avoids residual risks resulting from contaminant migration through the cap or breaching of the cap. In addition to identifying superior active capping agents, research is needed to optimize application techniques, application rates, and amendment combinations that maximize sequestration of contaminants. A selected set of active capping treatment technologies has been demonstrated at a few sites, including a field demonstration at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. This demonstration has provided useful information on the effects of sequestering agents on metal immobilization, bioavailability, toxicity, and resistance to mechanical disturbance.

  6. Contamination of estuaries from failing septic tank systems: difficulties in scaling up from monitored individual systems to cumulative impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Phillip; Lucas, Steven

    2018-02-03

    Aquaculture in many coastal estuaries is threatened by diffuse sources of runoff from different land use activities. The poor performance of septic tank systems (STS), as well as runoff from agriculture, may contribute to the movement of contaminants through ground and surface waters to estuaries resulting in oyster contamination, and following their consumption, impacts to human health. In monitoring individual STS in sensitive locations, it is possible to show that nutrients and faecal contaminants are transported through the subsurface in sandy soils off-site with little attenuation. At the catchment scale however, there are always difficulties in discerning direct linkages between failing STS and water contamination due to processes such as effluent dilution, adsorption, precipitation and vegetative uptake. There is often substantial complexity in detecting and tracing effluent pathways from diffuse sources to water bodies in field studies. While source tracking as well as monitoring using tracers may assist in identifying potential pathways from STS to surface waters and estuaries, there are difficulties in scaling up from monitored individual systems to identify their contribution to the cumulative impact which may be apparent at the catchment scale. The processes which may be obvious through monitoring and dominate at the individual scale may be masked and not readily discernible at the catchment scale due to impacts from other land use activities.

  7. Radioactive sources and contaminated materials in scrap: monitoring, detection and remedial actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallini, R.; Berna, V.; Bonora, A.; Santini, M.

    1999-01-01

    The scrap recycling in steel and other metal mills represents one of the most relevant activities in the Province of Brescia (Lombardy, Italy). In our Province more than 20 million tonnes of metal scrap are recycled every year by a melting process. Since 1990, many accidents which took place were caused by the unwanted melting of radioactive sources, that were probably hidden in metal scrap. In 1993, the Italian Government stated directives to monitor metal scrap imported from non-EC countries because of the suspicion of the illegal traffic of radioactive materials. In 1996, a law imposed the control of all metal scrap, regardless of their origins. Since 1993, our staff have controlled thousands of railway wagons and trucks. Approximately a hundred steel mills and foundries of aluminium, cooper, brass, etc. have also been controlled and many samples have been collected (flue dust, slag, finished products). During these controls, contaminated areas have been brought to light in two warehouses (Cs 137), in 6 companies (Cs 137 and Am 241), in two landfills of industrial waste (Cs 137) and in a quarry (Cs 137). Up to now the contaminated areas have been cleaned, except for the last one. About 150 radioactive sources on contaminated materials have been found in metal scrap. We found radioactive sources of Co 60, Ra 226, Ir 192, Kr 85, Am 241, while the contamination of metals was mainly due to Ra 226. The situation described above justifies an accurate control of the amount of scrap to reduce the risk of contamination of the workers in the working areas, in the environment and in the general public. (author)

  8. Trace Contaminant Monitor for Air in Spacecraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A need exists for analyzers that can measure trace contaminants in air on board spacecraft. Toxic gas buildup can endanger the crew particularly during long...

  9. Monitoring of Water and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    seepage is occurring in a freshwater lake environment and to map the lateral extent of any subsurface contamination at the groundwater –surface water ...and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater -Surface Water Interface August 2008 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Monitoring of Water and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater -Surface Water Interface 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  10. Development and Application of Devices for Remote Monitoring of Gamma-Ray Contamination at RECOM Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, O.P.; Stepanov, V.E.; Chesnokov, A.V.; Sudarkin, A.N.; Urutskoev, L.I.

    1999-01-01

    Devices for remote monitoring of gamma-ray contamination develop at RECOM Ltd. are described and typical examples of their application are show. The following devices are discussed: spectrum-sensitive collimated devices for mapping of radioactivity on contaminated surfaces- scanning collimated Gamma Locator, device for field Cs-137 contamination mapping-CORAD; devices for gamma-ray imaging computer-controlled High-Energy Radiation Visualizer (HERV) and Coded Mask Imager

  11. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule 3 (UCMR 3), (2013-2015) Occurrence Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The third Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 3), conducted under EPA oversight, was published in the Federal Register on May 2, 2012. UCMR 3 requires...

  12. Remediating and Monitoring White Phosphorus Contamination at Eagle River Flats (Operable Unit C), Fort Richardson, Alaska

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walsh, M. E; Racine, C. H; Collins, C. M; Walsh, M. R; Bailey, R. N

    2001-01-01

    .... Army Engineer District, Alaska, and U.S. Army Alaska, Public Works, describing the results of research, monitoring, and remediation efforts addressing the white phosphorus contamination in Eagle River Flats, an 865-ha estuarine salt marsh...

  13. Certified reference materials for organic contaminants for use in monitoring of the aquatic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.; McGovern, E.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last three decades organic contaminants have been of increasing importance in environmental monitoring. Dioxins, furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides have determined the environmental research agenda. This has led to an increasing demand for certified reference

  14. Monitoring Activities Review action report for the Environmental Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmsen, R.N.; Wright, K.C.

    1990-12-01

    To improve program planning and to provide bases for technical improvement of the monitoring program, the EG ampersand G Environmental Monitoring (EM) organization has regularly used the Monitoring Activities Review (MAR) process since 1982. Each MAR is conducted by a committee of individuals selected for their experience in the various types of monitoring performed by the EM organization. An MAR of the Environmental Monitoring Program was conducted in 1988. This action report identifies and discusses the recommendations of this MAR committee. This action report also identifies the actions already taken by the EM Unit in response to these recommendations, as well as the actions and schedules to be taken. 10 refs

  15. History, contamination and monitoring of water bodies at the P/A Mayak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozhko, E.G.; Sharalapov, V.I.; Posokhov, A.K.; Kuzina, N.V.; Postovalova, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The facts concerning the history and contamination data of surface water at Mayak Production Association are given in the article. Data about the monitoring of contaminated water are presented. The monitoring program solved three main problems: assessment of the water quality of basins, examination of water quality in accordance with actual specifications, and reception of new data about the migration of the most important radionuclides

  16. Review of historical monitoring data on Techa River contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiova, M. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Burmistrov, D. S.; Safronova, N. G.; Kozheurov, V. P.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, B. A.; Neta, P. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association was the first Russian site for the production and separation of plutonium. The extensive increase in plutonium production during 1948-1955, as well as the absence of reliable waste-management technology, resulted in significant releases of liquid radioactive effluent into the rather small Techa River. This resulted in chronic external and internal exposure of about 30,000 residents of riverside communities; these residents form the cohort of an epidemiologic investigation. Analysis of the available historical monitoring data indicates that the following reliable data sets can be used for reconstruction of doses received during the early periods of operation of the Mayak Production Association: Temporal pattern of specific beta activity of river water for several sites in the upper Techa region since July 1951; average annual values of specific beta activity of river water and bottom sediments as a function of downstream distance for the whole river since 1951; external gamma-exposure rates near the shoreline as a function of downstream distance for the whole Techa River since 1952; and external gamma-exposure rate as a function of distance from the shoreline for several sites in the upper and middle Techa since 1951.

  17. Theoretical considerations on design and analysis of monitoring systems for Pu-contaminated solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notea, A.

    1979-01-01

    Monitoring systems for plutonium contaminated wastes refers to both managerial regulations and instrumental hardware. Its design is inseparable from the design of the production line in the fuel handling facility, and depends on the general wastes management program. Characteristic functions of the monitors are discussed and the necessity of reference monitors is stressed. The reference monitor enables the formation of a quality scale. Guidelines for future R and D efforts are suggested

  18. Optimization of monitoring sewage with radionuclide contaminants. Optimizatsiya kontroya stochnykh vod, zagryaznennykh radionuklidami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorov, V N [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Neorganicheskikh Materialov, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1991-03-01

    Recommendations on optimization of monitoring contaminated sewage aimed at enviromental protection agxinst radioactive contamination at minimum cost are presented. The way of selecting water sampling technique depends on water composition stability and flow rate. Depending on the type of radionuclide distribution in the sewage one can estimate minimum frequency of sampling or number of samples sufficient for assuring reliability of the conclusion on the excess or non-excess of permissible radioactive contamination levels, as well as analysis assigned accuracy. By irregular contaminated sewage-discharge and possibility of short-term releases of different form and duration, sampling should be accomplished through automatic devices of continuons or periodic operation.

  19. The Development of a Sub-Surface Monitoring System for Organic Contamination in Soils and Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Huntley

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem when dealing with environmental contamination is the early detection and subsequent surveillance of the contamination. This paper describes the potential of sub-surface sensor technology for the early detection of organic contaminants in contaminated soils, sediments, and landfill sites. Rugged, low-power hydrocarbon sensors have been developed, along with a data-logging system, for the early detection of phase hydrocarbons in soil. Through laboratory-based evaluation, the ability of this system to monitor organic contamination in water-based systems is being evaluated. When used in conjunction with specific immunoassays, this can provide a sensitive and low-cost solution for long-term monitoring and analysis, applicable to a wide range of field applications.

  20. Long-range alpha detection applied to soil contamination and waste monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Close, D.A.; McAtee, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Alpha contamination monitoring has been traditionally limited by the short range of alpha particles in air and through detector windows. The long-range alpha detector (LRAD) described in this paper circumvents that limitation by detecting alpha-produced ions, rather than alpha particles directly. Since the LRAD is sensitive to all ions, it can monitor all contamination present on a large surface at one time. Because air is the ''detector gas,'' the LRAD can detect contamination on any surface to which air can penetrate. We present data showing the sensitivity of LRAD detectors, as well as documenting their ability to detect alpha sources in previously unmonitorable locations, and verifying the ion lifetime. Specific designs and results for soil contamination and waste monitors are also included

  1. Evaluation of indigenously developed plastic scintillator sheet detector for surface radioactive contamination monitoring application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahani, R.M.; Chaudhary, H.S.; Mahala, V.K.; Senwar, K.R.; Meena, J.P.

    2018-01-01

    Radioactive contamination may be caused by release of radioactivity in the environment due to accident at nuclear plant/reactor or spillage of loose radioactive materials in a laboratory. The protection of workers from potentially hazardous radiations emitted by the contaminants is a matter of prime concern. The detection of such radiations requires a monitoring system capable of measuring the level of radioactivity at the contaminated site. Plastic scintillators are widely used for large area radiation monitoring due to the ease of preparation in different shape and sizes. These detectors are sensitive to beta and gamma radiation therefore can be used for monitoring of beta and gamma contamination. In this paper, performance results of indigenously developed plastic scintillator sheet of area 800 cm 2 are reported

  2. Ecotoxicity monitoring and bioindicator screening of oil-contaminated soil during bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weihang; Zhu, Nengwu; Cui, Jiaying; Wang, Huajin; Dang, Zhi; Wu, Pingxiao; Luo, Yidan; Shi, Chaohong

    2016-02-01

    A series of toxicity bioassays was conducted to monitor the ecotoxicity of soils in the different phases of bioremediation. Artificially oil-contaminated soil was inoculated with a petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortium containing Burkholderia cepacia GS3C, Sphingomonas GY2B and Pandoraea pnomenusa GP3B strains adapted to crude oil. Soil ecotoxicity in different phases of bioremediation was examined by monitoring total petroleum hydrocarbons, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of seed germination and plant growth), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and bacterial luminescence. Although the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration in soil was reduced by 64.4%, forty days after bioremediation, the phytotoxicity and Photobacterium phosphoreum ecotoxicity test results indicated an initial increase in ecotoxicity, suggesting the formation of intermediate metabolites characterized by high toxicity and low bioavailability during bioremediation. The ecotoxicity values are a more valid indicator for evaluating the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques compared with only using the total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations. Among all of the potential indicators that could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of plant height, shoot weight and root fresh weight), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and luminescence of P. phosphoreum were the most sensitive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A new risk and stochastic analysis of monitoring and remediation in subsurface contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapetridis, K.; Paleologos, E.

    2012-04-01

    Sanitary landfills constitute the most widely used management approach for the disposal of solid wastes because of their simplicity and cost effectiveness. However, historical records indicate that landfills exhibit a high failure rate of groundwater contamination. Successful detection of aquifer contamination via monitoring wells is a complicated problem with many factors, such as the heterogeneity of the geologic environment, the dispersion of contamination into the geologic medium, the quantity and nature of the contaminants, the number and location of the monitoring wells, and the frequency of sampling, all contributing to the uncertainty of early detection. Detection of contaminants, of course, is of value if remedial actions follow as soon as possible, so that the volume of contaminated groundwater to be treated is minimized. Practically, there is always a time lag between contaminant detection and remedial action response. Administrative decisions and arrangements with local contractors initiate remedial procedures introduces a time lag between detection and remediation time. During this time lag a plume continues to move into an aquifer contaminating larger groundwater volumes. In the present study these issues are addressed by investigating the case of instantaneous leakage from a landfill facility into a heterogeneous aquifer. The stochastic Monte Carlo framework was used to address, in two dimensions, the problem of evaluating the effectiveness of contaminant detection in heterogeneous aquifers by linear networks of monitoring wells. Numerical experiments based on the random-walk tracking-particle method were conducted to determine the detection probabilities and to calculate contaminated areas at different time steps. Several cases were studied assuming different levels of geologic heterogeneity, contamination dispersion, detectable contamination limits and monitoring wells' sampling frequencies. A new perspective is introduced for the correction of

  4. Monitoring of plutonium contaminated solid waste streams. Chapter IV: Passive neutron assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.; Bondar, L.

    1978-01-01

    The fundamentals of the passive neutron technique for the non destructive assay of plutonium bearing materials are summarized. A reference monitor for the passive neutron assay of Pu contaminated solids is described in terms of instrumental design principles and performances. The theoretical model of this reference monitor with pertinent nuclear data and functions for the interpretation of experimental data is given

  5. ACTIVE CAPPING TECHNOLOGY - NEW APPROACHES FOR IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A.; Paller, M.; Roberts, J.

    2012-02-13

    This study evaluated pilot-scale active caps composed of apatite, organoclay, biopolymers, and sand for the remediation of metal-contaminated sediments. The active caps were constructed in Steel Creek, at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. Monitoring was conducted for 12 months. Effectiveness of the caps was based on an evaluation of contaminant bioavailability, resistance to erosion, and impacts on benthic organisms. Active caps lowered metal bioavailability in the sediment during the one-year test period. Biopolymers reduced sediment suspension during cap construction, increased the pool of carbon, and lowered the release of metals. This field validation showed that active caps can effectively treat contaminants by changing their speciation, and that caps can be constructed to include more than one type of amendment to achieve multiple goals.

  6. Development of plastic scintillator based food radioactivity contamination monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parihar, A.; Sahani, R.M.; Mahala, V.K.; Vaijapurkar, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactivity is naturally present in soil, water and food stuffs. Food can be contaminated after discharge of radioactivity into the environment from industries that concentrate natural radionuclide and from civil or military nuclear operations. The contamination can be in three ways; by direct deposition, through the food chain and induced radioactivity due to exposure of high neutron flux. The health effects on human depend on the type of radionuclide and the length of time people are exposed to it. The studies of fission product behaviour in the food chain have revealed radionuclide Strontium-90, Caesium 137 and Iodine-131 are of major concern. Plastic scintillator is already developed indigenously at Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur. Efforts has been made to develop a portable field instrument using plastic scintillator for assessment of beta ( 90 Sr) and gamma ( 137 Cs and 131 I) radioactivity in food

  7. Monitoring of Urban Soil Contamination under Various Technogenic Impact: Comparison of the Two Seaside Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnychenko, Mykola; Krivitska, Ivetta; Hladkikh, Yevgenia

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the research was to show how the environmental policy of city can affect the quality of soils. Studies were carried out simultaneously in the two cities of Ukrainian coast of the Azov Sea, which are significantly different in terms of technogenic impact. Berdyansk is a well known resort and wellness center, but until recently around 30 petrochemical, machine-building and other enterprises were located there. The largest industrial center Mariupol, where emissions from enterprises to the atmosphere exceed 300 thousand tons per year, is located about 60 km from Berdyansk in similar natural conditions. Observations of soil contamination was performed on 60 monitoring sites not less than 2500 m2, located in industrial, administrative, cultural, residential and recreational zones of each city. The time series of observations: the first stage in 2002-2003, the second in 2007-2008, third in 2012-2014. The available forms of heavy metals in the soils were determined by atomic-absorption method after extraction of buffer solution with pH 4.8 as well as 1 N HCl. The content of mineral salts in a water extract was measured titrimetrically. The content of heavy metals in grass vegetation and phytotoxicity of soil was determined in 50% of monitoring sites. Since 2002-2003, the level of soil contamination in the industrial zones of Berdyansk gradually decreased, but heavy metals began accumulate in soils of residential, cultural and administrative areas, and especially, in recreation objects. Probably, this is related to the reduction of the industrial sector and the increase of resort and tourist business. Consequently, the content of cadmium, chromium, and nickel in soils is reduced, but the content of micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Mn) increases. Currently the contamination of plants becomes less so the quality of local agricultural products is improved. In contrast to this, due to the intensive activity of the enterprises of iron and steel industry in Mariupol the level

  8. Long-range alpha detector for contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; McAtee, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, alpha detectors have been limited by the very short range of alpha particles in air and by relatively poor sensitivity, even if the particles are intercepted. Of necessity, these detectors are operated in a vacuum or in close proximity to the source if reasonable efficiency is desired. In our new long-range alpha detector (LRAD), alpha particles interact with the ambient air, producing ionization in the air at the rate of about 30,000 ion pairs per MeV of alpha energy. These charges can be transported over significant distances (several meters) in a moving current of air generated by a small fan. An ion chamber located in front of the fan measures the current carried by the moving ions. The LRAD-based monitor is more sensitive and more thorough than conventional monitors. We present current LRAD sensitivity limits and results, practical monitor designs, and proposed uses for LRAD monitors. 4 refs., 6 figs

  9. High-Performance Contaminant Monitor for Spacecraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vision for Space Exploration demands increasing reliance on real-time trace gas monitors onboard spacecraft. Present grab samples and badges will be inadequate...

  10. Bulk monitoring of soil for low level transuranic contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandler, J.W.; Randolph, P.D.

    1976-01-01

    A system using γ-ray analysis was developed to survey the soil surrounding retrieval barrels for liquid radioactive waste containing 239 Pu and 241 Am. The performance of scintillation detectors of various sizes for monitoring soil samples was evaluated

  11. An assessment of two decades of contaminant monitoring in the Nation’s Coastal Zone.

    OpenAIRE

    Kimbrough, K. L.; Lauenstein, G. G.; Christensen, J. D.; Apeti, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Executive Summary: Information found in this report covers the years 1986 through 2005. Mussel Watch began monitoring a suite of trace metals and organic contaminants such as DDT, PCBs and PAHs. Through time additional chemicals were added, and today approximately 140 analytes are monitored. The Mussel Watch Program is the longest running estuarine and coastal pollutant monitoring effort conducted in the United States that is national in scope each year. Hundreds of scientific journal art...

  12. Application of GIS technologies to monitor secondary radioactive contamination in the Delegen mountain massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipbeki, O.; Kabzhanova, G.; Kurmanova, G.; Alipbekova, Ch.

    2016-06-01

    The territory of the Degelen mountain massif is located within territory of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and it is an area of ecological disaster. Currently there is a process of secondary radioactive contamination that is caused by geodynamic processes activated at the Degelen array, violation of underground hydrological cycles and as a consequence, water seepage into the tunnels. One of the methods of monitoring of geodynamic processes is the modern technology of geographic information systems (GIS), methods of satellite radar interferometry and high accuracy satellite navigation system in conjunction with radioecological methods. This paper discusses on the creation of a GIS-project for the Degelen array, facilitated by quality geospatial analysis of the situation and simulation of the phenomena, in order to maximize an objective assessment of the radiation situation in this protected area.

  13. Optimization of internal contamination monitoring programmes by studying uncertainties linked to dosimetric assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davesne, Estelle

    2010-01-01

    To optimise the protection of workers against ionizing radiations, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends the use of dose constraint and limits. To verify the compliance of the means of protection with these values when a risk of internal contamination exists, monitoring programmes formed of periodic bioassay measurements are performed. However, uncertainty in the dose evaluation arises from the variability of the activity measurement and from the incomplete knowledge of the exposure conditions. This uncertainty was taken into account by means of classical, Bayesian and possibilist statistics. The developed methodology was applied to the evaluation of the potential exposure during nuclear fuel preparation or mining; and to the analysis of the monitoring programme of workers purifying plutonium in AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant. From the measurement decision threshold, the minimum dose detectable (MDD) by the programme with a given confidence level can be calculated through the software OPSCI. It is shown to be a useful support in the optimisation of monitoring programmes when seeking a compromise between their sensitivity and their costs. (author)

  14. Use of dual-head gamma camera in radionuclide internal contamination monitoring on radiation workers from a nuclear medicine department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Brandan, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    As a part of an internal dosimetry program that is performed at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology - Nuclear Medicine Department, in the present work we suggest a procedure for the routinely monitoring of internal contamination on radiation workers and nuclear medicine staff. The procedure is based on the identification and quantification of contaminating radionuclides in human body by using a dual-head whole-body gamma camera. The results have shown that the procedures described in this study can be used to implement a method to quantify minimal accumulated activity in the main human organs to evaluate internal contamination with radionuclides. The high sensitivity of the uncollimated gamma camera is advantageous for the routinely detection and identification of small activities of internal contamination. But, the null spatial resolution makes impossible the definition of contaminated region of interest. Then, the use of collimators is necessary to the quantification of incorporated radionuclides activities in the main human organs and for the internal doses assessment. (author)

  15. Response of microbial activities and diversity to PAHs contamination at coal tar contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Sun, Yujiao; Ding, Aizhong; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Dayi

    2015-04-01

    Coal tar is one of the most hazardous and concerned organic pollutants and the main hazards are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The indigenous microorganisms in soils are capable to degrade PAHs, with essential roles in biochemical process for PAHs natural attenuation. This study investigated 48 soil samples (from 8 depths of 6 boreholes) in Beijing coking and chemistry plant (China) and revealed the correlation between PAHs contamination, soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure, by 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). At the site, the key contaminants were identified as naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene, and the total PAHs concentration ranged from 0.1 to 923.9 mg/kg dry soil. The total PAHs contamination level was positively correlated (pcatalase activities (0.554-6.230 mL 0.02 M KMnO4/g•h) and dehydrogenase activities (1.9-30.4 TF μg/g•h soil), showing the significant response of microbial population and degrading functions to the organic contamination in soils. The PAHs contamination stimulated the PAHs degrading microbes and promoted their biochemical roles in situ. The positive relationship between bacteria count and dehydrogenase activities (p<0.05) suggested the dominancy of PAHs degrading bacteria in the microbial community. More interestingly, the microbial community deterioration was uncovered via the decline of microbial biodiversity (richness from 16S rRNA DGGE) against total PAHs concentration (p<0.05). Our research described the spatial profiles of PAHs contamination and soil microbial functions at the PAHs heavily contaminated sites, offering deeper understanding on the roles of indigenous microbial community in natural attenuation process.

  16. Luminescence monitoring of oil or tar contamination for industrial hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Vo-Dinh, T.

    1980-01-01

    Synfuel plants produce potentially carcinogenic oils and tars. Exposure of workers to these tars and oils is difficult to avoid completely and occurs via direct contact with dirty surfaces or condensation of escaped fumes onto or within the body. Surface skin, measurements are made directly with a near-ultraviolet luminoscope employing a fiber optics lightguide and a stethoscopic cap pressed against the skin. This instrument is especially suitable for measuring ng to μg/cm 2 amounts of residual contamination remaining on the surface of the skin after washing. To minimize the potential for carcinogenicity, the excitating ultraviolet light intensity is only 1/100th that of sunlight. (orig.)

  17. Development of an expert system for the taking into account of uncertainties in the monitoring of internal contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davesne, E.; Blanchardon, E.; Casanova, P.; Chojnacki, E.; Paquet, F.

    2010-01-01

    Internal contaminations may result from professional exposure and they can be monitored by anthropo-radiometric and radio-toxicological measurements which are interpreted in terms of embedded activity and effective dose by means of biokinetic and dosimetric models. In spite of standards, some uncertainties in the dosimetric interpretation of radio-toxicological measurements may remain. The authors report the development of a software (OPSCI code) which takes into account uncertainties related to the worker internal dosimetry, the calculation of the minimum detectable dose related to an exposure, and the development of a data monitoring programme

  18. 40 CFR 141.40 - Monitoring requirements for unregulated contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting level b 5—Sampling location c 6—Period during which monitoring to be completed Acetanilide... μg/L EPTDS 1/1/2008-12/31/2010 Acetanilide Pesticide Parent Compounds Acetochlor 34256-82-1 EPA 525.2... preserve each sample separately. Samples collected for the analysis of Acetanilide “parent” pesticides and...

  19. Assessment of microbial in situ activity in contaminated aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaestner, M. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Bioremediation, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Fischer, A.; Nijenhuis, I.; Stelzer, N.; Bombach, P.; Richnow, H.H. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Isotopenbiogeochemie, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Geyer, R. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Umweltmikrobiologie, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Tebbe, C.C. [Institut fuer Agraroekologie, Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (FAL), D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    unspecific for a community analysis at species level, the composition of the microbial communities was analyzed by genetic profiling and sequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes PCR-amplified from total DNA extracted directly from the microcosms. Sequences retrieved from the microcosms indicated a dominance of not yet cultivated bacteria. Several sequences were phylogenetically closely related to sequences of bacteria known to be iron and sulfate reducers, typically found at sites polluted with BTEX and/or mineral oil. The results show that the current methods for monitoring microbial in situ activity at present stage are valuable tools for improving environmental control of compound turnover and will speed up engineering approaches. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Combining Geoelectrical Measurements and CO2 Analyses to Monitor the Enhanced Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils: A Field Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Noel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers can be successfully remediated through enhanced biodegradation. However, in situ monitoring of the treatment by piezometers is expensive and invasive and might be insufficient as the information provided is restricted to vertical profiles at discrete locations. An alternative method was tested in order to improve the robustness of the monitoring. Geophysical methods, electrical resistivity (ER and induced polarization (IP, were combined with gas analyses, CO2 concentration, and its carbon isotopic ratio, to develop a less invasive methodology for monitoring enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons. The field implementation of this monitoring methodology, which lasted from February 2014 until June 2015, was carried out at a BTEX-polluted site under aerobic biotreatment. Geophysical monitoring shows a more conductive and chargeable area which corresponds to the contaminated zone. In this area, high CO2 emissions have been measured with an isotopic signature demonstrating that the main source of CO2 on this site is the biodegradation of hydrocarbon fuels. Besides, the evolution of geochemical and geophysical data over a year seems to show the seasonal variation of bacterial activity. Combining geophysics with gas analyses is thus promising to provide a new methodology for in situ monitoring.

  1. Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area: Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA)--Programmatic, Technical, and Regulatory Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Martin, Wayne J.

    2001-07-23

    Natural attenuation processes are commonly used for remediation of contaminated sites. A variety of natural processes occur without human intervention at all sites to varying rates and degrees of effectiveness to attenuate (decrease) the mass, toxicity, mobility, volume, or concentration of organic and inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface water systems. The objective of this review is to identify potential technical investments to be incorporated in the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area Strategic Plan for monitored natural attenuation. When implemented, the technical investments will help evaluate and implement monitored natural attenuation as a remediation option at DOE sites. The outcome of this review is a set of conclusions and general recommendations regarding research needs, programmatic guidance, and stakeholder issues pertaining to monitored natural attenuation for the DOE complex.

  2. The Opera Instrument: An Advanced Curation Development for Mars Sample Return Organic Contamination Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M. D.; Fries, W. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    Mars Sample Return (MSR) requires strict organic contamination control (CC) and contamination knowledge (CK) as outlined by the Mars 2020 Organic Contamination Panel (OCP). This includes a need to monitor surficial organic contamination to a ng/sq. cm sensitivity level. Archiving and maintaining this degree of surface cleanliness may be difficult but has been achieved. MSR's CK effort will be very important because all returned samples will be studied thoroughly and in minute detail. Consequently, accurate CK must be collected and characterized to best interpret scientific results from the returned samples. The CK data are not only required to make accurate measurements and interpretations for carbon-depleted martian samples, but also to strengthen the validity of science investigations performed on the samples. The Opera instrument prototype is intended to fulfill a CC/CK role in the assembly, cleaning, and overall contamination history of hardware used in the MSR effort, from initial hardware assembly through post-flight sample curation. Opera is intended to monitor particulate and organic contamination using quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs), in a self-contained portable package that is cleanroom-compliant. The Opera prototype is in initial development capable of approximately 100 ng/sq. cm organic contamination sensitivity, with additional development planned to achieve 1 ng/sq. cm. The Opera prototype was funded by the 2017 NASA Johnson Space Center Innovation Charge Account (ICA), which provides funding for small, short-term projects.

  3. Design and development of food radioactivity contamination monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Pradeep; Vaijapurkar, S.G.; Bohra, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Radioactivity has been part and parcel of living being since the existence of the earth. It is available everywhere in our environment and being responsible for evolution of life on earth at some extent. However, the radioactivity in excess of the natural radioactive can have harmful effects on living being. The radiation exposure can be of external or internal origin or of both. The main route of internal radiation exposure is through the contaminated food chains. The concentration of natural radioactivity in food varies in range of 40-600 Bq/kg. 40 K being the single major radionuclide of food with typical radioactivity; 50 Bq/kg in milk, 420 Bq/kg in milk powder, 165 Bq/kg in potatoes, and 125 Bq/kg in beef is also the main contributor of natural radiation doses to human being. Measurement of radioactivity in food items and drinks is thus very important in controlling the internal exposure to human being especially in case of nuclear disaster. Though, the methods and techniques for food radioactivity measurement already existing, the need of portable instrument is warranted to measure the radioactivity in food items in raw form. Measurement of radioactivity may help in quick and mass screening of food items in case of nuclear emergencies. Any enhanced level of radioactivity in food items especially in case of nuclear emergency need to be evaluated for controlling its spread and restriction of consumption by the public. This way, it may help in managing internal radioactivity contamination to human being

  4. Comparison of two different physical activity monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baer David J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the relationships between physical activity (PA and disease has become a major area of research interest. Activity monitors, devices that quantify free-living PA for prolonged periods of time (days or weeks, are increasingly being used to estimate PA. A range of different activity monitors brands are available for investigators to use, but little is known about how they respond to different levels of PA in the field, nor if data conversion between brands is possible. Methods 56 women and men were fitted with two different activity monitors, the Actigraph™ (Actigraph LLC; AGR and the Actical™ (Mini-Mitter Co.; MM for 15 days. Both activity monitors were fixed to an elasticized belt worn over the hip, with the anterior and posterior position of the activity monitors randomized. Differences between activity monitors and the validity of brand inter-conversion were measured by t-tests, Pearson correlations, Bland-Altman plots, and coefficients of variation (CV. Results The AGR detected a significantly greater amount of daily PA (216.2 ± 106.2 vs. 188.0 ± 101.1 counts/min, P Conclusion Although activity monitors predict PA on the same scale (counts/min, the results between these two brands are not directly comparable. However, the data are comparable if a conversion equation is applied, with better results for log-transformed data.

  5. Image Analysis in the Field of Oil Contamination Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Ceco, Ema

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring wear particles in lubricating oils allows specialists to evaluate thehealth and functionality of a mechanical system. The main analysis techniquesavailable today are manual particle analysis and automatic optical analysis. Man-ual particle analysis is effective and reliable since the analyst continuously seeswhat is being counted . The drawback is that the technique is quite time demand-ing and dependent of the skills of the analyst. Automatic optical particle countingconstitutes o...

  6. Environmental monitoring of Columbia River sediments: Grain-size distribution and contaminant association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, M.L.; Gardiner, W.W.; Dirkes, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Based on the results of this study and literature review, the following conclusions can be made: Sediment grain size and TOC (total organic carbon) influence contaminant fate and transport (in general, sediments with higher TOC content and finer grain-size distribution can have higher contaminant burdens than sediments from a given river section that have less TOC and greater amounts of coarse-grained sediments). Physiochemical sediment characteristics are highly variable among monitoring sites along the Columbia River. Sediment grain characterization and TOC analysis should be included in interpretations of sediment-monitoring data.

  7. Environmental monitoring of Columbia River sediments: Grain-size distribution and contaminant association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, M.L.; Gardiner, W.W.; Dirkes, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Based on the results of this study and literature review, the following conclusions can be made: Sediment grain size and TOC (total organic carbon) influence contaminant fate and transport (in general, sediments with higher TOC content and finer grain-size distribution can have higher contaminant burdens than sediments from a given river section that have less TOC and greater amounts of coarse-grained sediments). Physiochemical sediment characteristics are highly variable among monitoring sites along the Columbia River. Sediment grain characterization and TOC analysis should be included in interpretations of sediment-monitoring data

  8. Second IRMF comparison of surface contamination monitor calibrations 2001-2002

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, C J

    2002-01-01

    The Ionising Radiations Metrology Forum (IRMF) organised a second comparison of surface contamination monitor calibrations in which twenty establishments in the UK participated. The exercise involved the circulation of three surface contamination monitors for calibration using large area reference sources available in the participants' laboratories. The instruments used were a Mini Instruments EP15, a Berthold LB122 and an Electra ratemeter with DP6AD probe. The instrument responses were calculated by the individual participants and submitted to the for analysis along with details of the reference sources used. Details of the estimated uncertainties were also reported. The results are compared and demonstrate generally satisfactory agreement between the participating establishments.

  9. 7 CFR 800.216 - Activities that shall be monitored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... merchandising activities identified in this section shall be monitored in accordance with the instructions. (b) Grain merchandising activities. Grain merchandising activities subject to monitoring for compliance with...) Recordkeeping activities. Elevator and merchandising recordkeeping activities subject to monitoring for...

  10. Minimum detectable activities of contamination control survey equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goles, R.W.; Baumann, B.L.; Johnson, M.L.

    1991-08-01

    The Instrumentation ampersand External Dosimetry (I ampersand ED) Section of the Health Physics Department at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has performed a series of tests to determine the ability of portable survey instruments used at Hanford to detect radioactive contamination at levels required by DOE 5480.11. This semi-empirical study combines instrumental, statistical, and human factors as necessary to derive operational detection limits. These threshold detection values have been compared to existing contamination control requirements, and detection deficiencies have been identified when present. Portable survey instruments used on the Hanford Site identify the presence of radioactive surface contamination based on the detection of α-, β-, γ-, and/or x-radiation. However, except in some unique circumstances, most contamination monitors in use at Hanford are configured to detect either α-radiation alone or β- and γ-radiation together. Testing was therefore conducted on only these two categories of radiation detection devices. Nevertheless, many of the results obtained are generally applicable to all survey instruments, allowing performance evaluations to be extended to monitoring devices which are exclusively γ- and/or x-ray- sensitive. 6 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Tritium contaminated surface monitoring with a solid - state device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Curuia, Marian; Enache, Adrian; Stefanescu, Ioan; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2004-01-01

    The low energy of betas makes tritium difficult to detect. However, there are several methods used in tritium detection, such as liquid scintillation and ionization chambers. Tritium on or near a surface can be also detected using proportional counters and, recently, solid state devices. The paper presents our results in the design and achievement of a surface tritium monitor using a PIN photodiode as a solid state charged particle detector to count betas emitted from the surface. That method allows continuous, real-time and non-destructively measuring of tritium. (authors)

  12. Mobile means for the monitoring of atmospheric contamination in a reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, S.; Lestang, M.

    2009-01-01

    After having evoked the context and challenges of contamination monitoring when exploiting nuclear reactors, the authors discuss the representativeness of the atmospheric contamination measurement as it depends on the different physicochemical forms of radionuclides present in the circuits. They indicate the different gaseous or aerosol radioactive elements which are monitored within EDF installations. They discuss the incorporation of monitoring means at the installation design level, briefly present the use of beacons inside and outside the reactor building. They describe how monitoring is organized on the basis of alert threshold adjustments: an investigation threshold and an evacuation threshold. They discuss the beacon (or sensor) selection and indicate recommendations for their implementation for optimization purposes. They indicate where these beacons are installed and evoke the experimentation of networked mobile beacons with data remote transmission

  13. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels: FY2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Campbell, Scott A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is conducting a field assessment of the potential for contaminated soil to be transported from the Smoky Site Contamination Area (CA) as a result of storm runoff. This activity supports U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Nevada Program (EM-NV) efforts to establish post-closure monitoring plans for the Smoky Site Soils Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550. The work is intended to confirm the likely mechanism of transport and determine the meteorological conditions that might cause the movement of contaminated soils, as well as determine the particle size fraction that is most closely associated with transported radionuclide-contaminated soils. These data will facilitate the design of the appropriate post-closure monitoring program. In 2011, DRI installed a meteorological monitoring station on the west side of the Smoky Site CA and a hydrologic (runoff) monitoring station within the CA, near the east side. Air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, precipitation, solar radiation, barometric pressure, soil temperature, and soil water content are collected at the meteorological station. The maximum, minimum, and average or total values (as appropriate) for each of these parameters are recorded for each 10-minute interval. The maximum, minimum, and average water depth in the flume installed at the hydrology station are also recorded for every 10-minute interval. This report presents data collected from these stations during fiscal year (FY) 2017. During the FY2017 reporting period, the warmest months were June, July, and August and the coldest were December and January. Solar radiation showed the same seasonal trend, although the months with the most solar radiation were May and June. Monthly mean wind speeds were highest in the spring (April and May). Winds were generally from the southwest during the summer and from the northwest throughout the remainder of the year. The monthly average

  14. Monitoring of contamination of atmospheric environment by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ise, Hiroaki

    1995-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution has become a worldwide problem regardless of developed industrial nations and developing countries. In particular, the pollution due to automobile exhaust gas, the carcinogenic particles in diesel exhaust and their relation to various respiratory diseases are the problems. Nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides in exhaust gas become the cause of acid rain. Radiation began to be utilized for the measurement of the concentration of floating particles and the amount of fallout dust, the forecast of the generation and diffusion of pollutants, the elucidation of the contribution of generation sources in wide areas and so on. In this report, the circumstances that radiation became to be utilized for monitoring atmospheric environment and the present status and the perspective of the radiation utilization in the field of the preservation of atmospheric environment are described. The progress of the method of measuring floating particles in Japan is explained. The automatic measurement of floating particles by β-ray absorption method and the application of β-ray absorption method to the measurement of the amount of fallout dust, generation source particles and the exposure to floating particles of individuals for health control are described. The utilization of radiation for real time monitoring, the investigation of the generation of blown-up dust, atmospheric diffusion experiment and the elucidation of the contribution of generation sources by PIXE radioactivation analysis are reported. (K.I.)

  15. Osprey: worldwide sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental contamination in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Robert A; Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, many fish and wildlife species have been used nationwide to monitor environmental contaminant exposure and effects, including carcasses of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), the only top avian predator regularly used in the past. Unfortunately, bald eagles are sensitive to investigator intrusion at the nest. Thus, the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is evaluated as a potential sentinel species for aquatic ecosystems. Several characteristics support the choice of the osprey as a sentinel species, including: (1) fish-eating diet atop the aquatic food web, (2) long-lived with strong nest fidelity, (3) adapts to human landscapes (potentially the most contaminated), (4) tolerates short-term nest disturbance, (5) nests spatially distributed at regular intervals, (6) highly visible nests easily located for study, (7) ability to accumulate most, if not all, lipophilic contaminants, (8) known sensitivity to many contaminants, and (9) nearly a worldwide distribution. These osprey traits have been instrumental in successfully using the species to understand population distribution, abundance, and changes over time; the effects of various contaminants on reproductive success; how contaminants in prey (fish on biomass basis) contribute to egg concentrations (i.e., biomagnification factors); and spatial residue patterns. Data summarized include nesting population surveys, detailed nesting studies, and chemical analyses of osprey egg, organ, blood, and feather samples for contaminants that bioaccumulate and/or biomagnify in aquatic food webs; and biochemical evaluations of blood and various organs. Studies in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Europe, and elsewhere have shown the osprey to be a useful sentinel species for monitoring selected environmental contaminants, including some emerging contaminants in lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and estuaries.

  16. Demolition and removal of radioactively contaminated concrete soil: Aerosol control and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.; Grace, A.C. III

    1995-12-01

    From 1963 to 1985, two concrete-lined ponds were used to reduce the volume of radioactive liquids from the Institute`s research programs. Following withdrawal of the {open_quotes}hot ponds{close_quotes} from active use, the residual sludges and plastic liners of the ponds were removed and shipped to a radioactive waste disposal site. From 1987 to 1994, the concrete structures remained undisturbed pending environmental restoration on the site. Restoration began in 1994 and was completed in 1995. Restoration involved mechanical breakup and removal of the concrete structures and removal of areas of contaminated soils from the site. This report describes the design and results of the aerosol control and monitoring program that was conducted to ensure protection of workers and the environment during the restoration process. The aerosol control and monitoring strategy developed for remediation of the ITRI hot ponds was successful both in preventing dispersion of radioactive dusts and in demonstrating that exposures of workers and offsite releases were within statutory limits.

  17. HFS-II hands and feet contamination monitor for α, β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiangyang; Han Shuping; Wang Xiaodong; Fan Liya; Zhang Yong; Rao Xianming; Fang Jintu

    1999-11-01

    HFS-II Hands and Feet Contamination Monitor for α, β is a necessary device which monitors the entrance of controlling area of nuclear power plant and nuclear facility, and it consists of nuclear detector, nuclear electronic circuit, computer data processing and controlling divisions, input/output controlling etc. Physical indicators conform to the requirements of relative national standard GB8703-87 and department standard EJ/T586

  18. Modeling of the active vibroseismic monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalevskij, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    The results of the mathematical modeling of vibroseismic monitoring of changes in the elastic characteristics in the interior Earth's crust zone are presented. The model of the 'Earth's crust-mantle' system with point vibrational source on the free surface is considered. The estimates of sensitivity of active monitoring method with harmonic vibrational signals is determined. (author)

  19. Activity monitoring systems in health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kröse, B.; van Oosterhout, T.; van Kasteren, T.; Salah, A.A.; Gevers, T.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on activity monitoring in a home setting for health care purposes. First the most current sensing systems are described, which consist of wearable and ambient sensors. Then several approaches for the monitoring of simple actions are discussed, like falls or therapies. After

  20. PCDDF and pesticides monitoring in a dioxin contaminated area in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalhaes, G.; Azevedo, J.A.; Azevedo, G.; Machado, M.; Brooks, P. [Analytical Solutions, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-09-15

    During the 40's and 50's there had been a hexachlorocyclohexane(HCH) industry in Duque de Caxias, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Duque de Caxias is a very important borough within the state's political and administrative structure. It is located in a strategic point connecting Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. It also holds one of Brazil's greatest petroleum refineries. For 20 years, this factory (which is located next to an orphanage called Cidade dos Meninos, an area belonging to the Ministry of Social Assistance) produced thousands of tons of HCH and also other pesticides, such as DDT, DDD and DDE. In the beginning of the 60's, the industry had its activities stopped1. In 1989, significant amounts of HCH had been found by local inspectors in Duque de Caxias, where it had been being sold for use in agriculture. Once the product's usage had already been prohibited in Brazil, after a investigation authorities found that it would come from the inactive industry. Both environmental and public health institutions decided to use a mixture of lime and soil, in order to destroy the residues and organic compounds found in the old plant. Such procedure would cause a greater problem, for the lime used wouldn't meet the right proportions of the large area and its contaminated soil. In addition, it also affected the water supply and the local population. The consequences have been disastrous. Data referring to breastfeeding and blood revealed alarming pesticide rates that endangered the local people health conditions both in short and long term. After 14 years, monitoring is still necessary in that region so it is possible to control contamination and its damage related to secondary reactions, climatic effects and soil structure. For this reason, a monitoring program has been developed in order to investigate the rates of certain pesticides and PCDD/F in locations near the contamination field.

  1. Integrating Modeling and Monitoring to Provide Long-Term Control of Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogwell, Th.

