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Sample records for contaminated urtica dioica

  1. Lead uptake, tolerance, and accumulation exhibited by the plants Urtica dioica and Sedum spectabile in contaminated soil without additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Milena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Urtica dioica and Sedum spectabile collected from plants growing at uncontaminated sites were transplanted in Pb-contaminated soil without additives (EDTA, HEDTA to identify their natural potential for hyper-tolerance and hyperaccumulation of lead. The total content of Pb in the plants was determined by atomic spectroscopy. Our research showed that the concentrated toxic levels of lead (Pb in Sedum spectabile and Urtica dioica were about 100 or more times higher than those of non-accumulator plants. It can be concluded that these plants have a high natural potential for hypertolerance and hyperaccumulation of lead, since they can hyperaccumulate it without addition of any chelating compounds (EDTA, HEDTA to enhance lead uptake. This makes them very promising plants for use in phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated sites.

  2. Lamium album or urtica dioica?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proff.Adewunmi

    Objectives: Diabetes mellitus, the most common endocrine disorder, is defined by hyperglycaemia. Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is known to have antidiabetic effects. Lamium album or non stinging nettle is shown to have some beneficial effects such as antioxidant, and cytoprotective properties. The purpose of this study ...

  3. Pharmacological and toxicological evaluation of Urtica dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Sabzar Ahmad; Ganai, Farooq Ahmad; Yousuf, Abdul Rehman; Balkhi, Masood-Ul-Hassan; Bhat, Towseef Mohsin; Sharma, Poonam

    2013-02-01

    Medicinal plants are a largely unexplored source of drug repository. Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) is used in traditional medicine to treat diverse conditions. The present study describes the antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, antibacterial activity, and toxicological studies of Urtica dioica. U. dioica leaves were subjected to solvent extraction with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous, respectively, and screened for antidiabetic (300 mg/kg bw by glucose tolerance test; GTT), antiinflammatory (200 mg/kg bw by rat paw edema assay) and antibacterial activities [by disc-diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays]. Toxicological studies were carried on Artemia salina and Wistar rats; phytochemical analyses were carried out, using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The aqueous extract of U. dioica (AEUD) significantly (p 1000 μg/mL each on A. salina. Our results showed that the U. dioica leaves are an interesting source of bioactive compounds, justifying their use in folk medicine, to treat various diseases.

  4. Food-chain transfer of cadmium and zinc from contaminated Urtica dioica to Helix aspersa and Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnett, Danielle E; Hodson, Mark E; Hutchings, Tony R

    2009-08-01

    The present study examines the potential of Urtica dioica as an ecologically relevant species for use in ecotoxicological testing. It is prevalent in degraded ecosystems and is a food source for invertebrates. Urtica dioica grown in hydroponic solutions containing from less than 0.003 to 5.7 mg Cd/L or from 0.02 to 41.9 mg Zn/L accumulated metals resulting in leaf tissue concentrations in the range of 0.10 to 24.9 mg Cd/kg or 22.5 to 2,772.0 mg Zn/kg. No toxicological effects were apparent except at the highest concentrations tested, suggesting that this species may be an important pathway for transfer of metals to primary plant consumers. Helix aspersa and Lumbricus terrestris were fed the Cd- and Zn-rich leaves of U. dioica for six and four weeks, respectively. Cadmium and Zn body load increased with increasing metal concentration in the leaves (p nettle leaves with concentrations of approximately 23 mg Cd/kg and 3,400 mg Zn/kg. Models demonstrate that L. terrestris Cd tissue concentrations (r2 = 0.74, p < 0.001) and H. aspersa Zn tissue concentrations (r(2) = 0.69, p < 0.001) can be estimated from concentrations of Cd and Zn within the leaves of U. dioica and suggest that reasonably reproducible results can be obtained using these species for ecotoxicological testing.

  5. A study on possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plant as polonium (210)Po and lead (210)Pb contamination biomonitor in the area of phosphogypsum stockpile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Grzegorz; Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test a possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plant as a biomonitor of polonium (210)Po and lead (210)Pb contamination near phosphogypsum stacks by determining concentrations of these radionuclides in samples collected from the area of phosphogypsum stockpile in Wiślinka (northern Poland). The (210)Po and (210)Pb contents in roots depended on their concentrations in soils. Bioconcentration factor values from soil to root of the plant did not depend on (210)Po and (210)Pb contents in soils that leads to the conclusion that different polonium and lead species have different affinities to U. dioica plants. The main sources of both analyzed radionuclides in green parts of plants are wet and dry air deposition and transportation from soil. The values of (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratio indicate natural origin of these radioisotopes in analyzed plants. (210)Po and (210)Pb concentration in U. dioica roots is negatively weakly correlated with distance from phosphogypsum stockpile.

  6. [Biologically active compounds from the aqueous extract of Urtica dioica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H; Willer, F; Kreher, B

    1989-10-01

    From the water extract of the roots of Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) a polysaccharide fraction was isolated which revealed activity in the carrageenan rat paw edema model and lymphocyte transformation test. Ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration of this fraction afforded 4 different polysaccharides, one of which reduced dose dependent hemolysis in the classical pathway of the complement test. The Urtica dioica lectin (UDA) was reisolated and found to stimulate the proliferation of human lymphocytes.

  7. A study on possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plants as uranium (234U, 238U) contamination bioindicator near phosphogypsum stockpile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Grzegorz; Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    The aim of this study was to determine uranium concentrations in common nettle ( Urtica dioica ) plants and corresponding soils samples which were collected from the area of phosphogypsum stockpile in Wiślinka (northern Poland). The uranium concentrations in roots depended on its concentrations in soils. Calculated BCF and TF values showed that soils characteristics and air deposition affect uranium absorption and that different uranium species have different affinities to U . dioica plants. The values of 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio indicate natural origin of these radioisotopes in analyzed plants. Uranium concentration in plants roots is negatively weakly correlated with distance from phosphogypsum stockpile.

  8. A study on possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plants as uranium (234U, 238U) contamination bioindicator near phosphogypsum stockpile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, Grzegorz; Borylo, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine uranium concentrations in common nettle (Urtica dioica) plants and corresponding soils samples which were collected from the area of phosphogypsum stockpile in Wislinka (northern Poland). The uranium concentrations in roots depended on its concentrations in soils. Calculated BCF and TF values showed that soils characteristics and air deposition affect uranium absorption and that different uranium species have different affinities to U. dioica plants. The values of 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio indicate natural origin of these radioisotopes in analyzed plants. Uranium concentration in plants roots is negatively weakly correlated with distance from phosphogypsum stockpile. (author)

  9. Sex ratio variation and sex determination in Urtica dioica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glawe, Grit Anja

    2006-01-01

    This thesis will first document on variation in progeny sex ratios among individual female plants of Urtica dioica at our field site in Meijendel (Chapter 2). Next, we show that there is also considerable sex ratio variation among male and female flowering shoots in 26 natural populations studied

  10. Urtica dioica Induces Cytotoxicity in Human Prostate Carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the cytotoxic mechanisms of an extract from the leaves of the Urtica dioica (UD) plant in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Methods: LNCaP cells were exposed to the UD extract for 24hrs and cell viability assessed using the MTT assay. Reactive oxygen species generation was assessed using the NBT ...

  11. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Iris pseudacorus and Urtica dioica

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    Maryam Ramtin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, the effects of antibacterial activity of Urtica dioica and Iris pseudacorus essential oils, native plant northern of Iran, were investigated for some selected bacteria. Material and Methods: The influence of essential oils was tested by the using of disk diffusion and micro-broth dilution methods against standard strains of the picked out bacteria. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS analysis, bioactivity determination, Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of essential oils were utilized for this goal. Results: This study showed that, Inhibition zone diameter varied from 11 to 19 mm and 9 to 17 mm for Urtica dioica and Iris pseudacorus respectively. In contrast, this figure fluctuated from 19 to 28 mm and 7 to 17 mm for gentamicin and ampicillin separately. By the application of micro-broth dilution technique, MICs for 1% essential oils were 1.8-7.5 μg/ml and 3.75-15 μg/ml for, Urtica dioica and Iris pseudacorus against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria individually. Furthermore, the MBCs of herbal essences were 1.8-15 μg/ml for, Urtica dioica and 15-30 μg/ml for Iris. Conclusion: The application of essential oils for the bio-control of diseases, as a novel emerging alternative to antimicrobial treatments, lead to safer and more environmental management for infective diseases4T.4T

  12. Assessment of Antidermatophytic Activities of Urtica dioica L against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antidermatophytic effects of Urtica dioica L. against Microsporum canis in vitro and in a guinea pig model. Methods: The in vitro antifungal activity of the extracts was measured by disc diffusion method and assessment of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The dorsum of the guinea pigs was ...

  13. Lamium album or Urtica dioica? Which is more effective in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Diabetes mellitus, the most common endocrine disorder, is defined by hyperglycaemia. Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is known to have antidiabetic effects. Lamium album or non stinging nettle is shown to have some beneficial effects such as antioxidant, and cytoprotective properties. The purpose of this study ...

  14. Insulin mimetics in Urtica dioica: structural and computational analyses of Urtica dioica extracts.

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    Domola, Masoud Shabani; Vu, Vivian; Robson-Doucette, Christine A; Sweeney, Gary; Wheeler, Michael B

    2010-06-01

    Urtica Dioica (UD) is a plant shown to reduce blood glucose levels upon oral ingestion; however, neither its active component nor its mechanism of action has been identified. One active fraction of this extract, termed UD-1, was separated by molecular sieve column chromatography and purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). While UD-1 did not stimulate insulin secretion in glucose-responsive MIN6 clonal beta-cells, chronic exposure (24 h) significantly enhanced glucose uptake (approximately 1.5-fold) in L6-GLUT4myc myoblast cells. Using HPLC and MALDI-TOF, we further purified the UD-1 fraction into two fractions termed UD-1A and UD-1B. Computational and structural analyses strongly suggested that the antidiabetic component of UD-1 was due to one or more structurally related cyclical peptides that facilitate glucose uptake by forming unique glucose permeable pores. The structure and function of these glucose-conducting pores are discussed herein.

  15. Effects of Urtica dioica extract on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats.

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    Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Zamansoltani, Farzaneh; Abbasi, Esmail; Daneshi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Zangivand, Amir-Abdollah

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the effects of extract of Urtica dioica, a perennial herb in Iran, on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats. The effects of Urtica dioica extract were tested by using it as a supplement in a high-cholesterol diet. Male rats were fed a high cholesterol diet (10 mL/kg) for 4 weeks with Urtica dioica extract (100 or 300 mg/kg) or 10 mg/kg lovastatin supplementation to study the hypocholesterolemic effects of Urtica dioica on plasma lipid levels, hepatic enzymes activities, and liver histopathological changes. Urtica dioica extract at 100 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced the levels of total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and also markedly decreased liver enzymes and weight in animals with a high cholesterol diet. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that in the 100 mg/kg extract of Urtica dioica group, the appearance of the liver cells was similar to the control group, and steatosis and inflammation were not found. In the 300 mg/kg extract of Urtica dioica group, mild steatosis was observed but mononuclear inflammatory infiltration was not found. The hepatic histopathological results reflect the correlation of Urtica dioica extract with both liver weight and the levels of plasma TC and LDL-C. These results indicate that Urtica dioica extract has hypocholesterolemic effects in the animal model.

  16. Identification of phytosterins in Urtica dioica L. (overground part

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    G. P. Smoylovska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Long since Urtica dioica L. was used in folk medicine as vitamin and hemostatic agents. Nowadays hypotensive, diuretic, antitumoral effects of medicines obtained from plant based raw materials from Urtica were experimentally proved. Pharmacologic activity is due to vitamins K1 and C, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, carbonic acids, polysaccharides containing in the leaves of plant. Using underground organs of plant as antineoplastic drugs is connected with phytosterins accumulation. Studying composition and assessment of phytosterins in overground part of plant is urgent now. The aim of research is to identify components and to assess phytosterins content in leaves and herb of Urtica dioica L. in Ukrainian flora. Materials and Methods. For chromato-mass spectrometry leaves and herb gathered in blossoming period have been used. The samples have been extracted with methylene chloride in presence of tridecane inner standard, and then the samples have been concentrated and submitted to chromatography on chromatograph Agilent Technology 6890N. The components have been identified using register for mass spectra NIST02 and WILEY2007 in combination with identification programs AMDIS and NIST. Results and Discussion. In both types of raw materials from Urtica dioica L. it has been revealed identical compounds related to olefins, higher aliphatic carbohydrates, phytosterins and so on. The total amount of biologically active substances extracted from the leaves is 529.76 mg/kg, from herbs it is 516.91 mg/kg. Untriacontane, nonocosane and trans-neophytadiene were predominant. Phytosterins stigmas-3,5,7-triene, campesterol, β-sitosterol presented in leaves 16.14 mg/kg, in herb they presented 15.42 mg/kg, that forms 3% approximately Conclusions. Composition and amount of phytosterins containing in leaves and herb of Urtica dioica L. study has been performed by chromate-mass-spectrometry. As a result three compounds of steroid nature have been identified

  17. Evaluation of a root extract gel from Urtica dioica (Urticaceae) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and characterize an herbal gel prepared from methanol root extract of Urtica dioica (Urticaceae) (Stinging nettle) for the treatment of arthritis in mice. Methods: A methanol root extract from Urtica dioica was prepared, and a gel was then prepared using Carbopol 934. The prepared gel was subjected to ...

  18. Food-chain transfer of zinc from contaminated Urtica dioica and Acer pseudoplatanus L. to the aphids Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis Schrank

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    Sinnett, Danielle, E-mail: danielle.sinnett@forestry.gsi.gov.u [Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Hutchings, Tony R., E-mail: tony.hutchings@forestry.gsi.gov.u [Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E., E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.u [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    This study examines the food-chain transfer of Zn from two plant species, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple), into their corresponding aphid species, Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis. The plants were grown in a hydroponic system using solutions with increasing concentrations of Zn from 0.02 to 41.9 mg Zn/l. Above-ground tissue concentrations in U. dioica and M. carnosum increased with increasing Zn exposure (p < 0.001). Zn concentrations in A. pseudoplatanus also increased with solution concentration from the control to the 9.8 mg Zn/l solution, above which concentrations remained constant. Zn concentrations in both D. platanoidis and the phloem tissue of A. pseudoplatanus were not affected by the Zn concentration in the watering solution. It appears that A. pseudoplatanus was able to limit Zn transport in the phloem, resulting in constant Zn exposure to the aphids. Zn concentrations in D. platanoidis were around three times those in M. carnosum. - Concentrations of Zn in two aphid species are dependant on species and exposure.

  19. Food-chain transfer of zinc from contaminated Urtica dioica and Acer pseudoplatanus L. to the aphids Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis Schrank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnett, Danielle; Hutchings, Tony R.; Hodson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the food-chain transfer of Zn from two plant species, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple), into their corresponding aphid species, Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis. The plants were grown in a hydroponic system using solutions with increasing concentrations of Zn from 0.02 to 41.9 mg Zn/l. Above-ground tissue concentrations in U. dioica and M. carnosum increased with increasing Zn exposure (p < 0.001). Zn concentrations in A. pseudoplatanus also increased with solution concentration from the control to the 9.8 mg Zn/l solution, above which concentrations remained constant. Zn concentrations in both D. platanoidis and the phloem tissue of A. pseudoplatanus were not affected by the Zn concentration in the watering solution. It appears that A. pseudoplatanus was able to limit Zn transport in the phloem, resulting in constant Zn exposure to the aphids. Zn concentrations in D. platanoidis were around three times those in M. carnosum. - Concentrations of Zn in two aphid species are dependant on species and exposure.

  20. Proměnlivost druhu Urtica dioica na území ČR

    OpenAIRE

    Rejlová, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    The genus Urtica L. is represented by three species occurring in the area of the Czech Republic. The most common Urtica dioica L. represents a highly variable group with number of intraspecific taxa. The most common source of variability in Urtica dioica is probably polyploidy (min. 2 ploidy levels - 2x and 4x). Another source of the variation in this species is dioecy. A small percentage of individuals in dioecious populations are actually monoecious. The study of these individuals can poten...

  1. Antihypoxic activities of Eryngium caucasicum and Urtica dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, M; Dehdar, T; Hamedi, F; Ebrahimzadeh, M A; Karami, M

    2015-09-01

    Urtica dioica and Eryngium spp. have been used in traditional medicine for many years. In spite of many works, nothing is known about their protective effect against hypoxia-induced lethality. Protective effects of U. dioica (UD) aerial parts and E. caucasicum (EC) inflorescence against hypoxia-induced lethality in mice were evaluated by three experimental models of hypoxia, asphyctic, haemic and circulatory. Statistically significant protective activities were established in some doses of extracts in three models. Antihypoxic activity was especially pronounced in polyphenol fractions in asphyctic model. EC polyphenol fraction at 400 mg/kg prolonged survival time (48.80 ± 4.86, p 0.05). It was the most effective extract in circulatory model, too. It prolonged survival time significantly respect to control group (p < 0.001). UD extracts protected the mice but the response was not dose-dependent. In haemic model, extracts of EP significantly and dose dependently prolonged survival time as compared to control group (p < 0.001). At 600 mg/kg, EP was the most effective one, being capable of keeping the mice alive for 12.71 ± 0.75 min. Only the concentration of 300 mg/kg of UD was effective (p < 0.001). Extracts showed remarkable antihypoxic effects. Pharmacological effects may be attributed to the presence of polyphenols in the extracts.

  2. Urtica dioica extract attenuates depressive like behavior and associative memory dysfunction in dexamethasone induced diabetic mice.

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    Patel, Sita Sharan; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2014-03-01

    Evidences suggest that glucocorticoids results in depression and is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Further diabetes induces oxidative stress and hippocampal dysfunction resulting in cognitive decline. Traditionally Urtica dioica has been used for diabetes mellitus and cognitive dysfunction. The present study investigated the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) in dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.m.) induced diabetes and its associated complications such as depressive like behavior and cognitive dysfunction. We observed that mice administered with chronic dexamethasone resulted in hypercortisolemia, oxidative stress, depressive like behavior, cognitive impairment, hyperglycemia with reduced body weight, increased water intake and decreased hippocampal glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) mRNA expression. Urtica dioica significantly reduced hyperglycemia, plasma corticosterone, oxidative stress and depressive like behavior as well as improved associative memory and hippocampal GLUT4 mRNA expression comparable to rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, p.o.). Further, Urtica dioica insignificantly improved spatial memory and serum insulin. In conclusion, Urtica dioica reversed dexamethasone induced hyperglycemia and its associated complications such as depressive like behavior and cognitive dysfunction.

  3. Urtica dioica for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

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    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza

    2005-01-01

    To determine the effects of therapy with Urtica dioica for symptomatic relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, partial crossover, comparative trial of Urtica dioica with placebo in 620 patients was conducted. Patients were evaluated using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), postvoid residual urine volume (PVR), Serum Prostatic- Specific Antigen (PSA), testosterone levels, and prostate size. At the end of 6-month trial, unblinding revealed that patients who initially received the placebo were switched to Urtica dioica. Both groups continued the medication up to 18 months. 558 patients (90%) completed the study (287/305, 91% in the Urtica dioica group, and 271/315, 86% in the placebo group). By intention- to-treat analysis, at the end of 6-month trial, 232 (81%) of 287 patients in the Urtica dioica group reported improved LUTS compared with 43 (16%) of 271 patients in the placebo group (P Urtica dioica and from 19.2 to 17.7 with placebo (P = 0.002). Peak flow rates improved by 3.4 mL/s for placebo recipients and by 8.2 mL/s for treated patients (P Urtica dioica group, PVR decreased from an initial value of 73 to 36 mL (P Urtica dioica group (from 40.1 cc initially to 36.3 cc; P Urtica dioica have beneficial effects in the treatment of symptomatic BPH. Further clinical trials should be conducted to confirm these results before concluding that Urtica dioica is effective.

