WorldWideScience

Sample records for contamination interne chronique

  1. Non cancerous diseases following a chronic intern contamination by caesium 137: cataracts and cardiac arrhythmias; Pathologies non cancereuses potentiellement consecutives a une contamination interne chronique par le cesium 137: cataractes et arythmies cardiaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landon, G

    2008-07-15

    This work of thesis joins within the framework of an analysis of the sanitary consequences of the nuclear accident of Chernobylsk. Since 2005, the I.R.S.N. is interested in the not cancerous pathologies (cataracts, and cardiac arrhythmias) observed among the children living on the contaminated territories after the fallout of Chernobylsk and has in this aim implemented a research programme called E.P.I.C.E. (Evaluation of the pathologies induced by a chronicle contamination by cesium) whom objective is to show an eventual link between the chronicle ingestion of contaminated food and these pathologies emergence. An exploitation of the results of the pilot study,first phase of the E.P.I.C.E. program was realized. The analysis was completed by two bibliographical reviews relative to the knowledge available on these diseases. The results of this pilot study suggest: on one hand, an absence of link between the activity in cesium 137 at the level of the heart, of the whole body and the emergence of disorder of the heart rhythm; on the other hand, for the cases of cataract, a link between the load in cesium 137 at the neck level and the emergence of the disease in 40 % of the cases. However, these results must be considered with caution because several limits and, in particular, a way of selection affect this study. concerning the scientific literature, this one stays rather poor because only thee articles make reference to a relationship between cesium 137 and the emergence of these non cancerous pathologies. After having exposed the context, this thesis draws up the situation of knowledge relative to cataracts and to cardiac arrhythmias and their possible relationship with ionizing radiations, collect the results stemming from the analysis of the pilot study and envisages future epidemiological studies. (N.C.)

  2. International journal of food contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2014-01-01

    The International Journal of Food Contamination publishes baseline, monitoring data, indicating the qualitative and quantitative presence of microbiological and chemical contaminants in foods, animal...

  3. Une étude rétrospective sur l'incidence de l'insuffisance rénale chronique dans le service de Médecine Interne et Néphrologie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d'Antananarivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramilitiana, Benja; Ranivoharisoa, Eliane Mikkelsen; Dodo, Mihary; Razafimandimby, Evanirina; Randriamarotia, Willy Franck

    2016-01-01

    L'insuffisance rénale chronique est un problème de santé publique au niveau mondial. Dans les pays développés, cette affection survient essentiellement chez les sujets âgés, mais en Afrique, elle s'installe plutôt chez les sujets jeunes actifs. C'est une affection de lourde prise en charge dans un pays à faible revenu à cause de ses coûts. Notre but est de décrire les aspects épidémiologiques des nouveaux cas d'insuffisance rénale chronique à Madagascar. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective descriptive de 3 ans partant du 1er janvier 2007 au 31 décembre 2009 dans le service de Médecine Interne et Néphrologie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d'Antananarivo portant sur 239 patients diagnostiqués comme une insuffisance rénale chronique. L'incidence était de 8,51% parmi les patients hospitalisés dans le service. L’âge moyen des patients était de 45,4 ans avec des extrêmes de 16 et 82 ans et un sex-ratio de 1,46. Le principal antécédent était l'hypertension artérielle (59,8%). L'insuffisance rénale chronique était terminale dans 75,31% des cas (n=180). Les causes de l'insuffisance rénale chronique étaient dominées par la glomérulonéphrite chronique (40,1%), la néphroangiosclérose (35,5%). L'hémodialyse était réalisée chez 3 patients (1,26%), aucun patient n’était pas programmé pour une greffe rénale. Le taux de mortalité dans le service était de 28,87%. L'insuffisance rénale chronique est une maladie de pronostic redoutable et handicapante qui affecte les sujets jeunes à Madagascar. Son traitement reste inaccessible dans la majorité des patients. L'accent doit donc être mis principalement sur la prévention notamment une bonne prise en charge précoce des infections, de l'hypertension artérielle et du diabète pour réduire ses impacts négatifs sur la santé communautaire et publique. Le projet de la transplantation rénale - donneur vivant, traitement efficace et moins coûteux par rapport à l

  4. [Decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmachi, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    When radionuclides are accidentally ingested or inhaled, blood circulation or tissue/organ deposition of the radionuclides causes systemic or local radiation effects. In such cases, decorporation therapy is used to reduce the health risks due to their intake. Decorporation therapy includes reduction and/or inhibition of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, isotopic dilution, and the use of diuretics, adsorbents, and chelating agents. For example, penicillamine is recommended as a chelating agent for copper contamination, and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid is approved for the treatment of internal contamination with plutonium. During chelation therapy, the removal effect of the drugs should be monitored using a whole-body counter and/or bioassay. Some authorities, such as the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and International Atomic Energy Agency, have reported recommended decorporation agents for each radionuclide. However, few drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and many are off-label-use agents. Because many decontamination agents are drugs that have been available for a long time and have limited efficacy, the development of new, higher-efficacy drugs has been carried out mainly in the USA and France. In this article, in addition to an outline of decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination, an outline of our research on decorporation agents for actinide (uranium and plutonium) contamination and for radio-cesium contamination is also presented.

  5. Influence of a chronic {sup 90}Sr contamination by ingestion on the hematopoietic, immune and bone systems; Influence d'une contamination chronique par ingestion de {sup 90}Sr sur les systemes hematopoietique, immunitaire et osseux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Synhaeve, Nicholas

    2011-12-15

    Strontium 90 ({sup 90}Sr) is a radionuclide of anthropogenic origin released in large quantities in the environment as a result of nuclear atmospheric tests or accidents at nuclear facilities. {sup 90}Sr persists on a long-term basis in the environment, leading to chronic contamination by ingestion of populations living on contaminated territories. The induction of bone tumours associated with the fixation of {sup 90}Sr has been widely described. However, the occurrence of non-cancer effects is much less known. We used a mouse model with chronic contamination by ingestion of water containing 20 kBq/l of {sup 90}Sr. A bio-kinetic study confirmed the accumulation of {sup 90}Sr in the bones, with an increased rate of accumulation during bone growth. This accumulation was higher in the bones of females than in males. The whole-body absorbed doses ranged from 0.33 {+-} 0.06 mGy (birth) to 10.6 {+-} 0.1 mGy (20 weeks). The absorbed dose for the skeleton was up to 55 mGy. Ingestion of {sup 90}Sr induced a change in the expression of genes inducing an imbalance in favour of bone resorption, but without effect on bone morphology. No significant effect was observed for the hematopoietic system. On the other hand, minor modifications were observed for the immune system. To evaluate the functionality of the immune system, a vaccination test with TT and KLH antigens was used. Results showed in contaminated animals a significant decrease in the production of specific immunoglobulins, changes in the Th1/Th2 balance in the spleen and a disrupted B lymphocyte differentiation. These results improve the understanding of some of the noncancerous consequences of chronic exposure at low dose of radionuclides with a long half-life, which can be accidentally released. (author)

  6. Fixation of Radiological Contamination; International Collaborative Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer

    2013-03-01

    A cooperative international project was conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) to integrate a capture coating with a high performance atomizing process. The initial results were promising, and lead to further trials. The somewhat longer testing and optimization process has resulted in a product that could be demonstrated in the field to reduce airborne radiological dust and contamination.

  7. Chronique et symbole au Mexique en 1968

    OpenAIRE

    Françoise Léziart

    2011-01-01

    Cette communication a pour objet d’analyser la transformation d’un événement tragique qui a eu lieu en 1968 à Mexico.  Il s’agit du massacre de Tlatelolco qui a fait plus de 300 morts sur la place du même nom lors de manifestations estudiantines organisées pour réclamer plus de démocratie dans le pays. Entre information et revendication, douleur et exaltation, écriture et oralité, les chroniques des deux écrivains et journalistes : Elena Poniatowska (La Noche de Tlatelolco, 1971)  et Carlos M...

  8. International Space Station External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit. Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets. This paper addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on returned hardware, and contamination forecasting maps being generated to support external payload topology studies and science utilization.

  9. [Internal contamination by tritium caused by radioluminescent paints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiak-Ziemba, J; Doniec, J

    1985-01-01

    The internal contamination investigations covered 23 persons using radioluminescence paints containing tritium, assembling devices painted with those paints, and those having no contact with active paints but working next to the painting room. Determined were concentrations of tritium excreted with urine, air contamination at workplaces, contamination of workplace areas and hand skin. At the time covered by the investigations, the mean annual equivalent doses for those using tritium paints were reduced from 14-20 mSv to about 5 mSv. In those working next to the painting room they were reduced from 5.8-15 to 0.23 mSv. The exposure of those assembling the devices does not exceed 1 mSv. It was demonstrated that the main cause of the tritium exposure level was air contamination in working rooms.

  10. Analysis of a case of internal contamination with cobalt radioisotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrba, T; Malatova, I; Jurochova, B

    2007-01-01

    Internal contamination by compounds of cobalt radioisotopes occurs time to time at nuclear power plants. Intakes and committed effective doses are estimated by biokinetic models described in ICRP publications. The paper deals with a case of internal contamination of a worker engaged in a maintenance task at NPP Dukovany. In this case significant discrepancy was observed between intakes based on various datasets (whole body counting, analysis of urine and faeces) when default model setting was used. The reason of this phenomenon was searched for. Three different least square methods of fits were used to find out possible effect of a fitting method. The measured data were fitted by set of biokinetic functions, which covered all intake ways (ingestion and inhalation) and types (M, S, different AMADs and different f1) of the contaminant. The biokinetic model of cobalt needs further improvements as to find better agreement between data fit from direct measurements and bioassay.

  11. Remediation of contaminated areas. An overview of international guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, Per

    1999-05-01

    The work described in this report has been performed as a part of the RESTRAT Project FI4P-CT95-0021a (PL 950128) co-funded by the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Commission. The RESTRAT project has the overall objective of developing generic methodologies for ranking restoration techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps: characterisation of relevant contaminated sites; identification and characterisation of relevant restoration techniques; assessment of the radiological impact; development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options; formulation of generic conclusions and development of a manual. The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated with radioactive materials as a result of the operation of these installations. The areas considered for remedial measures include contaminated land areas, rivers and sediments in rivers, lakes, and sea areas. Criteria for clean-up of contaminated land and criteria for protection of the public against chronic exposure are being developed by Advisory Groups and Task Groups within the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This work has been reviewed and a status as of the beginning of 1998 is given. For illustrative purposes , the basic radiation protection principles of justification and optimisation have been applied to derive generic action levels for clean-up of residential areas contaminated with radioactive materials. These generic action levels are based upon cost-benefit analyses that include avertable doses and monetary costs of clean-up. (au) 3 tabs., 4 ills., 10 refs. (Internet)

  12. Bacterial contamination of anesthesia machines’ internal breathing-circuit-systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spertini, Verena; Borsoi, Livia; Berger, Jutta; Blacky, Alexander; Dieb-Elschahawi, Magda; Assadian, Ojan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bacterial contamination of anesthesia breathing machines and their potential hazard for pulmonary infection and cross-infection among anesthetized patients has been an infection control issue since the 1950s. Disposable equipment and bacterial filters have been introduced to minimize this risk. However, the machines’ internal breathing-circuit-system has been considered to be free of micro-organisms without providing adequate data supporting this view. The aim of the study was to investigate if any micro-organisms can be yielded from used internal machines’ breathing-circuit-system. Based on such results objective reprocessing intervals could be defined. Methods: The internal parts of 40 anesthesia machines’ breathing-circuit-system were investigated. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed. An on-site process observation of the re-processing sequence was conducted. Results: Bacterial growth was found in 17 of 40 machines (43%). No significant difference was ascertained between the contamination and the processing intervals. The most common contaminants retrieved were coagulase negative Staphylococci, aerobe spore forming bacteria and Micrococcus species. In one breathing-circuit-system, Escherichia coli, and in one further Staphylococcus aureus were yielded. Conclusion: Considering the availability of bacterial filters installed on the outlet of the breathing-circuit-systems, the type of bacteria retrieved and the on-site process observation, we conclude that the contamination found is best explained by a lack of adherence to hygienic measures during and after re-processing of the internal breathing-circuit-system. These results support an extension of the re-processing interval of the anesthesia apparatus longer than the manufacturer’s recommendation of one week. However, the importance of adherence to standard hygienic measures during re-processing needs to be emphasized. PMID:22242095

  13. Estimated association between dwelling soil contamination and internal radiation contamination levels after the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Sakaihara, Kikugoro; Kato, Shigeaki; Leppold, Claire; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Morita, Tomohiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Measurement of soil contamination levels has been considered a feasible method for dose estimation of internal radiation exposure following the Chernobyl disaster by means of aggregate transfer factors; however, it is still unclear whether the estimation of internal contamination based on soil contamination levels is universally valid or incident specific. Methods To address this issue, we evaluated relationships between in vivo and soil cesium-137 (Cs-137) contamination using data on internal contamination levels among Minamisoma (10–40 km north from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant), Fukushima residents 2–3 years following the disaster, and constructed three models for statistical analysis based on continuous and categorical (equal intervals and quantiles) soil contamination levels. Results A total of 7987 people with a mean age of 55.4 years underwent screening of in vivo Cs-137 whole-body counting. A statistically significant association was noted between internal and continuous Cs-137 soil contamination levels (model 1, p value Fukushima, representing a clear difference from the strong associations found in post-disaster Chernobyl. These results indicate that soil contamination levels generally do not contribute to the internal contamination of residents in Fukushima; thus, individual measurements are essential for the precise evaluation of chronic internal radiation contamination. PMID:27357196

  14. Use of environmental series to study the sensitivity of vegetable contamination to chronic releases S.E.N.S.I.B. project; Utilisation de series de mesures environnementales pour etudier la sensibilite de la contamination vegetale aux rejets chroniques Projet S.E.N.S.I.B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briand, B.; Mercat-Rommens, C

    2007-07-01

    This study consists in the assessment of three radioecological parameters involved in the phenomenological modeling of the plant contamination (interception capacity of the vegetables, root transfer and effective period in soils). The aim is to obtain information about these parameters (If possible regionalized information): range and probability distribution. This study is based on various data sets available, in particular, from long records of radioactivity measurements carried out in France over the period 1960-1980 on leafy vegetables (related to the atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons). The plant contamination equation is fitted from various data sets. As a whole, the different cases studied highlight a bad goodness of fit. Thus, even if the majority of the estimated values for modeling parameters are consistent with literature, they cannot be used to propose regionalized value for ecological parameters. (N.C.)

  15. Space station contamination control study: Internal combustion, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Contamination inside Space Station modules was studied to determine the best methods of controlling contamination. The work was conducted in five tasks that identified existing contamination control requirements, analyzed contamination levels, developed outgassing specification for materials, wrote a contamination control plan, and evaluated current materials of offgassing tests used by NASA. It is concluded that current contamination control methods can be made to function on the Space Station for up to 1000 days, but that current methods are deficient for periods longer than about 1000 days.

  16. In vivo effects of a chronic contamination by uranium or cesium 137 on the pharmaceutical metabolism, of the vitamin D and cholesterol; Effets in vivo d'une contamination chronique par l'uranium ou le cesium 137 sur le metabolisme du medicament, de la vitamine D et du cholesterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souidi, M

    2006-11-15

    In conclusion, an animal model, miming the chronic contamination of the populations exposed to the uranium, was used for the first time to show that the chronic ingestion of a weak dose of depleted uranium can affect the level of active vitamin D without modifying the mineral homeostasis. This study shows that this radionuclide can lead molecular modifications of the CYPs and the nuclear receivers involved in the metabolism of the vitamin D not only at the level of the liver and kidney but also at the level of the independent metabolism in the brain. The deficiency in vitamin D can provoke osseous diseases such as the rickets at the child and the osteomalacia at the adult. The three categories of population the most exposed to this deficiency are the infants, the pregnant women and the old persons. Strong prevalence of the vitamin D deficiency associated with a chronic exposure to uranium could lead to osseous disorders. To verify this hypothesis, it will be necessary secondly to realize this study on individuals animal models predisposed to the rickets or to the osteomalacia. (N.C.)

  17. La survie en hémodialyse chronique au Cameroun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Hermine; Ashuntantang, Gloria; Kaze, François; Halle, Marie-Patrice

    2017-01-01

    Introduction L'hémodialyse est le seul traitement de substitution rénale disponible au Cameroun; elle est subventionnée à 95% par l'Etat depuis 2002 et le nombre de centre de dialyse va croissant. Cependant, depuis l'ouverture du premier centre en 1990, aucune donnée n'existe sur la survie des hémodialysés chroniques. Méthodes Nous avons conduit une étude de cohorte prospective multicentrique de 15 mois dans le but d'évaluer la mortalité et les facteurs qui influencent la survie des hémodialysés chroniques camerounais. Résultats Nous avons suivi 197 patients dont 109 incidents. L'âge moyen était de 47,97± 13,19 ans et 55% étaient de sexe masculin. La durée moyenne en dialyse des patients prévalent était de 12,5 mois. Le taux de mortalité était de 57,58% dont 50% pendant les 3 premiers mois et le taux d'abandon était de 8,6%. L'urémie et les sepsis sur cathéter étaient les principales causes de décès. La survie globale à 15 mois était de 30,77%, avec une durée moyenne de vie de 8 mois. Les patients prévalent, la résidence dans la ville du centre de dialyse, la prise en charge non familiale, le suivi pré dialyse > 3 mois, la cholestérolémie à l'entrée en dialyse> 1,5g/l, un score mental > 25 étaient associés à une meilleure survie. Conclusion La mortalité en hémodialyse au Cameroun est élevée, avec une survie moyenne de 8 mois et la plupart des patients décèdent au cours des 3 premiers mois. PMID:28491228

  18. Chroniques d'habitat et dynamique de populations de truite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAPRA H.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Une nouvelle méthode a permis de quantifier des Durées Continues d'Habitat Limitant (méthode DCHL à partir de chroniques d'habitat potentiel, pour la truite fario (Salmo trutta fario, L.. Cette méthode a été appliquée sur deux cours d'eau naturels et sur une station soumise à éclusée. Elle a été validée sur les deux cours d'eau naturels en ce qui concerne l'habitat limitant pour les jeunes truites de l'année (0+. Elle offre un outil pratique d'analyse des périodes d'habitat limitant en régime naturel. En situation d'éclusées, l'interprétation des résultats est différente et nécessite encore un effort important de suivi biologique.

  19. Evaluation et analyse de l'insomnie en hémodialyse chronique

    OpenAIRE

    El Harraqui, Ryme; Abda, Naima; Bentata, Yassamine; Haddiya, Intissar

    2014-01-01

    L'insomnie est aussi fréquente chez les hémodialysés chroniques qu'elle est négligée par le personnel soignant, davantage attelé à gérer les complications qui accompagnent l'insuffisance rénale chronique terminale et la dialyse chronique. Notre travail a eu pour but de déterminer la prévalence de l'insomnie et les facteurs qui lui sont associés, afin de pouvoir, dans un temps futur, lui dédier une stratégie de prise en charge adaptée. Il s'agit d'une étude transversale incluant 93 hémodialysé...

  20. Oralité et écriture dans les chroniques dynastiques d’Afrique de l’Ouest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Boulègue

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Les chroniques dynastiques ouest-africaines, qu’elles soient écrites ou orales, sont construites sur la base du règne, qui en fournit le découpage, tandis que le roi est au cœur du récit. L’islamisation n’y a introduit ni l’ère hégirienne ni l’année lunaire. Elles utilisent l’année solaire, avec son rythme saisonnier, et un système chronologique dont la date-repère se situe à la fin de l’échelle du temps, à savoir l’avènement du roi régnant. La royauté est bien le principe régulateur de ces chroniques et le choix du mode de transmission (oralité ou écriture ne le dément pas : il ne dépend pas de la connaissance de l’écriture mais de rapports de force socio-politiques et des choix du pouvoir.West African dynastic chronicles, whether as written texts or oral traditions, are built according to the reigns, which give their internal division, while the king is at the heart of the account. Islamization did not introduce into them the Hegirian era or the lunar year. These chronicles are based on the solar year, with its seasonal rhythm, and a chronological system based on the end of the timeline, that is the enthronement of the reigning king. Thus kingship is the ruling principle of these chronicles and the choice of the mode of transmission (orality or writing does not deny it: it does not depend on the knowledge of writing but on social and political power struggles and the choices of the ruling power.

  1. Epidemiology of internal contamination with polonium-210 in the London incident, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, G; Giraudon, I; Cohuet, S; Bishop, L; Maguire, H; Thomas, H L; Mandal, S; Anders, K; Sanchez-Padilla, E; Charlett, A; Evans, B; Gross, R

    2012-02-01

    More than 700 UK residents were tested for possible contamination with polonium-210 ((210)Po) following the alleged poisoning of Mr Alexander Litvinenko in London in November 2006. This paper describes the epidemiology of internal contamination with the radionuclide in this group. 11 locations in London had been identified as sufficiently environmentally contaminated with (210)Po to present a health risk to people associated with them. Public health consultant teams identified individuals at risk and offered 24-h urine testing for (210)Po excretion. Prevalence of internal contamination was estimated, and a retrospective cohort analysis was completed for each location. Overall 139 individuals (prevalence 0.19 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.27)) showed evidence of internal contamination with (210)Po, although none with uptakes likely to cause adverse health effects. Substantial prevalence was seen among specific hotel service staff, customers, staff and other users of a hotel bar, office and hospital staff, staff of one restaurant and residents of and visitors to the family home. Increased risks of contamination were seen for a hotel bar in association with occupational, behavioural and temporal factors. Occupational and guest exposure to contaminated areas of hotels were also associated with increased contamination risk. Nurses were more likely to become contaminated than other staff involved in direct patient care. Uptake of trace amounts of radionuclide in this incident was frequent. Occupational, behavioural and temporal gradients in contamination risk were mostly consistent with a priori site risk assessments. Utility of the investigation methods and findings for future accidental or deliberate environmental contamination incidents are discussed.

  2. La santé en Suisse : le point sur les maladies chroniques : rapport national sur la santé 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, N.; Burla, L; Kohler, D.; Paccaud F. (éd.),

    2015-01-01

    Le vieillissement de la population va de pair avec une progression constante des maladies chroniques dans notre société. Les modes de vie modernes favorisent l'apparition de ces maladies, notamment par le tabagisme, par le manque d'activité physique et par une alimentation déséquilibrée. Les maladies chroniques somatiques sont aujourd'hui dans la ligne de mire des responsables de la politique de la santé. Elles constituent, avec les maladies chroniques psychiques, dont les conséquences sont m...

  3. Remediation of contaminated areas. An overview of international guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Hedemann

    1999-01-01

    restoration techniques -assessment of the radiological impact -development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options -formulation ofgeneric conclusions and development of a manual The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been...... against chronic exposure are being developed byAdvisory Groups and Task Groups within the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This work has been reviewed and a status as of the beginning of 1998 is given. For illustrativepurposes...

  4. External Contamination Control of Attached Payloads on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Olsen, Randy L.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Schmidl, William D.; Wright, Bruce D.; Koontz, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an on-orbit platform for science utilization in low Earth orbit with multiple sites for external payloads with exposure to the natural and induced environments. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. This paper describes the external contamination control requirements and integration process for externally mounted payloads on the ISS. The external contamination control requirements are summarized and a description of the integration and verification process is detailed to guide payload developers in the certification process of attached payloads on the vehicle. A description of the required data certification deliverables covers the characterization of contamination sources. Such characterization includes identification, usage and operational data for each class of contamination source. Classes of external contamination sources covered are vacuum exposed materials, sources of leakage, vacuum venting and thrusters. ISS system level analyses are conducted by the ISS Space Environments Team to certify compliance with external contamination control requirements. This paper also addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on ISS.

  5. Hypnose et douleurs chroniques: "est-ce que l'hypnose peut améliorer la qualité de vie des patients douloureux chroniques ?"

    OpenAIRE

    Granger, Julie; Duc, Céline; Hilfiker, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Au travers de cette revue systématique, nous souhaitons confirmer l’efficacité de l’hypnose dans le traitement de la douleur chronique. Nous avons recherché des études comparant deux groupes, l’un recevant uniquement des traitements physiothérapeutiques et l’autre de l’hypnose combinée à des traitements physiothérapeutiques. Mit dieser Systematischen Literaturübersicht möchten wir die Effizienz der Hypnose die Behandlung chronischer Schmerzen untersuchen. Wir haben Studien gesucht, die 2 G...

  6. The methods and limitations of dosimetry after internal contamination; Les methodes et les limites de la dosimetrie apres contamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchardon, E. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Lab. d' Evaluation de la Dose Interne (DRPH/SDI/LEDI), 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Flury-Herard, A. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, Cellule Carmin (DSV/DIR/CAR) et Cab. HC, 92 (France); Paquet, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Lab. de RadioTOXicologie Experimentale (DRPH/SRBE/LRTOX), 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2007-10-15

    The assessment of absorbed, equivalent and effective doses after internal exposure is based on activity measurement by in vivo counting or bioassay. A dose value is derived from this measurement by means of biokinetic and dosimetric models which describe the behaviour of radionuclides in the body of a reference man and the subsequent deposition of energy. To enforce regulatory dose limits, monitoring programs are designed. The doses can be estimated from the measurement data according to a standard procedure as proposed by the I.D.E.A.S. group. However, a significant uncertainty is associated with the dose estimate, due to the uncertainties of measurement, to the incomplete knowledge of the conditions of exposure and to the imperfect realism of the models. In addition to this uncertainty, the extrapolation to low dose of biological effects observed at higher dose, the chemical toxicity of radionuclides and the heterogeneous energy deposition make the estimation of the risk following an internal exposure very difficult. As a conclusion, it should be reminded that the effective dose is a tool for the management of radiological protection but not a quantitative indicator of the individual risk. (authors)

  7. A methodology for auto-monitoring of internal contamination by 131I in nuclear medicine workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, M V S; Dantas, A L A; Dantas, B M

    2007-01-01

    The manipulation of 131I in Nuclear Medicine involves significant risks of internal contamination of the staff. In the event of an accidental contamination, or when the Radiological Protection Program includes routine individual monitoring of internal contamination, it is necessary to implement internal dose estimation through in vivo and in vitro bioassay techniques. Due to the huge extension of the Brazilian country, this type of monitoring becomes unfeasible if all measurements have to be performed at the institutes of the CNEN. Thus, if the Nuclear Medicine Centres (NMC) become able to conduct the monitoring of their employees, this skill would be of great significance. The methodology proposed in this work consists in a simple and inexpensive protocol for auto-monitoring the internal contamination by 131I, using the resources available at the NMC. In order to verify the influence of the phantom in the calibration factor for the measurement of 131I in thyroid, it was performed a comparison among a variety of phantoms commercially available, including the Neck-Thyroid Phantom developed in IRD. A protocol for performing in vivo and in vitro measurements by the NMC was established. The applicability of the individual monitoring techniques was also evaluated by comparing the detection limits with the derived limits associated with the annual dose limits for workers.

  8. La chronique comme genre : Tinísima d’Elena Poniatowska

    OpenAIRE

    Bisson-Fradet, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Le Prix Cervantes 2013 a été décerné à Elena Poniatowska pour : « sa trajectoire littéraire dans plusieurs genres, en particulier pour sa prose narrative, et pour s’être consacrée de manière exemplaire au journalisme, de la chronique à l’essai ». La particularité de l’auteure mexicaine réside dans l’hybridité générique de ses ouvrages qui combinent les techniques journalistiques et littéraires, c’est pourquoi nous avons fait le choix d’étudier, plutôt qu’une de ses chroniques, le roman photog...

  9. Compared sensitivity of two nuclear sites: case of farming production contaminated by foliar way (chronicle release) S.E.N.S.I.B. project; Sensibilite comparee de deux sites nucleaires: cas des productions agricoles contaminees par voie foliaire (rejet chronique) Projet SENSIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercat, C.; Vassas, C

    2005-07-01

    This study joins within the framework of the S.E.N.S.I.B. project. The principle is to set up a step which allows to compare the sensitivity of two sites in case of radioisotopes releases; as illustration the sites of Marcoule and La Hague are considered. We are interested here in the case of the agricultural productions contaminated by foliar way during an atmospheric chronic release. Every site is characterized by specific vegetable and animal productions. The calculations of activities give an information about the sensitivity of products (mass and surface activities) and on the sensitivity of the Communes ( total activities). The contamination is supposed to be only made about foliar transfer. The studied radioisotopes are the cesium{sup 137}, the cobalt{sup 60}, the strontium{sup 90} and the iodine{sup 131}. For the cesium{sup 137} and the cobalt{sup 60}, the agricultural environment of the site of Marcoule seems globally more sensitive than that of La Hague, in the mean where the total activity in becquerels exported by the agricultural productions produced on the zone of 10 km around the site is more important for Marcoule than for La Hague. For the strontium{sup 90} and for the iodine{sup 131}, both agricultural environments are globally equivalent. This study which privileged the consideration of the regional specificities shows that the key factors of sensitivity are respectively the topographic situation for the deposit, the factor of translocation and the farming output for the vegetable productions and the daily food ration and the factor of transfer for the animal productions. (N.C.)

  10. Analysis of grease contamination influence on the internal radial clearance of ball bearings by thermographic inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišković Žarko Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors influencing ball bearings service life is its internal radial clearance. However, this parameter is also very complex because it depends on applied radial load and ball bearings dimensions, surface finish and manufacturing materials. Thermal condition of ball bearings also significantly affects internal radial clearance. Despite many researches performed in order to find out relevant facts about different aspects of ball bearings thermal behaviour, only few of them are dealing with the real working conditions, where high concentration of solid contaminant particles is present. That’s why the main goal of research presented in this paper was to establish statistically significant correlation between ball bearings temperatures, their working time and concentration of contaminant particles in their grease. Because of especially difficult working conditions, the typical conveyor idlers bearings were selected as representative test samples and appropriate solid particles from open pit coal mines were used as artificial contaminants. Applied experimental methodology included thermographic inspection, as well as usage of custom designed test rig for ball bearings service life testing. Finally, by obtained experimental data processing in advanced software, statistically significant mathematical correlation between mentioned bearings characteristics was determined and applied in commonly used internal radial clearance equation. That is the most important contribution of performed research - the new equation and methodology for ball bearings internal clearance determination which could be used for eventual improvement of existing bearings service life equations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35029 i br. TR14033

  11. Analysis methodology and development of a statistical tool for biodistribution data from internal contamination with actinides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamart, Stephanie; Griffiths, Nina M; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Angulo, Jaime F; Van der Meeren, Anne

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a computational tool that integrates several statistical analysis features for biodistribution data from internal contamination experiments. These data represent actinide levels in biological compartments as a function of time and are derived from activity measurements in tissues and excreta. These experiments aim at assessing the influence of different contamination conditions (e.g. intake route or radioelement) on the biological behavior of the contaminant. The ever increasing number of datasets and diversity of experimental conditions make the handling and analysis of biodistribution data difficult. This work sought to facilitate the statistical analysis of a large number of datasets and the comparison of results from diverse experimental conditions. Functional modules were developed using the open-source programming language R to facilitate specific operations: descriptive statistics, visual comparison, curve fitting, and implementation of biokinetic models. In addition, the structure of the datasets was harmonized using the same table format. Analysis outputs can be written in text files and updated data can be written in the consistent table format. Hence, a data repository is built progressively, which is essential for the optimal use of animal data. Graphical representations can be automatically generated and saved as image files. The resulting computational tool was applied using data derived from wound contamination experiments conducted under different conditions. In facilitating biodistribution data handling and statistical analyses, this computational tool ensures faster analyses and a better reproducibility compared with the use of multiple office software applications. Furthermore, re-analysis of archival data and comparison of data from different sources is made much easier. Hence this tool will help to understand better the influence of contamination characteristics on actinide biokinetics. Our approach can aid

  12. FOOD: an interactive code to calculate internal radiation doses from contaminated food products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.A.; Hoenes, G.R.; Soldat, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    An interactive code, FOOD, has been written in BASIC for the UNIVAC 1108 to facilitate calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products. In the dose model, vegetation may be contaminated by either air or irrigation water containing radionuclides. The model considers two mechanisms for radionuclide contamination of vegetation: direct deposition on leaves and uptake from soil through the root system. The user may select up to 14 food categories with corresponding consumption rates, growing periods and either irrigation rates or atmospheric deposition rates. These foods include various kinds of produce, grains and animal products. At present, doses may be calculated for the skin, total body and five internal organs from 190 radionuclides. Dose summaries can be displayed at the local terminal. Further details on percent contribution to dose by nuclide and by food type are available from an auxiliary high-speed printer. This output also includes estimated radionuclide concentrations in soil, plants and animal products.

  13. Evaluation et analyse de l'insomnie en hémodialyse chronique

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Harraqui, Ryme; Abda, Naima; Bentata, Yassamine; Haddiya, Intissar

    2014-01-01

    L'insomnie est aussi fréquente chez les hémodialysés chroniques qu'elle est négligée par le personnel soignant, davantage attelé à gérer les complications qui accompagnent l'insuffisance rénale chronique terminale et la dialyse chronique. Notre travail a eu pour but de déterminer la prévalence de l'insomnie et les facteurs qui lui sont associés, afin de pouvoir, dans un temps futur, lui dédier une stratégie de prise en charge adaptée. Il s'agit d'une étude transversale incluant 93 hémodialysés chroniques, dont nous avons étudié les données sociodémographiques, biologique, dialytiques; nous avons également collecté les caractéristiques de l'insomnie, et enfin mis en exergue les facteurs associés à sa survenue. L'insomnie a été définie par un score total supérieur ou égal à 15 au questionnaire de l'I.S.I (Insomnia Severity Index). Ainsi, la prévalence de l'insomnie est de 67,7% (n=63); l’âge moyen est de 55,6±12,7 (22-82) ans, le sexe ratio de 24 Hommes/39 Femmes, la durée moyenne en hémodialyse de 94,6 ± 58,2 (6-252) mois. 45 des patients insomniaques sont dialysés deux fois par semaine. Cette insomnie concernait le début de la nuit dans 52,3% des cas, le milieu de la nuit dans 55,5% des cas, et le petit matin dans 19,04% des cas. Les troubles associés à cette insomnie ont été: la somnolence diurne dans 79,3% des cas (n=50), le syndrome de la jambe sans repos dans 17,4% des cas (n=11), et les cauchemars dans 30,1% des cas (n=19). Une prise régulière d'hypnogènes a été notée chez 20 patients (31,7%). En analyse univariée, les facteurs associés à la survenue de l'insomnie sont l’âge avancé des patients, le sexe féminin, l'ancienneté en hémodialyse, la fréquence de deux séances de dialyse par semaine, le taux d'urée en prédialyse, le score de Charlson, la présence d'une douleur chronique (depuis plus de trois mois), la dépression et enfin l'hypertension artérielle. En analyse multivariée, on retient

  14. Absence of internal radiation contamination by radioactive cesium among children affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nomura, Shuhei; Morita, Tomohiro; Sugimoto, Amina; Gilmour, Stuart; Kami, Masahiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Chronic internal radiation contamination accounts for a substantial fraction of long-term cumulative radiation exposure among residents in radiation-contaminated areas. However, little information is available on ongoing chronic internal radiation contamination among residents near the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Using a whole body counter, internal radiation contamination levels among elementary and middle school students who commute to 22 schools located within Minamisoma city were assessed between May and July 2013 (26 to 28 mo after the disaster). Of 3,299 elementary and middle school students in the city, 3,255 individuals (98%) were screened through school health check-ups. Not a single student was detected with internal radiation contamination due to radioactive cesium. The study found no risk of chronic internal radiation exposure among residents near the crippled nuclear power plant. Current food inspection by local governments, volunteers, and farmers has been functioning well within Fukushima prefecture. However, food management by screening suspected contamination along with whole body counter screening are key public health interventions and should be continued to avoid further internal radiation exposure in radiation-contaminated areas.

  15. Torsion chronique d'une rate baladeuse chez un adolescent: à propos d'un cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dème, Hamidou; Akpo, Léra Géraud; Fall, Seynabou; Badji, Nfally; Ka, Ibrahima; Guèye, Mohamadou Lamine; Touré, Mouhamed Hamine; Niang, El Hadj

    2016-01-01

    La rate baladeuse ou errante est une anomalie rare, qui est le plus souvent décrite chez l'enfant. Ses complications parmi lesquelles figure la torsion de son pédicule sont fréquentes et peuvent engager le pronostic vital du patient. Nous rapportons un cas de torsion chronique du pédicule d'une rate baladeuse chez un patient de 17 ans, au long passé de douleurs épigastriques. Le tableau clinique était marqué par une masse épigastrique spontanément douloureuse, évoluant depuis 48 heures. L’échographie abdominale objectivait une rate ectopique hétérogène, hypertrophiée, en position épigastrique et un hématome sous capsulaire. Au doppler, on notait une torsion du pédicule splénique à deux tours de spires et un petit flux sur l'artère splénique. La tomodensitométrie abdominale avec injection de produit de contraste montrait un défaut de rehaussement parenchymateux d'une grosse rate ectopique épigastrique et un hématome sous capsulaire. Le diagnostic de torsion chronique du pédicule d'une rate baladeuse, compliquée de nécrose et d'hématome sous capsulaire était retenu. Il a été réalisé une splénectomie. Les suites opératoires étaient simples. Nous discutons l'apport de l’échographie et de la TDM dans le diagnostic de la torsion chronique du pédicule d'une rate baladeuse. PMID:27583079

  16. Exercices supervisés, à domicile ou manipulations (chiropraxie) pour les lombalgies chroniques

    OpenAIRE

    Duyver, Corentin

    2012-01-01

    Analyse de Bronfort G, Maiers MJ, Evans RL, et al. Supervised exercise, spinal manipulation, and home exercise for chronic low back pain: a randomized clinical trial. Spine 2011;11:585–98. Question clinique Quelle est l’efficacité à court et long terme d’un traitement basé sur des exercices supervisés versus des manipulations vertébrales (chiropraxie) et versus des exercices à domicile chez des patients présentant des lombalgies chroniques ? Conclusion Minerva Cette RCT ne montre pas de plus-...

  17. Development of two mobile laboratories for a routine and accident monitoring of internal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franck, D., E-mail: didier.franck@irsn.fr [IRSN-French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Internal Dosimetry Department, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Berniere, J.; Viltard, D.; Parre, F.; Challeton-de Vathaire, C.; Agarande, M. [IRSN-French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Internal Dosimetry Department, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)

    2012-07-15

    To provide medical surveillance of workers exposed to risk of internal contamination, IRSN (French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety) has developed two mobile laboratories for on-site monitoring. The laboratories are unique in Europe. They meet the new radiation protection requirements for nuclear medicine departments and radiological emergency response. Details of the design, calibration procedures and performance characteristics of these systems in measurements of various types of organs (thyroid, lung and whole body) are described. The sensitivity of the measurements is very close to that achieved in a heavily shielded stationary laboratory. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We describe a new mobile truck developed for in situ monitoring of internal contamination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the technical principle of this truck. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They can carry out in vivo measurements in different types of geometries: thyroid, lung and whole body. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We assess the performances for the measurement of typical radionuclides and contaminations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thanks to the use of specific shielding it has been shown sensitivities quite close to a heavy shielding system.

  18. The pattern of Campylobacter contamination on broiler farms; external and internal sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, T; Whyte, P; Bolton, D J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the most sensitive molecular techniques in combination with culture-based methods to characterize broiler farms in terms of the timeline ('appearance' and 'pattern') of Campylobacter contamination prior to and post detection in the birds. Faecal and environmental samples were collected from three broiler farms (two flocks per farm). Real-time PCR was used to test for the presence of Campylobacter. Culture-based methods (enrichment and direct plating) were also applied and isolates were subject to a range of confirmatory tests before speciation (multiplex PCR). All flocks were colonized by Campylobacter before first thin and a similar pattern of Campylobacter contamination was observed; (day -1) a range of external and internal samples real-time PCR positive but culture negative; (day 0) chicks negative; (6-9 days pre-detection in the birds) internal samples (feeders, drinkers, barrier and/or bird weigh) culture positive and (post broiler infection) increasing concentrations of Campylobacter in internal samples but also on the tarmac apron and anteroom. It was concluded that; (i) vertical transmission did not occur; (ii) the environment was a potential source of Campylobacter; (iii) testing areas frequented by all birds (e.g. feeders and drinkers), may offer an opportunity for early Campylobacter detection and (iv) once the broilers are infected with Campylobacter, these bacteria are spread from the birds, through the anteroom to the areas surrounding the broiler house, highlighting the need for improved biosecurity. This study has established the pattern of Campylobacter contamination on broiler farms, identified an early detection opportunity, highlighted the need to better understand the role of viable but nonculturable Campylobacter in the ecology of Campylobacter on broiler farms and demonstrated the need for improved biosecurity to prevent the spread of Campylobacter from within the house to the surrounding environment.

  19. Le syndrome de Stewart-Treves compliquant un lymphœdème chronique idiopathique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safini, Fatima; Naim, Asmaa; Bouchbika, Zineb; Benchakroun, Nadia; Jouhadi, Hassan; Tawfiq, Nezha; Sahraoui, Souha; Benider, Abdellatif

    2014-01-01

    Le syndrome de Stewart-Treves (SST) est une entité rare, correspondant à un angiosarcome cutané compliquant un lymphoedème chronique. Il est de mauvais pronostic. Stewart et Treves ont rapportés en 1948, les premiers cas d'angiosarcome secondaire à un traitement du cancer du sein. Ce terme s'est généralisé pour regrouper l'ensemble des cas de lymphangiosarcome sur lymphoedème d'origine congénital héréditaire ou non héréditaire, post-traumatique ou post-infectieux. Le SST sur un lymphoedème idiopathique reste exceptionnel. Nous rapportons le cas rare d'une patiente présentant un lymphoedème chronique primitif idiopathique des quatre membres évoluant depuis l'adolescence et qui a développé un SST du membre supérieur droit. Elle a subi une amputation à mi- bras vu le caractère très évolué de la tumeur PMID:25883738

  20. Prevalence of and risks for internal contamination among hospital staff caring for a patient contaminated with a fatal dose of polonium-210.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Polain de Waroux, Olivier; Cohuet, Sandra; Bishop, Louise; Johnson, Sandra; Shaw, Karen; Maguire, Helen; Charlett, André; Fraser, Graham

    2011-10-01

    Alexander Litvinenko died on November 23, 2006, from acute radiation sickness syndrome caused by ingestion of polonium-210 (²¹⁰Po). The objective was to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for internal contamination with ²¹⁰Po in healthcare workers (HCWs) caring for the contaminated patient. Hospital. HCWs who had direct contact with the patient. We interviewed 43 HCWs and enquired about their activities and use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Internal contamination was defined as urinary ²¹⁰Po excretion above 20 mBq within 24 hours. We obtained risk ratios (RRs) for internal contamination using Poisson regression. Thirty-seven HCWs (86%) responded, and 8 (22%) showed evidence of internal contamination, all at very low levels that were unlikely to cause adverse health outcomes. Daily care of the patient (washing and toileting the patient) was the main risk factor (RR, 3.6 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-11.6]). In contrast, planned invasive procedures were not associated with a higher risk. There was some evidence of a higher risk associated with handling blood samples (RR, 3.5 [95% CI, 0.8-15.6]) and changing urine bags and/or collecting urine samples (RR, 2.7 [95% CI, 0.8-9.5]). There was also some evidence that those who reported not always using standard PPE were at higher risk than were others (RR, 2.5 [95% CI, 0.8-8.1]). The sensitive quantitative measurement enabled us to identify factors associated with contamination, which by analogy to other conditions with similar transmission mechanisms may help improve protection and preparedness in staff dealing with an ill patient who experiences an unknown illness.

  1. Recovery of Salmonella from internally and externally contaminated whole tomatoes using several different sample preparation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Gill, Vikas S; Irvin, Kari A; Byrd, Mindi; Bolger, Cathryn M; Zheng, Jie; Dickey, Erin E; Duvall, Robert E; Jacobson, Andrew P; Hammack, Thomas S

    2012-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the relative effectiveness of whole soak [current Bacteriological Analytical Manual-(BAM) Salmonella method], quarter, stomach, and blend methods for the recovery of Salmonella organisms from internally and externally contaminated tomatoes. Tomatoes were subjected to three inoculation methods: surface inoculation, internal inoculation by injection, and immersion with single Salmonella serovars. The inoculation levels ranged from 1 to 100 CFU/tomato for surface and injection inoculation or 1 to 100 CFU/mL for immersion inoculation. Tomatoes were held for 3 days after inoculation at 2-6 degrees C prior to initiation of analysis. Contaminated tomatoes were soaked, quartered, stomached, and blended in appropriate portions of Universal Pre-enrichment broth, and incubated for 24 h at 35 +/- 2 degrees C. The BAM Salmonella culture method was followed thereafter, and tomatoes were treated as a low-microbial-load food. The stomaching procedure was significantly (P < 0.05) more effective than the whole soak procedure for recovery of internalized Salmonella from tomatoes (by injection). The blending procedure was arithmetically superior to the stomaching procedure for detection of internalized Salmonella from tomatoes (by immersion). The blending procedure showed the same effectiveness as the whole soak procedure for the detection of Salmonella on tomato surfaces. Comparisons between test portion-to-broth ratios (weight to volume) showed that a 1:3 test portion-to-broth ratio had a better buffering capacity for blended tomatoes than a 1:1 test portion-to-broth ratio. It is recommended that the current whole soak BAM tomato sample preparation procedure be replaced with a blending procedure and a 1:3 test portion-to-broth ratio.

  2. Evaluation of internal contamination levels after a radiological dispersal device incident using portal monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, R C; Hertel, N E; Ansari, A; Manger, R P; Freibert, E J

    2012-08-01

    Following a radioactive dispersal device (RDD) incident, it may be necessary to evaluate the internal contamination levels of a large number of potentially affected individuals to determine if immediate medical follow-up is necessary. Since the current laboratory capacity to screen for internal contamination is limited, rapid field screening methods can be useful in prioritising individuals. This study evaluated the suitability of a radiation portal monitor for such screening. A model of the portal monitor was created for use with models of six anthropomorphic phantoms in Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5 (MCNP) X-5 Monte Carlo Team (MCNP-A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5. LA-CP-03-0245. Vol. 2. Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2004.). The count rates of the portal monitor were simulated for inhalation and ingestion of likely radionuclides from an RDD for each of the phantoms. The time-dependant organ concentrations of the radionuclides were determined using Dose and Risk Calculation Software Eckerman, Leggett, Cristy, Nelson, Ryman, Sjoreen and Ward (Dose and Risk Calculation Software Ver. 8.4. ORNL/TM-2001/190. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2006.). Portal monitor count rates corresponding to a committed effective dose E(50) of 10 mSv are reported.

  3. Sur le chemin de l’exil, de la “Retirada” à l’internement: chronique sur les républicains espagnols dans les camps de concentration français (première moitié du XXe siècle)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Gómez, María de los Angeles

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Personne n’ignore de nos jours que le XXe siècle a été l’une des périodes les plus actives quant aux migrations humaines. Des pays voisins tel que la France et l’Espagne, n’ont pas échappé à cette dynamique démographique, tous les deux ayant été victimes des conséquences des guerres, civile pour l’Espagne et mondiale pour l’Hexagone. La frontière physique et les liens socioéconomiques et politiques ont été déterminants pour définir les rôles de deux nations dans leurs ...

  4. Natural uranium toxicology - evaluation of internal contamination in man; Toxicologie de l'uranium naturel - essai d'evaluation de la contamination interne chez l'homme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalabreysse, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Pierrelatte (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    After reminding the physical and chemical properties of natural uranium which might affect its toxicology, a comprehensive investigation upon natural uranium metabolism and toxicity and after applying occupational exposure standards to this particular poison, it has been determined, from accident reports and human experience reported in the related literature, a series of formulae obtained by theoretical mathematical development giving principles for internal contamination monitoring and disclosure by determining uranium in the urine of occupationally exposed individuals. An assay is performed to determine individual internal contamination according to the various contamination cases. The outlined purposes, mainly practical, required some options and extrapolations. The proposed formula allows a preliminary approach and also to determine shortly a contamination extent or to discuss the systematical urinalysis results as compared with individual radio-toxicology monitoring professional standards. (author) [French] Apres le rappel des caracteristiques physiques et des proprietes chimiques de l'uranium naturel pouvant avoir une influence sur sa toxicologie, l'etude detaillee de son metabolisme et de sa toxicite, puis l'application des normes professionnelles d'exposition au cas particulier de ce toxique, il est etabli, a partir des comptes rendus d'accidents et de l'experimentation humaine rapportes dans la litterature, une serie de formules obtenues par developpement mathematique theorique qui posent les principes de la surveillance et de la mise en evidence de la contamination interne par la recherche et le dosage de l'uranium dans les urines d'individus professionnellement exposes. Un essai d'evaluation de la contamination interne individuelle suivant les differents cas de contamination est effectue. Le formulaire propose permet de faire une premiere approximation et d'apprecier rapidement l'importance d

  5. Le syndrome du canal carpien chez les patients hémodialysés chroniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbarki, Houda; Akrichi, Amine; Lazrak, Amine; Maaroufi, Chakib; Midaoui, Aouatif El; Tachfouti, Nabil; Jellouli, Wafa; Arrayhani, Mohamed; Belahsen, Mohamed Faouzi; Sqalli, Tarik

    2013-01-01

    Le syndrome du canal carpien (SCC) regroupe l'ensemble des signes et symptômes liés à la compression du nerf médian dans le canal carpien. Cette manifestation de l'amylose à béta2-microglobuline est une complication fréquente de l'hémodialyse au long cours. L'objectif de ce travail est d'analyser les caractéristiques du SCC et de déterminer les facteurs liés à sa survenue chez les hémodialysés chroniques. Nous rapportons une étude transversale monocentrique, menée au 3ème trimestre de l'année 2009, portant sur les patients adultes hémodialysés chroniques au service de Néphrologie-Hémodialyse au CHU de Fès. 59 patients ont accepté de participer à l'étude. Leurs âge moyen est de 48 ± 15 ans avec un sex-ratio de 0,9. Ils bénéficient tous de l'hémodialyse intermittente à raison de 10 à 12 heures par semaine, par une membrane de dialyse en polysulfone à basse perméabilité. La durée moyenne en hémodialyse est de 83 ± 6,5 mois. La prévalence du SCC dans notre centre est de 30,5%. L'électromyogramme (EMG) a confirmé la suspicion clinique du SCC chez 11 patients et a diagnostiqué un SCC chez 8 patients asymptomatiques. La comparaison statistique entre les deux groupes de patients avec et sans SCC a démontré que la survenue de ce syndrome est liée à: l'âge actuel, l'âge avancé à la mise en hémodialyse, le sexe féminin, l'excès pondéral, et l'abord vasculaire. Le SCC est une complication fréquente de l'hémodialyse chronique. L'amélioration de la qualité de dialyse permettrait de réduire le risque de survenue du SCC. PMID:23504584

  6. Use of dual-head gamma camera in radionuclide internal contamination monitoring on radiation workers from a nuclear medicine department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Brandan, M.E., E-mail: alejandro.rodriguez.laguna@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Instituto de Fisica; Trujillo-Zamudio, F.E.; Estrada-Lobato, E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    As a part of an internal dosimetry program that is performed at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology - Nuclear Medicine Department, in the present work we suggest a procedure for the routinely monitoring of internal contamination on radiation workers and nuclear medicine staff. The procedure is based on the identification and quantification of contaminating radionuclides in human body by using a dual-head whole-body gamma camera. The results have shown that the procedures described in this study can be used to implement a method to quantify minimal accumulated activity in the main human organs to evaluate internal contamination with radionuclides. The high sensitivity of the uncollimated gamma camera is advantageous for the routinely detection and identification of small activities of internal contamination. But, the null spatial resolution makes impossible the definition of contaminated region of interest. Then, the use of collimators is necessary to the quantification of incorporated radionuclides activities in the main human organs and for the internal doses assessment. (author)

  7. International Symposium On the Ecological Effects of Arctic Airborne Contaminants, held in Reykjavik, Iceland on October 4 - 8, 1993. Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-08

    AD-A269 955 0nal On The Ecological Effects of Arctic Airborne Contaminants Hotel Saga ’ Reykjavik, Iceland October 4-8, 1993 DT I C_ F. ELECTE...EDITIONS ARE OBSOLETE DEC 91 International Symposium On The Ecological Effects ofArctic Airborne Contaminants Accesion For Hotel Saga * Reykjavik, Iceland...foregoing effect might be most significant in the Arctic and Antarctic. Mt. McKinley in the twilight sky, taken from Fairbanks, Alaska, just below the

  8. Rôle des exotoxines de Staphylococcus aureus dans la rhinosinusite chronique

    OpenAIRE

    Stow, Nicholas W.