    2009-01-01

    An introduction is presented of the types of problems that exist for long-term control of radionuclides at DOE sites. A breakdown of the distributions at specific sites is given, together with the associated difficulties. A paradigm for remediation showing the integration of monitoring with modeling is presented. It is based on a feedback system that allows for the monitoring to act as principal sensors in a control system. Currently the establishment of a very prescriptive monitoring program fails to have a mechanism for improving models and improving control of the contaminants. The resulting system can be optimized to improve performance. Optimizing monitoring automatically entails linking the monitoring with modeling. If monitoring designs were required to be more efficient, thus requiring optimization, then the monitoring automatically becomes linked to modeling. Records of decision could be written to accommodate revisions in monitoring as better modeling evolves. The technical pieces of the required paradigm are already available; they just need to be implemented and applied to solve the long-term control of the contaminants. An integration of the various parts of the system is presented. Each part is described, and examples are given. References are given to other projects which bring together similar elements in systems for the control of contaminants. Trends are given for the development of the technical features of a robust system. Examples of monitoring methods for specific sites are given. The examples are used to illustrate how such a system would work. Examples of technology needs are presented. Finally, other examples of integrated modeling-monitoring approaches are presented. (authors)

  2. Bringing together raptor collections in Europe for contaminant research and monitoring in relation to chemicals regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movalli, Paola; Dekker, René; Koschorreck, Jan; Treu, Gabriele

    2017-11-01

    Raptors are good sentinels of environmental contamination and there is good capability for raptor biomonitoring in Europe. Raptor biomonitoring can benefit from natural history museums (NHMs), environmental specimen banks (ESBs) and other collections (e.g. specialist raptor specimen collections). Europe's NHMs, ESBs and other collections hold large numbers of raptor specimens and samples, covering long periods of time. These collections are potentially a valuable resource for contaminant studies over time and space. There are strong needs to monitor contaminants in the environment to support EU and national chemical management. However, data on raptor specimens in NHMs, ESBs and other collections are dispersed, few are digitised, and they are thus not easy to access. Specimen coverage is patchy in terms of species, space and time. Contaminant research with raptors would be facilitated by creating a framework to link relevant collections, digitising all collections, developing a searchable meta-database covering all existing collections, making them more visible and accessible for contaminant research. This would also help identify gaps in coverage and stimulate specimen collection to fill gaps in support of prioritised contaminant monitoring. Collections can further support raptor biomonitoring by making samples available for analysis on request.

  3. Detection of microbial contaminations in drinking water using ATP measurements – evaluating potential for online monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing call for fast and reliable methods for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. The potential for Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements as a real-time analysis for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water...... quality was investigated through simulation of two contamination scenarios, i.e. drinking water contaminated with waste water and surface water at various concentrations. With ATP measurements it was possible to detect waste water diluted 1000-10,000 times in drinking water depending on sensitivity...... of reagent kit. Surface water diluted 100-1000 times was detected in drinking water with ATP measurements. ATP has the potential as an early warning tool, especially in the period when the contamination concentration is high. 2011 © American Water Works Association AWWA WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights...

  4. SoilCAM: soil contamination: advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, H.K.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Meju, M.

    2009-01-01

    The SoilCAM project is aimed at improving current methods for monitoring contaminant distribution and biodegradation in the subsurface. Currently proven methods, based on invasive sampling of soil, soil water and gaseous phase, are unable to provide sufficiently accurate data with high enough

  5. The last generation of contamination and exposure rate meters and monitors designed in Boris Kidric Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koturovic, A.M.; Sobajic, M.V.; Smelcerovic, M.A.; Damljanovic, D.D.; Drndarevic, V.R.

    1989-01-01

    The last generation of contamination and exposure rate meters and monitors designed and produced in Boris Kidric Institute, presented in this paper, are digital survey instruments. The common principle of these instruments is the 'simple precision' concept, i.e. predetermined time pulse counting. This principle is discussed and basic structure of these instruments is shown with their possibilities and features (author)

  6. Mussels and sediment as monitoring tools for contaminants: which to use when?

    Science.gov (United States)

    For decades, sediments and mussels have been used to assess the ecological and human health risks associated with concentrations of bioavailable organic and metal contaminants in a variety of coastal-wide and localized monitoring programs. Mussels (Mytilus edulis) bioaccumulate o...

  7. Comparison of Passive Samplers for Monitoring Dissolved Organic Contaminants in Water Column Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonionic organic contaminants (NOCs) are difficult to measure in the water column due to their inherent chemical properties resulting in low water solubility and high particle activity. Traditional sampling methods require large quantities of water to be extracted and interferen...

  8. Individual monitoring program for internal contamination by inhaled uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, C.; Chapel, M.L.; Saenz Gancedo, R.

    1988-01-01

    The metabolic behaviour of inhaled uranium is studied. Using a particular analytical method applied to the models and dose assessment methods recommended by ICRP, the organ committed equivalent dose and effective equivalent dose are calculated. The exact ALI and DAC are derived from there. In the paper, the influence that various parameters have on those results are considered for the specific case of a particular nuclear element fabrication factory. Different AMAD and solubility type of inhaled material are specially analyzed. The results show the paramount importance of some of these parameters on the secondary and derived dose limits. Relationships between the real intake, as a fraction of ALI, and the lung retention or urine excretion are shown for different cases and intake forms hypothesis. Minimum detectable intakes with the available experimental techniques are then established. The results shown in the papel are a useful tool to help on the decision on the type and frequency of the individual monitoring techniques to be established in different circumstances. (Author)

  9. In Situ Monitoring of Groundwater Contamination Using the Kalman Filter For Sustainable Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F.; Wainwright, H. M.; Faybishenko, B.; Denham, M. E.; Eddy-Dilek, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable remediation - based on less intensive passive remediation and natural attenuation - has become a desirable remediation alternative at contaminated sites. Although it has a number of benefits, such as reduced waste and water/energy usage, it carries a significant burden of proof to verify plume stability and to ensure insignificant increase of risk to public health. Modeling of contaminant transport is still challenging despite recent advances in numerical methods. Long-term monitoring has, therefore, become a critical component in sustainable remediation. However, the current approach, which relies on sparse groundwater sampling, is problematic, since it could miss sudden significant changes in plume behavior. A new method is needed to combine existing knowledge about contaminant behavior and latest advances in in situ groundwater sensors. This study presents an example of the effective use of the Kalman filter approach to estimate contaminant concentrations, based on in situ measured water quality parameters (e.g. electrical conductivity and pH) along with the results of sparse groundwater sampling. The Kalman filter can effectively couple physical models and data correlations between the contaminant concentrations and in situ measured variables. We aim (1) to develop a framework capable of integrating different data types to provide accurate contaminant concentration estimates, (2) to demonstrate that these results remain reliable, even when the groundwater sampling frequency is reduced, and (3) to evaluate the future efficacy of this strategy using reactive transport simulations. This framework can also serve as an early warning system for detecting unexpected plume migration. We demonstrate our approach using historical and current groundwater data from the Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area Seepage Basins to estimate uranium and tritium concentrations. The results show that the developed method can provide reliable estimates of contaminant

  10. Monitoring Human Activity through Portable Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sebestyen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring human activity may be useful for medical supervision and for prophylactic purposes. Mobile devices like intelligent phones or watches have multiple sensors and wireless communication capabilities which can be used for this purpose. This paper presents some integrated solutions for determining and continuous monitoring of a person’s state. Aspects taken into consideration are: activity detection and recognition based on acceleration sensors, wireless communication protocols for data acquisition, web monitoring, alerts generation and statistical processing of multiple sensorial data. As practical implementations two case studies are presented, one using an intelligent phone and another using a mixed signal processor integrated in a watch.

  11. Distinguishing method for contamination/radio-activation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Takuji; Kato, Keiichiro; Koda, Satoshi.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of distinguishing the contamination/radio-activation of radioactive wastes used in processing wastes generated upon dismantling of exhausted nuclear reactors. Especially, contaminated/radio-activation is distinguished for wastes having openings such as pipes and valves, by utilizing scattering of γ-rays or γ-ray to β-ray ratio. That is, ratio of scattered γ-rays and direct γ-rays or ratio of β-rays and γ-rays from radioactive wastes are measured and compared by a radiation detector, to distinguish whether the radioactive wastes contaminated materials or radio-activated materials. For example, when an object to be measured having an opening is contaminated at the inner side, the radiation detector facing to the opening mainly detects high direct γ-rays emitted from the object to be measured while a radiation detector not facing the opening mainly detects high scattered γ-rays relatively. On the other hand, when the object is a radio-activated material, any of the detectors detect scattered γ-rays, so that they can be distinguished by these ratios. (I.S.)

  12. First Results from Contamination Monitoring with the WFC3 UVIS G280 Grism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, B.; Pirzkal, N.; Baggett, S.

    2011-11-01

    The presence of contaminants within the optical light path of the instrument or telescope can alter photometric zeropoints and the observed flux levels of imaging and spectra, particularly at UV wavelengths. Regular monitoring of a spectro-photometric standard star using photometric filters has been used in the past to monitor the presence of contaminants and (when necessary) re-calibrate zeropoints. However, the use of the WFC3 UVIS Grism mode (G280 filter) may provide a more robust early alert detection system for the presence of contaminants, in particular, those that are photo-polymerized from the bright Earth. These contaminants may collect on surfaces in the optical light path of the telescope. The G280 grism is sensitive to light at wavelengths below the cutoff of the bluest UV filter (F218W). In this ISR, we present: 1) the first results from G280 monitoring for the period of 2010-November through 2011-August; 2) the discovery of an anomaly in the WCS header information of sub-array exposures; and 3) an outline for reducing standard G280 grism observations and the specialized case of observations obtained in sub-array mode.

  13. Cholinesterase activities in the scallop Pecten jacobaeus: Characterization and effects of exposure to aquatic contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefano, Bonacci; Ilaria, Corsi; Silvano, Focardi

    2008-01-01

    Nearshore marine environments of industrialized countries are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic pollution. It is therefore a priority task to investigate the sensitivity of new ecotoxicological warning signals of the occurrence and effects of aquatic pollutants. The main aims of the present study were: 1) to characterize the biochemical properties of ChEs in tissues of the bivalve Pecten jacobaeus, using different specific substrates and selective inhibitors; 2) to measure sensitivity of ChE activities to in vitro exposure to the OPs azamethiphos and DFP and to the heavy metals cadmium and zinc. Our final aim was to carry out a preliminary evaluation of the suitability of ChEs measurement in tissues of the scallop for monitoring marine environmental quality and neurotoxic compounds contamination in the Mediterranean Sea. Responses to specific inhibitors have suggested that ChEs in adductor muscle share many characteristics with vertebrate acetylcholinesterase. Dose-dependent inhibition of ChE was observed in response to in vitro exposure to environmental contaminants such as cadmium and azamethiphos. Sensitivity to zinc and DFP was lower. ChEs in P. jacobaeus might therefore have potential as a sensitive biomarker for monitoring marine pollution. Results of the present study will be useful to focus further experiment of exposure to pollutants under in vivo conditions. Capsule: Cholinesterase activities in scallop Pecten jacobaeus were observed to be sensitive to contaminants in vitro and may therefore have potential as biomarkers for monitoring water pollution

  14. Cholinesterase activities in the scallop Pecten jacobaeus: Characterization and effects of exposure to aquatic contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano, Bonacci [Department of Environmental Sciences ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy)], E-mail: bonacci@unisi.it; Ilaria, Corsi [Department of Environmental Sciences ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy)], E-mail: corsii@unisi.it; Silvano, Focardi [Department of Environmental Sciences ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy)], E-mail: focardi@unisi.it

    2008-03-15

    Nearshore marine environments of industrialized countries are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic pollution. It is therefore a priority task to investigate the sensitivity of new ecotoxicological warning signals of the occurrence and effects of aquatic pollutants. The main aims of the present study were: 1) to characterize the biochemical properties of ChEs in tissues of the bivalve Pecten jacobaeus, using different specific substrates and selective inhibitors; 2) to measure sensitivity of ChE activities to in vitro exposure to the OPs azamethiphos and DFP and to the heavy metals cadmium and zinc. Our final aim was to carry out a preliminary evaluation of the suitability of ChEs measurement in tissues of the scallop for monitoring marine environmental quality and neurotoxic compounds contamination in the Mediterranean Sea. Responses to specific inhibitors have suggested that ChEs in adductor muscle share many characteristics with vertebrate acetylcholinesterase. Dose-dependent inhibition of ChE was observed in response to in vitro exposure to environmental contaminants such as cadmium and azamethiphos. Sensitivity to zinc and DFP was lower. ChEs in P. jacobaeus might therefore have potential as a sensitive biomarker for monitoring marine pollution. Results of the present study will be useful to focus further experiment of exposure to pollutants under in vivo conditions. Capsule: Cholinesterase activities in scallop Pecten jacobaeus were observed to be sensitive to contaminants in vitro and may therefore have potential as biomarkers for monitoring water pollution.

  15. Contaminant monitoring programmes using marine organisms: Quality assurance and good laboratory practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This publication provides guidelines for obtaining reliable and relevant data during monitoring programmes in which contaminants are measured in marine organisms. It describes the precautions to be taken in each of the procedural steps from planning and sampling to the publication of data reports. The purpose of this document is to provide general guidance on quality assurance and to outline the approach that could be taken by laboratories to achieve the specific aims(s) for each marine pollution monitoring programme. Since most laboratories are currently focussing on programmes involving marine organisms, this document will be confined to this aspect. Four main aims can be identified for programmes involving the collection and analysis of marine organisms for the three main groups of contaminants (metals, organochlorine compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons), these are: (i) The measurement of contaminant levels in edible marine organisms in relation to public health; (ii) The identification of heavily contaminated areas of the sea (''hot spots'') where levels of contaminants are at least an order of magnitude higher than levels in clean or uncontaminated areas; (iii) The establishment of present levels of contaminants in marine organisms (i.e., a ''baseline''); (iv) The assessment of changes in concentrations of contaminants in organisms over a period of time (trends). The selection of organisms will be dictated by the eating patterns of the population. These can be identified by a survey of the species sold at the market, by obtaining information from colleagues in government departments who deal with such matters or in the absence of such information, by distributing a questionnaire to a representative section of the general public. 9 refs, 4 figs

  16. Air monitoring data reveal previously unknown contamination at radioactive waste disposal area, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraig, D.H.; Conrad, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Air monitoring at Area G, the low-level radioactive waste disposal area at Los Alamos National Laboratory, revealed increased air concentrations of 239 Pu and 241 Am at one location along the north boundary. This air monitoring location is a couple of meters north of a dirt road used to access the easternmost part of Area G. Air concentrations of 238 Pu were essentially unaffected which was puzzling because both 238 Pu and 239 Pu are present in the local, slightly contaminated soils. Air concentrations of these radionuclides increased about a factor of ten in early 1995 and remained at those levels until the first quarter of 1996. During the spring of 1996 air concentrations again increased by a factor of about ten. No other radionuclides were elevated, and no other Area G stations showed elevations of these radionuclides. After several formal meetings did not provide an adequate explanation for the elevations, a gamma-survey was performed and showed a small area of significant contamination just south of the monitor location. We found that in February 1995, a trench for a water line had been dug within a meter or so of the air stations. Then, during early 1996, the dirt road was rerouted such that its new path was directly over the unknown contamination. It appears that the trenching brought contaminated material to the surface and caused the firs rise in air concentrations and then the rerouting of the road over the contamination caused the second rise, during 1996. We also found that during 1976 and 1977 contaminated soils from the clean-up of an old processing facility had been spread over the filled pits in the vicinity of the air monitors. These soils, which were probably the source of the air contamination, were very low in 238 Pu which explains why we saw very little 238 Pu in the increased air concentrations. A layer of gravel and sand was spread over the contaminated area. Although air concentrations of 239 Pu and 241 Am dropped considerably, they have

  17. Estimating an appropriate sampling frequency for monitoring ground water well contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuckfield, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly 1,500 ground water wells at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are sampled quarterly to monitor contamination by radionuclides and other hazardous constituents from nearby waste sites. Some 10,000 water samples were collected in 1993 at a laboratory analysis cost of $10,000,000. No widely accepted statistical method has been developed, to date, for estimating a technically defensible ground water sampling frequency consistent and compliant with federal regulations. Such a method is presented here based on the concept of statistical independence among successively measured contaminant concentrations in time

  18. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  19. Evaluation of sensitivity evaluation of a contamination monitor for use in monitoring of internal exposure of workers in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Bernando Maranhao; Assis, Janima Cruz de; Oliveira, Salomao Marques de; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida

    2014-01-01

    In practice of nuclear medicine, expert personnel routinely handle radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and radiotherapy. The control of intakes of radionuclides by workers can be performed through internal dosimetry techniques, as an integral part of the radiation protection program of the installation. The use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in vivo and in vitro in Brazil is regulated by CNEN-NE Standards and 3:05 CNEN-NN 3.01. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends the establishment of an internal monitoring program on workers, especially those subject to possible exposure to annual effective doses greater than 1 mSv. Note that, currently, in Brazil, are not available qualified laboratories to provide internal monitoring services in all regions in the country, if it were applied by CNEN, the requirement for internal monitoring of workers. This paper presents the development of a simple and low-cost methodology for in vivo monitoring of 131 I in the thyroid. The proposed methodology is the use of portable monitor of surface contamination, equipment available and routinely used in all nuclear medicine services in Brazil. The monitor is calibrated with neck-thyroid simulator developed at the Laboratory of In Vivo Monitoring of IRD/CNEN-RJ. The equipment tested is suitable for application in in vivo occupational monitoring thyroid. This conclusion is based on the fact that the detection system has sufficient sensitivity for monitoring up to seven days after the incorporation of the radionuclide and guarantees 131 I detection in values that result in effective doses below 1 mSv for the exposure scenarios adopted

  20. Technology of remote monitoring for nuclear activity monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwack, Ehn Ho; Kim, Jong Soo; Yoon, Wan Ki; Park, Sung Sik; Na, Won Woo; An, Jin Soo; Cha, Hong Ryul; Kim, Jung Soo

    2000-05-01

    In a view of safeguards monitoring at nuclear facilities, the monitoring is changing to remote method so that this report is described to remote monitoring(RM) applying on commercial NPP in Korea. To enhance IAEA safeguards efficiency and effectiveness, IAEA is taking into account of remote monitoring system(RMS) and testing as a field trial. IRMP(International Remote Monitoring Project) in participating many nations for development of RMS is proceeding their project such as technical exchange and research etc. In case of our country are carrying out the research relevant RM since acceptance RMS at 7th ROK-IAEA safeguards implementation review meeting. With a view to enhancement the RMS, installation location and element technology of the RM equipment are evaluated in a view of safeguards in Korea LWRs, and proposed a procedure for national inspection application through remote data evaluation from Younggwang-3 NPP. These results are large valuable to use of national inspection at time point extending installation to all Korea PWR NPP. In case of CANDU, neutron, gamma measurement and basic concept of network using optical fiber scintillating detector as remote verification method for dry storage canister are described. Also RM basic design of spent fuel transfer campaign is described that unattended RM without inspector instead of performing in participating together with IAEA and national inspector. The transfer campaign means the spent fuel storage pond to dry storage canister for about two months every year. Therefore, positively participation of IAEA strength safeguards project will be increased transparency for our nuclear activity as well as contributed to national relevant industry.

  1. Technology of remote monitoring for nuclear activity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwack, Ehn Ho; Kim, Jong Soo; Yoon, Wan Ki; Park, Sung Sik; Na, Won Woo; An, Jin Soo; Cha, Hong Ryul; Kim, Jung Soo

    2000-05-01

    In a view of safeguards monitoring at nuclear facilities, the monitoring is changing to remote method so that this report is described to remote monitoring(RM) applying on commercial NPP in Korea. To enhance IAEA safeguards efficiency and effectiveness, IAEA is taking into account of remote monitoring system(RMS) and testing as a field trial. IRMP(International Remote Monitoring Project) in participating many nations for development of RMS is proceeding their project such as technical exchange and research etc. In case of our country are carrying out the research relevant RM since acceptance RMS at 7th ROK-IAEA safeguards implementation review meeting. With a view to enhancement the RMS, installation location and element technology of the RM equipment are evaluated in a view of safeguards in Korea LWRs, and proposed a procedure for national inspection application through remote data evaluation from Younggwang-3 NPP. These results are large valuable to use of national inspection at time point extending installation to all Korea PWR NPP. In case of CANDU, neutron, gamma measurement and basic concept of network using optical fiber scintillating detector as remote verification method for dry storage canister are described. Also RM basic design of spent fuel transfer campaign is described that unattended RM without inspector instead of performing in participating together with IAEA and national inspector. The transfer campaign means the spent fuel storage pond to dry storage canister for about two months every year. Therefore, positively participation of IAEA strength safeguards project will be increased transparency for our nuclear activity as well as contributed to national relevant industry

  2. Analyses of integrated aircraft cabin contaminant monitoring network based on Kalman consensus filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Li, Yanxiao; Sun, Hui; Chen, Zengqiang

    2017-11-01

    The modern civil aircrafts use air ventilation pressurized cabins subject to the limited space. In order to monitor multiple contaminants and overcome the hypersensitivity of the single sensor, the paper constructs an output correction integrated sensor configuration using sensors with different measurement theories after comparing to other two different configurations. This proposed configuration works as a node in the contaminant distributed wireless sensor monitoring network. The corresponding measurement error models of integrated sensors are also proposed by using the Kalman consensus filter to estimate states and conduct data fusion in order to regulate the single sensor measurement results. The paper develops the sufficient proof of the Kalman consensus filter stability when considering the system and the observation noises and compares the mean estimation and the mean consensus errors between Kalman consensus filter and local Kalman filter. The numerical example analyses show the effectiveness of the algorithm. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid monitoring of large groups of internally contaminated people following a radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    In the management of an emergency, it is necessary to assess the radiation exposures of people in the affected areas. An essential component in the programme is the monitoring of internal contamination. Existing fixed installations for the assessment of incorporated radionuclides may be of limited value in these circumstances because they may be inconveniently sited, oversensitive for the purpose, or inadequately equipped and staffed to cope with the large numbers referred to them. The IAEA considered it important to produce guidance on rapid monitoring of large groups of internally contaminated people. The purpose of this document is to provide Member States with an overview on techniques that can be applied during abnormal or accidental situations. Refs and figs

  4. Effective radiological contamination control and monitoring techniques in high alpha environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Kevin C

    2003-02-01

    In the decommissioning of a highly contaminated alpha environment, such as the one at Hanford's 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility, one of the key elements of a successful radiological control program is an integrated safety approach. This approach begins with the job-planning phase where the scope of the work is described. This is followed by a brainstorming session involving engineering and craft to identify how to perform the work in a logical sequence of events. Once the brainstorming session is over, a Job Hazard Analysis is performed to identify any potential problems. Mockups are utilized to enable the craft to get hands on experience and provide feedback and ideas to make the job run smoother. Ideas and experience gained during mockups are incorporated into the task instruction. To assure appropriate data are used in planning and executing the job, our principal evaluation tools included lapel and workplace air sampling, plus continuous air monitors and frequent surveys to effectively monitor job progress. In this highly contaminated alpha environment, with contamination levels ranging from 0.3 Bq cm-2 to approximately 100,000 Bq cm-2 (2,000 dpm per 100 cm2 to approximately 600 million dpm per 100 cm2), with average working levels of 1,600-3,200 Bq cm-2 (10-20 million dpm per 100 cm2) without concomitant ambient radiation levels, control of the spread of contamination is key to keeping airborne levels As Low As Reasonably Achievable.

  5. Comparison of surface contamination monitors for in vivo measurement of {sup 131}I in thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, S.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M., E-mail: salomao.marques@ymail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The routine handling of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine represents a significant risk of internal exposure to the staff. The IAEA recommends the implementation of monitoring plans for all workers subject to a risk of exposures above 1 mSv per year. However, in Brazil, such recommendation is practically unfeasible due to the lack of a sufficient number of qualified internal dosimetry services over the country. This work presents an alternative based on a simple and inexpensive methodology aimed to perform in-vivo monitoring of {sup 131}I in thyroid using portable surface contamination probes. All models evaluated showed suitable sensitivity for such application. (author)

  6. Comparison of surface contamination monitors for in vivo measurement of 131I in thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M.

    2015-01-01

    The routine handling of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine represents a significant risk of internal exposure to the staff. The IAEA recommends the implementation of monitoring plans for all workers subject to a risk of exposures above 1 mSv per year. However, in Brazil, such recommendation is practically unfeasible due to the lack of a sufficient number of qualified internal dosimetry services over the country. This work presents an alternative based on a simple and inexpensive methodology aimed to perform in-vivo monitoring of 131 I in thyroid using portable surface contamination probes. All models evaluated showed suitable sensitivity for such application. (author)

  7. The radioecological monitoring of the some water ecosystems of the contaminated districts of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvalej, O.D.; Dackevich, P.I.; Komissarov, F.D.; Basharina, L.P.

    2002-01-01

    The main results of the long-term radioecological monitoring of the some water ecosystems of the contaminated districts of Belarus are presented. The main components of water ecosystem (water, suspensions, bottom sediments, water vegetation) were observed. The migration of Cs 137 and Sr 90 on the water-collection areas were investigated in detail. The tendency of Sr 90 increasing in the components of the surface water systems is observed

  8. Project monitoring package (PMP) : A package for project activity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyas, K.N.; Kannan, A.; Susandhi, R.; Basu, S.

    1987-01-01

    A package for preparing PERT/CPM network diagrams has been written for PDP-11/34. The program uses PLOT-10 library calls for device interfacing. The package is essentially non-interactive in nature, and reads input data in the form of activity description and duration. It calculates the critical path time and performs time scaling of the events. The report gives a brief outline of the logic used, a sample plot and tabular output for reference. An additional facility for performing project activity monitoring has also been implemented. Activity monitoring generally requires various reports such as feed back reports from various group co-ordinators, information report for project co-ordinator and brief periodical reports for management. A package 'DATATRIEVE' (DTR) on PDP-11/34 system is utilized for generating the above mentioned reports. As DTR can also use normal sequential files, an interfacing program has been written which reformats the files accepted by PERT program acceptable to DTR. Various types of reports as generated by DTR are included. However this part of the package is not transportable and can be implemented only on systems having DTR. 6 figures. (author)

  9. Molecular activation analysis for organo-halogen contaminants in yogurt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong; Chai Zhifang

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of total halogen (TX), extractable organo-halogen (EOX), extractable persistent organo-halogen (EPOX), organo-chlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 18 different yogurt specimens of 14 brands from Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shijiazhuang were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA), molecular activation analysis (MAA) and GC-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The results indicated that the halogen in yogurt mainly existed as inorganic species and non-extractable organo-halogen compounds. About 1/3 to 1/4 of EOX was EPOX. Further, EOCl and EPOCl were the main organo-halogen species in yogurt. The average concentration of the unknown organo-chlorine was 96% of the EPOCl. HCHs and DDTs were still the main contaminants of OCPs in the yogurt of interest. Also, PCB202, PCB103 and PCB208 were the main contaminants of PCBs. (authors)

  10. Monitoring of Radionuclide Contamination in Food Samples in Malaysia due to Daiichi Reactor Accident in Fukushima, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurrul Assyikeen Mohd Jaffary; Wo, Y.M.; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2015-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, a serious accident occurred in Daiichi nuclear reactor plant, Fukushima, Japan which caused radioactive materials been released into the atmosphere in the form of aerosols and dust particles. Sea water around the plant was also found contaminated with high radioactivity readings. These radioactive materials could be transported by the winds and ocean current across international borders and cannot be controlled by human. Thus, a continuous monitoring activity of radionuclide content in the air and sea water needs to be conducted by the authorities. In addition to radioactivity monitoring, Malaysia should also control the entry of contaminated food in order to prevent radionuclide ingestion by human. The radionuclide 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs were used as a measure of pollution levels and counted with gamma spectrometry using standard analysis method suggested by AOAC International. In this paper, details description of the role of Radiochemical and Environment Group, Nuclear Malaysia who is responsible in analyzing the radioactivity in the food samples due to Fukushima Daiichi, Japan accident was included. The radioactivity limit adopted and analysis results from this monitoring were discussed. (author)

  11. Activated carbon immobilizes residual polychlorinated biphenyls in weathered contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Valérie S; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2011-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) has recently been shown to be effective in sequestering persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from aquatic sediments. Most studies have demonstrated significant reductions of POP concentrations in water and in aquatic organisms; however, limited data exist on the possibility of using AC to immobilize remaining POPs at terrestrial contaminated sites. Under greenhouse conditions, pumpkin ssp cv. Howden) were grown, and red wiggler worms () were exposed to an industrial contaminated soil containing a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), i.e., Aroclors 1254 and 1260) treated with one of four concentrations of AC (0.2, 0.8, 3.1, and 12.5%) for 2 mo. The addition of AC to contaminated soils virtually eliminated the bioavailability of PCBs to the plant and invertebrate species. There were reductions in PCB concentrations of more than 67% in ssp and 95% in . These data suggest that AC could be included as part of comprehensive site closure strategy at PCB-contaminated sites. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Monitoring of organic contaminants in sediments using low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Rupert, Yuri

    2016-04-01

    The effective monitoring of soils and groundwater contaminated with organic compounds is an important goal of many environmental restoration efforts. Recent geophysical methods such as electrical resistivity, complex conductivity, and ground penetrating radar have been successfully applied to characterize organic contaminants in the subsurface and to monitor remediation process both in laboratory and in field. Low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a geophysical tool sensitive to the molecular-scale physical and chemical environment of hydrogen-bearing fluids in geological materials and shows promise as a novel method for monitoring contaminant remediation. This laboratory research focuses on measurements on synthetic samples to determine the sensitivity of NMR to the presence of organic contaminants and improve understanding of relationships between NMR observables, hydrological properties of the sediments, and amount and state of contaminants in porous media. Toluene, a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) has been selected as a representative organic contaminant. Three types of porous media (pure silica sands, montmorillonite clay, and various sand-clay mixtures with different sand/clay ratios) were prepared as synthetic sediments. NMR relaxation time (T2) and diffusion-relaxation (D - T2) correlation measurements were performed in each sediment saturated with water and toluene mixed fluid at assorted concentrations (0% toluene and 100% water, 1% toluene and 99% water, 5% toluene and 95% water, 25% toluene and 75% water, and 100% toluene and 0% water) to 1) understand the effect of different porous media on the NMR responses in each fluid mixture, 2) investigate the role of clay content on T2 relaxation of each fluid, 3) quantify the amount hydrocarbons in the presence of water in each sediment, and 4) resolve hydrocarbons from water in D - T2 map. Relationships between the compositions of porous media, hydrocarbon concentration, and hydraulic

  13. 3D monitoring of active tectonic structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stemberk, Josef; Košťák, Blahoslav; Vilímek, V.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 36, 1-2 (2003), s. 103-112 ISSN 0264-3707 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 625.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : tectonics * monitoring * active structures Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.754, year: 2003

  14. Monitoring of Environmental Contamination and Addressing Health Risks Through the Analysis of Teeth by Means of Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.C.C.; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Deppman, A.; Likhachev, V.P.; Medero, D.R.; Luzardo, F.M.; Cazorla, L.L.; Dias, J.F.; Yoneama, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Radionuclides (mostly uranium and thorium) and heavy metals (lead and cadmium) are environmental contaminants produced by agricultural and industrial activities, or are simply the result of soil and water pollution by non regular human activities (e.g. disposal of garbage in rivers and water ponds). Humans incorporate these contaminants via the food chain, where bones are the most important target-organ. The incidence of health risk and hazards would depend, obviously, on the time length and intensity of such incorporation. However, while in vivo monitoring of human bones is difficult, the analysis of teeth is a promising possibility, particularly for the quantification of lead and cadmium in deciduous tooth (milk tooth), and uranium in adult tooth. This study will be focused, initially, on the Guarapiranga dam and on the human settlements located in its surroundings. Their teeth will be collected and classified by age and social-economical status, with the collaboration of the Dentistry School from UNISA, which is developing several social tasks in the Guarapiranga region. Water, plants and fishes will be collected and analyzed too, aiming at biokinetic al study of contaminants, particularly the transfer dynamics among the species of the dam. (Author)

  15. Gulf of Mexico offshore operations monitoring experiment (GOOMEX), phase I : sublethal responses to contaminant exposure - introduction and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennicutt, M.C.; Green, R.H.; Montagna, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Offshore Operations Monitoring Experiment (GOOMEX) is a three-phase study to test and evaluate a range of biological, biochemical, and chemical methodologies to detect and assess chronic sublethal biological impacts in the vicinity of long-duration activities associated with oil and gas exploration and production. A chronic impact is defined as an effect on the biota caused by exposure to the long-term accumulation of chemicals in the environment. The basic program, comprising four field activities over a 2-yr period, was designed to detect nearfield impacts and contaminant gradients extending out from each site. Five test sites were evaluated and three selected as most appropriate for long-term study: MU-A85, MAI-686, and HI-A389. The sampling design included a radial pattern with stations at 30-50, 100, 200, 500, and 3000 m distance and employed a dose-response model to test the hypotheses that biological, chemical, and biochemical variations are due to platform-derived contaminants. Study components included contaminant (trace metals and hydrocarbons) analysis in sediments, pore waters, and biological tissues; assemblage analysis of benthic meiofauna, infauna, and epifauna, assessment of community health based on life history and reproduction studies; and the induction of detoxification responses. (author). 57 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs

  16. Remediating radium contaminated legacy sites: Advances made through machine learning in routine monitoring of “hot” particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Adam, E-mail: a.l.varley@stir.ac.uk [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Tyler, Andrew, E-mail: a.n.tyler@stir.ac.uk [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Smith, Leslie, E-mail: l.s.smith@cs.stir.ac.uk [Department of Computing Science and Mathematics, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Dale, Paul, E-mail: paul.dale@sepa.org.uk [Scottish Environmental Protection Agency, Radioactive Substances, Strathallan House, Castle Business Park, Stirling FK9 4TZ (United Kingdom); Davies, Mike, E-mail: Mike.Davies@nuvia.co.uk [Nuvia Limited, The Library, Eight Street, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RL (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    The extensive use of radium during the 20th century for industrial, military and pharmaceutical purposes has led to a large number of contaminated legacy sites across Europe and North America. Sites that pose a high risk to the general public can present expensive and long-term remediation projects. Often the most pragmatic remediation approach is through routine monitoring operating gamma-ray detectors to identify, in real-time, the signal from the most hazardous heterogeneous contamination (hot particles); thus facilitating their removal and safe disposal. However, current detection systems do not fully utilise all spectral information resulting in low detection rates and ultimately an increased risk to the human health. The aim of this study was to establish an optimised detector-algorithm combination. To achieve this, field data was collected using two handheld detectors (sodium iodide and lanthanum bromide) and a number of Monte Carlo simulated hot particles were randomly injected into the field data. This allowed for the detection rate of conventional deterministic (gross counts) and machine learning (neural networks and support vector machines) algorithms to be assessed. The results demonstrated that a Neural Network operated on a sodium iodide detector provided the best detection capability. Compared to deterministic approaches, this optimised detection system could detect a hot particle on average 10 cm deeper into the soil column or with half of the activity at the same depth. It was also found that noise presented by internal contamination restricted lanthanum bromide for this application. - Highlights: • Land contaminated with radium is hazardous to human health. • Routine monitoring permits identification and removal of radioactive hot particles. • Current alarm algorithms do not provide reliable hot particle detection. • Spectral processing using Machine Learning significantly improves detection.

  17. Remediating radium contaminated legacy sites: Advances made through machine learning in routine monitoring of “hot” particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, Adam; Tyler, Andrew; Smith, Leslie; Dale, Paul; Davies, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The extensive use of radium during the 20th century for industrial, military and pharmaceutical purposes has led to a large number of contaminated legacy sites across Europe and North America. Sites that pose a high risk to the general public can present expensive and long-term remediation projects. Often the most pragmatic remediation approach is through routine monitoring operating gamma-ray detectors to identify, in real-time, the signal from the most hazardous heterogeneous contamination (hot particles); thus facilitating their removal and safe disposal. However, current detection systems do not fully utilise all spectral information resulting in low detection rates and ultimately an increased risk to the human health. The aim of this study was to establish an optimised detector-algorithm combination. To achieve this, field data was collected using two handheld detectors (sodium iodide and lanthanum bromide) and a number of Monte Carlo simulated hot particles were randomly injected into the field data. This allowed for the detection rate of conventional deterministic (gross counts) and machine learning (neural networks and support vector machines) algorithms to be assessed. The results demonstrated that a Neural Network operated on a sodium iodide detector provided the best detection capability. Compared to deterministic approaches, this optimised detection system could detect a hot particle on average 10 cm deeper into the soil column or with half of the activity at the same depth. It was also found that noise presented by internal contamination restricted lanthanum bromide for this application. - Highlights: • Land contaminated with radium is hazardous to human health. • Routine monitoring permits identification and removal of radioactive hot particles. • Current alarm algorithms do not provide reliable hot particle detection. • Spectral processing using Machine Learning significantly improves detection

  18. Monitoring for contaminants of emerging concern in drinking water using POCIS passive samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Chris; Hoque, M Ehsanul; Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Helm, Paul; Kleywegt, Sonya

    2014-03-01

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) have been detected in drinking water world-wide. The source of most of these compounds is generally attributed to contamination from municipal wastewater. Traditional water sampling methods (grab or composite) often require the concentration of large amounts of water in order to detect trace levels of these contaminants. The Polar Organic Compounds Integrative Sampler (POCIS) is a passive sampling technology that has been developed to concentrate trace levels of CEC to provide time-weighted average concentrations for individual compounds in water. However, few studies to date have evaluated whether POCIS is suitable for monitoring contaminants in drinking water. In this study, the POCIS was evaluated as a monitoring tool for CEC in drinking water over a period of 2 and 4 weeks with comparisons to typical grab samples. Seven "indicator compounds" which included carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, estrone and sucralose, were monitored in five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in Ontario. All indicator compounds were detected in raw water samples from the POCIS in comparison to six from grab samples. Similarly, four compounds were detected in grab samples of treated drinking water, whereas six were detected in the POCIS. Sucralose was the only compound that was detected consistently at all five plants. The POCIS technique provided integrative exposures of CECs in drinking water at lower detection limits, while episodic events were captured via traditional sampling methods. There was evidence that the accumulation of target compounds by POCIS is a dynamic process, with adsorption and desorption on the sorbent occurring in response to ambient levels of the target compounds in water. CECs in treated drinking water were present at low ng L(-1) concentrations, which are not considered to be a threat to human health.

  19. Monitoring Malware Activity on the LAN Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzewski, Mirosław

    Many security related organizations periodically publish current network and systems security information, with the lists of top malware programs. These lists raises the question how these threats spreads out, if the worms (the only threat with own communication abilities) are low or missing on these lists. The paper discuss the research on malware network activity, aimed to deliver the answer to the question, what is the main infection channel of modern malware, done with the usage of virtual honeypot systems on dedicated, unprotected network. Systems setup, network and systems monitoring solutions, results of over three months of network traffic and malware monitoring are presented, along with the proposed answer to our research question.

  20. Reporters to monitor cellular MMP12 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos-Correa, Amanda; Mall, Marcus A.; Schultz, Carsten

    2010-02-01

    Macrophage elastase, also called MMP12, belongs to a family of proteolytic enzymes whose best known physiological function is the remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Under certain pathological conditions, including inflammation, chronic overexpression of MMP12 has been observed and its elevated proteolytic activity has been suggested to be the cause of pulmonary emphysema. However, it was until recently impossible to monitor the activity of MMP12 under disease conditions, mainly due to a lack of detection methods. Recent development of new reporters for monitoring MMP12 activity in living cells, such as LaRee1, provided novel insights into the pathobiology of MMP12 in pulmonary inflammation.1 In the future, these reporters might contribute to improved diagnosis and in finding better treatments for chronic inflammatory lung diseases and emphysema. Our approach for visualizing MMP12 activity is based on peptidic, membrane-targeted FRET (Foerster Resonance Energy Transfer) reporters. Here we describe a set of new reporters containing different fluorophore pairs as well as modifications in the membrane-targeting lipid moiety. We studied the influence of these modifications on reporter performance and the reporter mobility on live cell membranes by FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching). Finally, we generated several new fluorescently labeled MMP inhibitors based on the peptidic reporter structures as prototypes for future tools to inhibit and monitor MMP activity at the same time.

  1. Water data to answer urgent water policy questions: Monitoring design, available data, and filling data gaps for determining whether shale gas development activities contaminate surface water or groundwater in the Susquehanna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betanzo, Elin A.; Hagen, Erik R.; Wilson, John T.; Reckhow, Kenneth H.; Hayes, Laura; Argue, Denise M.; Cangelosi, Allegra A.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout its history, the United States has made major investments in assessing natural resources, such as soils, timber, oil and gas, and water. These investments allow policy makers, the private sector and the American public to make informed decisions about cultivating, harvesting or conserving these resources to maximize their value for public welfare, environmental conservation and the economy. As policy issues evolve, new priorities and challenges arise for natural resource assessment, and new approaches to monitoring are needed. For example, new technologies for oil and gas development or alternative energy sources may present new risks for water resources both above and below ground. There is a need to evaluate whether today’s water monitoring programs are generating the information needed to answer questions surrounding these new policy priorities. The Northeast-Midwest Institute (NEMWI), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, initiated this project to explore the types and amounts of water data needed to address water-quality related policy questions of critical concern to today’s policy makers and whether those data are currently available. The collaborating entities identified two urgent water policy questions and conducted case studies in the Northeast-Midwest region to determine the water data needed, water data available, and the best ways to fill the data gaps relative to those questions. This report details the output from one case study and focuses on the Susquehanna River Basin, a data-rich area expected to be a best-case scenario in terms of water data availability.

  2. Sensitivity of radiation monitoring systems in Manila Ports in detecting contamination in foodstuff shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romallosa, Kristine Marie D.; Caseria, Estrella S.; Piquero, Ronald E.; Agustin, Jan Aldrich A.

    2011-01-01

    During the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan, one of the Philippines' measures to protect the public from radiological hazards of the accident is by monitoring agricultural and food imports for radioactive contamination. In this study, the sensitivity of the mobile Radiation Monitoring System (RM) in Manila Ports in detecting contamination in incoming foodstuff shipments was determined. Large volume synthetic 137 Cs reference sources were used to determine the minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of the RMS. The reference sources have radioactivity concentrations that are comparable to the PNRI guidance level of 1000 Bg/kg for 137 Cs that is destined for general consumption. Results of the MDC measurements show that the RMS units are sensitive enough to detect radioactivity levels that are within the guidance levels provided that a) the minimum package lot is approximately 200 kg, b) the package is positioned at the detector side, and c) the alarm setting of RMS is as calibrated. It was therefore established that the RMS can be used to initially screen incoming foodstuff shipments of possible contamination and thereby help minimize potential radiation exposures to the public. (author)

  3. Long Term Remote Monitoring of TCE Contaminated Groundwater at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, C.; Gudavalli, R.; Lagos, L.; Tansel, B.; Varona, J.; Allen, M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a mobile self powered remote monitoring system enhanced for field deployment at Savannah River Site (SRS). The system used a localized power source with solar recharging and has wireless data collection, analysis, transmission, and data management capabilities. The prototype was equipped with a Hydrolab's DataSonde 4a multi-sensor array package managed by a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, with an adequate pumping capacity of water samples for sampling and analysis of Trichloroethylene (TCE) in contaminated groundwater wells at SRS. This paper focuses on a study and technology development efforts conducted at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) to automate the sampling of contaminated wells with a multi-sensor array package developed using COTS (Commercial Off The shelf) parts. Bladder pumps will pump water from different wells to the sensors array, water quality TCE indicator parameters are measured (i.e. pH, redox, ORP, DO, NO3 -, Cl-). In order to increase user access and data management, the system was designed to be accessible over the Internet. Remote users can take sample readings and collect data remotely over a web. Results obtained at Florida International University in-house testing and at a field deployment at the Savannah River Site indicate that this long term monitoring technique can be a feasible solution for the sampling of TCE indicator parameters at remote contaminated sites

  4. Monitoring pesticides residues and contaminants for some leafy vegetables at the market level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, A. B. H.

    2004-03-01

    Pesticide residues and contaminants in selected leafy vegetables, namely (lettuce, garden rocket and salad onion) were monitored at market level in Riyadh City in Saudi Arabia, during the period june to july 2001. Fifteen samples of vegetables from the City vegetable market of Riyadh were collected and subjected to multi-pesticide residue detection and analysis by gas chromatography with mass spectrometer and electron capture detectors (GC/MS,ECD). Results of sample extracts analysis showed that the two vegetables of: garden rocket and salad onion contain pesticide residues and contaminants which have no Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) prescribed by Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) collaborate with World Health and Food and Agriculture Organizations (WHO/FAO). Whereas lettuce vegetable was found free of any identified pesticide residues or contaminants. Garden rocket was shown to contain dibutyl phthalate (0.04 ppm)-steryl chloride (0.02 ppm) tridecane (0.06 ppm)-hexadecane (0.07 ppm)-BIS (ethylhexyl) phthalate (0.006 ppm) and pyridinium, 1-hexyl chloride (0.01 ppm). The salad onion was found to contain 9-octadecanamide (0.13 ppm)-tridecane (0.15 ppm) and tetradecane (0.16 ppm). There are no established MRL s for these pesticides and contaminants detected in garden rocket and salad onion, although when impacts on human health were reviewed some of them were found probably hazardous. (Author)

  5. Activities of the senspol and NICOLE network concerning field investigation at contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ree, C.C.D.F. von [GeoDelft, AB Delft (Netherlands); Alcock, S. [Cranfield Univ. of Silsoe, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    At a European level several networks can be identified aimed at developments and exchange of knowledge relevant to sustainable management of the subsurface. Based on the common interests in the field of site characterisation and monitoring the SENSPOL and NICOLE networks have established links resulting in cooperation in several project-activities. In this presentation two projects will be addressed: - Seville technicalmeeting (Aznacollar mining site). - Bridging gaps between sensor developers and (end) users in a pragmatic approach (GAPS-project). The goal of the Seville technical meeting was to apply the latest sensing technologies at a site contaminated by metal mining activities, to properly evaluate the advances and limitations in the monitoring of contaminated sites for sustainable land management and to determine further steps to commercial exploitation. Some 17 different instruments have been brought including: - Electrochemical sensors using different forms of anodic stripping voltammetry and constant current chronopotentiometry combined with several types of screen printed electrodes. - An amperometric biosensor using screen printed electrodes, which measures toxicity by inhibition effects on urease and its sensitive to Hg(II), Ag(I), Cu(I) and to a lesser extent to Pb(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) and a selectrochemical DNA biosensor measuring overall toxicity. - A luminescent bacterial sensors for measuring the bioavailable fraction of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, As, and Hg, and a bioluminescent fiber optic sensor for Hg and As. - Toxicity testing instruments (Checklight 'ToxScreen Multi-Shot Test, ToxAlert {sup registered} 100 and ToxAlert {sup registered} 10) - A fieldprobe for pH, EC, TDS measurement - A lead automatic analyser AQUAMET using a ion-selective electrode. - Pulse-neutron borehole device in which interaction of neutrons with the surrounding medium can be used to monitor changes. In a two-day field session on the mining site participants were provided

  6. Methodology for contaminated sites of military activity territories restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrushchov, D. P.; Yushchenko, Yu. V.; Shekhunova, S. B.