  4. Urtica dioica pollen allergy: Clinical, biological, and allergomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiotiu, Angelica; Brazdova, Andrea; Longé, Cyril; Gallet, Patrice; Morisset, Martine; Leduc, Virginie; Hilger, Christiane; Broussard, Cédric; Couderc, Rémy; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Sénéchal, Hélène; Poncet, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    The most emblematic members of Urticaceae at allergic risk level are wall pellitories (Parietaria), whereas nettle (Urtica) pollen is considered as poorly allergenic. No allergen from nettle pollen has yet been characterized, whereas 4 are listed for Parietaria pollen by the International Union of Immunological Societies. Clinical and biological profiles of 2 adult men who developed symptoms against nettle pollen and/or leaves were studied. To characterize the allergic reaction and identify the potential nettle pollen sensitizing allergens. IgE-mediated reaction to nettle pollen extract was evaluated by skin prick test, immunoassay, nasal provocation, and basophil activation test. To characterize specific nettle pollen allergens, an allergomic (IgE immunoproteomic) analysis was performed combining 1- and 2-dimensional electrophoresis, IgE immunoblots of nettle pollen extract, identification of allergens by mass spectrometry, and database queries. The results of biological and immunochemical analyses revealed that the allergic rhinitis was due to Urtica dioica pollen in both patients. The allergomic analysis of nettle pollen extract allowed the characterization of 4 basic protein allergens: a thaumatin-like protein (osmotin) with a relative molecular mass of 27 to 29 kDa, a pectinesterase (relative molecular mass, 40 kDa), and 2 other basic proteins with relative molecular masses of 14 to 16 kDa and 43 kDa. There is no or only very weak allergen associations between pellitory and nettle pollen. Exposure to nettle pollen can be responsible of allergic symptoms, and several allergens were characterized. Unravelling the allergens of this underestimated allergy might help to improve diagnosis and care for patients, to predict cross-reactivities and design adapted specific immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanisms underlying the antihypertensive properties of Urtica dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, Rahila; Qamar, Hafiz Misbah-Ud-Din; Khan, Shamim; Salma, Umme; Khan, Taous; Shah, Abdul Jabbar

    2016-09-01

    Urtica dioica has traditionally been used in the management of cardiovascular disorders especially hypertension. The aim of this study was to explore pharmacological base of its use in hypertension. Crude methanolic extract of U. dioica (Ud.Cr) and its fractions (Ud.EtAc, Ud.nHex, Ud.Chl and Ud.Aq) were tested in vivo on normotensive and hypertensive rats under anesthesia for blood pressure lowering effect. In-vitro experiments on rat and rabbit aortae were employed to probe the vasorelaxation mechanism(s). The responses were measured using pressure and force transducers connected to PowerLab Data Acquisition System. Ud.Cr and fractions were found more effective antihypertensive in hypertensive rats than normotensive with remarkable potency exhibited by the ethyl acetate fraction. The effect was same in the presence of atropine. In isolated rat aortic rings, Ud.Cr and all its fractions exhibited L-NAME sensitive endothelium-dependent vasodilator effect and also inhibit K(+) (80 mM)-induced pre-contractions. In isolated rabbit thoracic aortic rings Ud.Cr and its fractions induced relaxation with more potency against K(+) (80 mM) than phenylephrine (1 µM) like verapamil, showing Ud.EtAc fraction the most potent one. Pre-incubation of aortic rings with Ud.Cr and its fractions exhibited Ca(2+) channel blocking activity comparable with verapamil by shifting Ca(2+) concentration response curves to the right. Ud.Cr and its fractions also ablated the intracellular Ca(2+) release by suppressing PE peak formation in Ca(2+) free medium. When tested on basal tension, the crude extract and all fractions were devoid of any vasoconstrictor effect. These data indicate that crude methanolic extract and its fractions possess antihypertensive effect. Identification of NO-mediated vasorelaxation and calcium channel blocking effects explain the antihypertensive potential of U. dioica and provide a potential pharmacological base to its medicinal use in the management of hypertension.

  6. Urtica dioica Effect on Malonyl-CoA Decarboxylase

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    Qujeq

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD, EC.4.1.1.9 enzyme regulates malonyl-CoA levels. The effect of aerial parts extracts of Urtica dioica (UD on MCD is poorly understood. Objectives The present experiment was undertaken to evaluate the effect of UD aerial parts extracts on MCD level. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, two groups of rats were used: normal and hyperglycemic group. Then UD aerial parts extracts (5 mg /500 µL administrated to the hyperglycemic group of rats and finally, the MCD and insulin levels were measured in both groups. Results Interestingly, we observed that the UD aerial parts extracts powder caused a significant (P < 0.05 increase in insulin level during the experiment, from the base level of 0.36 ± 0.07 μg/L to the peak value of 0.52 ± 0.15 μg/L. Also, it caused a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in MCD level, from the base level of 29.68 ±1.29 pg/mL to the bottom value of 22.12 ± 2.41 pg/mL. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that UD aerial part extracts would decrease MCD level in hyperglycemic rats.

  7. Urticaria due to Urtica dioica in a neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, Sinan; Bulbul, Ali; Diler, Betul; Bas, Evrim Kiray; Nuhoglu, Asiye

    2011-03-01

    Urticaria is one of the most common dermatoses during the childhood, but it is very rare in the neonates. A 17-day-old infant with a generalized urticaria was admitted to our pediatric emergency unit. The mother of the infant reported having applied water boiled with stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) onto her nipples twice a day (before and after each breastfeeding) for 2 days in order to heal her nipple cracks. Serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgE levels for stinging nettle were high in the infant and the mother. The rashes began to regress within the first day of the hospitalization and disappeared completely on the second day without treatment. The skin prick test with the water boiled with stinging nettle was positive for the infant with significant induration, but not for the mother. Conclusion Reporting the first urticaria case in newborns due to stinging nettle, the authors suggest that breastfeeding mothers should always consult a physician before using skincare products.

  8. [Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.)--botanical characteristics, biochemical composition and health benefits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubczyk, Karolina; Janda, Katarzyna; Szkyrpan, Sylwia; Gutowska, Izabela; Wolska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) belongs to the family Urticaceae. It grows in the wild form in Asia, Europe, North America and North Africa. Stinging nettle is also a widespread ruderal plant found in Poland. Urtica dioica L., as a plant rich in biologically active compounds, is considered one of the most important plants used in phytotherapy. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated its antioxidant, antiplatelet, hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolemic properties. Research conducted in recent years indicates the possibility of using nettle in chemoprevention, diabetes, benign prostatic hyperplasia and urologic diseases.

  9. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarresi-Chahardehi, Amir; Ibrahim, Darah; Fariza-Sulaiman, Shaida; Mousavi, Leila

    2012-12-01

    Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is traditionally used as an herbal medicine in Western Asia. The current study represents the investigation of antimicrobial activity of U. dioica from nine crude extracts that were prepared using different organic solvents, obtained from two extraction methods: the Soxhlet extractor (Method I), which included the use of four solvents with ethyl acetate and hexane, or the sequential partitions (Method II) with a five solvent system (butanol). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude extracts were tested against 28 bacteria, three yeast strains and seven fungal isolates by the disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Amoxicillin was used as positive control for bacteria strains, vancomycin for Streptococcus sp., miconazole nitrate (30 microg/mL) as positive control for fungi and yeast, and pure methanol (v/v) as negative control. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, whilst the broth dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC). The ethyl acetate and hexane extract from extraction method I (EA I and HE I) exhibited highest inhibition against some pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, MRSA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A selection of extracts that showed some activity was further tested for the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC). MIC values of Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using butanol extract of extraction method II (BE II) were 8.33 and 16.33mg/mL, respectively; while the MIC value using ethyl acetate extract of extraction method II (EAE II) for Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 0.13mg/mL. Our study showed that 47.06% of extracts inhibited Gram-negative (8 out of 17), and 63.63% of extracts also inhibited Gram-positive bacteria (7 out of 11); besides, statistically the frequency of antimicrobial activity was 13.45% (35 out of 342) which in this among 21.71% belongs to

  10. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Modarresi-Chahardehi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is traditionally used as an herbal medicine in Western Asia. The current study represents the investigation of antimicrobial activity of U. dioica from nine crude extracts that were prepared using different organic solvents, obtained from two extraction methods: the Soxhlet extractor (Method I, which included the use of four solvents with ethyl acetate and hexane, or the sequential partitions (Method II with a five solvent system (butanol. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude extracts were tested against 28 bacteria, three yeast strains and seven fungal isolates by the disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Amoxicillin was used as positive control for bacteria strains, vancomycin for Streptococcus sp., miconazole nitrate (30µg/mL as positive control for fungi and yeast, and pure methanol (v/v as negative control. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, whilst the broth dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC. The ethyl acetate and hexane extract from extraction method I (EA I and HE I exhibited highest inhibition against some pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, MRSA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A selection of extracts that showed some activity was further tested for the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC. MIC values of Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA using butanol extract of extraction method II (BE II were 8.33 and 16.33mg/mL, respectively; while the MIC value using ethyl acetate extract of extraction method II (EAE II for Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 0.13mg/mL. Our study showed that 47.06% of extracts inhibited Gram-negative (8 out of 17, and 63.63% of extracts also inhibited Gram-positive bacteria (7 out of 11; besides, statistically the frequency of antimicrobial activity was 13.45% (35 out of 342 which in this among 21.71% belongs to

  11. MODELLING OF THIN LAYER SOLAR DRYING KINETICS AND EFFECTIVE DIFFUSIVITY OF Urtica dioica LEAVES

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    A. LAMHARRAR

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Urtica dioica is an endemic plant of Morocco used for its virtues in traditional medicine. The drying kinetics of Urtica dioica leaves in a convective solar dryer was studied. The kinetics of drying is studied for three temperatures (40, 50 and 60 °C, ambient air temperature ranged from 30 to 35 °C. The experimental results are used to determine the characteristic drying curve. Nine mathematical models have been used for the description of the drying curve. The Midilli-Kuck model was found to be the most suitable for describing the drying curves of Urtica dioica leaves. The drying parameters in this model were quantified as a function of the drying air temperature. Moisture transfer from Urtica dioica leaves was described by applying the Fick’s diffusion model. Effective moisture diffusivity of the product was in the range of 9.38 – 72.92×10-11 m2/s. A value of 88,49 kJ/mol was determined as activation energy.

  12. Effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia‐reperfusion injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandis, Hayati; Karapolat, Sami; Yildirim, Umran; Saritas, Ayhan; Gezer, Suat; Memisogullari, Ramazan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia‐reperfusion injury. METHODS: Thirty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham group (group 1), control group (group 2), and Urtica dioica group (group 3). All the rats were exposed to hepatic ischemia for 60 min, followed by 60 min of reperfusion. In group 2, a total of 2 ml/kg 0.9% saline solution was given intraperitoneally. In group 3, a total of 2 ml/kg Urtica dioica was given intraperitoneally. At the end of the procedure, liver tissue and blood samples were taken from all rats. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, ceruloplasmin, catalase, paraoxonase, arylesterase, and lipid hydroperoxide levels were measured. Liver tissue histopathologies were also evaluated by light microscopy. RESULTS: Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1, and significantly lower in group 3 than in group 2. Also, group 2 had higher serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels but lower catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels than group 1. In group 3, serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels were significantly lower, and catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels were higher than those in group 2. Histopathological examination showed that liver tissue damage was significantly decreased in group 3 compared with group 2. CONCLUSIONS: Urtica dioica has a protective effect on the liver in hepatic ischemia‐reperfusion‐injured rats. PMID:21340227

  13. Effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandis, Hayati; Karapolat, Sami; Yildirim, Umran; Saritas, Ayhan; Gezer, Suat; Memisogullari, Ramazan

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thirty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham group (group 1), control group (group 2), and Urtica dioica group (group 3). All the rats were exposed to hepatic ischemia for 60 min, followed by 60 min of reperfusion. In group 2, a total of 2 ml/kg 0.9% saline solution was given intraperitoneally. In group 3, a total of 2 ml/kg Urtica dioica was given intraperitoneally. At the end of the procedure, liver tissue and blood samples were taken from all rats. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, ceruloplasmin, catalase, paraoxonase, arylesterase, and lipid hydroperoxide levels were measured. Liver tissue histopathologies were also evaluated by light microscopy. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1, and significantly lower in group 3 than in group 2. Also, group 2 had higher serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels but lower catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels than group 1. In group 3, serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels were significantly lower, and catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels were higher than those in group 2. Histopathological examination showed that liver tissue damage was significantly decreased in group 3 compared with group 2. Urtica dioica has a protective effect on the liver in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion-injured rats.

  14. The efficacy and safety of Urtica dioica in treating Benign Prostatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Conclusion: This meta-analysis indicates that Urtica dioica to be an effective and ... and no significant adverse effects have been reported by patients after taking ... risk for dichotomous outcomes and the standardized mean difference (SMD) for .... of sex hormone-binding globulin to its receptor on prostate cell membranes ...

  15. Gynaecomastia in a man and hyperoestrogenism in a woman due to ingestion of nettle (Urtica dioica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Hamiyet; Gursoy, Alptekin; Demirel, Asli Nar; Tutuncu, Neslihan Bascil; Guvener, Nilgun Demirag

    2007-11-09

    Nettle (Urtica dioica) is commonly sold as a herbal tea in Turkey. We report a case of gynaecomastia in a man (in which the only aetiologic factor identified was nettle tea consumption) and a case of galactorrhoea in a woman (in which the only aetiologic factor identified was also nettle tea ingestion).

  16. Protective role of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) extract on hepatocytes morphometric changes in STZ diabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Ghafari, Soraya; Afshar, Mohammad

    2010-09-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on the quantitative morphometric changes in the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into control (G1), diabetic (G2), diabetic + Urtica dioica (G3) groups. The control group received only sham injections of intraperitoneal saline; the diabetic group received intraperitoneal saline for 5 days followed by streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) on the 6th day; and the diabetic + Urtica dioica group received 100 mg/kg Urtica dioica intraperitoneal (7) injections for 5 days and streptozotocin injection on the 6th day. After five weeks, the animals were sacrificed and whole livers removed. Liver specimens were used for quantitative morphometric analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining. All data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and expressed as the mean with standard error of means. In the G3 (diabetic + Urtica diocia) group, the mean surface area of hepatocytes in the periportal zone (Z1) was greater than in G2 (diabetic) and G1 (control) groups, but this difference was not significant. No alteration was observed in the surface area of hepatocytes in the perivenous zone (Z3) in the diabetic + Urtica dioica (G3) group compared to the diabetic (G2) group. The mean nuclear area of hepatocytes of the rats in the diabetic + Urtica dioica (G3) group was higher in Z1 and lower in Z3 than that of rats in the diabetic (G2) group. The mean diameter of hepatocyte nuclei in the diabetic + Urtica dioica (G3) group was lower than that of diabetic (G2) and control (G1) groups in both Z1 and Z3. This study revealed that the administration of extract of Urtica dioica leaves before induction of diabetic with streptozotocin has a protective effect on the morphometric alterations of hepatocytes in the periportal and perivenous zones of the liver lobule in rats.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehzadeh, Ali; Asadpour, Leila; Naeemi, Akram Sadat; Houshmand, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Increase in the emergence of drug -resistant pathogens led to the development of natural antimicrobials. In this study the antimicrobial effect of methanolic extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica on 16 skin and wound infections isolates of methicillin resistant S. aureus have been studied. Solvent extraction procedure was done using soxhlet apparatus for extracting antimicrobial agents from freeze dried plants. Antibacterial activity was measured using agar well diffusion method. The MIC of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica extracts against the standard strain of S. aureus ATCC 6538 were determined using the micro dilution method at 15 mg and 20 mg respectively. All the test bacteria were found sensitive to the Sambucus ebulus extract and only one isolate was resistant to Urtica dioica extract. Extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica possess antibacterial potency against MRSA isolates and may be used as a natural antiseptics and antimicrobial agents in medicine.

  18. The Urtica dioica extract enhances sensitivity of paclitaxel drug to MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Mansoori, Behzad; Aghapour, Mahyar; Shirjang, Solmaz; Nami, Sanam; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-10-01

    Due to the chemo resistant nature of cancer cells and adverse effects of current therapies, researchers are looking for the most efficient therapeutic approach which has the lowest side effects and the highest toxicity on cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the synergic effect of Urtica dioica extract in combination with paclitaxel on cell death and invasion of human breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cell line. To determine the cytotoxic effects of Urtica dioica extract with paclitaxel, MTT assay was performed. The scratch test was exploited to assess the effects of Urtica dioica, Paclitaxel alone and combination on migration of cancer cells. The expression levels of snail-1, ZEB1, ZEB2, twist, Cdc2, cyclin B1 and Wee1 genes were quantified using qRT-PCR and western blot performed for snail-1expression. The effects of plant extract, Paclitaxel alone and combination on different phases of cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometry. Results of MTT assay showed that Urtica dioica significantly destroyed cancer cells. Interestingly, Concurrent use of Urtica dioica extract with paclitaxel resulted in decreased IC50 dose of paclitaxel. Moreover, findings of scratch assay exhibited the inhibitory effects of Urtica dioica, Paclitaxel alone and combination on migration of MDA-MB-468 cell line. Our findings also demonstrated that the extract substantially decreased the Snail-1 and related gene expression. Ultimately, Cell cycle arrest occurred at G2/M phase post-treatment by deregulating Cdc2 and wee1. Our results demonstrated that the dichloromethane extract of Urtica dioica inhibit cell growth and migration. Also, Urtica dioica extract substantially increased sensitivity of breast cancer cells to paclitaxel. Therefore, it can be used as a potential candidate for treatment of breast cancer with paclitaxel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. AROMA PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM ROOT, LEAF AND STALK OF NETTLE (Urtica dioica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Razzagh Mahmoudi; Kiumars Amini; Omid Fakhri; Mahsa Alem

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plant can be considered as a great source of new antimicrobial agents due to their enormous therapeutic potential and limited side effects. Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a widespread and common medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine. The present study investigates the antimicrobial potency of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Urtica dioica on some gram positive and negative bacteria and also a particular type of fungi and analyzes the extracts to find the active ingredie...