    2010-01-01

    Les exotoxines du staphylocoque doré (SD) pourraient être un facteur aggravant dans l'inflammation des muqueuses rhino-sinusiennes observées dans la rhino-sinusite chronique (RSC) avec polypose ethmoïdale. Nous avons effectué une étude prospective incluant 236 patients provenant de 5 grandes villes européennes. Les patients ont été divisés en 3 groupes : RSC sans polypose ethmoïdale, RSC avec polypose ethmoïdale et un groupe contrôle. Des prélèvements bactériologiques ont été effectués sous c...

  9. An immunogenic Salmonella ghost confers protection against internal organ colonization and egg contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawale, Chetan V; Lee, John Hwa

    2014-11-15

    The tightly regulated expression of the PhiX174 lysis gene E from a multi-copy plasmid led to the stable production of an Salmonella Enteritidis bacterial ghost. The present study was conducted to evaluate induction of the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses induced after single or double intramuscular immunization with the S. Enteritidis ghost and to assess its protective effect on colonization of the intestinal tract, visceral and reproductive organs, internal egg contamination, and egg production of laying chickens. A total of 60 chickens were equally divided into three groups (n=20); group A (non-immunized control), group B (immunized at 8 and 16 weeks of age) and group C (immunized at 16th week of age). Chickens from both immunized groups B and C demonstrated significant increases in plasma IgG, intestinal secretory IgA levels, and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative responses. The population of CD3+CD4+ positive T cells in the immunized chickens was also significantly increased after immunization and virulent challenge. In addition, the immunized groups B and C showed significantly higher egg production and a lower percentage of S. Enteritidis contaminated eggs after challenge compared to those of group A. A comparison of challenge strain isolation from the immunized-challenged and non-immunized-challenged layer hens showed that the double immunization group induced excellent protection against intestinal, liver, splenic, and ovarian Salmonella colonization; however, the single immunized chickens showed lower counts only in the splenic and ovarian organs. Overall, the data give compelling evidence that vaccination with the S. Enteritidis ghost induced robust protective immunity against experimental avian salmonellosis and may contribute to the reduce incidence of egg contamination.

  10. La traducció catalana (c. 1351 de les Grandes Chroniques de France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabré, Lluís

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reexamines Peter III and Prince John’s documentation (1339-1380 regarding the Grandes Chroniques de France. These documents are linked to a Catalan translation of the French historical compilation. This Catalan translation (ACA, Register 894 was carried out at the Royal Chancery shortly before 1351. Its extant folio belongs to a high-quality manuscript copy that was probably never completed. Its French original might be the copy Peter III owned by 1339 and lost by 1361. If this is the case, the French original manuscript would contain Primat’s Roman des rois and a continuation up until Philip the Bold (such as BnF, MS nouv. acq. fr. 1004. The Infant John may have asked Charles V for Pierre d’Orgemont’s update.Aquest treball reexamina la documentació (1339-1380 de Pere III i l’infant Joan referent a les Grandes Chroniques de France i la relaciona amb la traducció catalana, conservada fragmentàriament al registre 894 de l’ACA. La traducció es va executar poc abans de 1351 a la cancelleria reial; el foli conservat correspon a l’inici d’un exemplar de qualitat que no es devia acabar mai (vegeu-ne la reproducció i l’edició. És probable que l’original francès fos el que tenia Pere III el 1339 i havia extraviat el 1361. En aquest cas, es tractaria del Roman des rois de Primat amb una continuació fi ns a Felip l’Ardit (com la del ms. nouv. acq. fr. 10043 de la BnF; l’infant Joan ja podia demanar a Carles V l’actualització de Pierre d’Orgemont.

  11. Decontamination effectiveness of ferrocyanides in irradiated rats contaminated internally with radiocesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossakowski, S.; Dziura, A.; Grosicki, A. (National Veterinary Research Inst., Pulawy (Poland). Lab. of Radiological Protection and Isotopic Investigations)

    1991-01-01

    The experiment was performed on 192 Wistar rats irradiated with 154.5 mC kg{sup -1}. Thereafter, the animals were divided into 5 groups and were treated as follows: group I, controls, with Cs-137; groups II and III with Cs-137 followed by 2-fold administration of ferric ferrocyanide (FF) and ammonium ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF), respectively; groups IV and V with Cs-137 followed by 6-fold and 10-fold administration of FF and AFCF, respectively. Organ and muscle (16 samples) concentrations of Cs-137 in groups I-III were measured on days 1, 3, 5 and 7, and those of groups IV-V on day 7 after the contamination. The results indicated that in rats contaminated internally with Cs-137 one day post irradiation 2-fold treatment with FF and AFCF in the day resulted in a similar and significant decrease of Cs-137, whereas manyfold treatment (6 x or 10 x) with these agents did not increase their decontamination effectiveness. (orig.).

  12. Review of chemical and radiotoxicological properties of polonium for internal contamination purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansoborlo, Eric; Berard, Philippe; Den Auwer, Christophe; Leggett, Rich; Menetrier, Florence; Younes, Ali; Montavon, Gilles; Moisy, Philippe

    2012-08-20

    The discovery of polonium (Po) was first published in July, 1898 by P. Curie and M. Curie. It was the first element to be discovered by the radiochemical method. Polonium can be considered as a famous but neglected element: only a few studies of polonium chemistry have been published, mostly between 1950 and 1990. The recent (2006) event in which (210)Po evidently was used as a poison to kill A. Litvinenko has raised new interest in polonium. 2011 being the 100th anniversary of the Marie Curie Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the aim of this review is to look at the several aspects of polonium linked to its chemical properties and its radiotoxicity, including (i) its radiochemistry and interaction with matter; (ii) its main sources and uses; (iii) its physicochemical properties; (iv) its main analytical methods; (v) its background exposure risk in water, food, and other environmental media; (vi) its biokinetics and distribution following inhalation, ingestion, and wound contamination; (vii) its dosimetry; and (viii) treatments available (decorporation) in case of internal contamination.

  13. 2011 investigation of internal contamination with radioactive strontium following rubidium Rb 82 cardiac PET scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Satish K; Chang, Arthur; Murphy, Matthew W; Buzzell, Jennifer; Ansari, Armin; Whitcomb, Robert C; Miller, Charles; Jones, Robert; Saunders, David P; Cavicchia, Philip; Watkins, Sharon M; Blackmore, Carina; Williamson, John A; Stephens, Michael; Morrison, Melissa; McNees, James; Murphree, Rendi; Buchanan, Martha; Hogan, Anthony; Lando, James; Nambiar, Atmaram; Torso, Lauren; Melnic, Joseph M; Yang, Lucie; Lewis, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    During routine screening in 2011, US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) identified 2 persons with elevated radioactivity. CBP, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, informed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that these people could have increased radiation exposure as a result of undergoing cardiac Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans several months earlier with rubidium Rb 82 chloride injection from CardioGen-82. We conducted a multistate investigation to assess the potential extent and magnitude of radioactive strontium overexposure among patients who had undergone Rb 82 PET scans. We selected a convenience sample of clinical sites in 4 states and reviewed records to identify eligible study participants, defined as people who had had an Rb 82 PET scan between February and July 2011. All participants received direct radiation screening using a radioisotope identifier able to detect the gamma energy specific for strontium-85 (514 keV) and urine bioassay for excreted radioactive strontium. We referred a subset of participants with direct radiation screening counts above background readings for whole body counting (WBC) using a rank ordering of direct radiation screening. The rank order list, from highest to lowest, was used to contact and offer voluntary enrollment for WBC. Of 308 participants, 292 (95%) had direct radiation screening results indistinguishable from background radiation measurements; 261 of 265 (98%) participants with sufficient urine for analysis had radioactive strontium results below minimum detectable activity. None of the 23 participants who underwent WBC demonstrated elevated strontium activity above levels associated with routine use of the rubidium Rb 82 generator. Among investigation participants, we did not identify evidence of strontium internal contamination above permissible levels. This investigation might serve as a model for future investigations of radioactive internal contamination incidents.

  14. Higher Storage Temperature Causes Greater Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Internal Penetration of Artificially Contaminated, Commercially Available, Washed Free Range Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Alice; Fallowfield, Howard; Ross, Kirstin; McEvoy, Vanessa; Whiley, Harriet

    2016-07-01

    Foodborne salmonellosis is a major public health concern, with contaminated eggs identified as a significant source of infection. In Australia, the most prevalent cause of salmonellosis from eggs is Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. This study explored the effect of temperature after 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage on commercially available washed free range eggs, artificially contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium on the external surface. At each time point, the external surface of the egg, the crushed eggshell, and the internal egg yolk and albumen were analyzed for Salmonella. After 28 days of storage, 25% of eggs stored at 4°C, 50% of eggs stored at 14°C, and 100% of eggs stored at 23 and 35°C were internally contaminated with Salmonella. After 1 day of storage, more than 50% of all eggs had Salmonella present in the crushed shell after the external surface had been disinfected with ethanol. This is the first study to demonstrate that refrigeration reduced the potential for Salmonella Typhimurium to penetrate the eggshell membrane and internally contaminate table eggs commercially available in Australia. It also suggests that the processes of cracking eggs may be a source of cross-contamination within the kitchen.

  15. GEOTRACES: An international marine chemistry programme studying micronutrient cycles, contaminants and paleoproxy calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gideon; Anderson, Bob

    2010-05-01

    A number of trace elements are critical for marine life and therefore influence the functioning of ocean ecosystems and the global carbon cycle. Some trace elements are also of concern as anthropogenic contaminants while others, together with a diverse array of isotopes, are used to assess modern ocean processes and the role of the ocean in past climate change. Despite the recognised importance of these trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, our understanding of their marine biogeochemical cycles remains sparse. Recent advances in our ability to sample the ocean cleanly and to make rapid and precise measurements of low-concentration constituents of seawater now enable a dramatic step forward in understanding. GEOTRACES is an international programme that aims to make this advance. Full details of the programme are available at http://www.geotraces.org. In this presentation we will briefly summarize the scientific goals that motivate GEOTRACES, but also describe the processes of setting up the programme, its infrastructure, and the opportunities for collaboration between GEOTRACES and other programmes. The programme started through a bottom-up process of scientific discussion at international meetings. Planning and writing of the Science Plan proceeded under sponsorship from SCOR (Scientific Committee on Ocean Research) and European activities have more recently been co-ordinated through an ESF COST Action (see http://costaction.earth.ox.ac.uk for details). A number of workshops, including one focused on Arctic activities, set out plans for international implementation of the Science Plan involving more than 20 major ocean sections. Initial field work was conducted during IPY and generated exciting new discovery. Other early work has concentrated on enabling activities: setting up a data management system (http://www.bodc.ac.uk/geotraces/); a rigorous measurement intercalibration programme; opening of an International Project Office in Toulouse, and engagement of

  16. Internal contamination by actinides after wounding: a robust rodent model for assessment of local and distant actinide retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, N M; Wilk, J C; Abram, M C; Renault, D; Chau, Q; Helfer, N; Guichet, C; Van der Meeren, A

    2012-08-01

    Internal contamination by actinides following wounding may occur in nuclear fuel industry workers or subsequent to terrorist activities, causing dissemination of radioactive elements. Contamination by alpha particle emitting actinides can result in pathological effects, either local or distant from the site of entry. The objective of the present study was to develop a robust experimental approach in the rat for short- and long- term actinide contamination following wounding by incision of the skin and muscles of the hind limb. Anesthetized rats were contaminated with Mixed OXide (MOX, uranium, plutonium oxides containing 7.1% plutonium) or plutonium nitrate (Pu nitrate) following wounding by deep incision of the hind leg. Actinide excretion and tissue levels were measured as well as histological changes from 2 h to 3 mo. Humid swabs were used for rapid evaluation of contamination levels and proved to be an initial guide for contamination levels. Although the activity transferred from wound to blood is higher after contamination with a moderately soluble form of plutonium (nitrate), at 7 d most of the MOX (98%) or Pu nitrate (87%) was retained at the wound site. Rapid actinide retention in liver and bone was observed within 24 h, which increased up to 3 mo. After MOX contamination, a more rapid initial urinary excretion of americium was observed compared with plutonium. At 3 mo, around 95% of activity remained at the wound site, and excretion of Pu and Am was extremely low. This experimental approach could be applied to other situations involving contamination following wounding including rupture of the dermal, vascular, and muscle barriers.

  17. CRÔNICA DO QUOTIDIANO JUVENIL URBANO EM CHRONIQUE D’UN ÉTÉ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José RIBEIRO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O filme de Jean Rouch e Edgar Morin, Chronique d’un Été, realizado no início dos anos de 1960, coloca uma série de questões no campo da antropologia, da sociologia e do cinema. Em primeiro lugar constitui um trabalho de referência da passagem da etnografia dos povos longínquos e culturas exóticas para a etnografia do quotidiano juvenil urbano. Dá continuidade ao Cinema Vérité de Dziga Vertov quer no referente à atualização da metodologia decorrente da transformação tecnológica – som direto e síncrono, quer em relação à temática – a cidade e o cinema são os temas centrais. Chronique d’un Été, um filme de palavras, constitui-se como inquérito sociológico ou sócio antropológico, levantando toda uma séria de problemas epistemológicos decorrentes da transposição para a plano da realização cinematográfica de questões fundamentais que continuam em debate na sociologia contemporânea como o valor metodológico das entrevistas, das entrevistas clínicas não diretivas ou semi-diretivas como meio de acesso ao conhecimento da realidade humana. A reflexividade constitui um terceiro ponto que marca este filme dando continuidade ao cinema verdade, como é denominado por Edgar Morin. Propomo-nos analisar, no filme referido e no material filmado que não fez parte da versão final, os procedimentos de realização e montagem e a influência da obra de Jean Rouch no cinema e na antropologia visual e prestar atenção às principais marcas da passagem de Homem da Câmara de Filmar ao filme de Rouch e Morin. Este trabalho resulta de anteriores publicações e da pesquisa realizada no Grupo de Investigação Media e Mediações Culturais do Centro de Estudos das Migrações e das Relações Interculturais da Universidade Aberta de Portugal.

  18. Medical effects of internal contamination with actinides: further controversy on depleted uranium and radioactive warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durakovic, Asaf

    2016-05-01

    The Nuclear Age began in 1945 with testing in New Mexico, USA, and the subsequent bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Regardless of attempts to limit the development of nuclear weapons, the current world arsenal has reached the staggering dimensions and presents a significant concern for the biosphere and mankind. In an explosion of a nuclear weapon, over 400 radioactive isotopes are released into the biosphere, 40 of which pose potential dangers including iodine, cesium, alkaline earths, and actinides. The immediate health effects of nuclear explosions include thermal, mechanical, and acute radiation syndrome. Long-term effects include radioactive fallout, internal contamination, and long-term genotoxicity. The current controversial concern over depleted uranium's somatic and genetic toxicity is still a subject of worldwide sustained research. The host of data generated in the past decades has demonstrated conflicting findings, with the most recent evidence showing that its genotoxicity is greater than previously considered. Of particular concern are the osteotropic properties of uranium isotopes due to their final retention in the crystals of exchangeable and nonexchangeable bone as well as their proximity to pluripotent stem cells. Depleted uranium remains an unresolved issue in both warfare and the search for alternative energy sources.

  19. The French concept of "psychose hallucinatoire chronique" -a preliminary form of schizophrenia? The role of late-life psychosis in the anticipation hypothesis of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubertret, C; Gorwood, P

    2001-12-01

    The distinction between schizophrenia and chronic delusional syndromes (including the French concept of "psychose hallucinatoire chronique" [PHC] or chronic psychotic hallucinations, paraphrenia, and late paraphrenia) is currently used in various European countries, although there are no international criteria for chronic and bizarre delusions. The French concept of PHC is characterized by late-onset psychosis, predominantly in females, with rich and frequent hallucinations, but almost no dissociative features or negative symptoms. PHC and late-onset schizophrenia may have risk factors in common, which may help differentiate these disorders from young-onset schizophrenia, especially with regard to the potential role of (i) the estradiol hypothesis; (ii) the impact of sensory deficit; (Hi) putative specific brain abnormalities; or (iv) specific genetic mutations. In accordance with this hypothesis, and taking into account the familial aggregation analyses of PHC, here we evaluate the possibility that PHC represents a less severe form of schizophrenia, which would partly explain the "Sherman paradox" also observed in schizophrenia. The Sherman paradox describes the fact that multiplex families frequently have only one affected ascendant, meaning that an isolated sporadic case is at the origin of a highly loaded family. We thus propose that if unstable mutations are involved in the risk for schizophrenia, then PHC might represent a moderate disorder belonging to the schizophrenia spectrum phenotype.

  20. Trace Contaminant Control for the International Space Station's Node 1- Analysis, Design, and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Trace chemical contaminant generation inside crewed spacecraft cabins is a technical and medical problem that must be continuously evaluated. Although passive control through materials selection and active control by adsorption and catalytic oxidation devices is employed during normal operations of a spacecraft, contaminant buildup can still become a problem. Buildup is particularly troublesome during the stages between the final closure of a spacecraft during ground processing and the time that a crewmember enters for the first time during the mission. Typically, the elapsed time between preflight closure and first entry on orbit for spacecraft such as Spacelab modules was 30 days. During that time, the active contamination control systems are not activated and contaminants can potentially build up to levels which exceed the spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) specified by NASA toxicology experts. To prevent excessively high contamination levels at crew entry, the Spacelab active contamination control system was operated for 53 hours just before launch.

  1. Clinical and etiopathogenic specificities of the French concept of psychose hallucinatoire chronique compared to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubertret, Caroline; Adès, Jean; Gorwood, Philip

    2004-01-01

    The French concept of psychose hallucinatoire chronique (PHC) is characterized by late-onset psychosis, occurring predominantly in females. Symptoms are rich and frequent hallucinations but almost no dissociative features or negative symptoms. This diagnosis is classified among schizophrenia disorders (paranoid type) according to DSM-IV. PHC may also describe a group of patients with original clinical presentation and etiopathogenic factors. We compared 38 female PHC patients with two groups of female schizophrenia patients, matched for age at interview for the first group (n = 35), and duration of the disorder for the second group (n = 36). PHC subjects were relatively older patients with homogeneous clinical features characterized by predominantly positive symptoms without deterioration and fewer relatives with schizophrenia than schizophrenia patients. This first controlled study underscores clinical, phenomenological, and possibly etiopathogenic factors that characterized the PHC patients, even when the impact of late onset and late age at interview were taken into account. This study provides evidence that PHC may be a possible diagnosis in clinical practice, although it is difficult to reach a conclusion on its relationship with schizophrenia.

  2. Effects of Surfactant Contamination on the Next Generation Gas Trap for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Lukens, Clark; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2004-01-01

    The current dual-membrane gas trap is designed to remove non-condensed gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). To date it has successfully served its purpose of preventing gas bubbles from causing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. However, contamination in the ITCS coolant has adversely affected the gas venting rate and lifetime of the gas trap, warranting a development effort for a next-generation gas trap. Previous testing has shown that a hydrophobic-only design is capable of performing even better than the current dual-membrane design for both steady-state gas removal and gas slug removal in clean deionized water. This paper presents results of testing to evaluate the effects of surfactant contamination on the steady-state performance of the hydrophobic-only design.

  3. Le sujet âgé en hémodialyse chronique: expérience d'un centre hospitalier marocain

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Ilham; Benabdellah, Nawal; Bentata, Yassamine; Haddiya, Intissar

    2013-01-01

    De plus en plus de patients âgés sont pris en charge en hémodialyse chronique. L'augmentation de l'incidence de la maladie rénale chronique, du diabète et l'amélioration de la survie cardio-vasculaire expliquent en grande partie ce constat. Les conséquences de la prise en charge de ces patients âgés en en hémodialyse chronique sont multiples. Elles sont dominées par les comorbidités et les troubles d'autonomie. Le but de notre étude est de décrire le profil épidémiologique et clinique des pat...

  4. Hypotension artérielle intra dialytique chez un hémodialysé chronique révélatrice d'insuffisance antéhypophysaires

    OpenAIRE

    El Maghraoui, Jaouad; Ouahabi, Hanane; Kabbali, Nadia; Arrayhani, Mohamed; Ajdi, Farida; Houssaini, Tariq Sqalli

    2016-01-01

    L'hypotension artérielle per dialytique est une complication fréquente chez l'hémodialysé chronique. Elle est occasionnée par des facteurs liés à la séance d'hémodialyse et/ou au patient. Nous rapportons le cas d'un patient âgé de 42 ans, hémodialysé chronique sur néphropathie lithiasique depuis 5 ans. Il a rapporté des céphalées chroniques atypiques, compliquées d'une baisse progressive de l'acuité visuelle, une asthénie, une hypertrophie mammaire, et une baisse de libido. Il est référé pour...

  5. Reduction of high levels of internal radio-contamination by dietary intervention in residents of areas affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant disaster: a case series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Tsubokura

    Full Text Available Maintaining low levels of chronic internal contamination among residents in radiation-contaminated areas after a nuclear disaster is a great public health concern. However, the efficacy of reduction measures for individual internal contamination remains unknown. To reduce high levels of internal radiation exposure in a group of individuals exposed through environmental sources, we performed careful dietary intervention with identification of suspected contaminated foods, as part of mass voluntary radiation contamination screenings and counseling program in Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital and Hirata Central Hospital. From a total of 30,622 study participants, only 9 residents displayed internal cesium-137 (Cs-137 levels of more than 50 Bq/kg. The median level of internal Cs-137 contamination in these residents at the initial screening was 4,830 Bq/body (range: 2,130-15,918 Bq/body and 69.6 Bq/kg (range: 50.7-216.3 Bq/kg. All these residents with high levels of internal contamination consumed homegrown produce without radiation inspection, and often collected mushrooms in the wild or cultivated them on bed-logs in their homes. They were advised to consume distributed food mainly and to refrain from consuming potentially contaminated foods without radiation inspection and local produces under shipment restrictions such as mushrooms, mountain vegetables, and meat of wild life. A few months after the intervention, re-examination of Cs levels revealed remarkable reduction of internal contamination in all residents. Although the levels of internal radiation exposure appear to be minimal amongst most residents in Fukushima, a subset of the population, who unknowingly consumed highly contaminated foodstuffs, experienced high levels of internal contamination. There seem to be similarities in dietary preferences amongst residents with high internal contamination levels, and intervention based on pre- and post-test counseling and dietary advice from

  6. Les dysthyroïdies chez l’hémodialysé chronique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najoua Zbiti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Les dysthyroïdies chez l’hémodialysé chronique sont représentées par une hypothyroïdie: dite le syndrome de basse T3, actuellement nommée "le syndrome de la maladie euthyroïdienne". L’objectif de notre travail est de déterminer le profil thyroïdien de nos HDC afin de préciser la prévalence des différents troubles thyroïdiens dans notre population et de dégager les facteurs prédictifs, aussi on a précisé l’évolution sur une période de 3 ans. METHODES: Il s’agit d’une étude rétrospective réalisée en Mars 2007 concernant 68 patients adultes en hémodialyse périodique. Nous avons analysé les paramètres anthropométriques, cliniques et biologiques. Le dosage des hormones thyroïdiennes ((triiodothyronine libre FT3, (thyroxine libre FT4 et (thyréostimuline ultra-sensible TSHus s’est effectué selon la méthode radio-immunologique. Nous avons comparé 2 groupes de patients avec et sans dysthyroïdie (définie par un taux anormal de FT3 et/ou de FT4 et/ou de TSH afin de dégager les facteurs de risque. On a réalisé une surveillance biologique des hormones thyroïdiennes pendant 3 ans afin de préciser l’incidence des différents troubles thyroïdiens dans la même population. RESULTATS: Tous les patients sont en euthyroïdie clinique. On n’a noté aucun cas de goitre. Le profil thyroïdien est caractérisé par une hypothyroïdie biologique, la prévalence était de 28%. Nous n'avons pas trouvé des cas d'hyperthyroïdie. L'étude comparative des deux groupes de malades biologiquement euthyroïdiens et hypothyroïdiens a révèle le syndrome inflammatoire (p=0.001, l’âge avancé (p=0.003, et la durée prolongée en hémodialyse (p=0.04 comme des facteurs de risque liés à l’hypothyroïdie biologique. Deux HDC ont nécessité un traitement hormonal substitutif vu le contexte du diabète dans un cas et de la grossesse dans l’autre cas. Le suivi biologique pendant trois ans n’a r

  7. L'otite moyenne chronique cholestéatomateuse de l'enfant: à propos de 30 cas

    OpenAIRE

    Touati, Mohamed Mliha; Darouassi, Youssef; Chihani, Mehdi; Bouaity, Brahim; Ammar, Haddou

    2015-01-01

    Le cholstéatome de l'oreille moyenne est une otite chronique qualifiée de dangereuse en raison de ses risques évolutifs et de ses complications potentiellement graves pouvant mettre en jeu le pronostic vital. L’évolution du cholestèatome est sensiblement différente entre l'adulte et l'enfant, avec une agressivité particulière des cholestèatomes pédiatriques nécessitant ainsi une prise en charge adéquate. Le but de notre travail est d'analyser à travers une revue bibliographique les particular...

  8. Les maladies chroniques non transmissibles chez les militaires sénégalais: étude transversale en 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Ndiaye Abdoul; Mohamed, Seck Sidy; Badara, Tall Alioune; Boubacar, Gueye; Gallo, Sow Papa; Awa, Gaye; Anta, Tal-Dia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Les maladies chroniques non transmissibles (MCNT) constituent un problème de santé publique. La transition épidémiologique coexiste avec les maladies infectieuses. En Afrique subsaharienne, leur ampleur est peu connue et l'OMS recommande aux pays à faible et moyen revenu de réaliser des enquêtes STEPS portant sur les comportements, des mesures physiques et biochimiques. L'absence de données au niveau national justifie cette étude auprès d'un groupe spécifique. L'objectif de l’étu...

  9. Caesium 137: Properties and biological effects resulting of an internal contamination;Cesium 137: proprietes et effets biologiques apres contamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestaevel, P.; Racine, R.; Bensoussan, H.; Rouas, C.; Gueguen, Y.; Dublineau, I.; Bertho, J.M.; Gourmelon, P.; Jourdain, J.R.; Souidi, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, laboratoire de radiotoxicologie experimentale, direction de la radioprotection de l' homme, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2010-02-15

    Caesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is a radionuclide present in the environment mainly as the result of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and accidents arising in nuclear power plants like the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Nowadays, the health consequences resulting from a chronic exposure to this radionuclide remain unknown. After absorption, the caesium is distributed relatively homogeneously within the body, with a more important load in children than in adults. The toxicity of {sup 137}Cs is mainly due to its radiological properties. A high dose of {sup 137}Cs is responsible for a medullar dystrophy, disorders of the reproductive function, and effects on liver and renal functions. Disorders of bone mineralization and brain damages were also described in human beings. At lowest dose, {sup 137}Cs induces disturbances of wakefulness-sleep cycle, but not accompanied with behavioural disorders. The cardiovascular system was also perturbed. Biological effects of {sup 137}Cs on the metabolisms of the vitamin D, cholesterol and steroid hormones were described, but do not lead to clinical symptoms. In human beings, {sup 137}Cs leads to an immune deficiency, congenital and foetal deformations, an increased of thyroid cancer, as well as neurological disorders. It seems that children are more sensitive to the toxic effects of caesium than the adults. At present, the only effective treatment for the decorporation of the ingested {sup 137}Cs is the Prussian Blue (Radiogardase). The use of pectin to de-corporate the ingested {sup 137}Cs, in children notably, is sometimes proposed, but its administration still remains an open question. To conclude, the available scientific data suggest that {sup 137}Cs could affect a number of physiological and metabolic functions and consequently, could participate in the health risks associated to the presence of other contaminants in the environment. (authors)

  10. L'otite moyenne chronique cholestéatomateuse de l'enfant: à propos de 30 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Mohamed Mliha; Darouassi, Youssef; Chihani, Mehdi; Bouaity, Brahim; Ammar, Haddou

    2015-01-01

    Le cholstéatome de l'oreille moyenne est une otite chronique qualifiée de dangereuse en raison de ses risques évolutifs et de ses complications potentiellement graves pouvant mettre en jeu le pronostic vital. L’évolution du cholestèatome est sensiblement différente entre l'adulte et l'enfant, avec une agressivité particulière des cholestèatomes pédiatriques nécessitant ainsi une prise en charge adéquate. Le but de notre travail est d'analyser à travers une revue bibliographique les particularités des otites moyennes chroniques cholestèatomateuses chez 30 enfants pris en charge dans le service d'oto-rhino-laryngologie de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech. Le traitement est exclusivement chirurgical, actuellement, la plupart des auteurs optent pour l'utilisation d'une technique fermée en première intention chez l'enfant PMID:26401218

  11. Sommes et chroniques castillanes du xive siècle. Une historiographie ignorée ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Jardin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Les trois textes dont nous proposons ici l’édition critique (Somme de vertueux désir, Chronique des rois et des empereurs, Sommaire ou chronique des rois d’Espagne de Pélage à Ferdinand IV sont un échantillon représentatif des formes brèves de l’historiographie castillane du XIVe siècle. Mêlant de nombreuses sources très diverses, ces œuvres possèdent, en marge de l’historiographie royale « officielle », une originalité qui justifie amplement que l’on s’intéresse à elles.Los tres textos cuya édición crítica se propone aquí (Suma de virtuoso deseo, Corónica de los reyes e emperadores, Sumario o crónica de los reyes de España desde don Pelayo hasta don Fernando IV son un botón de muestra representativo de las formas breves de la historiografía castellana del siglo XIV. Mezclando estas obras numerosas fuentes muy diversas, poseen, al margen de la historiografía regia “oficial”, una originalidad que justifica ampliamente que nos interesemos por ellas.

  12. Oral bioaccessibility of toxic metals in contaminated oysters and relationships with metal internal sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shi; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-12-01

    The Hong Kong oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis are widely farmed in the estuarine waters of Southern China, but they accumulate Cu and Zn to alarmingly high concentrations in the soft tissues. Health risks of seafood consumption are related to contaminants such as toxic metals which are bioaccessible to humans. In the present study, we investigated the oral bioaccessibility of five toxic metals (Ag, Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn) in contaminated oysters collected from different locations of a large estuary in southern China. In all oysters, total Zn concentration was the highest whereas total Pb concentration was the lowest. Among the five metals, Ag had the lowest oral bioaccessibility (38.9-60.8%), whereas Cu and Zn had the highest bioaccessibility (72.3-93.1%). Significant negative correlation was observed between metal bioaccessibility and metal concentration in the oysters for Ag, Cd, and Cu. We found that the oral bioaccessibility of the five metals was positively correlated with their trophically available metal fraction (TAM) in the oyster tissues, and negatively correlated with metal distribution in the cellular debris. Thus, metal partitioning in the TAM and cellular debris controlled the oral bioaccessibility to humans. Given the dependence of oral bioaccessibility on tissue metal contamination, bioaccessibility needs to be incorporated in the risk assessments of contaminated shellfish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial distribution and internal metal concentrations of terrestrial arthropods in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, Aafke M. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.schipper@science.ru.nl; Wijnhoven, Sander [Centre for Sustainable Management of Resources, Institute for Science, Innovation and Society, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Centre for Estuarine and Marine Ecology, Monitor Taskforce, P.O. Box 140, 4400 AC Yerseke (Netherlands); Leuven, Rob S.E.W.; Ragas, Ad M.J.; Jan Hendriks, A. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    Soil metal concentrations, inundation characteristics and abundances of 14 arthropod taxa were investigated in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River and compared to the hinterland. Internal metal concentrations were determined for the orders of Coleoptera (beetles) and Araneida (spiders) and were related to soil concentrations. The floodplain was characterized by larger arthropod abundance than the hinterland, in spite of recurrent inundations and higher soil metal concentrations. Most arthropod taxa showed increasing abundance with decreasing distance to the river channel and increasing average inundation duration. For Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, significant relations were found between arthropod concentrations and concentrations in soil. Significant relations were few but positive, indicating that increasing soil concentrations result in increasing body burdens in arthropods. For arthropod-eating vertebrates, these results might imply that larger prey availability in the floodplain coincides with higher metal concentrations in prey, possibly leading to increased exposure to metal contamination. - Recurrent floodplain inundations affect terrestrial arthropod numbers and metal contamination levels.

  14. Discriminating Gene Expression Signature of Radiation-Induced Thyroid Tumors after Either External Exposure or Internal Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Chevillard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Both external radiation exposure and internal radionuclide contamination are well known risk factors in the development of thyroid epithelial tumors. The identification of specific molecular markers deregulated in radiation-induced thyroid tumors is important for the etiological diagnosis since neither histological features nor genetic alterations can discriminate between sporadic and radiation-induced tumors. Identification of highly discriminating markers in radiation-induced tumors is challenging as it relies on the ability to identify marker deregulation which is associated with a cellular stress that occurred many years before in the thyroid cells. The existence of such a signature is still controversial, as it was not found in several studies while a highly discriminating signature was found in both post-radiotherapy and post-Chernobyl series in other studies. Overall, published studies searching for radiation-induced thyroid tumor specificities, using transcriptomic, proteomic and comparative genomic hybridization approaches, and bearing in mind the analytical constraints required to analyze such small series of tumors, suggest that such a molecular signature could be found. In comparison with sporadic tumors, we highlight molecular similarities and specificities in tumors occurring after high-dose external radiation exposure, such as radiotherapy, and in post-Chernobyl tumors that occurred after internal 131I contamination. We discuss the relevance of signature extrapolation from series of tumors developing after high and low doses in the identification of tumors induced at very low doses of radiation.

  15. Discriminating gene expression signature of radiation-induced thyroid tumors after either external exposure or internal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory, Catherine; Ugolin, Nicolas; Schlumberger, Martin; Hofman, Paul; Chevillard, Sylvie

    2011-12-21

    Both external radiation exposure and internal radionuclide contamination are well known risk factors in the development of thyroid epithelial tumors. The identification of specific molecular markers deregulated in radiation-induced thyroid tumors is important for the etiological diagnosis since neither histological features nor genetic alterations can discriminate between sporadic and radiation-induced tumors. Identification of highly discriminating markers in radiation-induced tumors is challenging as it relies on the ability to identify marker deregulation which is associated with a cellular stress that occurred many years before in the thyroid cells. The existence of such a signature is still controversial, as it was not found in several studies while a highly discriminating signature was found in both post-radiotherapy and post-Chernobyl series in other studies. Overall, published studies searching for radiation-induced thyroid tumor specificities, using transcriptomic, proteomic and comparative genomic hybridization approaches, and bearing in mind the analytical constraints required to analyze such small series of tumors, suggest that such a molecular signature could be found. In comparison with sporadic tumors, we highlight molecular similarities and specificities in tumors occurring after high-dose external radiation exposure, such as radiotherapy, and in post-Chernobyl tumors that occurred after internal 131I contamination. We discuss the relevance of signature extrapolation from series of tumors developing after high and low doses in the identification of tumors induced at very low doses of radiation.

  16. Profil épidémio-clinique des atteintes dermatologiques chez le noir Africain en hémodialyse chronique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouotou, Emmanuel Armand; Folefack, François Kaze; Tatsa, Joël Tameyi; Sieleunou, Isidore; Njingang, Jobert Richie Nansseu; Ashuntantang, Gloria; Bissek, Anne-Cécile Zoung-Kanyi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Les manifestations dermatologiques sont fréquentes chez les hémodialysés chroniques et traduiraient une atteinte systémique. Notre objectif était de déterminer le profil épidémio-clinique sur peau noire à Yaoundé au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s’agissait d’une étude transversale, menée de Février à Mai 2014 dans les deux centres d’hémodialyse de Yaoundé, incluant tout hémodialysé chronique depuis au moins 3 mois, et chez qui étaient conduits un interrogatoire et un examen dermatologique. Les tests de Chi carré et t de Student (ou équivalents) ont été utilisés pour l’analyse statistique, avec le seuil de signification fixé à pdialyse de 46,3 ± 37 mois étaient recrutés. Les lésions dermatologiques étaient présentes chez 94 (83,9%) patients. La xérose cutanée (63,3%), le prurit (37,5%), la mélanodermie (34,8%), l’acné (12,5%) et les ongles équi-segmentés (10,7%) étaient les principales manifestations dermatologiques. La xérose était associée à l’anurie (p=0,0001) et à l’âge avancé (p=0,032) ; la mélanodermie à l’anurie (p=0,042) et à l’ancienneté en dialyse (p=0,027) alors que les ongles équi-segmentés étaient associés au jeune âge (p=0,018) et aux dialyses bihebdomadaires (p=0,01). Conclusion Les atteintes dermatologiques sont fréquentes et dominées par la xérose, le prurit et la mélanodermie chez l’hémodialysé chronique à Yaoundé. La sous dialyse, l’âge avancé, l’anurie et l’ancienneté en dialyse étaient les facteurs associés. PMID:28292104

  17. Evaluation du niveau d'activité physique dans un service Marocain d'hémodialyse chronique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ilham; Benabdellah, Nawal; Bentata, Yassamine; Yacoubi, Hicham; Haddiya, Intissar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'activité physique est souvent réduite chez le patient hémodialysé chronique. Plusieurs études ont montré l'intérêt du maintien ou de la reprise d'une activité physique sur l’état de santé des patients. Le but de notre travail est d'analyser le niveau d'activité physique chez nos patients hémodialysé chronique. Méthodes Nous avons réalisé une étude transversale au centre d'hémodialyse de l'hôpital Al Farabi d'Oujda. Nous avons évalué l'activité physique de nos patients à l'aide du Questionnaire de Baecke traduit en dialectal Marocain et adapté au contexte socioculturel Marocain. Nous avons relevé les paramètres démographiques et clinico-biologiques ainsi que le niveau d'activité physique. L'analyse statistique est réalisée par le logiciel SPSS 11.5. Résultats Notre étude a inclus 83 patients. L’âge moyen était de 47,3±13,2 ans, avec une prédominance masculine. 15,6% déclarent n'avoir aucune activité physique. 68% des patients rapportent des difficultés à effectuer des efforts physiques importants (courir, soulever un objet lourd). 16,4% des patients déclarent avoir une activité physique et sportive régulière (marche, foot-ball etc..). La diminution de l'activité physique est corrélée de façon significative à l’âge avancée, l'indice de masse corporelle bas, l'ancienneté en hémodialyse et les affections cardio-vasculaires. Conclusion Un programme d'activité physique adapté à notre population d'hémodialysés et élaboré en concertation pluridisciplinaire (cardiologues, orthopédistes, rhumatologues, kinésithérapeutes) paraît intéressant dans le cadre d'une prise en charge globale du patient hémodialysé chronique. PMID:24198881

  18. Analyse de L'université et les TIC – Chronique d'une innovation annoncée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Uebersfeld

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Date de réception et d'acceptation : octobre 2010. 1. Champ couvert par l'ouvrage L'ouvrage, comme l'indique son sous-titre, se présente comme une chronique de l'introduction des TIC (technologies de l'information et de la communication dans l'enseignement universitaire. On remarquera d'emblée que, même si le titre est très général, il faut entendre qu'il s'agit d'analyser des expériences s'organisant dans le cadre précis du Ruca (réseau universitaire des centres d'autoformation et des proj...

  19. Apport des ondes de choc dans le traitement kinésithérapeutique des fasciites plantaires chroniques

    OpenAIRE

    Lienard, Marie; Hasard, Anne; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Kaux, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : La littérature est encore assez contradictoire concernant les effets de la thérapie par ondes de choc radiales appliquées aux fasciites plantaires. L’objet de notre étude est d’évaluer l’efficacité de la thérapie par ondes de choc ajoutée à un traitement de kinésithérapie classique dans la prise en charge des fasciites plantaires chroniques. MATERIEL ET METHODE : Au départ d’une population de 22 sujets, nous avons formé deux groupes de manière randomisée : le groupe E qui a...

  20. Towards internationally acceptable standards for food additives and contaminants based on the use of risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huggett, A.; Petersen, B.J.; Walker, R.; Fisher, C.E.; Notermans, S.H.W.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abbott, P.; Debackere, M.; Hathaway, S.C.; Hecker, E.F.F.; Knaap, A.G.A.; Kuznesof, P.M.; Meyland, I.; Moy, G.; Narbonne, J.-F.; Paakkanen, J.; Smith, M.R.; Tennant, D.; Wagstaffe, P.; Wargo, J.; Würtzen, G.

    1998-01-01

    Internationally acceptable norms need to incorporate sound science and consistent risk management principles in an open and transparent manner, as set out in the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). The process of risk analysis provides a procedure

  1. Le sujet âgé en hémodialyse chronique: expérience d'un centre hospitalier marocain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ilham; Benabdellah, Nawal; Bentata, Yassamine; Haddiya, Intissar

    2013-01-01

    De plus en plus de patients âgés sont pris en charge en hémodialyse chronique. L'augmentation de l'incidence de la maladie rénale chronique, du diabète et l'amélioration de la survie cardio-vasculaire expliquent en grande partie ce constat. Les conséquences de la prise en charge de ces patients âgés en en hémodialyse chronique sont multiples. Elles sont dominées par les comorbidités et les troubles d'autonomie. Le but de notre étude est de décrire le profil épidémiologique et clinique des patients âgés traités par HDC dans notre centre. Nous avons réalisé une étude transversale, en Novembre 2011, incluant tous les patients hémodialysés chroniques de l'Hôpital Al Farabi d'Oujda, dans la région de l'Oriental Marocain. Nous avons analysé chez les patients âgés de 65 ans et plus les paramètres démographiques, clinico-biologiques et dialytiques. L'analyse statistique est réalisée par le logiciel SPSS 17,0. Parmi 94 patients hémodialysés chroniques actuellement pris en charge dans notre centre, 31patients sont âgés de 65 ans et plus (32,9%). La néphropathie causale était diabétique dans 6,4% des cas, vasculaire dans 19,35% des cas, et glomérulaire dans 20% des cas. Les comorbidités sont observées chez 65% de ces patients. 29% de patients avaient une comorbidité cardiovasculaire, 55% étaient hypertendus, alors que 6,4% avaient des troubles cognitifs. Les sujets âgés en hémodialyse chronique représentent une population de patients fragiles. Ils nécessitent une surveillance particulière et régulière afin de prévenir certaines complications propres au sujet âgé et améliorer ainsi leur qualité de vie. PMID:24009801

  2. Contaminations of inner surface of magnesium fluoride windows in the `Expose-R' experiment on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurat, V. E.

    2017-10-01

    A series of experiments was carried out previously on board of the International Space Station in `EXPOSE-R', a multi-user expose facility, provided by European Space Agency attached to the external surface of the Russian Segment. In one experiment, spores of microorganisms and species of higher plant seeds, in heat-sealed polymer bags were irradiated by solar radiation passed through MgF2 windows in a high space vacuum. After sample exposure, it was found that in many cases the inner surfaces of windows were contaminated. Analysis of the contamination revealed the presence of chemical groups CH2, CH3, NH, OH, C═O, Si-CH3 (Demets et al. in 2015). Their presence in deposits was explained by photofixation of gaseous precursors - some of the vapours of glues and additives in polymeric materials in the core facility of `Expose-R'. Carbon-, oxygen- and silicon-containing groups may be deposited from outer intrinsic atmosphere. This atmosphere is connected with sample compartments and core facility. However, the presence of NH groups on inner surfaces of windows was not expected. This paper shows that the process responsible for carbon-, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing group formation can be a photopolymerization of caprolactam, which is released from the outer Nylon 6 layer of polymer bags under Solar vacuum ultraviolet radiation.

  3. Internal dose assessment due to large area contamination: Main lessons drawn from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrasi, A. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-03-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 beside its serious and tragic consequences provided also an excellent opportunity to check, test and validate all kind of environmental models and calculation tools which were available in the emergency preparedness systems of different countries. Assessment of internal and external doses due to the accident has been carried out for the population all over Europe using different methods. Dose predictions based on environmental model calculation considering various pathways have been compared with those obtained by more direct monitoring methods. One study from Hungary and one from the TAEA is presented shortly. (orig./DG)

  4. La baisse de la densité osseuse au cours des maladies inflammatoires chroniques de l'intestin: prévalence et facteurs de risqué

    OpenAIRE

    Trabelsi, Aida Ben Slama; Abdellaoui, Faouzi; Ksiaa, Mehdi; Souguir, Ahlem; Zeglaoui, Hela; Rejeb, Mohamed Ben; Brahem, Ahlem; Ajmi, Salem; Jmaa, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Introduction La baisse de la densité minérale osseuse représente la principale manifestation osseuse décrite au cours des maladies inflammatoires chroniques de l'intestin. En Tunisie, très peu d’études ont rapportés sa prévalence et ses facteurs de risque. Le but de ce travail était de déterminer la prévalence de la perte osseuse au cours des maladies inflammatoires chroniques de l'intestin, et rechercher ses facteurs de risque. Méthodes Patients et méthodes: étude ouverte transversale, réali...

  5. Evaluation of the Relationship between Current Internal 137Cs Exposure in Residents and Soil Contamination West of Chernobyl in Northern Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuko; Okubo, Yuka; Hayashida, Naomi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Gutevich, Alexander; Chorniy, Sergiy; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    After the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, the residents living around the Chernobyl were revealed to have been internally exposed to 137Cs through the intake of contaminated local foods. To evaluate the current situation of internal 137Cs exposure and the relationship between the 137Cs soil contamination and internal exposure in residents, we investigated the 137Cs body burden in residents who were living in 10 selected cities from the northern part of the Zhitomir region, Ukraine, and collected soil samples from three family farms and wild forests of each city to measured 137Cs concentrations. The total number of study participants was 36,862, of which 68.9% of them were female. After 2010, the annual effective doses were less than 0.1 mSv in over 90% of the residents. The 137Cs body burden was significantly higher in autumn than other seasons (p Chernobyl accident, the internal exposure doses to residents living in contaminated areas of northern Ukraine is limited but still related to 137Cs soil contamination. Furthermore, the consumption of local foods is considered to be the cause of internal exposure. PMID:26402065

  6. Calcium and zinc DTPA administration for internal contamination with plutonium-238 and americium-241.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazzi, Ziad N; Heyl, Alexander; Ruprecht, Johann

    2012-08-01

    The accidental or intentional release of plutonium or americium can cause acute and long term adverse health effects if they enter the human body by ingestion, inhalation, or injection. These effects can be prevented by rapid removal of these radionuclides by chelators such as calcium or zinc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (calcium or zinc DTPA). These compounds have been shown to be efficacious in enhancing the elimination of members of the actinide family particularly plutonium and americium when administered intravenously or by nebulizer. The efficacy and adverse effects profile depend on several factors that include the route of internalization of the actinide, the type, and route time of administration of the chelator, and whether the calcium or zinc salt of DTPA is used. Current and future research efforts should be directed at overcoming limitations associated with the use of these complex drugs by using innovative methods that can enhance their structural and therapeutic properties.