    2002-01-01

    Major part of Eastern Europe countries meet environmental problems related to sites of military activity. Major part of these sites is characterised with degradation of natural landscapes and contamination of geological environment with toxic and hazardous waste representing actual and potential danger for population and environment. Actual danger is caused with localisation of toxic waste, hazardous materials and waste which are preventing normal land use. Potential danger is related to successive dispersion of contamination in biosphere as well as origin of new derivatives and products having toxic and hazardous properties. The list of such sites and objects comprises bases of land, air and naval forces. These objects include a network of infrastructures: storages of fuels and lubricants (surface, underground), filling stations, pipe lines, reparation stations, garages, decontamination stations, underground storages of different purposes, depots (for ammunition, chemical products), hospitals, constructions, firing grounds (tank, artillery, aircraft bombing etc.) and waste disposal sites. Special programs aimed at military industries and bases contaminated sites remediation have been carrying out in developed countries (USA, United Kingdom, Germany etc.). This experience was used in the frames of joint programs having been founded in several countries of Central and Eastern Europe (Chesh Republic, Slovakia, Lithuania etc.). (author)

  7. Clinical implications from monitoring fetal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1982-12-15

    The monitoring of fetal motion in high-risk pregnancies has been shown to be worthwhile in predicting fetal distress and impending fetal death. The maternal recording of perceived fetal activity is an inexpensive surveillance technique which is most useful when there is chronic uteroplacental insufficiency or when a stillbirth may be expected. The presence of an active, vigorous fetus is reassuring, but documented fetal inactivity required a reassessment of the underlying antepartum complication and further fetal evaluation with real-time ultrasonography, fetal heart rate testing, and biochemical testing. Fetal distress from such acute changes as abruptio placentae or umbilical cord compression may not be predicted by monitoring fetal motion. Although not used for routine clinical investigation, electromechanical devices such as tocodynamometry have provided much insight into fetal behavioral patterns at many stages of pregnancy and in pregnancies with an antepartum complication.

  8. Design, construction and monitoring of temporary storage facilities for removed contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Funaki, Hironori; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Tokizawa, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    Since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident caused by the Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake on March 11, 2011, decontamination work has been conducted in the surrounding environment within the Fukushima prefecture. Removed contaminants including soil, grass and trees are to be stored safely at temporary storage facilities for up to three years, after which they will be transferred to a planned interim storage facility. The decontamination pilot project was carried out in both the restricted and planned evacuation areas in order to assess decontamination methods and demonstrate measures for radiation protection of workers. Fourteen temporary storage facilities of different technical specifications were designed and constructed under various topographic conditions and land use. In order to support the design, construction and monitoring of temporary storage facilities for removed contaminants during the full-scale decontamination within the prefecture of Fukushima, technical know-how obtained during the decontamination pilot project has been identified and summarized in this paper. (author)

  9. Monitoring of Radionuclide Contamination in Food Samples in Malaysia due to Daiichi Reactor Accident in Fukushima, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurrul Assyikeen Mohd Jaffary; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Wo, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, a serious accident occurred in Daiichi nuclear reactor plant, Fukushima, Japan which caused radioactive materials been released into the atmosphere in the form of aerosols and dust particles. Sea water around the plant was also found contaminated with high radioactivity readings. These radioactive materials could be transported by the winds and ocean current across international borders and cannot be controlled by human. Besides a continuous monitoring activity of radionuclide content in the air and sea water that need to be conducted by the authorities, Malaysia should also control the entry of radionuclide through contaminated food ingestion by human. Radionuclide I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 were used as a counter-measure of pollution levels and counted with gamma spectrometry using standard analysis method suggested by AOAC International. In this paper, details description of the role of Radiochemical and Environment Group, Nuclear Malaysia who's responsible in analyzing the radioactivity in the food samples due to Fukushima Daiichi, Japan accident was included. Also discussed are the radioactivity limit adopted and analysis results from this monitoring. (author)

  10. Evaluation of targeted and untargeted effects-based monitoring tools to assess impacts of contaminants of emerging concern on fish in the South Platte River, CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Drew R; Keteles, Kristen; Beihoffer, Jon; Cavallin, Jenna E; Dahlin, Kenneth; Davis, John M; Jastrow, Aaron; Lazorchak, James M; Mills, Marc A; Murphy, Mark; Nguyen, David; Vajda, Alan M; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Winkelman, Dana L; Collette, Timothy W

    2018-08-01

    Rivers in the arid Western United States face increasing influences from anthropogenic contaminants due to population growth, urbanization, and drought. To better understand and more effectively track the impacts of these contaminants, biologically-based monitoring tools are increasingly being used to complement routine chemical monitoring. This study was initiated to assess the ability of both targeted and untargeted biologically-based monitoring tools to discriminate impacts of two adjacent wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on Colorado's South Platte River. A cell-based estrogen assay (in vitro, targeted) determined that water samples collected downstream of the larger of the two WWTPs displayed considerable estrogenic activity in its two separate effluent streams. Hepatic vitellogenin mRNA expression (in vivo, targeted) and NMR-based metabolomic analyses (in vivo, untargeted) from caged male fathead minnows also suggested estrogenic activity downstream of the larger WWTP, but detected significant differences in responses from its two effluent streams. The metabolomic results suggested that these differences were associated with oxidative stress levels. Finally, partial least squares regression was used to explore linkages between the metabolomics responses and the chemical contaminants that were detected at the sites. This analysis, along with univariate statistical approaches, identified significant covariance between the biological endpoints and estrone concentrations, suggesting the importance of this contaminant and recommending increased focus on its presence in the environment. These results underscore the benefits of a combined targeted and untargeted biologically-based monitoring strategy when used alongside contaminant monitoring to more effectively assess ecological impacts of exposures to complex mixtures in surface waters. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Exposure assessment of process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Dussort, P; Günther, Helmut; Hanlon, Paul; Honda, Hiroshi; Mally, Angela; O'Hagan, Sue; Scholz, Gabriele; Seidel, Albrecht; Swenberg, James; Teeguarden, Justin; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2018-01-01

    Exposure assessment is a fundamental part of the risk assessment paradigm, but can often present a number of challenges and uncertainties. This is especially the case for process contaminants formed during the processing, e.g. heating of food, since they are in part highly reactive and/or volatile, thus making exposure assessment by analysing contents in food unreliable. New approaches are therefore required to accurately assess consumer exposure and thus better inform the risk assessment. Such novel approaches may include the use of biomarkers, physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling-facilitated reverse dosimetry, and/or duplicate diet studies. This review focuses on the state of the art with respect to the use of biomarkers of exposure for the process contaminants acrylamide, 3-MCPD esters, glycidyl esters, furan and acrolein. From the overview presented, it becomes clear that the field of assessing human exposure to process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring is promising and strongly developing. The current state of the art as well as the existing data gaps and challenges for the future were defined. They include (1) using PBK modelling and duplicate diet studies to establish, preferably in humans, correlations between external exposure and biomarkers; (2) elucidation of the possible endogenous formation of the process-related contaminants and the resulting biomarker levels; (3) the influence of inter-individual variations and how to include that in the biomarker-based exposure predictions; (4) the correction for confounding factors; (5) the value of the different biomarkers in relation to exposure scenario's and risk assessment, and (6) the possibilities of novel methodologies. In spite of these challenges it can be concluded that biomarker-based exposure assessment provides a unique opportunity to more accurately assess consumer exposure to process-related contaminants in food and thus to better inform risk assessment.

  12. 1,4-Dioxane drinking water occurrence data from the third unregulated contaminant monitoring rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, David T; Piña, Elizabeth A; Cartwright, Abigail E; Rauch, Sharon R; Hunter Anderson, R; Mohr, Thomas; Connor, John A

    2017-10-15

    This study examined data collected from U.S. public drinking water supplies in support of the recently-completed third round of the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR3) to better understand the nature and occurrence of 1,4-dioxane and the basis for establishing drinking water standards. The purpose was to evaluate whether the occurrence data for this emerging but federally-unregulated contaminant fit with common conceptual models, including its persistence and the importance of groundwater contamination for potential exposure. 1,4-Dioxane was detected in samples from 21% of 4864 PWSs, and was in exceedance of the health-based reference concentration (0.35μg/L) at 6.9% of these systems. In both measures, it ranked second among the 28 UCMR3 contaminants. Although much of the focus on 1,4-dioxane has been its role as a groundwater contaminant, the detection frequency for 1,4-dioxane in surface water was only marginally lower than in groundwater (by a factor of 1.25; pwater (pwater sources tend to be more dilute. Sampling from large systems increased the likelihood that 1,4-dioxane was detected by a factor of 2.18 times relative to small systems (pwater were highly associated with detections of other chlorinated compounds particularly 1,1-dichlorethane (odds ratio=47; pchlorinated solvent stabilizer. Based on aggregated nationwide data, 1,4-dioxane showed evidence of a decreasing trend in concentration and detection frequency over time. These data suggest that the loading to drinking water supplies may be decreasing. However, in the interim, some water supply systems may need to consider improving their treatment capabilities in response to further regulatory review of this compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Borehole Calibration Facilities to Support Gamma Logging for Hanford Subsurface Investigation and Contaminant Monitoring - 13516

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCain, R.G.; Henwood, P.D.; Pope, A.D.; Pearson, A.W.

    2013-01-01

    Repeated gamma logging in cased holes represents a cost-effective means to monitor gamma-emitting contamination in the deep vadose zone over time. Careful calibration and standardization of gamma log results are required to track changes and to compare results over time from different detectors and logging systems. This paper provides a summary description of Hanford facilities currently available for calibration of logging equipment. Ideally, all logging organizations conducting borehole gamma measurements at the Hanford Site will take advantage of these facilities to produce standardized and comparable results. (authors)

  14. Borehole Calibration Facilities to Support Gamma Logging for Hanford Subsurface Investigation and Contaminant Monitoring - 13516

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCain, R.G.; Henwood, P.D.; Pope, A.D.; Pearson, A.W. [S M Stoller Corporation, 2439 Robertson Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Repeated gamma logging in cased holes represents a cost-effective means to monitor gamma-emitting contamination in the deep vadose zone over time. Careful calibration and standardization of gamma log results are required to track changes and to compare results over time from different detectors and logging systems. This paper provides a summary description of Hanford facilities currently available for calibration of logging equipment. Ideally, all logging organizations conducting borehole gamma measurements at the Hanford Site will take advantage of these facilities to produce standardized and comparable results. (authors)

  15. Detection and Monitoring of E-Waste Contamination through Remote Sensing and Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garb, Yaakov; Friedlander, Lonia

    2015-04-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of today's fastest growing waste streams, and also one of the more problematic, as this end-of-life product contains precious metals mixed with and embedded in a variety of low value and potentially harmful plastic and other materials. This combination creates a powerful incentive for informal value chains that transport, extract from, and dispose of e-waste materials in far-ranging and unregulated ways, and especially in settings where regulation and livelihood alternatives are sparse, most notably in areas of India, China, and Africa. E-waste processing is known to release a variety of contaminants, such as heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants, including flame retardants, dioxins and furans. In several sites, where the livelihoods of entire communities are dependent on e-waste processing, the resulting contaminants have been demonstrated to enter the hydrological system and food chain and have serious health and ecological effects. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time the usefulness of multi-spectral remote sensing imagery to detect and monitor the release and possibly the dispersal of heavy metal contaminants released in e-waste processing. While similar techniques have been used for prospecting or for studying heavy metal contamination from mining and large industrial facilities, we suggest that these techniques are of particular value in detecting contamination from the more dispersed, shifting, and ad-hoc kinds of release typical of e-waste processing. Given the increased resolution and decreased price of multi-spectral imagery, such techniques may offer a remarkably cost-effective and rapidly responsive means of assessing and monitoring this kind of contamination. We will describe the geochemical and multi-spectral image-processing principles underlying our approach, and show how we have applied these to an area in which we have a detailed, multi-temporal, spatially referenced, and ground

  16. Monitoring of Plutonium Contaminated Solid Waste Streams. A technical guide to design and analysis of monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.

    1985-06-01

    The basic information on the Pu content in Pu Contaminated Materials (PCM) is the measurement of radiation emitted by Pu isotopes either spontaneously or due to irradiation by external neutron or gamma-sources. Requirements on measurement accuracy and detection limits should be defined by the operator of a Pu-handling facility in accordance with monitoring objectives in the very beginning of the planning of a monitoring system. Monitoring objectives reflect nuclear safety and radiological protection regulations and the needs for Pu-accountancy of nuclear materials management and safeguards. On considering the possibilities and limitations of radiometric techniques a solution of the monitoring problem is based on appropriate segregation and packaging procedures and records upon matrix and isotopic composition of PCM-items to be measured. The general interrelations between waste item characteristics and measurement uncertainty and detection limit are outlined in the first chapter which is addressed to the system planner. Chapter 2 is devoted to the attention of instrument developers and analysts. It presents in a general approach the correlations between the observed radiation leakage rate, respectively detection signal, and the generating source, e.g. Pu-isotopic content of the examined PCM item. Some practical measurement methods are reviewed and their limitations are indicated. The possible radiometric techniques based on detection of gamma rays from alpha decay (and 241 Am), neutrons from spontaneous fission and (α,n)-reaction and from induced fission reactions by neutron irradiation of Pu isotopes are presented. The measurement uncertainty of a single PCM item measurement is estimated on the basis of the uncertainty of the spatial distributions of source (Pu) and matrix materials. For the estimation of the cumulative error over a large collection of PCM items from a defined PCM-stream a probabilistic approach is suggested

  17. Aflatoxin B1 contamination in feed from Puglia and Basilicata regions (Italy): 5 years monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, V; Clausi, M T; Franchino, C; De Pace, R

    2016-11-01

    During a 5-year period from 2010 to 2014, n = 919 samples of feed and raw materials were analyzed for aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) contamination using accredited ELISA screening methods. Only 0.76 % of these samples were non-compliant with maximum levels set by the European Union Regulation 32/2002. Non-compliant samples were mainly from the province of Bari (n = 3 samples, mean AFB 1 value 7.03 μg/kg), although the highest AFB 1 levels were found in two samples from the provinces of Foggia and Brindisi, at 32.6 ± 3.6 μg/kg and 31.0 ± 4.0 μg/kg, respectively. Mean AFB 1 levels in samples contaminated but compliant with the limits ranged from 1.4 to 2.2 μg/kg. Considering the great importance of climate conditions in mycotoxins production, during crops production and during the critical phases of materials storage and/or transport, to better understand the variability in contamination levels, the analytical results were reviewed in term of temperature and relative environmental humidity in the sampling areas. Correlations between aflatoxin B 1 levels in feed and these climate factors might explain seasonal and annual variations in contamination levels. The data from the present study provide useful suggestions for the organization of targeted monitoring plans and the protection of consumers, as well as for improvement in the quality standards of zootechnological activities and feed industry.

  18. Changes in microbial populations and enzyme activities during the bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xin; Li, Xiaojun; Sun, Tieheng; Li, Peijun; Zhou, Qixing; Sun, Lina; Hu, Xiaojun

    2009-10-01

    In the process of bioremediation in the soil contaminated by different oil concentrations, the changes in the microbial numbers (bacteria and fungi) and the enzyme (catalase (CAT), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and lipase) activities were evaluated over a 2-year period. The results showed that the microbial numbers after 2-year bioremediation were one to ten times higher than those in the initial. The changes in the bacterial and the fungal populations were different during the bioremediation, and the highest microbial numbers for bacteria and fungi were 5.51 x 10(9) CFU g(-1) dry soil in treatment 3 (10,000 mg kg(-1)) in the initial and 5.54 x 10(5) CFU g(-1) dry soil in treatment 5 (50,000 mg kg(-1)) after the 2-year bioremediation period, respectively. The CAT and PPO activities in the contaminated soil decreased with increasing oil concentration, while the lipase activity increased. The activities of CAT and PPO improved after the bioremediation, but lipase activity was on the contrary. The CAT activity was more sensible to the oil than others, and could be alternative to monitor the bioremediation process.

  19. 4D monitoring of actively failing rockslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Nick; Williams, Jack; Hardy, Richard; Brain, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    Assessing the conditions which promote rockfall to collapse relies upon detailed monitoring, ideally before, during and immediately after failure. With standard repeat surveys it is common that surveys do not coincide with or capture precursors, or that surveys are widely spaced relative to the timing and duration of driving forces such as storms. As a result gaining insight into the controls on failure and the timescales over which precursors operate remains difficult to establish with certainty, and establishing direct links between environmental conditions and rock-falls, or sequences of events prior to rockfall, remain difficult to define. To address this, we present analysis of a high-frequency 3D laser scan dataset captured using a new permanently installed system developed to constantly monitor actively failing rock slopes. The system is based around a time of flight laser scanner, integrated with and remotely controlled by dedicated controls and analysis software. The system is configured to capture data at 0.1 m spacing across > 22,000 m3 at up to 30 minute intervals. Here we present results captured with this system over a period of 9 months, spanning spring to winter 2015. Our analysis is focussed upon improving the understanding of the nature of small (volumetric measurement of rock face erosion. The results hold implications for understanding of rockfall mechanics, but also for how actively eroding surfaces can be monitored at high temporal frequency. Whilst high frequency data is ideal for describing processes that evolve rapidly through time, the cumulative errors that accumulate when monitored changes are dominated by inverse power-law distributed volumes are significant. To conclude we consider the benefits of defining survey frequency on the basis of the changes being detected relative to the accumulation of errors that inevitably arises when comparing high numbers of sequential surveys.

  20. Self-potential monitoring of a crude oil contaminated site (Trecate, Italy): first results of the modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, V.; Rizzo, E.; Titov, K.; Maineult, A.; Lapenna, V.

    2012-04-01

    The contamination of soils and groundwater by hydrocarbon, due to blow out, leakage from tank or pipe and oil spill, is a heavy environmental problem because infiltrated oil can persist in the ground for a long time. The existing methods used for the remediation of these contaminated sites are invasive, time consuming and expensive. Therefore, in the last years, there was a growing interest in the use of geophysical methods for environmental monitoring (Atekwana et al., 2000; Chambers et al., 2004; Song et al., 2005; French et al., 2009). A particular attention is given to the self-potential (SP) method because SP is sensitive to the contaminant chemistry and redox processes generated by bacteria during the biodegradation (Atekwana et al., 2004; Naudet and Revil, 2005; Revil et al., 2010). Here we show the results of SP investigations carried out at Trecate site (Italy). This site was affected by a crude oil contamination from a well blowout in 1994. Four SP surveys (October 2009, March 2010, October 2010, and March 2011) were conducted at the site, both in the contaminated and uncontaminated regions. Significant changes are observed between SP data collected at different times. In particular, we found mostly negative electrical potential in October surveys and positive electrical potential in March surveys. The SP distributions can be interpreted as the superposition of many components, including a horizontal water-flow in the saturated shallow aquifer toward South-East, the infiltration movement of water in the unsaturated zone and, possibly, the oxidation-reduction phenomena due to bacterial activity. As the groundwater flow usually produces SP linear trends, the data were detrended by linear regression, taking into account the measured piezometric heads in the aquifer. The detrended SP data show that the SP distribution within the contaminated zone is generally bipolar in October: the southern part of the contaminated area is characterized by negative values

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution effect on soil biological activity in the anthropogenic contaminated area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Sushkova, Svetlana; Minkina, Tatiana; Antonenko, Elena; Salamova, Anzhelika; Gimp, Alina; Deryabkina, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most significant environmental contaminants with mutagenic and carcinogenic properties to all living organisms. The changes in microbial community structure in technogenic polluted soil may be used as tools for predicting and monitoring natural degradation and for search the most effective and appropriate pathways of bioremediation. The present study is aimed to research the biological activity of the soil in the emission zone of Novocherkassk Power station (NPs) (Russia) polluted by PAHs in 2015. The NPs is one of the largest thermal power stations in the south of Russia burning low-quality coal appurtenant the enterprises of I hazardous class. Monitoring plots were located on virgin or no-till fallow areas and not subject to the sanitary-protection zone of the NPs. Soil samples were taken from a depth of 0- to 20-cm, because the major part of PAHs are accumulated in the surface soil layer. The soils of the plots mainly include Chernozems Calcic (plots 1, 4, 5, 7, 9 and 10), Phaeozems Haplic (plots 3, 6, 8 and 11) Fluvisols Umbric (plots 2 and 12). In the soil of 12 monitoring plots located around NPs there were determined the main enzymes, abundance of soil bacteria and 17 priority PAHs. PAHs extraction from soil was performed by new developed ecologically clean method of subcritical water extraction without organic solvents (Sushkova et al., 2015). The level of PAHs around NPs is high at the nearest to factory monitoring plots situated at distance 1,0-1,2 km and reaches from 1600,1±14,7 up to 373,6±7,1 mkg/kg in the 20-cm soil layer. Gradually decrease of PAHs contamination is observed while increasing the distance from the NPs. The level of highmolecular PAHs (4-6 aromatic rings) exceeds the level of lowmolecular (2-3 aromatic rings) PAHs in all monitoring plots situated though the prevailing wind direction from NPs. The close correlations were found between PAHs content and biological activity parameters

  2. Present state of the monitoring for internal contamination at Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaishi, J.; Fukuda, H.; Mizushita, S.

    1980-01-01

    At Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI, over one thousand people work in hot areas such as reactors, accelerators, chemical laboratories and waste treatment plants. The monitoring for internal contamination of this personnel is presented. Routine and special monitoring are carried out. The object of the former is to check for the presence of significant contamination, and that of the latter is to estimate body burden and committed dose equivalent, if necessary. Heavy shield and shadow shield whole body counters, a low energy lung counter and a wound monitor are used to detect the internal contamination due to γ or chi ray emitters, and bioassay technique is used for α or β emitters and uranium. The results of the monitoring until now are presented. (H.K.)

  3. Evaluation of natural attenuation processes in the groundwater of a tar oil contaminated site: development of a monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borke, P.; Husers, N.; Werner, P.; Leibenath, C.

    2005-01-01

    Tar oil is a complex mixture of mainly aromatic hydrocarbons. It is found in the subsurface of manufactured gas plants (MGP), coking plants or wood preserving facilities. The transportation into the soil and groundwater stands for a severe contamination. This is due to the physico-chemical properties of the DNAPL (dense non aqueous phase liquid) and its mobility in the soil and aquifer system. Additionally most of the contaminants show a low biological degradability and solubility under in situ conditions. Therefore it is known as a long term source of contamination. Nevertheless, natural attenuation (NA) processes are detectable at tar oil contaminated sites. In the thematic network two of the German funding priority KORA (http://www.natural-attenuation.de) these processes are matter of investigation. Four typical contaminated sites were chosen to evaluate under which circumstances monitored natural attenuation (MNA) is applicable. Furthermore enhanced natural attenuation questions are examined. The design of monitoring networks at tar oil contaminated sites plays a significant role in gaining field evidence for natural attenuation as well as documenting the efficiency of the attenuation processes and evaluating the matching of performance goals. Well designed monitoring networks include the placement of monitoring wells in 3D so that 3D flow path, mass balances and an estimation of mass flux can be monitored. As an example the history of the monitoring network of a wood preserving facility is shown. Starting from a risk assessment network to a network for MNA is presented. In this case for example especially the determination of the groundwater flow direction in time and space is connected to the number of observation wells and their location. Moreover in the beginning the observation wells were located according to the assumed centerline of the plume. Because of the variability of the groundwater flow direction and the need to determine mass flux a control plane

  4. Vadose zone studies at an industrial contaminated site: the vadose zone monitoring system and cross-hole geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez de Vera, Natalia; Beaujean, Jean; Jamin, Pierre; Nguyen, Frédéric; Dahan, Ofer; Vanclooster, Marnik; Brouyère, Serge

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve risk characterization and remediation measures for soil and groundwater contamination, there is a need to improve in situ vadose zone characterization. However, most available technologies have been developed in the context of agricultural soils. Such methodologies are not applicable at industrial sites, where soils and contamination differ in origin and composition. In addition, most technologies are applicable only in the first meters of soils, leaving deeper vadose zones with lack of information, in particular on field scale heterogeneity. In order to overcome such difficulties, a vadose zone experiment has been setup at a former industrial site in Belgium. Industrial activities carried out on site left a legacy of soil and groundwater contamination in BTEX, PAH, cyanide and heavy metals. The experiment comprises the combination of two techniques: the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VMS) and cross-hole geophysics. The VMS allows continuous measurements of water content and temperature at different depths of the vadose zone. In addition, it provides the possibility of pore water sampling at different depths. The system is formed by a flexible sleeve containing monitoring units along its depth which is installed in a slanted borehole. The flexible sleeve contains three types of monitoring units in the vadose zone: Time Domain Transmissometry (TDT), which allows water content measurements; Vadose Sampling Ports (VSP), used for collecting water samples coming from the matrix; the Fracture Samplers (FS), which are used for retrieving water samples from the fractures. Cross-hole geophysics techniques consist in the injection of an electrical current using electrodes installed in vertical boreholes. From measured potential differences, detailed spatial patterns about electrical properties of the subsurface can be inferred. Such spatial patterns are related with subsurface heterogeneities, water content and solute concentrations. Two VMS were

  5. Evaluation of the RSG-GAS Alpha-Beta Aerosol Contaminant Monitor Performance Under Reactor Operation Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartoyo, Unggul; Setiawanto, Anto; Sumarno, Yulius

    2000-01-01

    Analysis to evaluate the RSG-GAS alpha-beta aerosol contaminant monitor performance was done. The high potential radiation working area such as in RSG-GAS is important to monitored for personal safety. Further it is necessary to assure that the system monitor is reliable enough under normal conditions as well as emergency condition. The method uses in this analysis are monitoring and comparing with the standard source. The standard course indicator and panel in main control room indicate that the result is 1 x 110 exp 9 Ci/m exp 3. Based on data monitor observation, the RSG-GAS alpha-beta aerosol contaminant monitor system under reactor operation condition has a good enough performance

  6. Monitoring active volcanoes: The geochemical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ohba

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The geochemical surveillance of an active volcano aims to recognize possible signals that are related to changes in volcanic activity. Indeed, as a consequence of the magma rising inside the volcanic "plumbing system" and/or the refilling with new batches of magma, the dissolved volatiles in the magma are progressively released as a function of their relative solubilities. When approaching the surface, these fluids that are discharged during magma degassing can interact with shallow aquifers and/or can be released along the main volcano-tectonic structures. Under these conditions, the following main degassing processes represent strategic sites to be monitored.

    The main purpose of this special volume is to collect papers that cover a wide range of topics in volcanic fluid geochemistry, which include geochemical characterization and geochemical monitoring of active volcanoes using different techniques and at different sites. Moreover, part of this volume has been dedicated to the new geochemistry tools.

  7. Scanning personnel for internal deposition of radioactive material with personnel contamination whole body friskers and portal monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobdell, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The potential for using personnel contamination devices such as whole body friskers and portal monitors for internal contamination monitoring was evaluated. Internally deposited radioactive material is typically determined with whole body counting systems. Whole body counts have traditionally been performed on personnel when they report for work, on a periodic basis (i.e., annually), when an uptake is suspected, and on termination. These counts incur significant expense. The monitored personnel pass through whole body friskers and portal monitors daily. This investigation was performed to determine if the external contamination monitors could provide an alternative to the more Costly whole body counting. The ability to detect 1% of a DAC for critical radioisotopes was applied as a detection criteria for this investigation. The results of whole body counts were used to identify the typical internal contamination radionuclides. From this list, the radioisotopes that would be the most difficult to measure were identified. From this review, 60 Co and 131 I were determined to be the critical radionuclides. One percent of a DAC for each isotope was placed, one at a time, in a humanoid phantom. The phantom was placed in the whole body frisker and open-quotes countedclose quotes. The phantom was carried through the portal monitor at a speed equivalent to a person walking through the monitor. Frequency of detection was derived for both systems. Practical aspects of integrating this screening system with traditional internal dosimetry programs are discussed

  8. Rapid determination of radionuclide activity concentrations in contaminated drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, P.; Ryan, B.; Bollhofer, A.; Martin, P.; International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

    2007-01-01

    As a result of an incident at the Ranger Uranium mine in which drinking water was contaminated with process water, it was necessary to perform quick analysis for naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclide activity concentrations, including 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, U and Th isotopes. The methods which were subsequently used are presented here. The techniques used were high-resolution gamma spectrometry, Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) and high-resolution alpha spectrometry. Routine methods were modified to allow for rapid analyses on priority samples in 1-2 days, with some results for highest priority samples available in less than 1 day. Comparison of initial results obtained through standard procedures, is discussed. An emphasis is placed on high-resolution alpha spectrometry of major alpha-emitting nuclides, specifically 226Ra, 230Th and 238U. The range of uranium concentrations in the samples investigated was from background levels to 6.6ppm. Implications for radiological dose assessment in contamination incidents involving process water are presented. The worst-case scenario for the incident at Ranger Uranium Mine indicates that the maximum committed effective dose to workers was well below the ICRP limit for worker-related dose and below the dose limit for a member of the public, with 230Th being the highest contributor

  9. The Hamburg polonium-210 case. Monitoring of internal contaminations in a malevolent act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalheimer, A.; Koenig, K.; Nosske, D.; Schaefer, I.

    2009-01-01

    The dead of Alexander Litvinenko in London in the late 2006 was linked with the visit of Dimitri Kovtun. So an investigation was started by the Hamburg Police. As the presence of polonium-210 was uncertain, the action was supported by the Federal Defense against Nuclear Hazards (NGA) of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). Radiation measurements in some flats in Hamburg confirmed the suspicion of polonium-210 contaminations. As incorporations by ingestion or inhalation could not generally be excluded, the Coordinating Office on Incorporation Monitoring of the BfS (Leitstelle Inkorporationsueberwachung des BfS) was requested to clarify this issue. The BfS office then coordinated the required bioassay analyses of urine samples carried out at four officially appointed in-vitro laboratories for incorporation monitoring. The group of people to be examined included the members of the family involved living in the contaminated flats, the emergency forces, as well as potentially exposed members of the public. The calculation of the internal dose was based on standard assumptions and also conducted by the BfS. The internal radiation doses proved to be within the range of radiation doses due to natural exposures. Retrospectively it should be stressed that the collaboration and cooperation of all institutions involved in the operation in Hamburg was extremely good despite their differing organisational structures. As a result of the incident in Hamburg various middle and long-term measures have been taken since then by the BfS Coordinating Office on Incorporation Monitoring. (orig.)

  10. Methodology for bioremediation monitoring of oil wastes contaminated soils by using vegetal bio indicators; Metodologia para monitoramento de biorremediacao de solos contaminados com residuos oleosos com bioindicadores vegetais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento Neto, Durval; Carvalho, Francisco Jose Pereira de Campos [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia do Solo]. E-mail: fjcampos@cce.ufpr.br

    1998-07-01

    This work studies the development of a methodology for the evaluation of the bioremediation status of oil waste contaminated soils, by using vegetal bioindicators for the bioremediation process monitoring, and evaluation of the environmental impacts on the contaminated areas.

  11. Evaluation of targeted and untargeted effects-based monitoring tools to assess impacts of contaminants of emerging concern on fish in the South Platte River, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers in the arid Western United States face increasing influences from anthropogenic contaminants due to population growth, urbanization, and drought. To better understand and more effectively track the impacts of these contaminants, biologically-based monitoring tools are incr...

  12. Test installation for separation of contaminated/activated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klok, H.; Peeze Binkhorst, I.A.G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Large amounts of contaminated concrete are released when dismantling nuclear power plants. Volume reduction of contaminated concrete has economic and environmental advantages. A test facility has been built by which contaminated concrete can be separated in clean aggregate and contaminated cement. During the tests a considerable amount of dust accumulated in the valve construction of the test installation. This could result in an unacceptable accumulation of contaminated dust, blocking of the handle and emission of dust and grit during the operation of the test facility. The design of the valve construction was adjusted by using and testing flexible materials

  13. Evaluating Leaf and Canopy Reflectance of Stressed Rice Plants to Monitor Arsenic Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varaprasad Bandaru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination is a serious problem in rice cultivated soils of many developing countries. Hence, it is critical to monitor and control arsenic uptake in rice plants to avoid adverse effects on human health. This study evaluated the feasibility of using reflectance spectroscopy to monitor arsenic in rice plants. Four arsenic levels were induced in hydroponically grown rice plants with application of 0, 5, 10 and 20 µmol·L−1 sodium arsenate. Reflectance spectra of upper fully expanded leaves were acquired over visible and infrared (NIR wavelengths. Additionally, canopy reflectance for the four arsenic levels was simulated using SAIL (Scattering by Arbitrarily Inclined Leaves model for various soil moisture conditions and leaf area indices (LAI. Further, sensitivity of various vegetative indices (VIs to arsenic levels was assessed. Results suggest that plants accumulate high arsenic amounts causing plant stress and changes in reflectance characteristics. All leaf spectra based VIs related strongly with arsenic with coefficient of determination (r2 greater than 0.6 while at canopy scale, background reflectance and LAI confounded with spectral signals of arsenic affecting the VIs’ performance. Among studied VIs, combined index, transformed chlorophyll absorption reflectance index (TCARI/optimized soil adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI exhibited higher sensitivity to arsenic levels and better resistance to soil backgrounds and LAI followed by red edge based VIs (modified chlorophyll absorption reflectance index (MCARI and TCARI suggesting that these VIs could prove to be valuable aids for monitoring arsenic in rice fields.

  14. Program of individual monitoring of the internal contamination and their implementation in the Republic the Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Bejerano, Gladys M.; Capote Ferrera, Eduardo; Fernandez Gomez, Isis M.; Acosta Rodriguez, Nancy; Carrazana Gonzalez, Jorge A.; Cruz Suarez, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In different Cuban institutions linked fundamentally to the medical practice of nuclear medicine and the investigations, it is worked with sources open of ionizing radiations, that which makes indispensable the existence of a system of radiological surveillance that includes the control radiological individual of the received doses as a result of the occupational, such exhibition that is guaranteed that the exhibition of the Hard-working Exposed Occupationally, stay inside the recommended limits, in the International Basic Norms of Protection against the Ionizing radiations and safe-deposit of the Sources of Radiation (NBIS) and in turn adopted in the Norma Cuban. From the year 1986 in the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations is carried out in way centralized this control; but with the inconvenience of not being able to carry out the same one to workers from the domestic interior when not being feasible the transfer of these toward its headquarters, reason why the doses were ignored received in an important number of these. In and of itself the Laboratory of Internal Contamination of this institution in these years has developed managed works to define firstly, for each institution, the program of monitoring of the internal contamination of its workers using for it the methodology recommended by the OIEA where the potential doses are evaluated that for incorporation these they receive and whose results suggested the introduction of a program of individual monitoring as behavior to continue in most of the institutions. In correspondence with it was designed and established a program that included the study of feasibility of the existent equipment in the institutions to carry out the monitoring of the internal contamination using technical of measuring in vivo and in vitro, as it corresponds, their calibration, the establishment of procedures that respond to the requirements of a System of Quality for the Norma ISO/IEC 17025 and

  15. Monitored Natural Attenuation of ino9rganic Contaminants Treatability Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crapse, K

    2004-05-19

    The identification and quantification of key natural attenuation processes for inorganic contaminants at D-Area is detailed herein. Two overarching goals of this evaluation of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remediation strategy were (1) to better define the availability of inorganic contaminants as potential sources for transport to groundwater and uptake by environmental receptors and (2) to understand the site-specific mechanisms controlling attenuation of these inorganic contaminants through tandem geochemical and biological characterization. Data collected in this study provides input for more appropriate site groundwater transport models. Significant natural attenuation is occurring at D-Area as evidenced by relatively low aqueous concentrations of constituents of concern (COCs) (Be, Ni, U, and As) at all locations characterized and the decrease in groundwater concentrations with increasing distance from the source. The observed magnitude of decrease in groundwater concentrations of COCs with distance from the D-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basin (DCPRB) could not be accounted for by the modeled physical attenuation processes of dilution/dispersion. This additional attenuation, i.e., the observed difference between the groundwater concentrations of COCs and the modeled physical attenuation, is due to biogeochemical processes occurring at the D-Area. In tandem geochemical and microbiological characterization studies designed to evaluate the mechanisms contributing to natural attenuation, pH was the single parameter found to be most predictive of contaminant attenuation. The increasing pH with distance from the source is likely responsible for increased sorption of COCs to soil surfaces within the aquifer at D-Area. Importantly, because the sediments appear to have a high buffering capacity, the acid emanating from the DCPRB has been neutralized by the soil, and these conditions have led to large Kd values at the site. Two major types of soils are present at

  16. Sedentary nestlings of Wood Stork as monitors of mercury contamination in the gold mining region of the Brazilian Pantanal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassif Del Lama, Silvia, E-mail: dsdl@ufscar.br [Laboratorio Genetica de Aves, Departamento de Genetica e Evolucao, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Dosualdo Rocha, Cristiano [Laboratorio Genetica de Aves, Departamento de Genetica e Evolucao, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Figueiredo Jardim, Wilson [Institute of Chemistry, State University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13083-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tsai, Jo-Szu; Frederick, Peter Crawford [Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, P.O. Box 110430, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Sedentary organisms that are at top trophic levels allow inference about the level of local mercury contamination. We evaluated mercury contamination in feather tissue of nestling Wood Storks (Mycteria americana), sampled in different parts of the Brazilian Pantanal that were variably polluted by mercury releases from gold mining activities. Levels of mercury in feathers sampled in seven breeding colonies were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and the mean value of mercury concentration was 0.557 {mu}g/g, dry weight (n=124), range 0.024-4.423 {mu}g/g. From this total sample, 21 feathers that represent 30% of nestlings collected in Porto da Fazenda and Tucum colonies, in the northern region, ranged from 1.0 to 4.43 {mu}g/g, dry weight (median value=1.87 {mu}g/g). We found significant differences among regions (H=57.342; p=0<0.05). Results suggest that permanently flooded areas, or along mainstream rivers are more contaminated by mercury than dry areas, regardless of the distance from the gold mining center, which is located in the northern Pantanal. Highest values found in nestlings feathers were similar to those found in feathers of adult birds and in tissues of adult mammals that are less sedentary and were captured in the same region of Pantanal. These findings indicate that mercury released has been biomagnified and it is present in high concentrations in tissues of top consumers. We suggest a program to monitor mercury availability in this ecosystem using sedentary life forms of top predators like Wood Storks or other piscivorous birds. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sedentary stork nestlings were used for the first time to show local mercury contamination of Pantanal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differences were found among regions but they are not explained only by distance from the gold mining. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Permanently flooded areas and areas along mainstream rivers are more contaminated than dry areas. Black

  17. Sedentary nestlings of Wood Stork as monitors of mercury contamination in the gold mining region of the Brazilian Pantanal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassif Del Lama, Silvia; Dosualdo Rocha, Cristiano; Figueiredo Jardim, Wilson; Tsai, Jo-Szu; Frederick, Peter Crawford

    2011-01-01

    Sedentary organisms that are at top trophic levels allow inference about the level of local mercury contamination. We evaluated mercury contamination in feather tissue of nestling Wood Storks (Mycteria americana), sampled in different parts of the Brazilian Pantanal that were variably polluted by mercury releases from gold mining activities. Levels of mercury in feathers sampled in seven breeding colonies were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and the mean value of mercury concentration was 0.557 μg/g, dry weight (n=124), range 0.024–4.423 μg/g. From this total sample, 21 feathers that represent 30% of nestlings collected in Porto da Fazenda and Tucum colonies, in the northern region, ranged from 1.0 to 4.43 μg/g, dry weight (median value=1.87 μg/g). We found significant differences among regions (H=57.342; p=0<0.05). Results suggest that permanently flooded areas, or along mainstream rivers are more contaminated by mercury than dry areas, regardless of the distance from the gold mining center, which is located in the northern Pantanal. Highest values found in nestlings feathers were similar to those found in feathers of adult birds and in tissues of adult mammals that are less sedentary and were captured in the same region of Pantanal. These findings indicate that mercury released has been biomagnified and it is present in high concentrations in tissues of top consumers. We suggest a program to monitor mercury availability in this ecosystem using sedentary life forms of top predators like Wood Storks or other piscivorous birds. - Highlights: ► Sedentary stork nestlings were used for the first time to show local mercury contamination of Pantanal. ► Differences were found among regions but they are not explained only by distance from the gold mining. ► Permanently flooded areas and areas along mainstream rivers are more contaminated than dry areas. ► Mercury has been biomagnified in Pantanal and it is found in high concentrations in top

  18. Continuous Activity Monitoring During Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohri, Nitin, E-mail: ohri.nitin@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kabarriti, Rafi; Bodner, William R.; Mehta, Keyur J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Shankar, Viswanathan [Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Halmos, Balazs; Haigentz, Missak [Department of Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Rapkin, Bruce [Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Guha, Chandan; Kalnicki, Shalom; Garg, Madhur [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To perform a prospective trial testing the feasibility and utility of acquiring activity data as a measure of health status during concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Ambulatory patients who were planned for treatment with concurrent chemoradiotherapy with curative intent for cancers of the head and neck, lung, or gastrointestinal tract were provided with activity monitors before treatment initiation. Patients were asked to wear the devices continuously throughout the radiation therapy course. Step count data were downloaded weekly during radiation therapy and 2 and 4 weeks after radiation therapy completion. The primary objective was to demonstrate feasibility, defined as collection of step counts for 80% of the days during study subjects' radiation therapy courses. Secondary objectives included establishing step count as a dynamic predictor of unplanned hospitalization risk. Results: Thirty-eight enrolled patients were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Primary diagnoses included head and neck cancer (n=11), lung cancer (n=13), and a variety of gastrointestinal cancers (n=14). Step data were collected for 1524 of 1613 days (94%) during patients' radiation therapy courses. Fourteen patients were hospitalized during radiation therapy or within 4 weeks of radiation therapy completion. Cox regression modeling demonstrated a significant association between recent step counts (3-day average) and hospitalization risk, with a 38% reduction in the risk of hospitalization for every 1000 steps taken each day (hazard ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.46-0.83, P=.002). Inferior quality of life scores and impaired performance status were not associated with increased hospitalization risk. Conclusion: Continuous activity monitoring during concurrent chemoradiotherapy is feasible and well-tolerated. Step counts may serve as powerful, objective, and dynamic indicators of hospitalization risk.

  19. Continuous Activity Monitoring During Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohri, Nitin; Kabarriti, Rafi; Bodner, William R.; Mehta, Keyur J.; Shankar, Viswanathan; Halmos, Balazs; Haigentz, Missak; Rapkin, Bruce; Guha, Chandan; Kalnicki, Shalom; Garg, Madhur

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a prospective trial testing the feasibility and utility of acquiring activity data as a measure of health status during concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Ambulatory patients who were planned for treatment with concurrent chemoradiotherapy with curative intent for cancers of the head and neck, lung, or gastrointestinal tract were provided with activity monitors before treatment initiation. Patients were asked to wear the devices continuously throughout the radiation therapy course. Step count data were downloaded weekly during radiation therapy and 2 and 4 weeks after radiation therapy completion. The primary objective was to demonstrate feasibility, defined as collection of step counts for 80% of the days during study subjects' radiation therapy courses. Secondary objectives included establishing step count as a dynamic predictor of unplanned hospitalization risk. Results: Thirty-eight enrolled patients were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Primary diagnoses included head and neck cancer (n=11), lung cancer (n=13), and a variety of gastrointestinal cancers (n=14). Step data were collected for 1524 of 1613 days (94%) during patients' radiation therapy courses. Fourteen patients were hospitalized during radiation therapy or within 4 weeks of radiation therapy completion. Cox regression modeling demonstrated a significant association between recent step counts (3-day average) and hospitalization risk, with a 38% reduction in the risk of hospitalization for every 1000 steps taken each day (hazard ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.46-0.83, P=.002). Inferior quality of life scores and impaired performance status were not associated with increased hospitalization risk. Conclusion: Continuous activity monitoring during concurrent chemoradiotherapy is feasible and well-tolerated. Step counts may serve as powerful, objective, and dynamic indicators of hospitalization risk.