  20. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Modarresi-Chahardehi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is traditionally used as an herbal medicine in Western Asia. The current study represents the investigation of antimicrobial activity of U. dioica from nine crude extracts that were prepared using different organic solvents, obtained from two extraction methods: the Soxhlet extractor (Method I, which included the use of four solvents with ethyl acetate and hexane, or the sequential partitions (Method II with a five solvent system (butanol. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude extracts were tested against 28 bacteria, three yeast strains and seven fungal isolates by the disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Amoxicillin was used as positive control for bacteria strains, vancomycin for Streptococcus sp., miconazole nitrate (30µg/mL as positive control for fungi and yeast, and pure methanol (v/v as negative control. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, whilst the broth dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC. The ethyl acetate and hexane extract from extraction method I (EA I and HE I exhibited highest inhibition against some pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, MRSA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A selection of extracts that showed some activity was further tested for the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC. MIC values of Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA using butanol extract of extraction method II (BE II were 8.33 and 16.33mg/mL, respectively; while the MIC value using ethyl acetate extract of extraction method II (EAE II for Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 0.13mg/mL. Our study showed that 47.06% of extracts inhibited Gram-negative (8 out of 17, and 63.63% of extracts also inhibited Gram-positive bacteria (7 out of 11; besides, statistically the frequency of antimicrobial activity was 13.45% (35 out of 342 which in this among 21.71% belongs to

  1. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

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    Wafa Siouda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of nettle Urtica dioica (UD against Hg-induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 rats were equally divided into four groups: the control, the Hg (0.8 g HgCl2/kg in the diet, the UD (1.5 ml UD/rat by gavage, and the Hg+UD group. HgCl2 was daily dissolved in distilled water and immediately mixed with the standard diet. A solution of daily infused fresh nettle leaves in boiling water (16 g in 25 ml was obtained and then it was administrated by gavage. Biochemical and reproductive markers, in addition to glutathione (GSH level (liver, kidney and testis and the histological profiles (testis and epididymis were evaluated after 1 month exposure. Results: Compared to the control, the levels of glucose, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were significantly raised in the Hg group. In the latter group, the concentrations of Mg, Fe, and Ca were significantly decreased. Besides, Hg+UD group has only showed raised AST activity and reduced Mg level. Concerning the fertility markers, Hg has provoked a significant decrease in the spermatozoa’s concentration and motility and in plasma testosterone level as well. Furthermore, hepatic, renal and testicular GSH concentrations have declined significantly in the Hg treated rat compared to the control. A remarkable enhancement of the GSH level was observed in all organs of the UD group. The histological examinations of the Hg group have revealed marked testicular degeneration of the most seminiferous tubules, and showed few sperms in the lumen of epididymis ducts. However, the Hg+UD rats have demonstrated an improved histological structure with the presence of important numbers of sperms in the lumen. In addition, a clear stabilization of organized seminiferous tubules and an increased sperms’ numbers were noted in the UD

  2. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siouda, Wafa; Abdennour, Cherif

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of nettle Urtica dioica (UD) against Hg-induced toxicity. A total of 28 rats were equally divided into four groups: the control, the Hg (0.8 g HgCl2/kg in the diet), the UD (1.5 ml UD/rat by gavage), and the Hg+UD group. HgCl2 was daily dissolved in distilled water and immediately mixed with the standard diet. A solution of daily infused fresh nettle leaves in boiling water (16 g in 25 ml) was obtained and then it was administrated by gavage. Biochemical and reproductive markers, in addition to glutathione (GSH) level (liver, kidney and testis) and the histological profiles (testis and epididymis) were evaluated after 1 month exposure. Compared to the control, the levels of glucose, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly raised in the Hg group. In the latter group, the concentrations of Mg, Fe, and Ca were significantly decreased. Besides, Hg+UD group has only showed raised AST activity and reduced Mg level. Concerning the fertility markers, Hg has provoked a significant decrease in the spermatozoa's concentration and motility and in plasma testosterone level as well. Furthermore, hepatic, renal and testicular GSH concentrations have declined significantly in the Hg treated rat compared to the control. A remarkable enhancement of the GSH level was observed in all organs of the UD group. The histological examinations of the Hg group have revealed marked testicular degeneration of the most seminiferous tubules, and showed few sperms in the lumen of epididymis ducts. However, the Hg+UD rats have demonstrated an improved histological structure with the presence of important numbers of sperms in the lumen. In addition, a clear stabilization of organized seminiferous tubules and an increased sperms' numbers were noted in the UD supplemented rats. Nettle leaves have not only played a clear

  3. Urtica dioica extract suppresses miR-21 and metastasis-related genes in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoori, Behzad; Mohammadi, Ali; Hashemzadeh, Shahriar; Shirjang, Solmaz; Baradaran, Ali; Asadi, Milad; Doustvandi, Mohammad Amin; Baradaran, Behzad

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer has a high prevalence among women worldwide. Tumor invasion and metastasis still remains an open issue that causes most of the therapeutic failures and remains the prime cause of patient mortality. Hence, there is an unmet need to develop the most effective therapeutic approach with the lowest side effects and highest cytotoxicity that will effectively arrest or eradicate metastasis. An MTT assay and scratch test were used to assess the cytotoxicity and migration effects of Urtica dioica on the breast cancer cells. The QRT-PCR was used to study the expression levels of miR-21, MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, CXCR4, vimentin, and E-cadherin. The results of gene expression in tumoral groups confirmed the overexpression of miR-21, MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, vimentin, and CXCR4, and the lower expression of E-cadherin compared to control groups (PUrtica dioica significantly inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, findings from the scratch assay exhibited the inhibitory effects of Urtica dioica on the migration of breast cancer cell lines. Urtica dioica extract could inhibit cancer cell migration by regulating miR-21, MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, vimentin, CXCR4, and E-Cadherin. Moreover, our findings demonstrated that the extract could decrease miR-21 expression, which substantially lessens the overexpressed MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, vimentin, and CXCR4 and increases E-cadherin in the tumoral group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) on testicular tissue in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafari, S; Balajadeh, B Kabiri; Golalipour, M J

    2011-08-15

    Urtica dioica L. (Stinging nettle) has already been known for a long time as a medicinal plant in the world. This histopathological and morphometrical study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on testis of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Eighteen male Wistar rats were allocated to equally normal, diabetic and treatment groups. Hyperglycemia was induced by Streptozotocin (80 mg kg(-1)) in animals of diabetic and treatment groups. One week after STZ injection (80 mg kg(-1)), the rats of treatment group received the extract of U. dioica (100 mg/kg/day) IP for 28 days. After 5 weeks of study, all the rats were sacrificed and testes were removed and fixed in bouin and after tissue processing stained with H and E technique. Tubular cell disintegration, sertoli and spermatogonia cell vacuolization and decrease in sperm concentration in seminiferous tubules were seen in diabetic and treatment groups group in comparison with control. External Seminiferous Tubular Diameter (STD) and Seminiferous Epithelial Height (SEH) significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in the diabetic rats compared with controls and these parameters in the treatment group were similar to diabetics animals. This study showed that hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves, after induction of diabetes; has no treatment effect on seminiferous tubules alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  5. Protective Effect of Urtica dioica on Liver Injury Induced By Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats

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    Alpaslan TERZİ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to investigate the effects of Urtica dioica on liverischemia reperfusion injury in rats. Methods: Thirty male Wistar-albino rats were used in this experimental study. Animals weredivided into three groups as sham operated (group 1, control (group 2, and Urtica dioicatreatment group (group 3. Urtica dioica 2ml/kg were administered intraperitoneally beforeischemia and immediately after the reperfusion. The levels of total antioxidant capacity, totalfree sulfidril group, Total oxidant status, Oxidative stress index, and myeloperoxidase in livertissues were measured. The serum levels of ALT, AST and LDH were also measuredResults: Total antioxidant capacity and total free sulfidril group in liver tissue were significantlyhigher in group 3 than in group 2. Oxidative stress index and myeloperoxidase in liver tissuewere significantly lower in group 3 than the group 2. The levels of liver enzymes in treatmentgroup were significantly lower than those in the control group. Histological tissue damage wasmilder in the treatment group than that in the control group.Conclusion: It is concluded that Urtica dioica increase the antioxidant capacity and decreaseoxidative stress and liver enzymes in the hepatic ischemi reperfusion injury of rats.

  6. Effects of Acute Administration of Urtica dioica on the Novel Object-Recognition Task in Mice

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    Hashemi-Firouzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Urtica dioica (nettle has a variety of uses in traditional medicine for the treatment of certain urogenital problems, gastrointestinal disorders, and diabetes. Objectives Recent studies have implicated the effect of U. dioica on brain functions such as pain and memory. However, there is no direct evidence of the acute effects of this plant on cognition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of U. dioica aqueous extract on the novel object-recognition task (NOR in mice. Materials and Methods First, U. dioica aqueous extract was prepared, then adult male mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups. During the training session, the mice were placed in a box and given 5 minutes to explore two identical objects. The next day, they were again placed in the box and allowed to explore one familiar and one novel object. They received intraperitoneal injections of saline or U. dioica aqueous extract (100 mg/kg before or immediately after the training session or before the test session of the NOR task. Results The results showed that there was a preference for the novel object compared to the familiar one in each of the experimental groups. The object-recognition discrimination index in the group of mice that received U. dioica before training was significantly less than in the other experimental groups. There was no significant difference in the discrimination index between the other groups. U. dioica did not decrease the time spent exploring familiar and unfamiliar objects, or the total time spent exploring both objects. Conclusions Acute administration of U. dioica impairs the object-recognition task if it is used only before the training session. This may be due to its modulation on the acquisition processing of object-recognition. U. dioica has no significant effects on the consolidation or retrieval processing stages of the NOR task. These results emphasize the unfavorable effect on cognitive function of pre

  7. The Urtica dioica Agglutinin Is a Complex Mixture of Isolectins 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Els J. M.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Peumans, Willy J.

    1988-01-01

    Rhizomes of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) contain a complex mixture of isolectins. Ion exchange chromatography with a high resolution fast protein liquid chromatography system revealed six isoforms which exhibit identical agglutination properties and carbohydrate-binding specificity and in addition have the same molecular structure and virtually identical biochemical properties. However, since the U. dioica agglutinin isolectins differ definitely with respect to their amino acid composition, it is likely that at least some of them are different polypeptides coded for by different genes. Images Fig. 3 PMID:16665952

  8. Antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer cells by a stinging nettle root (Urtica dioica) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, L; Müller, H H; Lenz, C; Laubinger, H; Aumüller, G; Lichius, J J

    2000-02-01

    In the present study the activity of a 20% methanolic extract of stinging nettle roots (Urtica dioica L., Urticaceae) on the proliferative activity of human prostatic epithelial (LNCaP) and stromal (hPCPs) cells was evaluated using a colorimetric assay. A concentration-dependent and significant (p nettle roots observed both in an in vivo model and in an in vitro system clearly indicates a biologically relevant effect of compounds present in the extract.

  9. The inhibiting effects of Urtica dioica root extracts on experimentally induced prostatic hyperplasia in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichius, J J; Muth, C

    1997-08-01

    Extracts of stinging nettle roots (Urtica dioica L. Urticaceae) are used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We established a BPH-model by directly implanting an urogenital sinus (UGS) into the ventral prostate gland of an adult mouse. Five differently prepared stinging nettle root extracts were tested in this model. The 20% methanolic extract was the most effective with a 51.4% inhibition of induced growth.

  10. Inhibitory effects of Urtica dioica L. root on electrophysiological properties of isolated rabbit atrioventricular node

    OpenAIRE

    A. Enayati; V. Khori*; M. Azadbakhat; M. Zahedi

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: The ideal drug for treatment of a wide range of supraventricular arrhythmia hasn't yet been developed. Previous studies have shown antihypertensive and negative inotropic effects of the Urtica dioica L. (nettle). Therefore, the aim of present study is to determine the rate dependent inhibitory effects of ethanol extract of nettle root and investigate the role of adrenoceptors in the anti-arrhythmic mechanism of nettle on the isolated rabbit atrio-ventricular node. M...

  11. Urtica dioica dichloromethane extract induce apoptosis from intrinsic pathway on human prostate cancer cells (PC3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A; Mansoori, B; Aghapour, M; Baradaran, B

    2016-03-31

    Prostate cancer is considered as the major cause of death among men around the world. There are a number of medicinal plants triggering apoptosis response in cancer cells, thus have a therapeutic potential. Therefore, further studies to characterize beneficial properties of these plants in order to introduce novel anti-cancer drugs are the interest of recent researches on the alternative medicine. On the other hand, due to traditional uses and availability of Urtica dioica extract, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of this medicinal herb on pc3 prostate cancer cell line. In the present study the cytotoxic effects of Urtica dioica extract were assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and trypan blue viability dye. Then, DNA fragmentation and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay were exploited to measure cell death and apoptosis stage. The expression levels of caspase 3, caspase 9 and Bcl-2 genes were quantified by Real-Time PCR. Finally, Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. MTT assay showed that dichloromethanolic extract of Urtica dioica significantly inhibited the cell growth. According to the DNA fragmentation and TUNEL assay results, the herbal extract was able to induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Our findings also demonstrated that the plant extract substantially increases the caspase 3 and 9 mRNA expression, while decreases Bcl-2. Cell cycle arrest was occurred in G2 stage, due to the results of flow cytometry. These results indicate that dichloromethanolic extract of Urtica dioica can successfully induce apoptosis in PC3 cells. Therefore, it could be used as a novel therapeutic candidate for prostate tumor treatment.

  12. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10‑12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long‑term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride‑induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography‑electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identified in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol‑3‑O‑rutinoside, kaempferol‑3‑O‑glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion

  13. Diocanol; one new phenol derivative isolated and characterized from Urtica dioica

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    Riaz Ullah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One new benzene derivative Diocanol(1 was isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble portion of the whole plant of Urtica dioica along with known constituents β-amyrin (2, β-sitosterol (3, stigmasterol (4, and oleanolic acid (5. The structures of the isolated compounds were characterized based on 1H and 13C NMR spectra, including two-dimensional NMR techniques like COSY, HMQC, and HMBC and compared with the literature data.

  14. Urtica dioica attenuate effect of Doxorobicin‐Induced changes on sperm parameters in the mice

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    Zahra Baninameh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin (DXR is used as an antitumor agent for the treatment of human neoplasm. The use of DXR has adverse effect on reproductive system including testicular toxicity and alteration in semen quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of Urtica dioica against Doxorobicin‐Induced changes on sperm parameters. 24 male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups. Control group received normal saline solution throughout the course of the study. Urtica dioica (UD control group, received UD (100 mg/kg body weight thrice in a week and DOX (3 mg/kg body weight once in a week injected intraperitoneally in Doxorubicin (DXR control group and Urtica dioica- Doxorubicin (UD-DXR group, received Urtica dioica (100 mg/kg body weight three times in a week and DOX (3 mg/kg body weight once in a week through the route for a period of 2 weeks. At the end of experimental period, all animal were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, their epididymes were removed and sperm analysis were done. In mice with DXR administration, epididymal sperm motility, progressive motility, sperm count and viability significantly decrease while sperm cells with abnormal morphology significantly increase when compared with control groups. Co-treatment with UD attenuate toxicity effect of DXR and improve sperm parameters. Results of our study showed that UD diminished DXR-induced testicular toxicity and improve semen parameters, thus suggesting its co-administration as a protective agent during doxorubicin treatment. Further studies should be aimed to determine protective effect of UD against chemotherapeutic agents such as DXR.

  15. Exploring the Urtica dioica Leaves Hemostatic and Wound-Healing Potential

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    Karama Zouari Bouassida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigated the efficiency of Urtica dioica (U. dioica on hemostatic and wound healing activities. U. dioica leaf extracts were evaluated for their antibacterial and antioxidant effects as well as their flavonoid and polyphenol content. The hydroethanolic extract (EtOH-H2OE, showing the most potent antibacterial and antioxidant activities in vitro, thanks to its flavonoid and polyphenol richness, was selected for hemostatic and wound healing evaluation. Twenty-four rats completing full-thickness wounds were split into four groups. The wounds were topically treated with saline solution, glycerol, “CICAFLORA,” and U. dioica EtOH-H2OE (50 µL/mm2 until day 11. The wound healing effect was assessed by macroscopic, histological, and biochemical parameters. Rats treated with EtOH-H2OE showed fast wound closure (92.39% compared to the control animals (60.91% on the 11th day of wounding (P<0.01. Histopathological and biochemical explorations showed full epidermal regeneration and an improvement of the hydroxyproline content in the U. dioica EtOH-H2OE treated rats. Analysis of fatty acids and sterols by GC-MS showed the presence of unsaturated fatty acids and a high concentration of lupeol known for their involvement in reepithelialization. These results prove the efficiency of U. dioica EtOH-H2OE in wound healing and supported its traditional use.

  16. Exploring the Urtica dioica Leaves Hemostatic and Wound-Healing Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouari Bouassida, Karama; Bardaa, Sana; Khimiri, Meriem; Rebaii, Tarek; Tounsi, Slim; Jlaiel, Lobna; Trigui, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    The present paper investigated the efficiency of Urtica dioica (U. dioica) on hemostatic and wound healing activities. U. dioica leaf extracts were evaluated for their antibacterial and antioxidant effects as well as their flavonoid and polyphenol content. The hydroethanolic extract (EtOH-H 2 OE), showing the most potent antibacterial and antioxidant activities in vitro , thanks to its flavonoid and polyphenol richness, was selected for hemostatic and wound healing evaluation. Twenty-four rats completing full-thickness wounds were split into four groups. The wounds were topically treated with saline solution, glycerol, "CICAFLORA," and U. dioica EtOH-H 2 OE (50  µ L/mm 2 ) until day 11. The wound healing effect was assessed by macroscopic, histological, and biochemical parameters. Rats treated with EtOH-H 2 OE showed fast wound closure (92.39%) compared to the control animals (60.91%) on the 11th day of wounding ( P dioica EtOH-H 2 OE treated rats. Analysis of fatty acids and sterols by GC-MS showed the presence of unsaturated fatty acids and a high concentration of lupeol known for their involvement in reepithelialization. These results prove the efficiency of U. dioica EtOH-H 2 OE in wound healing and supported its traditional use.

  17. Renal and vascular studies of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica in rats and rabbits

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    K.F. Dizaye

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Urtica dioica has a variety of uses in traditional medicine for genitourinary ailments kidney disorders, allergies, diabetes, anemia, gastrointestinal tract ailments, musculoskeletal aches and alopecia. However, only a few of these uses have scientific bases that support their clinical uses. This study was done to evaluate some of the in vivo and in vitro pharmacological actions of this plant. Eighteen local domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus were used for in vitro studies (effect of the plant extract on isolated pulmonary arteries and isolated urinary bladder smooth muscle and in vivo studies (effect of the extract on renal function. Six male albino rats were used for studying the effects of the plant extract on blood pressure and heart rate. Urtica dioica extract produced a significant increase in urine volume and urinary Na+ excretion without significant changes in K+ excretion rates in experimental rabbits. No changes occurred in Glomerular filtration rate and %Na+ reabsorption of filtered load. Neither vasodilatation nor vasoconstriction of isolated pulmonary arteries of the rabbit was seen after applying the aqueous extract of U. dioica. Besides it could not reverse the vasoconstrictor effect of phenylephrine. Urtica dioica has no detectable effects on the isolated bladder; moreover it did not reverse the contraction that was produced by pilocarpine. In experimental rats, the plant extract produced a profound drop in blood pressure associated with decreased heart rate. In conclusion the aqueous extract of U. dioica produced diuretic and natriuretic effects with out significant effect on the K+ excretion rate in rabbits. Moreover it produced a profound drop in blood pressure and heart rate.

  18. Apoptotic Effect of the Urtica Dioica Plant Extracts on Breast Cancer Cell Line (MDA- MB- 468

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    A Mohammadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Cancer is one of the most causes of mortality in worldwide. Components derived from natural plants that induce apoptosis are used for cancer treatment. Therefore investigation of different herbal components for new anti-cancer drug is one of the main research activities throughout the world. According to low cost, oral consumption and easy access to the public extracts of Urtica dioica, in this study we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of this herb on MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells.   Methods: Cytotoxic effect of Urtica dioica extract was measured using MTT assays. To show induction of apoptosis by this plant TUNEL and DNA Fragmentation test were performed.   Results: In the present study dichloromethane extracts noticeably killed cancer cells. IC50 values related to human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-468 were 29.46±1.05 µg/ml in 24 hours and 15.54±1.04 µg/ml in 48 hours. TUNEL test and DNA Fragmentation assay showed apoptotic characteristic in the extract treated cells.   Conclusion: The results showed that MDA-MB-468 cells after treatment with dichloromethane extract of Urtica dioica, induces apoptosis in MDA-MB-468 cancer cells which may be useful in the treatment of cancer.