  7. Prescrire du cannabis fumé pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Meldon; Srivastava, Anita; Spithoff, Sheryl; Bromley, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Offrir des conseils préliminaires sur la prescription de cannabis fumé pour la douleur chronique avant la publication de lignes directrices officielles. Qualité des données Nous avons examiné les ouvrages scientifiques sur l’efficacité analgésique du cannabis fumé et les dommages causés par la consommation de cannabis à des fins médicales et récréatives. Nous avons élaboré des recommandations concernant les indications et les contre-indications du cannabis fumé, les précautions à prendre et son dosage et nous avons classé les recommandations en fonction du niveau des données probantes. La plupart des données probantes sont de niveau II (études observationnelles bien effectuées) et de niveau III (opinion d’experts). Message principal Le cannabis fumé pourrait être indiqué chez des patients souffrant de douleurs neuropathiques sévères qui n’ont pas répondu à des essais suffisants de cannabinoïdes pharmaceutiques et d’analgésiques standards (données probantes de niveau II). Le cannabis fumé est contre-indiqué chez les patients de 25 ans ou moins (données probantes de niveau II); ceux qui font actuellement ou ont fait par le passé une psychose ou encore ont de forts antécédents familiaux de psychose (données probantes de niveau II); ceux qui ont ou ont eu un problème de consommation de cannabis (données probantes de niveau III); ceux qui ont un problème actuel de toxicomanie ou d’alcoolisme (données probantes de niveau III); ceux qui ont une maladie cardiovasculaire ou respiratoire (données probantes de niveau III); ou celles qui sont enceintes ou planifient une grossesse (données probantes de niveau II). Il devrait être utilisé avec précaution par les patients qui fument du tabac (données probantes de niveau II), qui sont à risque accru de maladies cardiovasculaires (données probantes de niveau III), qui ont des troubles d’anxiété ou de l’humeur (données probantes de niveau II) ou

  8. Hypotension artérielle intra dialytique chez un hémodialysé chronique révélatrice d'insuffisance antéhypophysaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Maghraoui, Jaouad; Ouahabi, Hanane; Kabbali, Nadia; Arrayhani, Mohamed; Ajdi, Farida; Houssaini, Tariq Sqalli

    2016-01-01

    L'hypotension artérielle per dialytique est une complication fréquente chez l'hémodialysé chronique. Elle est occasionnée par des facteurs liés à la séance d'hémodialyse et/ou au patient. Nous rapportons le cas d'un patient âgé de 42 ans, hémodialysé chronique sur néphropathie lithiasique depuis 5 ans. Il a rapporté des céphalées chroniques atypiques, compliquées d'une baisse progressive de l'acuité visuelle, une asthénie, une hypertrophie mammaire, et une baisse de libido. Il est référé pour une hypotension artérielle per dialytique non expliquée par les causes habituelles, dont la recherche étiologique a objectivé une insuffisance anté hypophysaire et une masse hypophysaire à l'IRM. A travers cette observation, nous montrons qu'après avoir éliminé les causes classiques d'hypotension artérielle chez l'hémodialysé, une cause endocrinienne doit être recherchée. PMID:27642391

  9. Gestion de la douleur chronique par les infirmières des Groupes de médecine de famille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Dave A; Bourgault, Patricia; Gallagher, Frances

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : Des milliers de personnes souffrent actuellement de douleur chronique (DC) pour laquelle la prise en charge s’avère souvent inadéquate. Au Québec, les infirmières qui oeuvrent dans les Groupes de médecine de famille (GMF) jouent un rôle clé dans le suivi des personnes aux prises avec des problèmes de santé chroniques dont la DC. OBJECTIFS : Cette étude a pour objectifs de décrire les activités réalisées par les infirmières œuvrant en GMF en lien avec la gestion de la douleur chez la clientèle souffrant de DC, ainsi que les barrières à ces activités. MÉTHODE : Un dispositif descriptif corrélationnel transversal de type enquête postale a été utilisé. La population accessible à l’étude comprend les infirmières qui figurent sur la liste des membres de l’Ordre des infirmières et infirmiers du Québec travaillant en GMF. L’ensemble des infirmières figurant sur cette liste ayant consenti à être contactées à leur domicile pour des fins de recherche ont été contactées. Un questionnaire postal auto-administré (Pain Management Activities Questionnaire) a été complété par 53 infirmières travaillant en GMF. RÉSULTATS : Les trois activités le plus souvent réalisées par les infirmières sont d’établir une relation thérapeutique avec le client; de discuter avec le médecin de l’efficacité des mesures thérapeutiques et de faire un enseignement personnalisé au client. Les infirmières ont la perception qu’elles rencontrent en moyenne 2,68 personnes par semaine qui souffrent de DC. La méconnaissance des interventions possibles en douleur (71,7%) et la non-disponibilité de l’information sur la gestion de la douleur (52,8%) constituent les principales barrières selon les infirmières sondées. CONCLUSION : Les infirmières au sein des GMF font actuellement peu d’activités en gestion de la DC probablement en raison du manque de reconnaissance de la DC. PMID:25848847

  10. Hémodialyse chronique et dépression au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sylvanus Olympio de Lomé (Togo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsevi, Mawufemo Yawovi; Salifou, Saliou; Sabi, Akomola Kossi; Noto-Kadou-Kaza, Befa; Amekoudi, Eyram Yoan; Dassa, Simliwa Kolou

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Estimer la prévalence de la dépression et rechercher les facteurs associés chez les patients insuffisants rénaux chroniques en hémodialyse. Méthodes Étude transversale descriptive allant du 1er Janvier 2014 au 31 Décembre 2014 à l’unité d’hémodialyse du service de Néphrologie du CHU Sylvanus Olympio de Lomé (Togo). L’échelle d’autoévaluation de la dépression de Beck dans sa version simplifiée a été notre outil d’évaluation. Résultats Durant la période d’étude, 88 patients ont été recrutés dont 61,4% d’hommes soit un sex-ratio de 1,6. La moyenne d’âge a été de 38,80 ± 13,24 ans avec des extrêmes de 12 et 66 ans. La majorité des patients (90,9%) étaient des travailleurs. L’hypertension artérielle a été la comorbidité somatique la plus retrouvée (45,4%). Quarante-six patients (52,3%) avaient une durée en hémodialyse comprise entre 1 et 4 ans. La dépression touchait 68,2% des patients; 47,7% des patients déprimés avaient une dépression sévère. La survenue de la dépression était significativement liée à la durée en hémodialyse (p= 0,008). Conclusion La prise en charge du patient hémodialysé chronique doit être pluridisciplinaire incluant le néphrologue et le psychiatre. PMID:28154718

  11. Profil des diabétiques en hémodialyse chronique: étude multicentrique au Maroc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbali, Nadia; Mikou, Souad; El Pardiya, Nada Tazi; El Bardai, Ghita; Arrayhani, Mohamed; Houssaini, Tarik Sqalli

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le diabète représente la première cause de mortalité par insuffisance rénale au Maroc. Sa prévalence selon l'Enquête Nationale sur la Population et la Santé Familiale de 2011 est de 3,3% [1]. Le but de ce travail est de déterminer la prévalence et d’étudier le profil clinique des diabétiques en hémodialyse chronique au Maroc. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale multicentrique incluant 2066 hémodialysés chroniques dans les 39 centres d'hémodialyse de quatre régions marocaines. Résultats La prévalence du diabète en hémodialyse est 21,6%. L’âge moyen 59±13,2 ans (26-87). Le sex-ratio est de 1,9. L'IMC moyen est de 24,5 ± 4,4 kg/m2 (15-41). 42 patients sont porteurs d′une hépatite virale. La durée moyenne en HD est 39,3± 67 mois. 57% des patients gardent une diurèse résiduelle versus 43% chez les non diabétiques. Par rapport à ces derniers, nous avons noté plus d'HTA (64% versus 45%), plus de complications cardiovasculaires (23% versus 12%), un âge plus avancé à l'initiation de l'hémodialyse (55,5 versus 47 ans) et un taux de FAV proximales plus important. Conclusion La prévalence des diabétiques en hémodialyse est relativement élevée au Maroc sans tenir compte des patients qui ne bénéficient pas d’épuration extra-rénale pour des raisons socio-économiques. Le taux élevé de mortalité est imputable au retard et/ou à l'absence de la prise en charge néphrologique des diabétiques. Dans nos régions où le système sanitaire dispose de faible moyen, l'accent doit être mis sur le dépistage précoce de la néphropathie chez le diabétique. PMID:25374630

  12. Review of 'emerging' organic contaminants in biosolids and assessment of international research priorities for the agricultural use of biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Bradley O; Smith, Stephen R

    2011-01-01

    A broad spectrum of organic chemicals is essential to modern society. Once discharged from industrial, domestic and urban sources into the urban wastewater collection system they may transfer to the residual solids during wastewater treatment and assessment of their significance and implications for beneficial recycling of the treated sewage sludge biosolids is required. Research on organic contaminants (OCs) in biosolids has been undertaken for over thirty years and the increasing body of evidence demonstrates that the majority of compounds studied do not place human health at risk when biosolids are recycled to farmland. However, there are 143,000 chemicals registered in the European Union for industrial use and all could be potentially found in biosolids. Therefore, a literature review of 'emerging' OCs in biosolids has been conducted for a selection of chemicals of potential concern for land application based upon human toxicity, evidence of adverse effects on the environment and endocrine disruption. To identify monitoring and research priorities the selected chemicals were ranked using an assessment matrix approach. Compounds were evaluated based upon environmental persistence, human toxicity, evidence of bioaccumulation in humans and the environment, evidence of ecotoxicity and the number and quality of studies focussed on the contaminant internationally. The identified chemicals of concern were ranked in decreasing order of priority: perfluorinated chemicals (PFOS, PFOA); polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs); organotins (OTs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC); benzothiazoles; antibiotics and pharmaceuticals; synthetic musks; bisphenol A, quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), steroids; phthalate acid esters (PAEs) and polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMSs). A number of issues were identified and recommendations for the prioritisation of further research and monitoring of 'emerging' OCs for the

  13. Use of Clinical Decision Guidance as a New Public Health Tool for the Medical Management of Internal Contamination in Radiological Mass Casualty Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Albert L

    2016-09-01

    This review is a discussion of special issues associated with the medical and public health management of persons at risk of internal contamination from radionuclides, following various radiological mass-casualty scenarios, as well as definition, discussion and use of the Clinical Decision Guidance (CDG) in such scenarios. Specific medical countermeasures are available for reducing the internal radiation dose and the subsequent stochastic and deterministic risks to persons internally contaminated with radionuclides from nuclear power plant, fuel processing and nuclear weapon accidents/incidents. There is a public health need for rapidly identifying and quantifying the 'source term' of such radiation exposures and assessment of the associated committed doses, so that appropriate medical countermeasure(s) can be given as soon as possible. The CDG, which was initially defined in NCRP-161, was specifically developed to be a new public health tool for facilitating the integration of local community healthcare professionals into the general medical, mass casualty, triage and treatment response of internally contaminated populations.

  14. The effects of contamination from silicones and a modified-tefzel® insulation on critical surfaces of the international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Henry W.; Hasegawa, Mark; Jones, Cherie; Fussell, John

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the contamination resulting from extensive usage of silicone-insulated and modified Tefzel-insulated electrical cables and a silicone-based thermal control coating, S-13GP/LO-1, used on the International Space Station (ISS). The outgassing condensation rates of these materials were characterized per ASTM 1559-93 as a function of contamination source and receiver hardware temperatures. The results of MOLFLUX analyses for both the silicone-insulated cables and the silicone-based thermal control coating showed that these materials did not meet the program requirements. The silicone-insulated cables and the antenna and associated hardware painted with S-13GP/LO-1 were vacuum baked and the outgassing condensation rates remeasured. These products now met the program requirements. The condensable portion of the outgassed products from modified-Tefzel cable insulation at two temperatures was deposited onto the white, inorganic thermal control coating, Z-93P. These contaminants were exposed to various space environments that included near ultraviolet (UV) radiation, vacuum UV (VUV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO). The contaminant darkened more rapidly with VUV exposure than a silicone contaminant of the same thickness. It was eroded by AO and bleached in air after VUV. It was shown that the ISS hardware provided would perform satisfactorily.

  15. Insuffisance rénale chronique et qualité de vie: quel type d'accompagnement infirmier pour un patient adulte ?

    OpenAIRE

    Corazza, Juliette Christine; Yaman, Derya; Dumas, Stéphanie

    2017-01-01

    Les interventions infirmières autonomes et surtout la collaboration avec l'équipe multidisciplinaire permettent effectivement de retarder ou ralentir efficacement la progression de l'IRC (insuffisance rénale chronique), l'entrée en dialyse, anticiper ou réduire les complications rénales ou non rénales, favoriser l'autogestion des patients IRC en pré-dialyse ou en dialyse et contribuent à l'amélioration de la qualité de vie.

  16. International workshop on scientific bases for decision making after a radioactive contamination of an urban environment. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This workshop aims to discuss the most important aspects of scientific bases for decision making after a radioactive contamination in urban environment and to identify some scientific, social and economic open questions. Papers explaining in more details the principles of intervention, computational capabilities and measurements after a contamination of urban areas are presented. A review on practical experiences from Chernobyl and Goiania accidents is also included.

  17. US screening of international travelers for radioactive contamination after the Japanese nuclear plant disaster in March 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Todd; Chang, Arthur; Berro, Andre; Still, Aaron; Brown, Clive; Demma, Andrew; Nemhauser, Jeffrey; Martin, Colleen; Salame-Alfie, Adela; Fisher-Tyler, Frieda; Smith, Lee; Grady-Erickson, Onalee; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Brunette, Gary; Ansari, Armin; McAdam, David; Marano, Nina

    2012-10-01

    On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami damaged nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi complex in Japan, resulting in radionuclide release. In response, US officials augmented existing radiological screening at its ports of entry (POEs) to detect and decontaminate travelers contaminated with radioactive materials. During March 12 to 16, radiation screening protocols detected 3 travelers from Japan with external radioactive material contamination at 2 air POEs. Beginning March 23, federal officials collaborated with state and local public health and radiation control authorities to enhance screening and decontamination protocols at POEs. Approximately 543 000 (99%) travelers arriving directly from Japan at 25 US airports were screened for radiation contamination from March 17 to April 30, and no traveler was detected with contamination sufficient to require a large-scale public health response. The response highlighted synergistic collaboration across government levels and leveraged screening methods already in place at POEs, leading to rapid protocol implementation. Policy development, planning, training, and exercising response protocols and the establishment of federal authority to compel decontamination of travelers are needed for future radiological responses. Comparison of resource-intensive screening costs with the public health yield should guide policy decisions, given the historically low frequency of contaminated travelers arriving during radiological disasters.

  18. Erratum: Apparent prevalence of beef carcasses contaminated with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sampled from danish slaughter cattle (Veterinary Medicine International)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Pozzato, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    A tabulation error appeared in Table 1. The fecal contamination data for Age <2 years and >2 years were incorrectly recorded into the table. Whereas the numbers in the table were transposed incorrectly, the actual statistical analyses remain correct.The revised table is reproduced below....

  19. (Contaminated soil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, R.L.

    1991-01-08

    The traveler attended the Third International Conference on Contaminated Soil, held in Karlsruhe, Germany. The Conference was a status conference for worldwide research and practice in contaminated soil assessment and environmental restoration, with more than 1500 attendees representing over 26 countries. The traveler made an oral presentation and presented a poster. At the Federal Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene, the traveler met with Dr. Z. Filip, Director and Professor, and Dr. R. Smed-Hildmann, Research Scientist. Detailed discussions were held regarding the results and conclusions of a collaborative experiment concerning humic substance formation in waste-amended soils.

  20. La chronique: un genre littéraire qui peut rendre hommage à la mémoire politique d’un pays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Lucia Machado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo busca mostrar que a vida política de um país pode ser também representada por meio da literatura. Pela análise discursiva de alguns trechos de crônicas políticas (escritas por L. F. Veríssimo, pudemos notar que ali palpitam, em filigrana, ecos passados de vários anos da história do Brasil. A crônica se presta a tal análise, já que é um gênero literário misto, que se equilibra entre efeitos de real e efeitos de ficção. No presente caso, destacamos ainda, vinda da parte do autor, a presença de um olhar que sorri dos acontecimentos narrados, mas que é também impregnado de uma doce amargura que somente o exercício da ironia poderia conceder.Palavras-chave: Crônica; memória; ironia; análise do discurso.  Résumé: Cet article tient à montrer que la vie politique d’un pays peut aussi être représentée par la littérature. L’analyse discursive de quelques extraits des chroniques politiques (écrites par L. F. Veríssimo nous a permis de voir, en filigrane, une esquisse de la mémoire des plusieurs années de vie politique au Brésil. La chronique se prête à ce type d’approche parce qu’elle est un genre littéraire mixte, qui s’équilibre entre effets de réel et effets de fiction. Dans le présent cas, il faut souligner que les faits historiques qu’elle raconte ont été empreints du regard souriant et à la fois doux-amer (ironie oblige de l’auteur.Mots-clés: Chronique; mémoire; ironie; analyse du discours.Keywords: Chronicle; memory; irony; discourse analysis.

  1. Les manifestations cutanées chez les patients hémodialysés chroniques dans un pays en voie de développement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Gérard; Korsaga-Somé, Nina; Fomena, Dorisse Fernade Yongué; Nagalo, Yacouba; Karambiri, Adama Roger; Bassolet, Alban; Kafando, Hyacinthe; Traoré, Adama; Lengani, Adama

    2016-01-01

    Le but de cette étude était deconnaître les affections cutanées les plus fréquentes chez les patients hémodialysés chroniques du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo (CHU-YO) de Ouagadougou. L’étude, de type transversal descriptif, menée du 15 Septembre au 31 Décembre 2014, s'estdéroulée au CHU-YO. Elle concernait les patients qui avaient au moins trois mois d'ancienneté en hémodialyse chronique. La fréquence des séances d'hémodialyse était d'une tous les cinq jours. Le seuil de signification des tests statistiques était défini pour une probabilité p ≤ 0,05. Quatre-vingt-quinze patients (61,1% d'hommes et 38,9% de femmes), de moyenne d’âge 42,1 ans participaient à l’étude. La durée moyenne en hémodialyse était de 31,9 mois. Le taux de réalisation des analyses biologiques variait de 7,4 à 85,3%. Quatre-vingt patients (85,3%) avaient au moins une manifestation cutanée. La xérose cutanée (67,4%), le prurit (45,3%), et l'hyperpigmentation (23,2%) étaient les plus fréquentes des manifestations cutanées pouvant être spécifiques de l'hémodialyse. L'hypomélanose en gouttes (11,6%), le prurigo (11,6%) et la folliculite (8,4%) étaient les principales manifestations cutanées non spécifiques. L'atteinte cutanée était fréquente mais ne semblait pas liée à l'ancienneté en hémodialyse. Les mauvaises conditions d'hémodialyse et l'environnement sec et chaud à Ouagadougou, ont pu favoriser ces atteintes, en particulier la xérose et le prurit. Une meilleure subvention des soins de santé contribuerait à réduire la prévalence des maladies cutanées et à améliorer la qualité de vie de nos patients hémodialysés chroniques. PMID:27642449

  2. L’itinérance d’Henri IV de Castille dans la Chronique du Connétable Miguel Lucas de Iranzo  (1458-1471

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislaine Fournès

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La Chronique du Connétable, au-delà du propos apologétique centré sur la figure de Miguel de Iranzo, peut être lue comme un récit circonstancié et détaillé des pratiques itinérantes de la royauté, pratiques partagées par les élites nobiliaires. Il s’agit, dans un premier temps, de définir le concept de cour puis, dans un second temps, d’établir une typologie des déplacements opérés par le monarque durant deux années, 1458 et 1459. Cette analyse révèle que la Chronique donne du gouvernement d’Henri IV une vision plus contrastée et par là même moins négative que celle proposée généralement par les chroniques commanditées a posteriori par les Rois Catholiques dans un souci de propagande.La Crónica del Condestable, más allá de su contenido apologético centrado en la figura de Miguel de Iranzo, se da a leer como un relato detallado de las prácticas itinerantes de la realeza, prácticas compartidas por las élites nobiliarias. Se trata, primero, de definir el concepto de corte, y luego de establecer una tipología de los desplazamientos realizados por el monarca durante dos años, 1458 y 1459. El análisis pone en evidencia que la Crónica propone del gobierno de Enrique IV una visión matizada y por lo tanto menos negativa que la visión que encontramos en las crónicas comanditadas en años posteriores por los Reyes Católicos con una meta propagandista.

  3. A bioassay experience and lessons learned on the internal contamination of (131)I during a maintenance period in a Korean nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young

    2012-08-01

    During a maintenance period at a Korean nuclear power plant, internal exposure of radiation workers occurred by the inhalation of (131)I that was released into the reactor building from a primary system opening due to defective fuels. The internal activity in radiation workers contaminated by (131)I was immediately measured using a whole body counter (WBC). A whole body counting was performed again a few days later, considering the factors of equilibrium in the body. The intake and the committed effective dose were estimated based on the WBC results. The intake was also calculated by hand, based on both the entrance records to the reactor building, and the counted results of the air concentration for (131)I were compared with the whole body counting results.

  4. sup 137 Cs and sup 134 Cs human internal contamination in Italy following the 1986 Chernobyl event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarroni, G.; Melandri, C.; Battisti, P.; Castellani, C.M.; Formignani, M. (ENEA, Bologna (Italy)); Rampa, E. (ENEA, Rome (Italy))

    1990-01-01

    A synthesis of the data concerning the distribution and behaviour over time until September 1989 of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs human contamination derived from the accident to Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station on 26 April 1986, is presented. The controls have been performed by means of two intercalibrated whole-body counters on healthy adult male and female volunteers living in different Italian regions. The main topics investigated are: the behaviour over time of the contamination in Bologna and Rome; geographic distribution in Italy in September 1987; the statistical distribution of data; the variability of the individual activity in relation to the mean activity of homogeneous groups; the intersex differences; and the effect of the element's biokinetic uncertainties on the committed effective dose equivalent evaluation. Trends are also found, mainly useful where extended contamination involves too large a fraction of the population for individual control of all the subjects concerned, thus requiring the identification of small groups of individuals representative of large population groups. (author).

  5. Detection system qualification for direct measurement of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine; Qualificazione di un sistema di rilevazione trasportabile per misure dirette di contaminazione interna di radioiodio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiberi, V.; Battisti, P.; Gualdrini, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The work deals with a detection system qualification for direct measurements of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine. The isotopes {sup 131}I and {sup 125}I are the most frequently used in nuclear medicine. Because of their volatility they are very dangerous for thyroid contamination by inhalation. The system has been projected to be easily and fast used and above all transportable where the control is necessary. These characteristic make it able to realise supervision programs of internal contamination by radioiodine. In fact due the very high control frequencies (each 15 days for {sup 131}I), these programs are usually very expensive and demanding when they are executed in external measurement laboratories. The following steps are described: devices presentation, calculation of energy and efficiency parameters, minimum detectable activity, time system reliability, best operative conditions in the measurements. At the end an application example of the system is reported. [Italian] Il presente lavoro consiste nella qualificazione di un sistema di rivelazione per misure dirette di contaminazione interna da radioiodio in tiroide, progettato per essere maneggevole, di semplice e rapido impiego e trasportabile sul luogo dove e' richiesta la misura. Il sistema e' stato studiato per la realizzazione di programmi di sorveglianza della contaminazione interna da radioiodio che, richiedendo frequenze di controllo elevate (quindicinali per lo {sup 131}I), sono estremamente impegnativi ed onerosi, soprattutto se i controlli vengono effettuati in centri di misura esterni. Dopo la determinazione dei parametri della calibrazione in energia ed efficienza, la minima attivita' rivelabile, l'affidabilita' del sistema nel tempo e le condizioni operative ottimali da adottare in sede di misura, viene verificata la piena affidabilita' del sistema in un programma di sorveglianza della contaminazione interna da radioiodio.

  6. Le conseil féminin dans les chroniques du règne de Ferdinand III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle MAINTIER-VERMOREL

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre d’une réflexion sur le conseil et les conseillers du roi, comment ne pas s’interroger sur le conseil féminin et les conseillères. En effet ce conseil existe bel et bien, et c’est ce que l’on s’attachera à prouver à la lumière de la lecture des chroniques de Luc de Tuy, Rodrigue de Tolède et Jean d’Osma, rédigées sous le règne de Ferdinand III. Le conseil féminin est bien présent, sous divers aspects, que ce soit celui d’une mère à son fils ou d’une femme à son époux ; ses domaines d’application sont étonnamment vastes, allant jusqu’à s’étendre aux affaires du royaume et au champ militaire. Toutefois, ces constatations ne doivent pas faire oublier les limites de ce conseil, qui est bien souvent un substitut à l’action et dont la légitimité reste contestée. Seules les reines réunissant certaines conditions, certaines vertus, peuvent prétendre au titre de conseillères, et encore y a-t-il un prix à payer pour que leurs conseils soient entendus, et ce prix est celui du dévouement à l’homme, dans l’oubli de leurs intérêts personnels.En el marco de una reflexión sobre el consejo y los consejeros del rey, cómo no interrogarse sobre el consejo femenino y las consejeras. Pues este consejo existe de verdad, y eso es lo que trataremos de mostrar a la luz de la lectura de las crónicas de Lucas de Túy, Rodrigo de Toledo y Juan de Osma, redactadas bajo el reinado de Fernando III. El consejo femenino está muy presente, bajo varios aspectos, con el consejo de una madre a su hijo, o el de una mujer a su esposo ; sus dominios de aplicación resultan sorprendentemente amplios y cubren hasta los asuntos del reino y el campo militar. Sin embargo, estas constataciones no deben hacer olvidar los límites de este consejo que sigue siendo a menudo un sustituto para la acción, y cuya legitimidad sigue discutida. Sólo las reinas capaces de reunir ciertas condiciones, ciertas virtudes

  7. Development of a personalized dosimetric tool for radiation protection in case of internal contamination and targeted radiotherapy in nuclear medicine; Developpement d'un outil dosimetrique personnalise pour la radioprotection en contamination interne et la radiotherapie vectorisee en medecine nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiavassa, S

    2005-12-15

    Current internal dosimetric estimations are based on the M.I.R.D. formalism and used standard mathematical models. These standard models are often far from a given patient morphology and do not allow to perform patient-specific dosimetry. The aim of this study was to develop a personalized dosimetric tool, which takes into account real patient morphology, composition and densities. This tool, called O.E.D.I.P.E., a French acronym of Tool for the Evaluation of Personalized Internal Dose, is a user-friendly graphical interface. O.E.D.I.P.E. allows to create voxel-based patient-specific geometries and associates them with the M.C.N.P.X. Monte Carlo code. Radionuclide distribution and absorbed dose calculation can be performed at the organ and voxel scale. O.E.D.I.P.E. can be used in nuclear medicine for targeted radiotherapy and in radiation protection in case of internal contamination. (author)

  8. Statut phospho-calcique en hémodialyse chronique dans l’Oriental Marocain: évaluation de l’adhésion aux recommandations K/DOQI et KDIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Benabdellah, Nawal; Karimi, Ilham; Bentata, Yassamine; Yacoubi, Hicham; Haddiya, Intissar

    2013-01-01

    Les troubles phosphocalciques sont fréquents en hémodialyse chronique. Leurs conséquences justifient une prévention et un traitement adaptés aux recommandations des sociétés savantes. L’objectif de notre étude était de déterminer le statut phosphocalcique de nos patients hémodialysés chroniques (HDC) et l’évaluation des taux de conformité des indicateurs aux recommandations K/DOQI et KDIGO. Ainsi, nous avons réalisé une étude transversale incluant les 83 patients HDC du centre d’hémodialyse d...

  9. Valdose program: methodologies for dose assessment in internal contamination, 1997 census; Programma valdose: metodologie di valutazione della dose da contaminazione interna, censimento 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `Ezio Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1998-12-31

    Dose assessment in internal dosimetry needs computational and interpretative tools that allow carrying out, as a first step, an evaluation of intake on the base of bioassay measurements or WBC measurements, and as a second step, dose evaluation on the base of estimated intake. In the frame of the MIDIA Co-ordination (WBC operating in Italy), in the first months of 1997 a census on methodologies for dose evaluation in internal contamination has been proposed. A technical form has been sent to all the WBC Centres allowing an accurate description of modalities used in each centre. 9 out of 17 centres sent the answers to the technical form in time. In this paper all the forms filled in are reported. A careful comparative evaluation of the answers has been made both for routine monitoring and for special monitoring. The various radionuclides present in the Italian reality, calculation methodologies both for intake and dose, hypotheses adopted for date, path and modalities of contaminations are also presented. Proposals for conforming to the methodology in Italy after the introduction of the models following ICRP 60 publication that are the base of the Euratom 96/29 Directive are also discussed. [Italiano] La valutazione di dose in contaminazione interna necessita di strumenti interpretativi che permettano di effettuare in una prima la valutazione dell`intake sulla base delle misure dei campioni biologici o del corpo intero (WBC), ed in una seconda fase la valutazione della dose sulla base dell`intake. All`interno del coordinamento MIDIA dei WBC operanti in Italia e` stato proposto, nel primo trimestre del 1997, un censimento sulle metodologie di valutazione di dose da contaminazione interna. Ai diversi centri e` stato inviato una scheda tecnica che, mediante un particolareggiato schema di domande, aiutava i diversi centri nella esposizione delle modalita` di valutazione di dose che ogni centro segue. 9 au 17 centri WBC operanti al momemnto in Italia hanno inviato la

  10. Un stress oxydant chronique est associé à une amelioration de la sensibilité à l’insuline et des fonctions mitochondrialesdans le muscle squelettique de souris SAMP8

    OpenAIRE

    Barquissau, Valentin; Denis, Philippe; Jouve, Chrystele; Patrac, Véronique; Rigaudière, Jean-Paul; Feillet Coudray, Christine; Galinier, A; Rieusset, Jennifer; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Morio, Béatrice

    2012-01-01

    De nombreuses études suggèrent que les espèces réactives del’oxygène participent à l’étiologie du diabète de type 2. Ce travail a pour objectifd’étudier l’effet d’un stress oxydant chronique sur le développement de l’insulino-résistance et sur les adaptations des fonctions mitochondriales musculaires.

  11. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex on Test for Particulate Contamination: Subvisible Particles General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-09

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 3: Test for Particulate Contamination: Subvisible Particles General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Test for Particulate Contamination: Subvisible Particles General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  12. La baisse de la densité osseuse au cours des maladies inflammatoires chroniques de l'intestin: prévalence et facteurs de risqué

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Aida Ben Slama; Abdellaoui, Faouzi; Ksiaa, Mehdi; Souguir, Ahlem; Zeglaoui, Hela; Rejeb, Mohamed Ben; Brahem, Ahlem; Ajmi, Salem; Jmaa, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Introduction La baisse de la densité minérale osseuse représente la principale manifestation osseuse décrite au cours des maladies inflammatoires chroniques de l'intestin. En Tunisie, très peu d’études ont rapportés sa prévalence et ses facteurs de risque. Le but de ce travail était de déterminer la prévalence de la perte osseuse au cours des maladies inflammatoires chroniques de l'intestin, et rechercher ses facteurs de risque. Méthodes Patients et méthodes: étude ouverte transversale, réalisée de 2007 jusqu’à 2012. Résultats 146 cas étaient colligés, dont 105 avaient une maladie de Crohn (71,9%) et 41 avaient une rectocolite hémorragique (28,1%). Il s'agissait de 62 hommes et 84 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 33,18 ans. La perte osseuse était trouvée chez 85 patients (58,2%). Il s'agissait d'une ostéopénie dans 57 cas et d'ostéoporose dans 28 cas. Les facteurs de risque de perte osseuse étaient une activité physique limitée (p=0,013), un indice de masse corporel ‘20 kg/m2 (p=0,015), une maladie active (p=0,035), l’étendue de l'atteinte intestinale (p=0,006) et une dose cumulée de corticothérapie dépassant 4,5g de Prednisone (p=0,003). Conclusion La déminéralisation osseuse est une complication fréquente mais non constante. Ceci justifie un dépistage précoce chez les patients à risque, qui pourront ainsi bénéficier d'un traitement substitutif. PMID:24198872

  13. A vast range of opportunities for feeding the world in 2050: trade-off between diet, N contamination and international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billen, Gilles; Lassaletta, Luis; Garnier, Josette

    2015-02-01

    Through a detailed analysis of the FAO database, we have constructed a generalized representation of the nitrogen transfers characterizing the current agro-food system (GRAFS) of 12 macro-regions of the world in terms of functional relationships between crop farming, livestock breeding and human nutrition. Based on this model, and maintaining the current cropland areas and the performance of cropping and livestock systems in each region, we have assessed the possibilities of meeting the protein requirements of the estimated world population in 2050, according to various combinations of three critical drivers namely human diet (total amount of protein consumed and share of animal protein in this total), regional livestock production and crop fertilization intensity, in each region. The results show that feeding the projected 2050 world population would generally imply higher levels of inter-regional trade and of environmental nitrogen contamination than the current levels, but that the scenarios with less recourse to inter-regional trade generally produce less N losses to the environment. If an equitable human diet (in terms of protein consumption) is to be established globally (the same in all regions of the world), the fraction of animal protein should not exceed 40% of a total ingestion of 4 kgN capita-1 yr-1, or 25% of a total consumption of 5 kgN capita-1 yr-1. Our results show that slightly improving the agronomical performance in the most deficient regions (namely Maghreb, the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, and India) would make it possible not only to meet the global protein requirements with much less international trade (hence more food sovereignty), but also to reduce N environmental contamination the most efficiently.

  14. A study of internal contamination levels resulting from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs environmental pollution. The influence of different factors; Etude des niveaux de contamination interne resultant d'une pollution de l'environnement par le {sup 90}Sr et le {sup 137}Cs influence des differents parametres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    This study includes two parts. The purpose of the former one is to try and evaluate the amounts of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs dietary intakes as a function of age with a view to assessing internal exposure doses and estimating the critical age, and to study the relative significance of the several factors it depends on. The data used are both the results of dietary surveys made in 11 districts of the European community from which the evolution of the consumed amounts of 13 groups of foodstuffs, as a function of age was derived, and the mean factors of contamination pathways. The variability of some factors is very large and an attempt is made to assess their significance on the whole contamination; also, the influence of the various diets has been emphasized. The purpose of the second part is to assess, doses as a function of age in the case of protracted exposure on the basis of the aforesaid results and radiobiological factors derived from bibliographic states of the arts. An assessment is made of body burdens and mean doses (either to the skeleton or the whole body according to the radionuclides) originating either from a direct unitary exposure or from situations implying both modes of exposure. As assumed only the diets vary with the districts, thus the results reflect their significance which should be corrected, for a more accurate assessment of the dose variability, by the significance of human and transfer factors. (author) [French] Cette etude comprend deux parties. L'objet de la premiere partie est a la fois un essai d'evaluation en fonction de l'age des quantites de strontium 90 et de cesium 137 ingerees avec les aliments dans la perspective d'une application a l'estimation des doses d'irradiation interne et a la recherche de l'age critique, et une etude de l'influence relative des divers parametres dont elle depend. Les donnees utilisees sont, d'une part, les resultats des enquetes alimentaires faites en

  15. SU-E-I-78: Establishing a Protocol for Quick Estimation of Thyroid Internal Contamination with 131I in Normal and Emergency Situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naderi, S Mehdizadeh [Radiation Research Center, Shiraz university, Shiraz, Fars (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimipourfard, M; Lotfalizadeh, F [Radiation medicine department, school of mechanical engineering, Shiraz uni, Shiraz, Fars (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zamani, E; Molaeimanesh, Z; Sadeghi, M; Sina, S; Faghihi, R [Shiraz University, Shiraz, Fars (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Entezarmahdi, M [Shahid Beheshti University, Shiraz, Fars (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: I-131 is one of the most frequent radionuclides used in nuclear medicine departments. The radiation workers, who manipulate the unsealed radio-toxic iodine, should be monitored for internal contamination. In this study a protocol was established for estimating I-131 activity absorbed in the thyroid glands of the nuclear medicine staff in normal working condition and also in accidents. Methods: I-131 with the activity of 10 μCi was injected inside the thyroid gland of a home-made anthropomorphic neck phantom. The phantom is made up of PMMA as soft tissue, and Aluminium as bone. The dose rate at different distances from the surface of the neck phantom was measured using a scintillator detector for duration of two months. Then, calibration factors were obtained, for converting the dose rate at each distance to the iodine activity inside the thyroid. Results: According to the results of this study, the calibration factors for converting the dose rates (nSv/h) at distances of 0cm, 1cm, 6cm, 11cm, and 16cm to the activity (kBq) inside the thyroid were found to be 0.03, 0.04, 0.14, 0.29, and 0.49 . Conclusion: This method can be effectively used for quick estimation of the I-131 concentration inside the thyroid of the staff for daily checks in normal working conditions and also in accidents.

  16. Draft principles, policy, and acceptance criteria for decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy contaminated surplus facilities and summary of international decommissioning programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[USDOE Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards, Washington, DC (United States). Systems Analysis and Standards Div.; Gillette, J.; Jackson, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Decommissioning activities enable the DOE to reuse all or part of a facility for future activities and reduce hazards to the general public and any future work force. The DOE Office of Environment, Health and Safety has prepared this document, which consists of decommissioning principles and acceptance criteria, in an attempt to establish a policy that is in agreement with the NRC policy. The purpose of this document is to assist individuals involved with decommissioning activities in determining their specific responsibilities as identified in Draft DOE Order 5820.DDD, ``Decommissioning of US Department of Energy Contaminated Surplus Facilities`` (Appendix A). This document is not intended to provide specific decommissioning methodology. The policies and principles of several international decommissioning programs are also summarized. These programs are from the IAEA, the NRC, and several foreign countries expecting to decommission nuclear facilities. They are included here to demonstrate the different policies that are to be followed throughout the world and to allow the reader to become familiar with the state of the art for environment, safety, and health (ES and H) aspects of nuclear decommissioning.

  17. Chronique de jurisprudence. Chronique commentée des décisions de l'Organe de règlement des différends (novembre 2011-août 2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Busseuil; Jean-Marie Garinot; Clotilde Jourdain-Fortier; Isabelle Moine-Dupuis; Valérie Pironon

    2013-01-01

    In respect with the guiding principle of this chronicle to estimate connections between liberalization of international trade and non-trade values, this new edition illustrates new conflicts of values. This almost double year of awards of the Dispute Settlement Body is characterized by the focus put on the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement at the heart of several disputes: United States – Clove Cigarettes, United States – Cool, United States – Tuna II. Some and new lightings on several ke...

  18. Statut phospho-calcique en hémodialyse chronique dans l’Oriental Marocain: évaluation de l’adhésion aux recommandations K/DOQI et KDIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabdellah, Nawal; Karimi, Ilham; Bentata, Yassamine; Yacoubi, Hicham; Haddiya, Intissar

    2013-01-01

    Les troubles phosphocalciques sont fréquents en hémodialyse chronique. Leurs conséquences justifient une prévention et un traitement adaptés aux recommandations des sociétés savantes. L’objectif de notre étude était de déterminer le statut phosphocalcique de nos patients hémodialysés chroniques (HDC) et l’évaluation des taux de conformité des indicateurs aux recommandations K/DOQI et KDIGO. Ainsi, nous avons réalisé une étude transversale incluant les 83 patients HDC du centre d’hémodialyse de l’hôpital Al Farabi d’Oujda. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 49.8± 15.6 ans. Une prédominance masculine a été notée. La conformité des indicateurs du bilan phosphocalcique chez nos patients hémodialysés chroniques par rapport aux recommandations KDIGO était de l’ordre de 21.6%. Le pourcentage des patients ayant des données phosphocalciques conformes aux cibles recommandées par les K/DOQI était Les patients répondants simultanément aux quatres critères recommandés par les K/DOQI n’étaient que 8.4%. PMID:24570784

  19. La prise en charge de la douleur chronique chez les personnes âgées par les interventions infirmières de confort: massage, musicothérapie et imagerie guidée

    OpenAIRE

    Qaderdan, Wazhma; Torny, Cindy; Gueniat, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Problématique : La douleur chronique est un problème bien réel chez les personnes âgées. Elle affecte les dimensions physiologique, psychique, sociale et spirituelle ainsi qu’engendre de nombreuses conséquences sur la qualité de vie. Les polypathologies affectant cette population, l’amène à la prise de nombreux médicaments, ce qui engendre entre autre, divers effets secondaires. But : L’objectif de ce travail est d’évaluer l’efficacité des interventions non-pharmacologiques que peuvent utilis...

  20. Mode de révélation particulier d'une tumeur brune chez une patiente hémodialysée chronique

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Harraqui, Ryme; Karimi, Ilham; Chemlal, Abdeljalil; Ismaili, Fatiha Alaoui; Haddiya, Intissar

    2014-01-01

    Les tumeurs brunes constituent une complication rare mais sévère de la dialyse, le plus souvent asymptomatique. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente dont le mode de révélation de la tumeur brune fut atypique. Observation médicale: Madame F. est une patiente hémodialysée chronique depuis 14 ans suite à une néphropathie indéterminée. Sur le plan phosphocalcique, elle présente une ostéoporose depuis plus de 10 ans, ainsi qu'une hyperparathyroïdie secondaire. A la date du 24 octobre 2013, elle rapporte qu'elle a constaté la présence d'une petite « bosse » pariétale, apparue de façon spontanée la veille, sans notion de traumatisme. A l'examen clinique, nous trouvons une petite tuméfaction de 2cm de diamètre environs, de consistance dure, indolore, mobile par rapport au cuir chevelu. L’échographie a conclu à un lipome. Le lendemain matin, la patiente entre dans un état de coma profond. Le scanner cérébral a révélé la présence d'un hématome extradural associé à un hématome superficiel extra-crânien en regard d'une lyse de l'os pariétal, qui est en fait une tumeur brune. La patiente est transférée en réanimation où elle décède dans la journée. PMID:25422698

  1. Réflexion sur l’Etat mexicain et ses Institutions à partir de 2 chroniques de Carlos Monsiváis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Léziart

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Deux chroniques de Carlos Monsiváis extraites de Dias de guardar, un ouvrage publié par l’auteur au Mexique dans les années 1970, ont servi de base à une réflexion sur le fonctionnement quelque peu coercitif alors du régime mexicain dominé par un système de parti unique (le PRI issu pourtant de la Révolution sociale du début du siècle (XXe. Ce sont des textes critiques qui mettent en lumière la rigidité et le contrôle exercés alors sur l’opinion publique mexicaine.Esta comunicación radica en el análisis de dos crónicas de Carlos Monsváis extraídas del libro : Días de Guardar, publicado en México (1971. Dan cuenta del funcionamiento un tanto coercitivo del régimen mexicano dominado por un sistema de partido único (el PRI, paradójicamente heredado de la revolución social del principio del siglo XX. Son textos críticos que dejan entrever hasta qué punto el poder mejicano controlaba, por aquel entonces, a la opinión pública.Through two chronicles included in Dias de guardar by Carlos Monsiváis, a book published in the 70s in Mexico, this article analyses the coercive system that rules the Mexican regime, dominated for a long time by one single party: the PRI, i.e. the institutionalized expression of the social Revolution that occurred at the beginning of the XXth Century. These critical texts put in evidence the way Mexican opinion was actually controlled in a very rigid way.

  2. Douleurs Chroniques et Anesthesie Loco-Régionale chez l'Enfant. [Chronic pain and regional anesthesia in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Dadure, Christophe; Marec, Perrine; Veyckemans, Francis; Beloeil, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Chronic pain is usually underestimated in children, due to lack of knowledge and to its specific semiotic. In addition to suffering, chronic pain causes a physical, psychological, emotional, social and financial burden for the child and his family. The practitioners may find themselves in a situation of failure with depletion of medical resources. Some types of chronic pain are refractory to conventional systemic treatment and may require the use of regional anesthesia...

  3. Qualité de l’audit et Satisfaction de l’audité : Chronique d’une Innovation Ordinaire

    OpenAIRE

    Cerruti, Fabien; Richard, Christelle

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The objective of this research is to examine the role which a quality framework plays in the relationships between the auditor and the auditee. For that, we study the origins of an association gathering nine French audit companies, called the ADACEIP (Association of Development of the Activities of Audit in the Entities of Public Interest) as well as the quality procedure which is settled up through the publication of the quality framework (Statutory Audit Premium). In...

  4. Development of radionuclide parameter database on internal contamination in nuclear emergencies%核与辐射突发事件内污染关键核素参数库的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵力; 徐翠华; 李文红; 苏旭

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop a radionuclide parameter database on internal contamination in nuclear emergencies. Methods By researching the radionuclides composition discharged from different nuclear emergencies, the radionuclide parameters were achieved on physical decay, absorption and metabolism in the body from ICRP publications and some other publications. The database on internal contamination for nuclear incidents was developed by using MS Visual Studio 2005 C# and MS Access programming language. Results The radionuclide parameter database on internal contamination in nuclear emergency was established. Conclusions The database may be very convenient for searching radionuclides and radionuclide parameter data discharged from different nuclear emergencies, which wonld be helpful to the monitoring and assessment of internal contamination in nuclear emergencies.%目的 研制用于核与辐射突发事件情况下内污染关键核素参数数据库.方法 通过调研确定各类核突发事件可能释放的内污染关键核素,根据核素的物理衰变参数和和理代谢参数,选用MS Visual Studio 2005 C#编程语言和MS Access数据库设计软件,建立各类核突发事件内污染关键核素参数数据库.结果 研制了用于核突发事件内污染核素的参数数据库.结论 本软件方便、快捷,可用于核应急情况下不同事件释放核素的查询和核素的参数数据查询,有助于应急情况下人员内污染的快速监测及评估.

  5. Role of curli and contamination level on Escherichia coli O157:H7 internalization into organic spinach plants grown on hydroponics and in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: E. coli O157:H7 may be internalized into organic leafy greens via root uptake. Understanding the mechanisms of E. coli O157:H7 internalization into organic leafy greens is important as produce wash treatment may not remove internalized pathogens. Purpose: The internalization potential...

  6. Internal contamination monitoring through measurements in vivo at whole body contamination unity of IRD-CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Monitoracao da contaminacao interna atraves de medicoes in vivo na Unidade de Contador de Corpo Inteiro do IRD-CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Ana Leticia A.; Lucena, Eder A.; Dantas, Bernardo M., E-mail: adantas@ird.gov.b, E-mail: eder@ird.gov.b, E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao In Vivo. Servico de Monitoracao Individual Interna

    2011-10-26

    The present work approaches the internal contamination monitoring capacity through measurements performed at the Whole-body Counter Unity of the in-vivo monitoring laboratory (LABMIV) of the IRD-CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, present thr main parameters related to the monitoring techniques developed, and the the available instrumentation for identification and quantification in vivo of photon emitter radionuclides with energy in the range of 10-3000 keV, incorporated by workers and public individuals

  7. Génotypes du virus de l'hépatite B et marqueurs évolutifs des patients porteurs chroniques de l'AgHBs à Bujumbura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntagirabiri, Rénovat; Munezero, Belyse; Nahimana, Caritas; Ndabaneze, Evariste

    2016-01-01

    Introduction L'infection par le virus de l'hépatite B (VHB) est une affection grave suite à ses complications notamment la cirrhose et le carcinome hépatocellulaire (CHC). Les génotypes du VHB influent beaucoup sur son évolution et sur l'efficacité du traitement. Le but était d’évaluer les génotypes du VHB et les profils évolutifs des patients porteurs chroniques de l'AgHBs. Méthodes Étude transversale, menée au Centre hospitalo-universitaire de Kamenge et au Centre des maladies du tube digestif et du foie « CEMADIF » entre Juin 2013 et Mai 2014. Le génotypage, les dosages quantitatifs de l'AgHBe et de l'ADN virale B ont été réalisés au Laboratoire Cerba, Cergy Pontoise, France. L’évaluation de la fibrose était faite par le Fibrotest ou le FibroScan. Résultats Au total, 143 patients, 52,4% de sexe masculin, âge moyen 38,1 ans ont été inclus. Selon les marqueurs évolutifs, 112 patients (78,3%) avaient un AgHBe négatif. Quant à la charge virale, 106 patients (74,2%) avaient une virémie inférieure à 2000UI/ml et une fibrose minime inférieure à 7kpa selon le FibroScan. Parmi eux, 13 malades avaient un ADN du VHB indétectable (0,8UI/ml). Il a été possible de déterminer le génotype chez 51 patients qui avaient une virémie assez élevée pour permettre techniquement ce dosage. Ces patients avaient tous un génotype A. Conclusion Le génotype A du VHB est le plus fréquent à Bujumbura. Il est associé à un portage inactif élevé. PMID:27222687

  8. Giornalismo investigativo, vittime e diritto di cronaca / Journalisme d’investigation, victimes et droit de chronique / Investigative journalism, victims and right to report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo Fabio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the role and the characteristics of the investigative journalism along with its relationship with other disciplines, as sociology, criminology and victimology on one side, and law on the other side. Special focus is on the method and the techniques used by the investigative journalist and on the convergence between investigative journalism, law and social research. About the relationship between journalism and victims, the author proposes a new classification, which can be used to better identify and study different fields of research. This classification can also help the investigative journalism to work with a new approach, based on victimology. In the final part of the essay, the author focuses on the functions of "the right to report" and the investigative journalism, in the light of the significant judgments pronounced by Italian courts (in particular, Italian Supreme Court of Cassation, 3rd Civil Section, No. 16326/2010. Cet article vise à examiner les caractéristiques et le rôle du journalisme d’investigation ainsi que sa relation avec, d’un côté, d’autres disciplines comme la sociologie, la criminologie et la victimologie, et, de l'autre, le droit. Une attention particulière est accordée à la méthode et aux techniques utilisées par le journaliste d’investigation de même que sur la convergence entre journalisme, droit d’investigation et recherche sociale. À propos de la relation entre le journalisme et les victimes, l’auteur suggère une nouvelle classification qui peut être utilisée afin de mieux identifier et étudier les différents domaines de la recherche sur le sujet. Cette classification peut également servir à développer une nouvelle approche de travail pour le journalisme d’investigation, fondée sur la victimologie. Dans la dernière partie de l’article, l’auteur met en évidence les fonctions du « droit de chronique » du journalisme d’investigation, à la lumière des

  9. Bacteriological contamination, dirt, and cracks of eggshells in furnished cages and noncage systems for laying hens: an international on-farm comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Reu, K; Rodenburg, T B; Grijspeerdt, K; Messens, W; Heyndrickx, M; Tuyttens, F A M; Sonck, B; Zoons, J; Herman, L

    2009-11-01

    For laying hens, the effects of housing system on bacterial eggshell contamination and eggshell quality is almost exclusively studied in experimental hen houses. The aim of this study was to compare eggshell hygiene and quality under commercial conditions. Six flocks of laying hens in furnished cages and 7 flocks in noncage systems were visited when hens were about 60 wk of age. Farms from Belgium, the Netherlands, and Germany were included in the study. The following parameters were determined on eggs sampled at the egg belts: 1) bacterial eggshell contamination, as expressed by total count of aerobic bacteria and number of Enterobacteriaceae; 2) proportion of dirty eggs; and 3) proportion of cracked eggs and eggs with microcracks. Considerable within-flock differences were found in eggshell contamination with total count of aerobic bacteria, both for furnished cages (P cages compared with noncage systems. Concerning Enterobacteriaceae, no significant difference in average eggshell contamination between both systems could be shown. The total percentage of cracked eggs was higher (P cages (7.8%) compared with noncage systems (4.1%). This was, however, due to the high percentage of cracked eggs (24%) observed on one of the furnished cage farms. We conclude that bacteriological eggshell contamination and percentage of cracked eggs differed substantially between individual farms using the same housing system. This may also explain some discrepancies between the findings of the present study versus some findings of previous experimental studies or studies on a small number of farms. Although statistically significant, the average differences in bacteriological contamination of nest eggs between both housing systems have limited microbiological relevancy.

  10. Bacteriological contamination, dirt, and cracks of eggshells in furnished cages and noncage systems for laying hens: An international on-farm comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reu, de K.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Messens, W.; Heyndrickx, M.; Tuyttens, F.; Sonck, B.; Zoons, J.; Herman, L.

    2009-01-01

    For laying hens, the effects of housing system on bacterial eggshell contamination and eggshell quality is almost exclusively studied in experimental hen houses. The aim of this study was to compare eggshell hygiene and quality under commercial conditions. Six flocks of laying hens in furnished

  11. Radiotoxicological analyses of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am in biological samples by anion-exchange and extraction chromatography: a preliminary study for internal contamination evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridone, S.; Arginelli, D.; Bortoluzzi, S.; Canuto, G.; Montalto, M.; Nocente, M.; Vegro, M. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), Research Centre of Saluggia, Radiation Protection Institute, Saluggia, VC (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Many biological samples (urines and faeces) have been analysed by means of chromatographic extraction columns, utilising two different resins (AG 1-X2 resin chloride and T.R.U.), in order to detect the possible internal contamination of {sup 239{sup +}}{sup 240}Pu and {sup 241}Am, for some workers of a reprocessing nuclear plant in the decommissioning phase. The results obtained show on one hand the great suitability of the first resin for the determination of plutonium, and on the other the great selectivity of the second one for the determination of americium.

  12. Chronic exposure of ecosystems and public to elements in trace contributions; L'exposition chronique des ecosystemes et du public aux elements en traces contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The needs in radiation protection come towards the question of chronic contaminations by trace elements or radioactive compounds. The chronicity induces to take into account a whole of redistribution mechanisms more important than the only ways of the most direct transfer. In the case of environment, that is going to become one of the way of public contamination is a target to protect, the important work is to link the contamination situation to eventual consequences on the ecosystems situation. (N.C.)0.

  13. Rationale and Methods for Archival Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheric Trace Chemical Contaminants On Board Mir and Recommendations for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; James, J. T.; Cole, H. E.; Limero, T. F.; Beck, S. W.

    1997-01-01

    Collection and analysis of spacecraft cabin air samples are necessary to assess the cabin air quality with respect to crew health. Both toxicology and engineering disciplines work together to achieve an acceptably clean cabin atmosphere. Toxicology is concerned with limiting the risk to crew health from chemical sources, setting exposure limits, and analyzing air samples to determine how well these limits are met. Engineering provides the means for minimizing the contribution of the various contaminant generating sources by providing active contamination control equipment on board spacecraft and adhering to a rigorous material selection and control program during the design and construction of the spacecraft. A review of the rationale and objectives for sampling spacecraft cabin atmospheres is provided. The presently-available sampling equipment and methods are reviewed along with the analytical chemistry methods employed to determine trace contaminant concentrations. These methods are compared and assessed with respect to actual cabin air quality monitoring needs. Recommendations are presented with respect to the basic sampling program necessary to ensure an acceptably clean spacecraft cabin atmosphere. Also, rationale and recommendations for expanding the scope of the basic monitoring program are discussed.

  14. On the reduction of internal radiation doses due to the ingestion of CS-137 in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, P.; Schlager, M.; Vogel, V.; Hille, R. [Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Julich (Germany); Nesterenko, A.V.; Nesterenko, V.B. [BELRAD, Minsk, (Belarus)

    2006-07-01

    After the Chernobyl reactor accident wide areas of Belarus have been contaminated with radioactive fallout. The verification and documentation of the long-term development of radiation doses is still going on. A population group of special concern are the children living in contaminated regions. Of the two million Belarussian children, approximately 80000 live in regions contaminated after the Chernobyl accident by a {sup 137}Cs deposition of more than 185 kBq/m. A German-Belarussian project is investigating radiation doses of children in those regions since several years. In a recent paper [1] it has been shown, that the annual dose limit of 1 mSv/a is still exceeded in some cases, essentially due to high body burdens of Cs -137 as indicated by screening measurements with portable incorporation monitors. Means of dose reduction such as remediation of agricultural land had been investigated in the past and generally already contribute to a reduction of food contamination. Also the use of clean food and the control of food contamination has generally proven its effectiveness and the latter is exercised by official authorities and private initiatives. In situations, where this is not sufficient, the clarification of the usefulness of additional means, such as the cure-like application of pectin preparations, makes sense. A dose lowering effect is presumed by Belarussian and Ukrainian scientists. In the framework of the present German-Belarussian project special attention is given to the cure-like application of a Belarussian pectin-preparation (Vitapect). Vitapect consists of apple pectins with added vitamins, mineral nutrients and flavour substances. It is currently in use in Belarus in accordance with legal regulations and licensed by the Belarus authorities. In a placebo-controlled double-blind study, several groups of contaminated children were treated with Vitapect for a two -week period during their stay in a sanatorium. For comparison the same number of

  15. Comparison of a live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine candidate secreting Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit with a commercial vaccine for efficacy of protection against internal egg contamination by Salmonella in hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandre, Rahul M; Eo, Seong Kug; Park, Sang Youel; Lee, John Hwa

    2015-07-01

    This study compared a new live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine candidate secreting Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (SE-LTB) with a commercial Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccine for efficacy of protection against SE infection in laying hens. Chickens were divided into 3 groups of 20 each. Group A chickens were inoculated orally with phosphate-buffered saline and served as controls, group B chickens were inoculated orally with the vaccine candidate, and group C chickens were inoculated intramuscularly with a commercial vaccine, the primary inoculation in groups B and C being at 10 wk of age and the booster at 16 wk. Groups B and C showed significantly higher titers of plasma immunoglobulin G, intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A, and egg yolk immunoglobulin Y antibodies compared with the control group, and both vaccinated groups showed a significantly elevated cellular immune response. After virulent challenge, group B had significantly lower production of thin-shelled and/or malformed eggs and a significantly lower rate of SE contamination of eggs compared with the control group. Furthermore, the challenge strain was detected significantly less in all of the examined organs of group B compared with the control group. Group C had lower gross lesion scores only in the spleen and had lower bacterial counts only in the spleen, ceca, and ovary. These findings indicate that vaccination with the SE-LTB vaccine candidate can efficiently reduce internal egg and internal organ contamination by Salmonella and has advantages over the commercial vaccine.