  20. Nanosensors for a Monitoring System in Intelligent and Active Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Fuertes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical wireless nanosensor network (WNSN system that gives information about the food packaging condition is proposed. The protection effectiveness is estimated by measuring many factors, such as the existence of microorganisms, bacteria, gases, and contaminants. This study is focused on the detection of an antimicrobial agent (AA attached on a polymer forming an active integrated package. All monitoring technologies for food conservation are analyzed. Nanobiosensor nanomachine (NM, which converts biological or chemical signals into electrical signals, is used. A mathematical model, which describes the constituent’s emigration from the package to food, is programmed in MatLab software. The results show three nanobiosensors forming a WNSN. The nanobiosensors are able to carry out the average concentration for different spots in the package. This monitoring system shows reading percentages in three degrees and different colors: excellent (green, good (cyan, and lacking (red. To confirm the utility of the model, different simulations are performed. Using the WNSNs, results of AA existing in food package (FP through time were successfully obtained.

  1. Reference sources for the calibration of surface contamination monitors - Beta-emitters (maximum beta energy greater than MeV) and alpha-emitters (International Standard Publication ISO 8769:1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    2001-01-01

    This International Standard specifies the characteristics of reference sources of radioactive surface contamination, traceable to national measurement standards, for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. This International Standard relates to alpha-emitters and to beta-emitters of maximum beta energy greater than 0,15 MeV. It does not describe the procedures involved in the use of these reference sources for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. Such procedures are specified in IEC Publication 325 and other documents. This International Standard specifies reference radiations for the calibration of surface contamination monitors which take the form of adequately characterized large area sources specified, without exception, in terms of activity and surface emission rate, the evaluation of these quantities being traceable to national standards

  2. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, which are part of the overall Hanford Site Environmental Protection Plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of the individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans

  3. Monitoring and controlling ovarian activity in elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitaram, Chatchote; Brown, Janine L

    2018-03-15

    Both Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants are important keystone, umbrella and flagship species. Paradoxically, world population numbers of both species are declining in many of their natural ranges due mainly to poaching, while over population of elephants in some areas is resulting in serious human-elephant conflict, and modifications of natural habitats that impact biodiversity. Understanding mechanisms of reproductive control is vital to effective population management, and for that reason significant advances have been made in endocrine and ultrasonographic monitoring techniques, particularly in studies of elephants ex situ. However, there remains a need to develop new methods to control ovarian activity, both for enhancing and inhibiting reproduction, to maintain population numbers at levels that ensure species survival and their ability to safely cohabitate with humans and other species. We present an overview of reproductive monitoring methods and how they have contributed to our knowledge of elephant reproductive biology, as well as their application for in situ and ex situ conservation purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of two freshwater turtle species as monitors of radionuclide and chemical contamination: DNA damage and residue analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers-Schoene, L.; Shugart, L.R.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Walton, B.T.

    1993-01-01

    Two species of turtles that occupy different ecological niches were compared for their usefulness as monitors of freshwater ecosystems where both low-level radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants are present. The pond slider (Trachemys scripta) and common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) were analyzed for the presence of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co, and Hg, radionuclides and chemicals known to be present at the contaminated site, and single-strand breaks in liver DNA. The integrity of the DNA was examined by the alkaline unwinding assay, a technique that detects strand breaks as a biological marker of possible exposure to genotoxic agents. This measure of DNA damage was significantly increased in both species of turtles at the contaminated site compared with turtles of the same species at a reference site, and shows that contaminant-exposed populations were under more severe genotoxic stress than those at the reference site. The level of strand breaks observed at the contaminated site was high and in the range reported for other aquatic species exposed to deleterious concentrations of genotoxic agents such as chemicals and ionizing radiation. Statistically significantly higher concentrations of radionuclides and Hg were detected in the turtles from the contaminated area. Mercury concentrations were significantly higher in the more carnivorous snapping turtle compared with the slider; however, both species were effective monitors of the contaminants

  5. Radiological Monitoring Equipment For Real-Time Quantification Of Area Contamination In Soils And Facility Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. V. Carpenter; Jay A. Roach; John R Giles; Lyle G. Roybal

    2005-01-01

    The environmental restoration industry offers several systems that perform scan-type characterization of radiologically contaminated areas. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed and deployed a suite of field systems that rapidly scan, characterize, and analyze radiological contamination in surface soils. The base system consists of a detector, such as sodium iodide (NaI) spectrometers, a global positioning system (GPS), and an integrated user-friendly computer interface. This mobile concept was initially developed to provide precertification analyses of soils contaminated with uranium, thorium, and radium at the Fernald Closure Project, near Cincinnati, Ohio. INL has expanded the functionality of this basic system to create a suite of integrated field-deployable analytical systems. Using its engineering and radiation measurement expertise, aided by computer hardware and software support, INL has streamlined the data acquisition and analysis process to provide real-time information presented on wireless screens and in the form of coverage maps immediately available to field technicians. In addition, custom software offers a user-friendly interface with user-selectable alarm levels and automated data quality monitoring functions that validate the data. This system is deployed from various platforms, depending on the nature of the survey. The deployment platforms include a small all-terrain vehicle used to survey large, relatively flat areas, a hand-pushed unit for areas where maneuverability is important, an excavator-mounted system used to scan pits and trenches where personnel access is restricted, and backpack- mounted systems to survey rocky shoreline features and other physical settings that preclude vehicle-based deployment. Variants of the base system include sealed proportional counters for measuring actinides (i.e., plutonium-238 and americium-241) in building demolitions, soil areas, roadbeds, and process line routes at the Miamisburg Closure

  6. The Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor II environmental radiological characterization utilizing GPS/GIS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendling, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    Time, cost, and most importantly quality of data are the three factors to measure the success of field radiological characterizations. The application of coupling radiation detection instrumentation to a GPS receiver has dramatically increased the data quality achievable compared to traditional environmental radiological survey methods. Improvements in verifying adequate spatial coverage of an area while collecting data and at,the same time reducing field time requirements can be realized. Data acquired during the recent implementation of the Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor 11 (MSCM-11) will be presented to demonstrate the advantages of this system over traditional radiological survey methods. The comparison will include time and manpower requirements. Linking the complimentary GPS, GIS and radiation detection technologies on a mobile tractor based platform has provided a tool to provide radiological characterization data faster, cheaper, and better to assist in the Environmental Restoration Mission of the Hanford Site

  7. Monitoring of radioactive contamination in food and the environment 1986-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liland, Astrid; Skuterud, Lavrans; Bergan, Tone; Forseth, Torbjoern; Gaare, Eldar; Hellstroem, Turid

    2001-01-01

    The results from the national monitoring of radioactive contamination in food and the environment 1986-1998 are presented. The average 137Cs concentration is decreasing in cow's and goat's milk, sheep, reindeer and fresh water fish. Pasture and fungi are, on the contrary, not showing a general decreasing trend. The radioactivity in food and humans has been decreasing since 1987. The effective dose from intake is estimated to 0.02 mSv for an average Norwegian in 1998. Vulnerable groups may have received doses up to 0.4 mSv. One cannot rule out the possibility that some individuals in these groups have received doses superior to 1 mSv/year. (Author)

  8. Monitoring of metallic contaminants in energy drinks using ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Serpil; Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Kilic, Murat

    2018-03-09

    In this study, an improved method was validated for the determination of some metallic contaminants (arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), Mn, and antimony (Sb)) in energy drinks using inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The validation procedure was applied for the evaluation of linearity, repeatability, recovery, limit of detection, and quantification. In addition, to verify the trueness of the method, it was participated in an interlaboratory proficiency test for heavy metals in soft drink organized by the LGC (Laboratory of the Government Chemist) Standard. Validated method was used to monitor for the determination of metallic contaminants in commercial energy drink samples. Concentrations of As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Fe, Ni, Cu, Mn, and Sb in the samples were found in the ranges of 0.76-6.73, 13.25-100.96, 0.16-2.11, 9.33-28.96, 334.77-937.12, 35.98-303.97, 23.67-60.48, 5.45-489.93, and 0.01-0.42 μg L -1 , respectively. The results were compared with the provisional guideline or parametric values of the elements for drinking waters set by the WHO (World Health Organization) and EC (European Commission). As, Cd, Cu, and Sb did not exceed the WHO and EC provisional guideline or parametric values. However, the other elements (Cr, Pb, Fe, Ni, and Mn) were found to be higher than their relevant limits at various levels.

  9. Monitoring psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria contamination in a ready-to-eat vegetable salad production environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothakos, Vasileios; Snauwaert, Cindy; De Vos, Paul; Huys, Geert; Devlieghere, Frank

    2014-08-18

    A study monitoring lactic acid bacteria contamination was conducted in a company producing fresh, minimally processed, packaged and ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable salads (stored at 4°C) in order to investigate the reason for high psychrotrophic LAB levels in the products at the end of shelf-life. Initially, high microbial counts exceeding the established psychrotrophic thresholds (>10(7)-10(8)CFU/g) and spoilage manifestations before the end of the shelf-life (7days) occurred in products containing an assortment of sliced and diced vegetables, but within a one year period these spoilage defects became prevalent in the entire processing plant. Environmental sampling and microbiological analyses of the raw materials and final products throughout the manufacturing process highlighted the presence of high numbers of Leuconostoc spp. in halved and unseeded, fresh sweet bell peppers provided by the supplier. A combination of two DNA fingerprinting techniques facilitated the assessment of the species diversity of LAB present in the processing environment along with the critical point of their introduction in the production facility. Probably through air mediation and surface adhesion, mainly members of the strictly psychrotrophic species Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum and L. gelidum subsp. gelidum were responsible for the cross-contamination of every vegetable handled within the plant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Inspection and monitoring plan, contaminated groundwater seeps 317/319/ENE Area, Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    During the course of completing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) in the 317/319/East-Northeast (ENE) Area of Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E), groundwater was discovered moving to the surface through a series of groundwater seeps. The seeps are located in a ravine approximately 600 ft south of the ANL-E fence line in Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve. Samples of the seep water were collected and analyzed for selected parameters. Two of the five seeps sampled were found to contain detectable levels of organic contaminants. Three chemical species were identified: chloroform (14--25 microg/L), carbon tetrachloride (56--340 microg/L), and tetrachloroethylene (3--6 microg/L). The other seeps did not contain detectable levels of volatile organics. The nature of the contaminants in the seeps will also be monitored on a regular basis. Samples of surface water flowing through the bottom of the ravine and groundwater emanating from the seeps will be collected and analyzed for chemical and radioactive constituents. The results of the routine sampling will be compared with the concentrations used in the risk assessment. If the concentrations exceed those used in the risk assessment, the risk calculations will be revised by using the higher numbers. This revised analysis will determine if additional actions are warranted

  11. Global styrene oligomers monitoring as new chemical contamination from polystyrene plastic marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Bum Gun; Koizumi, Koshiro; Chung, Seon-Yong; Kodera, Yoichi; Kim, Jong-Oh; Saido, Katsuhiko

    2015-12-30

    Polystyrene (PS) plastic marine pollution is an environmental concern. However, a reliable and objective assessment of the scope of this problem, which can lead to persistent organic contaminants, has yet to be performed. Here, we show that anthropogenic styrene oligomers (SOs), a possible indicator of PS pollution in the ocean, are found globally at concentrations that are higher than those expected based on the stability of PS. SOs appear to persist to varying degrees in the seawater and sand samples collected from beaches around the world. The most persistent forms are styrene monomer, styrene dimer, and styrene trimer. Sand samples from beaches, which are commonly recreation sites, are particularly polluted with these high SOs concentrations. This finding is of interest from both scientific and public perspectives because SOs may pose potential long-term risks to the environment in combination with other endocrine disrupting chemicals. From SOs monitoring results, this study proposes a flow diagram for SOs leaching from PS cycle. Using this flow diagram, we conclude that SOs are global contaminants in sandy beaches around the world due to their broad spatial distribution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A monitor for beta activity in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansode, P.Y.; Karpagam, R.; Phatak, P.R.; Jakati, R.K.

    2004-01-01

    Radiation monitors using compensated ion chamber technique have been in use in nuclear power plants and facilities for measurement of beta activity in presence of gamma background. This paper describes a system based on auto-ranging electrometer with provision for selecting alarm-level and giving out measurement and status information on RS232 serial link for remote use such as PC or notebook computer via RadNet protocol. The over all system incorporates indigenously developed 40 litre ion-chamber reported in the literature and facility for circulating air through the chamber using pumping system. The setup is housed in standard racks with wheels for easy transport within the laboratory building. The data acquiring and I/O processing is carried out using Philips 80c552 micro-controller. (author)

  13. Non-Destructive Radiological Characterisation Of Contaminated And Activated Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrel, E.

    2005-01-01

    The decommissioning of nuclear facilities leads to large quantities of concrete and building material wastes. Radioactivity in building structures arise from very different physical processes such as neutron activation (bioshield), diffusion of the contaminants in the material (primary coolant leakage, maintenance and fuel loading) or aerosol deposition. The variety of the building material also extends the range of faced radiological characteristics. Therefore the minimization of concrete waste generation requires extensive characterisations and the availability of different measurement tools and methods. Up to now, these measurements came from the coring and the radiological analysis of the concrete, which is a destructive, long and costly technique. Looking for alternative solutions, SCK-CEN has started to investigate in collaboration with EDF -research and development and CEA (France) several non destructive methods based on gamma spectroscopy and different spectral examinations using mathematical calibration and modelling tools available on the market. Information on in-depth activity distribution can be derived from in situ gamma spectra by modelling absorption laws (peak to peak ratios) and photons interactions (Compton front) in the bulk of the concrete. As they combine modelling and measurement, the different methodologies being evaluated involve a lot of uncertainty sources linked to the measurement environment, to the knowledge available on site (historical background, material composition), to the operator responsible for the data acquisition and to the performance of the equipment. Therefore a detailed sensitivity analysis is required to define the range of applicability and the performances of the different methods

  14. Sentinel Wraps: Real-Time Monitoring of Food Contamination by Printing DNAzyme Probes on Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Hanie; Ali, M Monsur; Su, Hsuan-Ming; Filipe, Carlos D M; Didar, Tohid F

    2018-04-24

    Here, we report the development of a transparent, durable, and flexible sensing surface that generates a fluorescence signal in the presence of a specific target bacterium. This material can be used in packaging, and it is capable of monitoring microbial contamination in various types of food products in real time without having to remove the sample or the sensor from the package. The sensor was fabricated by covalently attaching picoliter-sized microarrays of an E. coli-specific RNA-cleaving fluorogenic DNAzyme probe (RFD-EC1) to a thin, flexible, and transparent cyclo-olefin polymer (COP) film. Our experimental results demonstrate that the developed (RFD-EC1)-COP surface is specific, stable for at least 14 days under various pH conditions (pH 3-9), and can detect E. coli in meat and apple juice at concentrations as low as 10 3 CFU/mL. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our sensor is capable of detecting bacteria while still attached to the food package, which eliminates the need to manipulate the sample. The developed biosensors are stable for at least the shelf life of perishable packaged food products and provide a packaging solution for real-time monitoring of pathogens. These sensors hold the potential to make a significant contribution to the ongoing efforts to mitigate the negative public-health-related impacts of food-borne illnesses.

  15. Environmental 14C and 3H activities: global trends and local contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcar Bronic, I.; Obelic, B.; Horvatincic, N.

    2000-01-01

    The anthropogenic disturbance of natural distributions of radiocarbon ( 14 C) and tritium ( 3 H) due to the release of bomb-produced isotopes occurred after the World War II and at the same time the monitoring of these isotopes started at several stations in the world. Radioactive isotopes 14 C and 3 H, together with the stable isotopes 2 H and 18 O, are very important tracers in environmental, climatological and hydrological studies. Monitoring of environmental levels of 14 C and 3 H in Croatia started more then 20 years ago, while that of the stable isotopes somewhat later. The monitoring was performed at the three types of stations: a) 'clean-air' sites, which are supposed to reflect only the global disturbance of the atmospheric isotope concentrations, b) in a densely populated industrial center, where the effect of intense fossil-fuel combustion is expected, and local contamination from institutions using radioactive-labeled material is also possible, and c) at locations around the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko. The mean yearly 3 H activities in precipitation continuously decrease since the beginning of monitoring approaching slowly the natural equilibrium. The monthly 3 H activities show seasonal variations, with maximum in early summer and minimum in early winter. Both seasonal variations and the decrease of the mean yearly values are typical for continental stations of the Northern Hemisphere. At the sampling site located at the Institute, several periods of higher 3 H activities were observed, due to the local contamination with the tritium-labeled material. The 14 C concentration in the atmosphere shows also the continuous decrease of the mean yearly values and superposed seasonal fluctuations, with higher activity during summer. Seasonal peak-to-peak variations are higher in the area of the city of Zagreb than at the clean-air site on the mountain (about 1000 m a.s.l.). This difference is caused by the introduction of CO 2 (containing no 14 C isotope

  16. Reactive Nitrogen Monitoring Gaps: Issues, Activities and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this article we demonstrate the importance of ammonia and organic nitrogen to total N deposition budgets and review the current activities to close these monitoring gaps. Finally, remaining monitoring needs and issues are discussed.

  17. Combining Geoelectrical Measurements and CO 2 Analyses to Monitor the Enhanced Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils: A Field Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Noel , Cécile; Gourry , Jean-Christophe; Deparis , Jacques; Blessing , Michaela; Ignatiadis , Ioannis; Guimbaud , Christophe

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers can be successfully remediated through enhanced biodegradation. However, in situ monitoring of the treatment by piezometers is expensive and invasive and might be insufficient as the information provided is restricted to vertical profiles at discrete locations. An alternative method was tested in order to improve the robustness of the monitoring. Geophysical methods, electrical resistivity (ER) and induced polarization (IP), were combi...

  18. Understanding transport pathways in a river system - Monitoring sediments contaminated by an incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, S.; Kleisinger, C.; Hillebrand, G.; Claus, E.; Schwartz, R.; Carls, I.; Winterscheid, A.; Schubert, B.

    2016-12-01

    Experiments to trace transport of sediments and suspended particulate matter on a river scale are an expensive and difficult venture, since it causes a lot of official requirements. In spring 2015, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were released during restoration works at a bridge in the upper part of the Elbe River, near the Czech-German border. In this study, the particle-bound PCB-transport is applied as a tracer for monitoring transport pathways of suspended solids (SS) along a whole river stretch over 700 km length. The incident was monitored by concentration measurements of seven indicator PCB congeners along the inland part of the Elbe River as well as in the Elbe estuary. Data from 15 monitoring stations (settling tanks) as well as from two longitudinal campaigns (grab samples) along the river in July and August 2015 are considered. The total PCB load is calculated for all stations on the basis of monthly contaminant concentrations and daily suspended sediment concentrations. Monte-Carlo simulations assess the uncertainties of the calculated load. 1D water levels and GIS analysis were used to locate temporal storage areas for the SS. It is shown that the ratio of high versus low chlorinated PCB congeners is a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load of the incident from the long-term background signal. Furthermore, the reduction of total PCB load within the upper Elbe indicates that roughly 24% of the SS were transported with the water by wash load. Approximately 600 km downstream of the incident site, the PCB-marked wash load was first identified in July 2015. PCB load transported intermittently in suspension was detected roughly 400 km downstream of the incident site by August 2015. In the Elbe Estuary, PCB-marked SS were only found upstream of the steep slope of water depth (approx. 4 to 15 m) within Hamburg harbor that acts as a major sediment sink. Here, SS from the inland Elbe are mixed with lowly contaminated marine material, which may mask the

  19. Evaluation of the homogeneity of reference flat sources used in calibration of surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, I.A.; Xavier, M.; Siqueira, P.T.D.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the uniformity of the wide area reference sources of the Calibration Laboratory of Instruments (LCI-IPEN) used in the calibration of surface contamination monitors, according the recommendations of the ISO 8769 standard and the NRPB. In this work used six wide area reference sources of 150 cm 2 of 241 Am, 14 C, 36 Cl, 137 Cs, 90 Sr+ 90 Y and 99 Tc with reference dates between 1996 and 1997 and three sources of 100 cm 2 of 14 C, 137 Cs and 60 Co were used with reference dates 2007. Measurements were performed with a radiation monitor of the Thermo, model FH40GX with a pancake probe, model FHZ732GM. We also made several models on paper with the objective of define each measurement position and an aluminum plate with a square hole (6.25 cm 2 ) in its center, allowing the passage of the radiation only through the hole. Each wide area reference source was positioned in setup and measurements were performed in order to cover the entire surface of the source. The values of the uniformity obtained partially confirm previous data obtained in another study conducted by LCI-IPEN, showing that some wide area reference sources 150 cm 2 in disagree with ISO 8769. In the former work, just the source of 241 Am (7.3%) was within the range specified by the standard, now have sources of 241 Am (5.7%), 137 Cs (8.8%), 90 Sr+ 9 '0Y (8, 8%) and 99 Tc (9.2%) with values within the specified uniformity. The sources of 14 C (53.3%) and 36 Cl (16.6%) were outside the specified. The wide area reference sources of 100 cm 2 , show disagreement in values of uniformity of the sources 14 C (46.7%) and 60 Co (10.4%). The values of the uniformity of the wide area reference sources show that some fonts can not be used in calibrations, because not in accordance with the value of uniformity specified in ISO 8769:2010, this is a conditions to believe a laboratory according to ISO 17025, show the laboratory performs its services with a high quality. The

  20. Application Of The SPV-based Surface Lifetime Technique To In-Line Monitoring Of Surface Cu Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, John; Savtchouk, Alexandre; Wilson, Matthew; Kim, Chul Hong; Yoo, Hyung Won; Lee, Chang Hwan; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Son, Sang Hoon

    2009-09-01

    Implementation of Cu interconnects into Silicon Integrated Circuits (IC's) has been instrumental in the continuing improvement of IC device performance. Copper as a well known Gate Oxide Integrity (GOI) killer [1, 2] requires extensive protocols to minimize the possibility of cross contamination. Despite such protocols the risk for cross contamination exists, and consequently there is the need for in-line Cu cross-contamination detection metrology. Preferably the metrology will be non-destructive, fast, and capable of mapping on product wafers. Up to now the most common approaches for monitoring Cu contamination in IC fabrication lines either measure Cu in the bulk Si, which is not applicable to Cu cross-contamination monitoring because Back-End-of-the-Line thermal budgets restrict the ability to diffuse the surface Cu into the bulk Si; or the techniques are not optimal for in-line monitoring due to their destructive, time-consuming, or costly nature. In this work we demonstrate for the first time the application of the ac-Surface Photo Voltage (ac-SPV) surface lifetime approach [3] to in-line, full wafer coverage mapping of low level (metrology system. Furthermore, because the metrology is non-contact (utilizing edge-grip handling) and non-destructive, it is directly applicable to measurement of production wafers. In-line fab data acquired using this metrology is presented and compared to data from Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS).

  1. Active waste disposal monitoring at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes an active waste disposal monitoring system proposed to be installed beneath the low-level radioactive disposal site at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. The monitoring instruments will be installed while the waste is being disposed. Instruments will be located adjacent to and immediately beneath the disposal area within the unsaturated zone to provide early warning of contaminant movement before contaminants reach the Snake River Plain Aquifer. This study determined the optimum sampling techniques using existing monitoring equipment. Monitoring devices were chosen that provide long-term data for moisture content, movement of gamma-emitting nuclides, and gas concentrations in the waste. The devices will allow leachate collection, pore-water collection, collection of gasses, and access for drilling through and beneath the waste at a later time. The optimum monitoring design includes gas sampling devices above, within, and below the waste. Samples will be collected for methane, tritium, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and volatile organic compounds. Access tubes will be utilized to define the redistribution of radionuclides within, above, and below the waste over time and to define moisture content changes within the waste using spectral and neutron logging, respectively. Tracers will be placed within the cover material and within waste containers to estimate transport times by conservative chemical tracers. Monitoring the vadose zone below, within, and adjacent to waste while it is being buried is a viable monitoring option. 12 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  2. The Thirty Years’ Results of Radiation Hygienic Monitoring of Tula Region territories contaminated due to the Chernobyl NPP accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Boldyreva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of Tula Region areas were contaminated after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The article provides the thirty years’ results of radiation hygienic monitoring of the Chernobyl accidental fallout - affected areas in Tula Region. The radiation situation is assessed at the initial accidental period and at the current stage. The initial levels of gamma - radiation dose intensity (up to 35 mcSv/hr are identified for the period of the “iodine” hazard along with the tabular data on the dose intensity relative stabilization by the beginning of August 1986 due to iodine-131 decay. The information is presented regarding iodine-131 tentative maximum permissible level exceedance in the dairy products of the two most contaminated regional areas - Plavskoye and Arsenievskoye. The article also provides the laboratory data on the total beta - activity in the foodstuffs in 1986-1987 and cesium-137 maximum permissible level exceedence in 1986. The radionuclide maximum permissible level exceedances in foodstuffs were registered only in 1986 due to the plants surface contamination whereas in the forest mushrooms those exceedances were repeatedly found until 2004. The black earths and grey forest soils had a benign impact upon the intensity of the radionuclide transfer into plants which resulted in the formation of internal radiation doses.At the current stage, the content of cesium-137 and strontium- 90 in the foodstuffs can only be quantified by a radiochemical method. The table covers all the districts within the boundaries of radiation contaminated zones. The radiochemical studies indicate the main dose - forming products. The article contains the table of internal and external radiation doses of the population in Plavsk town over 1986-1990 and displays the factors impacting population’s internal and external exposure. The Chernobyl - affected exposure dose of the population is mostly attributed to the external radiation and, for over twenty years, it

  3. Works carried out to correct and monitor water contamination; Actuaciones para la correccion y el seguimiento de la contaminacion hidrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayora, C.; Guijarro, A.; Domenech, C.; Fernandez, I.; Gomez, P.; Manzano, M.; Mora, A.; Moreno, L.; Navarrete, P.; Sanchez, M.; Serrano, J.

    2001-07-01

    The works carried out to correct or control the impact of the Aznalcollar mine spill on water is described. The chapter refers both to the surface water retained in Entremuros between walls area since the very first moment, to the Guadiamar river water, and to groundwater in the aquifers affected by the spill. Most of the water retained in Entremuros after the spill was treated in situ by the IGME in an emergency plant, and afterwards was evacuated to the Guadalquivir river through the Canal de Aguas Minimas (low water canal). The water was cleaned by adding sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide to small volumes which allowed to settle afterwards. The treatment and evacuation activities lasted around one month. The impact of the spill on the river water resulted in the immediate acidification, reaching pH values around 4 between the failed dam and Aznalcazar village. Also, dissolved oxygen was eliminated, suspended solids increased up to 30 g/L and dissolved heavy metals reached concentrations close to those of the original spilled water. However, after a few days the dissolved oxygen concentrations were recovered, most of the solid particles settled down, and pH started slowly to increase. the fast collection of the mud settled down on the river margins prevented the continuous contamination of the river. However, the Agrio river sector between the failed dam and the Agrio-Guadiamar river junction is still contaminated with acid and heavy metals. It is assumed the discharge of contaminated water from the alluvial aquifer into the river bed. To the s of the Agrio-Guadiamar junction the main threat to river water quality is the disposal of urban and agro-industrial untreated waste water. Looking to the impact on groundwater, only the above mentioned sector of the Agrio river alluvial aquifer is widely contaminated. This pollution is probably due both to the 1998 spill and the previous leakage from the tailings dam, and it is presently under study. Between the Agrio

  4. Impact of the internal contamination monitoring for national and international regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaburo, J.C.; Sordi, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    An evaluation of the internal radiation dose received by workers between 1984 and 1994 was performed, after a brief description of IPEN facility. The National and International Recommendation aims to reduce the workers' doses below 1/10 of the annual limits. The routine monitoring should be eliminated, if the individual annual dose is below 3/10 of the annual limits. In this case, only the operational monitoring should be maintained. In principle, the concept of restricted area should be reviewed, because, according to Publication 26 of ICRP, 1977, it should be a supervised area instead. The new concept of restricted area recommended by the Publication 60, ICRP 1991, should be adjusted accordingly. Thus, the classification used by the Commission-controlled areas and supervised areas will be with the foreseeable dose and not with the actual dose. When the individual annual dose is kept below 1/10 of the annual limits, the routine monitoring is not necessary, and only operational monitoring is needed. Finally, the future possible activities of the Individual Internal Dosimetry Laboratory at IPEN are discussed, after the elimination of individual monitoring. (authors). 8 refs

  5. New developments in continuous monitoring of airborne activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    Air monitors that operate continuously are used in nuclear facilities to detect unexpected malfunctions in controls that limit levels of airborne radioactivity in occupied area. Monitoring for concentrations of alpha-emitting transuranics is the most difficult task in air monitoring. Workplace monitoring for alpha emitters requires a detection level ∼2% that of nonalpha-emitting radionuclides with a half-life >2 h. Typically, air monitoring is accomplished by passing a volume of the monitored air through a filter to collect the particulates. The filter is located near a detector that monitors the radioactivity of the collected particles and sends an alarm when the activity exceeds established limits. Alpha activity from daughters of thoron and radon, present in all air in variable amounts, hampers monitoring for transuranics. This presentation describes developments that have improved the accuracy and sensitivity for the monitoring of airborne concentration of transuranics

  6. Biological Activity Assessment in Mexican Tropical Soils with Different Hydrocarbon Contamination Histories

    OpenAIRE

    Riveroll-Larios, Jessica; Escalante-Espinosa, Erika; Fócil-Monterrubio, Reyna L.; Díaz-Ramírez, Ildefonso J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of soil health indicators linked to microbial activities, such as key enzymes and respirometric profiles, helps assess the natural attenuation potential of soils contaminated with hydrocarbons. In this study, the intrinsic physicochemical characteristics, biological activity and biodegradation potential were recorded for two soils with different contamination histories (>5 years and

  7. Comparison of Passive Samplers for Monitoring Dissolved Organic Contaminants in Water Column Deployments NAC/SETAC 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonionic organic contaminants (NOCs) are difficult to measure in the water column due to their inherent chemical properties resulting in low water solubility and high particle activity. Traditional sampling methods require large quantities of water to be extracted and interferen...

  8. Contamination Event Detection with Multivariate Time-Series Data in Agricultural Water Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchi Mao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Time series data of multiple water quality parameters are obtained from the water sensor networks deployed in the agricultural water supply network. The accurate and efficient detection and warning of contamination events to prevent pollution from spreading is one of the most important issues when pollution occurs. In order to comprehensively reduce the event detection deviation, a spatial–temporal-based event detection approach with multivariate time-series data for water quality monitoring (M-STED was proposed. The M-STED approach includes three parts. The first part is that M-STED adopts a Rule K algorithm to select backbone nodes as the nodes in the CDS, and forward the sensed data of multiple water parameters. The second part is to determine the state of each backbone node with back propagation neural network models and the sequential Bayesian analysis in the current timestamp. The third part is to establish a spatial model with Bayesian networks to estimate the state of the backbones in the next timestamp and trace the “outlier” node to its neighborhoods to detect a contamination event. The experimental results indicate that the average detection rate is more than 80% with M-STED and the false detection rate is lower than 9%, respectively. The M-STED approach can improve the rate of detection by about 40% and reduce the false alarm rate by about 45%, compared with the event detection with a single water parameter algorithm, S-STED. Moreover, the proposed M-STED can exhibit better performance in terms of detection delay and scalability.

  9. 2017 Update on the WFC3/UVIS Stability and Contamination Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, C. E.; Gosmeyer, C. M.; Baggett, S.

    2017-06-01

    The photometric throughput of the UVIS detector on WFC3 is monitored each cycle for its stability as a function of time, wavelength, as well as to check for any evidence of contamination on the CCD windows, which would manifest as a decrease in throughput strongest in the bluest filters. This program has been in place since the installation of WFC3 in 2009, historically making periodic observations of the spectrophotometric standard GRW+70d5824 (GRW70) in several key filters from 200 nm to 600 nm, with red filters acting as a control. This is a follow up report to the last analysis of the temporal stability of UVIS (Gosmeyer et al., 2014), since which several major changes to the program and data analysis have been implemented. Due to recent work suggesting a low-level, long-term variability for GRW70, another spectrophotometric standard star - GD153 - has been added to the program and is now analyzed in conjunction with GRW70. Data are now processed with the latest version of the CALWF3 calibration pipeline (v. 3.4), which has several new features that represent a paradigm shift in calibration methodology. Finally, the data analysis software, which was previously entirely IRAF based, was re-written in Python. We find a steady decline in the count rate for most filters but no evidence for contamination, which would manifest as a wavelength-dependent effect, impacting bluer filters more strongly. These declines range from 0.01% to 0.3% per year, and are stronger in longer wavelength filters. Similar temporal changes are found for both stars, and the long-term trends in throughput agree with previous trends derived in 2014.

  10. JAXA's activities for environmental health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    In the first ten years after establishment of the Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) in 2003, our focuses were mainly on technical development (hardware and software) and accumulation of application research. In the next decade, we focus more on solution on social issues using innovative space science technology. Currently, JAXA is operating and developing several earth observation satellites and sensors: Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) "IBUKI", Global Change Observation Mission - Water "SHIZUKU" (GCOM-W), Global Precipitation Measurement/Dual- frequency Precipitation Radar (GPM/DPR), Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 "DAICHI-2" (ALOS-2), Global Change Observation Mission - Climate (GCOM-C), Earth Cloud, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE), and GOSAT-2. They will provide essential environmental parameters, such as aerosols, clouds, land vegetation, ocean color, GHGs, and so on. In addition to the above missions, we are studying new instruments (altimeter, LIDAR, detectors, optical components) to obtain new parameters. Our activities will advance to provide essential inputs for diagnosis, prediction, and management of climate change, environmental assessment, and disaster monitoring.

  11. Ahead with Cairo. Monitoring country activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danguilan, M; Wainer, J; Widyantoro, N; Capoor, I; Huq, N; Ashino, Y; Sadasivam, B; Le Thi Nham Tuyet

    1995-04-01

    In the aftermath of the 1994 UN Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, countries are proceeding with their implementation of the plan of action adopted at the conference. A brief description is given of some actions taken by specific countries toward plan implementation. In the Philippines meetings were held immediately after the conference in October on the implications for the Management, Family Planning, and Nongovernmental Organizations programs. The issues of concern were identified as the need for regular consultative meetings among relevant agencies, consultations with women's groups, and a responsive adolescents program. In Australia the program thrust was to focus on the implications for immigration. Monitoring of the plans of action will be undertaken by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). In Malaysia committees are preparing a program of action suitable for implementation in Malaysia. A regional women's NGO organized a forum on the implications of ICPD for women's reproductive health, women's rights, and empowerment in Malaysia. In Vietnam, press conferences are used to communicate conference results. An NGO translated relevant ICPD materials into Vietnamese. In Indonesia, several ministries convened meetings among donors, NGOs, women's groups, and experts. In India, the government held a national conference. One view was that population issues should be discussed in the context of gender equality and empowerment of women. Another issue was the importance of placing reproductive health in the larger context of health and primary health services. Health personnel at all levels were considered in need of sensitization on gender issues. Problems such as anemia have not been successfully addressed in existing programs. The government agreed to remove in phases target driven programs and the sterilization emphasis. In Bangladesh, a national committee was formed, and NGOs are actively distributing information. In Japan, the Family Planning

  12. Study and monitoring of the contamination of cultivated soils; Etude et controle de la contamination des sols cultives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovard, P.; Grauby, A.

    1960-07-15

    Arable lands are directly concerned by radioactive fallouts as a large part of radio-elements is fixed in the soil first centimetres in which roots of many plants are growing. The authors report the study of fixations at the level of roots, of the movements of radio-elements in the soil solution at their neighbourhood, and of the influence of leaching (by rainfalls or irrigation). Variations of soil content in calcium and strontium have been achieved to highlight dispersion and inhibition factors. The authors present the implemented experimental method, i.e. how soils have been contaminated, how crop pots have been prepared, and how the experiment is performed. Experiments are performed by using ray grass as a crop. The authors assessed radioactive uptake by aerial parts of the plant, studied the rhizosphere, and discussed radiographies obtained on different pots (contaminated, seeded or not, watered or not, with addition of different quantities of strontium or calcium compound)

  13. Monitoring priority substances, other organic contaminants and heavy metals in a volcanic aquifer from different sources and hydrological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Fernández-Vera, Juan Ramón; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino

    2016-05-01

    Irrigation with reclaimed water (R) is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of semi-arid areas. Results obtained during a two years monitoring network (2009-2011) in Gran Canaria are presented, including the analysis of chemical parameters, N and S isotopes, priority substances (2008/105/EC, 2013/39/EU), other organic contaminants and heavy metals in groundwater and R used to irrigate a golf course. The aims of this work are to evaluate the contamination in a volcanic aquifer, relate the presence of organic contaminants and heavy metals with the hydrogeochemistry and identify pollution sources in the area. No priority substance exceeded the EU thresholds for surface water, although seventeen were detected in R. The most frequent compounds were hexachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. These compounds were detected at low concentration, except chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, terbuthylazine, diuron, terbutryn, procymidone, atrazine and propazine exceeded the European threshold concentration for pesticides in groundwater (100ngL(-1)). Therefore, the priority substances chlorpyrifos ethyl and diuron must be included in monitoring studies. The priority pesticides chlorfenvinphos and diazinon were always detected in R but rarely in groundwater. Besides, the existence of contaminants not related to the current R irrigation has been identified. Absence of environmental problems related to heavy metals can be expected. The relationship among contaminant presence, hydrogeochemistry, including the stable isotopic prints of δ(18)O, δ(15)N and δ(34)S and preferential recharge paths has been described. The coastal well shows high values of EC, nitrate, a variable chemistry, and 50% of organic contaminants detected above 100ngL(-1). The well located in the recharge area presents a stable hydrochemistry, the lowest value of δ(15)N and the lowest contaminants occurrence. The area is an example of a complex volcanic media with several

  14. How consumer physical activity monitors could transform human physiology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall Brown, Tyish S.; Collier, Scott R.; Sandberg, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity are well-established risk factors for chronic disease and adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is enormous interest in measuring physical activity in biomedical research. Many consumer physical activity monitors, including Basis Health Tracker, BodyMedia Fit, DirectLife, Fitbit Flex, Fitbit One, Fitbit Zip, Garmin Vivofit, Jawbone UP, MisFit Shine, Nike FuelBand, Polar Loop, Withings Pulse O2, and others have accuracies similar to that of research-grade physical activity monitors for measuring steps. This review focuses on the unprecedented opportunities that consumer physical activity monitors offer for human physiology and pathophysiology research because of their ability to measure activity continuously under real-life conditions and because they are already widely used by consumers. We examine current and potential uses of consumer physical activity monitors as a measuring or monitoring device, or as an intervention in strategies to change behavior and predict health outcomes. The accuracy, reliability, reproducibility, and validity of consumer physical activity monitors are reviewed, as are limitations and challenges associated with using these devices in research. Other topics covered include how smartphone apps and platforms, such as the Apple ResearchKit, can be used in conjunction with consumer physical activity monitors for research. Lastly, the future of consumer physical activity monitors and related technology is considered: pattern recognition, integration of sleep monitors, and other biosensors in combination with new forms of information processing. PMID:28052867

  15. How consumer physical activity monitors could transform human physiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen P; Hall Brown, Tyish S; Collier, Scott R; Sandberg, Kathryn

    2017-03-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity are well-established risk factors for chronic disease and adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is enormous interest in measuring physical activity in biomedical research. Many consumer physical activity monitors, including Basis Health Tracker, BodyMedia Fit, DirectLife, Fitbit Flex, Fitbit One, Fitbit Zip, Garmin Vivofit, Jawbone UP, MisFit Shine, Nike FuelBand, Polar Loop, Withings Pulse O 2 , and others have accuracies similar to that of research-grade physical activity monitors for measuring steps. This review focuses on the unprecedented opportunities that consumer physical activity monitors offer for human physiology and pathophysiology research because of their ability to measure activity continuously under real-life conditions and because they are already widely used by consumers. We examine current and potential uses of consumer physical activity monitors as a measuring or monitoring device, or as an intervention in strategies to change behavior and predict health outcomes. The accuracy, reliability, reproducibility, and validity of consumer physical activity monitors are reviewed, as are limitations and challenges associated with using these devices in research. Other topics covered include how smartphone apps and platforms, such as the Apple ResearchKit, can be used in conjunction with consumer physical activity monitors for research. Lastly, the future of consumer physical activity monitors and related technology is considered: pattern recognition, integration of sleep monitors, and other biosensors in combination with new forms of information processing. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Lipase activities of microbial isolates from soil contaminated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... degrade environmental contaminants is among these new technologies. ... The right microbes are those bacteria or fungi, which have the ... was collected with unused plastic bag sealed with heavy-duty rubber bounds.

  17. Hydrolytic and ligninolytic enzyme activities in the Pb contaminated soil inoculated with litter-decomposing fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähkönen, Mika A; Lankinen, Pauliina; Hatakka, Annele

    2008-06-01

    The impact of Pb contamination was tested to five hydrolytic (beta-glucosidase, beta-xylosidase, beta-cellobiosidase, alpha-glucosidase and sulphatase) and two ligninolytic (manganese peroxidase, MnP and laccase) enzyme activities in the humus layer in the forest soil. The ability of eight selected litter-degrading fungi to grow and produce extracellular enzymes in the heavily Pb (40 g Pb of kg ww soil(-1)) contaminated and non-contaminated soil in the non-sterile conditions was also studied. The Pb content in the test soil was close to that of the shooting range at Hälvälä (37 g Pb of kg ww soil(-1)) in Southern Finland. The fungi were Agaricus bisporus, Agrocybe praecox, Gymnopus peronatus, Gymnopilus sapineus, Mycena galericulata, Gymnopilus luteofolius, Stropharia aeruginosa and Stropharia rugosoannulata. The Pb contamination (40 g Pb of kg ww soil(-1)) was deleterious to all five studied hydrolytic enzyme activities after five weeks of incubation. All five hydrolytic enzyme activities were significantly higher in the soil than in the extract of the soil indicating that a considerable part of enzymes were particle bound in the soils. Hydrolytic enzyme activities were higher in the non-contaminated soil than in the Pb contaminated soil. Fungal inocula increased the hydrolytic enzyme activities beta-cellobiosidase and beta-glucosidase in non-contaminated soils. All five hydrolytic enzyme activities were similar with fungi and without fungi in the Pb contaminated soil. This was in line that Pb contamination (40 g Pb of kg ww soil(-1)) depressed the growth of all fungi compared to those grown without Pb in the soil. Laccase and MnP activities were low in both Pb contaminated and non-contaminated soil cultures. MnP activities were higher in soil cultures containing Pb than without Pb. Our results showed that Pb in the shooting ranges decreased fungal growth and microbial functioning in the soil.

  18. Exercise of laboratory comparison for contamination monitor calibration between LNMRI/IRD and LCR/UERJ - 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, T.S.; David, M.