  19. The effects of Urtica dioica L. leaf extract on aniline 4-hydroxylase in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Tevfik; Korkmaz, Halil

    2009-01-01

    The effects of hydroalcoholic (80% ethanol-20% water) extract of Urtica dioica L. on microsomal aniline 4-hydroxylase (A4H) were investigated in the liver of Swiss albino mice (8- 10-weeks-old) treated with two doses (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, given orally for 14 days ). The activities of A4H showed a significant increase in the liver at both dose levels of extract treatment. The hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica induced the activities of A4H that had been increased by treatment of metal ions (Mg2+ and Ca2+) and the mixture of cofactors (NADH and NADPH). At saturated concentration of cofactor, microsomal A4H exhibited significantly even higher activities in the presence of the mixture of cofactors than NADPH and NADH. Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions acted as stimulants in vitro. The present results suggest that the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica may have modalatory effect on aniline hydroxylase at least in part and enhance the activity of A4H adding metals ions and cofactors.

  20. Chemical composition and in vitro cytotoxic, genotoxic effects of essential oil from Urtica dioica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Süleyman; Demirci, Betül; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Akpulat, H Aşkin; Aksu, Pinar

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of Urtica dioica essential oil, and to evaluate its cytotoxic and genotoxic effects, using cytogenetic tests such as the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and chromosomal aberration analysis in human lymphocyte cultures in vitro. GC-MS analysis of U. dioica essential oil identified 43 compounds, representing 95.8% of the oil. GC and GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of U. dioica revealed that carvacrol (38.2%), carvone (9.0%), naphthalene (8.9%), (E)-anethol (4.7%), hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (3.0%), (E)-geranyl acetone (2.9%), (E)-β-ionone (2.8%) and phytol (2.7%) are the main components, comprising 72.2% of the oil. A significant correlation was found between the concentration of essential oil and the following: chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequency, apoptotic cells, necrotic cells, and binucleated cells.

  1. THE PROSPECTS OF THE USE OF DRUGS BASED ON RHIZOMES AND ROOTS OF URTICA DIOICA L.

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    E. A. Balagozyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L. from the Urticaceae family is one of the popular medicinal plants. The leaves of Urtica doica L. are used in our country as a hemostatic agent. The rhizomes and roots are the base for the drugs for prostatic adenoma treatment in foreign countries. Earlier we studied acute toxicity, and diuretic activity of an extract of the rootstock with roots of Urtica doica L. We have conducted a study of antimicrobial activity of water and alcohol-water extracts from the rhizomes and roots of Urtica dioica L. The determination of a minimal inhibiting concentration was conducted by using a method of double series broth dilution. Bacillus cereus, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus microorganisms were used as testing cultures. The study showed that the broth and liquid extract of the nettle, obtained on the basis of 70% ethanol do not stop the growth of microorganisms. The liquid nettle extract obtained by 40% ethanol is characterized by the weak antimicrobial activity.

  2. Native Phytoremediation Potential of Urtica dioica for Removal of PCBs and Heavy Metals Can Be Improved by Genetic Manipulations Using Constitutive CaMV 35S Promoter.

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    Jitka Viktorova

    Full Text Available Although stinging nettle (Urtica dioica has been shown to reduce HM (heavy metal content in soil, its wider phytoremediation potential has been neglected. Urtica dioica was cultivated in soils contaminated with HMs or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. After four months, up to 33% of the less chlorinated biphenyls and 8% of HMs (Zn, Pb, Cd had been removed. Bacteria were isolated from the plant tissue, with the endophytic bacteria Bacillus shackletonii and Streptomyces badius shown to have the most significant effect. These bacteria demonstrated not only benefits for plant growth, but also extreme tolerance to As, Zn and Pb. Despite these results, the native phytoremediation potential of nettles could be improved by biotechnologies. Transient expression was used to investigate the functionality of the most common constitutive promoter, CaMV 35S in Urtica dioica. This showed the expression of the CUP and bphC transgenes. Collectively, our findings suggest that remediation by stinging nettle could have a much wider range of applications than previously thought.

  3. Native Phytoremediation Potential of Urtica dioica for Removal of PCBs and Heavy Metals Can Be Improved by Genetic Manipulations Using Constitutive CaMV 35S Promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorova, Jitka; Jandova, Zuzana; Madlenakova, Michaela; Prouzova, Petra; Bartunek, Vilem; Vrchotova, Blanka; Lovecka, Petra; Musilova, Lucie; Macek, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Although stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) has been shown to reduce HM (heavy metal) content in soil, its wider phytoremediation potential has been neglected. Urtica dioica was cultivated in soils contaminated with HMs or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). After four months, up to 33% of the less chlorinated biphenyls and 8% of HMs (Zn, Pb, Cd) had been removed. Bacteria were isolated from the plant tissue, with the endophytic bacteria Bacillus shackletonii and Streptomyces badius shown to have the most significant effect. These bacteria demonstrated not only benefits for plant growth, but also extreme tolerance to As, Zn and Pb. Despite these results, the native phytoremediation potential of nettles could be improved by biotechnologies. Transient expression was used to investigate the functionality of the most common constitutive promoter, CaMV 35S in Urtica dioica. This showed the expression of the CUP and bphC transgenes. Collectively, our findings suggest that remediation by stinging nettle could have a much wider range of applications than previously thought.

  4. Effect of fertilizer application on Urtica dioica and its element concentrations in a cut grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllerová, Vladimíra; Hejcman, Michal; Hejcmanová, Pavla; Pavlů, Vilém

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of nutrient availability in cut grasslands on growth characteristics of Urtica dioica and its aboveground chemical composition (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn). The effects of N, P and K application on the growth of U. dioica were studied over five years in a Dactylis glomerata grassland cut twice per year under unfertilized control, P, N, NP and NPK treatments (300, 80 and 200 kg of N, P and K ha-1 per year). Nitrogen application in the form of NH4NO3 over five years decreased the soil pH, while P and K application increased P and K availability in the soil. Over five years, cover of U. dioica increased from 1% initially to 7, 9, 58, 83 and 99% in the control, P, N, NP and NPK treatments, respectively. Concentrations of N, P and Ca in the aboveground biomass of U. dioica were very high in comparison to other species and concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were comparable with other grassland species. N and P limitation of U. dioica growth was expected if concentrations of N and P in the aboveground biomass were lower than 25 g N kg-1 and 4 g P kg-1 in the phenological stage of flowering. We concluded that two cuts per year are not sufficient to suppress expansion of U. dioica under high N, P and K availability. This probably explains why U. dioica survive also in frequently cut intensive grasslands under adequately high nutrient supply.

  5. Evaluation of alpha- amylase inhibition by Urtica dioica and Juglans regia extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimzadeh, Mahsa; Jahanshahi, Samaneh; Moein, Soheila; Moein, Mahmood Reza

    2014-06-01

    One strategy for the treatment of diabetes is inhibition of pancreatic α- amylase. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Urtica dioica and Juglans regia Linn were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations of leaf aqueous extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the activity of enzyme was measured. For determination of the type of inhibition, Dixon plot was depicted. Acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Both plant extracts showed time and concentration dependent inhibition of α-amylase. 60% inhibition was seen with 2 mg/ml of U. dioica and 0.4 mg/ml of J. regia aqueous extract. Dixon plots revealed the type of α-amylase inhibition by these two extracts as competitive inhibition. Determination of the type of α-amylase inhibition by these plant extracts could provide by successful use of plant chemicals as drug targets.

  6. Introducing Urtica dioica, A Native Plant of Khuzestan, As an Antibacterial Medicinal Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Hossein; Seyyednejad, Seyyed Mansour; Bakhtiari, Ameneh; Vafaei, Mozhan

    2014-11-01

    Urtica dioica is a flowering plant with long history of use in folk medicine and as a food source. This study examined in vitro antibacterial potential of alcoholic extracts of U. dioica. Hydroalcoholic extracts from aerial parts were prepared using aqueous solution of ethanol and methanol and their inhibitory effects against clinical isolates was examined by disc diffusion method at different doses. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) indexes were also investigated. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was also performed to find structural changes of affected bacteria consequent to exposing with extracts. Both extracts were active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli with respectively 16, 10, 18, and 14 mm (methanolic) and 11, 9, 17, and 16 mm (ethanolic) inhibition zone. The MIC of ethanolic extract against S. epidermidis and E. coli was respectively 10 and 40 mg/mL. The MIC of methanolic extract against S. aureus and S. epidermidis was 40 and 10 mg/mL, respectively. The MBC was found only for S. epidermidis (20 mg/mL). In SEM analysis the round shape of S. epidermidis was changed and irregular shapes were appeared, which suggest that the main target of these extracts was cell wall. Extracts of U. dioica showed significant antibacterial effect against some clinically important pathogenic bacteria. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that U. dioica is useful as antibacterial and bactericidal agent in treating infectious diseases.

  7. Inhibitory effects of Urtica dioica L. root on electrophysiological properties of isolated rabbit atrioventricular node

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    A. Enayati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The ideal drug for treatment of a wide range of supraventricular arrhythmia hasn't yet been developed. Previous studies have shown antihypertensive and negative inotropic effects of the Urtica dioica L. (nettle. Therefore, the aim of present study is to determine the rate dependent inhibitory effects of ethanol extract of nettle root and investigate the role of adrenoceptors in the anti-arrhythmic mechanism of nettle on the isolated rabbit atrio-ventricular node. Methods: Urtica dioica roots were collected from Gorgan (Golestan, Iran. Male New Zealand rabbits (n=7 were used in all of the experiments. Experimental stimulation protocols (WBCL; Recovery, Facilitation, Fatigue were applied to assess electrophysiological properties of Node. All protocols were repeated in the presence and absence (control of different concentration (0.25-0.5 w/v % of nettle and 1 μM nadolol. Data were shown as Mean±SE, difference between groups statistically were assessed by SPSS software. Results: Nettle (0.5 w/v significantly decreased basic and functional properties of node as WBCL, ERP, FRP, AVCT and magnitude of fatigue (∆AH significantly increased but ∆FRP significantly decreased. In the presence of nadolol (1μM as a nonselective β-blocker, nettle (0.3 mg/L could not repeat its effects on electrophysiological properties of AV-node. Conclusion: The results showed the modifying properties of Urtica dioica root extract. It may be considered as a candidate for the treatment of supraventicular arrhythmias.

  8. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rutto, Laban K.; Xu, Yixiang; Ramirez, Elizabeth; Brandt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C) o...

  9. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Stinging nettle?(Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4...

  10. Heavy metal pollution affects consumption and reproduction of the landsnail Cepaea Nemoralis fed on naturally polluted Urtica dioica leaves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Oosthoek, A.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2006-01-01

    This study is one of the very first that investigates the effects of heavy metal pollution on food consumption and reproduction of terrestrial snails under semi-realistic field conditions. Two experiments were carried out using snails (Cepaea nemoralis) and food (Urtica dioica leaves) from different

  11. Taraxacum officinale and Urtica dioica extracts inhibit dengue virus serotype 2 replication in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ocelotl, María R; Rosas-Murrieta, Nora H; Moreno, Diego A; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Domínguez, Fabiola; Santos-López, Gerardo

    2018-03-16

    Urtica dioica, Taraxacum officinale, Calea integrifolia and Caesalpinia pulcherrima are widely used all over the world for treatment of different illnesses. In Mexico, these plants are traditionally used to alleviate or counteract rheumatism and inflammatory muscle diseases. In the present study we evaluated the activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of these four plants, on the replication of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2). Extraction process was carried out in a Soxtherm® system at 60, 85 and 120 °C; a chemical fractionation in silica gel chromatography was performed and compounds present in the active fractions were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn. The cytotoxic concentration and the inhibitory effect of extracts or fractions on the DENV2 replication were analyzed in the BHK-21 cell line (plaque forming assay). The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) and the selectivity index (SI) were calculated for the extracts and fractions. The methanolic extracts at 60 °C of T. officinale and U. dioica showed the higher inhibitory effects on DENV2 replication. After the chemical fractionation, the higher activity fraction was found for U. dioica and T. officinale, presenting IC 50 values of 165.7 ± 3.85 and 126.1 ± 2.80 μg/ml, respectively; SI values were 5.59 and 6.01 for each fraction. The compounds present in T. officinale, were luteolin and caffeoylquinic acids derivatives and quercertin diclycosides. The compounds in the active fraction of U. dioica, were, chlorogenic acid, quercertin derivatives and flavonol glycosides (quercetin and kaempferol). Two fractions from U. dioica and T. officinale methanolic extracts with anti-dengue activity were found. The compounds present in both fractions were identified, several recognized molecules have demonstrated activity against other viral species. Subsequent biological analysis of the molecules, alone or in combination, contained in the extracts will be carried out to develop therapeutics

  12. Influence of temperature and brewing time of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) infusions on vitamin C content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolska, Jolanta; Czop, Michał; Jakubczyk, Karolina; Janda, Katarzyna

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) can be found in temperate climate zones of Europe, Africa and America Nettle may be a source of nutritional ingredients, mineral salts, vitamins and antioxidants. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of temperature and brewing time Urtica dioica L. infusions from different parts of this plant on vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content. Infusions of nettle leaf, stem and root were prepared at room temperature, 50°C, 60°C, 70°C and 80°C for 10 minutes. Leaf infusions were also brewed for 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes at initial water temperature of 60°C. The amount of vitamin C was determined by the spectrophotometric method. The best temperature of brewing nettle infusions, in terms of vitamin C concentration, is between 50 °C and 60 °C as it is sufficient to extract the substance, yet not high enough to destroy it. The optimal time of brewing appeared to be 10 minutes as the prolonged exposure to high temperature appeared to be detrimental for ascorbic acid as well.

  13. Antioxidant and wound healing potential of saponins extracted from the leaves of Algerian Urtica dioica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razika, Laoufi; Thanina, Affif Chaouche; Nadjiba, Chebouti-Meziou; Narimen, Benhabyles; Mahdi, Dahmani Mohamed; Karim, Arab

    2017-05-01

    The Nettle is a herbaceous and vivace plant of Asian origin. It is integrated in several areas especially alimentary, agricultural, industrial and medicinal. The aim of this work is to demonstrate through pharmacological tests a possible antioxidant and wound healing effect of crude saponins of the leaves of Urtica dioica L. The extraction method is based on the degree of solubility of saponins in organic solvents. The antioxidant activity of the leaves extracts was evaluated by the diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl test (DPPH). The wound healing effect is interpreted on the basis of the healing time and the evaluation of the surface of wounds. It appears from this study that the Nettle is rich in saponins, either 4.08% to 30 g of plant powder. The results also showed significant antioxidant effect similar to that of ascorbic acid (p> 0.05) with an IC 50 of 0.159mg/ml. As regards the healing power, treatment of rats with the product based on crude saponins is achieved after 15 days, either 100% of wound reduction. This value is much higher than that obtained by the reference product (Madécassol®) on the same duration of treatment with 93.73% of wound reduction. The achievement of pharmacological tests has thus shown that crude saponins extracted from the leaves of Urtica dioica L. can be integrated into the pharmaceutical field or even in cosmetic.

  14. Protective Effect of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) on Morphometric and Morphologic Alterations of Seminiferous Tubules in STZ Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Kabiri Balajadeh, Babak; Ghafari, Soraya; Azarhosh, Ramin; Khori, Vahid

    2011-09-01

    Urtica dioica L. has been known as a medicinal plant in the world. This study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on seminiferous tubules of diabetic rats. Animals were allocated to control, diabetic and protective groups. Treated animals received extract of U. dioica (100 mg/ kg/ day) IP for the first 5 days and STZ injection on the 6th day. After 5 weeks, testes removed and stained with H&E technique. Tubular cell disintegration, sertoli and spermatogonia cell vacuolization, and decrease in sperm concentration observed in diabetic in comparison with control and protective groups. External seminiferous tubular diameter and seminiferous epithelial height significantly reduced (Pdioica, before induction of diabetes; has protective role on seminiferous tubules alterations.

  15. Urtica dioica (Stinging Nettle): A Neglected Plant With Emerging Growth Promoter/Immunostimulant Properties for Farmed Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vico, Gionata; Guida, Vincenzo; Carella, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), is a perennial plant belonging to the family of Urticaceae , genus Urtica . Despite the use of nettle in folk veterinary medicine is well documented, U. dioica is today an underestimated and frequently neglected plant, considered by the contemporary agriculture as a weed to be eliminated. This mini review focus on very recent studies on dietary administration of U. dioica , both as a single herb or in combination with other herbs, to enhance growth and stimulate farmed fish immunity, thus enabling the fish to be more resistant against bacterial infections. Such an emerging feature, together with cost-effectiveness, adequate availability, and easy processing of nettle, could make this herb an excellent, inexpensive and widely used dietary supplement on intensive fish farms.

  16. Urtica dioica (Stinging Nettle): A Neglected Plant With Emerging Growth Promoter/Immunostimulant Properties for Farmed Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vico, Gionata; Guida, Vincenzo; Carella, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), is a perennial plant belonging to the family of Urticaceae, genus Urtica. Despite the use of nettle in folk veterinary medicine is well documented, U. dioica is today an underestimated and frequently neglected plant, considered by the contemporary agriculture as a weed to be eliminated. This mini review focus on very recent studies on dietary administration of U. dioica, both as a single herb or in combination with other herbs, to enhance growth and stimulate farmed fish immunity, thus enabling the fish to be more resistant against bacterial infections. Such an emerging feature, together with cost-effectiveness, adequate availability, and easy processing of nettle, could make this herb an excellent, inexpensive and widely used dietary supplement on intensive fish farms. PMID:29632497

  17. Antioxidant and apoptotic effects of an aqueous extract of Urtica dioica on the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Sadegh; Ardekani, Ali Motevalizadeh; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Abedian, Zeinab; Mostafazadeh, Amrollah; Pourbagher, Roghayeh; Akhavan-Niaki, Haleh

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer and one of the leading causes of death among women in the world. Plants and herbs may play an important role in complementary or alternative treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-proliferative potential of Urtica dioica. The anti oxidant activity of an aqueous extract of Urtica dioica leaf was measured by MTT assay and the FRAP method while its anti-proliferative activity on the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and fibroblasts isolated from foreskin tissue was evaluated using MTT assay. Mechanisms leading to apoptosis were also investigated at the molecular level by measuring the amount of anti and pro-apoptotic proteins and at the cellular level by studying DNA fragmentation and annexin V staining by flow cytometry. The aqueous extract of Urtica dioica showed antioxidant effects with a correlation coefficient of r(2)=0.997. Dose-dependent and anti-proliferative effects of the extract were observed only on MCF-7 cells after 72 hrs with an IC50 value of 2 mg/ml. This anti proliferative activity was associated with an increase of apoptosis as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation, the appearance of apoptotic cells in flow cytometry analysis and an increase of the amount of calpain 1, calpastatin, caspase 3, caspase 9, Bax and Bcl-2, all proteins involved in the apoptotic pathway. This is the first time such in vitro antiproliferative effect of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica leaf has been described for a breast cancer cell line. Our findings warrant further research on Urtica dioica as a potential chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer.