  16. Packed with Salmonella--investigation of an international outbreak of Salmonella Senftenberg infection linked to contamination of prepacked basil in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Elson, Richard; Little, Christine L; Yip, Hopi; Fisher, Ian; Yishai, Ruth; Anis, Emilia; Valinsky, Lea; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Patel, Nehal; Mather, Henry; Brown, Derek J; Coia, John E; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Nielsen, Eva M; Ethelberg, Steen; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Hampton, Michael D; Peters, Tansy; Threlfall, John

    2008-10-01

    Salmonella Senftenberg is uncommon in the United Kingdom. In January-June 2007, the Health Protection Agency reported on 55 primary human cases of Salmonella Senftenberg in England and Wales. In May 2007, fresh basil sold in the United Kingdom was found to be contaminated with Salmonella Senftenberg. We launched an investigation to elucidate the cause of this outbreak. Isolates were examined using plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and the outbreak strain (SSFTXB.0014) was identified. We enquired via Enter-net whether other countries had isolated the outbreak strain, analyzed samples of fresh herbs from U.K. retailers, and interviewed patients on food history. Thirty-two patient-cases were referred to this outbreak in England and Wales. Onsets of illness occurred between 5 March and 6 June 2007. Fifty-six percent of patient-cases were females and 90% adults (>20 years old); three were admitted to hospital as a result of Salmonella infection. Scotland, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States reported on 19 cases of Salmonella Senftenberg infection presenting with the outbreak strain since January 2007. Eight samples of prepacked fresh basil imported from Israel tested positive with the same strain. A minority of patients could recall the consumption of basil before illness, and some reported consumption of products where basil was a likely ingredient. Environmental investigations in Israel did not identify the contamination source. Microbiological evidence suggested an association between contamination of fresh basil and the cases of Salmonella Senftenberg infection, leading to withdrawal of basil from all potentially affected batches from the U.K. market.

  17. Proteome changes in rat serum after a chronic ingestion of enriched uranium: Toward a biological signature of internal contamination and radiological effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitot, F; Frelon, S; Chambon, C; Paquet, F; Guipaud, O

    2016-08-22

    The civilian and military use of uranium results in an increased risk of human exposure. The toxicity of uranium results from both its chemical and radiological properties that vary with isotopic composition. Validated biomarkers of health effects associated with exposure to uranium are neither sensitive nor specific to uranium radiotoxicity and/or radiological effect. This study aimed at investigating if serum proteins could be useful as biomarkers of both uranium exposure and radiological effect. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically exposed through drinking water to low levels (40mg/L, corresponding to 1mg of uranium per animal per day) of either 4% (235)U-enriched uranium (EU) or 12% EU during 6 weeks. A proteomics approach based on two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry (MS) was used to establish protein expression profiles that could be relevant for discriminating between groups, and to identify some differentially expressed proteins following uranium ingestion. It demonstrated that the expressions of 174 protein spots over 1045 quantified spots were altered after uranium exposure (puranium contamination and radiological effect. Finally, using bioinformatics tools, pathway analyses of differentially expressed MS-identified proteins find that acute phase, inflammatory and immune responses as well as oxidative stress are likely involved in the response to contamination, suggesting a physiological perturbation, but that does not necessarily lead to a toxic effect.

  18. Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Training & Education Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Water Contamination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ...

  19. MONTE CARLO SIMULATION OF THE BREMSSTRAHLUNG RADIATION FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF AN INTERNAL CONTAMINATION WITH PURE-BETA EMITTERS IN VIVO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantínová, K; Fojtík, P; Malátová, I

    2016-09-01

    Rapid measurement techniques are required for a large-scale emergency monitoring of people. In vivo measurement of the bremsstrahlung radiation produced by incorporated pure-beta emitters can offer a rapid technique for the determination of such radionuclides in the human body. This work presents a method for the calibration of spectrometers, based on the use of UPh-02T (so-called IGOR) phantom and specific (90)Sr/(90)Y sources, which can account for recent as well as previous contaminations. The process of the whole- and partial-body counter calibration in combination with application of a Monte Carlo code offers readily extension also to other pure-beta emitters and various exposure scenarios. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Evaluation of sensitivity evaluation of a contamination monitor for use in monitoring of internal exposure of workers in nuclear medicine; Avaliacao da sensibilidade de um monitor de contaminacao para aplicacao em monitoracao da exposicao interna de trabalhadores em medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Bernando Maranhao; Assis, Janima Cruz de; Oliveira, Salomao Marques de; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida, E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao In Vivo. Div. de Dosimetria

    2014-07-01

    In practice of nuclear medicine, expert personnel routinely handle radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and radiotherapy. The control of intakes of radionuclides by workers can be performed through internal dosimetry techniques, as an integral part of the radiation protection program of the installation. The use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in vivo and in vitro in Brazil is regulated by CNEN-NE Standards and 3:05 CNEN-NN 3.01. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends the establishment of an internal monitoring program on workers, especially those subject to possible exposure to annual effective doses greater than 1 mSv. Note that, currently, in Brazil, are not available qualified laboratories to provide internal monitoring services in all regions in the country, if it were applied by CNEN, the requirement for internal monitoring of workers. This paper presents the development of a simple and low-cost methodology for in vivo monitoring of {sup 131}I in the thyroid. The proposed methodology is the use of portable monitor of surface contamination, equipment available and routinely used in all nuclear medicine services in Brazil. The monitor is calibrated with neck-thyroid simulator developed at the Laboratory of In Vivo Monitoring of IRD/CNEN-RJ. The equipment tested is suitable for application in in vivo occupational monitoring thyroid. This conclusion is based on the fact that the detection system has sufficient sensitivity for monitoring up to seven days after the incorporation of the radionuclide and guarantees {sup 131}I detection in values that result in effective doses below 1 mSv for the exposure scenarios adopted.

  1. Towards a Long-Term Strategy for Voluntary-Based Internal Radiation Contamination Monitoring: A Population-Level Analysis of Monitoring Prevalence and Factors Associated with Monitoring Participation Behavior in Fukushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Ozaki, Akihiko; Murakami, Michio; Hodgson, Susan; Blangiardo, Marta; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Morita, Tomohiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2017-04-09

    Following Japan's 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident, we assessed voluntary-based monitoring behavior in Minamisoma City-located 10-40 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant-to inform future monitoring strategies. The monitoring in Minamisoma included occasional free of charge internal-radiation-exposure measurements. Out of around 70,000 individuals residing in the city before the incident, a total of 45,788 residents (female: 52.1%) aged ≥21 were evaluated. The monitoring prevalence in 2011-2012 was only 30.2%, and this decreased to 17.9% in 2013-2014. Regression analyses were performed to estimate factors associated with the monitoring prevalence and participation behavior. The results show that, in comparison with the age cohort of 21-30 years, the cohort of 71-80 and ≥81 years demonstrated significantly lower monitoring prevalence; female residents had higher monitoring prevalence than male residents; those who were living in evacuation zones at the time of the incident had higher monitoring prevalence than those who lived outside any of the evacuation zones; for those living outside Fukushima and neighboring Prefectures post-incident monitoring prevalence decreased significantly in 2013-2014. Our findings inform the discussion on the concepts of radiation risk perception and accessibility to monitoring and societal decision-making regarding the maintenance of the monitoring program with low monitoring prevalence. We also stress the possibility that the monitoring can work both to check that internal contamination levels are within acceptable limits, and as a risk communication tool, alleviating individuals' concern and anxiety over radiation contamination.

  2. [Contaminated heparins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monneret, C

    2008-08-01

    In January 2008, following the detection of severe allergic reaction, several batches of heparins were removed from the United-States market. Although less dramatic, comparable side effects were also reported in Germany but not in France despite the fact that low-weight heparins, obtained from contaminated batches of unfractionated heparins, were used to limit shortage. So far, tainted injectable heparin has been linked to over 80 deaths in the USA. Analyses demonstrated that such tainted heparins were contaminated by high levels of chondroïtin persulfate (5-20%), a cheaper hemi-synthetic product. All batches were furnished by several Chinese chemical industries, China representing 50% of all heparins produced worldwide. Thus, contamination of the heparin supply is a worldwide problem. Following this event, the efficiency of the quality insurance, particularly analytical controls before proceeding, remains questionable. The strict respect of the pharmaceutical chain is urgently required to avoid any kind of quality problem in the future.

  3. EFFICIENCY OF PROTECTIVE MEASURES TO REDUCE INTERNAL DOSE FROM CAESIUM RADIONUCLIDES FOR THE INHABITANTS OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION AREA IN THE FIRST YEARS AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Travnikova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we use the data on the content of caesium radionuclides in foodstuffs and in Bryansk region adult inhabitant’s body, on their food ration and its changes during the first years after the Chernobyl accident, and on the measures to protect the population from internal exposure. We calculate dynamics of 137Cs intake in the body and its contents therein, while maintaining a traditional diet and while replacing food products for radiationfree ones. The results show that the actual 137Cs content in the body is usually below the one calculated on the basis of the food ration. It was found out that individual 137Cs contents in the body correlate with the rate of meat, dairy and natural food products consumption and with factors of protection from internal exposure. The efficiency of the protective measures to reduce the intake and the content of caesium radionuclides in the body of inhabitants, as well as the average effective dose in the first years after the accident has been quantitatively assessed.

  4. Performance improvement of direct internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell fuelled by H2S-contaminated biogas with paper-structured catalyst technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratori, Y.; Sakamoto, M.

    2016-11-01

    Direct internal reforming (DIR) operation of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a very attractive concept for downsizing and cost reduction of SOFC systems. This study aimed to develop stable operation of a DIR-SOFC fuelled by biogas. The current-voltage (I-V) curves of 2 × 2 cm2 planar SOFCs (anode- and electrolyte-supported cells, ASC and ESC, respectively.) were measured at 800 °C in the direct feed of a simulated biogas mixture (CH4/CO2 = 1), and the flexible structured catalyst material (paper-structured catalyst (PSC)) was applied on the anode material for performance enhancement. By applying a hydrotalcite (HT)-dispersed PSC (HT-PSC), the sulfur tolerance of the SOFC in the DIR operation was remarkably improved. By the effect of the HT-PSC, for both ASC and ESC, a stable cell voltage higher than 800 mV was obtained over 200 h at 0.2 A cm-2 in the direct feed of simulated biogas under 5 ppm H2S poisoning.

  5. Facteurs prédictifs de la réponse à la CERA chez les hémodialysés chroniques naïfs de traitement par agent stimulant l’érythropoïèse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezziani, Mariam; Najdi, Adil; Mikou, Souad; Hanin, Hakim; Arrayhani, Mohammed; Houssaini, Tarik Sqalli

    2015-01-01

    La correction et la stabilité du taux d'hémoglobine est un objectif majeur du traitement de l'anémie chez les hémodialysés chroniques. Toutefois, la cible d'hémoglobine > 11g/dl fixée par les recommandations demeure difficile à atteindre dans notre contexte. Le but de cette étude est d’évaluer la réponse au traitement par CERA (continuous erythropoietin receptor activator) chez une population d'hémodialysés chroniques naïfs de tout traitement par agent stimulant de l’érythropoïèse et étudier les différents facteurs associés à une mauvaise réponse au traitement. Il s'agit une étude prospective mono centrique faite au sein d'une population d’ hémodialysés chroniques. Ont été inclus les patients en hémodialyse depuis plus de 12 mois, naïfs de tout traitement par agent stimulant de l’érythropoïèse (ASE) et ayant un taux d'hémoglobine(Hb) 11g/dl. Sur 87 patients en hémodialyse périodique, 22 (25,3%) sont naïfs de tout traitement par ASE. Il s'agit de 13 hommes et 9 femmes avec un âge moyen de 46 ± 19 ans et une ancienneté en hémodialyse de 67 ± 59 mois. Le taux initial d'hémoglobine est de 7,8 ± 1,3 g/dl. Au bout de 4 mois de traitement régulier par la CERA, le taux final d'Hb est de 10,9 ± 2,1g/dl et 63,6% des patients ont atteint la cible d'Hb > 11g/dl. La dose moyenne de CERA à la fin de l’étude est de 0,89 ± 0,35 µg/kg/15j. L'analyse des facteurs prédictifs montre que la réponse finale dépend du taux d'Hb initial (p = 0,002). En effet, quand le taux d'Hb initial est > 8 g/dl, le taux de réponse est de 88% vs 46% lorsque le taux d'Hb gestion de l'anémie rénale est devenue meilleure avec une amélioration de la qualité de vie des patients [5–9]. Les recommandations de bonne pratique suggèrent actuellement le maintien de l'Hb à un taux > 11 g/dl sans dépasser 13 g/dl [9, 10]. Cependant, le maintien d'un taux d'hémoglobine stable nécessite du temps, des ressources humaines et financières et exige

  6. EM International. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  7. Use of Transportable Radiation Detection Instruments to Assess Internal Contamination from Intakes of Radionuclides Part II: Calibration Factors and ICAT Computer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anigstein, Robert; Olsher, Richard H; Loomis, Donald A; Ansari, Armin

    2016-12-01

    The detonation of a radiological dispersion device or other radiological incidents could result in widespread releases of radioactive materials and intakes of radionuclides by affected individuals. Transportable radiation monitoring instruments could be used to measure radiation from gamma-emitting radionuclides in the body for triaging individuals and assigning priorities to their bioassay samples for in vitro assessments. The present study derived sets of calibration factors for four instruments: the Ludlum Model 44-2 gamma scintillator, a survey meter containing a 2.54 × 2.54-cm NaI(Tl) crystal; the Captus 3000 thyroid uptake probe, which contains a 5.08 × 5.08-cm NaI(Tl) crystal; the Transportable Portal Monitor Model TPM-903B, which contains two 3.81 × 7.62 × 182.9-cm polyvinyltoluene plastic scintillators; and a generic instrument, such as an ionization chamber, that measures exposure rates. The calibration factors enable these instruments to be used for assessing inhaled or ingested intakes of any of four radionuclides: Co, I, Cs, and Ir. The derivations used biokinetic models embodied in the DCAL computer software system developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNPX radiation transport code. The three physical instruments were represented by MCNP models that were developed previously. The affected individuals comprised children of five ages who were represented by the revised Oak Ridge National Laboratory pediatric phantoms, and adult men and adult women represented by the Adult Reference Computational Phantoms described in Publication 110 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. These calibration factors can be used to calculate intakes; the intakes can be converted to committed doses by the use of tabulated dose coefficients. These calibration factors also constitute input data to the ICAT computer program, an interactive Microsoft Windows-based software package that estimates intakes of

  8. Contamination of the minnow Rastrineobola argenta , through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... through handling at landing sites and retail markets around Lake Victoria. ... Therefore, studies on fish contamination are critical for the acceptance of fish food locally and in international markets. ... Design: Purposive, cross-sectional study.

  9. Editorial—Global Climate Change and Contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Sanderson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health focuses on the inter-linkage between the global distribution of contaminants and climate change. [...

  10. Mental contamination: The effects of religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilekli, Ilgun; Inozu, Mujgan

    2017-08-05

    Mental contamination, which occurs in the absence of contact with a contaminant, has a moral element. Previous studies evoked feelings of mental contamination via listening to a scenario, which described a non-consensual kiss. Since mental contamination has a moral element, we tested the effects of the level of religiosity on feelings of mental contamination and related variables in an experimental design. Female undergraduates of high religiosity (n = 48) and low religiosity (n = 44) were randomly assigned to listen to one of two audio recordings involving a consensual or non-consensual kiss from a man described as moral. Mental contamination feelings were evoked successfully in both groups. Effects of scenario condition and religiosity level were seen in mental contamination and related negative feelings. Participants who imagined a non-consensual kiss reported greatest feelings of mental contamination, and internal and external negative feelings. More importantly, high religiosity resulted in greater feelings of mental contamination, internal negative feelings, as well as urges to wash and actual washing behaviors. The current study was conducted on non-clinical Muslim females. This limits the generalization of the findings to the wider population. Mental contamination and related feelings can be seen in different forms at different levels of religiosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. New method of measurement IN VIVO Combination internal whole body with high-resolution germanium detectors. Rapid response in cross-contamination v; Nuevo metodo de medida in vivo de la combinacion interna en cuerpo entero con detectores de germanio de alta resolucion. respuesta rapida en contaminaciones cruzadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Amaro, J. F.; Perez Lopez, B.; Lopez Ponte, M. A.; Navarro Bravo, T.

    2013-07-01

    This test method is a substantial improvement on the current capacities of the Personal Internal Dosimetry Service CIEMAT, as it will in a very short time make accurate measurements in vivo, excellent resolution and low background radiation environment in geometry whole body. The method will complement the existing laboratory [3] and may be used in emergencies or radiological accident in which the complexity of measuring spectra (cross contamination, multipicos interference) require a higher spectral resolution. (Author)

  12. Status on contamination monitoring in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou Quanlu [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)

    1997-06-01

    The air contaminated by radioactive materials in nuclear enterprises and radioactive workplaces and forming radioactive aerosol and the leakage of radioactive materials in operation cause internal exposure damage in workers. It is necessary and important to monitor air and surface contaminations for the health of public and workers, and for protecting environment. At present, many institutes engage in the studies on surface contamination monitoring in China, and the government has formulated the control limits of surface contamination in the Regulations of Radiation Protection. The monitors for surface contamination monitoring are almost home-made. The methods being used often are smear test and placing surface sample test. Scintillation counters, semiconductor detectors and G-M counters have been used for detecting alpha surface contamination. Plastic scintillator meters and thin wall/window G-M counters are used for beta surface contamination. Special detectors have been designed for monitoring low energy nuclides. The status of airborne contamination monitoring in China is reported. As the studies for future, the development of the surface contamination monitor for low energy beta nuclides, especially H-3, the monitoring methods for the special shapes of surfaces, the technology of decontamination and the calibration method and device for on-line radioactive aerosol continuous monitors are taken up. (K.I.)

  13. Harvesting contaminants from liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott R.

    2016-05-31

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus allowing the contaminants to be harvested.

  14. Response of monitors of surface contamination to internal exposition control from {sup 131}I in the 'nuclear medicine services'; Respuesta de monitores de contaminacion superficial para el control de la exposicion interna a {sup 131}I en servicios de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puerta, Nancy; Rojo, Ana M.; Villella, Adrian; Gossio, Sebastian; Parada, Ines Gomez, E-mail: info@arn.gov.br [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Acosta, Norma; Arenas, German, E-mail: nacosta@fuesmen.edu.ar [Fundacion Escuela de Medina Nuclear (FUESMEN), Mendoza (Argentina)

    2013-11-01

    The IAEA, in its publication RS-G-1.2, proposes individual control of workers occupationally exposed with risk of internal exposure when the potential exposure provided by incorporation leads to a value of annual committed effective dose equal to or greater than 1 mSv. Because the radionuclide {sup 131}I is the most important to control internal exposure in Nuclear Medicine Services, it is evaluated if the surface contamination monitors, commonly used in nuclear medicine centers of Argentina, would implement individual control of internal exposure to {sup 131}I. Selected detectors were calibrated with a dummy neck and thyroid with calibrated sources of {sup 131}I and {sup 133}Ba reference. For each detector is was estimated the detection efficiency for {sup 131}I and its detection limit. Each instrument was evaluated for the lowest effective dose possible to detect compromised by individual routine monitoring with different measurement intervals . We analyzed the response of each team for determining conditions that may be effective for the control of internal exposure of {sup 131}I. Finally , we conclude that the daily individual monitoring surface contamination detectors available in the Nuclear Medicine Services is feasible to implement and ensures detection of significant additions of {sup 131}I.

  15. Contaminated Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Sites contaminated by hazardous materials or wastes. These sites are those administered by the Contaminated Sites Section of Iowa DNR. Many are sites which are...

  16. Center for Contaminated Sediments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Center for Contaminated Sediments serves as a clearinghouse for technology and expertise concerned with contaminated sediments. The...

  17. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  18. External Contamination Environment at ISS Included: Selected Results from Payloads Contamination Mapping Delivery 3 Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Randy; Huang, Alvin; Steagall, Courtney; Kohl, Nathaniel; Koontz, Steve; Worthy, Erica

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit. Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets.

  19. Improvement of personalized Monte Carlo-aided direct internal contamination monitoring: optimization of calculation times and measurement methodology for the establishment of activity distribution; Amelioration des mesures anthroporadiametriques personnalisees assistees par calcul Monte Carlo: optimisation des temps de calculs et methodologie de mesure pour l'etablissement de la repartition d'activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farah, Jad

    2011-10-06

    To optimize the monitoring of female workers using in vivo spectrometry measurements, it is necessary to correct the typical calibration coefficients obtained with the Livermore male physical phantom. To do so, numerical calibrations based on the use of Monte Carlo simulations combined with anthropomorphic 3D phantoms were used. Such computational calibrations require on the one hand the development of representative female phantoms of different size and morphologies and on the other hand rapid and reliable Monte Carlo calculations. A library of female torso models was hence developed by fitting the weight of internal organs and breasts according to the body height and to relevant plastic surgery recommendations. This library was next used to realize a numerical calibration of the AREVA NC La Hague in vivo counting installation. Moreover, the morphology-induced counting efficiency variations with energy were put into equation and recommendations were given to correct the typical calibration coefficients for any monitored female worker as a function of body height and breast size. Meanwhile, variance reduction techniques and geometry simplification operations were considered to accelerate simulations. Furthermore, to determine the activity mapping in the case of complex contaminations, a method that combines Monte Carlo simulations with in vivo measurements was developed. This method consists of realizing several spectrometry measurements with different detector positioning. Next, the contribution of each contaminated organ to the count is assessed from Monte Carlo calculations. The in vivo measurements realized at LEDI, CIEMAT and KIT have demonstrated the effectiveness of the method and highlighted the valuable contribution of Monte Carlo simulations for a more detailed analysis of spectrometry measurements. Thus, a more precise estimate of the activity distribution is given in the case of an internal contamination. (author)

  20. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Terry C.; Fliermans, Carl B.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodicially forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene.

  1. JPL Contamination Control Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakkolb, Brian

    2013-01-01

    JPL has extensive expertise fielding contamination sensitive missions-in house and with our NASA/industry/academic partners.t Development and implementation of performance-driven cleanliness requirements for a wide range missions and payloads - UV-Vis-IR: GALEX, Dawn, Juno, WFPC-II, AIRS, TES, et al - Propulsion, thermal control, robotic sample acquisition systems. Contamination control engineering across the mission life cycle: - System and payload requirements derivation, analysis, and contamination control implementation plans - Hardware Design, Risk trades, Requirements V-V - Assembly, Integration & Test planning and implementation - Launch site operations and launch vehicle/payload integration - Flight ops center dot Personnel on staff have expertise with space materials development and flight experiments. JPL has capabilities and expertise to successfully address contamination issues presented by space and habitable environments. JPL has extensive experience fielding and managing contamination sensitive missions. Excellent working relationship with the aerospace contamination control engineering community/.

  2. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, de A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In ord

  3. Contaminated water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormly, Sherwin J. (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for processing of a liquid ("contaminant liquid") containing water and containing urine and/or other contaminants in a two step process. Urine, or a contaminated liquid similar to and/or containing urine and thus having a relatively high salt and urea content is passed through an activated carbon filter to provide a resulting liquid, to remove most of the organic molecules. The resulting liquid is passed through a semipermeable membrane from a membrane first side to a membrane second side, where a fortified drink having a lower water concentration (higher osmotic potential) than the resulting liquid is positioned. Osmotic pressure differential causes the water, but not most of the remaining inorganic (salts) contaminant(s) to pass through the membrane to the fortified drink. Optionally, the resulting liquid is allowed to precipitate additional organic molecules before passage through the membrane.

  4. Radiological Risk Assessment and Survey of Radioactive Contamination for Foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.R.; Lee, C.W.; Choi, K.S.; and others

    2007-11-15

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, a radiological dose assessment and a survey of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs have been investigated by many countries such as EU, Japan, USA. In the case of Japan which is similar to our country for the imported regions of foodstuffs, there were some instances of the excess for regulation on the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination among some imported foodstuffs. Concerns about the radioactive contamination of foodstuffs are increased because of the recently special situation (Nuclear test of North Korea). The purpose of this study is a radiological dose assessment and a survey of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs in order to reduce the probability of intake of contaminated foodstuffs. Analytical results of the collected samples are below MDA. In this project, the model of radiological dose assessment via the food chain was also developed and radiological dose assessment was conducted based on surveys results of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs in the Korean open markets since 2002. The results of radiological dose assessment are far below international reference level. It shows that public radiation exposure via food chain is well controlled within the international guide level. However, the radioactive contamination research of imported foodstuffs should be continuous considering the special situation(nuclear test of North Korea). These results are used to manage the radioactive contamination of the imported foodstuffs and also amend the regulation on the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs.

  5. Space Stirling Cryocooler Contamination Lessons Learned and Recommended Control Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, D. S.; Price, K.; Gully, W.; Castles, S.; Reilly, J.

    The most important characteristic of a space cryocooler is its reliability over a lifetime typically in excess of 7 years. While design improvements have reduced the probability of mechanical failure, the risk of internal contamination is still significant and has not been addressed in a consistent approach across the industry. A significant fraction of the endurance test and flight units have experienced some performance degradation related to internal contamination. The purpose of this paper is to describe and assess the contamination issues inside long life, space cryocoolers and to recommend procedures to minimize the probability of encountering contamination related failures and degradation. The paper covers the sources of contamination, the degradation and failure mechanisms, the theoretical and observed cryocooler sensitivity, and the recommended prevention procedures and their impact. We begin with a discussion of the contamination sources, both artificial and intrinsic. Next, the degradation and failure mechanisms are discussed in an attempt to arrive at a contaminant susceptibility, from which we can derive a contamination budget for the machine. This theoretical sensitivity is then compared with the observed sensitivity to illustrate the conservative nature of the assumed scenarios. A number of lessons learned on Raytheon, Ball, Air Force Research Laboratory, and NASA GSFC programs are shared to convey the practical aspects of the contamination problem. Then, the materials and processes required to meet the proposed budget are outlined. An attempt is made to present a survey of processes across industry.

  6. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  7. Status report on the International Germanium Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Avignone, F.T.; Collar, J.I.; Courant, H.; Garcia, E.; Guerard, C.K.; Hensley, W.K.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Miley, H.S.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Nunez-Lagos, R.; Osetrov, S.B.; Pogosov, V.S.; Pomansky, A.A.; Puimedon, J.; Reeves, J.H.; Ruddick, K.; Saenz, C.; Salinas, A.; Sarsa, M.L.; Smolnikov, A.A.; Starostin, A.S.; Tamanyan, A.G.; Vasiliev, S.I.; Villar, J.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States) Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States) Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States) Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain) Inst. for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation) Inst. for Nuclear Research, Baksan Neutrino Observatory (Russian Federation) Yerevan Physical Inst., Yerevan (Armenia))

    1993-04-01

    Phase II detector fabrication for the International Germanium Experiment is in progress. Sources of background observed during Phase I are discussed. Cosmogenic [sup 7]Be is measured in germanium. Radium contamination, presumably in electroformed copper, is reported. (orig.)

  8. Status report on the International Germanium Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinski, R. L.; Avignone, F. T.; Collar, J. I.; Courant, H.; García, E.; Guerard, C. K.; Hensley, W. K.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Miley, H. S.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Núñez-Lagos, R.; Osetrov, S. B.; Pogosov, V. S.; Pomansky, A. A.; Puimedón, J.; Reeves, J. H.; Ruddick, K.; Sáenz, C.; Salinas, A.; Sarsa, M. L.; Smolnikov, A. A.; Starostin, A. S.; Tamanyan, A. G.; Vasiliev, S. I.; Villar, J. A.

    1993-04-01

    Phase II detector fabrication for the International Germanium Experiment is in progress. Sources of background observed during Phase I are discussed. Cosmogenic 7Be is measured in germanium. Radium contamination, presumably in electroformed copper, is reported.

  9. Profil des insuffisants rénaux chroniques diabétiques à l'initiation de l'hémodialyse au service de néphrologie et dialyse de l'hôpital militaire de Rabat, Maroc

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Farouki, Mohamed Reda; Bahadi, Abdelaali; Hamzi, Mohamed Amine; Kabbaj, Driss; Benyahia, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Le diabète constitue une cause fréquente d'insuffisance rénale chronique terminale (IRCT) dans le monde. Ce travail présente une étude clinique rétrospective dont le but est de décrire le profil clinico-biologique des patients diabétiques en IRCT, de le comparer aux patients non-diabétiques au stade d'IRCT, et de suivre l’évolution de leurs abords vasculaires, afin d'en déduire des conclusions sur une prise en charge particulière des patients diabétiques. Les paramètres cliniques et biologiques concernant les patients mis en hémodialyse dans notre formation entre le 01 janvier 2006 et le 31 décembre 2011, ont été recueilli et analysés. Nous avons procédé à l’étude comparative des patients en fonction de l'existence ou non d'une néphropathie diabétique, et nous nous sommes intéressés à l’évolution de leurs abords vasculaires. Il s'agit de 207 patients insuffisants rénaux chroniques, dont 86 diabétiques. Le groupe des patients diabétiques était moins suivi avant la mise en hémodialyse (3,66 mois vs. 6,32 mois), avec une prise beaucoup plus importante d'antihypertenseurs (1,87 vs. 1,14, p<0,001). L’échec des abords vasculaires était plus important chez les patients diabétiques (45% vs. 27%, p=0,006), avec une survie moyenne plus faible de leurs abords vasculaires (509 vs 753 jours, p=0,003). L’étude comparative des taux d'hémoglobine, de parathormone intacte, d'albuminémie et de C-réactive protéine, entre le groupe de patients diabétiques et non diabétiques était non significative. Notre étude soulève le problème du suivi néphrologique chez les diabétiques, pourtant censés être mieux suivis, et son retentissement sur l'avenir de leurs abords vasculaires. PMID:24255730

  10. Does modifying personal responsibility moderate the mental contamination effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Tinisha S; Simonds, Laura M

    2017-12-01

    Mental contamination is the psychological sense of internal dirtiness that arises in the absence of physical contact with a perceived contaminant. Mental contamination can be evoked through imagining perpetrating a moral transgression. This study experimentally evoked mental contamination by asking men to imagine perpetrating a non-consensual kiss. It explored whether reducing sense of personal responsibility for the kiss moderated the mental contamination effect. Male students (N = 60) imagined giving either a consensual or non-consensual kiss. Personal responsibility for the kiss was manipulated in one of two non-consensual kiss conditions by way of the inclusion of social influence information. Feelings of mental contamination were assessed by self-report and through a behavioural index. Mental contamination was successfully induced in the two non-consensual kiss conditions. There was evidence to support the hypothesis that reducing personal responsibility might moderate specific components of mental contamination (shame, dirtiness and urge to cleanse). The effect of responsibility modification was evident in the self-report measures, but not in the behavioural index. The sample comprised male university students which limits generalizability of the findings. The behavioural assessment of mental contamination was limited to a proxy measure. Imagined moral violations are associated with increases in indices of mental contamination. Further research should investigate whether feelings of shame, dirtiness and urge to cleanse are particularly responsive to responsibility modifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomilov, M.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Chignoli, F.; Mazza, R.; Palladino, V.; de Bari, A.; Cecchet, G.; Capponi, M.; Iaciofano, A.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tortora, L.; Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Ishimoto, S.; Japan, Ibaraki; Filthaut, F.; Hansen, O.M.; Ramberger, S.; Vretenar, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Blondel, A.; Drielsma, F.; Karadzhov, Y.; Charnley, G.; Collomb, N.; Gallagher, A.; Grant, A.; Griffiths, S.; Hartnett, T.; Martlew, B.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Oates, A.; Owens, P.; Stokes, G.; Warburton, P.; White, C.; Adams, D.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Courthold, M.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Hayler, T.; Hills, M.; Lintern, A.; Macwaters, C.; Nichols, A.; Preece, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Stanley, T.; Tarrant, J.; Watson, S.; Wilson, A.; Bayes, R.; Nugent, J.C.; Soler, F.J.P.; Cooke, P.; Gamet, R.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Colling, D.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Hunt, C.; Lagrange, J-B.; Long, K.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Pasternak, J.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Uchida, M.A.; Blackmore, V.J.; Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.H.; Lau, W.; Rayner, M.A.; Tunnell, C.D.; Booth, C.N.; Hodgson, P.; Langlands, J.; Nicholson, R.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P.J.; Dick, A.; Ronald, K.; Speirs, D.; Whyte, C.G.; Young, A.; Boyd, S.; Franchini, P.; Greis, J.R.; Pidcott, C.; Taylor, I.; Gardener, R.; Kyberd, P.; Littlefield, M.; Nebrensky, J.J.; Bross, A.D.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R.; Roberts, T.J.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Li, D.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Drews, M.; Hanlet, P.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Rajaram, D.; Snopok, P.; Torun, Y.; Winter, M.; Blot, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Bravar, U.; Onel, Y.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Hart, T.L.; Luo, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Summers, D.J.; Cline, D.; Yang, X.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.G.; Heidt, C.

    2016-01-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240\\,MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than $\\sim$1\\% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is $f_\\pi < 1.4\\%$ at 90\\% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.

  12. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, V. J.; Blondel, A.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.; Brashaw, T. W.; Bravar, U.; Bross, A. D.; Capponi, M.; Carlisle, T.; Cecchet, G.; Charnley, C.; Chignoli, F.; Cline, D.; Cobb, J. H.; Colling, G.; Collomb, N.; Coney, L.; Cooke, P.; Courthold, M.; Cremaldi, L. M.; DeMello, A.; Dick, A.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Drews, M.; Drielsma, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Franchini, P.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Gallagher, A.; Gamet, R.; Gardener, R.; Gourlay, S.; Grant, A.; Greis, J. R.; Griffiths, S.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, O. M.; Hanson, G. G.; Hart, T. L.; Hartnett, T.; Hayler, T.; Heidt, C.; Hills, M.; Hodgson, P.; Hunt, C.; Iaciofano, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D. M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Kuno, Y.; Kyberd, P.; Lagrange, J.-B.; Langlands, J.; Lau, W.; Leonova, M.; Li, D.; Lintern, A.; Littlefield, M.; Long, K.; Luo, T.; Macwaters, C.; Martlew, B.; Martyniak, J.; Mazza, R.; Middleton, S.; Moretti, A.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Neuffer, D.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, R.; Nugent, J. C.; Oates, A.; Onel, Y.; Orestano, D.; Overton, E.; Owens, P.; Palladino, V.; Pasternak, J.; Pastore, F.; Pidcott, C.; Popovic, M.; Preece, R.; Prestemon, S.; Rajaram, D.; Ramberger, S.; Rayner, M. A.; Ricciardi, S.; Roberts, T. J.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, C.; Ronald, K.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, P.; Sakamato, H.; Sanders, D. A.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Smith, P. J.; Snopok, P.; Soler, F. J. P.; Speirs, D.; Stanley, T.; Stokes, G.; Summers, D. J.; Tarrant, J.; Taylor, I.; Tortora, L.; Torun, Y.; Tsenov, R.; Tunnell, C. D.; Uchida, M. A.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Virostek, S.; Vretenar, M.; Warburton, P.; Watson, S.; White, C.; Whyte, C. G.; Wilson, A.; Winter, M.; Yang, X.; Young, A.; Zisman, M.

    2016-03-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240 MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than ~1% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is fπ < 1.4% at 90% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.

  13. Contamination vs. Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Related to Polonium-210 Contamination in the United Kingdom Guidance for Public Health Departments and Clinicians Caring ... released into the environment can cause air, water, surfaces, soil, plants, buildings, people, or animals to become ...

  14. Contaminant Candidate List 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 3 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  15. Contaminant Candidate List 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 1 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  16. Contaminant Candidate List 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 2 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  17. Dose estimate for effective internal contamination in the occupationally exposed workers(OEW) that handling open sources for thyroid therapy using {sup 131} I (3779); Estimacion de la dosis efectiva por contaminacion interna en los trabajadores ocupacionalmente expuestos (TOE) que manipulan fuentes abiertas para el tratamiento de tiroides con {sup 131}I (3779)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecuna, J.A.; Carrizales, L.I., E-mail: jj1211g@yahoo.com, E-mail: lcarriza@ivic.gob.ve [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Dantas, B.M., E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    Handling of a variety of unsealed sources in Nuclear Medicine has led a significant risk of internal exposure of workers. {sup 131}I stands out among the radionuclides of frequent use due its wide application in diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. The increasing radionuclide use for medical purposes and treatment of diseases creates a need for capable methodologies of controlling the internal contamination of work. Currently, in Venezuela, there are about 17 Nuclear Medicine Services between public and private, of which 5 are operating; however, individual monitoring is still limited in the control of internal exposure. This work presents the development of bioassay techniques 'in vivo', in order to quantify the incorporation of {sup 131}I used in Nuclear Medicine. It also presents the research results of internal exposure of a group of workers involved in handling of therapeutic dose of {sup 131}I . The 'in vivo' detection system was calibrated with the thyroid simulator developed at the Institute of Radiologic Protection and Dosimetry (IRD, Rio de Janeiro - Brazil) and which also has the UTN-IVIC (Caracas - Venezuela). The results showed that the bioassay method developed in this work has sufficient sensitivity for its use in routine intake survey of workers in Nuclear Medicine. Between the two workers controlled in this study, both had measurable results in terms of incorporation. Therefore, it is important to keep control of it and also gives us the possibility to evaluate the incorporations in suspected accident. The highest estimate of the effective dose was 1,28x10{sup -5} Sv by inhalation and 1,27x10{sup -5} Sv by ingestion.

  18. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

    2000-08-31

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of

  19. Country report on contamination monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyuntulkhuur, Navaangalsan [National Centre for Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology (Mongolia). Central Radiological Laboratory

    1997-06-01

    Mongolia is a non-nuclear country and has currently neither nuclear power plants nor research reactors. This country joined the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA) for the Asia Pacific region for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology in 1993. Various measures has been taken for strengthening of radiation protection, cooperated with several international organizations mainly with IAEA. In Mongolia radioactive substances and sources are used for the following purposes: for research work; medical radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology in hospitals; industrial enterprises for technological processes; and for non-destructive testing in industry. Radiation safety inspection is conducted by the CRL. The inspections consist of verification of compliance with radiation safety requirements and with any additional requirements specified in the authorization of accounting records and a physical check on the presence of radiation sources; check on the work carried out by the radiation safety services to monitor radioactive contamination of the environment; and measurements and sampling. CRL should take much attention for improvement and development of the activities in the field of surface contamination monitoring concerning a wide use of radionuclides in different field of economy. (G.K.)

  20. Lead poisoning by contaminated flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershko, C; Eisenberg, A; Avni, A; Grauer, F; Acker, C; Hamdallah, M; Shahin, S; Moreb, J; Richter, E; Weissenberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Between October 1982 and June 1983, 43 patients were identified with symptomatic lead poisoning in three Arab villages of the Nablus district. Because of the clustering of clinical poisoning by household units, investigation was focussed on potential sources common to all members of the households. After excluding water, olive oil and a variety of foodstuff, lead in high concentrations was discovered in locally ground flour in all affected households. The source of poisoning was lead poured into the fissures between the metal housing and the driveshaft of the millstone. Significant lead contamination of freshly ground flour was demonstrated in 23% of the 146 community flour mills operating in West Bank villages. Since the completion of these studies, similar outbreaks of lead poisoning caused by contaminated flourmills have been identified in the Upper Galilee and in Spain. As the methods of milling in the Mediterranean area are similar, a coordinated international effort is needed in order to eliminate this health hazard from countries where similar community stone mills are still in use.

  1. [New aspects of safety assessment and food contamination with antibiotics of tetracycline group in the light of harmonization of hygienic standards in Russia and Customs Union with the international standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Sheveleva, S A; Khotimchenko, S A

    2012-01-01

    To address the issue of harmonization of Russian MRLs for tetracycline in food and on the basis of the tasks of preserving the value of hygienic standard for the more restrictive level than similar standards of the Codex Alimentarius Commission in this survey we analyzed the evidences of the negative effects of subingibitory amounts of these antibiotics (lying below the MIC for clinically relevant microorganisms). The inadequacy of the microbiological JECFA ADI and the necessity of using of methodology of analyzing the effects of biological active substances in small doses for assessing the risk of food contamination of tetracycline subingibitory concentrations were demonstrated. Current scientific information on the functions of antibiotics as signaling molecules in the microbial world and the role of tetracycline as a leading factor in the regulation of transcription in microorganisms and activation of the horizontal transfer of resistance genes transferred to the family of conjugative transposons Tn916-Tn1545 also was reviewed in paper. Evidence-based data regarding the basic contribution of subingibitory concentrations of tetracycline in the spread of worst transmissible type of antibiotic resistance and the formation of new pathogens, associated with it, are represented. To reduce the risk of direct adverse effects on microbial ecosystem in the human body and its habitat, and to minimize the indirect risk of new infections, the necessity of saving the current Russian level residues of tetracycline (< or = 0.01 mg/kg of product), which is low by contrast to the Codex MRLs (< or = 0.1-1.2 mg/kg), was proved. Tetracycline concentrations in food, regulated in Russian Federation, below 0.1 MIC for clinically significant microorganisms which aren't capable to initiation of the above described negative changes.

  2. Soils as a buffer of contaminants in catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    Human activities deliver large quantities of contaminants into the environment through atmospheric emissions or direct releases. As many of those contaminants are particle-reactive, they bind strongly to the finest particles or on their organic matter fraction once they deposit onto soils. Contaminants may subsequently migrate in depth of the soil depending on their physico-chemical characteristics. They may also be redistributed along hillslopes in association with particles during soil erosion events and may be subsequently supplied to rivers, preventing to meet the international environmental targets (e.g. in the framework of the EU Water Framework Directive). In regions where soil erosion rates are low to moderate, a large quantity of particle-reactive contaminants may accumulate in soils that constitute a reservoir of pollutants that may be delivered to rivers during decades or centuries. This session will focus on the specific role played by soils as a reservoir of contaminants at the catchment scale. A better understanding of this role and a quantification of the persistence of contaminants in this reservoir will provide crucial insights to guide the implementation of efficient mitigation measures. Contributions to this session may address any aspect of particle-borne contaminant transfer at the catchment scale, with an emphasis on the role played by soils in their storage and transfer. Field-based or modeling studies may focus either on specific pollutants or on a wider range of substances, e.g. metals, radionuclides, organic contaminants. Key themes may include: • Contaminant budget at the hillslope vs. the catchment scales; • Evaluation of the contribution of the regional vs. local contamination sources; • Evaluation of the contaminant removal from soils by degradation vs. soil erosion; • Quantifying the persistence of contaminants in soils; • Discrimination between the legacy and the contemporary supply of contaminants to soils.

  3. Detection of microbial contamination in platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Tracy L.; Leparc, German; Huffman, Debra E.; Gennaccaro, Angela L.; Garcia-Lopez, Alicia; Klungness, Greta; Stephans, Christie; Garcia-Rubio, Luis H.

    2005-03-01

    In the United States, approximately 100 patients develop fatal sepsis associated with platelet transfusions every year. Current culture methods take 24-48 hours to acquire results, which in turn decrease the shelf life of platelets. Many of the microorganisms that contaminate platelets can replicate easily at room temperature, which is the necessary storage temperature to keep platelets functional. Therefore, there is a need for in-situ quality control assessment of the platelet quality. For this purpose, a real time spectrophotometric technique has been developed. The Spectral Acquisition Processing Detection (SAPD) method, comprised of a UV-vis spectrophotometer and modeling algorithms, is a rapid method that can be performed prior to platelet transfusion to decrease the risk of bacterial infection to patients. The SAPD method has been used to determine changes in cell suspensions, based on size, shape, chemical composition and internal structure. Changes in these cell characteristics can in turn be used to determine microbial contamination, platelet aging and other physiologic changes. Detection limits of this method for platelet suspensions seeded with bacterial contaminants were identified to be less than 100 cfu/ml of sample. Bacterial counts below 1000 cfu/ml are not considered clinically significant. The SAPD method can provide real-time identification of bacterial contamination of platelets affording patients an increased level of safety without causing undue strain on laboratory budgets or personnel while increasing the time frame that platelets can be used by dramatically shortening contaminant detection time.

  4. Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Jody L.; Kauffman, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite contamination continues to be a design problem that engineers must take into account when developing new satellites. To help with this issue, NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program funded the development of the Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base. This engineering tool brings together in one location information about the outgassing properties of aerospace materials based upon ground-testing data, the effects of outgassing that has been observed during flight and measurements of the contamination environment by on-orbit instruments. The knowledge base contains information using the ASTM Standard E- 1559 and also consolidates data from missions using quartz-crystal microbalances (QCM's). The data contained in the knowledge base was shared with NASA by government agencies and industry in the US and international space agencies as well. The term 'knowledgebase' was used because so much information and capability was brought together in one comprehensive engineering design tool. It is the SEE Program's intent to continually add additional material contamination data as it becomes available - creating a dynamic tool whose value to the user is ever increasing. The SEE Program firmly believes that NASA, and ultimately the entire contamination user community, will greatly benefit from this new engineering tool and highly encourages the community to not only use the tool but add data to it as well.

  5. Assessment of internal doses

    CERN Document Server

    Rahola, T; Falk, R; Isaksson, M; Skuterud, L

    2002-01-01

    There is a definite need for training in dose calculation. Our first course was successful and was followed by a second, both courses were fully booked. An example of new tools for software products for bioassay analysis and internal dose assessment is the Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis (IMBA) were demonstrated at the second course. This suite of quality assured code modules have been adopted in the UK as the standard for regulatory assessment purposes. The intercomparison measurements are an important part of the Quality Assurance work. In what is known as the sup O utside workers ' directive it is stated that the internal dose measurements shall be included in the European Unions supervision system for radiation protection. The emergency preparedness regarding internal contamination was much improved by the training with and calibration of handheld instruments from participants' laboratories. More improvement will be gained with the handbook giving practical instructions on what to do in case of e...

  6. First Italian intercomparison on methodologies for dose assessment from internal contamination. Results and perspectives; Primo interconfronto italiano sulle metodiche di valutazione di dose da contaminazione interna: risultati e prospettive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    In the frame of the MIDIA activities (coordination of whole body counters operating in Italy) an intercomparison on dose evaluation methods was promoted and carried out between October 1995 and March 1996 by 5 WBC centres. The main results related to the estimation of Intake and effective dose equivalent on the four case studies are reported. A comparison with European preliminary results is also presented. Finally perspectives related to the quality assurance of internal dosimetry estimates are indicated. [Italian] Vengono riportati i risultati delle valutazioni di Intake e di equivalente di dose nei centri MIDIA (coordinamento dei WBC operanti in Italia) per effettuare un interconfronto sui metodi di valutazione di dose da contaminazione interna utilizzando casi di studio reperiti in ambiente europeo. Vengono indicate le prospettive per la valutazione della qualita' della stima di dose in dosimetria interna.

  7. Contamination Control for Thermal Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Rachel B.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). This course will cover the basics of Contamination Control, including contamination control related failures, the effects of contamination on Flight Hardware, what contamination requirements translate to, design methodology, and implementing contamination control into Integration, Testing and Launch.

  8. Lead-210 contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [Peter Gray and Associates, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Nearly all scrap dealers, smelters and other recyclers routinely monitor for radioactivity in shipments entering their facility. These sensitive radiation gate monitors easily detect radium-226 and most other radioactive nuclides. However, the type of detector normally used, sodium iodide scintillation crystals, will not detect the low energy gamma radiation emitted by lead-210 and its progeny. Since lead-210 is a common radioactive contaminant in certain industries, contaminated scrap metal from these industries may avoid detection at the recycler. Lead-210 is a decay product of radon-222 which is produced in small concentrations with natural gas. As the natural gas liquids, particularly ethane and propane, are separated from the natural gas, the radon concentrates in the ethane/propane fraction. The natural gas industry, particularly gas processing facilities and industries using ethane and propane as feed stocks can be significantly contaminated with the radon decay products, especially lead-210, bismuth-210 and polonium-210. Unless the scrap metal is decontaminated before sending to the recycler, the lead-210 contaminated scrap may be processed, resulting in some degree of radioactive contamination of the recycling facilities. Methods of detecting the low energy gamma radiation associated with lead-210 include the pancake G-M detector and the thin crystal-thin window scintillation detector.

  9. Environmental Contaminants in Foodstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Túri-Szerletics

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Consumers have specific concerns about food contaminants but often lack themeans to make appropriate judgements on what is high risk and what is not. Contaminantsin foods can be grouped according to their origin and nature. Environmental contaminantsof food-safety concern includes toxic metals and elements, organometallic compounds,agricultural chemicals and persistent organic pollutants such as halogenated hydrocarbonpesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,phthalates, nirates, nitrites. These contaminants may present a potential hazard for humanhealth if exposure exceeds tolerable levels. This article shows the characteristics and thedietary intake of these elements and compounds. Further works need to concentrate onmechanism of different contaminants toxicity and metabolism, reevaluation of acceptablelimits, and their control in foods and in the environment.

  10. Contamination Analysis Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieda, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    This talk presents 3 different tools developed recently for contamination analysis:HTML QCM analyzer: runs in a web browser, and allows for data analysis of QCM log filesJava RGA extractor: can load in multiple SRS.ana files and extract pressure vs. time dataC++ Contamination Simulation code: 3D particle tracing code for modeling transport of dust particulates and molecules. Uses residence time to determine if molecules stick. Particulates can be sampled from IEST-STD-1246 and be accelerated by aerodynamic forces.

  11. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tase, Norio [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed. 9 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  13. ISS External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos; Mikatarian, Ron; Steagall, Courtney; Huang, Alvin; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    (1) The International Space Station is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit, (2) Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives, (3) Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle, and (4)The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets.

  14. Analysis of the murine renal transcriptoma in conditions of acute and chronic exposure to uranium; Analyse du transcriptome renal murin dans des conditions d'exposition aigue et chronique a l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taulan, M

    2004-06-01

    The principal objective of this work was to evaluate the molecular alterations induced by uranium. For this, were used classical approaches of toxicology and implementation of a global analysis technique: S.A.G.E. (serial analysis of gene expression). After acute contamination, was brought to the shore an alteration of the renal function and a catalogue of different transcripts representative of molecular events consecutive to uranium incorporation was defined. More than 14 000 transcripts have been identified, among which 224 genes that present a variation in gene expression. These last ones have been classified in different categories of cell processes as inflammation, oxidative stress, cell transporters, signal transduction, apoptosis, metabolism and catabolism. The same study was made for a chronic exposure. This study shows that the chronic uranium ingestion changes numerous cell processes as these ones previously noticed. The whole of these data has allowed to validate the use of the genomic approach S.A.G.E. in the field of toxicology, by establishing a profile of gene expression of events relative to an uranium intoxication. The analysis of molecular consequences should allow to find early markers of an uranium contamination, means more efficient of this actinide elimination and new therapies targets. (N.C.)

  15. Mercury contamination extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Mark; Heiser, John; Kalb, Paul

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  16. DSCOVR Contamination Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    The Triana observatory was built at NASA GSFC in the late 1990's, then placed into storage. After approximately ten years it was removed from storage and repurposed as the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). This presentation outlines the contamination control program lessons learned during the integration, test and launch of DSCOVR.