    2016-01-01

    This work was motivated by the need to decide on the best methodology to be applied in the next contamination monitor calibration comparisons with the Brazilian network of calibration radiation monitors. The calibration factor was chosen as a response calibration performed in the four monitors used in this comparison because it does not require the detector area or probe thereby reducing an important variable. It was observed that the variation of the positioning system may have an influence up to 10% in calibration. The results obtained for the calibration factor showed a difference of up to 31.2%. (author)

  19. Monitoring priority substances, other organic contaminants and heavy metals in a volcanic aquifer from different sources and hydrological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Fernández-Vera, Juan Ramón; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino

    2016-01-01

    Irrigation with reclaimed water (R) is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of semi-arid areas. Results obtained during a two years monitoring network (2009–2011) in Gran Canaria are presented, including the analysis of chemical parameters, N and S isotopes, priority substances (2008/105/EC, 2013/39/EU), other organic contaminants and heavy metals in groundwater and R used to irrigate a golf course. The aims of this work are to evaluate the contamination in a volcanic aquifer, relate the presence of organic contaminants and heavy metals with the hydrogeochemistry and identify pollution sources in the area. No priority substance exceeded the EU thresholds for surface water, although seventeen were detected in R. The most frequent compounds were hexachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. These compounds were detected at low concentration, except chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, terbuthylazine, diuron, terbutryn, procymidone, atrazine and propazine exceeded the European threshold concentration for pesticides in groundwater (100 ng L"−"1). Therefore, the priority substances chlorpyrifos ethyl and diuron must be included in monitoring studies. The priority pesticides chlorfenvinphos and diazinon were always detected in R but rarely in groundwater. Besides, the existence of contaminants not related to the current R irrigation has been identified. Absence of environmental problems related to heavy metals can be expected. The relationship among contaminant presence, hydrogeochemistry, including the stable isotopic prints of δ"1"8O, δ"1"5N and δ"3"4S and preferential recharge paths has been described. The coastal well shows high values of EC, nitrate, a variable chemistry, and 50% of organic contaminants detected above 100 ng L"−"1. The well located in the recharge area presents a stable hydrochemistry, the lowest value of δ"1"5N and the lowest contaminants occurrence. The area is an example of a complex volcanic media with

  20. Monitoring priority substances, other organic contaminants and heavy metals in a volcanic aquifer from different sources and hydrological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevez, Esmeralda, E-mail: eestevez@proyinves.ulpgc.es [Dpt. Física (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Agrifood and Phytopathological Laboratory (Cabildo de Gran Canaria), 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain); Cabrera, María del Carmen, E-mail: mcarmen.cabrera@ulpgc.es [Dpt. Física (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); IMDEA Water Institute, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Fernández-Vera, Juan Ramón, E-mail: jrfernandezv@grancanaria.com [Agrifood and Phytopathological Laboratory (Cabildo de Gran Canaria), 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain); Molina-Díaz, Antonio, E-mail: amolina@ujaen.es [Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Robles-Molina, José, E-mail: jroblesmol@gmail.com [Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino, E-mail: mp.palaciosdiaz@ulpgc.es [Dpt. de Patología Animal, Producción Animal, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2016-05-01

    Irrigation with reclaimed water (R) is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of semi-arid areas. Results obtained during a two years monitoring network (2009–2011) in Gran Canaria are presented, including the analysis of chemical parameters, N and S isotopes, priority substances (2008/105/EC, 2013/39/EU), other organic contaminants and heavy metals in groundwater and R used to irrigate a golf course. The aims of this work are to evaluate the contamination in a volcanic aquifer, relate the presence of organic contaminants and heavy metals with the hydrogeochemistry and identify pollution sources in the area. No priority substance exceeded the EU thresholds for surface water, although seventeen were detected in R. The most frequent compounds were hexachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. These compounds were detected at low concentration, except chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, terbuthylazine, diuron, terbutryn, procymidone, atrazine and propazine exceeded the European threshold concentration for pesticides in groundwater (100 ng L{sup −1}). Therefore, the priority substances chlorpyrifos ethyl and diuron must be included in monitoring studies. The priority pesticides chlorfenvinphos and diazinon were always detected in R but rarely in groundwater. Besides, the existence of contaminants not related to the current R irrigation has been identified. Absence of environmental problems related to heavy metals can be expected. The relationship among contaminant presence, hydrogeochemistry, including the stable isotopic prints of δ{sup 18}O, δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 34}S and preferential recharge paths has been described. The coastal well shows high values of EC, nitrate, a variable chemistry, and 50% of organic contaminants detected above 100 ng L{sup −1}. The well located in the recharge area presents a stable hydrochemistry, the lowest value of δ{sup 15}N and the lowest contaminants occurrence. The area is an example of a complex

  1. Environmental Contamination Genetic Consequences Monitoring on the Former Semipalatinsk Test Site: General Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seisebaev, A.T.; Bakhtin, M.M.; Zhapbasov, R.Zh.

    1998-01-01

    For an objective assessment of nuclear test consequences for the environment it is necessary, together with the investigation of radiation situation, to study live biological systems, particularly the genetic effects of chronic ionizing radiation. The long staying of plants and animals on the territories with the elevated radiation background level can lead to the change of organism genetic system. In this connection the monitoring of chronically exposed natural populations is of particular interest and can serve as the objective indicator of the scale of natural biota genetic damage. Basing on the results obtained during plant and animal studies one can indirectly assess the hazard of people genetic damage. Besides, studying the mutational process on natural populations exposed to the chronic ionizing radiation one can reveal new regularities, which are impossible to be detected in the laboratory conditions, and new aspects of radiation genetics. The issue of radiation adaptation of organisms affected by the various doses of ionizing radiation is very acute. The prerequisite of organism adaptation to the certain radiation background is genetic heterogeneity of individuals comprising the population and selection of radiation-induced individuals, which are the carriers of the mutation of high radioresistance. The uniqueness of the Semipalatinsk Test site and the necessity of long-term investigations of the nuclear test consequences for the environment demand the elaboration of principles for organization and utilization of natural population genetic monitoring. Radiation-genetic monitoring is the long-term observation of palpitation gene pool conditions, assessment and forecast of their spatial and time alteration, determination of limits of changes admitted under the condition of environmental radioactive contamination. It includes a series of the main research directions and has quite certain methodological peculiarities. In this paper we discuss the tasks of

  2. Activities and Issues in Monitoring Scrap Metal Against Radioactive Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.Y., E-mail: sychen@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Over the past few decades, the global scrap metal industry has grown increasingly vigilant regarding radioactive contamination. Accidental melts of radioactive sources in some smelting facilities, in particular, have caused considerable damage and required recovery efforts costing tens of millions of dollars. In response, the industry has developed and deployed countermeasures. Increasingly expensive and sophisticated radiation monitoring devices have been implemented at key scrap entry points - ports and scrapyards. Recognition of the importance of such endeavors has led to a series of activities aimed at establishing organized and coordinated efforts among the interested parties. Recent concerns over the potential use of radioactive sources for radiological devices in terrorist acts have substantially heightened the need for national and international authorities to further control, intercept, and secure the sources that have escaped the regulatory domain. Enhanced collaboration by the government and industry could substantially improve the effectiveness of efforts at control; the 'Spanish Protocol' as developed by the Spanish metal industry and government regulators is a good example of such collaboration. (author)

  3. Classifying Transition Behaviour in Postural Activity Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James BRUSEY

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A few accelerometers positioned on different parts of the body can be used to accurately classify steady state behaviour, such as walking, running, or sitting. Such systems are usually built using supervised learning approaches. Transitions between postures are, however, difficult to deal with using posture classification systems proposed to date, since there is no label set for intermediary postures and also the exact point at which the transition occurs can sometimes be hard to pinpoint. The usual bypass when using supervised learning to train such systems is to discard a section of the dataset around each transition. This leads to poorer classification performance when the systems are deployed out of the laboratory and used on-line, particularly if the regimes monitored involve fast paced activity changes. Time-based filtering that takes advantage of sequential patterns is a potential mechanism to improve posture classification accuracy in such real-life applications. Also, such filtering should reduce the number of event messages needed to be sent across a wireless network to track posture remotely, hence extending the system’s life. To support time-based filtering, understanding transitions, which are the major event generators in a classification system, is a key. This work examines three approaches to post-process the output of a posture classifier using time-based filtering: a naïve voting scheme, an exponentially weighted voting scheme, and a Bayes filter. Best performance is obtained from the exponentially weighted voting scheme although it is suspected that a more sophisticated treatment of the Bayes filter might yield better results.

  4. Monitoring airborne biotic contaminants in the indoor environment of pig and poultry confinement buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Li, Xiangzhen; Yang, Xufei; Shinkai, Takumi; Zhang, Yuanhui; Wang, Xinlei; Mackie, Roderick I

    2012-06-01

    Given the growing concerns over human and animal health issues related to confined animal feeding operations, an in-depth examination is required to monitor for airborne bacteria and associated antibiotic resistance genes. Our 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing revealed that the airborne microbial community skewed towards a higher abundance of Firmicutes (> 59.2%) and Bacteroidetes (4.2-31.4%) within the confinement buildings, while the office environment was predominated by Proteobacteria (55.2%). Furthermore, bioaerosols in the confinement buildings were sporadically associated with genera of potential pathogens, and these genera were more frequently observed in the bioaerosols of pig and layer hen confinement than the turkey confinement buildings and office environment. High abundances of tetracycline resistance genes (9.55 × 10(2) to 1.69 × 10(6) copies ng(-1) DNA) were also detected in the bioaerosols sampled from confinement buildings. Bacterial lineages present in the poultry bioaerosols clustered apart from those present in the pig bioaerosols and among the different phases of pig production, suggesting that different livestock as well as production phase were associated with a distinct airborne microbial community. By understanding the diversity of biotic contaminants associated with the different confinement buildings, this study facilitates the implementation of better management strategies to minimize potential health impacts on both livestock and humans working in this environment. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Cuban-Brazilian comparison of the calibration procedures for surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, Gonzalo W.; Garcia, Jose A.T.; Ramos, Manoel M.O.

    2007-01-01

    The calibration laboratory of the CPHR, Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, is the only laboratory that performs calibrations of radiation protection instruments in Cuba. Recently they started a cooperation project with IAEA, code number CUB3002-01 with the task title 'Assuring and Demonstrating the safety of radioactive Waste Management'. Within the frame of this project they have a compromise to implement the calibration service for surface contamination monitors, for which they received instruments and sources. In 2006 the Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI) from the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, IRD/CNEN, was invited to perform a mission to CPHR in order to evaluate the level of implementation of the service trough the insertion of the service in the Quality Assurance System of their laboratory, and perform a comparison exercise to test the calibration method implemented. The results were evaluated by the methodology recommended in the ISO/IEC 43-1 standard. These results show that all values from both laboratories are comparable for most radionuclides except for Cl-36. The preliminary investigation about this situation is presented in the paper. (author)

  6. Long-term electrical resistivity monitoring of recharge-induced contaminant plume behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperikova, Erika; Hubbard, Susan S; Watson, David B; Baker, Gregory S; Peterson, John E; Kowalsky, Michael B; Smith, Meagan; Brooks, Scott

    2012-11-01

    Geophysical measurements, and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data in particular, are sensitive to properties that are related (directly or indirectly) to hydrological processes. The challenge is in extracting information from geophysical data at a relevant scale that can be used to gain insight about subsurface behavior and to parameterize or validate flow and transport models. Here, we consider the use of ERT data for examining the impact of recharge on subsurface contamination at the S-3 ponds of the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Tennessee. A large dataset of time-lapse cross-well and surface ERT data, collected at the site over a period of 12 months, is used to study time variations in resistivity due to changes in total dissolved solids (primarily nitrate). The electrical resistivity distributions recovered from cross-well and surface ERT data agrees well, and both of these datasets can be used to interpret spatiotemporal variations in subsurface nitrate concentrations due to rainfall, although the sensitivity of the electrical resistivity response to dilution varies with nitrate concentration. Using the time-lapse surface ERT data interpreted in terms of nitrate concentrations, we find that the subsurface nitrate concentration at this site varies as a function of spatial position, episodic heavy rainstorms (versus seasonal and annual fluctuations), and antecedent rainfall history. These results suggest that the surface ERT monitoring approach is potentially useful for examining subsurface plume responses to recharge over field-relevant scales. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Individual monitoring: A tool for active ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.

    1989-01-01

    The system of individual monitoring at CERN is presented. Following the substantial decrease of individual doses over the last decade, emphasis is now placed on monitoring rather than on dosimetric aspects. Future developments have to face a possible decrease of dose limits that are difficult to control in view of the lower detection limits for the detectors presently used. One possible solution to the problem is the increase in the wearing time for individual dosemeters. (author)

  8. Geophysical monitoring of active hydrologic processes as part of the Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, R.L.

    1992-05-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in collaboration with University of California at Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is conducting the Dynamic Underground Stripping Project (DUSP), an integrated project demonstrating the use of active thermal techniques to remove subsurface organic contamination. Complementary techniques address a number of environmental restoration problems: (1) steam flood strips organic contaminants from permeable zones, (2) electrical heating drives contaminants from less permeable zones into the more permeable zones from which they can be extracted, and (3) geophysical monitoring tracks and images the progress of the thermal fronts, providing feedback and control of the active processes. The first DUSP phase involved combined steam injection and vapor extraction in a ''clean'' site in the Livermore Valley consisting of unconsolidated alluvial interbeds of clays, sands and gravels. Steam passed rapidly through a high-permeability gravel unit, where in situ temperatures reached 117 degree C. An integrated program of geophysical monitoring was carried out at the Clean Site. We performed electrical resistance tomography (ERT), seismic tomography (crossborehole), induction tomography, passive seismic monitoring, a variety of different temperature measurement techniques and conventional geophysical well logging

  9. Environmental monitoring activities in JAERI at JCO accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Takenori

    2001-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was involved in a various environmental monitoring activities, such as environmental radiation monitoring by monitoring post and monitoring car, air dust, soil, green vegetables and water sampling and measurements, neutron and gamma radiation dose rate survey around the JCO site for emergency response actions to the JCO accident on September 30, 1999. These activities were performed from Sep. 30 to Oct. 2, and were the initial and first stage activities in the emergency environmental monitoring activities. JAERI has been assigned to the public organization to support the government by Disaster Prevention Fundamental Law. These activities were performed to ensure the public safety to avoid the effluent of the accident. Through the environmental monitoring activities, I recognized that the importance of the accident information to make the best use for the initial environmental monitoring, and the monitoring information exchange is important to perform the effective monitoring activities for taking the early countermeasures such as evacuation to the public. (author)

  10. Monitoring of plutonium contaminated solid waste streams. Chapter II: principles and theory of radiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.; Bondar, L.; Notea, A.; Segal, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The interpretation of a count rate distribution obtained from radiometric assay of a given waste items population in terms of source strength distribution is discussed. A model for the evaluation of errors, arising from non uniform source density distribution (Pu) within the item volume and heterogeneity of matrix materials, is presented. Points concerning calibration procedures and representativity of reference materials are dealt with. Qualification procedures for possible monitoring systems are outlined on the basis of comparison with reference systems. The latter are composed of reference monitors based on high resolution gamma spectrometry and passive and active neutron techniques. The importance of information upon the elemental composition and density distribution of matrix materials for the interpretation of radiometric assay of solid wastes is stressed

  11. Activated carbon amendment to sequester PAHs in contaminated soil: a lysimeter field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Sarah E; Elmquist, Marie; Brändli, Rahel; Hartnik, Thomas; Jakob, Lena; Henriksen, Thomas; Werner, David; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2012-04-01

    Activated carbon (AC) amendment is an innovative method for the in situ remediation of contaminated soils. A field-scale AC amendment of either 2% powder or granular AC (PAC and GAC) to a PAH contaminated soil was carried out in Norway. The PAH concentration in drainage water from the field plot was measured with a direct solvent extraction and by deploying polyoxymethylene (POM) passive samplers. In addition, POM samplers were dug directly in the AC amended and unamended soil in order to monitor the reduction in free aqueous PAH concentrations in the soil pore water. The total PAH concentration in the drainage water, measured by direct solvent extraction of the water, was reduced by 14% for the PAC amendment and by 59% for GAC, 12 months after amendment. Measurements carried out with POM showed a reduction of 93% for PAC and 56% for GAC. The free aqueous PAH concentration in soil pore water was reduced 93% and 76%, 17 and 28 months after PAC amendment, compared to 84% and 69% for GAC. PAC, in contrast to GAC, was more effective for reducing freely dissolved concentrations than total dissolved ones. This could tentatively be explained by leaching of microscopic AC particles from PAC. Secondary chemical effects of the AC amendment were monitored by considering concentration changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nutrients. DOC was bound by AC, while the concentrations of nutrients (NO(3), NO(2), NH(4), PO(4), P-total, K, Ca and Mg) were variable and likely affected by external environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Monitoring of Fasciola Species Contamination in Water Dropwort by cox1 Mitochondrial and ITS-2 rDNA Sequencing Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In-Wook; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Quan, Juan-Hua; Ryu, Jae-Gee; Sun, Rubing; Lee, Young-Ha

    2015-10-01

    Fascioliasis, a food-borne trematode zoonosis, is a disease primarily in cattle and sheep and occasionally in humans. Water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica), an aquatic perennial herb, is a common second intermediate host of Fasciola, and the fresh stems and leaves are widely used as a seasoning in the Korean diet. However, no information regarding Fasciola species contamination in water dropwort is available. Here, we collected 500 samples of water dropwort in 3 areas in Korea during February and March 2015, and the water dropwort contamination of Fasciola species was monitored by DNA sequencing analysis of the Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica specific mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2). Among the 500 samples assessed, the presence of F. hepatica cox1 and 1TS-2 markers were detected in 2 samples, and F. hepatica contamination was confirmed by sequencing analysis. The nucleotide sequences of cox1 PCR products from the 2 F. hepatica-contaminated samples were 96.5% identical to the F. hepatica cox1 sequences in GenBank, whereas F. gigantica cox1 sequences were 46.8% similar with the sequence detected from the cox1 positive samples. However, F. gigantica cox1 and ITS-2 markers were not detected by PCR in the 500 samples of water dropwort. Collectively, in this survey of the water dropwort contamination with Fasciola species, very low prevalence of F. hepatica contamination was detected in the samples.

  13. Active sites environmental monitoring Program - Program Plan: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, C.M.; Hicks, D.S.; Ashwood, T.L.; Cunningham, G.R.

    1994-05-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of active low-level-waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Several changes have recently occurred in regard to the sites that are currently used for waste storage and disposal. These changes require a second set of revisions to the ASEMP program plan. This document incorporates those revisions. This program plan presents the organization and procedures for monitoring the active sites. The program plan also provides internal reporting levels to guide the evaluation of monitoring results

  14. Remediation of the Andreyev Bay naval base; present contamination status and future monitoring strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hustveit, Styrkaar; Sneve, Malgorzata K.; Reistad, Ole; Kiselev, Mikhail; Shandala, Natalya

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Andreyev Bay shore technical base (STB) is a former naval installation and the largest nuclear legacy site in northwest Russia. Established in the late 50-ties and early 60-ties, this naval facility performed activities related to the refuelling of Soviet Northern Fleet nuclear-propelled vessels as well as being a temporary storage site for SNF and solid and liquid radioactive wastes (SRW and LRW) arising as a result of civilian and military nuclear-propelled vessels operations and maintenance. A large inventory of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste (RAW) are located at the site, and since an accident in 1982 large amounts of radioactivity have been released from the storage facilities. Remediation of Andreyev STB has been the subject of international cooperation for many years. Great Britain, Italy, Norway, Sweden and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) have collaborated with the Russian government to secure the site, improve the infrastructure at the site, plan for new management strategies/facilities for SNF and demolish old buildings that were deemed an environmental hazard. On the basis of an agreement between the Russian Federal State Enterprise 'SevRao' and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) a study to map the gamma dose rates and the surface radionuclide concentrations in the contaminated parts of the site, as well as an overview and general knowledge of the area regarding geological and hydrogeological conditions was performed in the period 2002-2004. The aim of the study was to enable the provision of more effective radiological protection for personnel undertaking future operations at the site and to assess the radiation dose hazards present at Andreyev STB and to clarify the risks associated with the existing contamination and the continued storage of spent fuel and radioactive waste at the site. The first phase of the Norwegian program to survey the Andreyev Bay provided the basis for

  15. Instructional physical activity monitor video in english and spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ActiGraph activity monitor is a widely used method for assessing physical activity. Compliance with study procedures in critical. A common procedure is for the research team to meet with participants and demonstrate how and when to attach and remove the monitor and convey how many wear-days are ...

  16. Analysis of radiation monitoring data by distribution-free statistical methods (a case of river system Techa-Iset'-Tobol-Irtysh contamination)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luneva, K.V.; Kryshev, A.I.; Nikitin, A.I.; Kryshev, I.I.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the results of statistical analysis of radiation monitoring data of river system Techa-Iset'-Tobol-Irtysh contamination. A short description of analyzable data and the territory under consideration was given. The distribution-free statistic methods, used for comparative analysis, were described. Reasons of the methods selection and their application features were given. Comparative data analysis with traditional statistics methods was presented. Reliable decrease of 90 Sr specific activity in the river system object to object was determined, which is the evidence of the radionuclide transportation in the river system Techa-Iset'-Tobol-Irtysh [ru

  17. Kinetics of hydrophobic organic contaminant extraction from sediment by granular activated carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakowska, M.I.; Kupryianchyk, D.; Smit, M.; Koelmans, A.A.; Meent, van de D.

    2014-01-01

    Ex situ solid phase extraction with granular activated carbon (GAC) is a promising technique to remediate contaminated sediments. The methods' efficiency depends on the rate by which contaminants are transferred from the sediment to the surface of GAC. Here, we derive kinetic parameters for

  18. International systems for harmonization and quality control by in vivo monitoring and quality control by in vivo monitoring of internal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatova, I [National Radiation Protection Inst., Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    After the Chernobyl accident, whole body counting for the monitoring of internal contamination of the population was widely used. In many cases, great discrepancy occurred between in vivo measured values and predicted ones from model calculations. This situation was very similar to the situation in environmental monitoring, however, by sample measurement, quality assurance and quality control of the measurement procedure is much easier than by whole body counting. In addition to it, unlike in environmental monitoring, use of semiconductor detectors by whole counting was rather limited in this time so there were few laboratories which were able to distinguish up to 20 radionuclides by which people from the vicinity of Chernobyl were internally contaminated. Therefore, effort was undertaken by many international organization to summarize current status of whole body counting and to estimate uncertainty and sensitivity of different devices. In this paper efforts to harmonize an interpretation of measured results is given. Whole body counting laboratory of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) in Prague participates in the above mentioned intercomparisons with good results and scientists from NRPI have participated in the preparation of 3 international recommendations concerning measurement of internal contamination (author).

  19. Radionuclide activity and the immune system functioning in residents of radiation contaminated areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Sokolenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to assess the relation of radioactive contamination degree to immune system functioning, in the absence or presence of additional potential immunosuppressants. To achieve the objective, during the period of 1995–2015 we examined 250 people, students of Cherkasy State University, who lived in the areas of enhanced radiation monitoring before. Also we evaluated the additional impact of the emotional stress caused by examinations on examined students. Indicators of cellular immunity were determined by immunophenotyping and dyeing using Romanowsky-Giemsa method. The level of immunoglobulins in blood serum was determined by radial immunodiffusion (Mancini method. The level of cortisol in blood serum was determined by immunoenzyme method. We have found that in absence of the emotional stress among residents of the areas contaminated with radionuclides, cortisol level remained at the upper limit of homeostatic norm. There is an average positive correlation between the activity of radionuclides in the territories of residence and the level of cortisol. There are marked average positive correlations between the activity of radionuclides and the level of neutrophils, and low positive correlations with the levels of IgG and IgM in blood serum. Average negative correlations between the activity of radionuclides and the following parameters are also observed: absolute and relative number of functionally mature T-lymphocytes with phenotype CD3+, absolute and relative number of their helper subpopulation CD4+, absolute and relative number of natural killer cells with phenotype CD16+; and strong negative correlations with immunoregulatory index CD4+/CD8+. Cortisol level shows the similar correlation with the same parameters, but correlation coefficient is lower. Under conditions of additional stress, caused by emotional load during the examinations, cortisol level significantly increases. This enhanced previously discovered

  20. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the Facility Monitoring Plans of the overall site-wide environmental monitoring plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. This document is intended to be a basic road map to the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan documents (i.e., the guidance document for preparing Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations, management plan, and Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans). The implementing procedures, plans, and instructions are appropriate for the control of effluent monitoring plans requiring compliance with US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, state, and local requirements. This Quality Assurance Project Plan contains a matrix of organizational responsibilities, procedural resources from facility or site manuals used in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and a list of the analytes of interest and analytical methods for each facility preparing a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 44 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Leisure time activities, parental monitoring and drunkenness in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomcikova, Zuzana; Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between adolescent drunkenness and participation in risky leisure time activities and parental monitoring. A sample of 3,694 Slovak elementary school students (mean age 14.5 years; 49.0% males) was assessed for drunkenness in the previous month, participation in risky leisure activities and parental monitoring. Participation in risky leisure time activities increased the probability of drunkenness among adolescents, while parental monitoring decreased it. The effect did not change after adding the mother's and father's monitoring into the models. Our results imply that adolescents involved in going out with friends, having parties with friends and/or visiting sporting events every day or several times a week are at a higher risk of drunkenness, as are those less monitored by their parents. These less monitored adolescents and their parents should become a target group in prevention. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Remote Physical Activity Monitoring in Neurological Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Valerie A J; Pitsch, Erica; Tahir, Peggy; Cree, Bruce A C; Allen, Diane D; Gelfand, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    To perform a systematic review of studies using remote physical activity monitoring in neurological diseases, highlighting advances and determining gaps. Studies were systematically identified in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS from January 2004 to December 2014 that monitored physical activity for ≥24 hours in adults with neurological diseases. Studies that measured only involuntary motor activity (tremor, seizures), energy expenditure or sleep were excluded. Feasibility, findings, and protocols were examined. 137 studies met inclusion criteria in multiple sclerosis (MS) (61 studies); stroke (41); Parkinson's Disease (PD) (20); dementia (11); traumatic brain injury (2) and ataxia (1). Physical activity levels measured by remote monitoring are consistently low in people with MS, stroke and dementia, and patterns of physical activity are altered in PD. In MS, decreased ambulatory activity assessed via remote monitoring is associated with greater disability and lower quality of life. In stroke, remote measures of upper limb function and ambulation are associated with functional recovery following rehabilitation and goal-directed interventions. In PD, remote monitoring may help to predict falls. In dementia, remote physical activity measures correlate with disease severity and can detect wandering. These studies show that remote physical activity monitoring is feasible in neurological diseases, including in people with moderate to severe neurological disability. Remote monitoring can be a psychometrically sound and responsive way to assess physical activity in neurological disease. Further research is needed to ensure these tools provide meaningful information in the context of specific neurological disorders and patterns of neurological disability.

  3. Remote Physical Activity Monitoring in Neurological Disease: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Valerie A. J.; Pitsch, Erica; Tahir, Peggy; Cree, Bruce A. C.; Allen, Diane D.; Gelfand, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review of studies using remote physical activity monitoring in neurological diseases, highlighting advances and determining gaps. Methods Studies were systematically identified in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS from January 2004 to December 2014 that monitored physical activity for ≥24 hours in adults with neurological diseases. Studies that measured only involuntary motor activity (tremor, seizures), energy expenditure or sleep were excluded. Feasibility, findings, and protocols were examined. Results 137 studies met inclusion criteria in multiple sclerosis (MS) (61 studies); stroke (41); Parkinson's Disease (PD) (20); dementia (11); traumatic brain injury (2) and ataxia (1). Physical activity levels measured by remote monitoring are consistently low in people with MS, stroke and dementia, and patterns of physical activity are altered in PD. In MS, decreased ambulatory activity assessed via remote monitoring is associated with greater disability and lower quality of life. In stroke, remote measures of upper limb function and ambulation are associated with functional recovery following rehabilitation and goal-directed interventions. In PD, remote monitoring may help to predict falls. In dementia, remote physical activity measures correlate with disease severity and can detect wandering. Conclusions These studies show that remote physical activity monitoring is feasible in neurological diseases, including in people with moderate to severe neurological disability. Remote monitoring can be a psychometrically sound and responsive way to assess physical activity in neurological disease. Further research is needed to ensure these tools provide meaningful information in the context of specific neurological disorders and patterns of neurological disability. PMID:27124611

  4. Air Monitoring Leads to Discovery of New Contamination at Radioactive Waste Disposal Site (Area G) at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraig, D.H.; Conrad, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    Air monitoring at Area G, the low-level radioactive waste disposal area at Los Alamos National Laboratory, revealed increased air concentrations of 239 Pu and 241 Am at one location along the north boundary. This air monitoring location is a couple of meters north of a dirt road used to access the easternmost part of Area G. Air concentrations of 238 Pu were essentially unaffected, which was puzzling because the 238 Pu and 239 Pu are present in the local, slightly contaminated soils. Air concentrations of these radionuclides increased about a factor of ten in early 1995 and remained at those levels until the first quarter of 1996. During the spring of 1996 air concentrations again increased by a factor of about ten. No other radionuclides were elevated and no other Area G stations showed elevations of these radionuclides. After several formal meetings didn't provide an adequate cause for the elevations, a gamma survey was performed and showed a small area of significant contamination just south of the monitor location. We found in February, 1995, a trench for a water line had been dug within a meter of so of the air stations. Then, during early 1996, the dirt road was rerouted such that its new path was directly over the unknown contamination. It appears that the trenching brought contaminated material to the surface and caused the first rise in air concentrations and then the rerouting of the road over the contamination caused the second rise, during 1996. We also found that during 1976 and 1977 contaminated soils from the clean-up of an old processing facility had been spread over the filled pits in the vicinity of the air monitors. These soils were very low in 238Pu which explains why we saw very little 238 Pu in the increased air concentrations. A layer of gravel and sand was spread over the contaminated area. Although air concentrations of 239 Pu and 241 Am dropped considerably, the y have not returned to pre-1995 levels

  5. Kinetic Study of Water Contaminants Adsorption by Bamboo Granular Activated and Non-Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opololaoluwa Oladimarun Ijaola

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The adsorptive capacity of metal ions from surface water with activated and non-activated carbon derived from bamboo was investigated. The validation of adsorption kinetics of Cl, PO4 and Pb was done by pseudo-first and second order model while adsorption isotherms was proved by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model for activated and non- activated bamboo granular carbon. Generally, the amount of metal ions uptake increases with time and activation levels and the pH of bamboo granular carbon increase with activation. Similarly, the pore space of the activated carbon also increases with activation levels. The correlation coefficients (R2 show that the pseudo-second order model gave a better fit to the adsorption process with 0.9918 as the least value and 1.00 as the highest value as compared with the pseudo-first order with 0.813 as the highest value and 0 as the least. The Freundlich isotherm was more favorable when compared with the Langmuir isotherm in determining the adsorptive capacity of bamboo granular activated carbon. The study has shown that chemical activation increases the pore space, surface area and the pH of bamboo granular carbon which ultimately increases the adsorption rate of metal ions in the contaminated surface water.

  6. Zero-tension lysimeters: An improved design to monitor colloid-facilitated contaminant transport in the vadose zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.L.; Scharf, R.L.; Shang, C.

    1995-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that mobile colloids facilitate the long-distance transport of contaminants. The mobility of fine particles and macromolecules has been linked to the movement of actinides, organic contaminants, and heavy metals through soil. Direct evidence for colloid mobility includes the presence of humic materials in deep aquifers as well as coatings of accumulated clay, organic matter, or sesquioxides on particle or aggregate surfaces in subsoil horizons of many soils. The potential for colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants from hazardous-waste sites requires adequate monitoring before, during, and after in-situ remediation treatments. Zero-tension lysimeters (ZTLs) are especially appropriate for sampling water as it moves through saturated soil, although some unsaturated flow events may be sampled as well. Because no ceramic barrier or fiberglass wick is involved to maintain tension on the water (as is the case with other lysimeters), particles suspended in the water as well as dissolved species may be sampled with ZTLs. In this report, a ZTL design is proposed that is more suitable for monitoring colloid-facilitated contaminant migration. The improved design consists of a cylinder made of polycarbonate or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) that is placed below undisturbed soil material. In many soils, a hydraulically powered tube may be used to extract an undisturbed core of soil before placement of the lysimeter. In those cases, the design has significant advantages over conventional designs with respect to simplicity and speed of installation. Therefore, it will allow colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants to be monitored at more locations at a given site

  7. Degradation of chlorpyrifos contaminated soil by bioslurry reactor operated in sequencing batch mode: bioprocess monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, S. Venkata; Sirisha, K.; Rao, N. Chandrasekhara; Sarma, P.N.; Reddy, S. Jayarama

    2004-01-01

    Bioslurry reactor (SS-SBR) was studied for the degradation of chlorpyrifos contaminated soil using native mixed microflora, by adopting sequencing batch mode (anoxic-aerobic-anoxic) operation. Reactor operation was monitored for a total cycle period of 72 h consisting of 3 h of FILL, 64 h REACT, 2 h of SETTLE, and 3 h of DECANT with chlorpyrifos concentrations of 3000 μg/g, 6000 μg/g and 12000 μg/g. At 3000 μg/g of chlorpyrifos concentration, 91% was degraded after 72 h of the cycle period, whereas in the case of 6000 μg/g of chlorpyrifos, 82.5% was degraded. However, for 12000 μg/g of chlorpyrifos, only 14.5% degradation was observed. The degradation rate was rapid at lower substrate concentration and 12000 μg/g of substrate concentration was found to be inhibitory. Chlorpyrifos removal rate was slow during the initial phase of the sequence operation. Half-life of chlorpyrifos degradation (t 0.5 ) was estimated to be 6.3 h for 3000 μg/g of substrate, 17.5 h for 6000 μg/g and 732.2 h for 12000 μg/g. Process performance was assessed by monitoring chlorpyrifos concentration and biochemical process parameters viz., pH, oxidation and reduction potential (ORP), dissolved oxygen (DO), oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and microbial count (CFU) during sequence operation. From the experimental data obtained it can be concluded that the rate-limiting step with the bioslurry phase reactor in the process of chlorpyrifos degradation may be attributed to the concentration of substrate present in either soil or liquid phase. Periodic operations (SBR) by varying individual components of substrate with time in each process step place micro-organisms under nutritional changes from feast to famine and maintains a wide distribution in the population of micro-organisms resulting in high uptake of the substrate in the bioslurry reactor

  8. Degradation of chlorpyrifos contaminated soil by bioslurry reactor operated in sequencing batch mode: bioprocess monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, S. Venkata [Biochemical and Environmental Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Sirisha, K. [Electrochemical Research Laboratories, Department of Chemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Rao, N. Chandrasekhara [Biochemical and Environmental Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Sarma, P.N. [Biochemical and Environmental Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Reddy, S. Jayarama [Electrochemical Research Laboratories, Department of Chemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India)]. E-mail: profjreddy_s@yahoo.co.in

    2004-12-10

    Bioslurry reactor (SS-SBR) was studied for the degradation of chlorpyrifos contaminated soil using native mixed microflora, by adopting sequencing batch mode (anoxic-aerobic-anoxic) operation. Reactor operation was monitored for a total cycle period of 72 h consisting of 3 h of FILL, 64 h REACT, 2 h of SETTLE, and 3 h of DECANT with chlorpyrifos concentrations of 3000 {mu}g/g, 6000 {mu}g/g and 12000 {mu}g/g. At 3000 {mu}g/g of chlorpyrifos concentration, 91% was degraded after 72 h of the cycle period, whereas in the case of 6000 {mu}g/g of chlorpyrifos, 82.5% was degraded. However, for 12000 {mu}g/g of chlorpyrifos, only 14.5% degradation was observed. The degradation rate was rapid at lower substrate concentration and 12000 {mu}g/g of substrate concentration was found to be inhibitory. Chlorpyrifos removal rate was slow during the initial phase of the sequence operation. Half-life of chlorpyrifos degradation (t{sub 0.5}) was estimated to be 6.3 h for 3000 {mu}g/g of substrate, 17.5 h for 6000 {mu}g/g and 732.2 h for 12000 {mu}g/g. Process performance was assessed by monitoring chlorpyrifos concentration and biochemical process parameters viz., pH, oxidation and reduction potential (ORP), dissolved oxygen (DO), oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and microbial count (CFU) during sequence operation. From the experimental data obtained it can be concluded that the rate-limiting step with the bioslurry phase reactor in the process of chlorpyrifos degradation may be attributed to the concentration of substrate present in either soil or liquid phase. Periodic operations (SBR) by varying individual components of substrate with time in each process step place micro-organisms under nutritional changes from feast to famine and maintains a wide distribution in the population of micro-organisms resulting in high uptake of the substrate in the bioslurry reactor.

  9. EU-wide monitoring survey on emerging polar organic contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Robert; Carvalho, Raquel; António, Diana C; Comero, Sara; Locoro, Giovanni; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Ghiani, Michela; Lettieri, Teresa; Blaha, Ludek; Jarosova, Barbora; Voorspoels, Stefan; Servaes, Kelly; Haglund, Peter; Fick, Jerker; Lindberg, Richard H; Schwesig, David; Gawlik, Bernd M

    2013-11-01

    In the year 2010, effluents from 90 European wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for 156 polar organic chemical contaminants. The analyses were complemented by effect-based monitoring approaches aiming at estrogenicity and dioxin-like toxicity analyzed by in vitro reporter gene bioassays, and yeast and diatom culture acute toxicity optical bioassays. Analyses of organic substances were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) or gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Target microcontaminants were pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), veterinary (antibiotic) drugs, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), organophosphate ester flame retardants, pesticides (and some metabolites), industrial chemicals such as benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), iodinated x-ray contrast agents, and gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging agents; in addition biological endpoints were measured. The obtained results show the presence of 125 substances (80% of the target compounds) in European wastewater effluents, in concentrations ranging from low nanograms to milligrams per liter. These results allow for an estimation to be made of a European median level for the chemicals investigated in WWTP effluents. The most relevant compounds in the effluent waters with the highest median concentration levels were the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and sucralose, benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), several organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers (e.g. tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate; TCPP), pharmaceutical compounds such as carbamazepine, tramadol, telmisartan, venlafaxine, irbesartan, fluconazole, oxazepam, fexofenadine, diclofenac, citalopram, codeine, bisoprolol, eprosartan, the antibiotics trimethoprim, ciprofloxacine, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycine, the insect repellent N,N'-diethyltoluamide (DEET), the pesticides

  10. Monitoring PAH contamination in water: Comparison of biological and physico-chemical tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeault, A.; Gourlay-Francé, C.

    2013-01-01

    The suitability of biological methods and chemical-based passive samplers to determine exposure to PAHs was tested by deploying zebra mussels and SPMDs along the Seine River over 11 months. The concentration of 13 PAHs was analyzed every month in both water and mussels. The sum of the PAH concentrations in mussels, initially at 299 ng g dry wt −1 , reached 2654, 3972 and 3727 ng g −1 at the end of exposure in the three sampling points taken through the river. The respective SPMD-available concentrations of TPAHs reached 9, 52 and 34 ng L −1 . Results showed seasonal variations of total PAH concentrations in the mussels, characterized by a decrease during spawning. The non-achievement of steady state concentration that was observed in mussels may be accounted for by the temporal variation of environmental concentrations. Thus, a bioaccumulation model based on kinetic rather than simple equilibrium partitioning was found to be more appropriate to describe PAH content in mussels. Moreover, biodynamic kinetic modeling proved useful to better understand the uptake and loss processes of pyrene. It clearly shows that these processes are markedly influenced by the biological state of the zebra mussels. The most realistic hypothesis is that the temporal variation of the biodynamic parameters may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolization of PAHs during spawning. Since SPMD passive samplers cannot integrate such biological factors, they are poor predictors of PAH bioavailability in mussels. - Highlights: • PAH contamination was monitored by deploying mussels and SPMDs over 11 months along the Seine River. • 5–6 ring PAHs which could not be quantified in spot samples, were measured in SPMDs. • PAH concentrations in the mussels decreased during spawning. • Temporal variation of bioaccumulated PAH may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolism during spawning. • Biodynamic model was allowed to explain the bioaccumulation

  11. Assessment of the Extraction Methods for Monitoring Phthalate Emerging Contaminants in Groundwater and Tap Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotto, I.; Padilla, I. Y.; De Jesús, N. H.; Torres, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Trace organic contaminants such as phthalates, among other chemicals of emerging concerns, have not historically been considered as pollutants but are being detected in water, posing a potential risk to public health and the environment. One of the most common phthalates of particular concern is di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer normally found in plastics and consumer products, including: cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, food packages, water bottles, and wiring cables. DEHP has been associated with preterm birth, a major cause of neonatal mortality and health complications. This study aims at monitoring the presence and concentration of DEHP and other phthalates in groundwater and tap water systems in Puerto Rico, which has one of the highest rates of preterm birth in the U.S. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggests a liquid-liquid extraction method that uses methylene chloride as the preferred organic solvent for the extractions. This work presents modified EPA methods that reduce the volume of sample and solvent used, lower the time of analysis, increase productivity, and decrease hazards and waste. Distribution coefficient of DEHP between methylene chloride and water are estimated and related to sample extraction efficiency. Research results indicate that DEHP is in fact distributed between water and methylene chloride with a distribution coefficient average value of 1.24. The study concludes that the sample and solvent volumes have influence on the efficiency but have not an effect on the distribution coefficient. The tests show higher extraction efficiencies for lower DEHP concentrations and higher extraction volumes. Results from the water analysis show presence of DEHP in 55% of groundwater and 44% of tap water samples, indicating a potential exposure through water.

  12. Monitoring PAH contamination in water: Comparison of biological and physico-chemical tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeault, A., E-mail: bourgeault@ensil.unilim.fr; Gourlay-Francé, C.

    2013-06-01

    The suitability of biological methods and chemical-based passive samplers to determine exposure to PAHs was tested by deploying zebra mussels and SPMDs along the Seine River over 11 months. The concentration of 13 PAHs was analyzed every month in both water and mussels. The sum of the PAH concentrations in mussels, initially at 299 ng g{sub dry} {sub wt}{sup −1}, reached 2654, 3972 and 3727 ng g{sup −1} at the end of exposure in the three sampling points taken through the river. The respective SPMD-available concentrations of TPAHs reached 9, 52 and 34 ng L{sup −1}. Results showed seasonal variations of total PAH concentrations in the mussels, characterized by a decrease during spawning. The non-achievement of steady state concentration that was observed in mussels may be accounted for by the temporal variation of environmental concentrations. Thus, a bioaccumulation model based on kinetic rather than simple equilibrium partitioning was found to be more appropriate to describe PAH content in mussels. Moreover, biodynamic kinetic modeling proved useful to better understand the uptake and loss processes of pyrene. It clearly shows that these processes are markedly influenced by the biological state of the zebra mussels. The most realistic hypothesis is that the temporal variation of the biodynamic parameters may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolization of PAHs during spawning. Since SPMD passive samplers cannot integrate such biological factors, they are poor predictors of PAH bioavailability in mussels. - Highlights: • PAH contamination was monitored by deploying mussels and SPMDs over 11 months along the Seine River. • 5–6 ring PAHs which could not be quantified in spot samples, were measured in SPMDs. • PAH concentrations in the mussels decreased during spawning. • Temporal variation of bioaccumulated PAH may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolism during spawning. • Biodynamic model was allowed to explain

  13. RADIATION HYGIENIC MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT OF POPULATION DOSES IN RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED AREAS OF TULA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Chichura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal. The analyses of radiation hygienic monitoring conducted in Tula region territories affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident regarding cesium-137 and strontium- 90 in the local foodstuffs and the analyses of populational annual effective dose. The materials and methods. The survey was conducted in Tula Region since 1997 to 2015. Over that period, more than fifty thousand samples of the main foodstuffs from the post-Chernobyl contaminated area were analyzed. Simultaneously with that, the external gamma - radiation dose rate was measured in the fixed control points. The dynamics of cesium -137 and strontium-90 content in foodstuffs were assessed along with the maximum values of the mean annual effective doses to the population and the contribution of the collective dose from medical exposures into the structure of the annual effective collective dose to the population. The results. The amount of cesium-137 and strontium -90 in the local foodstuffs was identified. The external gamma- radiation dose rate values were found to be stable and not exceeding the natural fluctuations range typical for the middle latitudes of Russia’s European territory. The maximum mean annual effective dose to the population reflects the stable radiation situation and does not exceed the permissible value of 1 mSv. The contribution of the collective dose from medical exposures of the population has been continuously reducing as well as the average individual dose to the population per one medical treatment under the annual increase of the medical treatments quantities. The conclusion. There is no exceedance of the admissible levels of cesium-137 and strontium- 90 content in the local foodstuffs. The mean annual effective dose to the population has decreased which makes it possible to transfer the settlements affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident to normal life style. This is covered by the draft concept of the settlements’ transfer to normal life style.

  14. Instrument evaluation no. 11. ESI nuclear model 271 C contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Iles, W.J.