  18. Search for the antiprostatic principle of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H; Willer, F; Samtleben, R; Boos, G

    1994-12-01

    While searching for the antiprostatic active principle of the roots of Urtica dioica we ethanol-precipitated a polysaccharide mixture from an aqueous root extract and obtained chemically defined acidic polysaccharides with molecular masses of 15-210kDa. The chemical structures of these compounds have been determined. Some polysaccharides stimulated T lymphocytes in vitro while others influenced the complement system or triggered the release of TNF-α. The crude polysaccharide extract showed a prolonged antiinflammatory activity in the rat paw edema test for 22 hr, which is comparable to the pharmacological efficacy of indometacin. We have reisolated the isolectin mixture (UDA) originally detected in Urtica roots by Peumans et al. (1984). This mixture displayed immunomodulatory effects on T lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, UDA also directly inhibited cell proliferation and blocked binding of epidermal growth factor to its receptor on a tumor cell line, as determined by a [(125)I]-EGF binding assay. These investigations suggest that Urtica polysaccharides and also the N-acetyl-glucosamine specific lectin UDA play a major role in the antiprostatic activity of the drug and phytopreparations containing it. Copyright © 1994 Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart · Jena · New York. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Urtica dioica on morphometric indices of kidney in streptozotocin diabetic rats--a stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Gharravi, Anneh Mohammad; Ghafari, Sorya; Afshar, Mohammad

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica on Morphometric indices of kidney in diabetic rats. Thirty male adult albino wistar rats of 125-175 g divided into control, diabetic and Urtica dioica treatment groups. In treatment Group, diabetic rats received 100 mg kg(-1) daily hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. After the animals had been sacrified, the kidneys were removed and fixed by formaldehyde, cut horizontally into 1 mm slices and processed, Stained with H and E. Stereological study performed using light microscope and the image projected on a table of olysa software. Cavalieri principle was used to estimate the volume of cortex, medulla and whole kidney. All the grouped data statistically evaluated using Student's t-test, expressed as the Mean +/- SE. Ration of kidney weight/body weight in diabetes (0.51) and diabetes-extract group (0.67) were higher then control group (0.42). Ratio of kidney volume/body weight in diabetes (350) and diabetes-extract group (348) were higher then control group (323). Volume Ratio of cortex/medulla in diabetes-extract group (1.65) was higher then control (1.34) and diabetes group (1.33). Glomerular area and diameter and proximal tubule diameter in diabetes-Extract group was higher than control and diabetes groups. This study revealed that Urtica dioica has no effect on renal morphometric indices in induced diabetic rats.

  20. The landsnail Cepaea nemoralis regulates internal Cd levels when fed on Cd-enriched stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) leaves at low, field-relevant concentrations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Oosthoek, A.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2006-01-01

    We studied Cd accumulation in Cepaea nemoralis snails at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the diet (Urtica dioica leaves). Six treatments of U. dioica plants were grown, resulting in leaf Cd concentrations between 0 and 2.6 μg g

  1. Synergism effects of pioglitazone and Urtica dioica extract in streptozotocin-induced nephropathy via attenuation of oxidative stress

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    Mohammad Shokrzadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Diabetic nephropathy (DN. In this study, we investigated the synergism effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica and pioglitazone (PIO on the prevention of DN in streptozotocin induced-diabetic mice. Materials and Methods: Forty-two mice were divided into six groups as follows: non-diabetic control group, DMSO group (as solvent, diabetic group and four treatment groups which received U. dioica, pioglitazone, U. dioica plus pioglitazone and vitE. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ (200 mg/kg body wt, IP diluted in citrate buffer (pH= 4.6. After 4 weeks treatment, all animals were anaesthetized and blood was collected for serum urea and creatinine levels assessment in plasma and kidney tissue were excised for evaluation of oxidative stress markers. Results: Treatment with U. dioica significantly inhibited increase in serum urea and creatinine in plasma that were observed in diabetic mice. Furthermore, the elevated level of oxidative stress markers (glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation (LPO, protein carbonyl in renal supernatant of diabetic mice was inhibited by U. dioica treatment.  Interestingly, U. dioica promoted beneficial effects of PIO in reducing STZ-induced hyperglycemia, renal damage and oxidative stress markers. Conclusion: Our findings showed that PIO plus U. dioica have synergism protective effects against STZ-induced nephropathy that can be a candidate as a therapeutic approach in order to treatment of DN.

  2. Synergism effects of pioglitazone and Urtica dioica extract in streptozotocin-induced nephropathy via attenuation of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Sadat-Hosseini, Sara; Fallah, Marjan; Shaki, Fatemeh

    2017-05-01

    Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this study, we investigated the synergism effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica and pioglitazone (PIO) on the prevention of DN in streptozotocin induced-diabetic mice. Forty-two mice were divided into six groups as follows: non-diabetic control group, DMSO group (as solvent), diabetic group and four treatment groups which received U. dioica , pioglitazone, U. dioica plus pioglitazone and vitE. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (200 mg/kg body wt, IP) diluted in citrate buffer (pH= 4.6). After 4 weeks treatment, all animals were anaesthetized and blood was collected for serum urea and creatinine levels assessment in plasma and kidney tissue were excised for evaluation of oxidative stress markers. Treatment with U. dioica significantly inhibited increase in serum urea and creatinine in plasma that were observed in diabetic mice. Furthermore, the elevated level of oxidative stress markers (glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl) in renal supernatant of diabetic mice was inhibited by U. dioica treatment. Interestingly, U. dioica promoted beneficial effects of PIO in reducing STZ-induced hyperglycemia, renal damage and oxidative stress markers. Our findings showed that PIO plus U. dioica have synergism protective effects against STZ-induced nephropathy that can be a candidate as a therapeutic approach in order to treatment of DN.

  3. Effects of various doses of selenite on stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystofova, Olga; Adam, Vojtech; Babula, Petr; Zehnalek, Josef; Beklova, Miroslava; Havel, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) on the growth, accumulation and possible mechanisms of Se transport in certain parts (roots, leaves, stamp and apex) of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) plants. Se was supplemented by one-shot and two repeated doses to the soil (2.0 and 4.0 mg Se per kg of substrate). Selenium content in roots increased linearly with dose and was significantly higher compared to other plant parts of interest. However, growth of the above-ground parts of plant as well as roots was slightly inhibited with increasing selenium concentration in comparison to the untreated plants. The content of phytochelatin2, a low molecular mass peptide containing a sulfhydryl group, correlated well with the Se content. This suggests a possible stimulation of synthesis of this plant peptide by Se.

  4. Effects of Various Doses of Selenite on Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystofova, Olga; Adam, Vojtech; Babula, Petr; Zehnalek, Josef; Beklova, Miroslava; Havel, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) on the growth, accumulation and possible mechanisms of Se transport in certain parts (roots, leaves, stamp and apex) of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) plants. Se was supplemented by one-shot and two repeated doses to the soil (2.0 and 4.0 mg Se per kg of substrate). Selenium content in roots increased linearly with dose and was significantly higher compared to other plant parts of interest. However, growth of the above-ground parts of plant as well as roots was slightly inhibited with increasing selenium concentration in comparison to the untreated plants. The content of phytochelatin2, a low molecular mass peptide containing a sulfhydryl group, correlated well with the Se content. This suggests a possible stimulation of synthesis of this plant peptide by Se. PMID:21139861

  5. Study of stinging nettle (urtica dioica l.) Fibers reinforced green composite materials : a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus Suryawan, I. G. P.; Suardana, N. P. G.; Suprapta Winaya, I. N.; Budiarsa Suyasa, I. W.; Tirta Nindhia, T. G.

    2017-05-01

    Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L., latin) is a wild plant that grows in Indonesia, Asia, and Europe. Nettle in Bali, Indonesia is called as Lateng, Jelatang. Nettle plant has a very strong fiber and high fixed carbon. Nettle plants are covered with fine hairs, especially in the leaves and stems. When it is touched, it will release chemicals, sting and trigger inflammation that causes redness, itching, bumps and irritation to the skin. Nettle plants grow in the wild, regarded as a weed in the agricultural industry, easy to grow and snatch food from the parent plant. The main objective of this paper is to review of the potential nettle fibers and then explain about the potential of local nettle plant in Indonesia. Nettle is a plant group at the end of bast. Its plant fibers taken from the bark, as reinforcement in composite materials. Nettle fibers have three main advantages such as strong, lightweight and low environmental impact.

  6. Effects of Various Doses of Selenite on Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Beklova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se on the growth, accumulation and possible mechanisms of Se transport in certain parts (roots, leaves, stamp and apex of nettle (Urtica dioica L. plants. Se was supplemented by one-shot and two repeated doses to the soil (2.0 and 4.0 mg Se per kg of substrate. Selenium content in roots increased linearly with dose and was significantly higher compared to other plant parts of interest. However, growth of the above-ground parts of plant as well as roots was slightly inhibited with increasing selenium concentration in comparison to the untreated plants. The content of phytochelatin2, a low molecular mass peptide containing a sulfhydryl group, correlated well with the Se content. This suggests a possible stimulation of synthesis of this plant peptide by Se.

  7. Effect of ecological surface treatment method on friction strength properties of nettle (urtica dioica) fibre yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şansal, S.; Mıstık, S. I.; Fettahov, R.; Ovalı, S.; Duman, M.

    2017-10-01

    Over the last few decades, more attention is given to lignocellulose based fibres as reinforcement material in the polymer composites owing to the environmental pollution caused by the extensive usage of synthetic and inorganic fibres. Developing new natural fibre reinforced composites is the focus of many researches nowadays. They are made from renewable resources and they have less environmental effect in comparison to inorganic fibre reinforced composites. The interest of consumers in eco-friendly natural fibres and textiles has increased in recent years. Unlike inorganic fibres, natural fibres present light weight, high strength/density ratio and are readily available, environmentally friendly and biodegradable. Many different types of natural fibres are exploited for the production of biodegradable polymer composites. The nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a well-known plant growing on rural sites of Europe, Asia, and North America. Nettle plant contains fibre similar to hemp and flax. However, similar to other natural fibres, nettle fibres are poorly compatible with the thermoplastic matrix of composites, due to their hydrophilic character which reduces mechanical properties of nettle fibre reinforced thermoplastics. In order to improve the fibrematrix adhesion of the natural fibre reinforced composites, surface treatment processes are applied to the lignocellulose fibres. In this study nettle (urtica dioica) fibre yarns were treated with NaOH by using conventional, ultrasonic and microwave energy methods. After treatment processes tensile strength, elongation, friction strength and SEM observations of the nettle fibre yarns were investigated. All treatment processes were improved the tensile strength, elongation and friction strength properties of the nettle fibre yarns. Also higher tensile strength, elongation and friction strength properties were obtained from treated nettle fibre yarns which treated by using microwave energy method.

  8. Protection of Ischemic and Reperfused Rat Heart by Aqueous Extract of Urtica Dioica

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    D Shackebaei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urtica dioica (U.D has widely been used in traditional medicine for its hypotensive and vasodilatory effects. The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica on isolated ischemia- reperfused heart.Methods: The heart of male wistar rats were isolated and perfused according to langendorff method. In the control group (n = 13 the hearts were subjected to three steps of stabilization (30 min, normothermic global ischemia (40 min and reperfusion (45 min. In addition, before and after ischemia, the aqueous extract of U.D (200 mg/ml was added to perfusion solution in the test group (n=14. Different cardiac variables including left ventricular pressure, heart rate and coronary flow were measured and rate pressure product was calculated.Results: Results showed that left ventricular pressure (59.11±4.7 and rate pressure product (13680±1136 in 45th minute of reperfusion in the test group were significantly (P=0.0187 and 0.0321 respectively greater than the control group (39.1±6.0, 9480±1480 respectively. These findings indicated decreased cardiac damage following ischemia in the test group, compared with that of control group.Conclusion: Results of the present study showed that the aqueous extract of U.D, increased the tolerance of isolated rat hearts against ischemic damage. This effect can be explained by potent antioxidant activity of the U.D extract, suggesting its clinical use in ischemic heart disease.

  9. Urtica Dioica Distillate Regenerates Pancreatic Beta Cells in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohari, Ali; Noorafshan, Ali; Akmali, Masoumeh; Zamani-Garmsiri, Fahimeh; Seghatoleslam, Atefeh

    2018-01-01

    Background Urtica dioica is known as an anti-hyperglycemic plant. Urtica dioica distillate (UD) is a traditional Iranian drink, locally known as “aragh gazaneh”. In spite of its widespread consumption in Iran, according to traditional Iranian medicine, there is no scientific report on the usefulness of UD for diabetic patients. This survey was designed to evaluate its protective effects for the recovery from diabetes by determining the serum insulin, blood glucose, volume of pancreatic islets, and the number and volume of β-cells in diabetic rats. Methods A total of 48 Sprague-Dawley male rats (200-250 g) were randomly distributed into 6 groups (n=8), including non-diabetic plus distilled water (DW), non-diabetic plus UD, diabetic plus DW, diabetic plus UD, diabetic plus insulin, and diabetic plus glibenclamide. DW, UD, and glibenclamide were administered via intragastric gavage and insulin was injected subcutaneously. After four weeks of experiments, blood samples were collected for serum insulin and blood glucose assay. Pancreas was also evaluated using stereological method. The SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Kruskal-Wallis, repeated measurements, and Mann-Whitney U test were applied for comparisons between the groups. Results The treatment of diabetic rats with UD reduced the blood glucose dramatically (P<0.001) and increased serum insulin levels significantly (P=0.03) in comparison to the diabetic plus DW rats. Treatment with UD did not affect the mean β-cell volumes in the diabetic rats when compared to the diabetic plus DW rats, but the islet volumes and β-cell numbers were significantly recovered. Conclusion UD treatment in diabetic rats improves hyperglycemia by partially restoring plasma insulin levels. The data suggest that UD prevents islet atrophy and/or regenerate pancreatic β-cells. PMID:29749986

  10. Antimutagenic and antioxidant activity of a protein fraction from aerial parts of Urtica dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sotto, Antonella; Mazzanti, Gabriela; Savickiene, Nijole; Staršelskytė, Rasa; Baksenskaite, Vaida; Di Giacomo, Silvia; Vitalone, Annabella

    2015-06-01

    Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae), stinging nettle, has been employed as a folklore remedy for a wide spectrum of ailments, including urinary disorders, prostatic hyperplasia, and liver diseases. It has been also used traditionally for cancer treatment. To evaluate the potential chemopreventive properties of a protein fraction from the aerial part of Urtica dioica (namely UDHL30). UDHL30 has been tested for the antimutagenic activity in bacteria (50-800 μg/plate; Ames test by the preincubation method) and for the cytotoxicity on human hepatoma HepG2 cells (0.06-2 mg/mL; 24 and 48 h incubation). Moreover, the antioxidant activity of UDHL30 (0.1-1200 μg/mL; ABTS and superoxide-radical scavenger assays) was evaluated as potential protective mechanisms. UDHL30 was not cytotoxic on HepG2 cells up to 2 mg/mL; conversely, it exhibited a strong antimutagenic activity against the mutagen 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) in all strains tested (maximum inhibition of 56, 78, and 61% in TA98, TA100, and WP2uvrA strains, respectively, at 800 μg/plate). In addition, a remarkable scavenging activity against ABTS radical and superoxide anion (IC50 values of 19.9 ± 1.0 μg/mL and 75.3 ± 0.9 μg/mL, respectively) was produced. UDHL30 possesses antimutagenic and radical scavenging properties. Being 2AA a pro-carcinogenic agent, we hypothesize that the antimutagenicity of UDHL30 can be due to the inhibition of CYP450-isoenzymes, involved in the mutagen bioactivation. The radical scavenger ability could contribute to 2AA-antimutagenicity. These data encourage further studies in order to better define the potential usefulness of UDHL30 in chemoprevention.

  11. Influence of Heavy Metal Stress on Antioxidant Status and DNA Damage in Urtica dioica

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    Darinka Gjorgieva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals have the potential to interact and induce several stress responses in the plants; thus, effects of heavy metal stress on DNA damages and total antioxidants level in Urtica dioica leaves and stems were investigated. The samples are sampled from areas with different metal exposition. Metal content was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES, for total antioxidants level assessment the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP assay was used, and genomic DNA isolation from frozen plant samples was performed to obtain DNA fingerprints of investigated plant. It was found that heavy metal contents in stems generally changed synchronously with those in leaves of the plant, and extraneous metals led to imbalance of mineral nutrient elements. DNA damages were investigated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD technique, and the results demonstrated that the samples exposed to metals yielded a large number of new fragments (total 12 in comparison with the control sample. This study showed that DNA stability is highly affected by metal pollution which was identified by RAPD markers. Results suggested that heavy metal stress influences antioxidant status and also induces DNA damages in U. dioica which may help to understand the mechanisms of metals genotoxicity.

  12. Influence of heavy metal stress on antioxidant status and DNA damage in Urtica dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova Panovska, Tatjana; Ruskovska, Tatjana; Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals have the potential to interact and induce several stress responses in the plants; thus, effects of heavy metal stress on DNA damages and total antioxidants level in Urtica dioica leaves and stems were investigated. The samples are sampled from areas with different metal exposition. Metal content was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES), for total antioxidants level assessment the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay was used, and genomic DNA isolation from frozen plant samples was performed to obtain DNA fingerprints of investigated plant. It was found that heavy metal contents in stems generally changed synchronously with those in leaves of the plant, and extraneous metals led to imbalance of mineral nutrient elements. DNA damages were investigated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, and the results demonstrated that the samples exposed to metals yielded a large number of new fragments (total 12) in comparison with the control sample. This study showed that DNA stability is highly affected by metal pollution which was identified by RAPD markers. Results suggested that heavy metal stress influences antioxidant status and also induces DNA damages in U. dioica which may help to understand the mechanisms of metals genotoxicity.

  13. Evaluation of alpha- amylase inhibition by Urtica dioica and Juglans regia extracts

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    Mahsa Rahimzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:One strategy for the treatment of diabetes is inhibition of pancreatic α- amylase. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Materials and Methods: Urtica dioica and Juglans regia Linn were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations of leaf aqueous extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the activity of enzyme was measured. For determination of the type of inhibition, Dixon plot was depicted. Acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Results: Both plant extracts showed time and concentration dependent inhibition of α-amylase. 60% inhibition was seen with 2 mg/ml of U. dioica and0.4 mg/ml of J. regia aqueous extract. Dixon plots revealed the type of α-amylase inhibition by these two extracts as competitive inhibition. Conclusion: Determination of the type of α-amylase inhibition by these plant extracts could provide by successful use of plant chemicals as drug targets.

  14. Effect of Urtica dioica Leaf Alcoholic and Aqueous Extracts on the Number and the Diameter of the Islets in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qujeq, Durdi; Tatar, Mohsen; Feizi, Farideh; Parsian, Hadi; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Halalkhor, Sohrab

    2013-01-01

    Urtica dioica has been known as a plant that decreases blood glucose. Despite the importance of this plant in herbal medicine, relatively little research has been down on effects of this plant on islets yet. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts on the number and the diameter of the islets and histological parameters in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Six rats were used in each group. Group I: Normal rats were administered saline daily for 8 weeks. Group II: Diabetic rats were administered streptozotocin, 50 mg/kg of body weight; Group III: Diabetic rats were administered dried Urtica dioica leaf aqueous extracts for 8 weeks; Group IV: Diabetic rats were administered dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic extracts for 8 weeks. The animals, groups of diabetic and normal, were sacrificed by ether anaesthesia. Whole pancreas was dissected. The tissue samples were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded for microscopic examination. Histologic examination and grading were carried out on hematoxylin-eosin stained sections. The effects of administration of dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts to diabetic rats were determined by histopathologic examination. The pancreas from control rats showed normal pancreatic islets histoarchitecture. Our results also, indicate that the pancreas from diabetic rats show injury of pancreas tissue while the pancreas from diabetic rats treated with dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts show slight to moderate rearrangement of islets. According to our findings, dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts can cause a suitable repair of pancreatic tissue in streptozocin-induced diabetic experimental model.