  17. Monitoring of the internal contamination of occupationally exposure personnel in services of nuclear medicine through the use of gamma cameras; Monitoreo de la contaminacion interna de personal ocupacionalmente expuesto en servicios de medicina nuclear mediante el uso de gamma camaras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teran, M.; Paolino, A.; Savio, E. [Catedra de Radioquimica, Facultad de Quimica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Hermida, J.C. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital de Clinicas, Facultad de Medicina, Montevideo (Uruguay); Dantas, B.M. [Laboratorio de Medidas In vivo, Instituto da Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The radionuclides incorporation can happen as a result of diverse activities; these include the work associated with the different stadiums of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, the scientific research, the agriculture and the industry. In Uruguay the main activities linked to the manipulation of open sources correspond those of Nuclear Medicine and from 2004, in the mark of the Project Arcal RLA 049 and being based on the Safety Guides of the IAEA it is implementing a program of internal monitoring in combined form the Nuclear Medicine Center of the Hospital of and the Radiochemistry class of the Faculty of Chemistry. In accordance with the publication of the ICRP 75 the emphasis of any monitoring program should be in the formal study of the doses in the workers to who are considered commendable of to receive in routine form an outstanding fraction of the dose limits or who work in areas where the exposures can be significant in the accident event. From April 2004, to the date has started a pilot plan by means of in that were established appropriate conditions of procedures and of safety in a reduced group of workers of the Nuclear Medicine area. In that period the first work limits, equipment adjustment, calibrations and registration systems were determined. The monitoring system implemented until the moment is carried out with a thyroid caption equipment. However these measurements are carried out in the university hospital embracing 40% of the involved workers of our country, with the purpose of reaching the covering of the biggest quantity of occupationally exposed personnel of private clinics. Also it was developed a new work proposal that allows to have an alternative measure method, in the event of not having the equipment habitually used. Among the conclusions of this work are that for the before exposed are considered the measure conditions but appropriate the following ones: Gamma Camera without collimator; Measurement

  18. Subsurface Contamination Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Yuan

    2001-11-16

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the

  19. Subsurface Contamination Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Yuan

    2001-12-12

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the

  20. Internal and International Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Mario Antinucci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This subject, whence the name of this paper originates from, must be addressed with courage and intellectual integrity by all of us, the different parts of the civil society, the public institutions, the entrepreneurs and the legal professionals, the youth and the new generations. All the public policies of the European governments share the belief of a direct correlation between the criminal density connected to corruption of States political and economic protagonists and the lack of availability of investments on young talents, new generations, both in the entrepreneurial and in the professional fields. In most Member States, anticorruption policies have gained an increased prominence in government agendas and the financial crisis has drawn attention to the integrity and accountability of policy-makers. Most Member States that are currently in serious financial difficulties have acknowledged the seriousness of issues related to corruption and have created (or are planning anticorruption programs in order to deal with the risks deriving from this issue and with the diversion of public funds. In some Member States, the economic adjustment programs provide for explicit obligations related to anti-corruption policies. Even when not formally connected to adjustment programs, anticorruption policies complement the adjustment measures, especially in those countries in which corruption is a serious issue.  During the European Semester of economic policy coordination, recommendations for efficiently fighting corruption have been laid out; Among the most vulnerable sectors, urban development and building projects are certainly very exposed to corruption risks and to infiltration of internal and transnational organized crime.

  1. International arbejdsdeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Article dealing with the implications of informátion and communication technologies on the international division of labour.......Article dealing with the implications of informátion and communication technologies on the international division of labour....

  2. Internal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Paralyzed Monkeys Additional Content Medical News Internal Bleeding By Amy H. Kaji, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, ... Emergency First Aid Priorities Cardiac Arrest Choking Internal Bleeding Wounds Soft-Tissue Injuries Severed or Constricted Limbs ...

  3. Characterize Human Forward Contamination Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Let's face it: wherever we go, we will inevitably carry along the little critters that live in and on us. Conventional wisdom has long held that it's unlikely those critters could survive the space environment, but in 2007 microscopic animals called Tardigrades survived exposure to space and in 2008 Cyanobacteria lived for 548 days outside the International Space Station (ISS). But what about the organisms we might reasonably expect a crewed spacecraft to leak or vent? Do we even know what they are? How long might our tiny hitch-hikers survive in close proximity to a warm spacecraft that periodically leaks/vents water or oxygen-and how might they mutate with long-duration exposure? Unlike the Mars rovers that we cleaned once and sent on their way, crew members will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations? This project has four technical objectives: 1. TEST: Develop a test plan to leverage existing equipment (i.e. ISS) to characterize the kinds of organisms we can reasonably expect pressurized, crewed volumes to vent or leak overboard; as part of testing, we'll need to develop an Extravehicular Activity (EVA)-compatible tool that can withstand the pressure and temperature extremes of space, as well as collect, separate, and store multiple samples; 2. ANALYSIS: Develop an analysis plan to study those organisms in relevant destination environments, including spacecraft-induced conditions; 3. MODEL: Develop a modeling plan to model organism transport mechanisms in relevant destination environments; 4. SHARE: Develop a plan to disseminate findings and integrate recommendations into exploration requirements & ops. In short, we propose a system engineering approach to roadmap the necessary experiments, analysis, and modeling up front--rather than try to knit together disparate chunks of data into a sensible conclusion after the fact.

  4. Regenerable Contaminant Removal System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Regenerable Contaminant Removal System (RCRS) is an innovative method to remove sulfur and halide compounds from contaminated gas streams to part-per-billion...

  5. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Program Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA uses the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring (UCM) program to collect data for contaminants suspected to be present in drinking water, but that do not have...

  6. Compared biokinetic and biological studies of chronic and acute inhalations of uranium compounds in the rat; Etudes biocinetique et biologique comparees d'inhalations chroniques et aigues de composes uraniferes chez le rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monleau, M

    2005-12-15

    Uranium is a natural, radioactive heavy metal, widely used in the nuclear industry in various chemical and isotopic forms. Its use in the fuel cycle involves the risk of radiological exposure for the workers, mainly via the inhalation of uranium particles. According to the workplace configuration, uranium contaminations can be acute or repeated, involve various chemical forms and different levels of enrichment, as well as involving one or several components. The dosimetric concepts and models available for workers' radiological protection, as well as most of the studies of the biological effects, correspond to acute exposure situations. Moreover the processes leading to pathological effects are little known in vivo. In this context, the main question is to know whether exposures due to repeated inhalation by rats induce the element kinetics and toxicity, which may be different from those observed after an acute exposure. In this study, comparison of the experimental and theoretical biokinetics of an insoluble uranium repeatedly inhaled over three weeks shows that a chronic contamination is correctly modelled, except for bone retention, by the sum of acute, successive and independent incorporations. Moreover, the kinetics of a soluble uranium inhaled irregularly can be modified by previous repeated exposure to an insoluble uranium. In certain cases therefore, exposure to uranium could modify its biokinetics during later exposures. At a toxicological level, the study demonstrates that the uranium particles inhaled repeatedly induce behavioural disruptions and genotoxic effects resulting in various sorts of DNA damage, in several cell types and certainly depending on the quantity inhaled. Exposures involving several uraniferous components produce a synergy effect. Moreover, repeated inhalations worsen the genotoxic effects in comparison to an acute exposure. This work demonstrates the importance of not ignoring the effects of the repetition of uranium exposure

  7. Contamination Control: a systems approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donck, J.C.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Contamination influences a wide variety of industrial processes. For complex systems, contamination control, the collective effort to control contamination to such a level that it guarantees or even improves process or product functionality, offers a way for finding workable solutions. Central in

  8. Contamination Control: a systems approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donck, J.C.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Contamination influences a wide variety of industrial processes. For complex systems, contamination control, the collective effort to control contamination to such a level that it guarantees or even improves process or product functionality, offers a way for finding workable solutions. Central in th

  9. Contamination Control: a systems approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donck, J.C.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Contamination influences a wide variety of industrial processes. For complex systems, contamination control, the collective effort to control contamination to such a level that it guarantees or even improves process or product functionality, offers a way for finding workable solutions. Central in th

  10. Contaminant Research in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wren C.

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Contaminant Research in CanadaPages 9 - 11 (ReportChristopher WrenAbstract:During the 1983/84 and 1984/85 trapping seasons, carcasses of river otter (Lutra canadensis were collected for contaminant analysis from trappers in Ontario. The studies identified clear differences in tissue levels of Hg, Pb and Cd between different collection areas. There is evidence to support Hg poisoning as the cause of death in at least one otter along this river system. The studies emphasize the potential interactions of toxic chemicals with each other and with natural stresses (e.g. cold, starvation, disease. More research is required along these lines since simultaneous exposure to more than one chemical and other stresses is more typical of conditions in the wild.

  11. Determination of inorganic contaminants in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cidu, R. [Cagliari Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze della Terra

    1998-12-31

    The determination of trace elements in water requires to follow adequate sampling and stabilization procedures. Filtration is carried out in situ using a metal-free system under oxygen-free conditions. Addition of acid for a ph value<1 prevents metal precipitation and/or adsorption onto the container walls. Field blank solutions prepared with the same procedure as with samples are necessary to monitor potential contamination. Ultrapure reagents are required to minimize contamination and to achieve the lowest detection limit. Significant improvements in detection limits can be obtained using a preconcentration method (e.g. evaporation, ion exchange, metal extraction into organic solvent). Analytical errors can be estimated using different techniques and analysing certified reference solutions. The determination of major components prior to trace element analysis allows samples to be sorted on increasing salinity contributing to reduce memory effects between samples, dilution can be used to reduce matrix effects, and the use of internal standards is efficient for instrumental drift correction.

  12. Contain contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutch, R.D. Jr.; Caputi, J.R. [Eckenfelder, Inc., Mahwah, NJ (United States); Ash, R.E. IV [Eckenfelder Inc., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Despite recent progress in innovative treatment technologies, many problems with contaminated groundwater still require the use of barrier walls, typically in combination with extraction and treatment systems. New technologies for subsurface barrier walls, mostly based on geomembranes, advancements in self-hardening slurries and permeation grouts with materials such as colloidal silica gel and montan wax emulsions, are being developed at an unprecedented pace. The paper discusses deep soil mixing, jet grouting, slurry trenches, and permeation grouting.

  13. Emerging contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Lapworth, Dan; Stuart, Marianne; HART Alwyn; Crane, Emily; Baran, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The term ‘emerging contaminants’ (ECs) is used to cover not only newly developed compounds but also includes newly discovered compounds in the environment (often due to analytical developments), and compounds that have been recently categorised as contaminants. ECs include a huge array of different compounds (and their metabolites) that are used by society for a range of purposes and include; pharmaceuticals, pesticides, personal care products, veterinary medicines, engineered nano-materials,...

  14. Contaminants in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszyna-Marzys, A E

    1978-09-01

    There is a paucity of information regarding excretion of contaminants in human milk, due to experimental difficulties and until recently a general lack of interest. Because of the high fat content of milk and as its acidity is higher than that of plasma, nearly all liposoluble and basic agents consumed by the mother will be excreted in the milk. Distinction must be made between, on the one hand drugs and social toxicants such as smoking and alcohol, whose intake can be stopped or limited during pregnancy and lactation, and ecological toxicants present in a polluted environment to which the mother is exposed. Cases have occurred of heavy prenatal and postnatal intoxication of infants with hexachlorobenzene in Turkey and methylmercury in Iraq due to consumption of fungicide-treated seed wheat by pregnant and lactating mothers. Recent attention has been concentrated on contamination of milk with organochlorine compounds such as DDT and PCB's, that are found in many parts of the world. The heaviest contamination with DDT has been found in Guatemala, resulting in suckling infants consuming many times the Acceptable Daily Intake of this compound proposed by WHO, with unknown future effects.

  15. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors

  16. Stratégie de prise en charge de l'hypertension artérielle en hémodialyse chronique: un modèle appliqué d’éducation thérapeutique des patients (ETP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Harraqui, Ryme; Naima, Abda; Yassamine, Bentata; Haddiya, Intissar

    2014-01-01

    Même après l'entrée en dialyse, la prévalence de l'hypertension artérielle (HTA) reste élevée. Elle est souvent greffée d'une forte morbi-mortalité, et altère la qualité de vie des patients hémodialysés chroniques. La « méthode du poids sec (PS) », établie par Scribner, présente un intérêt indéniable dans la gestion de l'HTA chez le patient hémodialysé. Le but de notre travail était de déterminer la prévalence et les facteurs de risque (FDR) de l'HTA chez nos hémodialysés chroniques et d'en tenter une réduction en nous basant sur une stratégie d’éducation thérapeutique basée sur les recommandations de Scribner. Nous avons mené une étude prospective interventionnelle en trois mois et en trois phases, auprès des 93 hémodialysés chroniques de l'Hôpital Al Farabi d'Oujda. En phase 1, nous avons déterminé la prévalence de l'HTA par la surveillance horaire de la tension artérielle (TA) durant la séance de dialyse pendant deux semaines, soit sur un total de 442 séances. Les patients ont également mesuré leur pression artérielle (PA) hors-centre de façon biquotidienne les jours de non-dialyse, soit un total de 1720 mesures hors-centre. L'HTA a été définie par une Pression Artérielle Systolique (PAS) supérieure ou égale à 140mmHg et/ou une Pression Artérielle Diastolique (PAD) supérieure ou égale à 90mmHg sur au moins 2 mesures. En phase 2, les patients hypertendus ont bénéficié d'une prise en charge basée sur les recommandations de Scribner et une éducation thérapeutique (ETP). En phase 3, nous évalué les retombées de notre prise en charge. Une HTA a été notée sur 231 séances chez 57 patients, soit une prévalence de 61,3%. La PAS moyenne était de 172,75±17,69 (145-220) mmHg. Les FDR retenus sont: l’âge, la PPID importante, le non respect des règles hygiéno-diététiques (RHD) et le rythme de 2 séances de dialyse/semaine. Au départ, 13 patients (22,8%) étaient dialysés trois fois par

  17. Understanding Mechanisms of Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer; John Drake; Ryan James, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, the study of radiological contamination and decontamination has expanded significantly. This paper addresses the mechanisms of radiological contamination that have been reported and then discusses which methods have recently been used during performance testing of several different decontamination technologies. About twenty years ago the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL began a search for decontamination processes which could minimize secondary waste. In order to test the effectiveness of these decontamination technologies, a new simulated contamination, termed SIMCON, was developed. SIMCON was designed to replicate the types of contamination found on stainless steel, spent fuel processing equipment. Ten years later, the INL began research into methods for simulating urban contamination resulting from a radiological dispersal device (RDD). This work was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and included the initial development an aqueous application of contaminant to substrate. Since 2007, research sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has advanced that effort and led to the development of a contamination method that simulates particulate fallout from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND). The IND method diverges from previous efforts to create tenacious contamination by simulating a reproducible “loose” contamination. Examining these different types of contamination (and subsequent decontamination processes), which have included several different radionuclides and substrates, sheds light on contamination processes that occur throughout the nuclear industry and in the urban environment.

  18. Contamination monitoring activities in Kanupp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, S.S. [Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Pakistan)

    1997-06-01

    The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Kanupp) is a 137 MWe pressurized heavy water reactor, designed and erected by the Canadian General Electric Company as a turn key project. The plant is in operation since it was commissioned in the year 1972. It is located at the Arabian Sea Coast about 15 miles to the west of Karachi. During its more than two decades of operation, the plant has generated about 8 billion units of electricity with an average life time availability factor of 60%. In Kanupp, radioactive contamination may exit due to the release of fission product, activation products etc., which may somehow escape from its confinement and may contaminate surface or other media such as air, water etc. In this paper, following items are described: main aspects of contamination, status of contamination monitoring, need of contamination monitoring, radiation protection activity, instruments, contamination, current status of contamination survey materials and their disposal, and environmental monitoring. (G.K.)

  19. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  20. [Environmental contaminants and endocrine disruptors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenele, Eveline Gadelha Pereira; Martins, Manoel Ricardo Alves; Quidute, Ana Rosa Pinto; Montenegro, Renan Magalhães

    2010-02-01

    The toxicity of various pollutants has been routinely investigated according to their teratogenic and carcinogenic effects. In the last few decades, however, many of such pollutants have been shown to adversely affect the endocrine system of human beings and other species. Currently, more than eleven million chemical substances are known in the world, and approximately 3,000 are produced on a large scale. Numerous chemical composites of domestic, industrial and agricultural use have been shown to influence hormonal activity. Examples of such chemical products with estrogenic activity are substances used in cosmetics, anabolizing substances for animal feeding, phytoestrogens and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). These agents are seen in residential, industrial and urban sewerage system effluents and represent an important source of environmental contamination. The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) defines as endocrine disruptors substances or mixtures seen in the environment capable of interfering with endocrine system functions resulting in adverse effects in an intact organism or its offspring. In this article the authors present a current literature review about the role of these pollutants in endocrine and metabolic diseases, probable mechanisms of action, and suggest paths of investigation and possible strategies for prevention and reduction of its possible damages.

  1. Drug contamination of mortars and pestles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinyard, E A; Woodhead, J H

    1978-12-01

    Evidence is presented suggesting that potent water-insoluble antipentylenetetrazol agents triturated in porcelain mortars and pestles are not removed from this mixing device by the usual laboratory washing procedure. Moreover, amounts sufficient to contaminate the next substance triturated in this vessel can be demonstrated by the subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol seizure threshold test. The data show that a rigorous washing routine must be followed to achieve a "clean" mortar and pestle. Attention is also directed to the importance of using disposable hypodermic syringes, test tubes, etc., whenever possible and of designing an internal control test to determine when implements that must be reused are "clean."

  2. Meeting the needs of contamination control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, R.L.; Novels, M.D. (Pendar Technical Associates Ltd., Bridgwater (UK))

    1982-01-01

    A new modular structure for containing contamination during maintenance and repair operations on radioactive power plant components is described. The structure is formed from a matrix of 1m long steel reinforced PVC extrusions. These are connected together to form squares; thus an enclosure can be anything from a 1m cube upwards. The enclosure is completed by fitting 1m square panels of 4mm thick plastic sheet where they fit against rubber seals. An air extraction system can be fitted if reduced internal pressure is required.

  3. Modeling, Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Spacecraft Air Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, W. Fred; Skliar, Mikhail; Narayan, Anand; Morgenthaler, George W.; Smith, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    Control of air contaminants is a crucial factor in the safety considerations of crewed space flight. Indoor air quality needs to be closely monitored during long range missions such as a Mars mission, and also on large complex space structures such as the International Space Station. This work mainly pertains to the detection and simulation of air contaminants in the space station, though much of the work is easily extended to buildings, and issues of ventilation systems. Here we propose a method with which to track the presence of contaminants using an accurate physical model, and also develop a robust procedure that would raise alarms when certain tolerance levels are exceeded. A part of this research concerns the modeling of air flow inside a spacecraft, and the consequent dispersal pattern of contaminants. Our objective is to also monitor the contaminants on-line, so we develop a state estimation procedure that makes use of the measurements from a sensor system and determines an optimal estimate of the contamination in the system as a function of time and space. The real-time optimal estimates in turn are used to detect faults in the system and also offer diagnoses as to their sources. This work is concerned with the monitoring of air contaminants aboard future generation spacecraft and seeks to satisfy NASA's requirements as outlined in their Strategic Plan document (Technology Development Requirements, 1996).

  4. Biofuel on contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Blom, Sonja; Bardos, Paul; Polland, Marcel; Track, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Desktop studies of two Swedish contaminated sites has indicated that growing biofuel crops on these sites may be more environmentally beneficial than alternative risk management approaches such as excavation / removal or containment The demand for biofuel increases pressure on the cultivatable soil of the world. While contaminated land is not very suitable for food production, cultivation of low and medium contaminated soil may remove some pressure from agricultural soils. For larger sites, biofuel cultivation may be economically viable without a remediation bonus. Suitable sites have topographic conditions that allow agricultural machinery, are not in urgent need of remediation, and contamination levels are not plant toxic. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was done for two cases. The (desk top) case studies were - Case K, a 5000 m2 site where salix (willow) was cultivated with hand-held machinery and the biofuel harvest was left on site, and - Case F, a 12 ha site were on site ensuring was being considered, and were salix might have rented an economic profit if the remediation had not been urgent due to exploitation pressure. Some selected results for biofuel K; biofuel F; excavation K; and on site ensuring F respectively: Energy: 0,05; 1,4; 3,5; 19 TJ Waste: 1; 9; 1200; 340 ton Land use off-site: 190; 3 500; 200 000; 1 400 000 m² a Global warming: 3; 86; 230; 1 200 ton CO2 eq Acidification: 25; 1 000; 2 600; 14 000 kg SO2 eq Photochemical smog: 10; 180; 410; 2 300 kg ethene eq Human health: 2; 51; 150; 620 index The environmental impact of the traditional remediation methods of excavation and on-site ensuring was mainly due to the transport of contaminated soil and replacement soil, and landfilling of the contaminated soil. Biofuel cultivation avoids these impacts, while fertiliser production and agricultural machinery would have a lower environmental impact than moving large volumes of soil around. Journeys of a controller to check on the groundwater quality also

  5. Gasp. Contamination study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaker, S.F.; Anderson, C.J.; Rossi, R.A.

    1961-01-01

    Calculations and analyses were performed to evaluate the radiological hazards associated with the use of a contained underground fission detonation for the propulsion of large space platforms. This investigation included a study of fission product release, neutron induced activity, ground water contamination, chemical reactions, decontamination and closure mechanisms. Analytical results, representing extreme conditions, were obtained for a defined reference system. The key to control of the environmental hazard in the GASP system is the closure mechanism - if operating properly, the radiological hazard is acceptable but upon failure, the hazard may be substantial.

  6. Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

  7. Node position influences viability and contamination in hazelnut shoot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Initiation of shoot cultures is difficult in many woody plants due to internal microbial contaminants and general lack of juvenility in material from the source plants. Hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) are generally difficult to initiate into culture for these same reasons. This study was designed to...

  8. International skatteret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Sørensen, Niels; Wittendorff, Jens

    1996-01-01

    De seneste 6 måneders udvikling indenfor international skatteret beskrives. NW-S har skrevet artiklens afsnit om udvalgte afgørelser og om EU-skatteret.......De seneste 6 måneders udvikling indenfor international skatteret beskrives. NW-S har skrevet artiklens afsnit om udvalgte afgørelser og om EU-skatteret....

  9. International indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Therese

    En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer......En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer...

  10. International Curriculums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Larry L.

    This workshop presentation on international curriculums in the field of parks, recreation, leisure, cultural services, and travel/tourism comments that the literature is replete with articles addressing what the field is about, but not about curriculum issues, models, and structure. It reports an international survey of 12 college educators…

  11. Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring Trace Contaminant Control Through FY 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Pruitt, M. W.; Wheeler, R. M.; Monje, O.

    2013-01-01

    Trace contaminant control has been a concern of spacecraft designers and operators from early in the progression of manned spaceflight. Significant technological advancement has occurred since the first designs were implemented in the 1960s, culminating in the trace contaminant control system currently in use aboard the International Space Station as part of the atmosphere revitalization system.

  12. International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...... arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test...

  13. International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...... arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test...

  14. International Relations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the textbook for the Open University module International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics. Instead of leading with a succession of theoretical 'isms', the module structures its presentation of the subject around six teaching ‘blocks’, each of which explores a dilemma......: Flat or uneven? Change and transformation in the international system • Block 3: Just or unjust? Intervention and inequality in the international system • Block 4: Top-down or bottom-up? Governance in the international system • Block 5: Secure or insecure? Pursuing security in the international system...... • Block 6: Continuity or change in global politics? Each block introduces new IR theories through discussions of the substantive dilemmas and adds in a layered way levels of analysis and conceptual complexity....

  15. Control Group Design, Contamination and Drop-Out in Exercise Oncology Trials : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, Charlotte N. Steins; Courneya, Kerry S.; Velthuis, Miranda J.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Jones, Lee W.; Friedenreich, Christine; van der Wall, Elsken; Peeters, Petra H. M.; May, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Important considerations for exercise trials in cancer patients are contamination and differential drop-out among the control group members that might jeopardize the internal validity. This systematic review provides an overview of different control groups design characteristics of

  16. Molecular contamination modeling with CTSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieda, Lubos

    2016-11-01

    Spacecraft instruments and thermal control surfaces are generally highly sensitive to molecular and particulate contamination. Despite best efforts taken during assembly, integration, and test, it is impossible to completely eliminate all sources of contaminants. Contamination transport analysis then becomes of critical importance. It can be used to predict the end of life accumulation on critical surfaces from prescribed source rates. Conversely, given allowable deposition levels, contamination modeling can be used to determine the cleanliness requirements to be met prior to launch. This paper describes a recently developed code for modeling contamination transport. Unlike other tools used by the community, CTSP concurrently traces many simulation particles through small time steps. This allows the code to visualize contaminant partial pressures, and to also include aerodynamic, gravitation, or electrostatic forces. The code is demonstrated by simulating an outgassing characterization test in a bell jar.

  17. The differential relationship between mental contamination and the core dimensions of contact contamination fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melli, Gabriele; Bulli, Francesco; Carraresi, Claudia; Tarantino, Federica; Gelli, Simona; Poli, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Two types of contamination fear are recognized: contact and mental contamination. Contact contamination appears to be motivated both by harm avoidance and disgust avoidance. This study aimed to examine the relationships between disgust propensity, mental contamination and contact contamination while differentiating between harm avoidance and disgust avoidance in contact contamination. 169 OCD patients completed a set of questionnaires assessing mental contamination, contact contamination, disgust propensity, OCD, anxiety and depression. 1) Contact contamination based on disgust avoidance was more strongly associated with mental contamination and disgust propensity than contact contamination based on harm avoidance; 2) mental contamination significantly predicted contact contamination based on disgust avoidance, while it did not predict contact contamination based on harm avoidance; 3) mental contamination had a significant mediational role in the relationship between disgust propensity and contact contamination motivated by disgust avoidance. Mental contamination plays a role in contact contamination fear when disgust is primarily experienced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Energy Recovery from Contaminated Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Moskalík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on thermal gasification methods of contaminated biomass in an atmospheric fluidized bed, especially biomass contaminated by undesirable substances in its primary use. For the experiments, chipboard waste was chosen as a representative sample of contaminated biomass. In the experiments, samples of gas and tar were taken for a better description of the process of gasifying chipboard waste. Gas and tar samples also provide information about the properties of the gas that is produced.

  19. Phytotechnologies: remediation of environmental contaminants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anjum, Naser A

    2013-01-01

    .... The book offers an evaluation of the known plant species for their different roles in phytotechnological applications in relation to remediation of varied environmental contaminants and also explores...

  20. International Environmental Law and Biochemistry: An Innovative Teaching Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candlish, John

    1998-01-01

    Explores the ties between international environmental law and biochemistry with respect to genetically modified organisms, biodiversity, marine pollution, cancer biology, and pesticide contamination of food. Contains 30 references. (DDR)

  1. International Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  2. International Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valauskas, Edward J.; Stowe, Jennifer L.; Haycock, Ken; Dodd, Frances

    1998-01-01

    Presents three reports: International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; Special Libraries Association; and Canadian library trends, focusing on information technology and access to information and rights and examining provincial libraries and library education. (PEN)

  3. Juris International

    CERN Document Server

    A database on international trade law aimed at lawyers and legal counsel in developing and transition economies. Juris International is a multilingual collection (English, Spanish, and French) of legal information on international trade. Juris International aims to facilitate and reduce the work involved in research for business lawyers, advisers and in-house counsel, and state organizations in developing nd transition economies, by providing access to texts which have often been difficult to obtain. Its objective is to gather a large quantity of basic information at one site (favoring complete legal texts), without the need to send for the information, and consequently without excessive communication costs for users who d benefit from an efficient and cheap telecommunications network.

  4. Internal education

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Zagorc

    2016-01-01

    Research Question (RQ): The importance of internal trainings in an organization. Purpose: The purpose of research is to examine and present internal trainings in an organization and their contribution to greater success of an organization. The paper studies employee training in a company, how the organization itself looks after its employees during training, how trainings contribute to further development of organization and the advancement of knowledge for successful operation of organi...

  5. Organotin contamination in South American coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Italo Braga; Perina, Fernando Cesar; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2012-03-01

    Organotin compounds (OTs) were used in antifouling paints for more than four decades. However, due to their widespread intensive use and high toxicity, undesirable effects in non-target marine organisms have been detected since the early 1980s. Consequently, the International Maritime Organization banned new maritime applications of these products on January 1, 2003 and their presence on ship hulls from January 1, 2008. Although extensively studied in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Asia, environmental levels and effects of organotin contamination are still poorly known for South America. Thus, the current review aimed to present the actual status of this problem in South America by summarizing and comparing the available data in the literature. An overview of the OTs concentrations in sediment and biota and their effects, mainly imposex in marine gastropods, are presented. This work showed that in Atlantic coastal areas of South America there are "hot spots" of OTs contamination, similar to that observed in industrialized countries of Northern Hemisphere. On the other hand, the number of accomplished studies in the Pacific coast is extremely low. Despite the limitation on studies about OTs environmental levels and their related effects, the available data pointed out for a widespread TBT contamination along the South American coastal areas. Therefore, the establishment of baselines of organotin contamination in the Pacific coast and the implementation of temporal trend studies in the South American coastal areas is crucial to verify the effectiveness of local regulations and OTs global ban, and to map the most sensitive areas related to present and future antifouling impacts.

  6. Effects of Contamination Upon the Performance of X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Oosterbroek, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Particulate and molecular contamination can each impact the performance of x-ray telescope systems. Furthermore, any changes in the level of contamination between on-ground calibration and in-space operation can compromise the validity of the calibration. Thus, it is important to understand the sensitivity of telescope performance, especially the net effective area and the wings of the point spread function to contamination. Here, we quantify this sensitivity and discuss the flow-down of science requirements to contamination-control requirements. As an example, we apply this methodology to the International X-ray Observatory (IXO), currently under joint study by ESA, JAXA, and NASA.

  7. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, J.A.; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming

  8. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, J.A.; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming

  9. Contamination and solid state welds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Bernice E.

    2007-05-01

    Since sensitivity to contamination is one of the verities of solid state joining, there is a need for assessing contamination of the part(s) to be joined, preferably nondestructively while it can be remedied. As the surfaces that are joined in pinch welds are inaccessible and thus provide a greater challenge, most of the discussion is of the search for the origin and effect of contamination on pinch welding and ways to detect and mitigate it. An example of contamination and the investigation and remediation of such a system is presented. Suggestions are made for techniques for nondestructive evaluation of contamination of surfaces for other solid state welds as well as for pinch welds. Surfaces that have good visual access are amenable to inspection by diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Although other techniques are useful for specific classes of contaminants (such as hydrocarbons), DRIFT can be used most classes of contaminants. Surfaces such as the interior of open tubes or stems that are to be pinch welded can be inspected using infrared reflection spectroscopy. It must be demonstrated whether or not this tool can detect graphite based contamination, which has been seen in stems. For tubes with one closed end, the technique that should be investigated is emission infrared spectroscopy.

  10. Field based plastic contamination sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States has a long-held reputation of being a dependable source of high quality, contaminant-free cotton. Recently, increased incidence of plastic contamination from sources such as shopping bags, vegetable mulch, surface irrigation tubing, and module covers has threatened the reputation o...

  11. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing...... contaminants and factors that influence the occurrence are given as well as suggestions for mitigation....

  12. Effect of photoactivation on the reduction of composite resin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauletti, Natalia A; Girotto, Luiza P S; Leite, Françoise H S; Mario, Débora N

    2017-06-01

    Composite resins are predominantly marketed in developing countries in tube form, and the contents of the tube may be used in numerous procedures for different patients. This represents a problem because of the risk of cross-contamination. This study aimed to evaluate contamination in vitro of the internal contents of composite resin tubes in the dental clinics of a higher-education institution, as well as the effect of photoactivation on the level of contamination. Twenty-five tubes containing composite resin were randomly chosen (by lottery). From each tube, two samples of approximately 2 mm of composite resin were removed, and then one sample, but not the other, was photoactivated. These samples were plated on Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI), Sabouraud and MacConkey agars, and the plates were incubated at 37°C for 24-48 h. Colony counting and Gram staining were performed for subsequent microscopic identification of fungi and bacteria. The non-photoactivated composite resin group presented significantly higher microbial contamination in relation to the photoactivated composite resin group. The photoactivation of camphorquinone present in composite resin produces reactive oxygen species, which might promote cell death of contaminant microorganisms. Thus, although the same tube of composite resin may be used for a number of different patients in the dental clinics of developing countries, the photoactivation process potentially reduces the risk of cross-contamination. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  13. Phytostabilization of metal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkorta, I; Becerril, J M; Garbisu, C

    2010-01-01

    The contamination of soils with heavy metals represents a worldwide environmental problem of great concern. Traditional methods for the remediation of metal contaminated soils are usually very expensive and frequently induce adverse effects on soil properties and biological activity. Consequently, biological methods of soil remediation like phytoremediation (the use of green plants to clean up contaminated sites) are currently receiving a great deal of attention. In particular, chemophytostabilization of metal contaminated soils (the use of metal tolerant plants together with different amendments like organic materials, liming agents, or phosphorus compounds and such) to reduce metal mobility and bioavailability in soils appears most promising for sites contaminated with high levels of several metals when phytoextraction is not a feasible option. During chemophytostabilization processes, one must at all times be cautious with a possible future reversal of soil metal immobilization, with concomitant adverse environmental consequences.

  14. Transforming ecosystems: When, where, and how to restore contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Jason R; Farag, Aïda M; Cadotte, Marc W; Clements, William H; Smith, James R; Ulrich, Cheryl P; Woods, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Chemical contamination has impaired ecosystems, reducing biodiversity and the provisioning of functions and services. This has spurred a movement to restore contaminated ecosystems and develop and implement national and international regulations that require it. Nevertheless, ecological restoration remains a young and rapidly growing discipline and its intersection with toxicology is even more nascent and underdeveloped. Consequently, we provide guidance to scientists and practitioners on when, where, and how to restore contaminated ecosystems. Although restoration has many benefits, it also can be expensive, and in many cases systems can recover without human intervention. Hence, the first question we address is: "When should we restore contaminated ecosystems?" Second, we provide suggestions on what to restore-biodiversity, functions, services, all 3, or something else--and where to restore given expected changes to habitats driven by global climate change. Finally, we provide guidance on how to restore contaminated ecosystems. To do this, we analyze critical aspects of the literature dealing with the ecology of restoring contaminated ecosystems. Additionally, we review approaches for translating the science of restoration to on-the-ground actions, which includes discussions of market incentives and the finances of restoration, stakeholder outreach and governance models for ecosystem restoration, and working with contractors to implement restoration plans. By explicitly considering the mechanisms and strategies that maximize the success of the restoration of contaminated sites, we hope that our synthesis serves to increase and improve collaborations between restoration ecologists and ecotoxicologists and set a roadmap for the restoration of contaminated ecosystems. © 2015 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  15. OSS-1/contamination monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, R.; Triolo, J.; Mcintosh, R.

    1983-01-01

    A 20-cm high, 18-cm wide, and 30-cm long (8x7x12 inch) box weighing about 7 kg (15 lbs) and consuming about 7 watts of power was carried on the OSS-1 pallet to monitor the mass build-up or accretion of condensible, volatile materials on surfaces in the shuttle bay during all phases of ascent, on-orbit, and descent. Passively thermally controlled, the box holds two witness samples and four actively temperature controlled quartz crystal microbalances (TQCM) whose temperature can vary from -60 C to +80 C. Graphs show the accretion indicated by the TQCM during the launch and early orbital phase. Conditions during tail to the Sun, nose to the Sun, and bay to the Sun attitudes of the shuttle during STS-3 are reflected in temperatures indicated by the OSS-1 thermistor. These temperatures influence outgassing rates of various materials as well as measurements made by the contamination monitor package. The parameters that bear on TQCM measurements data are shown in graphs and discussed.

  16. OSS-1/contamination monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, R.; Triolo, J.; McIntosh, R.

    1983-02-01

    A 20-cm high, 18-cm wide, and 30-cm long (8x7x12 inch) box weighing about 7 kg (15 lbs) and consuming about 7 watts of power was carried on the OSS-1 pallet to monitor the mass build-up or accretion of condensible, volatile materials on surfaces in the shuttle bay during all phases of ascent, on-orbit, and descent. Passively thermally controlled, the box holds two witness samples and four actively temperature controlled quartz crystal microbalances (TQCM) whose temperature can vary from -60 C to +80 C. Graphs show the accretion indicated by the TQCM during the launch and early orbital phase. Conditions during tail to the Sun, nose to the Sun, and bay to the Sun attitudes of the shuttle during STS-3 are reflected in temperatures indicated by the OSS-1 thermistor. These temperatures influence outgassing rates of various materials as well as measurements made by the contamination monitor package. The parameters that bear on TQCM measurements data are shown in graphs and discussed.

  17. CONTAMINANTS AND REMEDIAL OPTIONS AT PESTICIDE SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many types of soils, sediments, and sludges are contaminated with a wide variety of pesticides. ite-specific characteristics such as volume to be treated, extent of contamination, and applicable cleanup goals differ greatly, and contaminant toxicity, migration pathways, persisten...

  18. Interne evalueringer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Finn

    Det er en gennemgående tese i denne undersøgelse af interne evalueringer, at en af de vigtigste kendetegn ved den New Public Management -dominerede udvikling af den offentlige sektors reguleringspolitik, som Danmark såvel som en række andre OECD lande har gennemlevet, er en omfattende brug af alle...

  19. Transparency International

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M. (Michel)

    2009-01-01

    Established in 1993, Transparency International (TI) defines itself as “the global civil society organization leading the fight against corruption, that brings people together in a powerful worldwide coalition to end the devastating impact of corruption on men, women and children around the wo

  20. International Business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anne van Delft

    2011-01-01

    Internationalisation is the expansion of a firms operations to foreign markets and includes not only import and export but also foreign direct investments and international cooperation. Today’s globalising economy has resulted in a growing number of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) undertaking

  1. International Entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pests and diseases of plants in agriculture are a shared international problem. Yet some of the very places that pest invaders come from often lack the institutional structure and organization necessary to help in understanding the biology of the pest or disease. Strengthening entomology by stimulat...

  2. International Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabb, Winston; Bender, David R.; Haycock, Ken; Horodyski, John

    2001-01-01

    Includes three annual reports: one from the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, the Special Libraries Association, and a report on innovations in Canadian libraries that discusses electronic initiatives, partnerships, books and publishing, school libraries, national issues, local challenges, and funding. (LRW)

  3. Ascott International

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    "Heart-to-Heart" Charity Event for Hearing-Impaired Children in Beijing On June 12, Ascott International North China held a "heart-to-heart" charity event for hearing-impaired children in the Heritage Room at the Ascott Beijing.

  4. Drinking Water Contaminants -- Standards and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search Contact Us Share Drinking Water Contaminants – Standards and Regulations EPA identifies contaminants to regulate in drinking water to protect public health. The ...

  5. Some Case Studies on Metal-Microbe Interactions to Remediate Heavy Metals- Contaminated Soils in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Hyo-Taek

    2015-04-01

    Conventional physicochemical technologies to remediate heavy metals-contaminated soil have many problems such as low efficiency, high cost and occurrence of byproducts. Recently bioremediation technology is getting more and more attention. Bioremediation is defined as the use of biological methods to remediate and/or restore the contaminated land. The objectives of bioremediation are to degrade hazardous organic contaminants and to convert hazardous inorganic contaminants to less toxic compounds of safe levels. The use of bioremediation in the treatment of heavy metals in soils is a relatively new concept. Bioremediation using microbes has been developed to remove toxic heavy metals from contaminated soils in laboratory scale to the contaminated field sites. Recently the application of cost-effective and environment-friendly bioremediation technology to the heavy metals-contaminated sites has been gradually realized in Korea. The merits of bioremediation include low cost, natural process, minimal exposure to the contaminants, and minimum amount of equipment. The limitations of bioremediation are length of remediation, long monitoring time, and, sometimes, toxicity of byproducts for especially organic contaminants. From now on, it is necessary to prove applicability of the technologies to contaminated sites and to establish highly effective, low-cost and easy bioremediation technology. Four categories of metal-microbe interactions are generally biosorption, bioreduction, biomineralization and bioleaching. In this paper, some case studies of the above metal-microbe interactions in author's lab which were published recently in domestic and international journals will be introduced and summarized.

  6. Environmental analysis of contaminated sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sunahara, G.I; Renoux, A; Thellen, C; Gaudet, C.L; Pilon, A

    2002-01-01

    .... Topics addressed include: the integration of terrestrial ecotoxicity testing with respect to a chemical's behaviour in soil, developments in contaminated soil risk assessment, and the use of advanced scientific data...

  7. Avoiding Gluten Cross-Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toddler For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Avoiding Gluten Cross-Contamination Reviewed by Sharon Denny, MS, RDN ... can be a virtual mine field. That's because gluten (a protein in grains such as wheat, rye ...

  8. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  9. Environmental Contaminants Issues in Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The environmental contaminants program at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Ecological Services Office in Cheyenne, Wyoming was initiated in May 1988. The goal of...

  10. Fire in a contaminated area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-08

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Fire in Contaminated Area. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  11. Emerging Contaminants in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter explores the use of mass spectrometry and its application to emerging contaminants (ECs) in the environment; such classes of compounds as organometallics, pharmaceuticals/drugs, nanomaterials, and dispersants (surfactants). Table 1 shows the variety of ECs that are...

  12. Neurotoxicity of Thyroid Disrupting Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones playa critical role in the normal development ofthe mammalian brain. Thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) are environmental contaminants that alter the structure or function ofthe thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeost...

  13. Phytotechnologies: remediation of environmental contaminants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anjum, Naser A

    2013-01-01

    "This book highlights the use of the natural-inherent traits of plants and associated bacteria and microbes to exclude, accumulate or metabolize toxic contaminants where they contribute significantly...

  14. Groundwater arsenic contamination throughout China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodríguez-Lado, Luis; Sun, Guifan; Berg, Michael; Zhang, Qiang; Xue, Hanbin; Zheng, Quanmei; Johnson, C Annette

    2013-01-01

    .... We developed a statistical risk model that classifies safe and unsafe areas with respect to geogenic arsenic contamination in China, using the threshold of 10 micrograms per liter, the World Health...

  15. Liver International

    OpenAIRE

    Quarantini, Lucas de Castro [UNIFESP; Rodrigo A Bressan; Galvão, Amanda; Neves, Susana Batista; Raymundo PARANÁ

    2007-01-01

    p. 1098-1102 Objective: Evaluate the incidence of mental disorders using pegylated interferon plus ribavirin retreatment in nonresponder hepatitis C virus-infected patients. Method: The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to evaluate 30 hepatitis C virus-infected interferon-nonresponder patients at baseline and following 4, 12 and 24 weeks of pegylated interferon retreatment. Results: During the pegylated interferon/ribavirin retreatment, 5(16.6%) patient...

  16. Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

  17. Surface micropattern limits bacterial contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Ethan E.; Manna, Dipankar; Mettetal, Michael R; May, Rhea M.; Dannemiller, Elisa M; Chung, Kenneth K.; Brennan, Anthony B; Reddy, Shravanthi T

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial surface contamination contributes to transmission of nosocomial infections. Chemical cleansers used to control surface contamination are often toxic and incorrectly implemented. Additional non-toxic strategies should be combined with regular cleanings to mitigate risks of human error and further decrease rates of nosocomial infections. The Sharklet micropattern (MP), inspired by shark skin, is an effective tool for reducing bacterial load on surfaces without toxic additiv...

  18. Human Forward Contamination Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on Mars, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. Unlike the Mars rovers that we cleaned once and sent on their way, humans will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations?

  19. Contaminant Removal From Natural Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Geiger, Cheri L. (Inventor); Reinhart, Debra (Inventor); Fillpek, Laura B. (Inventor); Coon, Christina (Inventor); Devor, Robert (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A zero-valent metal emulsion containing zero-valent metal particles is used to remediate contaminated natural resources, such as groundwater and soil. In a preferred embodiment, the zero-valent metal emulsion removes heavy metals, such as lead (pb), from contaminated natural resources. In another preferred embodiment, the zero-valent metal emulsion is a bimetallic emulsion containing zero-valent metal particles doped with a catalytic metal to remediate halogenated aromatic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), from natural resources.

  20. Space station particulate contamination environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. R.; Clifton, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    The origin of particulate contamination on the Space Station will mostly be from pre-launch operations. The adherence and subsequent release of these particles during space flight are discussed. Particle size, release velocity, and release direction are important in determining particle behavior in the vicinity of the vehicle. The particulate environment at the principal science instrument locations is compared to the space shuttle bay environment. Recommendations for possibly decreasing the particulate contamination are presented.

  1. Chemical food contaminants; Chemische Lebensmittelkontaminanten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrenk, D. [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Chemical food contaminants are substances which are neither present naturally in the usual raw material used for food production nor are added during the regular production process. Examples are environmental pollutants or contaminants derived from agricultural production of crops or livestock or from inadequate manufacturing of the food product itself. More difficult is the classification of those compounds formed during regular manufacturing such as products of thermal processes including flavoring substances. In these cases, it is common practice to call those compounds contaminants which are known for their adverse effects such as acrylamide, whereas constituents which add to the food-specific flavor such as Maillard products formed during roasting, baking etc. are not termed contaminants. From a toxicological viewpoint this distinction is not always clear-cut. Important groups of chemical contaminants are metals such as mercury or lead, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and related pollutants, which are regularly found in certain types of food originating from background levels of these compounds in our environment. Furthermore, natural toxins form microorganisms or plants, and compounds formed during thermal treatment of food are of major interest. In general, a scientific risk assessment has to be carried out for any known contaminant. This comprises an exposure analysis and a toxicological and epidemiological assessment. On these grounds, regulatory and/or technological measures can often improve the situation. Major conditions for a scientific risk assessment and a successful implementation of regulations are highly developed food quality control, food toxicology and nutritional epidemiology. (orig.)

  2. [Internal migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisovna, L

    1991-06-01

    Very few studies have been conducted that truly permit explanation of internal migration and it repercussions on social and economic structure. It is clear however that a profound knowledge of the determinants and consequences of internal migration will be required as a basis for economic policy decisions that advance the goal of improving the level of living of the population. the basic supposition of most studies of the relationship of population and development is that socioeconomic development conditions demographic dynamics. The process of development in Mexico, which can be characterized by great heterogeneity, consequently produces great regional disparities. At the national level various studies have estimated the volume of internal migration in Mexico, but they have usually been limited to interstate migration because the main source of data, the census, is classified by states. But given the great heterogeneity within states in all the elements related to internal migration, it is clear that studies of internal migration within states are also needed. Such studies are almost nonexistent because of their technical difficulty. National level studies show that interstate migration increased significantly between 1940-80. The proportion of Mexicans living outside their states of birth increased by 558% in those years, compared to the 342% increase in the total Mexican population. Although Puebla has a high rate of increase, migration has kept it below Mexico's national growth rate. Migration between Puebla and other states and within Puebla has led to an increasing unevenness of spatial distribution. Between 1970-80, 57 of Puebla's municipios had growth rates above the state average of 2.8%/year, 6 had growth rates equal to the average, and 129 had growth rates that were below the average but not negative. 25 states with negative growth rates that were considered strongly expulsive. In 1980, 51.7% of the population was concentrated in the 57 municipios

  3. Inspection of contaminated hot cell ductwork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, R.C.; Herndon, J.N.; Dagenhart, W.K.

    1989-08-01

    Radiation Sterilization, Incorporated (RSI), of Dekalb County, Georgia, has used Cesium-137 radiation sources for sterilization of medical instruments and other commercial items. The cesium is contained in welded stainless steel capsules. One of these capsules has leaked, allowing the cesium to escape and to contaminate the internals of the sterilization cells including the cell ventilation ductwork penetrating the thick concrete cell roof. This ductwork requires decontamination prior to release of the facility to resume sterilization activities. Due to the small size (20-in. {times} 24-in. cross section) and the long runs embedded in the cell roof, it was determined that remote visual inspection and preliminary radiation mapping of this ductwork was necessary. This report covers the inspection effort and evaluation of the results. 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Outdoor Education: A Neglected Resource for Combating Internal Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemake, Josephine Stahl; Patti, Anthony V.

    1978-01-01

    Defining internal pollution as "the contamination and abuse of the human body through the habitual use of substances taken to relieve anxieties and tensions", this article asserts that outdoor education experiences can combat internal pollution through active physical, social, and intellectual involvement, promoting the security of belonging,…

  5. Antineoplastic drugs contamination of workplace surfaces in two Portuguese hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Susana; Pádua, Mário; Veiga, Ana Costa; Carolino, Elisabete; Gomes, Mário

    2014-11-01

    Despite the classification as known or suspected human carcinogens, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the antineoplastic drugs are extensively used in cancer treatment due to their specificity and efficacy. As human carcinogens, these drugs represent a serious threat to the healthcare workers involved in their preparation and administration. This work aims to contribute to better characterize the occupational exposure of healthcare professionals to antineoplastic drugs, by assessing workplace surfaces contamination of pharmacy and administration units of two Portuguese hospitals. Surface contamination was assessed by the determination of cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and paclitaxel. These three drugs were used as surrogate markers for surfaces contamination by cytotoxic drugs. Wipe samples were taken and analyzed by HPLC-DAD. From the total of 327 analyzed samples, in 121 (37 %) was possible to detect and quantify at least one drug. Additionally, 28 samples (8.6 %) indicate contamination by more than one antineoplastic drug, mainly in the administration unit, in both hospitals. Considering the findings in both hospitals, specific measures should be taken, particularly those related with the promotion of good practices and safety procedures and also routine monitoring of surfaces contamination in order to guarantee the appliance of safety measures.