    1978-06-01

    The various radiations encountered in radiological protection cover a wide range of energies and radiation measurements have to he carried out under an equally broad spectrum of environmental conditions. This report is one of a series intended to give information on the performance characteristics of radiological protection instruments, to assist in the selection of appropriate instruments for a given purpose, to interpret the results obtained with such instruments, and, in particular, to know the likely sources and magnitude of errors that might be associated with measurements in the field. The radiation, electrical and environmental characteristics of radiation protection instruments are considered together with those aspects of the construction which make an instrument convenient for routine use. To provide consistent criteria for instrument performance, the range of tests performed on any particular class of instrument, the test methods and the criteria of acceptable performance are based broadly on the appropriate Recommendations of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The radiations in the tests are, in general, selected from the range of reference radiations for instrument calibration being drawn up by the International Standards Organisation. Normally, each report deals with the capabilities and limitations of one model of instrument and no direct comparison with other instruments intended for similar purposes is made, since the significance of particular performance characteristics largely depends on the radiations and environmental conditions in which the instrument is to be used. The results quoted here have all been obtained from tests on instruments in routine production, with the appropriate measurements being made by the NRPB. This report deals with the ESI Nuclear Model 271 C; a general purpose contamination monitor, comprising a GM tube connected by a coiled extensible cable to a ratemeter

  15. Monitoring organic contaminants in eggs of glaucous and glaucous-winged gulls (Larus hyperboreus and Larus glaucescens) from Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Becker, Paul R.; Ellisor, Michael B.; Moors, Amanda J.; Pugh, Rebecca S.; Roseneau, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Gull eggs have been used to monitor contaminants in many parts of the world. The Seabird Tissue Archival and Monitoring Project (STAMP) is a long-term program designed to track trends in pollutants in northern marine environments using seabird eggs. Glaucous and glaucous-winged gull (Larus hyperboreus and Larus glaucescens) eggs collected in 2005 from seven Alaskan colonies were analyzed for organic contaminants. Concentrations ranged from below detection limits to 322 ng g -1 wet mass in one egg for 4,4'-DDE and differed among the samples collected in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering and Chukchi Seas. Chick growth and survival rates may be affected by the contaminant levels found in the eggs, but the eggs should be safe for human consumption if they are eaten in small quantities. STAMP plans to continue collecting and banking gull eggs for future real-time and retrospective analyses. - Organic contaminant concentrations in Alaskan gull eggs could possibly be affecting chick growth and survival rates, but the eggs should be safe for humans to eat in small quantities

  16. Pressure monitoring and characterization of external sources of contamination at the site of the payment drinking water epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besner, Marie-Claude; Broséus, Romain; Lavoie, Jean; Giovanni, George Di; Payment, Pierre; Prévost, Michèle

    2010-01-01

    The 1990s epidemiological studies by Payment and colleagues suggested that an increase in gastrointestinal illnesses observed in the population consuming tap water from a system meeting all water quality regulations might be associated with distribution system deficiencies. In the current study, the vulnerability of this distribution system to microbial intrusion was assessed by characterizing potential sources of contamination near pipelines and monitoring the frequency and magnitude of negative pressures. Bacterial indicators of fecal contamination were recovered more frequently in the water from flooded air-valve vaults than in the soil or water from pipe trenches. The level of fecal contamination in these various sources was more similar to levels from river water rather than wastewater. Because of its configuration, this distribution system is vulnerable to negative pressures when pressure values out of the treatment plant reach or drop below 172 kPa (25 psi), which occurred nine times during a monitoring period of 17 months. The results from this investigation suggest that this distribution system is vulnerable to contamination by intrusion. Comparison of the frequency of occurrence of negative pressure events and repair rates with data from other distribution systems suggests that the system studied by Payment and colleagues is not atypical.

  17. Transthyretin-binding activity of contaminants in blood from polar bear (Ursus maritimus) cubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytingsvik, Jenny; Simon, Eszter; Leonards, Pim E G; Lamoree, Marja; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Derocher, Andrew E; Wiig, Oystein; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Hamers, Timo

    2013-05-07

    We determined the transthyretin (TTR)-binding activity of blood-accumulating contaminants in blood plasma samples of approximately 4-months-old polar bear (Ursus maritimus) cubs from Svalbard sampled in 1998 and 2008. The TTR-binding activity was measured as thyroxine (T4)-like equivalents (T4-EQMeas). Our findings show that the TTR-binding activity related to contaminant levels was significantly lower (45%) in 2008 than in 1998 (mean ± standard error of mean: 1998, 2265 ± 231 nM; 2008, 1258 ± 170 nM). Although we cannot exclude a potential influence of between-year differences in capture location and cub body mass, our findings most likely reflect reductions of TTR-binding contaminants or their precursors in the arctic environment (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). The measured TTR-binding activity correlated positively with the cubs' plasma levels of hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs). No such association was found between TTR-binding activity and the plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The OH-PCBs explained 60 ± 7% and 54 ± 4% of the TTR-binding activity in 1998 and 2008, respectively, and PFASs explained ≤1.2% both years. Still, almost half the TTR-binding activity could not be explained by the contaminants we examined. The considerable levels of TTR-binding contaminants warrant further effect directed analysis (EDA) to identify the contaminants responsible for the unexplained part of the observed TTR-binding activity.

  18. Country report for the regional (RCA) training workshop on contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shantha, T.H.S.

    1997-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) is the organization in Sri Lanka responsible for the regulatory and development of applications in nuclear technology. AEA was established in 1969 by the AEA Act No. 19 of 1969 and at present it is under the Ministry of Science, Technology and Human Resources Development. As a developing country, Sri Lanka still needs technical assistance to support the development of application in nuclear technology. So far this country doesn't have any type of nuclear reactors. Most of activities in Sri Lanka are in health sector using x-ray and radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In addition to that few number of radioisotopes are used in industrial and research institutes. In this paper, the following items are described: radiation protection activities, emergency preparation and planning, food testing program, and nuclear technique in monitoring industrial pollution. (G.K.)

  19. Country report for the regional (RCA) training workshop on contamination monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shantha, T H.S. [Atomic Energy Authority (Sri Lanka)

    1997-06-01

    The Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) is the organization in Sri Lanka responsible for the regulatory and development of applications in nuclear technology. AEA was established in 1969 by the AEA Act No. 19 of 1969 and at present it is under the Ministry of Science, Technology and Human Resources Development. As a developing country, Sri Lanka still needs technical assistance to support the development of application in nuclear technology. So far this country doesn`t have any type of nuclear reactors. Most of activities in Sri Lanka are in health sector using x-ray and radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In addition to that few number of radioisotopes are used in industrial and research institutes. In this paper, the following items are described: radiation protection activities, emergency preparation and planning, food testing program, and nuclear technique in monitoring industrial pollution. (G.K.)

  20. Environmental contaminants in food. Volume II-part a: working papers. I. Priority setting of toxic substances for guiding monitoring programs. II. Five case studies of environmental food contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume contains working papers written for Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to assist in preparation of the report Environmental Contaminants in Food. The contents include: (1) Priority setting of toxic substances for guiding monitoring programs; and (2) Five case studies of environmental food contamination

  1. Remediation of uranium contaminated sites: clean-up activities in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, S.; Raicevic, J. . E-mail address of corresponding author: raich@beotel.yu; Raicevic, S.)

    2005-01-01

    One of the serious environmental problems in Serbia represent sites contaminated with depleted uranium (DU) during past war activities. According to UNEP reports and our findings there are two types of contamination: (i) localized points of high, concentrated contamination where DU penetrators enter the soil, and (ii) low level of widespread DU contamination, which indicates that during the conflict DU dust was dispersed into the environment. Remediation of these sites is an urgent need because they represent a permanent threat to the population living in this area. Here we give a brief description of approaches commonly used in remediation of DU contaminated sites, and an overview of current clean-up activities performed in Serbia. (author)

  2. Real and alleged hazard of radioactive contamination of seas caused by activities of Russian nuclear fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavkovsky, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The current paper addresses the assessment results of the degree of danger caused by radioactive contamination of seas by wastes from activities of nuclear fleets compared to the results obtained in other works, specifically, in the IASAP program

  3. Remote Sensing Combined with Field Spectroscopy for the Detection and Monitoring of Heavy Metal Contamination from Informal E-waste Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, L. R.; Garb, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of today's fastest growing waste streams. Made up of discarded electronics, e-waste disposal is complex. However, e-waste also provides economic opportunity through the processing and extraction of precious metals. Sometimes referred to as "urban mining," this recycling operates informally or illegally and is characterized by dangerous practices such as, open-pit burning, acid leaching, and burning of low value wastes. Poorly controlled e-waste recycling releases dangerous contaminants, especially heavy metals, directly to the surface environment where they can infiltrate water resources and spread through precipitation events. Despite growing recognition of the prevalence of unregulated e-waste processing, systematic data on the extent and persistence of the released contamination is still limited. In general, contamination is established through techniques that provide only a snapshot in time and in a limited geographic area. Here we present preliminary results from attempts to combine field, laboratory, and remote sensing studies toward a systematic remote sensing methodology for e-waste contamination detection and monitoring. The ongoing work utilizes a tragic "natural experiment," in which over 500 e-waste burn sites were active over more than a decade in a variety of agricultural, residential, and natural contexts. We have collected over 100 soil samples for which we have both XRF and ICP-AES measurements showing soil Pb concentrations as high as 14000 ppm. We have also collected 480 in-situ reflectance spectra with corresponding soil samples over 4 field transects of areas with long-term burn activity. The most heavily contaminated samples come from within the burn sites and are made up of ash. Field spectra of these samples reflect their dark color with low overall reflectance and shallow spectral features. These spectra are challenging to use for image classification due to their similarity with other low-reflectance parts

  4. IN-SITU, LONG-TERM MONITORING SYSTEM FOR RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, James S.; McKeever, Stephen W.S.; Akselrod, Mark S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the project entitled ''In-situ, Long-term Monitoring System for Radioactive Contaminants.'' Phase one of this effort included four objectives, each with specific success criteria. The first objective was to produce dosimetry grade fibers and rods of aluminum oxide. The success criterion for this milestone was the production of aluminum oxide rods and fibers that have a minimum measurable dose (MMD) of 100 mrem or less. This milestone was completed and the MMD for the rods was measured to be 1.53 mrem. Based on the MMD, the ability of the sensor to measure 137 Cs, 90 Sr/ 90 Y, and 99 Tc was evaluated. It was determined that the sensor can measure the release limit of these radionuclides (50 pCi/cm 3 ) in 150 h, 200 h, and 54,000 h, respectively. The monitor is adequate for measuring 137 Cs and 90 Sr/ 90 Y but is unsuitable for measuring 99 Tc in soil. The second objective was to construct a prototype sensor (dosimeter and fiber optic channel). There were three success criteria for this milestone: (1) Perform measurements with the sensor for both gamma and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 10% or less; (2) Demonstrate the ability of the sensor to discriminate between gamma and beta radiation; and (3) Obtain similar or relatable results for differing lengths of fiber optic cable. These milestones were met. The sensor was able to measure gamma radiation repeatedly with a standard deviation of 3.15% and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 2.85%. Data is presented that demonstrates that an end cap can be used to discriminate between beta plus gamma radiation using beta radiation from a 90 Sr/ 90 Y source, and gamma radiation alone. It is shown that some amount of attenuation occurs in longer fiber optic cables, but it is unclear if the attenuation is due to poor alignment of the dosimeter and the cable. This issue will be investigated further when more dosimeters are available so that the dosimeters

  5. IN-SITU, LONG-TERM MONITORING SYSTEM FOR RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, James S.; McKeever, Stephen W.S.; Akselrod, Mark S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the project entitled ''In-situ, Long-term Monitoring System for Radioactive Contaminants.'' Phase one of this effort included four objectives, each with specific success criteria. The first objective was to produce dosimetry grade fibers and rods of aluminum oxide. The success criterion for this milestone was the production of aluminum oxide rods and fibers that have a minimum measureable dose (MMD) of 100 mrem or less. This milestone was completed and the MMD for the rods was measured to be 1.53 mrem. Based on the MMD, the ability of the sensor to measure 137 Cs, 90 Sr/ 90 Y, and 99 Tc was evaluated. It was determined that the sensor can measure the release limit of these radionuclides (50 pCi/cm 3 ) in 150 h, 200 h, and 54,000 h, respectively. The monitor is adequate for measuring 137 Cs and 90 Sr/ 90 Y but is unsuitable for measuring 99 Tc in soil. The second objective was to construct a prototype sensor (dosimeter and fiber optic channel). There were three success criteria for this milestone: (1) Perform measurements with the sensor for both gamma and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 10% or less; (2) Demonstrate the ability of the sensor to discriminate between gamma and beta radiation; and (3) Obtain similar or relatable results for differing lengths of fiber optic cable. These milestones were met. The sensor was able to measure gamma radiation repeatedly with a standard deviation of 3.15% and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 2.85%. Data is presented that demonstrates that an end cap can be used to discriminate between beta plus gamma and gamma radiation. It is shown that some amount of attenuation occurs in longer fiber optic cables, but it is unclear if the attenuation is due to poor alignment of the dosimeter and the cable. This issue will be investigated further when more dosimeters are available so that the dosimeters can be permanently attached to the longer cables. The third

  6. Management of Ground and Groundwater Contamination on a Compact Site Constrained by Ongoing Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilbeck, K.E.; Reeve, P.

    2009-01-01

    Sellafield Site is a compact and complex site which since the 1940's has been home to a range of facilities associated with the production and reprocessing of fissile material. The site contains the UK equivalent of the Chicago Pile-1 reactor, Hanford B Reactor, Rocky Flats Buildings 771 and 774, West Valley Main Process Plant Building, Savannah River Vitrification Plant, Savannah River MOX Plant, Savannah River F Canyon, Hanford 222 Analytical Laboratory, Savannah River K-, L-, and P-Basins, and the Fort St. Vrain Reactor all in an area of approximately 1000 acres. Spent fuel reprocessing is still undertaken on site; however waste management and decommissioning activities are of increasing importance. These include the emptying and removal of fragile ponds and silos containing significant radioactive inventories, the decommissioning of reactors (including the world's first commercial reactor for power generation and the Windscale Piles, the site of a reactor fire in the late 1950's) and the construction of a new generation of vitrification and encapsulation plants. Leaks, spills and on-site disposals during the site's industrial lifetime have resulted in a legacy of fission products and other radionuclides in the ground and groundwater. Volumes of contaminated ground have been estimated as being as much as 18 million m 3 and an estimated below ground inventory of approximately 1.8 E16 Bq. These have all occurred within close proximity to a range of receptors including farm land and the sea. The cramped nature of the facilities on site, overlapping source terms and ongoing decommissioning, waste management and operating activities all raise significant challenges in the management and remediation of contaminated land and groundwater. The strategy to address these challenges includes: 1. Data collection, management and interpretation. The congested nature of the site and the age of some of the monitoring facilities has resulted in particular difficulties. For

  7. Monitoring activities review of the Radiological Environmental Surveillance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, P.D.

    1992-03-01

    The 1992 Monitoring Activities Review (MAR) is directed at the Radiological Environment Surveillance Program (RESP) activities at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of Idaho Engineering Laboratory (INEL). MAR panelists studied RESP documents and discussed their concerns with Environmental Monitoring Unit (EMU) staff and other panel members. These concerns were subsequently consolidated into a collection of recommendations with supporting discussions. Recommendations focus on specific monitoring activities, as well as the overall program. The MAR report also contains pertinent comments that should not require further action

  8. Lead and strontium isotopes as monitors of anthropogenic contaminants in the surficial environment: Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Foley, Nora K.

    2018-01-01

    Isotopic discrimination can be an effective tool in establishing a direct link between sources of Pb contamination and the presence of anomalously high concentrations of Pb in waters, soils, and organisms. Residential wells supplying water containing up to 1600 ppb Pb to houses built on the former Mohr orchards commercial site, near Allentown, Pennsylvania, United States, were evaluated to discern anthropogenic from geogenic sources. Pb and Sr isotopic data and REE data were determined for waters from residential wells, test wells (drilled for this study), and surface waters from pond and creeks. Local soils, sediments, bedrock, Zn-Pb mineralization and coal were also analyzed, together with locally used Pb-As pesticide. Pb isotope data for residential wells, test wells, and surface waters show substantial overlap with Pb data reflecting anthropogenic actions (e.g., burning fossil fuels, industrial and urban processing activities). Limited contributions of Pb from bedrock, soils, and pesticides are evident. High Pb concentrations in the residential waters are likely related to Pb in groundwater accumulating in sediment in the residential water tanks. The Pb isotope features of waters in underlying shallow aquifers that supply residential wells in the region are best interpreted as reflecting a legacy of anthropogenic Pb rather than geogenic Pb.

  9. JAEA's activities for cleaning at contaminated area in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Shinichi; Tokizawa, Takayuki; Iijima, Kazuki; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Funaki, Hironori

    2011-01-01

    JAEA is taking part in development of decontamination measures for public facilities such as schools and parks. This report concerns as a model case to several schools and their swimming pool. For school yard contaminated, topsoil of 5 cm was removed and covered with clean soil, while the removed soil was berried into a 1.5m- deep trench. Water decontamination of swimming pools was also tried based on a series of tests. JAEA is also studying to make specific polymer grafted with cesium-absorbing material. It was found that the most important is a trustful relationship with school officials, municipality and local people through dialogue and decontamination works. (S. Ohno)

  10. Milk and serum standard reference materials for monitoring organic contaminants in human samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M; Eppe, Gauthier; Focant, Jean-François; Hamilton, Coreen; Heckert, N Alan; Heltsley, Rebecca M; Hoover, Dale; Keller, Jennifer M; Leigh, Stefan D; Patterson, Donald G; Pintar, Adam L; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A

    2013-02-01

    Four new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of chemical contaminant measurements required for human biomonitoring studies, SRM 1953 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1954 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum. These materials were developed as part of a collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with both agencies contributing data used in the certification of mass fraction values for a wide range of organic contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners. The certified mass fractions of the organic contaminants in unfortified samples, SRM 1953 and SRM 1957, ranged from 12 ng/kg to 2200 ng/kg with the exception of 4,4'-DDE in SRM 1953 at 7400 ng/kg with expanded uncertainties generally <14 %. This agreement suggests that there were no significant biases existing among the multiple methods used for analysis.

  11. Aquatic mosses as a monitoring tool for 137Cs contamination in streams and rivers--a field study from central southern Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongve, D.; Brittain, J.E.; Bjoernstad, H.E.

    2002-01-01

    Mosses are frequently used as biomonitors for trace element pollution in the aquatic environment. The purpose of this study was to assess their usefulness as a tool in monitoring and in regional surveys of radioactive contamination. Specimens of the aquatic mosses, Fontinalis antipyretica and F. dalecarlica, were transplanted from non-contaminated areas to streams and rivers in the Norwegian Jotunheimen Mountains and neighbouring lowland areas that had received radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident. Equilibrium concentrations of 137 Cs in the exposed mosses were reached after a few weeks. Two series from 20 streams in 1994 and 1996 show linear correlations between activities in water and moss samples and biomagnification ratios of 10 4 -10 5 . We conclude that mosses are better suited for monitoring purposes than water samples, because they provide values integrated over weeks while the radioactivity in surface waters can be subject to rapid variations according to hydrological events. The activity concentrations in aquatic mosses can be easily measured with good precision even when aqueous concentrations are below the limit of detection. Use of aquatic mosses also reduces the logistic problems of transporting large volumes of water, especially in areas inaccessible by road

  12. Monitoring of Soil Contamination by Heavy Metals in the Impact Zone of Copper-Nickel Smelter on the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashulina, G. M.

    2018-04-01

    The results of landscape monitoring of the concentrations of acid-extractable Ni, Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn in soils of the local impact zone of the Severonikel industrial complex on the Kola Peninsula are discussed. The aim of monitoring studies was to reveal the spatial and temporal regularities of variation in the degree of soil contamination by heavy metals. In 2001-2011, the concentrations of acid-extractable compounds of the elements in the upper part of organic soil horizons around this plant exceeded their background concentrations by two orders of magnitude for Cu and Co and by three orders of magnitude for Ni. The degree of topsoil contamination with Ni, Cu, and Co generally corresponded to the distance of the plots from the contamination source and to the modern technogenic load. However, because of the long period of the emissions, their extreme amounts, and complex composition, indirect factors—the degree of technogenic soil degradation, the loss of soil organic matter, saturation of the surface soil layers by the contaminating metals, and competitive relationships between the elements—also affect soil contamination level. The concentrations of all the studied metals in the topsoil are characterized by considerable (1.5 to 7 times) variability in their long-term dynamics. The most important factors of this variability for Ni, Cu, and Co are the organic matter content of the samples and the amount of atmospheric precipitation in the year preceding the sampling. An inverse relationship between element concentrations in the soils and the amount of atmospheric precipitation attests to the dynamic nature and reversible character of the accumulation of heavy metals in the soils.

  13. Clinical monitoring of 'autoimmune' chronic active hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, Bart van

    1989-01-01

    This thesis describes the outcome- survival of a large group of 186 consecutive patients with chronic active hepatitis of variouse tiologies, and describes in detail the progress of 21 patients from this group with 'autoimmunie' chronic active hepatitis maintained on standardized immunosuppressive

  14. Leaching of metals from soil contaminated by mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukselen, M A; Alpaslan, B

    2001-10-12

    Stabilization/solidification (s/s) is one of the most effective methods of dealing with heavy metal contaminated sites. The ability of lime and cement stabilization to immobilize Pb, Cu and Fe contained in a contaminated soil originating from an old mining and smelting area located along the Mediterranean Sea shore in northern Cyprus was investigated. The stabilization was evaluated by applying leaching tests. A series of tests were conducted to optimize the additive soil ratio for the best immobilization process. Additive/soil=1/15 (m/m) ratio was found to be the optimum for both lime and cement. Application of the US EPA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) on the soil samples treated with lime at additive/soil=1/15 (m/m) mixing ratios showed that Cu and Fe solubility was reduced at 94 and 90%, respectively. The results of cement treatment using the same ratio, reduced the solubility 48 and 71% for Cu and Fe, respectively. The Pb solubility was found to be below the regulatory limit of 5mg/l so no additive treatment was needed. The optimum additive/soil amount (1/15) was selected for more detailed column studies, that were carried out in the acidic pH range. According to the results of column leaching tests, it was found that, the degree of heavy metal leaching is highly dependent on pH.

  15. Gulf of Mexico offshore operations monitoring experiment (GOOMEX), Phase I: Sublethal responses to contaminant exposure - introduction and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennicutt, M. C.; Montagna, P.; Roscigno, P. F.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of a three-phase study to evaluate the range of biological, biochemical and chemical methodologies to detect and assess chronic sublethal biological impacts in the vicinity of long-duration activities in the Gulf of Mexico associated with oil and gas exploration and production, was provided. The basic program comprises four activities stretching over a two-year period, and is designed to detect nearfield impacts and contaminant gradients extending out of each of three sites. Sampling design includes a radial pattern with stations at intervals up to 3000 meters distant from the platform. The design employs a dose-response model to test the hypothesis that biological, biochemical and chemical variations are due to platform-derived contaminants. Detailed analysis of the contaminants includes analysis of sediments, pore waters and biological tissue, and assessment of community health based on life history and reproduction studies. 57 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs

  16. The monitoring of radioactive contamination and radiation exposure in the environment in Germany- tasks, techniques, realizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.

    1998-01-01

    A brief historical account of the development of the monitoring of radioactivity in the environment in Germany is given. The aims of monitoring and the tasks, classified according to the possible sources of release, are presented and the methods required are described. The monitoring systems, set up on the basis of different legal principles, are presented and the technical realization of these including their current state of development, is described. Finally, an account is given of the coordination of the national monitoring systems which is at present in progress, as well as of the integration of these monitoring systems into international monitoring and information networks. (author)

  17. Monitoring of selected essential elements and contaminants at sheep and cow farms in Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina TUNEGOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate the actual contamination of selected area of Slovakia, in view of its environmental character referred both to the suitability or unsuitability of the use of milk from this area, to other food processing. This article deals with analysis of the content of selected compounds in soil, feed and milk, at the cow and sheep farms. Village in Eastern Slovakia, Tulčík, was the area of investigation. This area is characterized as an area with mild disturbance of environment. 11 compounds have been analyzed (calcium, selenium, cadmium, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyls – congeners 138, 153, 180, and pesticides - p,p´ DDE, Endosulfan I., Beta-HCH, aflatoxin M1. Samples of soil were collected once a year (spring season, samples of feeds and milk were collected two-times a year (spring and autumn season. Analysis of samples was performed in Eurofins Bel/Novamann (Nové Zámky, Slovak Republic. Analyses were performed by routine methods, according to the valid methodologies. Levels of compounds were obtained and then results have been compared with the most acceptable limits in according to applicable legislation. At both farms, 73.08% (38 samples of analyzed compounds were below the limit of quantification (LOQ and 26.92% (14 samples of compounds were quantifiable. The most significant differences between monitored farms were recorded in soil (27 720 mg·kg-1 Ca, feed (27 620 mg·kg-1 Ca and milk (960 mg·kg-1 Ca. The high content of calcium in soil and feed did not affect the content of calcium in milk. The results showed that the content of toxic elements, polychorinated biphenyls, pesticides and aflatoxin M1 in analyzed area of Eastern Slovakia was very low and under the limit of quantification. It can be concluded, that the use of milk from this area for direct use or for dairy products is appropriate and poses no health risk to the consumers.

  18. Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring, SoilCAM project highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, H. K.; Van Der Zee, S. E.; Wehrer, M.; Godio, A.; Pedersen, L. B.; Tsocano, G.

    2013-12-01

    The SoilCAM project (2008- 2012, EU-FP7-212663) aimed at improving methods for monitoring subsurace contaminant distribution and biodegradation. Two test sites were chosen, Oslo airport Gardermoen, Norway where de-icing agents infiltrate the soil during snowmelt and the Trecate site in Italy where an inland crude oil spill occurred in 1994. A number of geophysical investigation techniques were combined with soil and water sampling techniques. Data obtained from time-lapse measurements were further analysed by numerical modelling of flow and transport at different scales in order to characterise transport processes in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Laboratory experiments provided physical and biogeochemical data for model parameterisation and to select remediation methods. The geophysical techniques were used to map geological heterogeneities and to conduct time-lapse measurements of processes in the unsaturated zone. Both cross borehole and surface electrodes were used for electrical resistivity and induced polarisation surveys. Results showed clear indications of areas highly affected by de-icing chemicals along the runway at Oslo airport. The time lapse measurements along the runway at the airport showed infiltration patterns during snowmelt and were used to validate 2D unsaturated flow and transport simulations using SUTRA. The simulations illustrate the effect of layering geological structures and membranes, buried parallel to the runway, on the flow pattern. Complex interaction between bio-geo-chemical processes in a 1D vertical profile along the runway were described with the ORCHESTRA model. Smaller scale field site measurements revealed increase of iron and manganese during degradation of de-icing chemicals. At the Trecate site a combination of georadar, electrical resistivity and radio magneto telluric provided a broad outline of the geology down to 50 m. Anomalies in the Induced polarisation and electrical resistivity data from the cross borehole

  19. Active imaging for monitoring and technical diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Piszczek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of currently running work in the field of active imaging. The term active refers to both the image acquisition methods, so-called methods of the spatio-temporal framing and active visualization method applying augmented reality. Also results of application of the HMD and 6DoF modules as well as the experimental laser photography device are given. The device works by methods of spatio-temporal framing and it has been developed at the IOE WAT. In terms of image acquisition - active imaging involves the use of illumination of the observed scene. In the field of information visualization - active imaging directly concerns the issues of interaction human-machine environment. The results show the possibility of using the described techniques, among others, rescue (fire brigade, security of mass events (police or the protection of critical infrastructure as well as broadly understood diagnostic problems. Examples presented in the article show a wide range of possible uses of the methods both in observational techniques and measurement. They are relatively innovative solutions and require elaboration of series of hardware and algorithmic issues. However, already at this stage it is clear that active acquisition and visualization methods indicate a high potential for this type of information solutions.[b]Keywords[/b]: active imaging, augmented reality, digital image processing

  20. Active sites environmental monitoring program FY 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, C.M.; Marshall, D.S.; Cunningham, G.R.

    1998-03-01

    This report summarizes the activities conducted by the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) from October 1996 through September 1997. The purpose of the program is to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 North. This report continues a series of annual and semiannual reports that present the results of ASEMP monitoring activities. This report details monitoring results for fiscal year (FY) 1997 from SWSA 6, including the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF) and the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF), and (2) TRU-waste storage areas in SWSA 5 N. This report presents a summary of the methodology used to gather data for each major area along with the FY 1997 results. Figures referenced in the text are found in Appendix A and data tables are presented in Appendix B

  1. Monitoring activities of satellite data processing services in real-time with SDDS Live Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc Nguyen, Minh

    2017-10-01

    This work describes Live Monitor, the monitoring subsystem of SDDS - an automated system for space experiment data processing, storage, and distribution created at SINP MSU. Live Monitor allows operators and developers of satellite data centers to identify errors occurred in data processing quickly and to prevent further consequences caused by the errors. All activities of the whole data processing cycle are illustrated via a web interface in real-time. Notification messages are delivered to responsible people via emails and Telegram messenger service. The flexible monitoring mechanism implemented in Live Monitor allows us to dynamically change and control events being shown on the web interface on our demands. Physicists, whose space weather analysis models are functioning upon satellite data provided by SDDS, can use the developed RESTful API to monitor their own events and deliver customized notification messages by their needs.

  2. Monitoring activities of satellite data processing services in real-time with SDDS Live Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Nguyen Minh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes Live Monitor, the monitoring subsystem of SDDS – an automated system for space experiment data processing, storage, and distribution created at SINP MSU. Live Monitor allows operators and developers of satellite data centers to identify errors occurred in data processing quickly and to prevent further consequences caused by the errors. All activities of the whole data processing cycle are illustrated via a web interface in real-time. Notification messages are delivered to responsible people via emails and Telegram messenger service. The flexible monitoring mechanism implemented in Live Monitor allows us to dynamically change and control events being shown on the web interface on our demands. Physicists, whose space weather analysis models are functioning upon satellite data provided by SDDS, can use the developed RESTful API to monitor their own events and deliver customized notification messages by their needs.

  3. Field sampling for monitoring migration and defining the areal extent of chemical contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Skalski, J.R.; Eberhardt, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.

    1984-11-01

    Initial research on compositing, field designs, and site mapping oriented toward detecting spills and migration at commercial low-level radioactive or chemical waste sites is summarized. Results indicate that the significance test developed to detect samples containing high levels of contamination when they are mixed with several other samples below detectable limits (composites), will be highly effective with large sample sizes when contaminant levels frequently or greatly exceed a maximum acceptable level. These conditions of frequent and high contaminant levels are most likely to occur in regions of a commercial waste site where the priors (previous knowledge) about a spill or migration are highest. Conversely, initial investigations of Bayes sampling strategies suggest that field sampling efforts should be inversely proportional to the priors (expressed as probabilities) for the occurrence of contamination

  4. Sweeping total reflection X-ray fluorescence optimisation to monitor the metallic contamination into IC manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borde, Yannick; Danel, Adrien; Roche, Agnes; Veillerot, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Among the methods available on the market today to control as metallic contamination in integrated circuit manufacturing, Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence mode appears a very good method, providing fast and entire wafer mapping. With the goal of a pertinent use of Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence in advanced Integrated Circuit manufacturing this work discusses how acceptable levels of contamination specified by the production (low levels to be detected) can be taken into account. The relation between measurement results (surface coverage, throughput, low limit of detection, limit of quantification, quantification of localized contamination) and Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence parameters (number of measurement points and integration time per point) is presented in details. In particular, a model is proposed to explain the mismatch between actual surface contamination in a localized spot on wafer and Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence reading. Both calibration and geometric issues have been taken into account

  5. High‐resolution mass spectrometry of skin mucus for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fathead minnows exposed to wastewater effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    High‐resolution mass spectrometry is advantageous for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fish exposed to complex wastewater effluent. We evaluated this technique using skin mucus from male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales pr...

  6. Active Low Intrusion Hybrid Monitor for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, Marlon; Campelo, Jose C; Bonastre, Alberto; Ors, Rafael; Capella, Juan V; Serrano, Juan J

    2015-09-18

    Several systems have been proposed to monitor wireless sensor networks (WSN). These systems may be active (causing a high degree of intrusion) or passive (low observability inside the nodes). This paper presents the implementation of an active hybrid (hardware and software) monitor with low intrusion. It is based on the addition to the sensor node of a monitor node (hardware part) which, through a standard interface, is able to receive the monitoring information sent by a piece of software executed in the sensor node. The intrusion on time, code, and energy caused in the sensor nodes by the monitor is evaluated as a function of data size and the interface used. Then different interfaces, commonly available in sensor nodes, are evaluated: serial transmission (USART), serial peripheral interface (SPI), and parallel. The proposed hybrid monitor provides highly detailed information, barely disturbed by the measurement tool (interference), about the behavior of the WSN that may be used to evaluate many properties such as performance, dependability, security, etc. Monitor nodes are self-powered and may be removed after the monitoring campaign to be reused in other campaigns and/or WSNs. No other hardware-independent monitoring platforms with such low interference have been found in the literature.

  7. Performance of passive samplers for monitoring estuarine water column concentrations: 2. Emerging contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Monique M; Burgess, Robert M; Suuberg, Eric M; Cantwell, Mark G; Pennell, Kelly G

    2013-10-01

    Measuring dissolved concentrations of emerging contaminants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and triclosan, can be challenging due to their physicochemical properties resulting in low aqueous solubilities and association with particles. Passive sampling methods have been applied to assess dissolved concentrations in water and sediments primarily for legacy contaminants. Although the technology is applicable to some emerging contaminants, the use of passive samplers with emerging contaminants is limited. In the present study, the performance of 3 common passive samplers was evaluated for sampling PBDEs and triclosan. Passive sampling polymers included low-density polyethylene (PE) and polyoxymethylene (POM) sheets, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers. Dissolved concentrations were calculated using measured sampler concentrations and laboratory-derived partition coefficients. Dissolved tri-, tetra-, and pentabrominated PBDE congeners were detected at several of the study sites at very low pg/L concentrations using PE and POM. Calculated dissolved water concentrations of triclosan ranged from 1.7 ng/L to 18 ng/L for POM and 8.8 ng/L to 13 ng/L for PE using performance reference compound equilibrium adjustments. Concentrations in SPME were not reported due to lack of detectable chemical in the PDMS polymer deployed. Although both PE and POM were found to effectively accumulate emerging contaminants from the water column, further research is needed to determine their utility as passive sampling devices for emerging contaminants. © 2013 SETAC.

  8. Alpha contamination assessment for D ampersand D activities: Technology overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conaway, J.G.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-02-01

    Instruments based on the principle of Long-Range Alpha Detection (LRAD) detect the ions created in ambient air by Ionizing radiation, particularly alpha radiation, interacting with air molecules. Using either an electrostatic field or forced convection, these ions can be transported to a detection grid where the ions produce a small current that is measured with a sensitive electrometer. LRAD-based instruments can give separate, simultaneous measurements of alpha-emitting solids and inert radioactive gases such as radon. LRAD-based instruments assess surface contamination on an entire object or large surface area in a single, rapid measurement, including relatively inaccessible areas such as interior surfaces of pipes and process equipment. The LRAD concept is well proven and has been developed into a range of different radiation detection devices. This paper presents an overview of the technology, while several associated papers explore specific applications in greater detail

  9. Construction monitoring activities in the ESF starter tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pott, J.; Carlisle, S.

    1994-01-01

    In situ design verification activities am being conducted in the North Ramp Starter Tunnel of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility. These activities include: monitoring the peak particle velocities and evaluating the damage to the rock mass associated with construction blasting, assessing the rock mass quality surrounding the tunnel, monitoring the performance of the installed ground support, and monitoring the stability of the tunnel. In this paper, examples of the data that have been collected and preliminary conclusions from the data are presented

  10. Nordic monitoring on diet, physical activity and overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagt, Sisse; Andersen, Lene Frost; Anderssen, Sigmund A.

    . In 2009, the indicator questions were validated against an objective method (physical activity) or existing survey methods (diet) and the present report mainly describes the validation studies. On basis of the validation studies the working group suggests that the indicators are used in a future......In 2007, a Nordic working group was established with the aim to describe a future Nordic monitoring system on diet, physical activity and overweight. The monitoring system should be simple and at relatively low cost. Therefore it has been decided to conduct the moni-toring as a telephone interview...

  11. GREATER HEMOCYTE BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY IN OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) FROM A RELATIVELY CONTAMINATED SITE IN PENSACOLA BAY, FLORIDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivalve mollusks such as Crassostrea virginica inhabiting polluted estuaries and coastal areas may bioaccumulate high concentrations of contaminants without apparent ill effects. However, changes in putative internal defense activities have been associated with contaminant accumu...

  12. A PERMEABLE ACTIVE AMENDMENT CONCRETE (PAAC) FOR CONTAMINANT REMEDIATION AND EROSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A.; Paller, M.; Dixon, K.

    2012-06-29

    The final project report for SEED SERDP ER - 2134 describes the development of permeable active amendment concrete (PAAC), which was evaluated through four tasks: 1) development of PAAC; 2) assessment of PAAC for contaminant removal; 3) evaluation of promising PAAC formulations for potential environmental impacts; and 4) assessment of the hydraulic, physical, and structural properties of PAAC. Conventional permeable concrete (often referred to as pervious concrete) is concrete with high porosity as a result of an extensive and interconnected void content. It is made from carefully controlled amounts of water and cementitious materials used to create a paste that forms a coating around aggregate particles. The mixture has a substantial void content (e.g., 15% - 25%) that results in a highly permeable structure that drains quickly. In PAAC, the aggregate material is partly replaced by chemically-active amendments that precipitate or adsorb contaminants in water that flows through the concrete interstices. PAAC combines the relatively high structural strength, ample void space, and water permeability of pervious concrete with the contaminant sequestration ability of chemically-active amendments to produce a new material with superior durability and ability to control contaminant mobility. The high surface area provided by the concrete interstices in PAAC provides significant opportunity for contaminants to react with the amendments incorporated into the concrete matrix. PAAC has the potential to immobilize a large variety of organic and inorganic contaminants by incorporating different active sequestering agents including phosphate materials (rock phosphate), organoclays, zeolite, and lime individually or in combinations.

  13. Application of Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) to monitor emerging contaminants in tropical waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayen, Stéphane; Segovia, Elvagris; Loh, Lay Leng; Burger, David F; Eikaas, Hans S; Kelly, Barry C

    2014-06-01

    Tools specifically validated for tropical environments are needed to accurately describe the behavior of chemical contaminants in tropical ecosystems. In the present study, sampling rates (Rs) were determined for the commercial pharmaceutical-type Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) with a 45.8cm(2) exposure surface for 35 Pharmaceutically Active Compounds (PhACs) and Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs), of which eight compounds (albuterol, atorvastatin, diltiazem, dilantin, enalapril, norfluoxetine, risperidone and warfarin) were reported for the first time. These sampling rates were measured in an outdoor laboratory calibration setup to best capture diurnal tropical temperature variations (29±3°C). The effect of stirring and salinity was investigated. For all compounds, the sampling rates were higher under stirred conditions as compared to quiescent conditions. Calibration results in the presence of 30g sodium chloride support that the effects of salinity on POCIS sampling rates are compound-specific. Comparisons between Time-Weight Average (TWA) water concentrations using POCIS and spot sample levels in the field (2 lake and 1 mangrove estuary sites) are presented. Results showed that POCIS TWA concentrations were in agreement with spot sample concentrations for these aquatic systems. Results indicate that POCIS can be used to effectively measure the TWA concentration for a range of PhACs and EDCs in tropical waters. However, based on the results from mass balance and field deployments, POCIS did not appear suitable for compounds with a low mass balance recovery during calibration (e.g. triclosan and linuron in this study). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Monitoring the bio-stimulation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by measurements of soil electrical properties, and CO2 content and its 13C/12C isotopic signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, C.; Gourry, J.; Ignatiadis, I.; Colombano, S.; Dictor, M.; Guimbaud, C.; Chartier, M.; Dumestre, A.; Dehez, S.; Naudet, V.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminated soils represent an environmental issue as it impacts on ecosystems and aquifers. Where significant subsurface heterogeneity exists, conventional intrusive investigations and groundwater sampling can be insufficient to obtain a robust monitoring of hydrocarbon contaminants, as the information they provide is restricted to vertical profiles at discrete locations, with no information between sampling points. In order to obtain wider information in space volume on subsurface modifications, complementary methods can be used like geophysics. Among geophysical methods, geoelectrical techniques such as electrical resistivity (ER) and induced polarization (IP) seem the more promising, especially to study the effects of biodegradation processes. Laboratory and field geoelectrical experiments to characterize soils contaminated by oil products have shown that mature hydrocarbon-contaminated soils are characterized by enhanced electrical conductivity although hydrocarbons are electrically resistive. This high bulk conductivity is due to bacterial impacts on geological media, resulting in changes in the chemical and physical properties and thus, to the geophysical properties of the ground. Moreover, microbial activity induced CO2 production and isotopic deviation of carbon. Indeed, produced CO2 will reflect the pollutant isotopic signature. Thus, the ratio δ13C(CO2) will come closer to δ13C(hydrocarbon). BIOPHY, project supported by the French National Research Agency (ANR), proposes to use electrical methods and gas analyses to develop an operational and non-destructive method for monitoring in situ biodegradation of hydrocarbons in order to optimize soil treatment. Demonstration field is located in the South of Paris (France), where liquid fuels (gasoline and diesel) leaked from some tanks in 1997. In order to stimulate biodegradation, a trench has been dug to supply oxygen to the water table and thus stimulate aerobic metabolic bioprocesses. ER and

  15. Response of monitors of surface contamination to internal exposition control from 131I in the 'nuclear medicine services'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puerta, Nancy; Rojo, Ana M.; Villella, Adrian; Gossio, Sebastian; Parada, Ines Gomez; Acosta, Norma; Arenas, German

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA, in its publication RS-G-1.2, proposes individual control of workers occupationally exposed with risk of internal exposure when the potential exposure provided by incorporation leads to a value of annual committed effective dose equal to or greater than 1 mSv. Because the radionuclide 131 I is the most important to control internal exposure in Nuclear Medicine Services, it is evaluated if the surface contamination monitors, commonly used in nuclear medicine centers of Argentina, would implement individual control of internal exposure to 131 I. Selected detectors were calibrated with a dummy neck and thyroid with calibrated sources of 131 I and 133 Ba reference. For each detector is was estimated the detection efficiency for 131 I and its detection limit. Each instrument was evaluated for the lowest effective dose possible to detect compromised by individual routine monitoring with different measurement intervals . We analyzed the response of each team for determining conditions that may be effective for the control of internal exposure of 131 I. Finally , we conclude that the daily individual monitoring surface contamination detectors available in the Nuclear Medicine Services is feasible to implement and ensures detection of significant additions of 131 I

  16. A multi-assay screening approach for assessment of endocrine-active contaminants in wastewater effluent samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, Chris D., E-mail: cmetcalfe@trentu.ca [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Kleywegt, Sonya [Standards Development Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 40 St. Clair Ave. West, Toronto, ON, M4V 1M2 (Canada); Letcher, Robert J. [Ecotoxicology and Wildlife Health Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Topp, Edward [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre, London, ON, N5V 7T3 (Canada); Wagh, Purva; Trudeau, Vance L.; Moon, Thomas W. [Department of Biology and Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2013-06-01

    Environmental agencies must monitor an ever increasing range of contaminants of emerging concern, including endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). An alternative to using ultra-trace chemical analysis of samples for EDCs is to test for biological activity using in vitro screening assays, then use these assay results to direct analytical chemistry approaches. In this study, we used both analytical approaches and in vitro bioassays to characterize the EDCs present in treated wastewater from four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Ontario, Canada. Estrogen-mediated activity was assessed using a yeast estrogenicity screening (YES) assay. An in vitro competitive binding assay was used to assess capacity to interfere with binding of the thyroid hormone, thyroxine (T4) to the recombinant human thyroid hormone transport protein, transthyretin (i.e. hTTR). An in vitro binding assay with a rat peroxisome proliferator responsive element transfected into a rainbow trout gill cell line was used to evaluate binding and subsequent gene expression via the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR). Analyses of a suite of contaminants known to be EDCs in extracts from treated wastewater were conducted using either gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Estrogenic activity was detected in the YES assay only in those extracts that contained detectable amounts of estradiol (E2). There was a positive relationship between the degree of response in the T4-hTTR assay and the amounts of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners 47 and 99, triclosan and the PBDE metabolite, 4-OH-BDE17. Several wastewater extracts gave a positive response in the PPAR assay, but these responses were not correlated with the amounts of any of the EDCs analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Overall, these data indicate that a step-wise approach is feasible using a combination of in vitro testing and instrumental analysis to monitor for

  17. A multi-assay screening approach for assessment of endocrine-active contaminants in wastewater effluent samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, Chris D.; Kleywegt, Sonya; Letcher, Robert J.; Topp, Edward; Wagh, Purva; Trudeau, Vance L.; Moon, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental agencies must monitor an ever increasing range of contaminants of emerging concern, including endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). An alternative to using ultra-trace chemical analysis of samples for EDCs is to test for biological activity using in vitro screening assays, then use these assay results to direct analytical chemistry approaches. In this study, we used both analytical approaches and in vitro bioassays to characterize the EDCs present in treated wastewater from four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Ontario, Canada. Estrogen-mediated activity was assessed using a yeast estrogenicity screening (YES) assay. An in vitro competitive binding assay was used to assess capacity to interfere with binding of the thyroid hormone, thyroxine (T4) to the recombinant human thyroid hormone transport protein, transthyretin (i.e. hTTR). An in vitro binding assay with a rat peroxisome proliferator responsive element transfected into a rainbow trout gill cell line was used to evaluate binding and subsequent gene expression via the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR). Analyses of a suite of contaminants known to be EDCs in extracts from treated wastewater were conducted using either gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Estrogenic activity was detected in the YES assay only in those extracts that contained detectable amounts of estradiol (E2). There was a positive relationship between the degree of response in the T4-hTTR assay and the amounts of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners 47 and 99, triclosan and the PBDE metabolite, 4-OH-BDE17. Several wastewater extracts gave a positive response in the PPAR assay, but these responses were not correlated with the amounts of any of the EDCs analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Overall, these data indicate that a step-wise approach is feasible using a combination of in vitro testing and instrumental analysis to monitor for

  18. Development of monitoring system for studying of radionuclide and chemical contamination level in trans boundary river basins of Caspian and Kara Seas at Russian Federation territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valyaev, A.N.; Stepanets, O.V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Intensive and insufficiently controlled human industrial activities, ignoring regional geological and geochemical processes, resulted in considerable chemical pollution and radioactive contamination of these river's basins, where some large nuclear power plants, uranium and chemical enterprises, oil and gas productions are also located. This epidemiological and environmental situation aggravated further after USSR collapse and the establishment of new independent states due to lack of the appropriate environmental monitoring in those countries and on their near-border areas in particular, that contributed to further aggravation of the political tension and economic destabilization between transboundary countries. The environmental situation here is one of most unfavorable among world water ecosystems. In recent years different pollutants (radionuclides, toxins, organic substances and heavy metals) activate reduction processes in bottom sediments, that lead to changes in sulfur and carbon cycles, the oxygen deficit in water, to eutrophication of water reservoirs and their biological degradation. Today the development of total environmental monitoring systems is clearly necessary for operative current control, ensuring preparedness and prediction of any potential emergencies of global and local scales and their long-term effects. The objectives for presented monitoring systems are to: (1)study sources and mechanisms of chemical pollution and radioactive contamination of water basins of Volga (the largest river in Europe and Russia), Terek and Ural rivers flowed into Caspian Sea, and Ob, Irtysh and Tom ones, flowed into Kara Sea in Arctic Ocean within RF territory; (2) develop the well-ground database (DB) on contamination; (3) the using of the obtained results for the operative current trans boundary control, monitoring and protection of freshwater resources; (4) modeling of pollutant's migration. There is no way to provide solution of environmental

  19. Early-stage bioassay for monitoring radioactive contamination in living livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Toshiro; Sawano, Kaita; Kishimoto, Miori; Furuhama, Kazuhisa; Yamada, Kazutaka

    2012-12-01

    Soil samples from the ground surface and feces and blood from a mixed-breed male pig were collected on April 10, 2011 at a farm within 20 km of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The radioactivity of each sample was measured using a Ge semiconductor detector. Despite the fact that the pig had been fed non-contaminated imported feed, (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in the feces, and (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in the blood clots. Because it is considerably difficult to measure radioactive contamination in the edible muscle of living livestock, bioassays are an option for the screening of radioactive contamination in living livestock to ensure food safety.