  15. Effect of Urtica Dioica Decoction on Serum Glucose and Lipid Profile in Stereptozotocin Induced Diabetic Male Rats

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    Mohammad Reza Sahraki

    Full Text Available Background: Since Urtica dioica is a traditional treatment plant and is used for antihypertensive, antilipidemic and antidiabetic agents, this survey was carried out to evaluate the effect of Urtica dioica decoction on serum glucose and lipid profile in diabetic male rats induced by stereptozotocin (STZ. Materials and Methods: This experiment was performed on 30 Wistar-Albino male rats, weighing 200-250 g, which were divided in sham control (A, diabetic control (B and diabetic test groups (C randomly (N=10. Type I diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65 mg/kg. Test group received 0.40-0.60 ml of Urtica dioica decoction for a month by gavages, control group (B received the same volume of distill water. Group (A did not receive any agent during the experiment period. Finally, animals were anesthetized, sacrificed and blood samples were collected from the cervical vein. Then, serum glucose and lipid profiles were measured by ordinary methods. Data were analyzed by SPSS-11, using ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Results were expressed as mean±SD, and statistical difference was considered significant by p<0.05.Results: Results in the present study showed that fasting blood glucose (FBS, total cholesterol (TCho, triglyceride (TG, LDL, food and water intake were significantly decreased in group C compared with those of group B, but body weight gain was significantly increased compared with that of control group (B.Conclusion: These results indicated that Urtica dioica decoction caused decreased FBS and improved serum lipids in diabetic male rats. Some more studies have shown the same mechanism.

  16. Inter- and intra-guild interactions related to aphids in nettle (Urtica dioica L.) strips closed to field crops.

    OpenAIRE

    Alhmedi, A.; Haubruge, Eric; Bodson, Bernard; Francis, Frédéric

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment designed to assess the biodiversity related to nettle strips closed to crops, and more particularly the aphid and related beneficial populations, was established in experimental farm located in Gembloux (Belgium). Margin strips of nettle (Urtica dioica) closed to wheat (Triticum aestivum), green pea (Pisum sativum) and rape (Brassicae napus) fields were investigated. The diversity, abundance of aphids and related predators were analysed according to the plant crop species a...

  17. The granule cell density of the dentate gyrus following administration of Urtica dioica extract to young diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, S A; Gharravi, A M; Ghafari, S; Jahanshahi, M; Golalipour, M J

    2008-08-01

    Urtica dioica L. Stinging nettle has long been known worldwide as a medicinal plant. To study the benefits of the nettle in diabetic encephalopathy, the granule cell density of the dentate gyrus of diabetic rats was studied following administration of Urtica dioica extract. A total of 24 male albino Wistar rats were allocated equally to normal, diabetic, preventive and treatment groups. Hyperglycaemia was induced by streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) in the animals of the diabetic and treatment groups. One week after injection of the streptozotocin the animals in the treatment group received a hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica (100 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks intraperitoneally. The rats of the preventive group received hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica (100 mg/kg/day) IP for the first 5 days and an injection of streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) on the 6th day. After 5 weeks of study all the rats were sacrificed and coronal sections were taken from the dorsal hippocampal formation of the right cerebral hemispheres and stained with cresyl violet. The area densities of the granule cells were measured and compared in the four groups. The density was lower in the diabetic rats compared with the controls (p > 0.05). The preventive group showed lower cell density than the controls (p > 0.05). The densities in the treated rats were higher than in the diabetic rats (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the control and treated rats showed similar densities (p > 0.05). It seems that U. dioica extract can help compensate for granule cell loss in the diabetic rat dentate gyrus, which can ameliorate cognitive impairment in diabetes. However, preventive use of the extract showed no significant benefit.

  18. AROMA PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM ROOT, LEAF AND STALK OF NETTLE (Urtica dioica L.

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    Razzagh Mahmoudi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plant can be considered as a great source of new antimicrobial agents due to their enormous therapeutic potential and limited side effects. Nettle (Urtica dioica L. is a widespread and common medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine. The present study investigates the antimicrobial potency of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Urtica dioica on some gram positive and negative bacteria and also a particular type of fungi and analyzes the extracts to find the active ingredients by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS method. Results from disc diffusion assay indicated that water extract of root, leaf and stalk had the highest antimicrobial activity respectively and caused significant inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, L. monocytogenes and K. pneumoniae cultures. Antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts was higher in root extract which caused high growth inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus cultures. MBC and MIC experiments of the ethanol extract illustrated that the most powerful antimicrobial effect was related to the stem organ extract on K. pnuomonae and S. aureus bacteria. Highest level of antibacterial effects in root can be due to its higher concentration of contents compared to other organs. Based on these results it can be suggested that Urtica dioica and its water and ethanol extracts have noticeable antimicrobial effects against gram negative, positive and Candida albicans fungi that may be applicable as a prophylactic or therpeutic antimicrobial agent in both human and animals.

  19. Antidiabetic Effect of Hydroalcholic Urtica dioica Leaf Extract in Male Rats with Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance

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    Ahangarpour, Akram; Mohammadian, Maryam; Dianat, Mahin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Urtica dioica has been used as antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic herbal medicine. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica on fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups including control, fructose, extract 50, extract 100 and extract 200. The control rat received vehicle, the fructose and extract groups received fructose 10% for eight weeks. The extract groups received single daily injection of vehicle, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for the two weeks. Blood glucose, insulin, last fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI), serum triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), alanin trasaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), leptin and LDL/HDL ratio were determined. Results: Compared to control group, daily administration of fructose was associated with significant increase in FIRI, blood glucose and insulin, significant decrease in lepin, and no significant change in TG, HDL, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, VLDL, ALT, and ALP. The extract significantly decreased serum glucose, insulin, LDL and leptin, and LDL/HDL ratio and FIRI. It also significantly increased serum TG, VLDL, and AST, but did not change serum ALP. Conclusion: We suggest that Urtica dioica extract, by decreasing serum glucose, and FIRI, may be useful to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, by positive effect on lipid profile and by decreasing effect on leptin, it may improve metabolic syndrome. PMID:23115450

  20. Antidiabetic Effect of Hydroalcholic Urtica dioica Leaf Extract in Male Rats with Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance

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    Akram Ahangarpour

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urtica dioica has been used as antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic herbal medicine. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica on fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups including control, fructose, extract 50, extract 100 and extract 200. The control rat received vehicle, the fructose and extract groups received fructose 10% for eight weeks. The extract groups received single daily injection of vehicle, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for the two weeks. Blood glucose, insulin, last fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI, serum triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, alanin trasaminase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, leptin and LDL/HDL ratio were determined.Results: Compared to control group, daily administration of fructose was associated with significant increase in FIRI, blood glucose and insulin, significant decrease in lepin, and no significant change in TG, HDL, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, VLDL, ALT, and ALP. The extract significantly decreased serum glucose, insulin, LDL and leptin, and LDL/HDL ratio and FIRI. It also significantly increased serum TG, VLDL, and AST, but did not change serum ALP.Conclusion: We suggest that Urtica dioica extract, by decreasing serum glucose, and FIRI, may be useful to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, by positive effect on lipid profile and by decreasing effect on leptin, it may improve metabolic syndrome.

  1. [The influence of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extracts on the activity of catalase in THP1 monocytes/macrophages].

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    Wolska, Jolanta; Janda, Katarzyna; Szkyrpan, Sylwia; Gutowska, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioicd L.) is one of the most valuable plants used in phytotherapy. The herbal raw material is a herb (Urticae herba), leaves (Urticae folium), roots (Urticae radix) and seeds (Urticae semina). This plant is a good source of vitamins, minerals, fibre, protein and biologically active compounds with antioxidant properties. The literature provides limited information about the chemical composition and properties of the seed heads. No papers are available on the effect of extracts of this plant on catalase activity in human cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extracts on the antioxidant activity of catalase in THP1 macrophages. Two types of extracts: water and alcohol, at two different concentrations, were used in experiments. Nettle was collected in September and October in 2012 in the area of Szczecin. The collected plant material was frozen and lyophilized. After those procedures water and alcohol extracts of nettle were prepared and then added to THP1 cells. The antioxidant activity of catalase was established with the spectrophotometric method. The study showed that both extracts (water and alcohol) significantly increased the antioxidant activity of catalase in THP1 cells. The increase in catalase was directly proportional to the concentration of the added alcohol extract.

  2. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L against nicotine-induced damage on sperm parameters, testosterone and testis tissue in mice.

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    Jalili, Cyrus; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Naseri, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Nicotine consumption can decrease fertility drive in males by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urtica dioica L (U.dioica) is a multipurpose herb in traditional medicine for which some anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties have been identified. The main goal is to investigate whether the U.dioica could inhibit nicotine adverse effects on sperm cells viability, count, motility, and testis histology and testosterone hormone. In this study, hydro-alcoholic extract of U.dioica was prepared and various doses of U.dioica (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and U.dioica plus nicotine (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to 56 male mice for 28 consequent days. These mice were randomly assigned to 8 groups (n=7) and sperm parameters (sperm cells viability, count, motility, and morphology), testis and prostate weight, testis histology and testosterone hormone were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that nicotine administration (0.5 mg/kg) significantly decreased testosterone level, count and motility of sperm cells, and testis weight compared to control group (p=0.00). However, increasing the dose of U.dioica significantly boosted motility, count, normal morphology of sperm cells, seminiferous tubules diameter, and testosterone in all groups compared to control (p=0.00) and testis weight in 20 and 50 mg/kg doses in comparison with control group (p=0.00). It seems that U.dioica hydro-alcoholic extract administration could increase the quality of spermatozoa and inhibits nicotine-induced adverse effects on sperm parameters.

  3. Characterization of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of nettle leaves (Urtica dioica L.

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    Kukrić Zoran Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of stinging nettle or common nettle (Urtica dioica L. were collected from the area of Banja Luka. To measure and evaluate the content of chlorophyll (a and b, carotenoids, and soluble proteins, as well as peroxidase activity (POD, EC 1.11.1.7., fresh nettle leaves of different developmental stages were used. Dried nettle leaves were used to obtain ethanol extract. The dry residue of ethanol extract was dissolved in methanol and the obtained solution was used to determine the content of total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols, as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity. The non-enzymatic antioxidant activity was determined by different methods: FRAP, DPPH, and ABTS. The results were compared to those of standard substances like vitamin C, BHT, and BHA. Antimicrobial activity was screened by using macrodilution method. The obtained results showed insignificantly higher content of chlorophyll, carotenoids, and proteins in young nettle leaves as well as an increase in the soluble peroxidase activities. Native electrophoresis of the soluble fraction showed the presence of two peroxidase isophorms in the soluble protein fraction of nettle leaves. The total phenolic content in nettle extracts amounted to 208.37 mg GAE/gdw, the content of total flavonoids was 20.29 mg QE/gdw, and the content of total flavonols was 22.83 mg QE/gdw. The antioxidant activity determined by FRAP method was 7.50 mM Fe(II/gdw, whereas the antioxidant activity measured by using DPPH and ABTS methods, with IC50 values, were 31.38 and 23.55 μg mL-1, respectively. These results showed the weak and moderate antioxidant capacity of stinging nettle. Extract of Urtica dioica L. was tested for antibacterial acivity against various Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria: Bacillus subtilis IP 5832, Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli isolated from food and Escherichia coli isolated from urine samples

  4. Characterization of Urtica dioica agglutinin isolectins and the encoding gene family.

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    Does, M P; Ng, D K; Dekker, H L; Peumans, W J; Houterman, P M; Van Damme, E J; Cornelissen, B J

    1999-01-01

    Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) has previously been found in roots and rhizomes of stinging nettles as a mixture of UDA-isolectins. Protein and cDNA sequencing have shown that mature UDA is composed of two hevein domains and is processed from a precursor protein. The precursor contains a signal peptide, two in-tandem hevein domains, a hinge region and a carboxyl-terminal chitinase domain. Genomic fragments encoding precursors for UDA-isolectins have been amplified by five independent polymerase chain reactions on genomic DNA from stinging nettle ecotype Weerselo. One amplified gene was completely sequenced. As compared to the published cDNA sequence, the genomic sequence contains, besides two basepair substitutions, two introns located at the same positions as in other plant chitinases. By partial sequence analysis of 40 amplified genes, 16 different genes were identified which encode seven putative UDA-isolectins. The deduced amino acid sequences share 78.9-98.9% identity. In extracts of roots and rhizomes of stinging nettle ecotype Weerselo six out of these seven isolectins were detected by mass spectrometry. One of them is an acidic form, which has not been identified before. Our results demonstrate that UDA is encoded by a large gene family.

  5. Urtica dioica modulates hippocampal insulin signaling and recognition memory deficit in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice.

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    Patel, Sita Sharan; Gupta, Sahil; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been associated with functional abnormalities in the hippocampus and performance of cognitive function. Urtica dioica (UD) has been used in the treatment of diabetes. In our previous report we observed that UD extract attenuate diabetes mediated associative and spatial memory dysfunction. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of UD extract on mouse model of diabetes-induced recognition memory deficit and explore the possible mechanism behind it. Streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, i.p. consecutively for 5 days) was used to induce diabetes followed by UD extract (50 mg/kg, oral) or rosiglitazone (ROSI) (5 mg/kg, oral) administration for 8 weeks. STZ induced diabetic mice showed significant decrease in hippocampal insulin signaling and translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) to neuronal membrane resulting in cognitive dysfunction and hypolocomotion. UD treatment effectively improved hippocampal insulin signaling, glucose tolerance and recognition memory performance in diabetic mice, which was comparable to ROSI. Further, diabetes mediated oxidative stress and inflammation was reversed by chronic UD or ROSI administration. UD leaves extract acts via insulin signaling pathway and might prove to be effective for the diabetes mediated central nervous system complications.

  6. Protective effect of Urtica dioica on liver damage induced by biliary obstruction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Serhat; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Ibis, Cem

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Urtica dioica (UD) against liver damage in the common bile duct-ligated rats. A total of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups, namely, control, bile duct ligation (BDL) and BDL + received UD groups, containing eight animals in each group. The rats in UD-treated groups were given UD oils (2 ml/kg) once a day intraperitoneally for 2 weeks starting 3 days prior to BDL operation. The change demonstrating the bile duct proliferation and fibrosis in expanded portal tracts includes the extension of proliferated bile ducts into the lobules; inflammatory cell infiltration into the widened portal areas were observed in BDL group. Treatment of BDL with UD attenuated alterations in liver histology. The α-smooth muscle actin, cytokeratin-positive ductular proliferation and the activity of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling in the BDL were observed to be reduced with the UD treatment. The data indicate that UD attenuates BDL-induced cholestatic liver injury, bile duct proliferation and fibrosis.

  7. Effect of Urtica dioica on memory dysfunction and hypoalgesia in an experimental model of diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Udayabanu, M

    2013-09-27

    Diabetic neuropathy is considered as a disease of the peripheral nervous system, but recent evidences suggest the involvement of central nervous system as well. In this study we evaluated the effect of Urtica dioica (UD) extract against memory dysfunction and hypoalgesia on a mouse model of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic neuropathy. STZ (50 mg/kg, i.p. consecutively for 5 days) was used to induce diabetes, followed by treatment with the UD extract (50 mg/kg, oral) and rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, oral) for 8 weeks. Cognitive functions were evaluated using Morris water maze and passive avoidance step through task. Pain thresholds were measured using thermal, mechanical and chemical induced hyperalgesia. We observed that chronic diabetes resulted in a decline in circulating insulin level, elevated blood glucose, reduced body weight, increased water intake, cognitive impairment and hypoalgesia. UD significantly reduced the blood glucose and polydypsia, as well as improved the body weight, insulin level, cognition and insensate neuropathy. In conclusion, UD showed results comparable to rosiglitazone in reversing the long standing diabetes induced complications such as central and peripheral neuronal dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Urtica dioica leaves modulates muscarinic cholinergic system in the hippocampus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Parashar, Arun; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder and has been associated with cognitive dysfunction. In our earlier study, chronic Urtica dioica (UD) treatment significantly ameliorated diabetes induced associative and spatial memory deficit in mice. The present study was designed to explore the effect of UD leaves extract on muscarinic cholinergic system, which has long been known to be involved in cognition. Streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, i.p., consecutively for 5 days) was used to induce diabetes followed by treatment with UD extract (50 mg/kg, oral) or rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, oral) for 8 weeks. STZ-induced diabetic mice showed significant reduction in hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-1 and choline acetyltransferase expressions. Chronic diabetes significantly up-regulated the protein expression of acetylcholinesterase associated with oxidative stress in hippocampus. Besides, STZ-induced diabetic mice showed hypolocomotion with up-regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-4 expression in striatum. Chronic UD treatment significantly attenuated the cholinergic dysfunction and oxidative stress in the hippocampus of diabetic mice. UD had no effect on locomotor activity and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-4 expression in striatum. In conclusion, UD leaves extract has potential to reverse diabetes mediated alteration in muscarinic cholinergic system in hippocampus and thereby improve memory functions.

  9. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yixiang; Ramirez, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C) or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C) with or without salt (5 g·L−1). Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%–100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene) and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets. PMID:26904610

  10. Effects of Urtica dioica on oxidative stress, proliferation and apoptosis after partial hepatectomy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Serhat; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Toydemir, Toygar; Sayhan, Mustafa Burak; Onur, Hatice

    2015-05-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica (UD) on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) in rats. A total of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated, PH and PH + UD; each group contains eight animals. The rats in UD-treated groups were given UD oils (2 ml/kg/day) once a day orally for 7 days starting 3 days prior to hepatectomy operation. At day 7 after resection, liver samples were collected. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) were estimated in liver homogenates. Moreover, histopathological examination, mitotic index (MI), proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling, proliferation index (PI), transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling assay, apoptotic index (AI) were evaluated at day 7 after hepatectomy. As a result, UD significantly increased MI and PI, significantly decreased AI and also attenuated hepatic vacuolar degeneration and sinusoidal congestion in PH rats. UD treatment significantly decreased the elevated tissue MDA level and increased the reduced SOD activity and GSH level in the tissues. These results suggest that UD pretreatment was beneficial for rat liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models.

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    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Klooshani, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models. Hydroalcoholic extract of the plant leaves was prepared by percolation method. Male Swiss mice (25-35 g) and male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were randomly distributed in control, standard drug, and three experimental groups (n=6 in each group). Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin test, and carrageenan-induced paw edema were used to assess the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. The extract dose-dependently reduced acetic acid-induced abdominal twitches. In formalin test, the extract at any of applied doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) could not suppress the licking behavior of first phase while doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the second phase of formalin test. In carrageenan test, the extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the paw edema by 26%. The results confirm the folkloric use of the plant extract in painful and inflammatory conditions. Further studies are needed to characterize the active constituents and the mechanism of action of the plant extract.

  12. Protective effects of Urtica dioica L. on experimental testicular ischaemia reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, C; Erboga, M; Fidanol Erboga, Z; Bozdemir Donmez, Y; Topcu, B; Gurel, A

    2017-05-01

    In this study, it was aimed to examine the effects of Urtica dioica L. (UD) that has antioxidant feature in the experimental testicular I/R model in rats in terms of anti-apoptotic and antioxidative effects. In our study, 24 male rats were divided into three groups: control group, I/R group and I/R + UD (2 mg kg -1 ) group. Seminiferous tubule calibre measurement, Johnson score, haematoxylin-eosin staining, proliferative cell nucleus antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemical staining and TUNEL as histopathological have been conducted. The structural deterioration in the testicular on I/R group has reduced after the treatment of UD. Our data indicate a significant reduction in the activity of in situ identification of apoptosis using terminal dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL), and there was a rise in the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in testis tissues of UD-treated rats in the I/R group. The I/R + UD group showed a decrease in malondialdehyde levels and an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in comparison with the I/R group. It could be concluded that protective effects of UD on the I/R testicles are via reduction of histological damage, apoptosis, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Effects of urtica dioica extract on experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats.