  6. Survey of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W. R.; Lee, C. W.; Choi, G. S.; Cho, Y. H.; Kang, M. J.; Cheong, K. H.; Kim, H. R.; Kwak, J. Y

    2005-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to survey and assess radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in order to reduce the probability of intake of contaminated foodstuffs. Based on survey and assessment, final goal is to improve the public health by radiation protection. Sampled foodstuffs items are collected from the markets : one group are imported foodstuffs and the other group are domestic foodstuffs producted around nuclear facilities. After pretreatments such as drying, ashing, and homogenization, all samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometer system. The {sup 137}Cs radionuclide was only measured among the regulation radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 131}I) of food code. All radionuclides of the domestic foodstuffs collected around nuclear facilities were below Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA). But the activity concentrations of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushooms) from Russia ranged up to 171.27 (average value : 36.65) Bq/kg-fresh. In the case of blueberry jam, the radioactivity of {sup 137}Cs is higher than expected value. Other samples are below MDA except some spices. Based on the previous and present results, it should be strengthen to survey for Inontus obliquus (Chaga mushooms), of which the radioactivity shows the range from MDA up to 800.01 Bq/kg-fresh. It should assess the public radiation exposure via food chain because it has the excess provability of the maximum permitted level of food code, which is regulation of KFDA. The development method based on international standard would be used at radioactive analysis as well as education of practical workers and it could be applied as the basis data for amending the analysis method of food code. Our country only surveys gamma emitting radionuclides till now but international organization or foreign countries for example EU survey alpha and beta emitting radionuclides as well as gamma emitting radionuclides. So our country should also research necessity of survey for alpha and beta emitting

  7. Techniques for the measurement of the contamination of air; Technique de mesure de la contamination de l'air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labeyrie, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This lecture has been given at the International Symposium of Riso 1959. Methods for measuring radioactive content of the atmosphere are described, and main results found at Saclay are given, for the following contaminants: Rn, Tn and their daughter, H-3, C-14, A-41, Kr-85, I-131, and fission products as a whole. (author) [French] Ce texte est celui d'une conference-rapport prononcee au Colloque International de Riso en 1959. On indique les techniques de mesures de la contamination radioactive de l'atmosphere et les principaux resultats obtenus jusqu'ici au CEA pour: Rn et Tn et leurs derives, H-3, C-14, A-41, Kr-85, I-131, et l'ensemble des produits de fission. (auteur)

  8. Aspergillus DNA contamination in blood collection tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Elizabeth; Stahlberger, Thomas; Whelan, Ruth; Sugrue, Michele; Wingard, John R.; Alexander, Barbara D.; Follett, Sarah A.; Bowyer, Paul; Denning, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal PCR-based diagnostic methods are at risk of contamination. Sample collection containers were investigated for fungal DNA contamination using real-time PCR assays. Up to 18% of blood collection tubes were contaminated with fungal DNA, probably A. fumigatus. Lower proportions of contamination in other vessels were observed. PMID:20638611

  9. International Exchanges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    On October 12,2015,Mr.Zhu Rui,CPAPD Secretary General,chaired informal discussions with U.S.young experts and scholars on arms control and non-proliferation.The two sides exchanged views on international arms control,disarmament,non-proliferation and nuclear security,etc.During October 12 to 16,2015,at the invitation of the CPAPD,a four-member delegation from the Vietnam Peace Committee headed by its Vice-President Ms.Nguyen Thi Hoang Van

  10. Remediation Technologies Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    All research and development has a story behind it, says Jacqueline Quinn, environmental engineer at Kennedy Space Center. For Quinn, one such story begins with the Saturn 1B launch stand at Kennedy and ends with a unique solution to a challenging environmental problem. Used in a number of Apollo missions and during the Skylab program, the Saturn 1B launch stand was dismantled following the transition to the Space Shuttle Program and stored in an open field at Kennedy. Decades later, the Center s Environmental Program Office discovered evidence of chemicals called polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the field s soil. The findings were puzzling since PCBs a toxin classified as a probable carcinogen by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been banned in the United States since 1979. Before the ban, PCBs were commonly used in transformer oils that leached into the ground when the oils were changed out and dumped near transformer sites, but there were no electrical transformers near the dismantled stand. It soon became apparent that the source of the PCBs was the launch stand itself. Prior to the ban, PCBs were used extensively in paints to add elasticity and other desirable characteristics. The PCB-laden paint on the Saturn 1B launch stand was flaking off into the field s soil. Nobody knew there were PCBs in the paint, says Quinn, noting that the ingredient was not monitored carefully when it was in use in 1960s. In fact, she says, the U.S. EPA was not even established until 1970, a year after Neil Armstrong first set foot on the Moon. Nobody knew any better at the time, Quinn says, but today, we have the responsibility to return any natural environmental media to as close to pristine a condition as possible. Quinn, fellow engineer Kathleen Loftin, and other Kennedy colleagues already had experience developing unprecedented solutions for environmental contamination; the team invented the emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) technology to safely treat

  11. Sediment contaminant surveillance in Milford Haven Waterway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, D I; Bullimore, B; Galperin, Y; Langston, W J

    2016-01-01

    Sediment contaminants were monitored in Milford Haven Waterway (MHW) since 1978 (hydrocarbons) and 1982 (metals), with the aim of providing surveillance of environmental quality in one of the UK's busiest oil and gas ports. This aim is particularly important during and after large-scale investment in liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities. However, the methods inevitably have changed over the years, compounding the difficulties of coordinating sampling and analytical programmes. After a review by the MHW Environmental Surveillance Group (MHWESG), sediment hydrocarbon chemistry was investigated in detail in 2010. Natural Resources Wales (NRW) contributed their MHW data for 2007 and 2012, collected to assess the condition of the Special Area of Conservation (SAC) designated under the European Union Habitats Directive. Datasets during 2007-2012 have thus been more comparable. The results showed conclusively that a MHW-wide peak in concentrations of sediment polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals and other contaminants occurred in late 2007. This was corroborated by independent annual monitoring at one centrally located station with peaks in early 2008 and 2011. The spatial and temporal patterns of recovery from the 2007 peak, shown by MHW-wide surveys in 2010 and 2012, indicate several probable causes of contaminant trends, as follows: atmospheric deposition, catchment runoff, sediment resuspension from dredging, and construction of two LNG terminals and a power station. Adverse biological effects predictable in 2007 using international sediment quality guidelines were independently tested by data from monitoring schemes of more than a decade duration in MHW (starfish, limpets) and in the wider SAC (grey seals). Although not proving cause and effect, many of these potential biological receptors showed a simultaneous negative response to the elevated 2007 contamination following intense dredging activity in 2006. Wetland bird counts were typically at a peak in

  12. Internal education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Zagorc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: The importance of internal trainings in an organization. Purpose: The purpose of research is to examine and present internal trainings in an organization and their contribution to greater success of an organization. The paper studies employee training in a company, how the organization itself looks after its employees during training, how trainings contribute to further development of organization and the advancement of knowledge for successful operation of organization. Method: How to achieve the purpose of research, used methods and theoretical approach. Results: Specific examples and opinions of employees. Results show the importance of trainings for an organization. We can see that all employees are fairly motivated and ready to participate in trainings and can adapt to changing business environment very well. The results demonstrate that all trainings in the organization are very important and welcome. Only with continuous learning, the organization can be successful and survive in the market despite strong competition. Organization: Trainings are designed for all employees inside an organization. Different employees participate in trainings in a different way as all trainings are divided into certain work and fields that are important for each individual or department in an organization. Society: Trainings have an impact on the whole organization by contributing to its development. Originality: The originality of study is what was new in the research, what is the value and originality of research. Limitations/Future Research: Research was limited to a small number of sources.

  13. Comment j'explore... une insuffisance cardiaque chronique

    OpenAIRE

    Ancion, Arnaud; Nellessen, Eric; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Pierard, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Une insuffisance cardiaque est définie par des critères précis associant signes cliniques et anomalies cardiaques. La recherche de signes et de symptômes doit être associée à la réalisation systématique d’un électrocardiogramme, d’une radiographie thoracique et d’un échocardiogramme afin de ne pas retarder le diagnostic et d’orienter le patient vers une mise au point adaptée. De nombreux tests complémentaires existent (cathétérisme, imagerie isotopique,…). Le but est de pouvoir asseoir précis...

  14. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh-21 Years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mukherjee, Amitava; Alauddin, Mohammad; Hassan, Manzurul; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shymapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Roy, Shibtosh; Quamruzzman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Morshed, Salim; Islam, Tanzima; Sorif, Shaharir; Selim, Md; Islam, Md Razaul; Hossain, Md Monower

    2015-01-01

    Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Bangladesh first identified their groundwater arsenic contamination in 1993. But before the international arsenic conference in Dhaka in February 1998, the problem was not widely accepted. Even in the international arsenic conference in West-Bengal, India in February, 1995, representatives of international agencies in Bangladesh and Bangladesh government attended the conference but they denied the groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. School of Environmental Studies (SOES), Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India first identified arsenic patient in Bangladesh in 1992 and informed WHO, UNICEF of Bangladesh and Govt. of Bangladesh from April 1994 to August 1995. British Geological Survey (BGS) dug hand tube-wells in Bangladesh in 1980s and early 1990s but they did not test the water for arsenic. Again BGS came back to Bangladesh in 1992 to assess the quality of the water of the tube-wells they installed but they still did not test for arsenic when groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in West Bengal in Bengal delta was already published in WHO Bulletin in 1988. From December 1996, SOES in collaboration with Dhaka Community Hospital (DCH), Bangladesh started analyzing hand tube-wells for arsenic from all 64 districts in four geomorphologic regions of Bangladesh. So far over 54,000 tube-well water samples had been analyzed by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS). From SOES water analysis data at present we could assess status of arsenic groundwater contamination in four geo-morphological regions of Bangladesh and location of possible arsenic safe groundwater. SOES and DCH also made some preliminary work with their medical team to identify patients suffering from arsenic related diseases. SOES further analyzed few thousands biological samples (hair, nail, urine and skin scales) and foodstuffs for arsenic to know arsenic body burden and people sub

  15. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water-rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agrilcultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3-, N2, Cl, SO42-, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3-, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  16. Groundwater arsenic contamination throughout China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lado, Luis; Sun, Guifan; Berg, Michael; Zhang, Qiang; Xue, Hanbin; Zheng, Quanmei; Johnson, C Annette

    2013-08-23

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater used for drinking in China is a health threat that was first recognized in the 1960s. However, because of the sheer size of the country, millions of groundwater wells remain to be tested in order to determine the magnitude of the problem. We developed a statistical risk model that classifies safe and unsafe areas with respect to geogenic arsenic contamination in China, using the threshold of 10 micrograms per liter, the World Health Organization guideline and current Chinese standard for drinking water. We estimate that 19.6 million people are at risk of being affected by the consumption of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. Although the results must be confirmed with additional field measurements, our risk model identifies numerous arsenic-affected areas and highlights the potential magnitude of this health threat in China.

  17. Salmonella internalization in mung bean sprouts and pre- and postharvest intervention methods in a hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Chongtao; Rymut, Susan; Lee, Cheonghoon; Lee, Jiyoung

    2014-05-01

    Mung bean sprouts, typically consumed raw or minimally cooked, are often contaminated with pathogens. Internalized pathogens pose a high risk because conventional sanitization methods are ineffective for their inactivation. The studies were performed (i) to understand the potential of internalization of Salmonella in mung bean sprouts under conditions where the irrigation water was contaminated and (ii) to determine if pre- and postharvest intervention methods are effective in inactivating the internalized pathogen. Mung bean sprouts were grown hydroponically and exposed to green fluorescence protein-tagged Salmonella Typhimurium through maturity. One experimental set received contaminated water daily, while other sets received contaminated water on a single day at different times. For preharvest intervention, irrigation water was exposed to UV, and for postharvest intervention-contaminated sprouts were subjected to a chlorine wash and UV light. Harvested samples were disinfected with ethanol and AgNO3 to differentiate surface-associate pathogens from the internalized ones. The internalized Salmonella Typhimurium in each set was quantified using the plate count method. Internalized Salmonella Typhimurium was detected at levels of 2.0 to 5.1 log CFU/g under all conditions. Continuous exposure to contaminated water during the entire period generated significantly higher levels of Salmonella Typhimurium internalization than sets receiving contaminated water for only a single day (P hydroponic system.

  18. Contamination of Harvested Organs in Root Crops Grown on Chlordecone-Polluted Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. M. CABIDOCHE; M. LESUEUR-JANNOYER

    2012-01-01

    Chlordecone,one of the most persistent organochlorine pesticides,was applied between 1972 and 1993 in banana fields in the French West Indies,which results in long-term pollution of soils and contamination of waters,aquatic biota,and crops.As human exposure to chlordecone is mainly due to food contamination,early research was focused on chlordecone transfer to crops.Field trials were conducted to investigate chlordecone contamination of yam,sweet potato,turnip,and radish grown on a Ferralic Nitisol polluted by chlordecone.We also carried out trials on yam,courgette,and tomato under greenhouse conditions with homogenized Andosol and Nitisol,polluted by chlordecone to various extents.Our results indicated that i) all tubers were contaminated in accordance with the chlordecone content of the soils; ii) the plant contamination capacity of the Nitisol was greater than that of the Andosol; and iii) whatever the soil type,tuber contamination was related to the soil volumetric content of dissolved chlordecone.Nevertheless,no tubers showed sufficient chlordecone uptake for efficient soil decontamination by means of plant extraction.Soil contact accounted for most of the root crop contamination,which was inversely proportional to the tuber size.Internal transfer might also increase root crop contamination when the root central cylinder contained raw sap flow,as in the case of turnip or radish.Courgette fruits showed high contamination without soil contact.Thus,further research is needed to explore the pattern of both below- and aboveground plant chlordecone contamination and assess the hypothesis of its correlation with sap flow.Finally.we used our results to build a decisionmaking tool for farmers,relating soil pollution with the maximal contamination of the harvested organs to predict crop contamination and thus assisting farmers in making crop choices at planting in order to conform with the European Union's regulations.

  19. Decontamination effectiveness of bentonite after repeated alimentary contamination of rats with radiocesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossakowski, S.; Dziura, A. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The decontamination effectiveness of bentonite given as a 10% supplement to feed during 28-day contamination with Cs-137 (1.37 kBq/day) and for 21 after its cessation was studied in rats. The concentration of Cs-137 was determined in the gastrointestinal tract, internal organs, muscles and skin. The administration of bentonite decreased the organ radioactivity by 81% during radiocesium contamination and by 93.3% after its cessation. (author). 13 refs, 2 tabs.

  20. Radioactive contamination monitoring for the Korean public following Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Wi-Ho; Yoo, Jaeryong; Yoon, Seokwon; Pak, Min-Jeong; Park, Seyong; Kim, Mi-Ryeong; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2013-11-01

    On March 11, 2011, as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake, severe damage to the Fukushima nuclear power plant caused the release of radioactive materials. We conducted radioactive contamination monitoring for Korean residents in Japan and Korean travelers to East Japan after the accident. More than 800 members of the Korean public were surveyed for personal monitoring. Measured levels of external and internal contamination were within the screening levels for each monitoring method.

  1. Ingestion of radioactively contaminated diets for two generations in the pale grass blue butterfly

    OpenAIRE

    Nohara, Chiyo; Taira, Wataru; Hiyama, Atsuki; Tanahara, Akira; Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Otaki, Joji M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The release of radioactive materials due to the Fukushima nuclear accident has raised concern regarding the biological impacts of ingesting radioactively contaminated diets on organisms. We previously performed an internal exposure experiment in which contaminated leaves collected from polluted areas were fed to larvae of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, from Okinawa, which is one of the least polluted localities in Japan. Using the same experimental system, in the pr...

  2. Contamination: concept analysis and nursing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Pauline M; Polk, Laura V

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the concept of contamination and discuss the implications for nursing practice, research, and education. Published research articles, official governmental publications, policy reports, and textbooks. Various attributes of contamination are described using the Walker and Avant method of concept analysis and include: (a) exposure to a contaminant, and (b) contaminant exists in a dose sufficient to cause adverse health effects. The major antecedents of contamination include the presence of a contaminant, dose, duration of exposure, route of exposure, and individual human differences. Major consequences of contamination include organ and systemic responses, and psychological, social, and economic effects. Contamination is an important concept and is essential to the discipline of nursing. The concept of contamination is separate from exposure. Precision in the use of diagnostic language describing contamination incidents will lead to greater accuracy in outcomes and interventions for individuals and groups experiencing overt or covert contamination resulting from accidental or intentional acts. Broad agreement on the definition, antecedents, and consequences of contamination will improve the likelihood of successful management of contamination events. The nursing profession makes an important contribution to the improvement of individual, community, and societal environmental health. Clarifying the concept of contamination is an important first step in building the nursing science that will lead to identifying sound nursing interventions.

  3. STATISTICAL INFERENCE FOR CONTAMINATION DISTRIBUTION*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shanshan; MIAO Baiqi

    2001-01-01

    For the contamination distribution model F (x) - (1 - α) F1 (x) + cF2 (x), theestimators of c and F1 (x) are studied when F2 (x) is known, and the strong consistencyof the two estimators is proved. Then the rate of consistency of estimator ^α and a testingproblem are discussed.

  4. System for detecting microbial contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritse, J.; Groenestijn, J.W.; Zegers, N.D.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for detecting microbial contamination of a liquid specimen comprising a device for concentrating micro-organisms from a liquid specimen, having (i) a hypobaric chamber, (ii) a filter housing comprising a liquid-permeable bed of an adsorbent material and adap

  5. BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological remediation of soils contaminated with organic chemicals is an alternative treatment technology that can often meet the goal of achieving a permanent clean-up remedy at hazardous waste sites, as encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) for impl...

  6. Human Mars Mission Contamination Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupisella, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    A potential challenge for a human Mars mission is that while humans are by most measures the obvious best way to search for life on Mars, we may also be the most problematic in that we could unduly compromise the search for life by contaminating relevant environments and/or possibly adversely and irreversibly affecting indigenous life. Perhaps more problematic is the fundamental epistemic challenge of the "one data point" limitation which could decrease confidence in applying terrestrially based research to extraterrestrial life issues in general. An informal decision tree is presented as one way to begin thinking about contamination issues. There are many sub-questions and distinctions not shown such as biological vs. nonbiological (but biologically relevant) contamination, viable vs. dead organisms, masking indigenous organisms vs. merely making the search more difficult, and independent origin vs. panspermia distinctions. While it may be unlikely that terrestrial microbes could survive on Mars, let alone reproduce and unduly compromise the search for life, the unpredictable potential for microbial life to survive, grow exponentially, evolve and modify (and sometimes destroy) environments, warrants focusing carefully on biologically relevant contamination as we prepare to send humans to the first planet that may have indigenous life-forms.

  7. Environmental Contamination of Normal Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Trevor A.

    1990-01-01

    Environmentally contaminated speech errors (irrelevant words or phrases derived from the speaker's environment and erroneously incorporated into speech) are hypothesized to occur at a high level of speech processing, but with a relatively late insertion point. The data indicate that speech production processes are not independent of other…

  8. Apparatus for Sampling Surface Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Mark

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus denoted a swab device has been developed as a convenient means of acquiring samples of contaminants from surfaces and suspending the samples in liquids. (Thereafter, the liquids can be dispensed, in controlled volumes, into scientific instruments for analysis of the contaminants.) The swab device is designed so as not to introduce additional contamination and to facilitate, simplify, and systematize the dispensing of controlled volumes of liquid into analytical instruments. The swab device is a single apparatus into which are combined all the equipment and materials needed for sampling surface contamination. The swab device contains disposable components stacked together on a nondisposable dispensing head. One of the disposable components is a supply cartridge holding a sufficient volume of liquid for one complete set of samples. (The liquid could be clean water or another suitable solvent, depending on the application.) This supply of liquid is sealed by Luer valves. At the beginning of a sampling process, the user tears open a sealed bag containing the supply cartridge. A tip on the nondisposable dispensing head is engaged with a Luer valve on one end of the supply cartridge and rotated, locking the supply cartridge on the dispensing head and opening the valve. The swab tip includes a fabric swab that is wiped across the surface of interest to acquire a sample. A sealed bag containing a disposable dispensing tip is then opened, and the swab tip is pushed into the dispensing tip until seated. The dispensing head contains a piston that passes through a spring-loaded lip seal. The air volume displaced by this piston forces the liquid out of the supply cartridge, over the swab, and into the dispensing tip. The piston is manually cycled to enforce oscillation of the air volume and thereby to cause water to flow to wash contaminants from the swab and cause the resulting liquid suspension of contaminants to flow into the dispensing tip. After several cycles

  9. Food and feed chemical contaminants in the European Union: Regulatory, scientific, and technical issues concerning chemical contaminants occurrence, risk assessment, and risk management in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silano, Marco; Silano, Vittorio

    2017-07-03

    A priority of the European Union is the control of risks possibly associated with chemical contaminants in food and undesirable substances in feed. Following an initial chapter describing the main contaminants detected in food and undesirable substances in feed in the EU, their main sources and the factors which affect their occurrence, the present review focuses on the "continous call for data" procedure that is a very effective system in place at EFSA to make possible the exposure assessment of specific contaminants and undesirable substances. Risk assessment of contaminants in food atances in feed is carried currently in the European Union by the CONTAM Panel of EFSA according to well defined methodologies and in collaboration with competent international organizations and with Member States.

  10. 8. Atmospheric, water, and soil contamination after Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablokov, Alexey V; Nesterenko, Vassily B; Nesterenko, Alexey V

    2009-11-01

    Air particulate activity over all of the Northern Hemisphere reached its highest levels since the termination of nuclear weapons testing--sometimes up to 1 million times higher than before the Chernobyl contamination. There were essential changes in the ionic, aerosol, and gas structure of the surface air in the heavily contaminated territories, as measured by electroconductivity and air radiolysis. Many years after the catastrophe aerosols from forest fires have dispersed hundreds of kilometers away. The Chernobyl radionuclides concentrate in sediments, water, plants, and animals, sometimes 100,000 times more than the local background level. The consequences of such a shock on aquatic ecosystems is largely unclear. Secondary contamination of freshwater ecosystems occurs as a result of Cs-137 and Sr-90 washout by the high waters of spring. The speed of vertical migration of different radionuclides in floodplains, lowland moors, peat bogs, etc., is about 2-4 cm/year. As a result of this vertical migration of radionuclides in soil, plants with deep root systems absorb them and carry the ones that are buried to the surface again. This transfer is one of the important mechanisms, observed in recent years, that leads to increased doses of internal irradiation among people in the contaminated territories.

  11. Contamination assessment in microbiological sampling of the Eyreville core, Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronstal, A.L.; Voytek, M.A.; Kirshtein, J.D.; Von der, Heyde; Lowit, M.D.; Cockell, C.S.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the deep subsurface biosphere is limited due to difficulties in recovering materials. Deep drilling projects provide access to the subsurface; however, contamination introduced during drilling poses a major obstacle in obtaining clean samples. To monitor contamination during the 2005 International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP)-U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deep drilling of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, four methods were utilized. Fluorescent microspheres were used to mimic the ability of contaminant cells to enter samples through fractures in the core material during retrieval. Drilling mud was infused with a chemical tracer (Halon 1211) in order to monitor penetration of mud into cores. Pore water from samples was examined using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fl uorescence spectroscopy to characterize dissolved organic carbon (DOC) present at various depths. DOC signatures at depth were compared to signatures from drilling mud in order to identify potential contamination. Finally, microbial contaminants present in drilling mud were identified through 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) clone libraries and compared to species cultured from core samples. Together, these methods allowed us to categorize the recovered core samples according to the likelihood of contamination. Twenty-two of the 47 subcores that were retrieved were free of contamination by all the methods used and were subsequently used for microbiological culture and culture-independent analysis. Our approach provides a comprehensive assessment of both particulate and dissolved contaminants that could be applied to any environment with low biomass. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  12. [Bacterial contamination of multi-dose ocular solutions. A prospective study at the Grenoble Teaching Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudieu, E; Duc, D L; Masella, J J; Croize, J; Valence, B; Meylan, I; Mouillon, M; Franco, A; Calop, J

    1999-12-01

    The bacterial contamination rate of multidose ocular solutions used by hospitalized patients was evaluated by culturing vial dropper tips and residual solution in vials. Bacterial colonies were counted and identified. Overall 39 (23.5%) selected vials were contaminated. Contamination rates were 17.7% (20/113) for vials used by ophthalmology ward patients and 35.8% (19/53) for vials used by internal medicine and gerontology patients (P < 0.02). The most commonly identified organisms were part of the normal commensal flora. Three ophthalmology patients were using vials contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A significant (P < 0.01) positive correlation was found between vial contamination rate and duration of vial use. Vials containing an antimicrobial agent were less likely to be contaminated than vials without antimicrobials (P < 0.01). No clinical consequences of vial contamination were identified. However, ocular solution vial contamination carries a risk of infection. Our data are evidence of inadequate efficacy of preservatives present in ocular solutions. The standard practice of using ocular solution vials for seven days in health care facilities may need to be reappraised. Care should be taken to ensure that health care providers and patients understand the rules for ocular solution use. Unit-dose presentations may be preferable over multi-dose presentations for in hospital treatment.

  13. Candida keroseneae sp. nov., a novel contaminant of aviation kerosene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddie, A G; Bridge, P D; Kelley, J; Ryan, M J

    2011-01-01

    To characterize and identify a novel contaminant of aviation fuel. Micro-organisms (yeasts and bacteria) were isolated from samples of aviation fuel. A yeast that proved to have been unrecorded previously was isolated from more than one fuel sample. This novel yeast proved to be a new species of Candida and is described here. Ribosomal RNA gene sequence analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions (including 5·8S subunit) plus the 26S D1/D2 domains showed the strains to cluster within the Candida membranifaciens clade nearest to, but distinct from, Candida tumulicola. Phenotypic tests were identical for both isolates. Physiological and biochemical tests supported their position as a separate taxon. The yeast was assessed for its effect on the main constituent hydrocarbons of aviation fuel. Two strains (IMI 395605(T) and IMI 395606) belonging to the novel yeast species, Candida keroseneae, were isolated from samples of aircraft fuel (kerosene), characterized and described herein with reference to their potential as contaminants of aviation fuel. As a result of isolating a novel yeast from aviation fuel, the implications for microbial contamination of such fuel should be considered more widely than previously thought. © 2010 CAB International. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Endotoxin contamination delays the foreign body reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten, Sander M.; Wubben, Maike; Plantinga, Josee A.; Hennink, Wim E.; van Luyn, Marja J. A.; Harmsen, Martin C.

    2011-01-01

    Biomaterials are at continuous risk of bacterial contamination during production and application. In vivo, bacterial contamination of biomaterials delays the foreign body reaction (FBR). Endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), major constituents of the bacterial cell wall, are potent stimulato

  15. Microbiological Contamination of Cosmetic Creams in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshtvarz, M. (Msc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Transmission of pathogens by cosmetics is one of the major health complications. Direct contact with contaminated non-standard cosmetics can have irreparable side effects for the consumers. Thus, the evaluation of microbial contamination in cosmetic products is important. The aim of this study was to assess the microbiological contamination of one of frequently used cream. Material and Methods: In the present study, 135 samples of a special moisturizing cream were randomly selected from pharmacies in Tehran. The microbial contamination assessment, sampling and culturing method were based on the protocol (No.3978 of Iranian Institute of Standard and Industrial Research. Results: sixty-two (46% out of 135 samples were contaminated. The highest and lowest contaminations observed were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus, respectively. Conclusion: Due to the high contamination rate of cosmetic creams, we recommend extremely monitoring and controlling these products by health centers. Keywords: Cosmetics, Microbial Contamination, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

  16. Reliability and Consistency of Surface Contamination Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouppert, F.; Rivoallan, A.; Largeron, C.

    2002-02-26

    Surface contamination evaluation is a tough problem since it is difficult to isolate the radiations emitted by the surface, especially in a highly irradiating atmosphere. In that case the only possibility is to evaluate smearable (removeable) contamination since ex-situ countings are possible. Unfortunately, according to our experience at CEA, these values are not consistent and thus non relevant. In this study, we show, using in-situ Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometry on contaminated metal samples, that fixed contamination seems to be chemisorbed and removeable contamination seems to be physisorbed. The distribution between fixed and removeable contamination appears to be variable. Chemical equilibria and reversible ion exchange mechanisms are involved and are closely linked to environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature. Measurements of smearable contamination only give an indication of the state of these equilibria between fixed and removeable contamination at the time and in the environmental conditions the measurements were made.

  17. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study of public pools done ... The E. coli is a marker for fecal contamination. Finding a high percentage of E. coli-positive ...

  18. Contamination-Free Electrical-Discharge Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mark G.

    1987-01-01

    Contamination of parts by electrical-discharge machining (EDM) almost completely eliminated by reversing flow of coolant. Flow reversed from usual direction so coolant carries contaminants out through passage in electrode. Coolant for reverse flow is pressurized dichlorodifluoromethane vapor.

  19. Oil Contamination in Ogoniland, Niger Delta

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olof Lindén; Jonas Pålsson

    2013-01-01

    .... The contamination has killed large areas of mangroves. Although the natural conditions for degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons are favorable with high temperatures and relatively high rainfall, the recovery of contaminated areas is prevented due...

  20. Fungal contaminants observed during micropropagation of Lilium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micropropagation is a rapid propagation technique, but the greatest problem is contamination with fungi and bacteria. ... Fungal contaminants formed during the culture were determined. ... Bulb scales rinsed in water were surface sterilized, then solutions containing chemotherapeutic substances (Benomyl, ... Article Metrics.

  1. Cleanup of contaminated soil -- Unreal risk assumptions: Contaminant degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, A. [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Ewing, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Exposure assessments for development of risk-based soil cleanup standards or criteria assume that contaminant mass in soil is infinite and conservative (constant concentration). This assumption is not real for most organic chemicals. Contaminant mass is lost from soil and ground water when organic chemicals degrade. Factors to correct for chemical mass lost by degradation are derived from first-order kinetics for 85 organic chemicals commonly listed by USEPA and state agencies. Soil cleanup criteria, based on constant concentration, are then corrected for contaminant mass lost. For many chemicals, accounting for mass lost yields large correction factors to risk-based soil concentrations. For degradation in ground water and soil, correction factors range from greater than one to several orders of magnitude. The long exposure durations normally used in exposure assessments (25 to 70 years) result in large correction factors to standards even for carcinogenic chemicals with long half-lives. For the ground water pathway, a typical soil criterion for TCE of 1 mg/kg would be corrected to 11 mg/kg. For noncarcinogens, correcting for mass lost means that risk algorithms used to set soil cleanup requirements are inapplicable for many chemicals, especially for long periods of exposure.

  2. Meaning and Mental Contamination: Focus on Appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Corinna M.; Radomsky, Adam S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recent expansion of interest in contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has fostered the description of mental contamination and a series of experiments designed to understand associated factors. This supports a cognitive approach to the understanding and treatment of contamination-related OCD--especially when the…

  3. The Induction of Mental and Contact Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michelle; Shafran, Roz; Burgess, Charlotte; Carpenter, Jodi; Millard, Emma; Thorpe, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Extreme fear of contamination within obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is traditionally conceptualised as a physical phenomenon. More recent research has supported the notion of "mental" contamination (MC) in which people feel contaminated in the absence of physical contact. The current research sought to determine whether feelings…

  4. 21 CFR 211.176 - Penicillin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin contamination. 211.176 Section 211.176... Penicillin contamination. If a reasonable possibility exists that a non-penicillin drug product has been exposed to cross-contamination with penicillin, the non-penicillin drug product shall be tested for...

  5. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present...

  6. 9 CFR 381.91 - Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 381.91 Contamination. (a) Carcasses of poultry contaminated by volatile oils, paints, poisons, gases, scald vat water in the air sac system, or other substances which render the carcasses adulterated shall... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contamination. 381.91 Section...

  7. The Induction of Mental and Contact Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michelle; Shafran, Roz; Burgess, Charlotte; Carpenter, Jodi; Millard, Emma; Thorpe, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Extreme fear of contamination within obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is traditionally conceptualised as a physical phenomenon. More recent research has supported the notion of "mental" contamination (MC) in which people feel contaminated in the absence of physical contact. The current research sought to determine whether…

  8. NSF-RANN trace contaminants abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copenhaver, E.D.; Harnden, D.S. (eds.)

    1976-10-01

    Specific areas of interest of the Environmental Aspects of Trace Contaminants Program are organic chemicals of commerce, metals and organometallic compounds, air-borne contaminants, and environmental assay methodology. Fifty-three abstracts of literature on trace contaminants are presented. Author, keyword, and permuted title indexes are included. (HLW)

  9. Satellite material contaminant optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B. E.; Bertrand, W. T.; Seiber, B. L.; Kiech, E. L.; Falco, P. M.; Holt, J. D.

    1990-03-01

    The Air Force Wright Research and Development Center and the Arnold Engineering Development Center are continuing a program for measuring optical effects of satellite material outgassing products on cryo-optic surfaces. Presented here are infrared (4000 to 700 cm(-1)) transmittance data for contaminant films condensed on a 77 K germanium window. From the transmittance data, the contaminant film refractive and absorptive indices (n, k) were derived using an analytical thin-film interference model with a nonlinear least-squares algorithm. To date 19 materials have been studied with the optical contents determined for 13 of those. The materials include adhesives, paints, composites, films, and lubricants. This program is continuing and properties for other materials will be available in the future.

  10. Review of soil contamination guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, M.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

    1981-08-01

    A review of existing and proposed radioactive soil contamination standards and guidance was conducted for United Nuclear Corporation (UNC), Office of Surplus Facilities Management. Information was obtained from both government agencies and other sources during a literature survey. The more applicable standards were reviewed, evaluated, and summarized. Information pertaining to soil contamination for both facility operation and facility decommissioning was obtained from a variety of sources. These sources included: the Code of Federal Regulations, regulatory guides, the Federal Register, topical reports written by various government agencies, topical reports written by national laboratories, and publications from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). It was difficult to directly compare the standards and guidance obtained from these sources since each was intended for a specific situation and different units or bases were used. However, most of the information reviewed was consistent with the philosophy of maintaining exposures at levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  11. RADIATION CONTAMINATION INCIDENT AT ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On 27 June 2000 three specialists were investigating a problem with the extraction electrode of the high-resolution separator (HRS) in Isolde. Whilst using an endoscope in order to have a closer look at the interior, they came into contact with radioactive dust and became contaminated. The level of contamination was low and the radiation dose received by the 3 persons was far below the effective dose limit given in the CERN Radiation Safety Manual and in the regulations of the Host States.According to the usual procedure, the Director General has set up a Fact-Finding Group and an Accident Board in order to advise him on the steps and decisions tobe taken following this incident and in particular to avoid a recurrence.

  12. Wautersia: The Contingency Water Container Bacterial Contamination Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkedi, Brienne; Labuda, Laura; Bruce, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    The Orbiter delivers water to the International Space Station (ISS) in Contingency Water Containers (CWCs) on each flight to the ISS. These CWCs are routinely sampled during each mission to verify the quality of the delivered water. Of the 5 samples returned on STS118/ 13A.1 in August 2007, two exhibited microbial growth exceeding potable water acceptability limits and historical data by orders of magnitude . The microbe was identified as Wautersia species and an investigation was launched to find the source of the contamination. Since then, samples collected on subsequent flights indicated additional CWCs had the same bacteria, as well as several on-orbit systems. An investigation was launched to try to find and address the source of the bacterial contamination. This paper will discuss how Wautersia was found, what Wautersia is, the investigation, and resolution.

  13. 77 FR 27057 - Request for Nominations of Drinking Water Contaminants for the Fourth Contaminant Candidate List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... AGENCY Request for Nominations of Drinking Water Contaminants for the Fourth Contaminant Candidate List... contaminants for possible inclusion in the fourth drinking water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL 4). EPA is... information contact the EPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline at (800) 426-4791 or email: hotline-sdwa@epa.gov ....

  14. Nonparametric estimation for contamination distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI Jun; MIAO Bai-qi; NING Jing; PENG Heng

    2008-01-01

    In the paper, for the contamination distribution model F(x)=(1-α)F1(x)+αF2(x), the estimates of α and F1(x) are studied using two different ways when F2(x) is known and the strong consistency of the two estimates is proved. At the same time the consistency rate of estimate α is also given.

  15. Contaminant analysis automation demonstration proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, M.G.; Schur, A.; Heubach, J.G.

    1993-10-01

    The nation-wide and global need for environmental restoration and waste remediation (ER&WR) presents significant challenges to the analytical chemistry laboratory. The expansion of ER&WR programs forces an increase in the volume of samples processed and the demand for analysis data. To handle this expanding volume, productivity must be increased. However. The need for significantly increased productivity, faces contaminant analysis process which is costly in time, labor, equipment, and safety protection. Laboratory automation offers a cost effective approach to meeting current and future contaminant analytical laboratory needs. The proposed demonstration will present a proof-of-concept automated laboratory conducting varied sample preparations. This automated process also highlights a graphical user interface that provides supervisory, control and monitoring of the automated process. The demonstration provides affirming answers to the following questions about laboratory automation: Can preparation of contaminants be successfully automated?; Can a full-scale working proof-of-concept automated laboratory be developed that is capable of preparing contaminant and hazardous chemical samples?; Can the automated processes be seamlessly integrated and controlled?; Can the automated laboratory be customized through readily convertible design? and Can automated sample preparation concepts be extended to the other phases of the sample analysis process? To fully reap the benefits of automation, four human factors areas should be studied and the outputs used to increase the efficiency of laboratory automation. These areas include: (1) laboratory configuration, (2) procedures, (3) receptacles and fixtures, and (4) human-computer interface for the full automated system and complex laboratory information management systems.

  16. Bioremediation of Creosote - contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    BYSS, Marius

    2008-01-01

    Bioremediation of creosote-contaminated soil was studied employing the methods of soil microbial biology and using new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry analytical approach. The changes of the soil microbial community under the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) pollution impact were analyzed and described, as well as the changes during the bioremediation experiments. Laboratory-scale bioremediation experiments using the soil microbial community (consisted of bacteria...

  17. Fungal contaminants in cytopathology specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Sharma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A pseudo-epidemic of environmental fungi, most likely by Fusarium spp., leading to inappropriate investigations for disseminated systemic mycosis is described. Subtle diagnostic clues, including the specimens affected, the nature of the host response, and the type of fungal elements noted helped to determine the nature of contaminants. The potential pitfall can be avoided by the knowledge of pertinent disease biology, prompt consultation for infectious diseases, and investigations of the potential environmental sources followed by source control.

  18. Environmental contamination in Antarctic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli, R

    2008-08-01

    Although the remote continent of Antarctica is perceived as the symbol of the last great wilderness, the human presence in the Southern Ocean and the continent began in the early 1900s for hunting, fishing and exploration, and many invasive plant and animal species have been deliberately introduced in several sub-Antarctic islands. Over the last 50 years, the development of research and tourism have locally affected terrestrial and marine coastal ecosystems through fuel combustion (for transportation and energy production), accidental oil spills, waste incineration and sewage. Although natural "barriers" such as oceanic and atmospheric circulation protect Antarctica from lower latitude water and air masses, available data on concentrations of metals, pesticides and other persistent pollutants in air, snow, mosses, lichens and marine organisms show that most persistent contaminants in the Antarctic environment are transported from other continents in the Southern Hemisphere. At present, levels of most contaminants in Antarctic organisms are lower than those in related species from other remote regions, except for the natural accumulation of Cd and Hg in several marine organisms and especially in albatrosses and petrels. The concentrations of organic pollutants in the eggs of an opportunistic top predator such as the south polar skua are close to those that may cause adverse health effects. Population growth and industrial development in several countries of the Southern Hemisphere are changing the global pattern of persistent anthropogenic contaminants and new classes of chemicals have already been detected in the Antarctic environment. Although the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty provides strict guidelines for the protection of the Antarctic environment and establishes obligations for all human activity in the continent and the Southern Ocean, global warming, population growth and industrial development in countries of the Southern

  19. Toothbrush contamination in family members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Contreras

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the bacterial contamination of toothbrushes in family members. Materials and Methods: One hundred and two healthy subjects were included in this descriptive study. Every individual was examined clinically and microbiologically using the CPITN index and collecting subgingival plaque samples. Each participant received a toothbrush for home use and after one month they returned it to the investigators. All toothbrushes were cultured to determine the presence of periodontopathic bacteria and enteric rods. Wilkoxon signed rank test and t student test (P d"0.05 were used to compare differences in the subgingival microbiota and toothbrush contamination and CPITN index among family members. Results: A high proportion of toothbrushes resulted highly contaminated with enteric rods (P d"0.001 compared to the subgingival environment where periodontopathic bacteria were more prevalent. The most frequent microorganisms found in toothbrushes used by parents and children for one month were Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae species (>50% and Fusobacterium spp (30%. Conclusions: High levels of enteric rods were commonly detected in toothbrushes used for 1 month among members of the families. These opportunistic organisms may have an important role in oral infections including gingivitis and periodontitis. Monthly replacement or disinfection of the toothbrush can reduce the risk of bacterial transmission/translocation and thus diminish the incidence of biofilm associated oral diseases.

  20. Forced-air warming: a source of airborne contamination in the operating room?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Leaper

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Forced-air-warming (FAW is an effective and widely used means for maintaining surgical normothermia, but FAW also has the potential to generate and mobilize airborne contamination in the operating room. We measured the emission of viable and non-viable forms of airborne contamination from an arbitrary selection of FAW blowers (n=25 in the operating room. A laser particle counter measured particulate concentrations of the air near the intake filter and in the distal hose airstream. Filtration efficiency was calculated as the reduction in particulate concentration in the distal hose airstream relative to that of the intake. Microbial colonization of the FAW blower’s internal hose surfaces was assessed by culturing the microorganisms recovered through swabbing (n=17 and rinsing (n=9 techniques. Particle counting revealed that 24% of FAW blowers were emitting significant levels of internally generated airborne contamination in the 0.5 to 5.0 mm size range, evidenced by a steep decrease in FAW blower filtration efficiency for particles 0.5 to 5.0 mm in size. The particle size-range-specific reduction in efficiency could not be explained by the filtration properties of the intake filter. Instead, the reduction was found to be caused by size-range-specific particle generation within the FAW blowers. Microorganisms were detected on the internal air path surfaces of 94% of FAW blowers. The design of FAW blowers was found to be questionable for preventing the build-up of internal contamination and the emission of airborne contamination into the operating room. Although we did not evaluate the link between FAW and surgical site infection rates, a significant percentage of FAW blowers with positive microbial cultures were emitting internally generated airborne contamination within the size range of free floating bacteria and fungi (<4 mm that could, conceivably, settle onto the surgical site.

  1. NORM contamination in the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. (Peter Gray and Associates, Inc. (United States))

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on contamination of oil and gas facilities with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) which is now widespread. Some contamination may be sufficiently severe that maintenance and other personnel may be exposed to hazardous concentrations. Contamination with radium is common in oil-production facilities, whereas contamination with radon and radon decay products is more prevalent in natural-gas production and processing facilities. Although largely unregulated until recently, U.S. states, notably Louisiana and Texas, have or are enacting legislation to control NORM contamination in the petroleum industry.industry.

  2. Methods for removing contaminants from algal oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupton, Francis Stephen

    2016-09-27

    Methods for removing contaminants from algal oil are provided. In an embodiment, a method comprises the steps of combining a sulfuric acid-aqueous solution that has a pH of about 1 or less with a contaminant-containing algal oil at treatment conditions effective to form an effluent. The effluent comprises a treated algal oil phase and contaminants in an acidic aqueous phase. The contaminants comprise metals, phosphorus, or combinations thereof. The acidic aqueous phase is removed from the effluent to form a contaminant-depleted algal oil.

  3. Dispersion of Contaminants in Indoor Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    In rooms ventilated by mixing ventilation, in order to remove contaminants from the occupied zone, the goal of the air distribution system is to achieve a low and even concentration distribution in the room. The experiments showed that the contaminant distribution in a room always will depend...... on the location of the contamination source and in practice also on the supplied air flow rate and the contaminant density. The results showed that it is important for the removal of contaminants in a room that the ventilation system is working in the same direction as the existing buoyancy forces....

  4. Methods for removing contaminants from algal oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Francis Stephen

    2016-09-27

    Methods for removing contaminants from algal oil are provided. In an embodiment, a method comprises the steps of combining a sulfuric acid-aqueous solution that has a pH of about 1 or less with a contaminant-containing algal oil at treatment conditions effective to form an effluent. The effluent comprises a treated algal oil phase and contaminants in an acidic aqueous phase. The contaminants comprise metals, phosphorus, or combinations thereof. The acidic aqueous phase is removed from the effluent to form a contaminant-depleted algal oil.

  5. Effects of temperature differential and immersion time on internalization of Salmonella Newport in tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Food-borne illness outbreaks associated with Salmonella enterica have been traced back to tomatoes contaminated through bacterial attachment and possible internalization during post-harvest handling. However, no scientific information is available regarding the effect of current tomato...

  6. Effects of simulated packing house operating conditions on pathogen internalization in tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Food-borne illness outbreaks associated with Salmonella enterica have been traced back to tomatoes contaminated through bacterial attachment and possible internalization during post-harvest handling. However, no scientific information is available regarding the effect of current tomato...

  7. Oral chlorhexidine and microbial contamination during endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donatsky, Anders Meller; Holzknecht, Barbara Juliane; Arpi, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the biggest concerns associated with transgastric surgery is contamination and risk of intra-abdominal infection with microbes introduced from the access route. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral decontamination with chlorhexidine on microbial contamin......BACKGROUND: One of the biggest concerns associated with transgastric surgery is contamination and risk of intra-abdominal infection with microbes introduced from the access route. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral decontamination with chlorhexidine on microbial...... contamination of the endoscope. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, clinical trial the effect of chlorhexidine mouth rinse was evaluated. As a surrogate for the risk of intra-abdominal contamination during transgastric surgery, microbial contamination of the endoscope during upper endoscopy...... microbial contamination of the endoscope, but micro-organisms with abscess forming capabilities were still present. PPI treatment significantly increased CFU and should be discontinued before transgastric surgery....

  8. Environmental contamination, product contamination and workers exposure using a robotic system for antineoplastic drug preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessink, Paul J M; Leclercq, Gisèle M; Wouters, Dominique-Marie; Halbardier, Loïc; Hammad, Chaïma; Kassoul, Nassima

    2015-04-01

    Environmental contamination, product contamination and technicians exposure were measured following preparation of iv bags with cyclophosphamide using the robotic system CytoCare. Wipe samples were taken inside CytoCare, in the clean room environment, from vials, and prepared iv bags including ports and analysed for contamination with cyclophosphamide. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was also measured in environmental air and on the technicians hands and gloves used for handling the drugs. Exposure of the technicians to cyclophosphamide was measured by analysis of cyclophosphamide in urine. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was mainly observed inside CytoCare, before preparation, after preparation and after daily routine cleaning. Contamination outside CytoCare was incidentally found. All vials with reconstituted cyclophosphamide entering CytoCare were contaminated on the outside but vials with powdered cyclophosphamide were not contaminated on the outside. Contaminated bags entering CytoCare were also contaminated after preparation but non-contaminated bags were not contaminated after preparation. Cyclophosphamide was detected on the ports of all prepared bags. Almost all outer pairs of gloves used for preparation and daily routine cleaning were contaminated with cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide was not found on the inner pairs of gloves and on the hands of the technicians. Cyclophosphamide was not detected in the stationary and personal air samples and in the urine samples of the technicians. CytoCare enables the preparation of cyclophosphamide with low levels of environmental contamination and product contamination and no measurable exposure of the technicians.

  9. External radiation dose and cancer mortality among French nuclear workers. Considering potential confounding by internal radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, L.; Laurent, O.; Samson, E.; Caer-Lorho, S.; Laurier, D.; Leuraud, K. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Ionizing Radiation Epidemiology Lab.; Laroche, P. [AREVA, Paris (France); Le Guen, B. [EDF, Saint Denis (France)

    2016-11-15

    French nuclear workers have detailed records of their occupational exposure to external radiation that have been used to examine associations with subsequent cancer mortality. However, some workers were also exposed to internal contamination by radionuclides. This study aims to assess the potential for bias due to confounding by internal contamination of estimates of associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality. A cohort of 59,004 workers employed for at least 1 year between 1950 and 1994 by CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), AREVA NC, or EDF (Electricite de France) and badge-monitored for external radiation exposure were followed through 2004 to assess vital status and cause of death. A flag based on a workstation-exposure matrix defined four levels of potential for internal contamination. Standardized mortality ratios were assessed for each level of the internal contamination indicator. Poisson regression was used to quantify associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality, adjusting for potential internal contamination. For solid cancer, the mortality deficit tended to decrease as the levels of potential for internal contamination increased. For solid cancer and leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia, adjusting the dose-response analysis on the internal contamination indicator did not markedly change the excess relative risk per Sievert of external radiation dose. This study suggests that in this cohort, neglecting information on internal dosimetry while studying the association between external dose and cancer mortality does not generate a substantial bias. To investigate more specifically the health effects of internal contamination, an effort is underway to estimate organ doses due to internal contamination.

  10. External radiation dose and cancer mortality among French nuclear workers: considering potential confounding by internal radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, L; Laurent, O; Samson, E; Caër-Lorho, S; Laroche, P; Le Guen, B; Laurier, D; Leuraud, K

    2016-11-01

    French nuclear workers have detailed records of their occupational exposure to external radiation that have been used to examine associations with subsequent cancer mortality. However, some workers were also exposed to internal contamination by radionuclides. This study aims to assess the potential for bias due to confounding by internal contamination of estimates of associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality. A cohort of 59,004 workers employed for at least 1 year between 1950 and 1994 by CEA (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique), AREVA NC, or EDF (Electricité de France) and badge-monitored for external radiation exposure were followed through 2004 to assess vital status and cause of death. A flag based on a workstation-exposure matrix defined four levels of potential for internal contamination. Standardized mortality ratios were assessed for each level of the internal contamination indicator. Poisson regression was used to quantify associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality, adjusting for potential internal contamination. For solid cancer, the mortality deficit tended to decrease as the levels of potential for internal contamination increased. For solid cancer and leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia, adjusting the dose-response analysis on the internal contamination indicator did not markedly change the excess relative risk per Sievert of external radiation dose. This study suggests that in this cohort, neglecting information on internal dosimetry while studying the association between external dose and cancer mortality does not generate a substantial bias. To investigate more specifically the health effects of internal contamination, an effort is underway to estimate organ doses due to internal contamination.

  11. Robustness and Radiation Resistance of the Pale Grass Blue Butterfly from Radioactively Contaminated Areas: A Possible Case of Adaptive Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Otaki, Joji M

    2017-02-11

    The pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, has been used to evaluate biological impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011. Here, we examined the possibility that butterflies have adapted to be robust in the contaminated environment. Larvae (n = 2432) were obtained from adult butterflies (n = 20) collected from 7 localities with various contamination levels in May 2012, corresponding to the 7th generation after the accident. When the larvae were reared on non-contaminated host plant leaves from Okinawa, the normality rates of natural exposure without artificial irradiation (as an indication of robustness) were high not only in the least contaminated locality but also in the most contaminated localities. The normality rates were similarly obtained when the larvae were reared on non-contaminated leaves with external irradiation or on contaminated leaves from Fukushima to deliver internal irradiation. The normality rate of natural exposure and that of external or internal exposure were correlated, suggesting that radiation resistance (or susceptibility) likely reflects general state of health. The normality rate of external or internal exposure was divided by the relative normality rate of natural exposure, being defined as the resistance value. The resistance value was the highest in the populations of heavily contaminated localities and was inversely correlated with the distance from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. These results suggest that the butterfly population might have adapted to the contaminated environment within approximately 1 year after the accident. The present study may partly explain the decrease in mortality and abnormality rates later observed in the contaminated areas. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Community College Internal Auditors: Internal Audit Guidebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronna; And Others

    This guidebook includes information compiled by the "Audit Manual" committee of Community College Internal Auditors (CCIA) from several California community college districts regarding their internal auditing practices. The first section of the guidebook discusses the purpose of internal audits, indicating that audits assist members of…

  13. Climatic Reliability of Electronics: Early Prediction and Control of Contamination and humidity effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas

    assuming parasitic circuit due to water layer formation on the PCBA surface. The chapters 2-5 review the factors influencing the climatic reliability of electronics namely humidity interaction with materials and ionic contamination on the PCBA surface, common types and sources of ionic contamination...... intended for publication in international journals. Prior to the appended papers, chapter 7 provides a short summary of appended papers with important results and discussion. The results are summarized in 8 papers, presented in chapters 8-15. Papers 1-3 investigate the interaction between ionic...... contaminants i.e. NaCl, flux residues, WOAs and humidity, and their effects on leakage current, corrosion and electrochemical migration. Paper 4 compares the two types of ionic contamination i.e. NaCl and flux residue in terms of their impact on leakage currents and probability for electrochemical migration...

  14. Latin American and Caribbean intercomparison of surface contamination monitoring equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, T S; Ramos, M M O; Laranjeira, A S; Santos, D S; Suarez, R C

    2011-03-01

    In October 2009, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) sponsored an intercomparison exercise of surface contamination monitoring equipment, which was held at the Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes, from the Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria, IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro. This intercomparison was performed to evaluate the calibration accessibility in Latin America and the Caribbean. Thirteen countries within the region and IAEA have sent instruments to be compared, but only five countries and IAEA were considered apt to participate. Analysis of instruments, results and discussions are presented and recommendations are drawn.

  15. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 study for emerging organic contaminants decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaona; Xiao, Yan; Hu, Jiangyong; Quek, Elaine; Xie, Rongjin; Pang, Thomas; Xing, Yongjie

    2016-03-01

    Human behaviors including consumption of drugs and use of personal care products, climate change, increased international travel, and the advent of water reclamation for direct potable use have led to the introduction of significant amounts of emerging organic contaminants into the aqueous environment. In addition, the lower detection limits associated with improved scientific methods of chemical analysis have resulted in a recent increase in documented incidences of these contaminants which previously were not routinely monitored in water. Such contaminants may cause known or suspected adverse ecological and/or human health effects at very low concentrations. Conventional drinking water treatment processes may not effectively remove these organic contaminants. Advanced oxidation process (AOP) is a promising treatment process for the removal of most of these emerging organic contaminants, and has been accepted worldwide as a suitable treatment process. In this study, different groups of emerging contaminants were studied for decomposition efficiency using pilot-scale UV/H2O2 oxidation setup, including EDCs, PPCPs, taste and odor (T&O), and perfluorinated compounds. Results found that MP UV/H2O2 AOP was efficient in removing all the selected contaminants except perfluorinated compounds. Study of the kinetics of the process showed that both light absorption and quantum yield of each compound affected the decomposition performance. Analysis of water quality parameters of the treated water indicated that the outcome of both UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 processes can be affected by changes in the feed water quality.

  16. Identification and assessment of trace contaminants associated with oil and gas pipelines abandoned in place

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorne, W.E.R.; Basso, A.C.; Dhol, S.K. [Biophilia Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    As more Alberta oil and gas fields become depleted, attention is being given to development of economically and environmentally sound abandonment procedures. The objective of this study was to identify and assess residual internal and external contaminants associated with abandoned pipelines, particularly those to be abandoned in place. Circumstances which might increase the risk of contaminant release, and other issues relating to residual pipeline contaminants, were also identified. It was found that there are thousands of different substances which could potentially be associated with abandoned pipelines. A wide range in the potential quantities of residual contaminants was also found. Of the issues identified, the effectiveness of pipeline pigging and cleaning procedures prior to abandonment was the most critical determinant of the potential quantities of residual contaminants. However, a number of trace contaminants, such as PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) and NORMs (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) may remain after thorough cleaning. A brief review of the legislation and regulations from a number of jurisdictions shows that pipeline abandonment has only recently become an issue of concern. Regulations specific to abandonment are lacking, and more general regulations and guidelines are being applied on a contaminant-specific basis, or in terms of waste disposal requirements.