  20. Evaluation of Activity Recognition Algorithms for Employee Performance Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Mehreen Mumtaz; Hafiz Adnan Habib

    2012-01-01

    Successful Human Resource Management plays a key role in success of any organization. Traditionally, human resource managers rely on various information technology solutions such as Payroll and Work Time Systems incorporating RFID and biometric technologies. This research evaluates activity recognition algorithms for employee performance monitoring. An activity recognition algorithm has been implemented that categorized the activity of employee into following in to classes: job activities and...

  1. In-situ protein determination to monitor contamination in a centrifugal partition chromatograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouiche, Feriel; Faure, Karine

    2017-05-15

    Centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) works with biphasic liquid systems including aqueous two-phase systems. Metallic rotors are able to retain an aqueous stationary phase able to purify proteins. But the adhesion of proteins to solid surface may pose a cross-contamination risk during downstream processes. So it is of utmost importance to ensure the cleanliness of the equipment and detect possible protein contamination in a timely manner. Thereby, a direct method that allows the determination of the effective presence of proteins and the extent of contamination in the metallic CPC rotors was developed. This in-situ method is derived from the Amino Density Estimation by Colorimetric Assay (ADECA) which is based on the affinity of a dye, Coomassie Brillant Blue (CBB), with protonated N + groups of the proteins. In this paper, the ADECA method was developed dynamically, on a 25 mL stainless-steel rotor with various extents of protein contaminations using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a fouling model. The eluted CBB dye was quantified and found to respond linearly to BSA contamination up to 70 mg injected. Limits of detection and quantification were recorded as 0.9 mg and 3.1 mg, respectively. While the non-specific interactions between the dye and the rotor cannot currently be neglected, this method allows for in situ determination of proteins contamination and should contribute to the development of CPC as a separation tool in protein purification processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbiological Analysis of an Active Pilot-Scale Mobile Bioreactor Treating Organic Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigmon, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a granular activated carbon fluidized bed bioreactor (GAC-FBR). This GAC-FBR was in operation at a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) Site in Augusta Georgia for in situ groundwater bioremediation of organics. The samples included contaminated site groundwater, GAC-FBR effluent, and biofilm coated granular activated carbon at 5, 9, and 13 feet within the GAC-FBR column. The objective of this analysis was to correlate contaminant removal with microbiological activity within the GAC-FBR

  3. Radiometric monitoring of contaminated scrap metals imported in Italy. Technical and regulatory features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobici, F.; Piermattei, S.; Susanna, A.

    1996-01-01

    During these last ten years there have been occasional reports of mishaps from trafficking of contaminated scraps or containing radioactive sources. Recently an increase of events indicated that the problem becomes more important as to generate possible consequences, from a radiation protection standpoint, for workers and general public. Following the detection of contaminated metal scraps in some recycling industries and in some consignments entering the Italian borders, the competent Authorities laid down rules to put the matter under control. In this paper technical and regulatory features are discussed. (author)

  4. Air Monitoring to Control the Intake of Airborne Radioiodine-131 Contaminants by Nuclear Medicine Workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiemwutthisak, P.; Sritongkul, N.; Chaudakshetrin, P.; Kanchanaphiboon, P.; Tuntawiroon, M.

    2012-01-01

    Inhalation of radioiodine-131 is the largest cause of internal dose to nuclear medicine workers. The concentration of radioiodine-131 in air is limited by the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) of 416.67 Bq/m3. In this study air monitoring shall be performed to measure the radioiodine-131 contaminant in air by sample collection and analysis. Air samples were drawn from areas where there is a potential for I-131 airborne radioactivity e.g. in the hot laboratory, radioiodine treatment rooms, radioactive waste collection areas and waste water treatment plant. A portable battery-operated air sampler, Gilian BDX II with carbon- impregnated cellulose filters was used for air sampling. The flow rate was adjusted to 3 liters per minute and the sampler run for 180 minutes. Iodine-131 radioactivity on filter was measured for 10 minutes by 2 NaI(Tl) gamma counters, Perkin Elmer Wallac Wizard 1480 (3''x3'') and Atomlab 950 PC (2''x2'') with and objective for inter comparison. Counting efficiency of the counters are 57 and 39 percent respectively. Agreeable results of I-131 radioactivity were obtained from both gamma counters. The mean I-131 concentrations measured by Wallac(Atomlab) were 31.59±16.31 (29.84±14.74) Bq/m 3 in radioiodine fume hood for treatment dose dispensing, 8.98±4.33 (7.58±5.10) Bq/m 3 in fume hood accommodated with a dose calibrator, 7.80±5.39 (7.54±5.04) Bq/m 3 in radioactive waste storage area, 0.03±0.54 (0.03±0.57) Bq/m 3 in patient waiting area, 2.94±3.60 (2.55±2.98) Bq/m 3 in hospital ward waste collection area and 0.03±0.01 (0.03±0.01) Bq/m 3 in the water treatment plant area. Radioiodine concentrations in patient's room increases linearly as the administered dose was increasing. Mean±SD of the measured concentrations were 11.63±9.30 (9.86±8.98) Bq/m 3 , 18.57±13.24 (17.35±12.33) Bq/m 3 and 31.90±22.32 (30.90±22.49) Bq/m 3 for the administered doses of 3.7, 5.55 and 7.4 Bq respectively. Radioiodine concentrations in all specified areas

  5. Biological Activity Assessment in Mexican Tropical Soils with Different Hydrocarbon Contamination Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveroll-Larios, Jessica; Escalante-Espinosa, Erika; Fócil-Monterrubio, Reyna L; Díaz-Ramírez, Ildefonso J

    The use of soil health indicators linked to microbial activities, such as key enzymes and respirometric profiles, helps assess the natural attenuation potential of soils contaminated with hydrocarbons. In this study, the intrinsic physicochemical characteristics, biological activity and biodegradation potential were recorded for two soils with different contamination histories (>5 years and soil samples. Soil suspensions were tested as microbial inocula in biodegradation potential assays using contaminated perlite as an inert support. The basal respiratory rate of the recently contaminated soil was 15-38 mg C-CO 2  kg -1 h -1 , while the weathered soil presented a greater basal mineralisation capacity of 55-70 mg C-CO 2 kg -1 h -1 . The basal levels of lipase and dehydrogenase were significantly greater than those recorded in non-contaminated soils (551 ± 21 μg pNP g -1 ). Regarding the biodegradation potential assessment, the lipase (1000-3000 μg pNP g -1 of perlite) and dehydrogenase (~3000 μg INF g -1 of perlite) activities in the inoculum of the recently contaminated soil were greater than those recorded in the inoculum of the weathered soil. This was correlated with a high mineralisation rate (~30 mg C-CO 2 kg -1 h -1 ) in the recently contaminated soil and a reduction in hydrocarbon concentration (~30 %). The combination of an inert support and enzymatic and respirometric analyses made it possible to detect the different biodegradation capacities of the studied inocula and the natural attenuation potential of a recently contaminated soil at high hydrocarbon concentrations.

  6. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: FY 1990 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1991-10-01

    Chapter 3 of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988) sets forth requirements for environmental monitoring of active low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites. Active sites are defined as those LLW facilities that were in use on or after the date of the order (September 1988). The transuranic (TRU) waste storage areas in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 5 North are covered by Chap. 2 of the order. In both chapters, monitoring is required to provide for early warning of leaks before those leaks pose a threat to human health or the environment. Chapter 3 also requires that monitoring be conducted to evaluate the short- and long-term performance of LLW disposal facilities. In accordance with this order, the Solid Waste Operations Department at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has established an Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) that is implemented by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at ORNL. This report summarizes data from ASEMP monitoring activities for the final 6 months of FY 1990. A brief summary of the monitoring methodology for each site is presented also

  7. Roshydromet system of environment radioactive contamination monitoring in the Arctic region of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelukanov, V.

    1995-01-01

    159 arctic hydrometerological stations take measurements of gamma radiation. 51 stations monitor the density of atmospheric radioactive fallout and 12 stations monitor the concentration of aerosols. 13 hydrological stations sited in the mouths of main Arctic Ocean rivers take water samples. Regional laboratories carry out isotop analysis of samples. Information on high levels of a radioactivity measured at the monitoring stations, as well as information on abnormal radioactivity from regional laboratories are transmitted to the Information Centers on the monitoring system (Moscow and Obnisk) by cable. 2 figs., 1 tab

  8. Transthyretin-Binding Activity of Contaminants in Blood from Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Cubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bytingsvik, J.; Simon, E.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Lamoree, M.H.; Lie, E.; Aars, J.; Derocher, A. E.; Wiig, O.; Jenssen, B.M.; Hamers, T.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the transthyretin (TTR)-binding activity of blood-accumulating contaminants in blood plasma samples of approximately 4-months-old polar bear (Ursus maritimus) cubs from Svalbard sampled in 1998 and 2008. The TTR-binding activity was measured as thyroxine (T4)-like equivalents (T4-EQ

  9. Monitoring bat activity at the Dutch EEZ in 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, S.; Jonge Poerink, B.; Vries, de P.

    2015-01-01

    IMARES conducted studies in 2012 and 2013 to monitor offshore bat activity with passive acoustic ultrasonic recorders. In the follow-up project reported here, more data on the offshore occurrence of bats was collected in 2014. Using the same methodology as in 2012 and 2013, bat activity was

  10. Enhanced activation of periodate by iodine-doped granular activated carbon for organic contaminant degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowan; Liu, Xitao; Lin, Chunye; Qi, Chengdu; Zhang, Huijuan; Ma, Jun

    2017-08-01

    In this study, iodine-doped granular activated carbon (I-GAC) was prepared and subsequently applied to activate periodate (IO 4 - ) to degrade organic contaminants at ambient temperature. The physicochemical properties of GAC and I-GAC were examined using scanning electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption/desorption, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. No significant difference was observed between the two except for the existence of triiodide (I 3 - ) and pentaiodide (I 5 - ) on I-GAC. The catalytic activity of I-GAC towards IO 4 - was evaluated by the degradation of acid orange 7 (AO7), and superior catalytic performance was achieved compared with GAC. The effects of some influential parameters (preparation conditions, initial solution pH, and coexisting anions) on the catalytic ability were also investigated. Based on radical scavenging experiments, it appeared that IO 3 was the predominant reactive species in the I-GAC/IO 4 - system. The mechanism underlying the enhanced catalytic performance of I-GAC could be explained by the introduction of negatively charged I 3 - and I 5 - into I-GAC, which induced positive charge density on the surface of I-GAC. This accelerated the interaction between I-GAC and IO 4 - , and subsequently mediated the increasing generation of iodyl radicals (IO 3 ). Furthermore, a possible degradation pathway of AO7 was proposed according to the intermediate products identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analytical importance of determination of lipase activity for the express analysis of contamination by heavy metals of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Dyachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades becoming more sharply there is a problem of chemical and environmental monitoring and industrial inspection the content of toxic elements in food raw materials and foodstuff. At the same time there is a need to develop rapid methods, informative, integral, reflecting not only the safety but also the ecological purity of food raw materials. The method of determination of content of toxic elements on activity of its own lipase of in situ (AОL-method in seeds of oil-bearing crops, on the example of sunflower is offered. The system of mathematical assessment of analytical criteria of laboratory test used in clinical laboratory diagnostics was for this purpose adapted. Sunflower seeds in which established the maintenance of toxiferous elements served as an object of a research: Cd, Pb, As, Hg, by atomic absorption method on the KVANT-Z.ETA device. Further tests divided on clear, including high-quality and pollution-free, and polluted - naturally containing toxiferous elements and which are artificially contaminated. Definition of activity of a lipase of seeds was carried out by the standard titrimetric method. Decrease of the activity of enzyme was connected with the maintenance of toxiferous elements. Proceeding from the received results counted an analytical significance (sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of descriptiveness the positive and negative results of determination of level of maintenance of toxiferous elements in sunflower seeds by the AОL-method. The set values of analytical specificity of a method and predictive value of a positive take at the level of 77.3% and 71.4% respectively, do not allow to use the offered method for the quantitative analysis, however, analytical sensitivity at the level of 86.2% and the predictive value of the negative result at the level of 89.5%, allow to recommend the AOL-method for screening programs of chemical environmental monitoring and technological monitoring of a

  12. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program. FY 1993: Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, C.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Hicks, D.S.; Marsh, J.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report continues a series of annual and semiannual reports that present the results of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) monitoring activities. The report details monitoring data for fiscal year (FY) 1993 and is divided into three major areas: SWSA 6 [including tumulus pads, Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), and other sites], the low-level Liquid-Waste Solidification Project (LWSP), and TRU-waste storage facilities in SWSA 5 N. The detailed monitoring methodology is described in the second revision of the ASEMP program plan. This report also presents a summary of the methodology used to gather data for each major area along with the results obtained during FY 1993

  13. Ecotoxicity monitoring of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil during bioremediation: a case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Tomáš; Vosáhlová, S.; Matějů, V.; Kováčová, Nora; Novotný, Čeněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2007), s. 1-7 ISSN 0090-4341 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00B030; GA AV ČR KJB600200514 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : bioremediation * ecotoxicity * hydrocarbon-contaminated soil Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.620, year: 2007

  14. Development of a multistrain bacterial bioreporter platform for the monitoring of hydrocarbon contaminants in marine environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tecon, R.; Beggah, S.; Czechowska, K.; Sentchilo, V.; Chronopoulou, P.M.; McGenity, T.J.; van der Meer, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are common contaminants in marine and freshwater aquatic habitats, often occurring as a result of oil spillage. Rapid and reliable on-site tools for measuring the bioavailable hydrocarbon fractions, i.e., those that are most likely to cause toxic effects or are available for

  15. Exposure assessment of process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Dussort, P.; Günther, Helmut; Hanlon, Paul; Honda, Hiroshi; Mally, Angela; O’Hagan, Sue; Scholz, Gabriele; Seidel, Albrecht; Swenberg, James; Teeguarden, Justin; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2018-01-01

    Exposure assessment is a fundamental part of the risk assessment paradigm, but can often present a number of challenges and uncertainties. This is especially the case for process contaminants formed during the processing, e.g. heating of food, since they are in part highly reactive and/or volatile,

  16. Study of grape contamination at the time of harvest using stable chemical substances analyzed by activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miribel, J.; Delmas, J.

    1989-01-01

    In the sixties the SERE, in conjunction with the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), conducted experiments on the contamination of wine produced from vines contaminated at the roots. The contamination must be carried out via the leaves and at different stages of growth so as to come as close as possible to the conditions of fall-out. An initial study of grape contamination at the time of the harvest was carried out using stable chemical substances which were analysed by activation. This technique makes it possible to use a large number of substances at the same time and is harmless for the environment. The results obtained appear to be satisfactory, and the method will be used next year for studies at other stages in the ripening of grapes [fr

  17. Surface sediment quality relative to port activities: A contaminant-spectrum assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shen; Hong, Bing; Ma, Jun; Chen, Yongshan; Xi, Xiuping; Gao, Jingbo; Hu, Xiuqin; Xu, Xiangrong; Sun, Yuxin

    2017-10-15

    Ports are facing increasing environmental concerns with their importance to the global economy. Numerous studies indicated sediment quality deterioration in ports; however, the deterioration is not discriminated for each port activity. This study investigated a spectrum of contaminants (metals and organic pollutants) in surface sediments at 20 sampling points in Port Ningbo, China, one of the top five world ports by volume. The spectrum of contaminants (metals and organic pollutants) was quantified following marine sediment quality guidelines of China and USA and surface sediment quality was assessed according to thresholds of the two guidelines. Coupling a categorical matrix of port activities with the matrix of sedimentary contaminants revealed that contaminants were highly associated with the port operations. Ship repair posed a severe chemical risk to sediment. Operations of crude oil and coal loadings were two top activities related to organic pollutants in sediments while port operations of ore and container loadings discharged metals. Among the 20 sampling points, Cu, Zn, Pb, and DDT and its metabolites were the priority contaminants influencing sediment quality. Overall, surface sediments in Port Ningbo had relatively low environmental risks but ship repair is an environmental concern that must be addressed. This study provides a practical approach for port activity-related quality assessment of surface sediments in ports that could be applicable in many world sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of a hygiene monitor for detection of contamination in dental surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, C W; Rothwell, P S

    1991-05-11

    Routines for disinfecting working surfaces in dental surgeries are difficult to monitor without time-consuming and labour-intensive microbiological techniques, yet effective monitoring is a vital part of cross-infection control. Easy to use, on-site methods would be valuable in this context. This study evaluates a portable monitor, the Biotrace Hygiene Monitor, which uses bioluminescence to measure adenosine triphosphate (ATP) on surfaces. Under laboratory conditions, the ability of the monitor to detect whole saliva and Streptococcus sanguis was determined and, in the general practice environment, the level of ATP on surfaces in five dental surgeries was assessed. The minimum amount of saliva detectable was 0.5 microliters and in surgeries, the monitor readily identified numerous surfaces with fairly high levels of ATP. Routine cleaning methods sometimes left ATP on surfaces at levels which represented a cross-infection risk, if it is assumed that the ATP derived from patients' saliva. Modification of cleaning methods resulted in a reduction of ATP levels to within that which could be considered reasonably practicably safe. It is concluded that the Biotrace Hygiene Monitor offers a simple and valuable means of monitoring dental practice cleaning routines.

  19. Evaluating Monitoring Strategies to Detect Precipitation-Induced Microbial Contamination Events in Karstic Springs Used for Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Besmer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of microbial drinking water quality is a key component for ensuring safety and understanding risk, but conventional monitoring strategies are typically based on low sampling frequencies (e.g., quarterly or monthly. This is of concern because many drinking water sources, such as karstic springs are often subject to changes in bacterial concentrations on much shorter time scales (e.g., hours to days, for example after precipitation events. Microbial contamination events are crucial from a risk assessment perspective and should therefore be targeted by monitoring strategies to establish both the frequency of their occurrence and the magnitude of bacterial peak concentrations. In this study we used monitoring data from two specific karstic springs. We assessed the performance of conventional monitoring based on historical records and tested a number of alternative strategies based on a high-resolution data set of bacterial concentrations in spring water collected with online flow cytometry (FCM. We quantified the effect of increasing sampling frequency and found that for the specific case studied, at least bi-weekly sampling would be needed to detect precipitation events with a probability of >90%. We then proposed an optimized monitoring strategy with three targeted samples per event, triggered by precipitation measurements. This approach is more effective and efficient than simply increasing overall sampling frequency. It would enable the water utility to (1 analyze any relevant event and (2 limit median underestimation of peak concentrations to approximately 10%. We conclude with a generalized perspective on sampling optimization and argue that the assessment of short-term dynamics causing microbial peak loads initially requires increased sampling/analysis efforts, but can be optimized subsequently to account for limited resources. This offers water utilities and public health authorities systematic ways to evaluate and optimize their

  20. Monitoring of Volcanic Activity by Sub-mm Geodetic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, S.; Mare, Y.; Ichiki, M.; Demachi, T.; Tachibana, K.; Nishimura, T.

    2017-12-01

    Volcanic earthquakes have been occurring beneath Zao volcano in northern Honshu, Japan since 2013, following the increase of deep low frequency earthquakes from 2012. On account of a burst of seismicity initiated in April 2015, the JMA announced a warning of eruption, however, the seismicity gradually decreased for the next two months and the warning was canceled in June. In the same time period, minor expansive deformation was observed by GNSS. Small earthquakes are still occurring, and low-freq. earthquakes (LPE) occur sometimes accompanied by static tilt changes. In this study, we try to extract the sub-mm displacements from the LPE waveforms observed by broadband seismometers (BBS) and utilize them for geodetic inversion to monitor volcanic activities. Thun et al. (2015, 2016) devised an efficient method using a running median filter (RMF) to remove LP noises, which contaminate displacement waveforms. They demonstrated the reproducibility of the waveforms corresponding to the experimentally given sub-mm displacements in the laboratory. They also apply the method to the field LPE data obtained from several volcanoes to show static displacements. The procedure is outlined as follows: (1) Unfiltered removal of the instrument response, (2) LP noise estimate by LPF with a corner frequency of 5/M, where M (seconds) is the time window of the RMF and should be at least three times the length of the rise time. (3) Subtract the noise estimated from step (2). (4) Integrate to obtain displacement waveforms. We apply the method to the BBS waveform at a distance of about 1.5 km ESE from the summit crater of Zao Volcano associated with a LPE on April 1, 2017. Assuming the time window M as 300 seconds, we successfully obtained the displacement history: taking the rise time of about 2 minutes, the site was gradually uplifted with the amount of about 50-60 µm and then subsided with HF displacements in the next 2 minutes resulting about 20-30 µm static upheaval. Comparing the

  1. Evidence for Legacy Contamination of Nitrate in Groundwater of North Carolina Using Monitoring and Private Well Data Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, K. P.; Kane, E.; Bolich, R.; Serre, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrate (NO3-) is a widespread contaminant of groundwater and surface water across the United States that has deleterious effects to human and ecological health. Legacy contamination, or past releases of NO3-, is thought to be impacting current groundwater and surface water of North Carolina. This study develops a model for predicting point-level groundwater NO3- at a state scale for monitoring wells and private wells of North Carolina. A land use regression (LUR) model selection procedure known as constrained forward nonlinear regression and hyperparameter optimization (CFN-RHO) is developed for determining nonlinear model explanatory variables when they are known to be correlated. Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) is then used to integrate the LUR model to create a LUR-BME model of spatial/temporal varying groundwater NO3- concentrations. LUR-BME results in a leave-one-out cross-validation r2 of 0.74 and 0.33 for monitoring and private wells, effectively predicting within spatial covariance ranges. The major finding regarding legacy sources NO3- in this study is that the LUR-BME models show the geographical extent of low-level contamination of deeper drinking-water aquifers is beyond that of the shallower monitoring well. Groundwater NO3- in monitoring wells is highly variable with many areas predicted above the current Environmental Protection Agency standard of 10 mg/L. Contrarily, the private well results depict widespread, low-level NO3-concentrations. This evidence supports that in addition to downward transport, there is also a significant outward transport of groundwater NO3- in the drinking water aquifer to areas outside the range of sources. Results indicate that the deeper aquifers are potentially acting as a reservoir that is not only deeper, but also covers a larger geographical area, than the reservoir formed by the shallow aquifers. Results are of interest to agencies that regulate surface water and drinking water sources impacted by the effects of

  2. Dashboard applications to monitor experiment activities at sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, Julia; Gaidioz, Benjamin; Grigoras, Costin; Kokoszkiewicz, Lukasz; Lanciotti, Elisa; Rocha, Ricardo; Saiz, Pablo; Santinelli, Roberto; Sidorova, Irina; Sciaba, Andrea [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research (Switzerland); Belforte, Stefano [INFN Trieste (Italy); Boehm, Max [EDS, an HP Company, Plano, TX (United States); Casajus, Adrian [Universitat de Barcelona (Spain); Flix, Josep [PIC, Port d' Informacio CientIfica, Bellaterra (Spain); Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei, E-mail: Elisa.Lanciotti@cern.c, E-mail: Pablo.Saiz@cern.c [CPPM Marseille (France)

    2010-04-01

    In the framework of a distributed computing environment, such as WLCG, monitoring has a key role in order to keep under control activities going on in sites located in different countries and involving people based in many different sites. To be able to cope with such a large scale heterogeneous infrastructure, it is necessary to have monitoring tools providing a complete and reliable view of the overall performance of the sites. Moreover, the structure of a monitoring system critically depends on the object to monitor and on the users it is addressed to. In this article we will describe two different monitoring systems both aimed to monitor activities and services provided in the WLCG framework, but designed in order to meet the requirements of different users: Site Status Board has an overall view of the services available in all the sites supporting an experiment, whereas Siteview provides a complete view of all the activities going on at a site, for all the experiments supported by the site.

  3. Dashboard applications to monitor experiment activities at sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, Julia; Gaidioz, Benjamin; Grigoras, Costin; Kokoszkiewicz, Lukasz; Lanciotti, Elisa; Rocha, Ricardo; Saiz, Pablo; Santinelli, Roberto; Sidorova, Irina; Sciaba, Andrea; Belforte, Stefano; Boehm, Max; Casajus, Adrian; Flix, Josep; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of a distributed computing environment, such as WLCG, monitoring has a key role in order to keep under control activities going on in sites located in different countries and involving people based in many different sites. To be able to cope with such a large scale heterogeneous infrastructure, it is necessary to have monitoring tools providing a complete and reliable view of the overall performance of the sites. Moreover, the structure of a monitoring system critically depends on the object to monitor and on the users it is addressed to. In this article we will describe two different monitoring systems both aimed to monitor activities and services provided in the WLCG framework, but designed in order to meet the requirements of different users: Site Status Board has an overall view of the services available in all the sites supporting an experiment, whereas Siteview provides a complete view of all the activities going on at a site, for all the experiments supported by the site.

  4. Air sampling procedures to evaluate microbial contamination: a comparison between active and passive methods in operating theatres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Christian; Marcotrigiano, Vincenzo; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2012-08-02

    Since air can play a central role as a reservoir for microorganisms, in controlled environments such as operating theatres regular microbial monitoring is useful to measure air quality and identify critical situations. The aim of this study is to assess microbial contamination levels in operating theatres using both an active and a passive sampling method and then to assess if there is a correlation between the results of the two different sampling methods. The study was performed in 32 turbulent air flow operating theatres of a University Hospital in Southern Italy. Active sampling was carried out using the Surface Air System and passive sampling with settle plates, in accordance with ISO 14698. The Total Viable Count (TVC) was evaluated at rest (in the morning before the beginning of surgical activity) and in operational (during surgery). The mean TVC at rest was 12.4 CFU/m3 and 722.5 CFU/m2/h for active and passive samplings respectively. The mean in operational TVC was 93.8 CFU/m3 (SD = 52.69; range = 22-256) and 10496.5 CFU/m2/h (SD = 7460.5; range = 1415.5-25479.7) for active and passive samplings respectively. Statistical analysis confirmed that the two methods correlate in a comparable way with the quality of air. It is possible to conclude that both methods can be used for general monitoring of air contamination, such as routine surveillance programs. However, the choice must be made between one or the other to obtain specific information.

  5. Air sampling procedures to evaluate microbial contamination: a comparison between active and passive methods in operating theatres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoli Christian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since air can play a central role as a reservoir for microorganisms, in controlled environments such as operating theatres regular microbial monitoring is useful to measure air quality and identify critical situations. The aim of this study is to assess microbial contamination levels in operating theatres using both an active and a passive sampling method and then to assess if there is a correlation between the results of the two different sampling methods. Methods The study was performed in 32 turbulent air flow operating theatres of a University Hospital in Southern Italy. Active sampling was carried out using the Surface Air System and passive sampling with settle plates, in accordance with ISO 14698. The Total Viable Count (TVC was evaluated at rest (in the morning before the beginning of surgical activity and in operational (during surgery. Results The mean TVC at rest was 12.4 CFU/m3 and 722.5 CFU/m2/h for active and passive samplings respectively. The mean in operational TVC was 93.8 CFU/m3 (SD = 52.69; range = 22-256 and 10496.5 CFU/m2/h (SD = 7460.5; range = 1415.5-25479.7 for active and passive samplings respectively. Statistical analysis confirmed that the two methods correlate in a comparable way with the quality of air. Conclusion It is possible to conclude that both methods can be used for general monitoring of air contamination, such as routine surveillance programs. However, the choice must be made between one or the other to obtain specific information.

  6. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Mid-FY 1991 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) from October 1990 through March 1991. The ASEMP was established in 1989 by Solid Waste Operations and the Environmental Sciences Division to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 as required by chapters II and III of US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. Monitoring results continue to demonstrate the no LLW is being leached from the storage vaults on the tumulus pads. Loading of vaults on Tumulus II began during this reporting period and 115 vaults had been loaded by the end of March 1991.

  7. Organohalogen diffuse contamination in Firenze and Prato groundwater bodies. investigative monitoring and definition of background values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Menichetti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The experience of the Environmental Protection Agency of Tuscany in the determination of background values start from 2009 with various substances such as metals, non-metals and inorganic, dioxins and various matrices such as soil, groundwater, inland surface waters and coastal marine sediments. The methodologies supplied in literature have been interpreted and integrated to meet the requirements of current legislation and needs for remediation, diffuse pollution and excavated earth in specific areas. The method for diffuse pollution described here focuses on the use of statistical and geostatistical tools and what we present in this paper are some early results of interest obtained from two case studies in the Florence and in the Prato area. The study has been carried out on concentrations of tetrachlorethylene in the two groundwater bodies by identifying a number of frequency classes in the distribution. Each class has been hypothesized as corresponding to a distinct process. The occurrence both in space and time of the classes has been analysed and discussed critically concluding for a background value that has been found similar between the two zones. The investigation conducted on two monitoring stations representing hot-spots, with values in excess on background value has enabled to map spatial distribution of concentrations and to separate plumes from diffuse pollution area. The two areas show some peculiarities: Florence area shows advanced dehalogenation and a clear spatial continuity, whereas in Prato area it is limited with poor spatial continuity suggesting a spreading with vertical motions from still active primary or secondary sources. Observing how the methodological structure would require, to be fully predictive, a greater number of samples, however, the present work want to constitute a first contribution for management of areas subject to diffuse pollution.

  8. Monitoring of beach contamination following an incident at BNFL, Sellafield, Cumbria in November 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report jointly produced by RCI/DOE and MAFF presents for the period from November 1983 to July 1984: 1) the monitoring programmes and techniques used by BNFL, DOE and MAFF; 2) the results of the monitoring programmes; 3) actions taken as a consequence of the monitoring results; 4) an outline of the position at the end of July 1984 when the Secretary of State for Environment announced, after consultation with MAFF, the DHSS and NRPB, withdrawal of advice to avoid unnecessary use of the beaches. (UK)

  9. New miniaturized alpha/beta spectrometric system for the surface contamination monitoring and radon personal dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streil, T.; Oeser, V.; Holfeld, G.

    1998-01-01

    The heart of the new miniaturized alpha/beta spectroscopic system is a Smart Card MCA having a 12 bit resolution and a 32 bit memory for each channel with the size of a cheque card. The system consists of a single or up to 12 alpha spectrometers in a battery powered casing with connectors for direct detector/amplifier module plugging. Surface contamination in the order of 1 Bq/cm 2 of 239 Pu can be measured. (M.D.)

  10. Preconcentration for Improved Long-term Monitoring of Contaminants in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-10

    facilities where waste from weapons manufacture, storage, and reclamation processes has leached into the soil and groundwater. Key contaminants...and current testing and training facilities where waste from weapons manufacture, storage, and reclamation processes has leached into the soil and...scale, bread -board level, prototype was assembled using a peristaltic pump with a 900:1 motor and 0.143” rollers (P625/900.143, Instech Laboratories

  11. Unmanned aerial vehicles for the assessment and monitoring of environmental contamination: An example from coal ash spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Max; Silman, Miles

    2016-11-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) offer new opportunities to monitor pollution and provide valuable information to support remediation. Their low-cost, ease of use, and rapid deployment capability make them ideal for environmental emergency response. Here we present a UAV-based study of the third largest coal ash spill in the United States. Coal ash from coal combustion is a toxic industrial waste material present worldwide. Typically stored in settling ponds in close proximity to waterways, coal ash poses significant risk to the environment and drinking water supplies from both chronic contamination of surface and ground water and catastrophic pond failure. We sought to provide an independent estimate of the volume of coal ash and contaminated water lost during the rupture of the primary coal ash pond at the Dan River Steam Station in Eden, NC, USA and to demonstrate the feasibility of using UAVs to rapidly respond to and measure the volume of spills from ponds or containers that are open to the air. Using structure-from-motion (SfM) imagery analysis techniques, we reconstructed the 3D structure of the pond bottom after the spill, used historical imagery to estimate the pre-spill waterline, and calculated the volume of material lost. We estimated a loss of 66,245 ± 5678 m 3 of ash and contaminated water. The technique used here allows rapid response to environmental emergencies and quantification of their impacts at low cost, and these capabilities will make UAVs a central tool in environmental planning, monitoring, and disaster response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Review of the stack discharge active particle contamination problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, H M

    1948-03-22

    Quantities of the order of ten million to 100 million radioactive particles per month were emitted from the stacks over a period of several months. High activity in the range 0.1 to 3..mu..c was probably confined to large carrier particles of corrosion debris from iron ductwork in the separations plant ventilation air system. This report discusses chemical, physical and radiochemical properties of the particles, and possible biological and health effects of exposure to them. (ACR)

  13. Residual endotoxin contaminations in recombinant proteins are sufficient to activate human CD1c+ dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Schwarz

    Full Text Available Many commercially available recombinant proteins are produced in Escherichia coli, and most suppliers guarantee contamination levels of less than 1 endotoxin unit (EU. When we analysed commercially available proteins for their endotoxin content, we found contamination levels in the same range as generally stated in the data sheets, but also some that were higher. To analyse whether these low levels of contamination have an effect on immune cells, we stimulated the monocytic cell line THP-1, primary human monocytes, in vitro differentiated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and primary human CD1c+ dendritic cells (DCs with very low concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; ranging from 0.002-2 ng/ml. We show that CD1c+ DCs especially can be activated by minimal amounts of LPS, equivalent to the levels of endotoxin contamination we detected in some commercially available proteins. Notably, the enhanced endotoxin sensitivity of CD1c+ DCs was closely correlated with high CD14 expression levels observed in CD1c+ DCs that had been maintained in cell culture medium for 24 hours. When working with cells that are particularly sensitive to LPS, even low endotoxin contamination may generate erroneous data. We therefore recommend that recombinant proteins be thoroughly screened for endotoxin contamination using the limulus amebocyte lysate test, fluorescence-based assays, or a luciferase based NF-κB reporter assay involving highly LPS-sensitive cells overexpressing TLR4, MD-2 and CD14.

  14. Biological activity of soil contaminated with cobalt, tin, and molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowska, Magdalena; Kucharski, Jan; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga

    2016-07-01

    In this age of intensive industrialization and urbanization, mankind's highest concern should be to analyze the effect of all metals accumulating in the environment, both those considered toxic and trace elements. With this aim in mind, a unique study was conducted to determine the potentially negative impact of Sn(2+), Co(2+), and Mo(5+) in optimal and increased doses on soil biological properties. These metals were applied in the form of aqueous solutions of Sn(2+) (SnCl2 (.)2H2O), Co(2+) (CoCl2 · 6H2O), and Mo(5+) (MoCl5), each in the doses of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg kg(-1) soil DM. The activity of dehydrogenases, urease, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase, and catalase and the counts of twelve microorganism groups were determined on the 25th and 50th day of experiment duration. Moreover, to present the studied problem comprehensively, changes in the biochemical activity and yield of spring barley were shown using soil and plant resistance indices-RS. The study shows that Sn(2+), Co(2+), and Mo(5+) disturb the state of soil homeostasis. Co(2+) and Mo(5+) proved the greatest soil biological activity inhibitors. The residence of these metals in soil, particularly Co(2+), also generated a drastic decrease in the value of spring barley resistance. Only Sn(2+) did not disrupt its yielding. The studied enzymes can be arranged as follows for their sensitivity to Sn(2+), Co(2+), Mo(5+): Deh > Ure > Aryl > Pal > Pac > Cat. Dehydrogenases and urease may be reliable soil health indicators.

  15. Modification of soil microbial activity and several hydrolases in a forest soil artificially contaminated with copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Rosa; Leirós, Mā Carmen; Gil-Sotres, Fernando; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Soils have long been exposed to the adverse effects of human activities, which negatively affect soil biological activity. As a result of their functions and ubiquitous presence microorganisms can serve as environmental indicators of soil pollution. Some features of soil microorganisms, such as the microbial biomass size, respiration rate, and enzyme activity are often used as bioindicators of the ecotoxicity of heavy metals. Although copper is essential for microorganisms, excessive concentrations have a negative influence on processes mediated by microorganisms. In this study we measured the response of some microbial indicators to Cu pollution in a forest soil, with the aim of evaluating their potential for predicting Cu contamination. Samples of an Ah horizon from a forest soil under oakwood vegetation (Quercus robur L.) were contaminated in the laboratory with copper added at different doses (0, 120, 360, 1080 and 3240 mg kg-1) as CuCl2×2H2O. The soil samples were kept for 7 days at 25 °C and at a moisture content corresponding to the water holding capacity, and thereafter were analysed for carbon and nitrogen mineralization capacity, microbial biomass C, seed germination and root elongation tests, and for urease, phosphomonoesterase, catalase and ß-glucosidase activities. In addition, carbon mineralization kinetics were studied, by plotting the log of residual C against incubation time, and the metabolic coefficient, qCO2, was estimated. Both organic carbon and nitrogen mineralization were lower in polluted samples, with the greatest decrease observed in the sample contaminated with 1080 mg kg-1. In all samples carbon mineralization followed first order kinetics; the C mineralization constant was lower in contaminated than in uncontaminated samples and, in general, decreased with increasing doses of copper. Moreover, it appears that copper contamination not only reduced the N mineralization capacity, but also modified the N mineralization process, since in

  16. Contamination monitoring of Na 131 I levels in therapy unit of Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences by indirect method (Wipe test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiki, D.; Shahhosseini, S.; Eftekhari, M.; Takavar, A.; Fard-Esfahani, A.

    2003-01-01

    Contamination with radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine centres in addition to being a health concern requires time consuming decontamination efforts. According to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Contamination should be monitored in nuclear medicine centers where radiopharmaceuticals are prepared and administrated at the end of each working session; otherwise, contamination spread to other areas not only equipment but also personnel and other people will be expected. The wipe test for the presence of radioactivity is accomplished by wiping the surface over an area approximately 100 cm 2 with an absorbent paper, then counting it in an appropriate radiation detector. In this study, contamination monitoring of patient's rooms (4 rooms), entrance corridor, patient's corridor, waiting room, control room (nursing station), radiopharmaceutical storage room in therapy unit of Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine, Shariati hospital was performed by indirect method. Based on the results, some areas including storage room were contaminated. There was also a direct relationship between dose administrated and levels of contamination in patient's rooms. Regarding high uptake of iodine by thyroid gland and damaging effects of Na 131 I, weekly wipe tests are required to determine the level of contamination. Patient's rooms after discharging the patients and before re hospitalization specially should be checked. If these tests reveal contamination over standard levels, appropriate decontamination procedures should be carried out immediately

  17. A low cost mid-infrared sensor for on line contamination monitoring of lubricating oils in marine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Kullmann, F.; Holzki, M.; Sigloch, S.; Klotzbuecher, T.; Spiesen, J.; Tommingas, T.; Weismann, P.; Kimber, G.

    2010-04-01

    The chemical and physical condition of oils in marine engines must be monitored to ensure optimum performance of the engine and to avoid damage by degraded oil not adequately lubricating the engine. Routine monitoring requires expensive laboratory testing and highly skilled analysts. This work describes the adaptation and implementation of a mid infrared (MIR) sensor module for continued oil condition monitoring in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines. The developed sensor module will help to reduce costs in oil analysis by eliminating the need to collect and send samples to a laboratory for analysis. The online MIR-Sensor module measures the contamination of oil with water, soot, as well as the degradation indicated by the TBN (Total Base Number) value. For the analysis of water, TBN, and soot in marine engine oils, four spectral regions of interest have been identified. The optical absorption in these bands correlating with the contaminations is measured simultaneously by using a four-field thermopile detector, combined with appropriate bandpass filters. Recording of the MIR-absorption was performed in a transmission mode using a flow-through cell with appropriate path length. Since in this case no spectrometer is required, the sensor including the light source, the flowthrough- cell, and the detector can be realised at low cost and in a very compact manner. The optical configuration of the sensor with minimal component number and signal intensity optimisation at the four-field detector was implemented by using non-sequential ray tracing simulation. The used calibration model was robust enough to predict accurately the value for soot, water, and TBN concentration for two-stroke and four-stroke engine oils. The sensor device is designed for direct installation on the host engine or machine and, therefore, becoming an integral part of the lubrication system. It can also be used as a portable stand-alone system for machine fluid analysis in the field.

  18. Development and characterization of activated hydrochars from orange peels as potential adsorbents for emerging organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, M E; Ledesma, B; Román, S; Bonelli, P R; Cukierman, A L

    2015-05-01

    Activated hydrochars obtained from the hydrothermal carbonization of orange peels (Citrus sinensis) followed by various thermochemical processing were assessed as adsorbents for emerging contaminants in water. Thermal activation under flows of CO2 or air as well as chemical activation with phosphoric acid were applied to the hydrochars. Their characteristics were analyzed and related to their ability to uptake three pharmaceuticals (diclofenac sodium, salicylic acid and flurbiprofen) considered as emerging contaminants. The hydrothermal carbonization and subsequent activations promoted substantial chemical transformations which affected the surface properties of the activated hydrochars; they exhibited specific surface areas ranging from 300 to ∼620 m(2)/g. Morphological characterization showed the development of coral-like microspheres dominating the surface of most hydrochars. Their ability to adsorb the three pharmaceuticals selected was found largely dependent on whether the molecules were ionized or in their neutral form and on the porosity developed by the new adsorbents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microbial activity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and inoculation of woody plants in lead contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella S Gattai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this study were to evaluate the microbial activity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and inoculation of woody plants (Caesalpinia ferrea, Mimosa tenuiflora and Erythrina velutina in lead contaminated soil from the semi-arid region of northeastern of Brazil (Belo Jardim, Pernambuco. Dilutions were prepared by adding lead contaminated soil (270 mg Kg-1 to uncontaminated soil (37 mg Pb Kg soil-1 in the proportions of 7.5%, 15%, and 30% (v:v. The increase of lead contamination in the soil negatively influenced the amount of carbon in the microbial biomass of the samples from both the dry and rainy seasons and the metabolic quotient only differed between the collection seasons in the 30% contaminated soil. The average value of the acid phosphatase activity in the dry season was 2.3 times higher than observed during the rainy season. There was no significant difference in the number of glomerospores observed between soils and periods studied. The most probable number of infective propagules was reduced for both seasons due to the excess lead in soil. The mycorrhizal colonization rate was reduced for the three plant species assayed. The inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi benefited the growth of Erythrina velutina in lead contaminated soil.

  20. Detection of seal contamination in heat-sealed food packaging based on active infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'huys, Karlien; Saeys, Wouter; De Ketelaere, Bart

    2015-05-01

    In the food industry packaging is often applied to protect the product from the environment, assuring quality and safety throughout shelf life if properly performed. Packaging quality depends on the material used and the closure (seal). The material is selected based on the specific needs of the food product to be wrapped. However, proper closure of the package is often harder to achieve. One problem possibly jeopardizing seal quality is the presence of food particles between the seal. Seal contamination can cause a decreased seal strength and thus an increased packaging failure risk. It can also trigger the formation of microchannels through which air and microorganisms can enter and spoil the enclosed food. Therefore, early detection and removal of seal-contaminated packages from the production chain is essential. In this work, a pulsed-type active thermography method using the heat of the sealing bars as an excitation source was studied for detecting seal contamination. The cooling profile of contaminated seals was recorded. The detection performance of four processing methods (based on a single frame, a fit of the cooling profile, pulsed phase thermography and a matched filter) was compared. High resolution digital images served as a reference to quantify contamination. The lowest detection limit (equivalent diameter of 0.63 mm) and the lowest processing time (0.42 s per sample) were obtained for the method based on a single frame. Presumably, practical limitations in the recording stage prevented the added value of active thermography to be fully reflected in this application.