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    Yilmaz, Baris; Basar, Omer; Aktas, Bora; Altinbas, Akif; Ekiz, Fuat; Büyükcam, Fatih; Albayrak, Aynur; Ginis, Zeynep; Oztürk, Gülfer; Coban, Sahin; Ucar, Engin; Kaya, Oskay; Yüksel, Osman; Caner, Sedat; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the acute inflammation of pancreas and peripancreatic tissues, and distant organs are also affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica extract (UDE) treatment on cerulein induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Twenty-one Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, Pancreatitis, and UDE treatment group. In the control group no procedures were performed. In the pancreatitis and treatment groups, pancreatitis was induced with intraperitoneal injection of cerulein, followed by intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml saline (pancreatitis group) and 1 ml 5.2% UDE (treatment group). Pancreatic tissues were examined histopathologically. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α), amylase and markers of apoptosis (M30, M65) were also measured in blood samples. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with Caspase-3 antibody. Histopathological findings in the UDE treatment group were less severe than in the pancreatitis group (5.7 vs 11.7, p = 0.010). TNF-α levels were not statistically different between treated and control groups (63.3 vs. 57.2, p = 0.141). UDE treatment was associated with less apoptosis [determined by M30, caspase-3 index (%)], (1.769 vs. 0.288, p = 0.056; 3% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.224; respectively). UDE treatment of pancreatitis merits further study.

  14. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4%), and relatively lower energy value (307 kcal/100 g) as compared to wheat and barley flours. Analysis of nettle powder showed significantly higher level of bioactive compounds: phenolic compounds as 129 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g; carotenoid level 3497 μg/g; tannin 0.93 mg/100 g; anti-oxidant activity 66.3 DPPH inhibition (%), as compared to wheat and barley. This study further established that nettle plants as very good source of energy, proteins, high fiber, and a range of health benefitting bioactive compounds.

  15. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban K. Rutto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L. has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C with or without salt (5 g·. Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%–100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets.

  16. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutto, Laban K; Xu, Yixiang; Ramirez, Elizabeth; Brandt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96-98°C) or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C) with or without salt (5 g·L(-1)). Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%-100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene) and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets.

  17. Nettle extract (Urtica dioica) affects key receptors and enzymes associated with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschek, Bill; Fink, Ryan C; McMichael, Matthew; Alberte, Randall S

    2009-07-01

    A nettle (Urtica dioica) extract shows in vitro inhibition of several key inflammatory events that cause the symptoms of seasonal allergies. These include the antagonist and negative agonist activity against the Histamine-1 (H(1)) receptor and the inhibition of mast cell tryptase preventing degranulation and release of a host of pro-inflammatory mediators that cause the symptoms of hay fevers. The nettle extract also inhibits prostaglandin formation through inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and Hematopoietic Prostaglandin D(2) synthase (HPGDS), central enzymes in pro-inflammatory pathways. The IC(50) value for histamine receptor antagonist activity was 251 (+/-13) microg mL(-1) and for the histamine receptor negative agonist activity was 193 (+/-71) microg mL(-1). The IC(50) values for inhibition of mast cell tryptase was 172 (+/-28) microg mL(-1), for COX-1 was 160 (+/-47) microg mL(-1), for COX-2 was 275 (+/-9) microg mL(-1), and for HPGDS was 295 (+/-51) microg mL(-1). Through the use of DART TOF-MS, which yields exact masses and relative abundances of compounds present in complex mixtures, bioactives have been identified in nettle that contribute to the inhibition of pro-inflammatory pathways related to allergic rhinitis. These results provide for the first time, a mechanistic understanding of the role of nettle extracts in reducing allergic and other inflammatory responses in vitro. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Comparative study of the UV spectra of various raw materials OF Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Balagozyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L. is one of the famous and popular medicinal plants. In Russia the herbal materials are nettle’s leaves which have haemostatic effect. At the same time abroad the rhizomes and roots of nettle are the source of drugs with antitumor activity. The chemical composition of the rhizomes and roots of nettle is quite complicated and is represented by substances such as polysaccharides, lectins, sterols etc. The aim of the present study is the comparative phytochemical research of various parts of raw nettle by spectrophotometry. The study of extracts from various raw materials of nettle has shown, that the presence of flavonoids is peculiar for leaves, flowers and fruits. Sterols dominate in the rhizomes and roots of nettle. It was also noted that the UV-spectra of extracts of female inflorescences and fruits nettle have the same absorption maxima.

  19. Ameliorative effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2012-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) (UD) on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of UD. Two biochemical markers viz., β-sitosterol and scopoletin, were isolated and characterised in the extracts utilising High-performance thin layer chromatographic, FTIR, NMR and overlain UV spectral studies. Hyperplasia was induced in rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (3 mg kg(-1) s.c.) for 28 days in all the groups except the vehicle-treated group. Simultaneous administration of petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts (10, 20 and 50 mg kg(-1) p.o.) and isolated β-sitosterol (10 and 20 mg kg(-1) p.o.) was undertaken. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1 mg kg(-1) p.o.). Measurement of prostate/body weight ratio, weekly urine output and serum testosterone levels, prostate-specific antigen levels (on day 28) and histological examinations carried out on prostates from each group led us to conclude that UD can be used as an effective drug for the management of BPH. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. The Effects of Rumex patientia L. and Urtica dioica L. on Some Blood and Urine Parameters, and Liver and Kidney Histology in Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNEŞ, Hasan V.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Rumex patientia and Urtica dioica on levels of blood glucose, plasma amino acids and other parameters, urine excreta, and liver and kidney histology were examined in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin. Streptozotocin increased blood glucose and changed the levels of amino acids and other parameters, and caused degenerative changes in the liver and kidney. Rumex patientia had some protective effect on these parameters changed by streptozotocin, while Urtica dioci...

  1. Immunological responses and disease resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles following dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi Asl, Mohammad Reza; Adel, Milad; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Dawood, Mahmoud A O

    2017-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, skin mucus, immune response and disease resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed with diets supplemented with U. dioica at 0, 1, 2 and 3%. After 8 weeks of feeding, the addition of U. dioica at 3% level resulted in improved weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio significantly when compared to the other groups (P nettle when measured after 4 weeks; while, total red blood cells, white blood, Htc, Hb, lymphocyte and neutrophil populations significantly increased after 8 weeks in the same group (P nettle at 3% when compared to the other groups after 8 weeks; however, triglycerides decreased significantly in the same group on the 4th and 8th week (P nettle supplementation exhibited improved antagonistic activities against several bacterial pathogens (Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Vibrio anguillarum and Lactococcus garviae), skin mucus enzymes activities (alkaline phosphatase, lysozyme, protease and esterase) and protein levels in 2 and 3% groups with the highest being in case of 3% group when compared to the other groups (P nettle. The present findings demonstrated that dietary administration of U. dioica enhanced growth and stimulated fish immunity; thus, enabling the fish to be more resistant against bacterial infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lignans from the roots of Urtica dioica and their metabolites bind to human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöttner, M; Gansser, D; Spiteller, G

    1997-12-01

    Polar extracts of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) roots contain the ligans (+)-neoolivil, (-)-secoisolariciresinol, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, isolariciresinol, pinoresinol, and 3,4-divanillyltetrahydrofuran. These compounds were either isolated from Urtica roots, or obtained semisynthetically. Their affinity to human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) was tested in an in vitro assay. In addition, the main intestinal transformation products of plant lignans in humans, enterodiol and enterolactone, together with enterofuran were checked for their activity. All lignans except (-)-pinoresinol developed a binding affinity to SHBG in the in vitro assay. The affinity of (-)-3,4-divanillyltetrahydrofuran was outstandingly high. These findings are discussed with respect to potential beneficial effects of plant lignans on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

  3. Effect of Extract of Aerial Parts of Urtica dioica (Urticaceae) on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Three different U. dioica extracts, viz, chloroform, methanol (80 %) and water extracts, were ... (DPPH) radical scavenging and soybean oil models. ... Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that mixing soybean oil with U. dioica ...

  4. Characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Urtica dioica Linn. leaves and their synergistic effects with antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Jyoti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In continuation of the efforts for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs by green chemistry route, here we report a facile bottom-up ‘green’ route for the synthesis of AgNPs using aqueous leaves extract of Urtica dioica (Linn.. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Zeta-sizer and Zeta-potential, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED. The results obtained from various characterizations revealed that AgNPs were in the size range of 20–30 nm and crystallized in face-centered-cubic structure. The antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Salmonella typhimurium bacterial pathogens was demonstrated by synthesized nanoparticles. Further, synergistic effects of AgNPs with various antibiotics were evaluated against above mentioned bacterial pathogens. The results showed that AgNPs in combination with antibiotics have better antibacterial effect as compared with AgNPs alone and hence can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria. The maximum effect, with a 17.8 fold increase in inhibition zone, was observed for amoxicillin with AgNPs against S. marcescens proving the synergistic role of AgNPs. Therefore, it may be used to augment the activities of antibiotics.

  5. Protective effects of Urtica dioica seed extract in aflatoxicosis: histopathological and biochemical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyar, A; Yener, Z; Dogan, A

    2016-04-01

    The ameliorative potential and antioxidant capacity of an extract of Urtica dioica seeds (UDS) was investigated using histopathological changes in liver and kidney, measuring serum marker enzymes, antioxidant defence systems and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA)) content in various tissues of broilers exposed to aflatoxin (AF). A total of 32 broilers were divided randomly into 4 groups: control, UDS extract-treated, AF-treated and AF+UDS extract-treated. Broilers in control and UDS extract-treated groups were fed on a diet without AF. The AF-treated group and AF+UDS extract-treated groups were treated with an estimated 1 mg total AF/kg feed. The AF+UDS extract groups received in addition 30 ml UDS extract/kg diet for 21 d. The AF-treated group had significantly decreased body weight gain when compared to the other groups. Biochemical analysis showed a small increase in the concentrations of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and lactate dehydrogenase in the AF-treated group compared to that of the control group, whereas concentrations of these enzymes were decreased in the AF+UDS group compared to that of the AF-treated group. Administration of supplementary UDS extract helped restore the AF-induced increase in MDA and reduced the antioxidant system towards normality, particularly in the liver, brain, kidney and heart. Hepatorenal protection by UDS extracts was further supported by the almost normal histology in AF+UDS extract-treated group as compared to the degenerative changes in the AF-treated broilers. It was concluded that UDS extract has a protective hepatorenal effect in broilers affected by aflatoxicosis, probably acting by promoting the antioxidative defence systems.

  6. The effect of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) seed oil on experimental colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Zeynep; Yarat, Aysen; Tunali-Akbay, Tugba; Sener, Goksel; Cetinel, Sule; Pisiriciler, Rabia; Caliskan-Ak, Esin; Altıntas, Ayhan; Demirci, Betul

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of Urtica dioica, known as stinging nettle, seed oil (UDO) treatment on colonic tissue and blood parameters of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Experimental colitis was induced with 1 mL of TNBS in 40% ethanol by intracolonic administration with a 8-cm-long cannula with rats under ether anesthesia, assigned to a colitis group and a colitis+UDO group. Rats in the control group were given saline at the same volume by intracolonic administration. UDO (2.5 mL/kg) was given to the colitis+UDO group by oral administration throughout a 3-day interval, 5 minutes later than colitis induction. Saline (2.5 mL/kg) was given to the control and colitis groups at the same volume by oral administration. At the end of the experiment macroscopic lesions were scored, and the degree of oxidant damage was evaluated by colonic total protein, sialic acid, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione levels, collagen content, tissue factor activity, and superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase activities. Colonic tissues were also examined by histological and cytological analysis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6), lactate dehydrogenase activity, and triglyceride and cholesterol levels were analyzed in blood samples. We found that UDO decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, lactate dehydrogenase, triglyceride, and cholesterol, which were increased in colitis. UDO administration ameliorated the TNBS-induced disturbances in colonic tissue except for MDA. In conclusion, UDO, through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions, merits consideration as a potential agent in ameliorating colonic inflammation.

  7. RAPD-PCR and real-time PCR HRM based genetic variation evaluations of Urtica dioica parts, ecotypes and evaluations of morphotypes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzonur, Irem; Akdeniz, Gamze; Katmer, Zeynep; Ersoy, Seyda Karaman

    2013-01-01

    Urtica dioica is an ethnobotanically and medicinally important Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) plant worldwide and in Turkey; 90 % of herbal CAM applications depend on it in Turkey. It has a wide range of habitats in nearly all continents. It is found in all three phytogeographical regions in Turkey (Euro-Siberian, Irano-Turanian, Mediterranean) with high adaptivity to heterogeneous geographies such as climate, soil types and altitudes. This fact in relation to the assessment of chemical constituents of the plant and combining with further genetic and morphological variation data can assist and enhance the works for the utility and reliability of CAM applications in effect and activity of this plant species. In this work we have made some preliminary experiments with novel approaches to reveal the ecotypes and genetic variation of mighty ecotypes of Urtica dioica from different phytogeographical regions of Turkey (Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean). The ecotypes have heterogeneity in both its parts (leaf, stem, root) as revealed by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) using random primers and High-resolution Melt (HRM) analysis using Urtica dioica specific primers and universal chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) primers and morphological traits such as phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of plants' leaf infusions as used in medicinal applications in Turkey. This work will contribute a lot for the development of molecular markers to detect the genetic variation and heterogeneity of Urtica dioica to further relate with expected phenotypes that are most useful and relevant in CAM applications.

  8. Effects of Urtica dioica dichloromethane extract on cell apoptosis and related gene expression in human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-468).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A; Mansoori, B; Goldar, S; Shanehbandi, D; Khaze, V; Mohammadnejad, L; Baghbani, E; Baradaran, B

    2016-02-29

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in worldwide, especially in developing countries. Therefore, a large number of anticancer agents with herbal origins have been reported against this deadly disease. This study is the first to examine the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of Urtica dioica in MDA-MB-468, human breast adenocarcinoma cells. The 3-(4,5-dimethylethiazol-2 yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) reduction and trypan-blue exclusion assay were performed in MDA-MB-468 cells as well as control cell line L929 to analyze the cytotoxic activity of the dichloromethane extract. In addition, Apoptosis induction of Urtica dioica on the MDA-MB-468 cells was assessed using TUNEL (terminal deoxy transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick- end labeling) assay and DNA fragmentation analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results showed that the extract significantly inhibited cell growth and viability without inducing damage to normal control cells. Nuclei Staining in TUNEL and DNA fragments in DNA fragmentation assay and increase in the mRNA expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-9, decrease in the bcl2 and no significant change in the caspase-8 mRNA expression level, showed that the induction of apoptosis was the main mechanism of cell death that induce by Urtica dioica extract. Our results suggest that urtica dioica dichloromethane extract may contain potential bioactive compound(s) for the treatment of breast adenocarcinoma.

  9. Evaluation of antioxidant properties, elemental and phenolic contents composition of wild nettle (Urtica dioica L.) from Tunceli in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, N C; Turkoglu, S; Ince, O K; Ince, M

    2013-11-03

    Wild nettle (Urtica dioica L.) types were sampled from different geographical regions in Tunceli (Turkey) to determine their mineral, vitamin, phenolic contents and their antioxidant properties. The total phenol varied from 37.419 ± 0.380 to 19.182 ± 1.00 mg of GAEs g(-1) of dry nettle. The highest radical scavenging effect was observed in Mazgirt parting of the ways 7.5 km with 33.70 ± 0.849 mg mL(-1). The highest reducing power was observed in the nettles from Mazgirt parting of the ways 7.5 km. Among the various macronutrients estimated in the plant samples, potassium was present in the highest quantity followed by calcium and phosphate. Kaempferol and resveratrol were not determined in some nettle samples but rutin levels were determined in all samples. Vitamin A concentrations were ranged between 13.64 ± 1.90 and 5.74 ± 1.00 (mg kg(-1) dry weight). These results show that Urtica dioica L. collected from Tunceli in Turkey could be considered as a natural alternative source for food, pharmacology and medicine sectors.

  10. The effect of Urtica dioica extract on the number of astrocytes in the dentate gyrus of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, M; Golalipour, M J; Afshar, M

    2009-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with cerebral alterations in both human and animal models of the disease. These alterations include abnormal expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides and hippocampal astrogliosis. Urtica dioica (Nettle) is among several species listed for their use against diabetes in folk medicine. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the astrocyte number in the dentate gyrus of diabetic rats after treatment with nettle. A total of 21 male albino Wistar rats were used in the present study. The animals were divided into three groups: control, nettle-untreated diabetic, and nettle treated diabetic. Hyperglycaemia was induced by streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) in the animals of the diabetic and treatment groups. One week after injection of the streptozotocin, the animals in the treatment group received a hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica (100 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks intraperitoneally. After a 5-week survival period, all the rats were sacrificed and coronal sections were taken from the dorsal hippocampal formation of the right cerebral hemispheres. The area densities of the astrocytes were measured and compared between the three groups (p < 0.05). The number of astrocytes increased in the diabetic rats (24.06 +/- 9.57) compared with the controls (17.52 +/- 6.66). The densities in the treated rats (19.50 +/- 6.16) were lower than in the diabetic rats. Furthermore, the control and treated rats showed similar densities. We concluded that U. dioica extract helped compensate for astrocytes in the treatment rats dentate gyrus in comparison with diabetic rats.

  11. The effect of extracts of the roots of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on the interaction of SHBG with its receptor on human prostatic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryb, D J; Khan, M S; Romas, N A; Rosner, W

    1995-02-01

    Extracts from the roots of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) are used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The mechanisms underlying this treatment have not been elucidated. We set out to determine whether specific extracts from U. dioica had the ability to modulate the binding of sex hormone-binding globulin to its receptor on human prostatic membranes. Four substances contained in U. dioica were examined: an aqueous extract; an alcoholic extract; U. dioica agglutinin, and stigmasta-4-en-3-one. Of these, only the aqueous extract was active. It inhibited the binding of 125I-SHBG to its receptor. The inhibition was dose related, starting at about 0.6 mg/ml and completely inhibited binding at 10 mg/ml.

  12. Glycemic Control by Exercise and Urtica Dioica Supplements in Men With Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabagh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disease in which hyperglycemia is a major symptom, and is associated with numerous vascular and non-vascular complications. People with diabetes use medicinal treatment to exert glycemic control, as well as exercise training and herbal remedies, such as urtica dioica (UD. Objectives This study aimed to compare the effects of 8 weeks of aerobic training and UD supplementation alone, and in combination, on glycemic control in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Patients and Methods This semi-experimental study was conducted in 2014, in the city of Dezful, Iran. A total of 40 males (aged 30 - 50 years with T2DM were selected and randomly divided into one of four groups in equal numbers (n = 10: 1 - aerobic training (Ae, 2 - UD supplements (UD, 3 - a combination of aerobic training and UD supplements (Ae + UD, and 4 - a control group. Blood samples were taken 24 hours before and 48 hours after the intervention period, following 10 - 12 hours of fasting. A t-test and analysis of variance was used to analyze the changes in the measured parameters, and P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A significant decrease in fasting blood sugar (FBS was observed in the Ae group (-9.50 ± 6.96 mg/dl; P = 0.002, the UD group (-7.60 ± 6.04 mg/dL; P = 0.001, and the Ae + UD group (-18.30 ± 6.63 mg/dL; P < 0.001 after 8 weeks. There was a significant difference in FBS between the three intervention groups and the control group. In addition, a significant difference in FBS (P < 0.05 was shown between the UD and Ae + UD groups. Conclusions The findings confirmed the positive influence of UD supplements and aerobic training on glycemic control in males with T2DM. When aerobic training was combined with a UD supplement, a greater degree of glycemic control was observed.