  17. Desiccant contamination research: Report on the desiccant contamination test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Bingham, C.E.

    1991-07-01

    The activity in the cooling systems research involves research on high performance dehumidifiers and chillers that can operate efficiently with the variable thermal outputs and delivery temperatures associated with solar collectors. It also includes work on advanced passive cooling techniques. This report describes the work conducted to improve the durability of solid desiccant dehumidifiers by investigating the causes of degradation of desiccant materials from airborne contaminants and thermal cycling. The performance of a dehumidifier strongly depends on the physical properties and durability of the desiccant material. To make durable and reliable dehumidifiers, an understanding is needed of how and to what degree the performance of a dehumidifier is affected by desiccant degradation. This report, an account of work under Cooling Systems Research, documents the efforts to design and fabricate a test facility to investigate desiccant contamination based on industry and academia recommendations. It also discusses the experimental techniques needed for obtaining high-quality data and presents plans for next year. Researchers of the Mechanical and Industrial Technology Division performed this work at the Solar Energy Research Institute in FY 1988 for DOE's Office of Solar Heat Technologies. 7 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Systematic differentiation of contaminated and non-contaminated areas in the Korma region

    CERN Document Server

    Dederichs, H; Hille, R; Konoplya, E

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of body counts and environmental measurements taken from June 1998 till June 2001 in two communities in the district of Korma, Belarus. The measurements were carried out together with the Radiobiological Institute of the National Academy of Science within the framework of a projekt supported by the BMU/BfS. The results are listed in the table. The results show that the population dose in the highly contaminated areas following the Tschernobyl catastrophe does not decrease at the rate predicted. The external load decreases due to the physical decay and the continual migration into deeper soil layers. However, due to an internal accumulation of cesium in the population in many cases, the total dose load has either hardly decreased, remained constant or even increased in some areas. The aim of this work is, together with continuing body counts, to give individual advice which helps change the habits of the population and consequently the internal load. These measures appear to be...

  19. Contaminants in ventilated filling boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolster, D. T.; Linden, P. F.

    While energy efficiency is important, the adoption of energy-efficient ventilation systems still requires the provision of acceptable indoor air quality. Many low-energy systems, such as displacement or natural ventilation, rely on temperature stratification within the interior environment, always extracting the warmest air from the top of the room. Understanding buoyancy-driven convection in a confined ventilated space is key to understanding the flow that develops with many of these modern low-energy ventilation schemes. In this work we study the transport of an initially uniformly distributed passive contaminant in a displacement-ventilated space. Representing a heat source as an ideal sourced of buoyancy, analytical and numerical models are developed that allow us to compare the average efficiency of contaminant removal between traditional mixing and modern low-energy systems. A set of small-scale analogue laboratory experiments was also conducted to further validate our analytical and numerical solutions.We find that on average traditional and low-energy ventilation methods are similar with regard to pollutant flushing efficiency. This is because the concentration being extracted from the system at any given time is approximately the same for both systems. However, very different vertical concentration gradients exist. For the low-energy system, a peak in contaminant concentration occurs at the temperature interface that is established within the space. This interface is typically designed to sit at some intermediate height in the space. Since this peak does not coincide with the extraction point, displacement ventilation does not offer the same benefits for pollutant flushing as it does for buoyancy removal.

  20. Hanford contaminated sediment stabilization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, L.E.; Key, K.T.; Higley, B.A.

    1977-03-01

    The major problems with radionuclide waste sites in the 200 Area plateau on the Hanford Reservation is the high degree of toxicity or Hazard Index (HI). Transport Factors (TF) are fortunately low but can increase with time and certainly with episodic events such as explosions or earthquakes. Two major tests involving surface affixation were sponsored by the Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company, one by Dowell using M-166 and the other by Battelle-Northwest comparing many different surface affixants. The latex emulsion, M-166, appeared to be well suited for the Hanford desert type area. Of the many surface affixants tested by Battelle-Northwest, Coherex and Aerospray appeared to be the best. As an emergency precaution, 200 barrels of M-166 were purchased for surface affixation in case of a range fire. The subsurface affixants laboratory and field tests include organic polymers, asphalt emulsions, concrete, AM-9, and sodium silicate-calcium chloride-foramide grouts. The applications were second containment (or leak prevention) of subsurface waste tanks and piping, grouting water wells to prevent contamination leaking to the water table, and encompassing cribs, trenches, burial grounds, and other subsurface sediment contaminations. Organic polymers added strength to the soil, but penetration of the viscous liquid was not as deep as desired; it may be good for situations requiring only a few inches penetration, such as well grouting. The asphalt emulsion looked promising as an easily injected well grouting material and it may also be good for encompassing subsurface contaminated sediment plumes. The sodium silicate-calcium chloride-foramide affixant appeared best for second containment of waste tanks but may require the help of asphalt emulsion to ensure good coverage.

  1. Control Group Design, Contamination and Drop-Out in Exercise Oncology Trials : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, Charlotte N. Steins; Courneya, Kerry S.; Velthuis, Miranda J.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Jones, Lee W.; Friedenreich, Christine; van der Wall, Elsken; Peeters, Petra H. M.; May, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Important considerations for exercise trials in cancer patients are contamination and differential drop-out among the control group members that might jeopardize the internal validity. This systematic review provides an overview of different control groups design characteristics of exercise-

  2. Lü Shengrong Competes Internationally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Little-known by her Chinese compatriots but wellknown in the international sports world, L(?) Shengrong,president of the International Badminton Federation (IBF) and member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), has had a legendary career.

  3. Surveying your internal customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, V L

    1998-06-01

    Internal customers often are overlooked when business techniques are applied. By applying common external customer satisfaction survey techniques to internal business functions, one hospital identified areas for improvement.

  4. The possible contamination of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Joe

    1988-01-01

    The Galileo probe, though at present its future is uncertain, would, if not sterilized, represent a good chance of contaminating Jupiter. Most scientists opposed to sterilizing the probe argue that to order the probe sterilized would be the death of the project, since sterilization would entail a reconstruction of the probe, and there are not enough funds to accomplish this. These scientists, however, are ignoring a relatively simple and inexpensive alternative to the traditional heat sterilization method. The main threat of contamination comes from Galileo's exterior surfaces: the shell of the probe and its parachute. The probe innermost components would not represent a threat since the probe is sealed. In light of the fact that only the exterior of Galileo would have to be sterilized, heat would not have to be used as a method of sterilization. Instead, various gas mixtures could be sprayed entirely over the probe and its parachute, gases which would kill any and all bacteria. This idea is more thoroughly examined.

  5. Situ treatment of contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Ruiz, Roberto (Tracy, CA); Pico, Tristan M. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A system for treating dissolved halogenated organic compounds in groundwater that relies upon electrolytically-generated hydrogen to chemically reduce the halogenated compounds in the presence of a suitable catalyst. A direct current is placed across at least a pair, or an array, of electrodes which are housed within groundwater wells so that hydrogen is generated at the cathode and oxygen at the anode. A pump is located within the well housing in which the cathode(s) is(are) located and draws in groundwater where it is hydrogenated via electrolysis, passes through a well-bore treatment unit, and then transported to the anode well(s) for reinjection into the ground. The well-bore treatment involves a permeable cylinder located in the well bore and containing a packed bed of catalyst material that facilitates the reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated organic compounds by hydrogen into environmentally benign species such as ethane and methane. Also, electro-osmatic transport of contaminants toward the cathode also contributes to contaminant mass removal. The only above ground equipment required are the transfer pipes and a direct circuit power supply for the electrodes. The electrode wells in an array may be used in pairs or one anode well may be used with a plurality of cathode wells. The DC current flow between electrode wells may be periodically reversed which controls the formation of mineral deposits in the alkaline cathode well-bore water, as well as to help rejuvenate the catalysis.

  6. Integrating risks at contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonell, M.; Habegger, L.; Nieves, L.; Schreiber, Z.; Travis, C.

    2000-02-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for a number of large sites across the country that were radioactively and chemically contaminated by past nuclear research, development, and production activities. Multiple risk assessments are being conducted for these sites to evaluate current conditions and determine what measures are needed to protect human health and the environment from today through the long term. Integrating the risks associated with multiple contaminants in different environmental media across extensive areas, over time periods that extend beyond 1,000 years, and for a number of different impact categories--from human health and ecological to social and economic--represents a considerable challenge. A central element of these integrated analyses is the ability to reflect key interrelationships among environmental resources and human communities that may be adversely affected by the actions or inactions being considered for a given site. Complicating the already difficult task of integrating many kinds of risk is the importance of reflecting the diverse values and preferences brought to bear by the multiple parties interested in the risk analysis process and outcome. An initial conceptual framework has been developed to provide an organized structure to this risk integration, with the aim of supporting effective environmental management decisions. This paper highlights key issues associated with comprehensive risk integration and offers suggestions developed from preliminary work at a complex DOE site.

  7. Contaminant and other elements in soil (CCQM-K127)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocio Arvizu Torres, M.; Manzano, J. Velina Lara; Valle Moya, Edith; Horvat, Milena; Jaćimović, Radojko; Zuliani, Tea; Vreča, Polona; Acosta, Osvaldo; Bennet, John; Snell, James; Almeida, Marcelo D.; de Sena, Rodrigo C.; Dutra, Emily S.; Yang, Lu; Li, Haifeng

    2017-01-01

    by their available analytical methods. This facilitated the investigation into the core capabilities of participants to measure the mass fraction of tested elements in soil and therefore to claim their CMCs as listed in appendix C of the key comparison database (KCDB) under the mutual recognition arrangement of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM MRA). In total 19 institutes (NMIs/Dis) participated in the key comparison and the reported results of the key comparison were from 18 institutes (NMIs/DIs); 151 measurements were reported for CCQM-K127. The analytical techniques selected by the participant institutes were ICP-MS, ICP-OES, FAAS, ET-AAS and INAA (k0-method of INAA); the sample preparation methods used were based on microwave assisted digestion, except when it was used INAA. After discussions it agreed to use the median as KCRV and the MMADe as u(xKCRV). Generally most of the results of the participants were found to be consistent for all measurements according to their equivalence statements, with the exception of some extreme values, which were identified with a value of di/U(di) higher than 1. This key comparison is a means of providing evidence for practical demonstration of a CCQM comparison calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) claims for contaminant and others elements, in low and medium content levels in non-contaminated and contaminated matrices described in category 13. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  8. Rutherford backscattering analysis of contaminants in PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, D. E.; Pfeffer, R. L.; Sadler, G. D.

    1997-05-01

    Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was used to understand the sorption and desorption of organic contaminants in the polymer Poly(ethylene terephthalate), or PET. Samples were exposed to a range of organics to simulate contamination of PET that can take place in the post-consumer waste stream. From RBS analysis, concentration depth profiles were shown to vary from a monolayer regime surface layer to a saturation level, depending on the contaminant. Heat treatments were also applied to contaminated polymer to simulate thermal processing steps in the recycling of PET. Heating caused a dramatic decrease in contaminants and in some cases a complete removal of contamination was achieved to the limit of RBS detectability.

  9. Mycoplasma contamination of Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huniche, BS; Jensen, Lise Torp; Birkelund, Svend

    1998-01-01

    We examined 6 C. pneumonia isolates from The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and 2 Finnish isolates for Mycoplasma contamination. Three of the ATCC isolates and both of the Finnish isolates were Mycoplasma-contaminated. The contaminants were characterized by means of growth in BEa and BEg...... media, immunoblotting, polymerase chain reaction and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two of the 6 ATCC isolates [ATCC VR1355 (TWAR strain 2043) and ATCC VR1356 (TWAR strain 2023)] were infected with Mycoplasma hominis and 1 isolate [ATCC VR2282 (TWAR strain TW183)] was contaminated with both...... Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma orale, whereas 3 of the ATCC isolates [ATCC VR1310, ATCC VR1360 (TWAR strain CM-1) and ATCC 53592 (TWAR strain AR39)] were not contaminated. The Finnish C. pneumoniae isolates Kajaani 6 and Parola were found to be contaminated with M. hominis and M. orale, respectively...

  10. Toothbrush contamination: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazelle, Michelle R; Munro, Cindy L

    2012-01-01

    Toothbrushes are commonly used in hospital settings and may harbor potentially harmful microorganisms. A peer-reviewed literature review was conducted to evaluate the cumulative state of knowledge related to toothbrush contamination and its possible role in disease transmission. A systematic review was conducted on adult human subjects through three distinct searches. The review resulted in seven experimental and three descriptive studies which identified multiple concepts related to toothbrush contamination to include contamination, methods for decontamination, storage, design, and environmental factors. The selected studies found that toothbrushes of healthy and oral diseased adults become contaminated with pathogenic bacteria from the dental plaque, design, environment, or a combination of factors. There are no studies that specifically examine toothbrush contamination and the role of environmental factors, toothbrush contamination, and vulnerable populations in the hospital setting (e.g., critically ill adults) and toothbrush use in nursing clinical practice.

  11. Standardization of surface contamination analysis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, Richard E.

    1995-01-01

    Corrosion products, oils and greases can potentially degrade material bonding properties. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Surface Contamination Analysis Team (SCAT) utilizes a variety of analytical equipment to detect identify and quantify contamination on metallic and non-metallic substrates. Analysis techniques include FT-IR Microscopy (FT-IR), Near Infrared Optical Fiber Spectrometry (NIR), Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE), Ultraviolet Fluorescence (UVF) and Ellipsometry. To insure that consistent qualitative and quantitative information are obtained, standards are required to develop analysis techniques, to establish instrument sensitivity to potential contaminants, and to develop calibration curves. This paper describes techniques for preparing and preserving contamination standards. Calibration of surface contamination analysis systems is discussed, and methods are presented for evaluating the effects of potential contaminants on bonding properties.

  12. Toothbrush Contamination: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R. Frazelle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Toothbrushes are commonly used in hospital settings and may harbor potentially harmful microorganisms. A peer-reviewed literature review was conducted to evaluate the cumulative state of knowledge related to toothbrush contamination and its possible role in disease transmission. A systematic review was conducted on adult human subjects through three distinct searches. The review resulted in seven experimental and three descriptive studies which identified multiple concepts related to toothbrush contamination to include contamination, methods for decontamination, storage, design, and environmental factors. The selected studies found that toothbrushes of healthy and oral diseased adults become contaminated with pathogenic bacteria from the dental plaque, design, environment, or a combination of factors. There are no studies that specifically examine toothbrush contamination and the role of environmental factors, toothbrush contamination, and vulnerable populations in the hospital setting (e.g., critically ill adults and toothbrush use in nursing clinical practice.

  13. HYDROPHOBICITY OF CONTAMINATED SILICONE RUBBER SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-min Zheng; Cai-hong Xu; Jian Jiang; Chang-yu Ren; Wei Gao; Ze-min Xie

    2002-01-01

    Silicone rubber (SIR) shows superior performance when used outdoors, but its surface can be transformed frominherently hydrophobic to hydrophilic by the adsorption of contaminants. Al(OH)3, Al2O3, quartz powder and active carbonwere selected as authentic contaminants. Hydrophobicity of the surface was determined using contact angle measurement.The results indicate that the adsorbability of the contaminants can strongly affect the hydrophobicity of contaminated SIRsurface. The increasing rate of contact angle of specimens contaminated by Al(OH)3 was much faster than that by Al2O3 andquartz due to the adsorption of migrated low molecular weight (LMW) polydimethylsiloxanes. Specimens contaminated byactive carbon could achieve surface hydrophobicity within 15 min because active carbon has high adsorbability. Surfaces ofcontaminated ultrapure SIR, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and glass remain hydrophilic because they contain no mobileLMW components. The addition of oligomeric polydimethylsiloxanes has little effect on the hydrophobicity of contaminantscovered on SIR surface.

  14. Proceedings of the Radionuclide Contamination in Water Resources Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J H; Duisebayev, B; Janecky, D R; Knapp, R; Rosenburg, N D; Smith, D K; Tompson, A F B; Tyupkina, O; Veselov, V V

    2001-07-26

    A workshop entitled ''Radionuclide Contamination in Water Resources'' was held in Almaty, Kazakhstan from Tuesday 29 May through Friday 1 June. This workshop was co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and three organizations from the Republic of Kazakhstan: the Institute of Nonproliferation, the Institute of Hydrogeology and Hydrophysics, and KazAtomProm. Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy, three national laboratories, and 13 different organizations from the Republic of Kazakhstan attended the workshop. A complete list of attendees, the workshop program, and information on the background and motivation for this workshop are provided in this report. The objective of the workshop was to identify critical problems, discover what is known about the problems related to radionuclide contamination of groundwater resources, form collaborative teams, and produce a small number proposals that both address further characterization and assess risk via contaminant fate and transport modeling. We plan to present these proposals to U.S. government agencies and international sponsors for funding.

  15. Evaluation of soil washing for radiologically contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombert, D. II

    1994-03-01

    Soil washing has been applied internationally to decontaminate soils due to the widespread increase in environmental awareness manifested in the United States by promulgation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, yet we continue to lack understanding on why the technique works in one application and not in another. A soil washing process typically integrates a variety of modules, each designed to decontaminate the matrix by destroying a particular phase or segregating a particle size fraction in which the contaminants are concentrated. The more known about how the contaminants are fixed, the more likely the process will succeed. Much can be learned from bioavailability studies on heavy metals in soils. Sequential extraction experiments designed to destroy one fixation mechanism at a time can be used to determine how contaminants are bound. This knowledge provides a technical basis for designing a processing strategy to efficiently decontaminate soil while creating a minimum of secondary wastes. In this study, a soil from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was physically and chemically characterized, then sequentially extracted to determine if soil washing could be effectively used to remove cesium, cobalt and chromium.

  16. DoD Emerging Contaminants Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    Acquisition, Technology and Logistics 1 DoD Emerging Contaminants Program Paul Yaroschak, Deputy Director Chemical & Material Risk Management Office...TITLE AND SUBTITLE DoD Emerging Contaminants Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Harvard University – Ash Institute for Democratic Governance & Innovation Department of Defense Emerging Contaminants Program Acquisition, Technology and

  17. RDT&E for Emerging Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    RDT&E for Emerging Contaminants Andrea Leeson, Ph.D. Environmental Restoration Program Manager SERDP/ESTCP Report Documentation Page Form...00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE RDT&E for Emerging Contaminants 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Practices Pollution Prevention to Control Life Cycle Costs • Groundwater, Soils and Sediments • Large UXO Liability • Emerging Contaminants • Elimination of

  18. Listeria monocytogenes internalizes in Romaine Lettuce grown in greenhouse conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria monocytogenes has been implicated in a number of outbreaks involving fresh produce, including an outbreak in 2016 resulting from contaminated packaged salads. The persistence and internalization potential of L. monocytogenes in romaine lettuce was evaluated, and the persistence of two L. mo...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4450 - Nonabsorbable gauze for internal use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonabsorbable gauze for internal use. 878.4450 Section 878.4450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., drying, or contamination. The device is woven from material made of not less than 50 percent by...

  20. A proximity effect in adults' contamination intuitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Kim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Magical beliefs about contagion via contact (Rozin, Nemeroff, Wane, and Sherrod, 1989 may emerge when people overgeneralize real-world mechanisms of contamination beyond their appropriate boundaries (Lindeman and Aarnio, 2007. Do people similarly overextend knowledge of airborne contamination mechanisms? Previous work has shown that very young children believe merely being close to a contamination source can contaminate an item (Springer and Belk 1994; we asked whether this same hyper-avoidant intuition is also reflected in adults' judgments. In two studies, we measured adults' ratings of the desirability of an object that had made contact with a source of contamination, an object nearby that had made no contact with the contaminant, and an object far away that had also made no contact. Adults showed a clear proximity effect, wherein objects near the contamination source were perceived to be less desirable than those far away, even though a separate group of adults unanimously acknowledged that contaminants could not possibly have made contact with either the nearby or far-away object (Study 1. The proximity effect also remained robust when a third group of adults was explicitly told that no contaminating particles had made contact with the objects at any time (Study 2. We discuss implications of our findings for extending the scope of magical contagion effects beyond the contact principle, for understanding the persistence of intuitive theories despite broad acceptance of science-based theories, and for constraining interpretations of the developmental work on proximity beliefs.

  1. Microbial contaminants in Pakistan: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maida Kanwal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide contamination of surface waters with microbial pathogens is of substantial health concern. These contaminants are usually transmitted by improper sanitation measures, unsafe waste disposal, excretions from patients, and physical contacts, i.e., sexual and nonsexual. Majority of these microbial pathogens have been categorized into three classes, i.e., bacteria, viruses and protozoa. Pakistan, being a developing country, is facing a noteworthy threat due to microbial contamination. In Pakistan, bacterial contaminants are reported extensively followed by viral and protozoa contaminants. The health issues associated with bacterial population includes dysentery, abdominal pain, headache, diarrhea etc.; and usually includes faecal and total coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Campylobacter. The cases related to viral contamination are lesser but chronic and evidenced the presence of HCV, HAV, HEV viruses causing hepatitis, and other hepatic disorders. Lastly, the health impacts associated with protozoans are least reported; and a number of diseases such as giardia, cryptosporidium and toxoplasma have been linked with this class of contaminants. The current review compiles information of these biological contaminants along with their health issues in Pakistan. Moreover, potential sources and fate of microbial contaminants are also discussed.

  2. Environmental contamination: health risks and ecological restoration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Ming H

    2013-01-01

    "Drawn from presentations made during the Croucher Advanced Study Institute workshop held in 2010, this volume covers all the fundamentals necessary for contaminated site assessment and remediation...

  3. Global contamination trends of persistent organic chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loganathan, Bommanna G; Lam, Paul K. S

    2012-01-01

    "Composed by a diverse group of experts, this reference covers the history, present status, and projected future trends of environmental contamination from highly toxic synthetic chemical pollutants...

  4. Environmental contamination by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, A; Adler, A; Abu-Hanna, J; Meitus, I; Navon-Venezia, S; Carmeli, Y

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the global emergence of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae has posed great concern to public health. Data concerning the role of environmental contamination in the dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are currently lacking. Here, we aimed to examine the extent of CRE contamination in various sites in the immediate surroundings of CRE carriers and to assess the effects of sampling time and cleaning regimens on the recovery rate. We evaluated the performance of two sampling methods, CHROMAgar KPC contact plate and eSwab, for the detection of environmental CRE. eSwab was followed either by direct plating or by broth enrichment. First, 14 sites in the close vicinity of the carrier were evaluated for environmental contamination, and 5, which were found to be contaminated, were further studied. The environmental contamination decreased with distance from the patient; the bed area was the most contaminated site. Additionally, we found that the sampling time and the cleaning regimen were critical factors affecting the prevalence of environmental CRE contamination. We found that the CHROMAgar KPC contact plate method was a more effective technique for detecting environmental CRE than were eSwab-based methods. In summary, our study demonstrated that the vicinity of patients colonized with CRE is often contaminated by these organisms. Using selective contact plates to detect environmental contamination may guide cleaning efficacy and assist with outbreak investigation in an effort to limit the spread of CRE.

  5. The International Criminal Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity.......This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity....

  6. International Engagement Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    INTERNATIONAL ENGAGEMENT STRATEGY STATEMENT OF PURPOSE The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T... International Engagement Strategy is intended to establish clear goals and objectives to guide S&T’s international cooperative research, development... International Engagement Strategy, the 2015 White House National Security Strategy, the 2014 Quadrennial Homeland Security Review, and the DHS Fiscal

  7. The Internal Audit Outsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Gołębiowski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores an issue of the internal audit outsourcing. It indicates the differences between internal audit, outsourcing and cosourcing of this service as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Drawing from the research on internal audit outsourcing the recent market trends were identified as well as motivations for choosing different forms of internal auditing.

  8. Derived limits for surface contamination

    CERN Document Server

    Wrixon, A D; Linsley, G S; White, D F

    1979-01-01

    Derived limits (DLs) for surface contamination were first established for use in the nuclear energy industry where a wide variety of radionuclides is encountered. They were later used in factories, hospitals, and universities, where the radionuclides used are normally fewer in number, either known or readily identifiable, and often of low toxicity. In these situations the current limits are frequently over-restrictive. This report describes a reassessment of the values in the light of more recent information on the possible pathways of exposure and the dose equivalent limits given in ICRP Publication 26. The reassessment is prompted also by the introduction of SI units. The results of the reassessment are used to produce a classification of DLs for all radionuclides for active and inactive area surfaces and for skin.

  9. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus

    2009-01-01

    cosmetics. In order to avoid contamination of cosmetics, the manufacturers add preservatives to their products. In the EU and the USA, cosmetics are under legislation and all preservatives must be safety evaluated by committees. There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market...... is dominated by a few preservatives: parabens, formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone. Allergy to preservatives is one of the main reasons for contact eczema caused by cosmetics. Concentration of the same preservative in similar products varies greatly......, and this may indicate that some cosmetic products are over preserved. As development and elicitation of contact allergy is dose dependent, over preservation of cosmetics potentially leads to increased incidences of contact allergy. Very few studies have investigated the antimicrobial efficiency...

  10. Rulison: radiation contamination clearance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    Under contract with Austral Oil Company, Eberline Instrument Corporation provided supervision and technicians to radiologically support the well plugging and site abandonment activities at the Project Rulison site during the period September 1, 1976 through October 12, 1976. The purpose of the support was to identify and prepare for removal of all radioactively contaminated materials remaining on site. The emplacement and reentry wells were successfully plugged without a serious radiological incident. There was no measurable radiation exposure above natural background to participating personnel. Decontamination and monitoring procedures assured that no equipment or material was improperly released to unrestricted use. A review of the history of project operations, the conduct of comprehensive sampling programs, and an extensive final survey, ensures that the extent of radioactivity on the site is identified and that such activity is well below established guide lines. Except for appropriate restrictions regarding deep drilling, the radiological condition of the Project Rulison site permits its return to unrestricted use.

  11. Fungi and mycotoxins: Food contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of fungi on food causes physical and chemical changes which, further affect negatively the sensory and nutritive quality of food. Species from genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternariа, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Eurotium and Emericella are usually found. Some of them are potentially dangerous for humans and animals, due to possible synthesis and excretion of toxic secondary metabolites - mycotoxins into the food. Their toxic syndroms in animals and humans are known as mycotoxicoses. The pathologic changes can be observed in parenhimatic organs, and in bones and central nervous system also. Specific conditions are necessary for mycotoxin producing fungi to synthetize sufficient quantities of these compounds for demonstration of biologic effects. The main biochemical paths in the formation of mycotoxins include the polyketide (aflatoxins, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone, citrinine, patulin, terpenic (trichothecenes, aminoacid (glicotoxins, ergotamines, sporidesmin, malformin C, and carbonic acids path (rubratoxins. Aflatoxins are the most toxigenic metabolites of fungi, produced mostly by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus species. Aflatoxins appear more frequently in food in the tropic and subtropic regions, while the food in Europe is more exposed to also very toxic ochratoxin A producing fungi (A. ochraceus and some Penicillium species. The agricultural products can be contaminated by fungi both before and after the harvest. The primary mycotoxicoses in humans are the result of direct intake of vegetable products contaminated by mycotoxins, while the secondary mycotoxicoses are caused by products of animal origin. The risk of the presence of fungi and mycotoxin in food is increasing, having in mind that some of them are highly thermoresistent, and the temperatures of usual food sterilization is not sufficient for their termination. The paper presents the review of most important mycotoxins, their biologic effects

  12. Chemical contamination of water supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shy, C.M.

    1985-10-01

    Man-made organic chemicals have been found in drinking water for many years. Their numbers and varieties increase as our analytical capabilities improve. The identified chemicals comprise 10 to 20% of the total organic matter present. These are volatile or low molecular weight compounds which are easily identified. Many of them are carcinogenic or mutagenic. Chlorinated compounds have been found in untreated well water at levels up to 21,300 micrograms/L and are generally present at higher levels in chlorine-treated water than in untreated water. Aggregate risk studies for cancer are summarized. The most common sites are: bladder, stomach, colon, and rectum. Such studies cannot be linked to individual cases. However, they are useful for identifying exposed populations for epidemiologic studies. Five case-control studies were reviewed, and significant associations with water quality were found for: bladder cancer in two studies, colon cancer in three and rectal cancer in four. A large study by the National Cancer Institute found that there had been a change in the source of raw water for 50% of the persons in one area between the years 1955 and 1975. Such flaws in the data may preclude finding a causal relation between cancer and contaminants in drinking water. Large case-control and cohort studies are needed because of the low frequency of the marker diseases, bladder and rectal cancer. Cohort studies may be precluded by variations in the kinds of water contaminants. Definitive questions about these issues are posed for cooperative effort and resolution by water chemists, engineers, and epidemiologists.

  13. Coliform and Escherichia coli contamination of desserts served in public restaurants from Guadalajara, Mexico, and Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Karen J; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Chen, Jaclyn J; Palumbo, Kathryn L; Galbadage, Thushara; Brown, Eric L; Yiang, Jing; Koo, Hoonmo; DuPont, Margaret W; Ericsson, Charles; Adachi, Javier A; DuPont, Herbert L

    2009-04-01

    Bacterial enteropathogens acquired from contaminated food are the principal causes of travelers' diarrhea (TD). We evaluated desserts obtained from popular restaurants in the tourist city of Guadalajara, Mexico, and Houston, Texas, to determine coliform and Escherichia coli contamination levels and presence of diarrheagenic E. coli known to be important in TD. Contamination for all organisms was seen for desserts served in Guadalajara restaurants. Desserts should be considered as potentially risky foods for development of TD among international visitors to developing regions of the world.

  14. Foodstuff contamination and pattern of consumption by population of foremost radioactively contaminated territories in Ukraine during the remote period of the Chornobyl disaster clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelianets, M; Piven, N; Gunko, N; Korotkova, N; Sribna, V

    2014-09-01

    Objective. The goal of the study was to estimate, from the perspective and in terms of hygienic provisions, the level of local food contamination by 137Cs and their pattern of consumption by residents of foremost radionuclide contaminated territories of Ukraine (Zhytomyr, Kyiv and Rivne oblasts) in the remote period of the Chornobyl disaster. Materials and methods. The article presents analytical data from the National Statistics Office of Ukraine concerning production and consumption of agricultural products in the territories of foremost severe radioactive contamination (TRC) i.e. Zhytomyr, Kyiv and Rivne oblasts (provinces). Data on levels of food contamination (milk, meat, fruits and vegetables, wild mushrooms and berries) received from the regional radiological control centers (RCC) and sanitary and epidemiological agencies/bureaus (SEA) were analyzed. According to results of questionnaire survey of residents in TRC of investigated regions (oblasts) the public awareness of radioactive contamination levels in local food production, their level of consumption and the use of cooking measures to reduce internal dose were assayed. Analytical, mathematical, statistical, sociological, and software engineering methods were applied. Results and conclusions. It was found that in the country and in study areas as well there is more than a half decrease of milk and meat production and consumption, and almost half times increased production of potato. It was shown that locally produced food and wide use of wild berries and mushrooms are dominated in the diet of TRC residents in the remote period after the Chornobyl disaster. Ecological and hygienic monitoring of foodstuffs in TRC proves the probability of product consumption with high content of radioactive materials. Residents territories of the foremost severe radioactive contamination in Zhytomyr, Kyiv and Rivne oblasts are aware about possible contamination of locally produced food with substances of Chornobyl origin

  15. Contamination of cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria) to medically fungi: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirian, H

    2017-05-11

    Fungal infections have emerged worldwide. Cockroaches have been proved vectors of medically fungi. A systematic meta-analysis review about cockroach fungal contamination was investigated. Relevant topics were collected between January 2016 and January 2017. After a preliminary review among 392 collected papers, 156 were selected to become part of the detailed systematic meta-analysis review. Cockroaches contaminated to 38 fungi species belonging to 19 families and 12 orders. About 38, 25 and 13 fungal species were recovered from the American, German and brown-banded cockroaches, respectively with a variety of medical importance. Except the fungi isolated from German and brown-banded cockroaches, 15 species have been isolated only from the American cockroaches. The global world mean and trend of cockroach fungal contamination were 84.1 and 50.6-100%, respectively in the human dwelling environments. There is a significant difference between cockroach fungal contamination in the urban and rural environments (P0.05). The external and internal cockroach fungal contamination is more dangerous than entire surfaces, while the internal is more dangerous than the external surface. The German and brown-banded cockroach fungal contamination are more dangerous than the American cockroaches in the hospital environments. The study indicates that globally cockroach fungal contamination has been increased recognizing as agents of human infections and associating with high morbidity and mortality in immune-compromised patients. These facts, along with insecticide resistance emergence and increasing globally cockroach infestation, reveal importance of cockroaches and need for their control more than ever. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. 49 CFR 173.443 - Contamination control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contamination control. 173.443 Section 173.443 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.443 Contamination control. (a) The level...

  17. 49 CFR 176.715 - Contamination control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contamination control. 176.715 Section 176.715 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Requirements for Radioactive Materials § 176.715 Contamination control. Each hold, compartment, or deck...

  18. Perioperative contamination in primary total hip arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maathuis, PGM; Neut, D; Busscher, HJ; van der Mei, HC; van Horn, [No Value

    2005-01-01

    All surgical procedures have the risk of microbial contamination. However, procedures in which prosthetic materials are involved have a high risk for future infectious problems because of the protection offered by the biofilm mode of growth. Studies of perioperative contamination have been done on i

  19. Levamisole-contaminated cocaine : a hairy affair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, Tjeerd; Pennings, Ed; Tervaert, J W Cohen; Korswagen, Lindy-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Levamisole-contaminated cocaine can induce severe systemic vasculitis. The diagnosis can be challenging, especially when substance abuse is uncertain. We present the case of a 42-year-old woman suffering from vasculitis due to levamisole-contaminated cocaine, who persistently denied substance abuse.

  20. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert,George W.; Hand,Thomas E.; Delaurentiis,Gary M.

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  1. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  2. HOUSEHOLD PURIFICATION OF FLUORIDE CONTAMINATED MAGADI (TRONA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    Purification of fluoride contaminated magadi is studied using bone char sorption and calcium precipitation. The bone char treatment is found to be workable both in columns and in batches where the magadi is dissolved in water prior to treatment. The concentrations in the solutions were 89 g magadi...... treatment method. A procedure for purification of fluoride contaminated magadi at household level is described....

  3. Using Tracer Technology to Characterize Contaminated Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maresca, Joseph, W., Jr., Ph.D.; Bratton, Wesley, L., Ph.D., P.E.; Dickerson, Wilhelmina; Hales, Rochelle

    2005-12-30

    The Pipeline Characterization Using Tracers (PCUT) technique uses conservative and partitioning, reactive or other interactive tracers to remotely determine the amount of contaminant within a run of piping or ductwork. The PCUT system was motivated by a method that has been successfully used to characterize subsurface soil contaminants and is similar in operation to that of a gas chromatography column. By injecting a ?slug? of both conservative and partitioning tracers at one end (or section) of the piping and measuring the time history of the concentration of the tracers at the other end (or another section) of the pipe, the presence, location, and amount of contaminant within the pipe or duct can be determined. The tracers are transported along the pipe or duct by a gas flow field, typically air or nitrogen, which has a velocity that is slow enough so that the partitioning tracer has time to interact with the contaminant before the tracer slug completely passes over the contaminate region. PCUT not only identifies the presence of contamination, it also can locate the contamination along the pipeline and quantify the amount of residual. PCUT can be used in support of deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of piping and ducts that may have been contaminated with hazardous chemicals such as chlorinated solvents, petroleum products, radioactive materials, or heavy metals, such as mercury.

  4. Electro kinetic remediation of contaminated habitats | Shenbagavalli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... which move the aqueous phase contaminants in the subsurface from one electrode to the other. ... or contaminants desorbed from the soil surface are transported towards ... in the field successfully, the different geochemical interactions that occur in the field soils ...

  5. Monitoring and evaluation techniques for airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Yihua [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    1997-06-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are of great importance for the purpose of protection of health and safety of workers in nuclear installations. Because airborne contamination is one of the key sources to cause exposure to individuals by inhalation and digestion, and to cause diffusion of contaminants in the environment. The main objectives of monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are: to detect promptly a loss of control of airborne material, to help identify those individuals and predict exposure levels, to assess the intake and dose commitment to the individuals, and to provide sufficient documentation of airborne radioactivity. From the viewpoint of radiation protection, the radioactive contaminants in air can be classified into the following types: airborne aerosol, gas and noble gas, and volatile gas. In this paper, the following items are described: sampling methods and techniques, measurement and evaluation, and particle size analysis. (G.K.)

  6. Foreign body contamination during stent implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, D M; van Beusekom, H M; van der Giessen, W J

    1997-03-01

    The treatment of coronary artery disease using stents has become a widely accepted technique. However, the inadvertent co-implantation of contaminating factors with the stent has received little attention. We studied histological cross-sections of stented porcine coronary arteries and observed contamination of some vessels with surgical glove powder and textile fibres. The contaminating particles were associated with a foreign body reaction. Such a reaction could delay the wound-healing response of a stented vessel and thereby prolong the period in which subacute thrombosis could occur. It is also proposed that air contamination could affect the thrombogenicity of the stent. Appropriate measures should be followed to reduce the chance of contamination occurring.

  7. Contamination avoidance devices for poppettype shutoff valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endicott, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The determination of the cycle life is reported of the scal closure of a typical poppet-type shutoff valve in an uncontaminated GH2 environment and then compared this component performance with simulated operation with GN2 and LN2 containing controlled amounts of AL2O3 contaminant particles. The original valve design was tested for contamination damage tolerance characteristics under full-flow and cyclic-operating conditions, redesigned to improve the damage tolerance to contaminants, and then retested. The redesigned valve was found to have acceptable tolerance characteristics under all full-flow conditions and cyclic operation with small (25-75 microns) particulate contamination. The tolerance characteristics of the valve under cyclic conditions with large (75-250 microns) particulate contamination was improved but was not found to be completely satisfactory.

  8. ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN GROUNDWATER: A STATISTICAL MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palas Roy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High arsenic in natural groundwater in most of the tubewells of the Purbasthali- Block II area of Burdwan district (W.B, India has recently been focused as a serious environmental concern. This paper is intending to illustrate the statistical modeling of the arsenic contaminated groundwater to identify the interrelation of that arsenic contain with other participating groundwater parameters so that the arsenic contamination level can easily be predicted by analyzing only such parameters. Multivariate data analysis was done with the collected groundwater samples from the 132 tubewells of this contaminated region shows that three variable parameters are significantly related with the arsenic. Based on these relationships, a multiple linear regression model has been developed that estimated the arsenic contamination by measuring such three predictor parameters of the groundwater variables in the contaminated aquifer. This model could also be a suggestive tool while designing the arsenic removal scheme for any affected groundwater.

  9. Resrad-recycle: a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing radioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-Jy; Kassas, Bassel; Yu, Charley; Amish, John; LePoire, Dave; Chen, Shih-Yew; Williams, W A; Wallo, A; Peterson, H

    2004-11-01

    RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data.

  10. Models of international entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    2012-01-01

    on International Entrepreneurship, and specifically but not exclusively, International New Ventures (INVs). The three resulting ‘meta-models’ depict the activities and loci of such firms (Figure 1), the motivating factors that give rise to such firms (Figure 2) and their growth modalities and strategies (Figure 3......The purpose with this article is to review models used to describe and explain the establishment and development of international new ventures in order to investigate how and why international new ventures are established and developed. This article attempts an integration of extant theory......). These models reflect the merger of entrepreneurship and international business into the field of international entrepreneurship. Managers in international entrepreneurial firms and students in international business and entrepreneurship can use the models as framework for understanding international...

  11. Models of international entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    2012-01-01

    ). These models reflect the merger of entrepreneurship and international business into the field of international entrepreneurship. Managers in international entrepreneurial firms and students in international business and entrepreneurship can use the models as framework for understanding international......The purpose with this article is to review models used to describe and explain the establishment and development of international new ventures in order to investigate how and why international new ventures are established and developed. This article attempts an integration of extant theory...... on International Entrepreneurship, and specifically but not exclusively, International New Ventures (INVs). The three resulting ‘meta-models’ depict the activities and loci of such firms (Figure 1), the motivating factors that give rise to such firms (Figure 2) and their growth modalities and strategies (Figure 3...

  12. Mercury Contamination in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Haynes, A.; Balcom, P. H.

    2012-12-01

    Recent measurements of Hg in air in the central valley of Costa Rica produced some remarkably high values (up to 700 ng Hg/m3;Castillo et al., 2011), raising concerns for public health. We made a broad assessment of Hg as an environmental contaminant in Costa Rica, and sampled and analyzed lake and wetland sediment and soils to derive atmospheric Hg deposition rates. We also measured Hg(0) in air in three locations, and sampled local fish that were analyzed for Hg. We set up a sampling program of Hg in hair of Costa Ricans, sampling hair from a broad crossection of the population, in combination with dietary and personal information. The lake sediments had Hg concentrations between 34 and 316 ppb Hg, with several lakes at common natural background concentrations (20-100 ppb Hg). Some lakes showed a Hg contamination component with concentrations well above simple background values. These sediments also were very rich in organic matter, and the high Hg concentrations may be a result of Hg focusing from the watersheds into the lake depositional environments. Deduced atmospheric deposition rates of Hg range from 0.16-0.25 ng Hg/cm2 per year, which is at the low end of the global range of measured wet atmospheric deposition rates. The observed Hg concentrations in sediment and soils thus can be characterized as natural background to mildly contaminated, but nothing that would indicate Hg inventories as expected from the reported high Hg air burdens. Some of our Hg(0) in air measurements were done at the same locations as those done earlier and yielded values between 0.6-4.2 ng Hg/m3; these values are similar to the low range measurements of Castillo et al. (their night time values), but we found no evidence in 2011 for their high daytime values. The range of a few ng Hg/m3 in air is compatible with global Hg dispersion modeling. Fish tissue of Trout and Tilapia gave a range of 68-112 ppb Hg (wet weight base), well below the 300 ppb Hg EPA alert level. Overall, these

  13. Internal septorhinoplasty technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Peter D

    2012-02-01

    The internal septorhinoplasty was the standard operating procedure until the popularity of the external or open rhinoplasty technique. The internal technique of the rhinoplasty should be in the armamentarium of every cosmetic surgeon. There will always be indications for both internal and external rhinoplasty. The advantages of the internal technique are several. Rhinoplasty should be treatment planned based on the individual diagnosis. With experience, most surgeons find the internal rhinoplasty to be successful and extremely rewarding. A simple internal rhinoplasty will produce a good result and satisfied patients.

  14. Status report on the International Germanium Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Hensley, W.K.; Miley, H.S.; Reeves, J.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F.T.; Collar, J.I.; Guerard, C.K. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States); Courant, H.; Ruddick, K. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States); Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Starostin, A.S. [AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Teoreticheskoj i Eksperimental`noj Fiziki; Garcia, E.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Nunez-Lagos, R.; Puimedon, J.; Saenz, C.; Salinas, A.; Sarasa, M.L.; Villar, J.A. [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain); Osetrov, S.B.; Pomansky, A.A.; Smolnikov, A.A.; Vasiliev, S.I. [AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij; Pogosov, V.S.; Tamanyan, A.G. [Erevanskij Fizicheskij Inst., Erevan (Armenia)

    1992-06-01

    Phase II detector fabrication for the International Germanium Experiment is awaiting resolution of technical details observed during Phase I. Measurements of fiducial volume, configuration of the tansistor-reset preamplifier stage, and sources of background are discussed. Cosmogenic {sup 7}Be is measured in germanium. Radium contamination in electroformed copper reported. The 2{nu} double- beta decay half-life of {sup 76}Ge measured with a Phase I detector is in reasonable agreement with previously reported values. No events are observed in the vicinity of the O{nu} double-beta decay energy.

  15. Removal of Arsenic, Iron, Manganese, and Ammonia in Drinking Water: Nagaoka International Corporation CHEMILES NCL Series Water Treatment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nagaoka International Corporation CHEMILES NCL Series system was tested to verify its performance for the reduction of multiple contaminants including: arsenic, ammonia, iron, and manganese. The objectives of this verification, as operated under the conditions at the test si...

  16. Removal of Arsenic, Iron, Manganese, and Ammonia in Drinking Water: Nagaoka International Corporation CHEMILES NCL Series Water Treatment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nagaoka International Corporation CHEMILES NCL Series system was tested to verify its performance for the reduction of multiple contaminants including: arsenic, ammonia, iron, and manganese. The objectives of this verification, as operated under the conditions at the test si...

  17. [Contamination, endocrine disruptors and cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Since the mid-twentieth century, many species, very different from each other and located in all areas and comers of the planet, began presenting various alterations, many of which suggested to be related to endocrine disorders. Research has shown that such alterations were caused by exposure to various chemical contaminants that could affect the health and cause serious illnesses. Among them stands a diverse and large group of compounds, with very different chemical structures, capable of altering the hormonal balance, act at very low doses and with different mechanisms of action, that are called "endocrine disrupting chemicals". When released into the environment or as part of objects, food or medicines, constitute a major risk to animals and humans, which produces not only endocrine dysfunctions but also different cancers, which include the most common types. Despite the importance and significance of the impact of these compounds, they are not sufficiently known or understood, so the aim of this review is to show their origin and impact in the field of human health, highlighting their role as inducers of cancer, which has led to multiple clinical and biological investigations.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION FROM WEAPON TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1958-10-01

    The program of the Atomic Energy Commission on environmental contamination from weapons tests is designed for the overall evaluation of the hazard to humans from test operations. It is limited to studies of the deposition of activity at long range rather than the problems associated with immediate, close-in fallout. The program has largely been a study of Sr{sup 90}, since considerations based on experience and measurement indicate that it is the isotope of greatest potential hazard. Data are presented pertinent to the monitoring of long-range fallout, particularly Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137}. Values are tabulated for the fallout deposition, air concentrations, water concentrations, and the amounts in foods and human bone. In addition, results are given for some experimental investigations. The report of these results is not interpretative although certain papers that do attempt to interpret the present situation with respect to Sr{sup 90} in particular are reprinted. Bibliographies are presented covering the period since the 1957 hearings before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy concerning the nature of radioactive fallout and its effects on man. A document list of submissions to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation is given to illustrate the work done in other countries. Several papers on the subject, which have not been generally available, are reprinted.

  19. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - MDC_ContaminatedSite

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A point feature class of open DERM Contaminated sites - see phase code for status of site. Contaminated sites identifies properties where environmental contamination...

  20. Geological characterization of contaminated sites in urban areas (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Nissen, Randi Warncke; Poulsen, Søren Erbs

    2015-01-01

    In Denmark, contaminations from industry and farming represent a significant threat to groundwater resources. Hence there is a focus on identifying and locating these contaminated places. Once located, contaminations are mapped and monitored and remediation efforts are undertaken. Remediation is ...

  1. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - MDC_ContaminatedSite

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A point feature class of open DERM Contaminated sites - see phase code for status of site. Contaminated sites identifies properties where environmental contamination...

  2. International diversification and Microfinance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, Rients; Lensink, Robert; Spierdijk, Laura

    2011-01-01

    International commercial banks, institutional investors, and private investors have become increasingly interested in financing microfinance institutions (MFIs). This paper investigates whether adding microfinance funds to a portfolio of risky international assets yields diversification gains. By us

  3. Training for International Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Judy

    1980-01-01

    As many corporations widen their scope to international markets, there arises a need for specialized management development. To be effective in an international environment, a manager requires linguistic, social, and communication skills, functional expertise, and familiarity with cultural differences. (SK)

  4. International Transplant Nurses Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Mission of ITNS The International Transplant Nurses Society is committed to the promotion of excellence in ... 20-1589538 Copyright © 2006 - 2014 International Transplant Nurses Society (ITNS). No materials, including graphics, may be reused, ...

  5. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain

    2014-12-04

    Various examples are provided for generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI). In one example, among others, a method includes generating a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and rendering the higher order internal multiple image for presentation. In another example, a system includes a computing device and a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) application executable in the computing device. The GIMI application includes logic that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and logic that renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device. In another example, a non-transitory computer readable medium has a program executable by processing circuitry that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device.

  6. Complexity of Groundwater Contaminants at DOE Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, T.C.; Faybishenko, B.; Jordan, P.

    2010-12-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the remediation and long-term stewardship of one of the world's largest groundwater contamination portfolios, with a significant number of plumes containing various contaminants, and considerable total mass and activity. As of 1999, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management was responsible for remediation, waste management, or nuclear materials and facility stabilization at 144 sites in 31 states and one U.S. territory, out of which 109 sites were expected to require long-term stewardship. Currently, 19 DOE sites are on the National Priority List. The total number of contaminated plumes on DOE lands is estimated to be 10,000. However, a significant number of DOE sites have not yet been fully characterized. The most prevalent contaminated media are groundwater and soil, although contaminated sediment, sludge, and surface water also are present. Groundwater, soil, and sediment contamination are present at 72% of all DOE sites. A proper characterization of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites is critical for accomplishing one of the primary DOE missions -- planning basic research to understand the complex physical, chemical, and biological properties of contaminated sites. Note that the definitions of the terms 'site' and 'facility' may differ from one publication to another. In this report, the terms 'site,' 'facility' or 'installation' are used to identify a contiguous land area within the borders of a property, which may contain more than one plume. The term 'plume' is used here to indicate an individual area of contamination, which can be small or large. Even though several publications and databases contain information on groundwater contamination and remediation technologies, no statistical analyses of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites has been prepared since the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara. The DOE Groundwater Data Base

  7. Complexity of Groundwater Contaminants at DOE Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, T.C.; Faybishenko, B.; Jordan, P.

    2010-12-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the remediation and long-term stewardship of one of the world's largest groundwater contamination portfolios, with a significant number of plumes containing various contaminants, and considerable total mass and activity. As of 1999, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management was responsible for remediation, waste management, or nuclear materials and facility stabilization at 144 sites in 31 states and one U.S. territory, out of which 109 sites were expected to require long-term stewardship. Currently, 19 DOE sites are on the National Priority List. The total number of contaminated plumes on DOE lands is estimated to be 10,000. However, a significant number of DOE sites have not yet been fully characterized. The most prevalent contaminated media are groundwater and soil, although contaminated sediment, sludge, and surface water also are present. Groundwater, soil, and sediment contamination are present at 72% of all DOE sites. A proper characterization of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites is critical for accomplishing one of the primary DOE missions -- planning basic research to understand the complex physical, chemical, and biological properties of contaminated sites. Note that the definitions of the terms 'site' and 'facility' may differ from one publication to another. In this report, the terms 'site,' 'facility' or 'installation' are used to identify a contiguous land area within the borders of a property, which may contain more than one plume. The term 'plume' is used here to indicate an individual area of contamination, which can be small or large. Even though several publications and databases contain information on groundwater contamination and remediation technologies, no statistical analyses of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites has been prepared since the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara. The DOE Groundwater Data Base

  8. Fate of Contaminants in Contact with West Valley Grouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhrmann,M.; Gillow, J.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of the work described here is to determine to what extent a variety of contaminants, including fission products, actinides, and RCRA elements are sequestered by the two grout formulations. The conceptual model for this study is as follows: a large mass of grout having been poured into a high-level waste tank is in the process of aging and weathering for thousands of years. The waste remaining in the tank will contain radionuclides and other contaminants, much of which will adhere to tank walls and internal structures. The grout will encapsulate the contaminants. Initially the grout will be well sequestered, but over time rainwater and groundwater will gain access to it. Ultimately, the grout/waste environment will be an open system. In this condition water will move through the grout, exposing it to O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} from the air and HCO{sub 3}{sup -} from the groundwater. Thus we are considering an oxic environment containing HCO{sub 3}{sup -}. Initially the solubility of many contaminants, but not all, will be constrained by chemistry dominated by the grout, primarily by the high pH, around 11.8. This is controlled and buffered by the portland cement and blast furnace slag components of the grout, which by themselves maintain a solution pH of about 12.5. Slowly the pH will diminish as Ca(OH){sub 2} and KOH dissolve, are carried away by water, and CaCO{sub 3} forms. As these conditions develop, the behavior of these elements comes into question. In our conceptual model, although the grout is formulated to provide some reducing capacity, in order to be conservative this mechanism is not considered. In addition to solubility constraints imposed by pH, the various contaminants may be incorporated into a variety of solid phases. Some may be incorporated into newly forming compounds as the grout sets and cures. Others (like soddyite, (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}SiO{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}) are the result of slower reactions but may become important over time

  9. Monitoring of surface and airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeep Kumar, K.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1997-06-01

    Indian nuclear energy programme aims at total safety in all activities involved in the entire fuel cycle for the occupational workers, members of the public and the environment as a whole. Routine radiation monitoring with clearly laid out procedures are followed for ensuring the safety of workers and public. Radiation monitoring carried out for the nuclear installations comprises of process monitoring, monitoring of effluent releases and also of the radiation protection monitoring of the individuals, work place and environment. Regulations like banning of smoking and consumption of food and drink etc. reduces the risk of direct ingestion even if inadvertent spread of contamination takes place. Though limit of transportable surface contamination is prescribed, the health physicists always follow a ``clean on swipe`` philosophy which compensates any error in the measurement of surface contamination. In this paper, the following items are contained: Necessity of contamination monitoring, accuracy required in the calibration of surface contamination monitors, methodology for contamination monitoring, air monitoring, guidelines for unrestricted release of scrap materials, and problems in contamination monitoring. (G.K.)