  1. Radiation protection - Monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to a risk of internal contamination with radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In the course of employment, individuals might work with radioactive materials that, under certain circumstances, could be taken into the body. Protecting workers against risks of incorporated radionuclides requires the monitoring of potential intakes and/or the quantification of actual intakes and exposures. The selection of measures and programmes for this purpose requires decisions concerning methods, techniques, frequencies etc. for measurements and dose assessment. The criteria permitting the evaluation of the necessity of such a monitoring programme or for the selection of methods and frequencies of monitoring usually depend upon the legislation, the purpose of the radiation protection programme, the probabilities of potential radionuclide intakes, and the characteristics of the materials handled. This International Standard offers guidance for the decision whether a monitoring programme is required and how it should be designed. Its intention is to optimise the efforts for such a monitoring programme consistent with legal requirements and with the purpose of the radiation protection programme. Recommendations of international expert bodies and international experience with the practical application of these recommendations in radiation protection programmes have been considered in the development of this International Standard. Its application facilitates the exchanges of information between authorities, supervisory institutions and employers. The International Standard is not a substitute for legal requirements. In the International Standard, the word 'shall' is used to denote a requirement and no deviation is allowed. The word 'should' is used to denote a recommendation from which justified deviations are allowed. The word 'may' is used to denote permission

  2. Early-Stage Bioassay for Monitoring Radioactive Contamination in Living Livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Toshiro; Sawano, Kaita; Kishimoto, Miori; Furuhama, Kazuhisa; Yamada, Kazutaka

    2012-01-01

    Soil samples from the ground surface and feces and blood from a mixed-breed male pig were collected on April 10, 2011 at a farm within 20 km of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The radioactivity of each sample was measured using a Ge semiconductor detector. Despite the fact that the pig had been fed non-contaminated imported feed, 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs were detected in the feces, and 134Cs and 137Cs were detected in the blood clots. Because it is considerably difficult to measure ra...

  3. Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM), air sampler - Results from the Space Transport System (STS-2) flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, P. N.; Hester, H. B.; Bertsch, W.; Mayfield, H.; Zatko, D.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation involving sampling the rapidly changing environment of the Shuttle cargo bay is considered. Four time-integrated samples and one rapid acquisition sample were collected to determine the types and quantities of contaminants present during ascent and descent of the Shuttle. The sampling times for the various bottles were controlled by valves operated by the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) of the IECM. Many of the observed species were found to be common solvents used in cleaning surfaces. When the actual volume sampled is taken into account, the relative mass of organics sampled during descent is about 20 percent less than during ascent.

  4. Continuous gravity monitoring of geothermal activity; Renzoku juryoku sokutei ni yoru chinetsu katsudo no monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, M [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    To clarify the geothermal activity in the geothermal fields in New Zealand, gravity monitoring was conducted using SCINTREX automatic gravimeter. The measurements were conducted between the end of January and the beginning of March, 1996. Firstly, continuous monitoring was conducted at the standard point for about ten days, and the tidal components were estimated from the records. After that, continuous monitoring was conducted at Waimangu area for several days. Continuous monitoring was repeated at the standard point, again. At the Waimangu area, three times of changes in the pulse-shape amplitude of 0.01 mgal having a width of several hours were observed. For the SCINTREX gravimeter, the inclination of gravimeter is also recorded in addition to the change of gravity. During the monitoring, the gravimeter was also inclined with the changes of gravity. This inclination was useful not only for the correction of gravity measured, but also for evaluating the ground fluctuation due to the underground pressure source. It is likely that the continuous gravity monitoring is the relatively conventional technique which is effective for prospecting the change of geothermal reservoir. 2 figs.

  5. Equilibrium and kinetic modeling of contaminant immobilization by activated carbon amended to sediments in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakowska, M.I.; Kupryianchyk, D.; Koelmans, A.A.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Addition of activated carbons (AC) to polluted sediments and soils is an attractive remediation technique aiming at reducing pore water concentrations of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). In this study, we present (pseudo-)equilibrium as well as kinetic parameters for sorption of a series of

  6. Leisure time activities, parental monitoring and drunkenness in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomcikova, Z.; Veselska, Z.; Madarasova Geckova, A.; van Dijk, J.P.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between adolescent drunkenness and participation in risky leisure time activities and parental monitoring. Methods: A sample of 3,694 Slovak elementary school students (mean age 14.5 years; 49.0% males) was assessed for

  7. Leisure Time Activities, Parental Monitoring and Drunkenness in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomcikova, Zuzana; Veselska, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between adolescent drunkenness and participation in risky leisure time activities and parental monitoring. Methods: A sample of 3,694 Slovak elementary school students (mean age 14.5 years; 49.0% males) was assessed for

  8. Waste monitoring of the uranium ore processing activities in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nica, L.

    2002-01-01

    The uranium ore processing activities at the Feldioara site produce a range of liquid and solid waste that are monitored. Liquids are treated through decantation, pH correction and uranium precipitation before their release into the environment. The solid waste is gathered into ore specific area and are covered regularly with clay materials. (author)

  9. Embedded Triboelectric Active Sensors for Real-Time Pneumatic Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xian Peng; Bu, Tian Zhao; Xi, Feng Ben; Cheng, Ting Hai; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-09-20

    Pneumatic monitoring sensors have great demands for power supply in cylinder systems. Here, we present an embedded sliding triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) in air cylinder as active sensors for position and velocity monitoring. The embedded TENG is composed of a circular poly(tetrafluoroethylene) polymer and a triangular copper electrode. The working mechanism as triboelectric active sensors and electric output performance are systematically investigated. By integrating into the pneumatic system, the embedded triboelectric active sensors have been used for real-time air pressure/flow monitoring and energy storage. Air pressures are measured from 0.04 to 0.12 MPa at a step of 0.02 MPa with a sensitivity of 49.235 V/MPa, as well as airflow from 50 to 250 L/min at a step of 50 L/min with a sensitivity of 0.002 μA·min/L. This work has first demonstrated triboelectric active sensors for pneumatic monitoring and may promote the development of TENG in intelligent pneumatic system.

  10. Applied research of environmental monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju

    1997-08-01

    This technical report is written as a guide book for applied research of environmental monitoring using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The contents are as followings; sampling and sample preparation as a airborne particulate matter, analytical methodologies, data evaluation and interpretation, basic statistical methods of data analysis applied in environmental pollution studies. (author). 23 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs.

  11. Sensitive Monitoring of Enterobacterial Contamination of Food Using Self-Propelled Janus Microsensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, M; Jurado-Sánchez, B; Escarpa, A

    2018-02-20

    Food poisoning caused by bacteria is a major cause of disease and death worldwide. Herein we describe the use of Janus micromotors as mobile sensors for the detection of toxins released by enterobacteria as indicators of food contamination. The micromotors are prepared by a Pickering emulsion approach and rely on the simultaneous encapsulation of platinum nanoparticles for enhanced bubble-propulsion and receptor-functionalized quantum dots (QDs) for selective binding with the 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid target in the endotoxin molecule. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Salmonella enterica were used as target endotoxins, which upon interaction with the QDs induce a rapid quenching of the native fluorescence of the micromotors in a concentration-dependent manner. The micromotor assay can readily detect concentrations as low as 0.07 ng mL -1 of endotoxin, which is far below the level considered toxic to humans (275 μg mL -1 ). Micromotors have been successfully applied for the detection of Salmonella toxin in food samples in 15 min compared with several hours required by the existing Gold Standard method. Such ultrafast and reliable approach holds considerable promise for food contamination screening while awaiting the results of bacterial cultures in a myriad of food safety and security defense applications.

  12. Laser Monitoring Of Phytoextraction Enhancement Of Lead Contaminated Soil Adopting EDTA And EDDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M.; Abdelhamied, M.; Hanafy, A. H.; Fantoni, R.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    Removal of heavy metals (HMs) such as Pb from soil, wastewater, and air is essential for environment and human health. Phytoremediation is a well established technology based on the use of certain green plants for contaminants removal from soil, wastewater as well as air. Scented geranium, Pelargonium zonal, is a flowering plant recently used in HMs removal from contaminated soil. In the present work, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and EDDS (S, S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid) were used as chemical assistants providing higher Pb availability for extraction by plant roots. Lead was artificially added to the planting media, peatmoss, at different concentrations. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to follow up Pb relative concentrations in peatmoss as well as plant shoots, at different sampling times during the experiment period. Laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF), has been also used to evaluate chlorophyll formation and photosynthetic apparatus status in geranium plants. Such measurements were performed on geranium plants grown under various Pb levels, as well as EDTA and EDDS combinations. The combined effect of EDTA and EDDS was found to enhance Pb extraction with time. Good correlation was found between LICF results and chlorophyll (a) (Chl.a) concentrations in plant tissues extracted by chemical analysis.

  13. Contaminant monitoring of biota downstream of a radioactive liquid waste treatment facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.D.; Biggs, J.R.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    Small mammals, plants, and sediments were sampled at one upstream location (Site 1) and two downstream locations (Site 2 and Site 3) from the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) outfall number-sign 051-051 in Mortandad Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. The purpose of the sampling was to identify radionuclides potentially present, to quantitatively estimate and compare the amount of radionuclide uptake at specific locations (Site 2 and Site 3) within Mortandad Canyon to an upstream site (Site 1), and to identify the primary mode (inhalation/ingestion or surface contact) of contamination to small mammals. Three composite samples of at least five animals per sample were collected at each site. The pelt was separated from the carcass of each animal and both were analyzed independently. In addition, three composite samples were also collected for plants and sediments at each site. Samples were analyzed for americium ( 241 Am), strontium ( 90 Sr), plutonium ( 238 Pu and 239 Pu), and total uranium (U). With the exception of total U, all mean radionuclide concentrations in small mammal carcasses and sediments were significantly higher at Site 2 than Site 1 or Site 3. No differences were detected in the mean radionuclide concentration of plant samples between sites. However, some radionuclide concentrations found at all three sites were higher than regional background. No differences were found between mean carcass radionuclide concentrations and mean pelt radionuclide concentrations, indicating that the two primary modes of contamination may be equally occurring

  14. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. General Guidelines for Monitoring Contaminants in Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    espacially trte for the topics of sampling and analytical methods, statistical considerations, and the design of general water quality monitoring networks. For...and to the establishment and habitat differentiation of biological populations within reservoirs. Reservoir operatirn, esp- cially the timing...8217 % - - % properties of bottom sediments, as well as specific habitat associations of biological populations of reservoirs. Thus, such heterogeneities

  15. Monitoring and radiation dose estimation for internal contamination of occupational workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kol, R; Laichter, Y [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev

    1996-12-01

    The assessment of interval radiation doses due to intake of radionuclides differs totally from external dosimetry. External dosimetry is relatively straight forward: Workers are equipped with appropriate dosimeters that give the dose upon direct reading. Internal dosimetry is actually an assessment of the dose based on results of personnel and environmental monitoring (authors).

  16. Micro Ion Mobility Sensor for In Situ Monitoring of Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Inset 1: Portable ME GC-DMS monitor; Inset 2: Sending ME assembly to the groundwater well; Inset 3: Bees and their nest located on the cover of the...covered and locked for a period of a few months. During this time a wasp’s nest was built in the outer cover of the well, as shown in Insert 3 of

  17. Establishment of a System for Monitoring and Control of Cross Contamination in the Laboratory of Microbiological Analysis of Food during 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corpa- Iguarán Eduardo Javid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the activities for quality control in the laboratory, the final results of a particular analyteare now recognized as intermediates, due to the relevance given to quality assurance, as the ultimategoal of programs for quality management. This concept makes it necessary to establishmentof integral tools, to detect events such as cross-contamination, and measures to avoid affectingthe analysis method. Objective: to established a system for monitoring and control of crosscontaminationin the laboratory of microbiological analysis of food. Materials and methods:Flowcharts were developed to control the proceedings on the populations of aerobe mesophilicsand molds originated from pollution in the environment, surfaces, sterile material and culturemedia, which included a decision tree designed to perform control actions based on tolerance intervals,which were established as objective tool to decision-making leading to normalize countsof microbial populations in question. Results: Warning limits stricter were obtained for aerobicmesophilic and mold populations in the different controls, except for environment of media preparationand the corresponding for sterile material. Conclusion: The process developed allowedto complement the system of internal quality control in the laboratory, to provide of an objectivetool for closing nonconformities because of cross-contamination.

  18. Applicability of portable spectrometer for activity measurement of contaminated water and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Narayani; Rekha, A.K.; Anilkumar, S.; Sharma, D.N.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute activity measurement is often necessary to assess the impact of radioactivity contamination due to various incidents. Commercially available portable spectrometer cum dose rate meter is used for the identification of radionuclides involved and associated dose rates. In this paper the authors discusses the study carried out on the applicability of portable spectrometer for absolute radioactivity measurements in water and soil matrices. The portable spectrometer and the methodology developed for activity estimation has been used in many insitu applications. (author)

  19. Screening Approach to the Activation of Soil and Contamination of Groundwater at Linear Proton Accelerator Sites

    CERN Document Server

    Otto, Thomas

    The activation of soil and the contamination of groundwater at proton accelerator sites with the radionuclides 3H and 22Na are estimated with a Monte-Carlo calculation and a conservative soil- and ground water model. The obtained radionuclide concentrations show that the underground environment of future accelerators must be adequately protected against a migration of activation products. This study is of particular importance for the proton driver accelerator in the planned EURISOL facility.

  20. Classification and Reevaluation on Radionuclide and Activity of Contaminated Soil(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Sik; Shon, J. S.; Kim, K. J.; Kim, T. K.; Hong, D. S.; Lee, B. C.; Cho, H. S.; Je, W. G

    2006-03-15

    Radioactive wastes generated during the decommissioning process and contaminated soils were transported and have been stored at the waste storage facility. The radioactivity in the wastes has been decayed a lot. The radionuclide and the activity concentration of stored soil wastes were reevaluated. And using the reevaluation results, the soil wastes were classified as either a regulatory clearance wastes or a radioactive waste. The storage space can be secured by storing regulatory clearance wastes in the extra storage facility and self disposing them. Also, the objective is to protect the environment from contamination by observing the related nuclear regulation and managing the radioactive wastes. Through the reevaluation of radioactivity and classification of contaminated soils, the unnecessary decontamination of uncontaminated soil was prevented. It allowed us to save the cost for decontamination and disposal, also we could secure the pretreatment process techniques such as how to sample and analyze the nuclide.

  1. Active Infrared Thermography for Seal Contamination Detection in Heat-Sealed Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlien D’huys

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Packaging protects food products from environmental influences, assuring quality and safety throughout shelf life if properly performed. Packaging quality depends on the quality of the packaging material and of the closure or seal. A common problem possibly jeopardizing seal quality is the presence of seal contamination, which can cause a decreased seal strength, an increased packaging failure risk and leak formation. Therefore, early detection and removal of seal contaminated packages from the production chain is crucial. In this work, a pulsed-type active thermography method using the heated seal bars as an excitation source was studied for detecting seal contamination. Thermal image sequences of contaminated seals were recorded shortly after sealing. The detection performances of six thermal image processing methods, based on a single frame, a fit of the cooling profiles, thermal signal reconstruction, pulsed phase thermography, principal component thermography and a matched filter, were compared. High resolution digital images served as a reference to quantify seal contamination, and processed thermal images were mapped to these references. The lowest detection limit (equivalent diameter 0.60 mm was obtained for the method based on a fit of the cooling profiles. Moreover, the detection performance of this method did not depend strongly on the time after sealing at which recording of the thermal images was started, making it a robust and generally applicable method.

  2. Monitoring of the solar activity and solar energetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akioka, Maki; Kubo, Yuki; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Ohtaka, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Solar activity is the source of various space weather phenomena in geospace and deep space. Solar X-ray radiation in flare, energetic particles, coronal mass ejection (CME) can cause various kind of disturbance near earth space. Therefore, detailed monitoring of the solar activity and its propagation in the interplanetary space is essential task for space weather. For example, solar energetic particle which sometimes affect spacecraft operation and manned space flight, is considered to be produced by solar flares and travelling shockwave caused by flares and CME. The research and development of monitoring technique and system for various solar activity has been an important topic of space weather forecast program in NICT. In this article, we will introduce the real time data acquisitions of STEREO and optical and radio observations of the Sun at Hiraiso Solar Observatory. (author)

  3. A monitoring of chemical contaminants in waters used for field irrigation and livestock watering in the Veneto region (Italy), using bioassays as a screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Liguoro, Marco; Bona, Mirco Dalla; Gallina, Guglielmo; Capolongo, Francesca; Gallocchio, Federica; Binato, Giovanni; Di Leva, Vincenzo

    2014-03-01

    In this study, 50 livestock watering sources (ground water) and 50 field irrigation sources (surface water) from various industrialised areas of the Veneto region were monitored for chemical contaminants. From each site, four water samples (one in each season) were collected during the period from summer 2009 through to spring 2010. Surface water samples and ground water samples were first screened for toxicity using the growth inhibition test on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the immobilisation test on Daphnia magna, respectively. Then, based on the results of these toxicity tests, 28 ground water samples and 26 surface water samples were submitted to chemical analysis for various contaminants (insecticides/acaricides, fungicides, herbicides, metals and anions) by means of UPLC-MS(n) HPLC-MS(n), AAS and IEC. With the exception of one surface water sample where the total pesticides concentration was greater than 4 μg L(-1), positive samples (51.9 %) showed only traces (nanograms per liter) of pesticides. Metals were generally under the detection limit. High concentrations of chlorines (up to 692 mg L(-1)) were found in some ground water samples while some surface water samples showed an excess of nitrites (up to 336 mg L(-1)). Detected levels of contamination were generally too low to justify the toxicity recorded in bioassays, especially in the case of surface water samples, and analytical results painted quite a reassuring picture, while tests on P. subcapitata showed a strong growth inhibition activity. It was concluded that, from an ecotoxicological point of view, surface waters used for field irrigation in the Veneto region cannot be considered safe.

  4. Field sampling for monitoring, migration and defining the areal extent of chemical contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Skalski, J.R.; Eberhardt, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    As part of two studies funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the USEPA, the authors have investigated field sampling strategies and compositing as a means of detecting spills or migration at commercial low-level radioactive and chemical waste disposal sites and bioassays for detecting contamination at chemical waste sites. Compositing (pooling samples) for detection is discussed first, followed by the development of a statistical test to determine whether any component of a composite exceeds a prescribed maximum acceptable level. Subsequently, the authors explore the question of optimal field sampling designs and present the features of a microcomputer program designed to show the difficulties in constructing efficient field designs and using compositing schemes. Finally, they propose the use of bioassays as an adjunct or replacement for chemical analysis as a means of detecting and defining the areal extent of chemical migration

  5. 3D resistivity method to monitor degradation of an organic contaminant in sand boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, P. M.; Bloem, E.; Philippe, R.; French, H. K.

    2015-12-01

    Degradation of organic chemicals under various saturation conditions is a process highly relevant to protect groundwater. The redox potential drives the degradation of organic compounds. Its variation affects the water chemistry, gas release and responses of the geo-electrical signature. This study explores how non-invasive measurements sensitive to geo-electrical properties provides quantitative information about the in-situ redox situation. During this presentation, the preliminary results of a laboratory experiment to study the degradation of deicing chemicals with 3D resistivity and self-potential techniques, water samples will be shown. The experiment consists of sand boxes (1.0x0.5x0.4 m) to which both sides of each box is contaminated with propylene glycol, an aircraft deicing fluid, commonly used in Norwegian airports. Each source is placed near the water table with static conditions. At one side a conductor is placed, linking the contamination zone at the water table and the unsaturated zone with a low water content, to improve the degradation by facilitating the electron exchange. At the other side, degradation occurs under natural conditions. Each box is equipped with 288 electrodes, distributed on six faces to perform 3D resistivity measurements. In addition to the resistivity, self-potential measurements are taken from the sand surface. Six water wells are installed above and below the water table to provide more information on the degradation processes. Moreover, measurements of carbon dioxide on the surface are performed as higher concentrations are expected where the pollutant is degraded.

  6. 2. All-Polish Seminar: Monitoring of Radioactive Environment Contamination Using ASS-500 and PMS Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    During last 10 years the modern system of radiological pollution monitoring has been developed in Poland. At the beginning it was composed of ASS-500 stations. At the end of 1995 five automatic PMS stations have been installed as the result of the collaboration between Polish and Danish governments. Several stations of both types were include later. The system is coordinated by Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The report reviews the meeting dedicated to problems and future developments of the system

  7. New Transcriptional Reporters to Quantify and Monitor PPARγ Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine A. Degrelle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-γ (PPARγ is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that plays a critical role in diverse biological processes, including adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and placental development. To study the activity of PPARγ, we constructed two new reporter genes: a fluorescent GFP-tagged histone-2B (PPRE-H2B-eGFP and a secreted nanoluciferase (PPRE-pNL1.3[secNluc]. This study demonstrates their usage to monitor PPARγ activity in different cell types and screen for PPARγ’s potential ligands.

  8. Incorporation monitoring by measurements of activity concentrations in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breukelmann, G.; Dalheimer, A.; Dilger, H.; Henrichs, K.

    1997-01-01

    The incorporation monitoring of workers handling actinides is in many cases not possible by individual methods: The sensitivity of bioassay of methods (in vivo, in vitro) is not sufficient to detect amounts as required by the low annual limits of intake. Similar difficulties may occur with the use of radionuclides with very short physical half-lives. In these cases, the measuring of activity concentrations in the air is the only way to monitor the workers and to meet legal requirements. The essential problem connected with this approach is to make sure, that the air sample analyzed represents the average air inhaled actually. Correspondingly, the new system regulating the incorporation monitoring in Germany requires additional measures to ensure this representatively. (author)

  9. Validity of physical activity monitors in adults participating in free-living activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, S; Hageberg, R; Aandstad, A

    2010-01-01

    expenditure differently compared with indirect calorimetry, was also determined. Material and methods The activity monitors and a portable oxygen analyser were worn by 14 men and 6 women for 120 min doing a variety of activities of different intensities. Resting metabolic rate was measured with indirect......Background For a given subject, time in moderate to very vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) varies substantially among physical activity monitors. Objective In the present study, the primary objective, whether time in MVPA recorded with SenseWear Pro(2) Armband (Armband; Body......Reg, respectively. ActiReg (p = 0.004) and ActiGraph (p = 0.007) underestimated energy expenditure in MVPA, and all monitors underestimated total energy expenditure (by 5% to 21%). Conclusions Recorded time in MVPA and energy expenditure varies substantially among physical activity monitors. Thus, when comparing...

  10. Monitoring the Extent of Contamination from Acid Mine Drainage in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain Using Hyperspectral Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuncion Riaza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring mine waste from sulfide deposits by hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to predict surface water quality by quantitatively estimating acid drainage and metal contamination on a yearly basis. In addition, analysis of the mineralogy of surface crusts rich in soluble salts can provide a record of annual humidity and temperature. In fact, temporal monitoring of salt efflorescence from mine wastes at a mine site in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (Huelva, Spain has been achieved using hyperspectral airborne Hymap data. Furthermore, climate variability estimates are possible based on oxidation stages derived from well-known sequences of minerals, by tracing sulfide oxidation intensity using archive spectral libraries. Thus, airborne and spaceborne hyperspectral remote sensing data can be used to provide a short-term record of climate change, and represent a useful set of tools for assessing environmental geoindicators in semi-arid areas. Spectral and geomorphological indicators can be monitored on a regular basis through image processing, supported by field and laboratory spectral data. In fact, hyperspectral image analysis is one of the methods selected by the Joint Research Centre of the European Community (Ispra, Italy to study abandoned mine sites, in order to assess the enforcement of the European Mine Waste Directive (2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council 15 March 2006 on the management of waste from extractive industries (Official Journal of the European Union, 11 April 2006. The pyrite belt in Andalucia has been selected as one of the core mission test sites for the PECOMINES II program (Cracow, November 2005, using imaging spectroscopy; and this technique is expected to be implemented as a monitoring tool by the Environmental Net of Andalucía (REDIAM, Junta de Andalucía, Spain.

  11. Test of active coal capacity for retaining gaseous effluents contaminated by 131 I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campeanu, Catalina; Cruceru, Madalina; Neacsu, Elena

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to test the retaining capacity of the active coal of the filters for gaseous effluents contaminated by 131 I. The active coal filters are design for equipping ventilation installations of nuclear plants in which radioactive iodine and combination of it were produced and handled. Such active coal filters are provided also to sorbonnes for radiochemical and physical handling of radioactive iodine. Testing the retaining capacity of active coal for filters is an obvious step, particularly, when the material was stored long time after preparation

  12. National physical activity surveillance: Users of wearable activity monitors as a potential data source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Omura, MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess usage patterns of wearable activity monitors among US adults and how user characteristics might influence physical activity estimates from this type of sample. We analyzed data on 3367 respondents to the 2015 HealthStyles survey, an annual consumer mail panel survey conducted on a nationwide sample. Approximately 1 in 8 respondents (12.5% reported currently using a wearable activity monitor. Current use varied by sex, age, and education level. Use increased with physical activity level from 4.3% for inactive adults to 17.4% for active adults. Overall, 49.9% of all adults met the aerobic physical activity guideline, while this prevalence was 69.5% among current activity monitor users. Our findings suggest that current users of wearable activity monitors are not representative of the overall US population. Estimates of physical activity levels using data from wearable activity monitors users may be an overestimate and therefore data from users alone may have a limited role in physical activity surveillance.

  13. Validity of Wearable Activity Monitors during Cycling and Resistance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Benjamin D; Hebert, Edward P; Hollander, Daniel B; Williams, Brian M; Cormier, Corinne L; Naquin, Mildred R; Gillan, Wynn W; Gusew, Emily E; Kraemer, Robert R

    2018-03-01

    The use of wearable activity monitors has seen rapid growth; however, the mode and intensity of exercise could affect the validity of heart rate (HR) and caloric (energy) expenditure (EE) readings. There is a lack of data regarding the validity of wearable activity monitors during graded cycling regimen and a standard resistance exercise. The present study determined the validity of eight monitors for HR compared with an ECG and seven monitors for EE compared with a metabolic analyzer during graded cycling and resistance exercise. Fifty subjects (28 women, 22 men) completed separate trials of graded cycling and three sets of four resistance exercises at a 10-repetition-maximum load. Monitors included the following: Apple Watch Series 2, Fitbit Blaze, Fitbit Charge 2, Polar H7, Polar A360, Garmin Vivosmart HR, TomTom Touch, and Bose SoundSport Pulse (BSP) headphones. HR was recorded after each cycling intensity and after each resistance exercise set. EE was recorded after both protocols. Validity was established as having a mean absolute percent error (MAPE) value of ≤10%. The Polar H7 and BSP were valid during both exercise modes (cycling: MAPE = 6.87%, R = 0.79; resistance exercise: MAPE = 6.31%, R = 0.83). During cycling, the Apple Watch Series 2 revealed the greatest HR validity (MAPE = 4.14%, R = 0.80). The BSP revealed the greatest HR accuracy during resistance exercise (MAPE = 6.24%, R = 0.86). Across all devices, as exercise intensity increased, there was greater underestimation of HR. No device was valid for EE during cycling or resistance exercise. HR from wearable devices differed at different exercise intensities; EE estimates from wearable devices were inaccurate. Wearable devices are not medical devices, and users should be cautious when using these devices for monitoring physiological responses to exercise.

  14. Long-Term Effects of Legacy Copper Contamination on Microbial Activity and Soil Physical Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Møldrup, Per; Holmstrup, Martin

    Soils heavily contaminated with copper (Cu) are considered unsuitable for agricultural use due to adverse impacts on microbial activity, soil physical properties, and direct toxicity to crops. This study investigated effects of Cu pollution from timber preservation activities between 1911 and 1924...... on soil micro-organisms and subsequent effects on physical properties of a sandy loam soil. Tillage operations over the last 70 years have caused spreading of the initially localized contamination and have created a Cu concentration gradient from 20 to 3800 mg kg-1 across an agricultural field in Hygum......, Denmark. Soil samples obtained from the fallow field were used to determine total microbial activity using fluorescein diacetate and dehydrogenase assays. The physical properties measured included water-dispersible clay, bulk density, air permeability and air-filled porosity. Significant differences...

  15. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon degradation in a petroleum-contaminated soil and microbial population and activity determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Manli; Li, Wei; Dick, Warren A; Ye, Xiqiong; Chen, Kaili; Kost, David; Chen, Liming

    2017-02-01

    Bioremediation of hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum-polluted soil is carried out by various microorganisms. However, little information is available for the relationships between hydrocarbon degradation rates in petroleum-contaminated soil and microbial population and activity in laboratory assay. In a microcosm study, degradation rate and efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a petroleum-contaminated soil were determined using an infrared photometer oil content analyzer and a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Also, the populations of TPH, alkane, and PAH degraders were enumerated by a modified most probable number (MPN) procedure, and the hydrocarbon degrading activities of these degraders were determined by the Biolog (MT2) MicroPlates assay. Results showed linear correlations between the TPH and alkane degradation rates and the population and activity increases of TPH and alkane degraders, but no correlation was observed between the PAH degradation rates and the PAH population and activity increases. Petroleum hydrocarbon degrading microbial population measured by MPN was significantly correlated with metabolic activity in the Biolog assay. The results suggest that the MPN procedure and the Biolog assay are efficient methods for assessing the rates of TPH and alkane, but not PAH, bioremediation in oil-contaminated soil in laboratory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Is the soil quality monitoring an effective tool in consumers' protection of agricultural crops from cadmium soil contamination?-a case of the Silesia region (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekut, Agata; Baranowska, Renata; Marchwińska-Wyrwał, Ewa; Ćwieląg-Drabek, Małgorzata; Hajok, Ilona; Dziubanek, Grzegorz; Grochowska-Niedworok, Elżbieta

    2017-12-16

    The monitoring of soil quality should be a control tool used to reduce the adverse health effects arising from exposure to toxic chemicals in soil through cultivated crop absorption. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the monitoring and control system of soil quality in Poland, in terms of consumer safety, for agricultural plants cultivated in areas with known serious cadmium contamination, such as Silesia Province. To achieve the objective, the contents of cadmium in soils and vegetables in the Silesia administrative area were examined. The obtained results were compared with the results of soil contamination from the quality monitoring of arable soil in Poland. The studies show a significant exceedance of the permissible values of cadmium in soil samples and the vegetables cultivated on that soil. The threat to consumer health is a valid concern, although this threat was not indicated by the results of the national monitoring of soil quality. The results indicated an unequal distribution of risk to consumers resulting from contaminated soil. Moreover, the monitoring systems should be designed at the local or regional scale to guarantee the safety of consumers of edible plants cultivated in the areas contaminated with cadmium.

  17. Dosimetric Aspects of Personnel Skin Contamination by Radionuclides - Estimate of a Skin Dose, Monitoring and Interpretation of Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husak, V.; Kleinbauer, K.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: On the basis of a critical comparison of literary data, tables are compiled of beta and gamma dose rate in mSvh -1 (kBqcm -1 ) to the basal layer of the skin at 0.07 mm depth from contamination by 75 radionuclides unsealed sources; radioactive substances are assumed to reside on the skin surface. The residence time needed for the estimate of the skin dose is calculated assuming that a residual activity per unit area of any radionuclide on the skin, which could not be removed by the repeated careful decontamination, is supposed to be eliminated with the biological half-life of 116 h as a consequence of the natural sloughing off of the skin. Radionuclides are divided into five groups according to the dose estimate in mSv (kBqcm -2 ): ≥250 (e.g. 32 P, 89 Sr, 137 Cs/ 137m Ba), 100-250 (e.g. 90 Y, 131 I, 186 Re), 10-100 (e.g. 35 S, 67 Ga, 200 Tl), 1-10 (e.g. 18 F, 51 Cr, 99m Tc), ≤1 (e.g. 63 Ni, 144 Pr, 238 U). If it is possible, doses can be determined more precisely by measuring the effective half-life of the residual activity on the contaminated area. Our dose estimates are approximately valid on the condition that, after decontamination, residual activity of radionuclides persists predominantly in the superficial layers of epidermis. This and further uncertainties connected with the dose assessment are discussed. Our tables can help to determine easily rough values of doses to personnel in contamination incidents and to interpret them in relation to regulatory derived limits. This work was supported by State Office for Nuclear Safety in Prague. (author)

  18. The Evaluation of Bacterial Contamination of Active Radiography Apparatus in Dental Centers of Hamadan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eskandarloo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: During the most dental procedures, contamination of devices with blood, saliva and other body fluids, which is the most important factor for transmission of infectious diseases, is inevitable. Therefore principles of infection control should be carefully considered in the dentistry. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of bacterial contamination of active radiographic apparatus in dental centers of Hamadan city in year 2003. Materials & Methods : In this cross-sectional study 37 radiographic apparatus in dental centers of Hamadan were evaluated. Samples were collected from four area (25 cm2 each that are frequently touched by dentists, personnel, etc. using a swab. The swab was inserted into the carrier media containing thioglycolate, a smear was obtained from the solution and remaining solution was cultured in blood agar. Smear and blood agar cultures were transferred to microbiology lab to determine bacterial contamination level as well as bacterial typing. According to WHO criteria the area which has more than 10 microorganism/cm2 is considered as contaminated. Results: It was found that 13 of radiographic apparatus(35% were contaminated, the most frequent bacterial type detected in this study was micrococcus (75.7% and the least were enterobacter and nocardia (2.7% each. Antiseptic materials used for decontamination of the devices were as follow : Alcohol (43.2% , Deconex (32.4% , Micro10 (18.9% , Savlon (10.8% , Hypochlorid (5.4% , Glutaraldehyde (2.7%. Conclusion: Based on the results (35% bacterial contamination it can be concluded that careful performance of infection control principles, daily decontamination of devices and offering periodic instructions for dental personnel are essential.

  19. Bioluminescence Monitoring of Neuronal Activity in Freely Moving Zebrafish Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, Steven; Prendergast, Andrew; Thouvenin, Olivier; Figueiredo, Sophie Nunes; Wyart, Claire

    2017-01-01

    The proof of concept for bioluminescence monitoring of neural activity in zebrafish with the genetically encoded calcium indicator GFP-aequorin has been previously described (Naumann et al., 2010) but challenges remain. First, bioluminescence signals originating from a single muscle fiber can constitute a major pitfall. Second, bioluminescence signals emanating from neurons only are very small. To improve signals while verifying specificity, we provide an optimized 4 steps protocol achieving: 1) selective expression of a zebrafish codon-optimized GFP-aequorin, 2) efficient soaking of larvae in GFP-aequorin substrate coelenterazine, 3) bioluminescence monitoring of neural activity from motor neurons in free-tailed moving animals performing acoustic escapes and 4) verification of the absence of muscle expression using immunohistochemistry. PMID:29130058

  20. Monitoring emerging contaminants in the drinking water of Milan and assessment of the human risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Francesco; Castiglioni, Sara; Fattore, Elena; Manenti, Angela; Davoli, Enrico; Zuccato, Ettore

    2018-04-01

    Emerging Contaminants (ECs) are ubiquitous in waters, arousing concern because of their potential risks for human health and the environment. This study investigated the presence of multiple classes of ECs in 21 wells over the drinking water network of Milan, in the most inhabited and industrialized area of Italy, and assessed the risks for consumers. Samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Human risk assessment (HRA) was conducted by comparing the measured concentrations with drinking water thresholds from guidelines or calculated in this study; first considering the exposure to each single EC and then the entire mixture. Thirteen ECs were measured in the low ng/L range, and were generally detected in less than half of the wells. Pharmaceuticals, perfluorinated substances, personal care products, and anthropogenic markers were the most frequently detected. The results of the HRA excluded any risks for consumers in each scenario considered. This is one of the most comprehensive studies assessing the presence of a large number of ECs in the whole drinking water network of a city, and the risks for human health. Results improve the limited information on ECs sources and occurrence in drinking water and help establishing guidelines for regulatory purposes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Recent developments for field monitoring of alpha-emitting contaminants in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlquist, A.J.; Umbarger, C.J.; Stoker, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has adapted two field methods to assess rapidly locations and concentrations of alpha-emitting contaminants in soil. (1) A ZnS scintillator is used for gross-alpha measurements on soil samples. Sample preparation and the calibration and detection limits of the system are discussed, and results of gross-alpha analysis are compared with results of a 239 Pu radiochemistry analysis. (2) A Phoswich detector is used as a field survey instrument because it can detect lower levels of radioactivity than the FIDLER probe. The electronics are carried in a truck and the probe is connected by an umbilical cord. The system electronics are calibrated with an energy window of 12-40 keV which allows detection of Pu, Am, Th (using daughter L X-rays of the alpha-emitters) and 137 Cs (using its daughter 32 keV X-rays). The bremsstrahlung from 90 Sr can also be detected. (author)

  2. Evaluation of HPGe spectrometric devices in monitoring the level of radioactive contamination in metallurgical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrucci, A., E-mail: andrea.petrucci@enea.it [ENEA – Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazione Ionizzanti, Rome (Italy); Arnold, D.; Burda, O. [PTB – Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); De Felice, P. [ENEA – Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazione Ionizzanti, Rome (Italy); Garcia-Toraño, E.; Mejuto, M.; Peyres, V. [CIEMAT – Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Šolc, J. [CMI – Czech Metrology Institute, Radiova 1a, 102 00 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Vodenik, B. [IJS – Laboratory for Radioactivity Measurements, Institute Jožef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana Slovenia (Slovenia)

    2015-10-11

    This paper presents the results of the tests of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) based gamma spectrometers employed for radioactivity control carried out on a daily basis in steel factories. This new application of this type of detector is part of the Joint Research Project (JRP) MetroMETAL supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The final purpose of the project was the improvement and standardisation of the measurement methods and systems for the control of radioactivity of recycled metal scraps at the beginning of the working process and for the certification of the absence of any radioactive contamination above the clearance levels (IAEA-TECDOC-8S5) in final steel products, Clearance levels for radionuclides in solid materials: application of exemption principles). Two prototypes based on HPGe detectors were designed and assembled to suit the needs of steel mills which had been examined previously. The evaluation of the two prototypes, carried out at three steel factories with standard sources of {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 241}Am in three different matrices (slag, fume dust and cast steel) and with samples provided on-site by the factories, was successful. The measurements proved the superiority of the prototypes over the scintillation detectors now commonly used regarding energy resolution and multi-nuclide identification capability. The detection limits were assessed and are presented as well.

  3. Implementation of distributed computing system for emergency response and contaminant spill monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojo, T.O.; Sterling, M.C.Jr.; Bonner, J.S.; Fuller, C.B.; Kelly, F.; Page, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    The availability and use of real-time environmental data greatly enhances emergency response and spill monitoring in coastal and near shore environments. The data would include surface currents, wind speed, wind direction, and temperature. Model predictions (fate and transport) or forensics can also be included. In order to achieve an integrated system suitable for application in spill or emergency response situations, a link is required because this information exists on many different computing platforms. When real-time measurements are needed to monitor a spill, the use of a wide array of sensors and ship-based post-processing methods help reduce the latency in data transfer between field sampling stations and the Incident Command Centre. The common thread linking all these modules is the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and the result is an integrated distributed computing system (DCS). The in-situ sensors are linked to an onboard computer through the use of a ship-based local area network (LAN) using a submersible device server. The onboard computer serves as both the data post-processor and communications server. It links the field sampling station with other modules, and is responsible for transferring data to the Incident Command Centre. This link is facilitated by a wide area network (WAN) based on wireless broadband communications facilities. This paper described the implementation of the DCS. The test results for the communications link and system readiness were also included. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  4. Monitoring Active Volcanos Using Aerial Images and the Orthoview Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Marsella; Carla Nardinocchi; Cristina Proietti; Leonardo Daga; Mauro Coltelli

    2014-01-01

    In volcanic areas, where it can be difficult to perform direct surveys, digital photogrammetry techniques are rarely adopted for routine volcano monitoring. Nevertheless, they have remarkable potentialities for observing active volcanic features (e.g., fissures, lava flows) and the connected deformation processes. The ability to obtain accurate quantitative data of definite accuracy in short time spans makes digital photogrammetry a suitable method for controlling the evolution of rapidly cha...

  5. Elimination of quarterly urinalysis of radiation workers based on detection capability of portal monitors for internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanuja, Jayalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Covidien is a radiopharmaceutical manufacturing company in Missouri, USA. The facility produces radionuclides for diagnostic and therapeutic use. The radionuclides of interest, 123 I, 67 Ga, 99 Mo, 99m Tc, 201 Tl, 111 In, and 131 I are fairly short lived with the exception of 51 Cr. The operating license document for the company mandated quarterly urinalysis (bioassay) of all radiation workers in the facility. This was labor intensive and did not enhance the quality of radiation protection program. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) required a technical basis to prove that there was no compromise in the radiological safety and accurate dose assessment in the event of internal contamination of radiation workers if quarterly urinalysis was discontinued. Measurements in a phantom, gamma spectroscopy analysis, as well as calculations showed that there was no need to perform quarterly urinalysis and that portal monitors and other radiological controls were sufficient to detect any chronic or acute intake of radioactivity by radiation workers. Technical evaluation showed Portal monitors can detect an Effective Dose Equivalent of 0.1 mSv (10 mrem) in a year. NRC allowed revision of operating license document and operating procedures to discontinue quarterly urinalysis. (author)

  6. Integrated active sensor system for real time vibration monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qijie; Yan, Xiaoqin; Liao, Xinqin; Cao, Shiyao; Lu, Shengnan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Yue

    2015-11-05

    We report a self-powered, lightweight and cost-effective active sensor system for vibration monitoring with multiplexed operation based on contact electrification between sensor and detected objects. The as-fabricated sensor matrix is capable of monitoring and mapping the vibration state of large amounts of units. The monitoring contents include: on-off state, vibration frequency and vibration amplitude of each unit. The active sensor system delivers a detection range of 0-60 Hz, high accuracy (relative error below 0.42%), long-term stability (10000 cycles). On the time dimension, the sensor can provide the vibration process memory by recording the outputs of the sensor system in an extend period of time. Besides, the developed sensor system can realize detection under contact mode and non-contact mode. Its high performance is not sensitive to the shape or the conductivity of the detected object. With these features, the active sensor system has great potential in automatic control, remote operation, surveillance and security systems.

  7. Highlights from the SoilCAM project: Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, H. K.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Wehrer, M.; Godio, A.; Pedersen, L. B.; Toscano, G.

    2012-04-01

    The SoilCAM project (Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring 2008-2012, EU-FP7-212663) is aimed at improving current methods for monitoring contaminant distribution and biodegradation in the subsurface. At two test sites, Oslo airport Gardermoen in Norway and the Trecate site in Italy, a number of geophysical techniques, lysimeter and other soil and water sampling techniques as well as numerical flow and transport modelling have been combined at different scales in order to characterise flow transport processes in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Laboratory experiments have provided data on physical and bio-geo-chemical parameters for use in models and to select remediation methods. The geophysical techniques were used to map geological heterogeneities and also conduct time-lapse measurements of processes in the unsaturated zone. Both cross borehole and surface electrodes were used for electrical resistivity and induced polarisation surveys. The geophysical surveys showed clear indications of areas highly affected by de-icing chemicals along the runway at Oslo airport. The time lapse measurements along the runway at the airport show infiltration patterns during snowmelt and are used to validate 2D unsaturated flow and transport simulations using SUTRA. The Orchestra model is used to describe the complex interaction between bio-geo-chemical processes in a 1D profile along the runway. The presence of installations such as a membrane along the runway highly affects the flow pattern and challenges the capacity of the numerical code. Smaller scale field site measurements have revealed the increase of iron and manganese during degradation of de-icing chemicals. The use of Nitrate to increase red-ox potential was tested, but results have not been analysed yet. So far it cannot be concluded that degradation process can be quantified indirectly by geophysical monitoring. At the Trecate site a combination of georadar, electrical

  8. GE/NOMADICS IN-WELL MONITORING SYSTEM FOR VERTICAL PROFILING OF DNAPL CONTAMINANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald E. Shaffer; Radislav Potyralio; Joseph Salvo; Timothy Sivavec; Lloyd Salsman

    2003-04-01

    This report describes the Phase I effort to develop an Automated In Well Monitoring System (AIMS) for in situ detection of chlorinated volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in groundwater. AIMS is composed of 3 primary components: (a) sensor probe, (b) instrument delivery system, and (c) communication/recharging station. The sensor probe utilizes an array of thickness shear mode (TSM) sensors coated with chemically-sensitive polymer films provides a low-cost, highly sensitive microsensor platform for detection and quantification. The instrument delivery system is used to position the sensor probe in 2 inch or larger groundwater monitoring wells. A communication/recharging station provides wireless battery recharging and communication to enable a fully automated system. A calibration curve for TCE in water was built using data collected in the laboratory. The detection limit of the sensor probe was 6.7 ppb ({micro}g/L) f