  10. Contaminated sediment dynamics in peatland headwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, Emma; Clay, Gareth; Evans, Martin; Hutchinson, Simon; Rothwell, James

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands are an important store of soil carbon, provide multiple ecosystem services, and when located in close proximity to urban and industrial areas, can also act as sinks of atmospherically deposited heavy metals. The near-surface layer of the blanket peats of the Peak District National Park, UK, is severely contaminated with high concentrations of anthropogenically derived, atmospherically deposited lead (Pb). These peats are severely degraded, and there is increasing concern that erosion is releasing considerable quantities of this legacy pollution into surface waters. Despite substantial research into Pb dynamics in peatlands formal description of the possible mechanisms of contaminated sediment mobilisation is limited. However, there is evidence to suggest that a substantial proportion of contaminated surface sediment may be redistributed elsewhere in the catchment. This study uses the Pb contamination stored near the peat's surface as a fingerprint to trace contaminated sediment dynamics and storage in three severely degraded headwater catchments. Erosion is exposing high concentrations of Pb on interfluve surfaces, and substantial amounts of reworked contaminated material are stored on other catchment surfaces (gully walls and floors). We propose a variety of mechanisms as controls of Pb release and storage on the different surfaces, including: (i) wind action on interfluves; (ii) the aspect of gully walls, and (iii) gully depth. Vegetation also plays an important role in retaining contaminated sediment on all surfaces.

  11. [Construction of groundwater contamination prevention mapping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Jie; He, Jiang-Tao; Lu, Yan; Liu, Li-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Liang

    2012-09-01

    Groundwater contamination prevention mapping is an important component of groundwater contamination geological survey and assessment work, which could provide the basis for making and implementing groundwater contamination prevention planning. A groundwater contamination prevention mapping system was constructed in view of the synthetic consideration on nature perspective derived from groundwater contamination sources and aquifer itself, social-economic perspective, policy perspective derived from outside. During the system construction process, analytic hierarchy process and relevant overlaying principles were used to couple groundwater contamination risk assessment, groundwater value as well as wellhead protection area zoning. Data processing and visualization of mapping results were achieved in the GIS environment. The research on groundwater contamination prevention mapping in Beijing Plain indicated that the final groundwater prevention map was in accordance with the actual conditions and well reflected the priorities of groundwater prevention, which could play a guidance role in designing and implementing further practical prevention and supervision measures. Besides, because of the dynamical properties of the system components, it was suggested to analyze the update frequency of the mapping.

  12. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norstrom, R J; Muir, D C

    1994-09-16

    By 1976, the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs) had been demonstrated in fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), walrus (Obdobenus rosmarus divergens), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in various parts of the Arctic. In spite of this early interest, very little subsequent research on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals was undertaken until the mid-1980s. Since that time, there has been an explosion of interest, resulting in a much expanded data base on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals. Except in the Russian Arctic, data have now been obtained on the temporospatial distribution of PCBs and other contaminants in ringed seal, beluga and polar bear. Contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) have also now been measured. On a fat weight basis, the sum of DDT-related compounds (S-DDT) and PCB levels are lowest in walrus (St. Lawrence and ringed seal in the Baltic Sea, indicate that overall contamination of the Arctic marine ecosystem is 10-50 times less than the most highly contaminated areas in the northern hemisphere temperate latitude marine environment. Geographic distribution of residue levels in polar bears indicates a gradual increase from Alaska east to Svalbard, except PCB levels are significantly higher in eastern Greenland and Svalbard. Information on temporal trends is somewhat contradictory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  13. Contaminant geochemistry—a new perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaron, Bruno; Dror, Ishai; Berkowitz, Brian

    2010-01-01

    To date, the field of contaminant geochemistry—which deals with the study of chemical interactions in soil and aquifer environments—has focused mainly on pollutant toxicity, retention, persistence, and transport and/or on remediation of contaminated sites. Alteration of subsurface physicochemical properties by anthropogenic chemicals, which reach the land surface as a result of human activity, has been essentially neglected. Contaminant-induced changes in subsurface properties are usually considered as deviations from a normal geological environment, which will disappear under natural attenuation or following remediation procedures. However, contaminants may in many cases cause irreversible changes in both structure and properties of the soil-subsurface geosystem between the land surface and groundwater. The time scales associated with these changes are on a “human time scale”, far shorter than geological scales relevant for geochemical processes. In this review, we draw attention to a new perspective of contaminant geochemistry, namely, irreversible changes in the subsurface as a result of anthropogenic chemical pollution. We begin by briefly reviewing processes governing contaminant-subsurface interactions. We then survey how chemical contamination causes irreversible changes in subsurface structure and properties. The magnitude of the anthropogenic impact on the soil and subsurface is linked directly to the amounts of chemical contaminants applied and/or disposed of on the land surface. This particular aspect is of major importance when examining the effects of humans on global environmental changes. Consideration of these phenomena opens new perspectives for the field of contaminant geochemistry and for research of human impacts on the soil and subsurface regimes.

  14. Contaminant geochemistry--a new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaron, Bruno; Dror, Ishai; Berkowitz, Brian

    2010-01-01

    To date, the field of contaminant geochemistry--which deals with the study of chemical interactions in soil and aquifer environments--has focused mainly on pollutant toxicity, retention, persistence, and transport and/or on remediation of contaminated sites. Alteration of subsurface physicochemical properties by anthropogenic chemicals, which reach the land surface as a result of human activity, has been essentially neglected. Contaminant-induced changes in subsurface properties are usually considered as deviations from a normal geological environment, which will disappear under natural attenuation or following remediation procedures. However, contaminants may in many cases cause irreversible changes in both structure and properties of the soil-subsurface geosystem between the land surface and groundwater. The time scales associated with these changes are on a "human time scale", far shorter than geological scales relevant for geochemical processes. In this review, we draw attention to a new perspective of contaminant geochemistry, namely, irreversible changes in the subsurface as a result of anthropogenic chemical pollution. We begin by briefly reviewing processes governing contaminant-subsurface interactions. We then survey how chemical contamination causes irreversible changes in subsurface structure and properties. The magnitude of the anthropogenic impact on the soil and subsurface is linked directly to the amounts of chemical contaminants applied and/or disposed of on the land surface. This particular aspect is of major importance when examining the effects of humans on global environmental changes. Consideration of these phenomena opens new perspectives for the field of contaminant geochemistry and for research of human impacts on the soil and subsurface regimes.

  15. Chemical Contaminant and Decontaminant Test Methodology Source Document. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    vapor emission sources is the use of perfume or cologne as an example contaminant. Applying the perfume is the contamination event. The degree of...contamination is determined by the number of pumps used to dispense the perfume . As the perfume -contaminated person resides in various environments... perfume vapor is emitted, generating a vapor concentration of contaminant. The longer the perfume -contaminated person resides in the environment

  16. National and International Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, David

    1992-01-01

    Discusses Canadian government policy dealing with internal matters of party politics and international questions of human rights. Describes the political situation in Burma as an oppressive military regime. Urges the Canadian government to take a firmer stand to influence the international community against tolerating regimes that are guilty of…

  17. Improving Internal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonus, Thaddeus, Ed.

    Guidelines for developing the internal communications of colleges and universities, researching internal communication needs, and increasing information flow through traditional and nontraditional media are provided in 11 articles. Titles and authors include the following: "Work for an Open Internal Communication Policy" (Thaddeus Bonus); "Five…

  18. CHINA INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The China International Publishing Group (CIPG) specializes in international communications. Its operationsencompass reporting, editing, translation, publishing, printing, distribution, and the Internet. It incorporates sevenpublishing companies, five magazines and 19 periodicals, published in over 20 languages. The ChinaInternational Book Trading Corporation, another group facet, distributes all of these to over 180 countries and

  19. Efficient reconstruction of contaminant release history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alezander, Francis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anghel, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gulbahce, Natali [NON LANL; Tartakovsky, Daniel [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    We present a generalized hybrid Monte Carlo (GHMC) method for fast, statistically optimal reconstruction of release histories of reactive contaminants. The approach is applicable to large-scale, strongly nonlinear systems with parametric uncertainties and data corrupted by measurement errors. The use of discrete adjoint equations facilitates numerical implementation of GHMC, without putting any restrictions on the degree of nonlinearity of advection-dispersion-reaction equations that are used to described contaminant transport in the subsurface. To demonstrate the salient features of the proposed algorithm, we identify the spatial extent of a distributed source of contamination from concentration measurements of a reactive solute.

  20. Drinking water contamination and treatment techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2016-08-01

    Water is of fundamental importance for life on earth. The synthesis and structure of cell constituents and transport of nutrients into the cells as well as body metabolism depend on water. The contaminations present in water disturb the spontaneity of the mechanism and result in long/short-term diseases. The probable contaminations and their possible routes are discussed in the present review. Continued research efforts result in some processes/technologies to remove the contaminations from water. The review includes concepts and potentialities of the technologies in a comprehensible form. It also includes some meaningful hybrid technologies and promising awaited technologies in coming years.

  1. Remediation technologies for oil-contaminated sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashutosh; Liu, Yu

    2015-12-30

    Oil-contaminated sediments pose serious environmental hazards for both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Innovative and environmentally compatible technologies are urgently required to remove oil-contaminated sediments. In this paper, various physical, chemical and biological technologies are investigated for the remediation of oil-contaminated sediments such as flotation and washing, coal agglomeration, thermal desorption, ultrasonic desorption, bioremediation, chemical oxidation and extraction using ionic liquids. The basic principles of these technologies as well as their advantages and disadvantages for practical application have been discussed. A combination of two or more technologies is expected to provide an innovative solution that is economical, eco-friendly and adaptable.

  2. Spectral imaging for contamination detection in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Jens Michael

    application of the technique is finding anomalies I supposedly homogeneous matter or homogeneous mixtures. This application occurs frequently in the food industry when different types of contamination are to be detected. Contaminants could be e.g. foreign matter, process-induced toxins, and microbiological...... spoilage. Many of these contaminants may be detected in the wavelength range visible to normal silicium-based camera sensors i.e. 350-1050 nm with proper care during sample preparation, sample presentation, image acquisition and analysis. This presentation will give an introduction to the techniques behind...

  3. Drinking water contamination and treatment techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2017-06-01

    Water is of fundamental importance for life on earth. The synthesis and structure of cell constituents and transport of nutrients into the cells as well as body metabolism depend on water. The contaminations present in water disturb the spontaneity of the mechanism and result in long/short-term diseases. The probable contaminations and their possible routes are discussed in the present review. Continued research efforts result in some processes/technologies to remove the contaminations from water. The review includes concepts and potentialities of the technologies in a comprehensible form. It also includes some meaningful hybrid technologies and promising awaited technologies in coming years.

  4. Environmental Contaminants Monitoring Plan for Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This environmental contaminants monitoring program is designed to assess concentrations, distribution, and biological availability of environmental contaminants on...

  5. Airflow and Contaminant Distribution in Hospital Wards with a Displacement Ventililation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qian, H.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Li, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Airflow and Contaminant Distribution in Hospital Wards with a Displacement Ventilalation System. The 2nd International Conference on Build Environment and Public Health, BEPH 2004, Shenzhen , China . ABSTRACT Displacement ventilation has not been considered to be an applicable system for hospital...... to accurately predict three-dimensional distribution of air velocity, temperature, and contaminant concentration in the ward. Indoor airflow in a displacement ventilation system involves a combination of different flow streams such as the gravity currents and thermal plumes. It is important to choose...... assisted us to understand the contaminant dispersion. It was shown that the interaction of exhaled flow and the body thermal plume generated by manikin would affect exhaled virus-laden aerosols distribution in the ward with displacement ventilation system....

  6. Windows® Internals

    CERN Document Server

    Russinovich, Mark E; Ionescu, Alex

    2009-01-01

    See how the core components of the Windows operating system work behind the scenes-guided by a team of internationally renowned internals experts. Fully updated for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, this classic guide delivers key architectural insights on system design, debugging, performance, and support-along with hands-on experiments to experience Windows internal behavior firsthand.Delve inside Windows architecture and internals:Understand how the core system and management mechanisms work-from the object manager to services to the registryExplore internal system data structures usin

  7. Neurology and international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J

    2013-07-23

    A growing number of international stakeholders are engaged with neurologic diseases. This article provides a brief overview of important international stakeholders in the practice of neurology, including global disease-specific programs, United Nations agencies, governmental agencies with international influence, nongovernmental organizations, international professional organizations, large private donors, private-public partnerships, commercial interests, armed forces, and universities and colleges. The continued engagement of neurologists is essential for the growing number of international organizations that can and should incorporate neurologic disease into their global agendas.

  8. Microbial populations in contaminant plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    Efficient biodegradation of subsurface contaminants requires two elements: (1) microbial populations with the necessary degradative capabilities, and (2) favorable subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions. Practical constraints on experimental design and interpretation in both the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences have resulted in limited knowledge of the interaction between hydrogeological and microbiological features of subsurface environments. These practical constraints include: (1) inconsistencies between the scales of investigation in the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences, and (2) practical limitations on the ability to accurately define microbial populations in environmental samples. However, advances in application of small-scale sampling methods and interdisciplinary approaches to site investigations are beginning to significantly improve understanding of hydrogeological and microbiological interactions. Likewise, culture-based and molecular analyses of microbial populations in subsurface contaminant plumes have revealed significant adaptation of microbial populations to plume environmental conditions. Results of recent studies suggest that variability in subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions significantly influences subsurface microbial-community structure. Combined investigations of site conditions and microbial-community structure provide the knowledge needed to understand interactions between subsurface microbial populations, plume geochemistry, and contaminant biodegradation. La biodégradation efficace des polluants souterrains requiert deux éléments: des populations microbiennes possédant les aptitudes nécessaires à la dégradation, et des conditions géochimiques et hydrologiques souterraines favorables. Des contraintes pratiques sur la conception et l'interprétation des expériences à la fois en microbiologie et en hydrogéologie ont conduit à une connaissance limitée des interactions entre les

  9. Biological control of aflatoxin contamination of crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-ni YIN; Lei-yan YAN; Jin-hua JIANG; Zhong-hua MA

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxins produced primarily by two closely related fungi, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, are mutagenic and carcinogenic in animals and humans. Of many approaches investigated to manage aflatoxin contamination, biological control method has shown great promise. Numerous organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and nontoxigenic fungal strains of A.flavus and A. parasiticus, have been tested for their ability in controlling aflatoxin contamination. Great successes in reducing aflatoxin contamination have been achieved by application of nontoxigenic strains of A. flavus and A. parasiticus in fields of cotton, peanut, maize and pistachio. The nontoxigenic strains applied to soil occupy the same niches as the natural occurring toxigenic strains. They, therefore, are capable of competing and displacing toxigenic strains. In this paper, we review recent development in biological control of aflatoxin contamination.

  10. Contaminant concentrations in Connecticut and Massachusetts mink

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — It appears that PCB levels in Connecticut and Massachusetts mink are high enough to adversely affect reproduction. Although levels of contaminants in Massachusetts...

  11. Badger productivity, contaminant, and health study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has prepared a proposal to conduct a badger study on the Arsenal with emphasis on contaminant exposure and reproductive affects....

  12. Neosho National Fish Hatchery contaminants survey results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish were collected from Neosho National Fish Hatchery (NNFH) to determine if metal or organic contaminants were elevated in the biota located on the hatchery. Whole...

  13. Flotation of PAH contaminated dredged sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulleneers, H.; Roubroeks, S.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.; Koopal, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    The applicability of dissolved air flotation to remediate contaminated sediments of "Overschie" (Rotterdam) and "Petrol Harbor" (Amsterdam) is studied. Several flotation reagents (Diesel Fuel, Montanol, Aerophine, Aerofroth) are applied to enhance the flotation efficiency. The physical chemical

  14. Calculational Tool for Skin Contamination Dose Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, R L

    2002-01-01

    Spreadsheet calculational tool was developed to automate the calculations preformed for dose assessment of skin contamination. This document reports on the design and testing of the spreadsheet calculational tool.

  15. 202 197 Heavy Metals and Microbial Contamin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... ABSTRACT: The heavy metal and microbial contaminants levels were evaluated in a commercial polyherbal product ... fungal toxins such as aflatoxins, pesticides and synthetic ... natural products is that 'natural' equals safe.

  16. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil | Nanda |

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. ... in intensive research aiming at understanding metal interactions in soil and their removal in an efficient way. ... This paper investigates the plant-microbial interactions in reclaiming the metal ...

  17. Agricultural Chemical Sourcebook for Wildlife Contaminants Specialists

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this handbook is to provide information to contaminant specialists involved in evaluating agricultural chemical impacts on wetlands. The handbook...

  18. Fact sheet : Endrin contamination of waterfowl

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following is a summary of information collected by and for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service regarding contamination of waterfowl from Montana with the...

  19. Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) program of the Department of Interior is focused to identify and understand effects of contaminant...

  20. Contaminants investigation at Grulla National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In August, 2003, a contaminants investigation was initiated at Grulla National Wildlife Refuge (Grulla NWR) by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service personnel. The purpose...

  1. Mercury contamination in Anna’s hummingbirds

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Heavy metal contamination (n=17 metals) of feather and tissue samples from live and deceased Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) was evaluated. Feathers taken from...

  2. Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Contaminants in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photocatalytic treatment of organics, including regulated and contaminants of emerging concern, has been an important area of this field. Details are provided on the mechanism of degradation, reaction intermediates, kinetics, and nanointerfacial adsorption phenomena. The degradat...

  3. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from ...

  4. Estimating exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    This report describes generalized models for the estimation of contaminant exposure experienced by wildlife on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The primary exposure pathway considered is oral ingestion, e.g. the consumption of contaminated food, water, or soil. Exposure through dermal absorption and inhalation are special cases and are not considered hereIN. Because wildlife mobile and generally consume diverse diets and because environmental contamination is not spatial homogeneous, factors to account for variation in diet, movement, and contaminant distribution have been incorporated into the models. To facilitate the use and application of the models, life history parameters necessary to estimate exposure are summarized for 15 common wildlife species. Finally, to display the application of the models, exposure estimates were calculated for four species using data from a source operable unit on the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  5. Variable pattern contamination control under positive pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippi, H.M. [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada)

    1997-08-01

    Airborne contamination control in nuclear and biological laboratories is traditionally achieved by directing the space ventilation air at subatmospheric pressures in one fixed flow pattern. However, biological and nuclear contamination flow control in the new Biological Research Facility, to be commissioned at the Chalk River Laboratories in 1996, will have the flexibility to institute a number of contamination control patterns, all achieved at positive (above atmospheric) pressures. This flexibility feature, made possible by means of a digitally controlled ventilation system, changes the facility ventilation system from being a relatively rigid building service operated by plant personnel into a flexible building service which can be operated by the facility research personnel. This paper focuses on and describes the application of these unique contamination control features in the design of the new Biological Research Facility. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Correlation study between contamination and signal degradation in single-mode APC connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Steve; Brown, Matt; Berdinskikh, Tatiana; Wilson, Douglas H.; Fisher, David; Huang, Sun-Yuan; Hughes, Mike; Mitcheltree, Tom; Roche, Brian J.

    2009-06-01

    This paper summarizes the correlation study between contamination and scratches on singlemode APC connectors and signal degradation; leading to an Acceptance Criteria Matrix. The study is a continuation of International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (iNEMI) research on development of cleanliness specification for singlemode angled physical contact (SM-APC) connectors. Twenty-five APC SC connectors on one-meter patch cords were used for this study. The Design of the Experiment (DoE) was a multi-step process that involved: (1) inspecting, cleaning and inspecting connectors being tested (devices under test, or DUTs) and launch connectors; (2) making multiple matings and dematings of each DUT, in a pristine state, with a reference connector, and recording Return Loss (RL) data after each cycle; (3) manually applying dust to the cleaned end-faces of the DUTs; then (4) mating contaminated DUTs with clean reference connectors at least five times, taking RL measurements after each mating and saving fiber end-face images for both connectors. It was shown that connectors with the contamination at the core (9um diameter) demonstrated a dramatic decrease in average RL of 14.2 dB. In comparison, the samples with contamination on the cladding and clear core demonstrated a negligible change in RL of 0.15 dB. For highly contaminated samples in the cladding layer, we found the changes of RL to be about 5-6 dB. Further investigation established that particle migration during successive matings also occurs on the ferrule within the contact zone (approximately paper, an inspection criteria matrix is proposed for SM-APC connectors including the zone definitions and number of allowable defects (contamination and scratches) for each zone. The recommendations on pass/fail criteria have been provided to the IEC (International Electrotechnical Committee). It is expected IEC-61300-3-25, which contains these criteria, will publish in 2009.

  7. SURVEILLANCE OF BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF ANESTHESIA MACHINE AND PERIPHERAL INTRAVENOUS CANNULA DURING GENERAL ANESTHESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the expanding role of the anesthesiologist as the “total perioperative physician,” the increasing number of invasive procedures performed by anesthesiologists, and the increase in the prevalence of emerging diseases, stringent attention to infection control practices is paramount. AIM : To find out the bacterial contamination of anesthesia machine and internal lumen of the injection port of peri pheral intravenous cannula, and evaluation of its risk factors during general anesthesia procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 50 general anaesthesia procedures were selected randomly after the approval of ethics committee and informed consent from the patien t. Samples were taken for bacterial culture on 2 sites in anesthesia machine (Adjustable pressure limiting valve {APL} and agent concentration dial of inhaled anesthetics{AD} and internal lumen of the injection port of peripheral intravenous cannula befor e starting and after completion of procedures. Bacteria and colony count were identified according to standard laboratory methods . RESULTS : Adjustable pressure limiting valve area was contaminated with bacteria in 12% (6/50 before starting procedure and 34% (17/50 after completion of procedures. Agent concentration dial of inhaled anesthetic site was contaminated with bacteria in 10% (5/50 before starting procedure and 28% (14/50 after completion of procedures. Bacterial contamination occurred in the i nternal lumen of the injection port of peripheral intravenous cannula in 16% (8/50 during general anesthesia. Isolated bacteria in anesthesia machine and peripheral intra venous cannula sites are STAPHYLO COCCI, STREPTOCOCCI, MICRO COCCI, ENTERO COCCI, E. COLI, and PSEUDOMONAS . CONCLUSION: Bacterial contamination is significantly associated with procedure order in a day (bacterial contamination rate is increased from first procedure to fifth procedure in a day. It is significantly associated with surgical s pecialty highest in

  8. Rural methods to mitigate arsenic contaminated water

    OpenAIRE

    Parajuli, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of arsenic contaminated water is one of the burning issues in the rural world. Poor public awareness program about health effects of drinking arsenic contaminated water and the rural methods to mitigate this problem poses a great threat of arsenic poisoning many people of the rural world. In this thesis, arsenic removal efficiency and the working mechanism of four rural and economical arsenic mitigation technologies i.e. solar oxidation and reduction of arsenic (SORAS), Bucket tr...

  9. Purification of contaminated groundwater by membrane technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, In Soo; Chung, Chin Ki; Kim, Byoung Gon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this study is to apply the membrane separation technology to the purification of contaminated ground water in Korea. Under this scope, the purification was aimed to the drinking water level. The scale of the membrane system was chosen to a small filtration plant for local clean water supplies and/or heavy purifiers for buildings and public uses. The actual conditions of ground water contamination in Korea was surveyed to determine the major components to remove under the drinking water requirements. To set up a hybrid process with membrane methods, conventional purification methods were also investigated for the comparison purpose. The research results are summarized as follows : 1) Contamination of the groundwater in Korea has been found to be widespread across the country. The major contaminant were nitrate, bacteria, and organic chlorides. Some solvents and heavy metals are also supposed to exist in the ground water of industrial complexes, cities, and abandoned mines. 2) The purification methods currently used in public filtration plants appear not to be enough for new contaminants from recent industrial expanding. The advanced purification technologies generally adopted for this problem have been found to be unsuitable due to their very complicated design and operation, and lack of confidence in the purification performance. 3) The reverse osmosis tested with FilmTec FT30 membrane was found to remove nitrate ions in water with over 90 % efficiency. 4) The suitable membrane process for the contaminated groundwater in Korea has been found to be the treatments composed of activated carbon, microfiltration, reverse osmosis or ultrafiltration, and disinfection. The activated carbon treatment could be omitted for the water of low organic contaminants. The microfiltration and the reverse osmosis treatments stand for the conventional methods of filtration plants and the advanced methods for hardly removable components, respectively. It is recommended

  10. Light Obscuration Particle Counter Fuel Contamination Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-08

    4) (5). The Army utilizes ASTM D4176 – Standard Test Method for Free Water and Particulate Contamination in Distillate Fuels (Visual Inspection ...where high in the 4µm (c) channel only. 78 samples where aviation fuels (JP-8 and F-24) that where high in the 6µm (c),14µm (c), and/or 30µm (c...AND USE OF LIQUID FUELS Charleston, South Carolina USA 4-8 October 2015 LIGHT OBSCURATION PARTICLE COUNTER FUEL CONTAMINATION LIMITS Joel

  11. Microbiological contamination in counterfeit and unapproved drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullirsch, Dieter; Bellemare, Julie; Hackl, Andreas; Trottier, Yvon-Louis; Mayrhofer, Andreas; Schindl, Heidemarie; Taillon, Christine; Gartner, Christian; Hottowy, Brigitte; Beck, Gerhard; Gagnon, Jacques

    2014-06-26

    Counterfeit and unapproved medicines are inherently dangerous and can cause patient injury due to ineffectiveness, chemical or biological contamination, or wrong dosage. Growth of the counterfeit medical market in developed countries is mainly attributable to life-style drugs, which are used in the treatment of non-life-threatening and non-painful conditions, such as slimming pills, cosmetic-related pharmaceuticals, and drugs for sexual enhancement. One of the main tasks of health authorities is to identify the exact active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in confiscated drugs, because wrong API compounds, wrong concentrations, and/or the presence of chemical contaminants are the main risks associated with counterfeit medicines. Serious danger may also arise from microbiological contamination. We therefore performed a market surveillance study focused on the microbial burden in counterfeit and unapproved medicines. Counterfeit and unapproved medicines confiscated in Canada and Austria and controls from the legal market were examined for microbial contaminations according to the US and European pharmacopoeia guidelines. The microbiological load of illegal and legitimate samples was statistically compared with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Microbial cultivable contaminations in counterfeit and unapproved phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors were significantly higher than in products from the legal medicines market (p product in Austria (6% of illegal products tested). Our results show that counterfeit and unapproved pharmaceuticals are not manufactured under the same hygienic conditions as legitimate products. The microbiological contamination of illegal medicinal products often exceeds USP and EP limits, representing a potential threat to consumer health.

  12. TRMM project contamination control using molecular adsorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straka, S.; Chen, P.; Thomson, S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Bettini, R.; Triolo, J.; Carosso, N. [Swales and Associates, Inc., 5050 Powder Mill Road, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is a spacecraft under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and is scheduled for launch in August 1997. The spacecraft design includes the use of numerous optical instruments and the thermal control surfaces. In addition to the inherent contamination sensitivities of the optical and thermal systems, TRMM has had the added challenge of designing systems to function at a relatively low altitude (350 km), with solar exposure. Under these conditions, high atomic oxygen densities and potentially high levels of backscattered contamination (self-contamination), as well as UV photopolymerization effects, all pose major threats to sensitive TRMM elements. In considering the various contamination control paths to follow, the TRMM project management has opted for pursuing a relatively new, but very promising technology for the TRMM spacecraft in order to lower the on-orbit contamination levels. TRMM will be incorporating Molecular Adsorbers as part of the basic spacecraft design. This paper will summarize the TRMM requirements, describe the Molecular Adsorbers being fabricated for the mission, and discuss the expected benefits of this method of on-orbit contamination control. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombard, K.; Hazen, T.

    1994-06-01

    The amount of petroleum contaminated soil (PCS) at the Savannah River site (SRS) that has been identified, excavated and is currently in storage has increased several fold during the last few years. Several factors have contributed to this problem: (1) South Carolina Department of Health ad Environmental control (SCDHEC) lowered the sanitary landfill maximum concentration for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the soil from 500 to 100 parts per million (ppm), (2) removal and replacement of underground storage tanks at several sites, (3) most recently SCDHEC disallowed aeration for treatment of contaminated soil, and (4) discovery of several very large contaminated areas of soil associated with leaking underground storage tanks (LUST), leaking pipes, disposal areas, and spills. Thus, SRS has an urgent need to remediate large quantities of contaminated soil that are currently stockpiled and the anticipated contaminated soils to be generated from accidental spills. As long as we utilize petroleum based compounds at the site, we will continue to generate contaminated soil that will require remediation.

  14. Oil contamination in Ogoniland, Niger Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindén, Olof; Pålsson, Jonas

    2013-10-01

    The study shows extensive oil contamination of rivers, creeks, and ground waters in Ogoniland, Nigeria. The levels found in the more contaminated sites are high enough to cause severe impacts on the ecosystem and human health: extractable petroleum hydrocarbons (EPHs) (>10-C40) in surface waters up to 7420 μg L(-1), drinking water wells show up to 42 200 μg L(-1), and benzene up to 9000 μg L(-1), more than 900 times the WHO guidelines. EPH concentrations in sediments were up to 17 900 mg kg(-1). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations reached 8.0 mg kg(-1), in the most contaminated sites. The contamination has killed large areas of mangroves. Although the natural conditions for degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons are favorable with high temperatures and relatively high rainfall, the recovery of contaminated areas is prevented due to the chronic character of the contamination. Oil spills of varying magnitude originates from facilities and pipelines; leaks from aging, dilapidated, and abandoned infrastructure; and from spills during transport and artisanal refining of stolen oil under very primitive conditions.

  15. Contamination study of multiple-dose vials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, P S; Shevchuk, Y M; Conly, J M; Richardson, C J

    1993-03-01

    To document the number of opened, dated, and expired multiple-dose vials (MDVs) in patient-care areas and to determine what proportion of MDVs were contaminated with bacteria or cellular debris. Every tenth opened MDV (69/656) identified on the wards was collected, ensuring representation from each nursing unit. Contents were examined for contamination. Medical-school-affiliated, tertiary care center. (1) Visual inspection for debris, medication type, location, lot number, manufacturer's expiration date, and date of opening; (2) culture in solid and broth media for bacterial growth; and (3) staining and microscopic examination for cellular constituents. No vials had been dated after opening and 4.6 percent were expired according to the manufacturer's expiration date. No bacterial contamination was evident; however, one vial was contaminated with red blood cells. Transmission of infection via contaminated MDVs has been well documented and contamination with red blood cells raises concerns about potential for transmission of bloodborne pathogens. Recommendations include dating MDVs after opening, emphasizing the need for proper aseptic technique, and discarding MDVs on the manufacture's date of expiration.

  16. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled.

  17. Solar Development on Contaminated and Disturbed Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lee, Courtney [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melius, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Land classified as contaminated and disturbed across the United States has the potential to host developments of utility-scale solar power. This report examines the prospect of developing utility- and commercial-scale concentrated solar power (CSP) and solar photovoltaics (PV) technologies on degraded and environmentally contaminated lands. The potential for solar development on contaminated anddisturbed lands was assessed, and for the largest and highest solar resource sites, the economic impacts and feasibility were evaluated. Developing solar power on contaminated and disturbed lands can help create jobs and revitalize local and state economies, and selecting these sites over greenfield sites can potentially have permitting and environmental mitigation advantages. The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot goals call for 632 GW of PV and 83 GW of CSP to be deployed by 2050. Conservative land-use estimates of this study (10 acres per megawatt) show that there are disturbed and environmentally contaminated lands throughout the country that could be suitable for utility-scale solar power, and, that there is sufficient land area to meet SunShot solar deployment goals. The purpose of this assessment is to improve the understanding of these sites and facilitate solar developers' selection of contaminated and disturbed sites for development.

  18. Internalization of Listeria monocytogenes in Whole Avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Evans, Peter; Hammack, Thomas S; Brown, Eric W; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, tree fruits have emerged as a new concern for Listeria monocytogenes contamination. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the potential internalization of L. monocytogenes from the surface of avocados into the edible portions of the fruit during certain postharvest practices simulated in a laboratory setting. One set of intact avocados was spot inoculated with L. monocytogenes on the stem scar, and the second set was hydrocooled in water contaminated with L. monocytogenes. Under these experimental conditions, L. monocytogenes internalized into the avocado pulp through the stem or stem scar after both spot inoculation and hydrocooling. In avocados spot inoculated with 50, 130, 500, and 1,300 CFU per fruit, bacteria were detected in the edible portion adjacent to the stem scar within 15 days postinoculation during storage at 4°C. In avocados hydrocooled in water containing L. monocytogenes at 10(6) and 10(8) CFU/ml, bacteria reached the bottom end of the fruit, and the populations in the edible portion adjacent to the stem scar reached up to 5.90 to 7.19 log CFU/g within 10 to 15 days during storage at 4°C. Dye mixed with inoculum was useful for guiding subsequent sampling, but dye penetration patterns were not always consistent with bacterial penetration.

  19. A cross-disciplinary approach to global environmental health: the case of contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Cross-disciplinary approaches to Global Environmental Health are essential to address environmental health threats within and beyond national boundaries, taking into account the links among health, environment and socio-economic development. The aim of this study is to present a cross-disciplinary approach where knowledge and findings from environmental epidemiology and social research are integrated in studying environmental health issues, focusing on environmental health inequities, public and environmental health literacy, and international scientific cooperation. In the case of contaminated sites, environmental epidemiology can contribute investigating the multidimensionality of equity for sustainable development practices. These practices entail a better understanding of environmental contamination, health effects pathways and improved capacities of different stakeholders to identify policy options for environmental risk prevention, remediation and management that will foster informed participation in decisions influencing communities. International scientific cooperation frameworks adopting equity principles shared by scientific community, populations and decision-makers may be of valuable support to this task.

  20. Contamination of Bovine, Sheep and Goat Meat with Brucella Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalinuovo, Francesco; Ciambrone, Lucia; Cacia, Antonio; Rippa, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%): 1 bovine (2.5%), 9 sheep (15%) and 15 goats (7.2%) and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%). Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method. PMID:27853716

  1. Contamination of Bovine, Sheep and Goat Meat with Brucella Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalinuovo, Francesco; Ciambrone, Lucia; Cacia, Antonio; Rippa, Paola

    2016-06-03

    A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%): 1 bovine (2.5%), 9 sheep (15%) and 15 goats (7.2%) and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%). Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  2. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%: 1 bovine (2.5%, 9 sheep (15% and 15 goats (7.2% and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%. Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  3. An evaluation of early countermeasures to reduce the risk of internal radiation exposure after the Fukushima nuclear incident in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Gilmour, Stuart; Hayano, Ryugo S; Watanabe, Yuni N; Kami, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yukio; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2016-05-01

    After a radiation-release incident, intake of radionuclides in the initial stage immediately following the incident may be the major contributor to total internal radiation exposure for individuals in affected areas. However, evaluation of early internal contamination risk is greatly lacking. This study assessed the relationship between initial stage evacuation/indoor sheltering and internal radiation contamination levels 4 months after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident in Japan and estimated potential pathways of the contamination. The study population comprised 525 participants in the internal radiation screening program at Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital, 23 km north of the Fukushima nuclear plant. The analysed dataset included the results of a screening performed in July 2011, 4 months after the incident, and of a questionnaire on early-incident response behaviours, such as sheltering indoors and evacuations, completed by participants. Association between such early countermeasures and internal contamination levels of cesium-134 were assessed using Tobit multiple regression analyses. Our study shows that individuals who evacuated to areas outside Fukushima Prefecture had similar contamination levels of cesium-134 to individuals who stayed in Fukushima (relative risk: 0.86; 95% confidence interval: 0.74-0.99). Time spent outdoors had no significant relationship with contamination levels. The effects of inhalation from radiological plumes released from the nuclear plant on total internal radiation contamination might be so low as to be undetectable by the whole-body counting unit used to examine participants. Given the apparent limited effectiveness of evacuation and indoor sheltering on internal contamination, the decision to implement such early responses to a radiation-release incident should be made by carefully balancing their potential benefits and health risks.

  4. A methodology for estimating the residual contamination contribution to the source term in a spent-fuel transport cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, T.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Jordan, H. (EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Plant); Pasupathi, V. (Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)); Mings, W.J. (USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Reardon, P.C. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1991-09-01

    This report describes the ranges of the residual contamination that may build up in spent-fuel transport casks. These contamination ranges are calculated based on data taken from published reports and from previously unpublished data supplied by cask transporters. The data involve dose rate measurements, interior smear surveys, and analyses of water flushed out of cask cavities during decontamination operations. A methodology has been developed to estimate the effect of residual contamination on spent-fuel cask containment requirements. Factors in estimating the maximum permissible leak rates include the form of the residual contamination; possible release modes; internal gas-borne depletion; and the temperature, pressure, and vibration characteristics of the cask during transport under normal and accident conditions. 12 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Potential of near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging for screening of farm feed contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbo; Paliwal, Jitendra

    2005-09-01

    With the outbreak of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) (commonly known as mad cow disease) in 1987 in the United Kingdom and a recent case discovered in Alberta, more and more emphasis is placed on food and farm feed quality and safety issues internationally. The disease is believed to be spread through farm feed contamination by animal byproducts in the form of meat-and-bone-meal (MBM). The paper reviewed the available techniques necessary to the enforcement of legislation concerning the feed safety issues. The standard microscopy method, although highly sensitive, is laborious and costly. A method to routinely screen farm feed contamination certainly helps to reduce the complexity of safety inspection. A hyperspectral imaging system working in the near-infrared wavelength region of 1100-1600 nm was used to study the possibility of detection of ground broiler feed contamination by ground pork. Hyperspectral images of raw broiler feed, ground broiler feed, ground pork, and contaminated feed samples were acquired. Raw broiler feed samples were found to possess comparatively large spectral variations due to light scattering effect. Ground feed adulterated with 1%, 3%, 5%, and 10% of ground pork was tested to identify feed contamination. Discriminant analysis using Mahalanobis distance showed that the model trained using pure ground feed samples and pure ground pork samples resulted in 100% false negative errors for all test replicates of contaminated samples. A discriminant model trained with pure ground feed samples and 10% contamination level samples resulted in 12.5% false positive error and 0% false negative error.

  6. A novel approach to eliminate detection of contaminating Staphylococcal species introduced during clinical testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Wanyuan; Clifford, Adrianne; Corpuz, Maylene; Jenison, Robert

    2017-01-01

    We describe here a strategy that can distinguish between Staphylococcus species truly present in a clinical sample from contaminating Staphylococcus species introduced during the testing process. Contaminating Staphylococcus species are present at low levels in PCR reagents and colonize lab personnel. To eliminate detection of contaminants, we describe an approach that utilizes addition of sufficient quantities of either non-target Staphylococcal cells (Staphylococcus succinus or Staphylococcus muscae) or synthetic oligonucleotide templates to helicase dependent isothermal amplification reactions to consume Staphylococcus-specific tuf and mecA gene primers such that contaminating Staphylococcus amplification is suppressed to below assay limits of detection. The suppressor template DNA is designed with perfect homology to the primers used in the assay but an internal sequence that is unrelated to the Staphylococcal species targeted for detection. Input amount of the suppressor is determined by a mathematical model described herein and is demonstrated to completely suppress contaminating levels of Staphylococcus while not negatively impacting the appropriate clinical assay limit of detection. We have applied this approach to improve the specificity of detection of Staphylococcus species present in positive blood cultures using a chip-based array that produces results visible to the unaided eye. PMID:28225823

  7. Contamination Examples and Lessons from Low Earth Orbit Experiments and Operational Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Gary; Finckenor, Miria M.

    2009-01-01

    Flight experiments flown on the Space Shuttle, the International Space Station, Mir, Skylab, and free flyers such as the Long Duration Exposure Facility, the European Retrievable Carrier, and the EFFU, provide multiple opportunities for the investigation of molecular contamination effects. Retrieved hardware from the Solar Maximum Mission satellite, Mir, and the Hubble Space Telescope has also provided the means gaining insight into contamination processes. Images from the above mentioned hardware show contamination effects due to materials processing, hardware storage, pre-flight cleaning, as well as on-orbit events such as outgassing, mechanical failure of hardware in close proximity, impacts from man-made debris, and changes due to natural environment factors.. Contamination effects include significant changes to thermal and electrical properties of thermal control surfaces, optics, and power systems. Data from several flights has been used to develop a rudimentary estimate of asymptotic values for absorptance changes due to long-term solar exposure (4000-6000 Equivalent Sun Hours) of silicone-based molecular contamination deposits of varying thickness. Recommendations and suggestions for processing changes and constraints based on the on-orbit observed results will be presented.

  8. Screening chemicals for the potential to be persistent organic pollutants: a case study of Arctic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Trevor N; Wania, Frank

    2008-07-15

    A large and ever-increasing number of chemicals are used in commerce, and researchers and regulators have struggled to ascertain that these chemicals do not threaten human health or cause environmental or ecological damage. The presence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in remote environments such as the Arctic is of special concern and has international regulatory implications. Responding to the need for a way to identify chemicals of high concern, a methodology has been developed which compares experimentally measured properties, or values predicted from chemical structure alone, to a set of screening criteria. These criteria include partitioning properties that allow for accumulation in the physical Arctic environment and in the Arctic human food chain, and resistance to atmospheric oxidation. Atthe same time we quantify the extent of structural resemblance to a group of known Arctic contaminants. Comparison of the substances that are identified by a mechanistic description of the processes that lead to Arctic contamination with those substances that are structurally similar to known Arctic contaminants reveals the strengths and limitations of either approach. Within a data set of more than 100,000 distinct industrial chemicals, the methodology identifies 120 high production volume chemicals which are structurally similarto known Arctic contaminants and/or have partitioning properties that suggest they are potential Arctic contaminants.

  9. Bioassessment of contaminant transport and distribution in aquatic ecosystems by chemical analysis of burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingraeber, M.T.; Wiener, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    Burrowing mayfly nymphs (Ephemeroptera) inhabit and ingest fine-grained sediments and detritus that may be enriched with metals and persistent organic compounds. The burrowing nymphs can externally adsorb and internally assimilate these contaminants, providing a link for the food chain transfer of potentially toxic substances from sediments to organisms in higher trophic levels. The emergent adults are short-lived and do not feed, thus their gut contents do not contribute greatly to their total contaminant burden. These characteristics make Hexagenia spp. And certain other burrowing mayflies useful for assessing ecosystem contamination. General protocols are presented for the collection, processing and analysis of emergent mayflies to assess the spatial distribution and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Two essential components of this bioassessment approach are a network of on-site volunteers with the materials and instructions needed to correctly collect and store samples and quality assurance procedures to estimate the accuracy of chemical analyses. The utility of this approach is demonstrated with an example of its application to the Upper Mississippi River (USA). Determination of cadmium, mercury and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in emergent Hexagenia bilineata from a 1250 km reach of this river revealed (1) several source areas of contaminants and (2) distinct patterns in the bioaccumulation (and apparent sediment-associated transport) of each residue on both small and large spatial scales.

  10. Minimal Internal Radiation Exposure in Residents Living South of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Junichi; Kato, Shigeaki; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Mori, Jinichi; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji; Hayano, Ryugo; Tokiwa, Michio; Shimmura, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, assessment of internal radiation exposure was indispensable to predict radiation-related health threats to residents of neighboring areas. Although many evaluations of internal radiation in residents living north and west of the crippled Fukushima nuclear power plant are available, there is little information on residents living in areas south of the plant, which were similarly affected by radio-contamination from the disaster. To assess the internal radio-contamination in residents living in affected areas to the south of the plant or who were evacuated into Iwaki city, a whole body counter (WBC) screening program of internal radio-contamination was performed on visitors to the Jyoban hospital in Iwaki city, which experienced less contamination than southern areas adjacent to the nuclear plant. The study included 9,206 volunteer subjects, of whom 6,446 were schoolchildren aged 4-15 years. Measurements began one year after the incident and were carried out over the course of two years. Early in the screening period only two schoolchildren showed Cs-137 levels that were over the detection limit (250 Bq/body), although their Cs-134 levels were below the detection limit (220 Bq/body). Among the 2,760 adults tested, 35 (1.3%) had detectable internal radio-contamination, but only for Cs-137 (range: 250 Bq/body to 859 Bq/body), and not Cs-134. Of these 35 subjects, nearly all (34/35) showed elevated Cs-137 levels only during the first year of the screening. With the exception of potassium 40, no other radionuclides were detected during the screening period. The maximum annual effective dose calculated from the detected Cs-137 levels was 0.029 and 0.028 mSv/year for the schoolchildren and adults, respectively, which is far below the 1 mSv/year limit set by the government of Japan. Although the data for radiation exposure during the most critical first year after the incident are unavailable due to a lack of systemic

  11. Minimal Internal Radiation Exposure in Residents Living South of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Akiyama

    Full Text Available Following the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, assessment of internal radiation exposure was indispensable to predict radiation-related health threats to residents of neighboring areas. Although many evaluations of internal radiation in residents living north and west of the crippled Fukushima nuclear power plant are available, there is little information on residents living in areas south of the plant, which were similarly affected by radio-contamination from the disaster. To assess the internal radio-contamination in residents living in affected areas to the south of the plant or who were evacuated into Iwaki city, a whole body counter (WBC screening program of internal radio-contamination was performed on visitors to the Jyoban hospital in Iwaki city, which experienced less contamination than southern areas adjacent to the nuclear plant. The study included 9,206 volunteer subjects, of whom 6,446 were schoolchildren aged 4-15 years. Measurements began one year after the incident and were carried out over the course of two years. Early in the screening period only two schoolchildren showed Cs-137 levels that were over the detection limit (250 Bq/body, although their Cs-134 levels were below the detection limit (220 Bq/body. Among the 2,760 adults tested, 35 (1.3% had detectable internal radio-contamination, but only for Cs-137 (range: 250 Bq/body to 859 Bq/body, and not Cs-134. Of these 35 subjects, nearly all (34/35 showed elevated Cs-137 levels only during the first year of the screening. With the exception of potassium 40, no other radionuclides were detected during the screening period. The maximum annual effective dose calculated from the detected Cs-137 levels was 0.029 and 0.028 mSv/year for the schoolchildren and adults, respectively, which is far below the 1 mSv/year limit set by the government of Japan. Although the data for radiation exposure during the most critical first year after the incident are unavailable due to a lack

  12. Internal auditing in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Don; Kusel, Jim; Oxner, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The authors analyzed two national surveys to determine answers for two basic questions: How do the roles of internal auditors compare with those of their counterparts in other industries and to what extent over the past 6 years have the activities of internal auditors changed? Internal auditors in hospitals allocate their time primarily to financial/compliance and operational types of audits, as do their counterparts. The current trend is toward more operational types of audits. In the early years of employment, staff turnover in hospitals is significantly higher than in all combined industries, often leading to internal auditors' filling other positions in the organization. Hospital staff salaries are higher than are salaries in other industries combined. Staff composition continues to reflect the growing presence of women in the field. The majority of internal auditing directors believe that their salaries are fair, would recommend internal auditing as a career position, and are treated as valued consultants in the organization.

  13. Flow Boiling of Pure and Oil Contaminated Carbon Dioxide as Refrigerant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, A.-R. Mohamed

    2003-01-01

    described in the present report is measured heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for flow boiling of oil free and oil contaminated CO2. Measurements have been done on tube with internal diameter of 10 mm and 4 mm- The mass flux has been varied from 90 kg/m2s to 750 kg/m2s, heat flux from 5 kW/m2...

  14. In situ rumen degradation of amino acids from different feeds corrected for microbial contamination

    OpenAIRE

    González, Javier; Centeno, Carmen; Lamrani, Farida; Rodríguez, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Variations of the amino acid profile produced by rumen actions were established for fish meal (FM), corn grain (CG), corn gluten feed (GF), dehydrated beet pulp (DBP), and lucerne hay (LH), using the nylon bag technique. The effects of degradation of soluble or insoluble proteins were measured by rumen incubations at 0 h (washout value) and 16 h, respectively. Rumen incubations were performed on four cannulated wethers and the microbial contamination of incubated resid...

  15. The International Trade Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, K.; Mukherjee, G.; Manna, S. S.

    2007-01-01

    Bilateral trade relationships in the international level between pairs of countries in the world give rise to the notion of the International Trade Network (ITN). This network has attracted the attention of network researchers as it serves as an excellent example of the weighted networks, the link weight being defined as a measure of the volume of trade between two countries. In this paper we analyzed the international trade data for 53 years and studied in detail the variations of different ...

  16. International safeguards data authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, R.B.; Smith, C.E.; DeLand, S.M.; Manatt, D.R.

    1996-07-01

    The International Safeguards community is becoming increasingly reliant on information stored in electronic form. In international monitoring and related activities it must be possible to verify and maintain the integrity of this electronic information. This paper discusses the use of data authentication technology to assist in accomplishing this task. The paper provides background information, identifies the relevance to international safeguards, discusses issues related to export controls, algorithm patents, key management and the use of commercial vs. custom software.

  17. Water contamination, land prices, and the statute of repose

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Chamblee; Carolyn A. Dehring; Craig A. Depken; Joseph R. Nicholson

    2015-01-01

    We examine how water contamination risk from an inactive hazardous waste site is capitalized into surrounding vacant land prices. After public knowledge of the first instance of off-site contamination, we find that shallow groundwater contamination potential is negatively capitalized into land prices, as is proximity to a known contaminated well. Public knowledge of...

  18. Method of producing hydrogen, and rendering a contaminated biomass inert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dennis N [Idaho Falls, ID; Klingler, Kerry M [Idaho Falls, ID; Wilding, Bruce M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-23

    A method for rendering a contaminated biomass inert includes providing a first composition, providing a second composition, reacting the first and second compositions together to form an alkaline hydroxide, providing a contaminated biomass feedstock and reacting the alkaline hydroxide with the contaminated biomass feedstock to render the contaminated biomass feedstock inert and further producing hydrogen gas, and a byproduct that includes the first composition.

  19. International migration, international relations and foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C

    1989-01-01

    Recent literature on migration, international relations, and foreign policy is reviewed in this article, stressing applications of global systems paradigms, studies of state entry and exit rules, and anatomies of domestic policy-setting processes on migration. After a concise assessment of the contemporary theory of global political economy, the paper argues for seeking mid-range generalizations on the international relations of migration. It also suggests that analysis begin with the policy-setting processes of the state. Especially through the use of comparative perspectives available from domestic policy making studies and from the field of international comparative public policy, this approach offers the opportunity to fix empirically the political roles of transnational social forces, which often present themselves as participants in domestic policy contests. Promising future directions in the study of state-to-state relations are also evaluated, with the anticipation that verifying regional or other intermediate patterns of world migration politics may contribute to more general theories of international political economy.

  20. Comparison of surface contamination monitors for in vivo measurement of 131I in the thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, S. M.; Dantas, A. L. A.; Dantas, B. M.

    2016-07-01

    The routine handling of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine represents a significant risk of internal exposure to the staff. The IAEA recommends the implementation of monitoring plans for all workers subject to a risk of exposures above 1 mSv per year. However, in Brazil, such recommendation is practically unfeasible due to the lack of a sufficient number of qualified internal dosimetry services over the country. This work presents an alternative based on a simple and inexpensive methodology aimed to perform in vivo monitoring of 131I in the thyroid using portable surface contamination probes. Results show that all models evaluated in this work present enough sensitivity for the evaluation of accidental intakes.