  13. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L. on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayhan, Mustafa Burak; Kanter, Mehmet; Oguz, Serhat; Erboga, Mustafa

    2012-12-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury may occur after renal transplantation, thoracoabdominal aortic surgery, and renal artery interventions. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica L. (UD), in I/R induced renal injury. A total of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, UD alone, I/R and I/R + UD; each group contain 8 animals. A rat model of renal I/R injury was induced by 45-min occlusion of the bilateral renal pedicles and 24-h reperfusion. In the UD group, 3 days before I/R, UD (2 ml/kg/day intraperitoneal) was administered by gastric gavage. All animals were sacrificed at the end of reperfusion and kidney tissues samples were obtained for histopathological investigation in all groups. To date, no more histopathological changes on intestinal I/R injury in rats by UD treatment have been reported. Renal I/R caused severe histopathological injury including tubular damage, atrophy dilatation, loss of brush border and hydropic epithelial cell degenerations, renal corpuscle atrophy, glomerular shrinkage, markedly focal mononuclear cell infiltrations in the kidney. UD treatment significantly attenuated the severity of intestinal I/R injury and significantly lowered tubulointerstitial damage score than the I/R group. The number of PCNA and TUNEL positive cells in the control and UD alone groups was negligible. When kidney sections were PCNA and TUNEL stained, there was a clear increase in the number of positive cells in the I/R group rats in the renal cortical tissues. However, there is a significant reduction in the activity of PCNA and TUNEL in kidney tissue of renal injury induced by renal I/R with UD therapy. Our results suggest that administration of UD attenuates renal I/R injury. These results suggest that UD treatment has a protective effect against renal damage induced by renal I/R. This protective effect is possibly due to its ability to inhibit I/R induced renal damage, apoptosis and cell proliferation.

  14. A scanning proton microprobe study of stinging emergences from the leaf of the common stinging nettle urtica dioica l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, N. P.; Perry, C. C.; Williams, R. J. P.; Watt, F.; Grime, G. W.

    1988-03-01

    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) combined with the Oxford scanning proton microprobe (SPM) was used to investigate the abundance and spatial distribution of inorganic elements in mineralising stinging emergences from the leaf of the Common Stinging Nettle, Urtica dioica L. Elemental maps and point analytical data were collected for emergences at two stages of maturity. In all emergences calcium and silicon were spatially organised and present at high concentration. The inorganic elements K, P, S and Mn were also spatially organised during mineralisation, but at maturity these elements were present only at background levels and then showed no specific localisation. The observed changes in the inorganic content of the emergences are obviously related to the mineralisation processes. The possible biochemical significance of the distribution of the elements is discussed.

  15. Neuroprotective Effects of Herbal Extract (Rosa canina, Tanacetum vulgare and Urtica dioica) on Rat Model of Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshmand, Parvaneh; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Marzieh; Kamali, Koorosh; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Nazari, Reza; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (SAD) is caused by genetic risk factors, aging and oxidative stresses. The herbal extract of Rosa canina (R. canina), Tanacetum vulgare (T. vulgare) and Urtica dioica (U. dioica) has a beneficial role in aging, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of this herbal extract in the rat model of SAD was investigated. The rats were divided into control, sham, model, herbal extract -treated and ethanol-treated groups. Drug interventions were started on the 21(st) day after modeling and each treatment group was given the drugs by intraperitoneal (I.P.) route for 21 days. The expression levels of the five important genes for pathogenesis of SAD including Syp, Psen1, Mapk3, Map2 and Tnf-α were measured by qPCR between the hippocampi of SAD model which were treated by this herbal extract and control groups. The Morris Water Maze was adapted to test spatial learning and memory ability of the rats. Treatment of the rat model of SAD with herbal extract induced a significant change in expression of Syp (p=0.001) and Psen1 (p=0.029). In Morris Water Maze, significant changes in spatial learning seen in the rat model group were improved in herbal-treated group. This herbal extract could have anti-dementia properties and improve spatial learning and memory in SAD rat model.

  16. Effect of Selected Pyrazine Derivatives on the Production of Phenolics and Rutin in Urtica dioica and Fagopyrum esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravcová, Sárka; Fiedlerová, Vendula; Tůma, Jirí; Musil, Karel; Tůmová, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    The effect of four pyrazine derivatives on the content of phenolic compounds in Urtica dioica L. and rutin in Fagopyrum esculentum Moench was studied. Pyrazine derivatives H1 and H2 were used on U. dioica, and derivatives S1 and S2 on F. esculentum, both separately and in combination with urea. The content of phenolic compounds in the stems of U. dioica after treatment with H2 at a concentration of 10(-3) M significantly increased compared with the control and to a lower concentration of the same pyrazine derivative. In the case of S1 and S2 for F. esculentum, rutin content also increased in stems, mainly after treatment together with urea. By contrast, rutin and phenolics contents in the leaves did not change in comparison with controls after application of H1, H2, S I and S2. Treatment with H1 and H2 in two chosen concentrations resulted in a significant increase in the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. A slight increase in the rate of photosynthesis was observed also after application of variants of S1 and S1 with urea. Pyrazine derivatives did not show any effect on either the relative content of chlorophyll or chlorophyll fluorescence. A slight weight reduction of above ground biomass was shown only after application of Si and S2. Dark necrosis on the edges and center of the leaves was observed in all treated plants after pyrazine application. The results suggest that all the pyrazine derivatives possess herbicidal effects.

  17. In vitro bioaccessibility, transepithelial transport and antioxidant activity of Urtica dioica L. phenolic compounds in nettle based food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Gianpiero; Tedeschi, Paola; Meca, Giuseppe; Bertelli, Davide; Mañes, Jordi; Brandolini, Vincenzo; Maietti, Annalisa

    2016-10-12

    Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a well-known plant with a wide historical background use of stems, roots and leaves. Nettle leaves are an excellent source of phenolic compounds, principally 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), caffeoylmalic acid (CMA) and rutin. The aim of this work was to evaluate the bioaccessibility (BAC), the bioavailability (BAV) and the antioxidant activity of nettle phenolic compounds present in foods and supplements. The BAC of nettle phenolics was evaluated with an in vitro dynamic digestion of real food matrices: the type of food matrix and chemical characteristic affected the kinetics of release and solubilization, with the highest BAC after duodenal digestion. A study of duodenal trans epithelial transport evidenced low bioavailability of native forms of 3-CQA, CMA and rutin. Simulation of colonic metabolism confirmed that phenolic compounds are fermented by gut microflora, confirming the need for further investigations on the impact of phenolic compounds at the large intestine level. Photochemiluminescence assay of the simulated digestion fluids demonstrated that ingestion of Urtica based foods contributes to create an antioxidant environment against superoxide anion radicals in the entire gastrointestinal tract (GIT).

  18. Salix transect of Europe: variation in ploidy and genome size in willow-associated common nettle, Urtica dioica L. sens. lat., from Greece to arctic Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Quentin Cronk; Oriane Hidalgo; Jaume Pellicer; Diana Percy; Ilia Leitch

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The common stinging nettle, Urtica dioica L. sensu lato, is an invertebrate "superhost", its clonal patches maintaining large populations of insects and molluscs. It is extremely widespread in Europe and highly variable, and two ploidy levels (diploid and tetraploid) are known. However, geographical patterns in cytotype variation require further study. New information We assembled a collection of nettles in conjunction with a transect of Europe from the Aegean to Arctic No...

  19. Effects of Urtica dioica supplementation on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in type 2 diabetic patients: A double blind, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri Behzadi, Alidad; Kalalian-Moghaddam, Hamid; Ahmadi, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of diabetic complications including metabolic abnormality-induced diabetic micro-vascular and macro-vascular complications. Urtica dioica L. ( U. dioica ) has been traditionally used in Iranian medicine as an herbal remedy for hypoglycemic or due to its anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 50 women with type 2 diabetes participated in this study and were randomly divided into two groups namely, control and intervention groups. Control group received placebo and intervention group received hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica . Before and after 8 weeks of continuous treatment, some biochemical serum levels including FPG, TG, SGPT, SGOT, HDL, LDL, SOD and NO were measured. The results indicated that after 8 weeks, in the intervention group, FPG, TG, and SGPT levels significantly decreased and HDL, NO and SOD levels significantly increased as compared to the control group. Our results encourage the use of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica as an antioxidant agent for additional therapy of diabetes as hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica may decrease risk factors of cardiovascular incidence and other complications in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  20. Effects of Urtica dioica supplementation on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in type 2 diabetic patients: A double blind, randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alidad Amiri Behzadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of diabetic complications including metabolic abnormality-induced diabetic micro-vascular and macro-vascular complications. Urtica dioica L. (U. dioica has been traditionally used in Iranian medicine as an herbal remedy for hypoglycemic or due to its anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: 50 women with type 2 diabetes participated in this study and were randomly divided into two groups namely, control and intervention groups. Control group received placebo and intervention group received hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica. Before and after 8 weeks of continuous treatment, some biochemical serum levels including FPG, TG, SGPT, SGOT, HDL, LDL, SOD and NO were measured. Results: The results indicated that after 8 weeks, in the intervention group, FPG, TG, and SGPT levels significantly decreased and HDL, NO and SOD levels significantly increased as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our results encourage the use of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica as an antioxidant agent for additional therapy of diabetes as hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica may decrease risk factors of cardiovascular incidence and other complications in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  1. TRACE METAL CONTENT (Cu, Zn, Mn AND Fe) IN URTICA DIOICA L. AND PLANTAGO MAJOR L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krolak, Elzbieta; Raczuk, Jolanta; Borkowska, Lidia

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the contents of Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe in the washed and unwashed leaves and roots of two plant species: Urica dioica L. and Plantago major L., used in herbal medicine. These two herb species occur in the same environmental habitats, yet their morphological structure is different. The soil and plant samples for analyses were collected from an uncontaminated area in Eastern Poland. In each habitat location, the samples were taken from sandy soils with slightly acidic and neutral pH values. The obtained results showed that U. dioica and P. major accumulated similar amounts of trace metals, such as: Cu, Zn and Fe, in leaves, despite the differences in the morphological structure of their overground parts. The content of Mn in leaves U. dioica was about twice as much as in P. major. Also, no differences in the metal content were observed between washed and unwashed leaves of both species. However, in the same habitat conditions, a significantly higher content of Cu, Zn and Mn was found in the roots of P. major than U. dioica. The content of Fe in the roots was similar in both species. P. major and U. dioica may be a valuable source of microelements, if they are obtained from unpolluted habitats.

  2. Hepatoprotective potential of antioxidant potent fraction from Urtica dioica Linn. (whole plant in CCl4 challenged rats

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    Bhuwan Chandra Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to isolate hepatoprotective component from Urtica dioica Linn. (whole plant against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in-vitro (HepG2 cells and in-vivo (rats model. Antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract and its fractions petroleum ether fraction (PEF, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, n-butanol fraction (NBF and aqueous fraction (AF were determined by DPPH and NO radicals scavenging assay. Fractions were subjected to in-vitro HepG2 cell line study. Further, the most potent fraction (EAF was subjected to in-vivo hepatoprotective potential against CCl4 challenged rats. The in-vivo hepatoprotective active fraction was chromatographed on silica column to isolate the bioactive constituent(s. Structure elucidation was done by using various spectrophotometric techniques like UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS spectroscopy. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica possessed the potent antioxidant activity viz. DPPH (IC50 78.99 ± 0.17 μg/ml and NO (IC50101.39 ± 0.30 μg/ml. The in-vitro HepG2 cell line study showed that the EAF prevented the cell damage. The EAF significantly attenuated the increased liver enzymes activities in serum and oxidative parameters in tissue of CCl4-induced rats, suggesting hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant action respectively. Column chromatography of most potent antioxidant fraction (EAF lead to the isolation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid (ferulic acid which is responsible for its hepatoprotective potential. Hence, the present study suggests that EAF of hydro-alcoholic extract has significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in-vitro and in-vivo.

  3. Hepatoprotective potential of antioxidant potent fraction from Urtica dioica Linn. (whole plant) in CCl4 challenged rats.

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    Joshi, Bhuwan Chandra; Prakash, Atish; Kalia, Ajudhia N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate hepatoprotective component from Urtica dioica Linn. (whole plant) against CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity in-vitro (HepG2 cells) and in-vivo (rats) model. Antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract and its fractions petroleum ether fraction (PEF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), n -butanol fraction (NBF) and aqueous fraction (AF) were determined by DPPH and NO radicals scavenging assay. Fractions were subjected to in-vitro HepG2 cell line study. Further, the most potent fraction (EAF) was subjected to in-vivo hepatoprotective potential against CCl 4 challenged rats. The in-vivo hepatoprotective active fraction was chromatographed on silica column to isolate the bioactive constituent(s). Structure elucidation was done by using various spectrophotometric techniques like UV, IR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and MS spectroscopy. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica possessed the potent antioxidant activity viz. DPPH (IC 50 78.99 ± 0.17 μg/ml) and NO (IC 50 101.39 ± 0.30 μg/ml). The in-vitro HepG2 cell line study showed that the EAF prevented the cell damage. The EAF significantly attenuated the increased liver enzymes activities in serum and oxidative parameters in tissue of CCl 4 -induced rats, suggesting hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant action respectively. Column chromatography of most potent antioxidant fraction (EAF) lead to the isolation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid (ferulic acid) which is responsible for its hepatoprotective potential. Hence, the present study suggests that EAF of hydro-alcoholic extract has significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential on CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicity in-vitro and in-vivo .

  4. Influence of plant maturity, shoot reproduction and sex on vegetative growth in the dioecious plant Urtica dioica.

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    Oñate, Marta; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2009-10-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is a herbaceous, dioecious perennial that is widely distributed around the world, reproduces both sexually and asexually, and is characterized by rapid growth. This work was aimed at evaluating the effects of plant maturity, shoot reproduction and sex on the growth of leaves and shoots. Growth rates of apical shoots, together with foliar levels of phytohormones (cytokinins, auxins, absicisic acid, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid) and other indicators of leaf physiology (water contents, photosynthetic pigments, alpha-tocopherol and F(v)/F(m) ratios) were measured in juvenile and mature plants, with a distinction made between reproductive and non-reproductive shoots in both males and females. Vegetative growth rates were not only evaluated in field-grown plants, but also in cuttings obtained from these plants. All measurements were performed during an active vegetative growth phase in autumn, a few months after mature plants reproduced during spring and summer. Vegetative growth rates in mature plants were drastically reduced compared with juvenile ones (48 % and 78 % for number of leaves and leaf biomass produced per day, respectively), which was associated with a loss of photosynthetic pigments (up to 24 % and 48 % for chlorophylls and carotenoids, respectively) and increases of alpha-tocopherol (up to 2.7-fold), while endogenous levels of phytohormones did not differ between mature and juvenile plants. Reductions in vegetative growth were particularly evident in reproductive shoots of mature plants, and occurred similarly in both males and females. It is concluded that (a) plant maturity reduces vegetative growth in U. dioica, (b) effects of plant maturity are evident both in reproductive and non-reproductive shoots, but particularly in the former, and (c) these changes occur similarly in both male and female plants.

  5. Screening of analgesic activity of Tunisian Urtica dioica and analysis of its major bioactive compounds by GCMS.

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    Dhouibi, Raouia; Moalla, Dorsaf; Ksouda, Kamilia; Ben Salem, Maryem; Hammami, Serria; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Zeghal, Khaled Mounir; Affes, Hanen

    2017-11-20

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic properties of Urtica dioica (UD) and to profile phytochemicals by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The ethanolic extracts were prepared by maceration method and extraction using rotary evaporator. The analgesic activity was analysed by hot plate method, formalin test, acetic acid-induced writhing test and the tail-flick test with different doses of the ethanolic extract. In all tests, the leaf's ethanolic extract exhibited significant analgesic activity (p analgesic activity with many tests. The GC-MS analysis of the ethanol extract of leaf revealed many compounds; 2-methyltetradecane dodecane, 2,6,11-trimethyl-; 2,6,11-trimethyldodecane, and trimethylhexane which are pharmaceutically the most important. These findings justify that UD can be a valuable natural analgesic source which seemed to provide potential phototherapeutics against various ailments. The analysis of ethanolic extract of UD by GCMS revealed the presence of several compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, triterpenes which can explain the analgesic effect of UD and its mechanism of action. Hence, UD could be another therapeutic alternative for relieving pain and for minimising the use of drugs that have long-term secondary effects.

  6. 2D FTIR correlation spectroscopy and EPR analysis of Urtica dioica leaves from areas of different environmental pollution.

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    Moskal, Paulina; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Łabanowska, Maria; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Filek, Maria

    2018-01-15

    Leaves of Urtica dioica collected from two areas of different environmental pollution were analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Analysis of FTIR spectra allows to describe main component of plant like proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Although the FTIR spectra of plants from these two geographical locations of different environmental pollution appear to be relatively similar, 2D correlation shows completely different patterns. Synchronous and asynchronous correlation maps showed sequences of changes occurring during development of plant, manly in Amide I and Amide II, lignin, lipids and cellulose. In addition, 2D analysis revealed another sequence of changes as the function of plant growth depending on the degree of the environmental pollution. Two various kinds of paramagnetic species, transition metal ions (Mn(II), Fe(III)) and stable organic radicals (chlorophyll, semiquinone, tyrosyl and carbon centered) were found in leaves of nettle collected at different stages of development and growing in clean and polluted environment. In plants growing in polluted area the injuries of protein molecules bonding metal ions and the disturbances of photosynthesis and redox equilibrium in cells, as well as instability of polysaccharide structure of cell walls were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of in-vitro Antioxidant Properties of Hydroalcoholic Solution Extracts Urtica dioica L., Malva neglecta Wallr. and Their Mixture.

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    Güder, Aytaç; Korkmaz, Halil

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic solution extracts of Urtica dioica L. (UD), Malva neglecta Wallr. (MN) plants and their mixture. In this study, flower (UDF), root (UDR), seed (UDS) and leaf (UDL) parts of UD and flower (MNF) and leaf (MNL) parts of MN were used. The antioxidant properties of hydroalcoholic extracts and their mixture were evaluated using different antioxidant tests such as total antioxidant activity, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, free radical scavenging, and metal chelating activity for comparison. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the extracts of both plants were determined as catechin equivalent. The various antioxidant activities were compared to natural and synthetic standard antioxidants such as BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol. According to FTC method, the both extracts exhibited strong total antioxidant activity. At the concentration of 100 μg/mL, Hydroalcoholic extracts of UDS, UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, MNL, and UD-MN showed 81.7%, 79.8%, 78.3%, 76.4%, 77.3%, 74.1%, and 80.7%, respectively. Comparable, 100 μg/mL of standard antioxidants BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol exhibited 66.2%, 70.6%, and 50.1% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. In addition, UD-MN showed strong superoxide anion radical scavenging activity comparable with UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, and MNL. Based on the findings, plants mixture was commonly found to have synergistically higher antioxidant activity.

  8. Ameliorative influence of Urtica dioica L against cisplatin-induced toxicity in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkol, Halil; Musa, Davut; Tuluce, Yasin; Koyuncu, Ismail

    2012-07-01

    Cisplatin (CP) is a widely used cytotoxic agent against cancer, and high doses of CP have been known to cause nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Some reports claim that antioxidants can reduce CP-induced toxicity. This study investigated the hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and antioxidant activity of Urtica dioica L methanolic extract (UDME) against CP toxicity in Erhlich ascites tumor (EAT)-bearing mice. Levels of serum hepatic enzymes, renal function markers, and oxidant/antioxidant parameters of liver tissue were measured. Mice were inoculated with EAT on day 0 and treated with nothing else for 24 hours. After a single dose of CP administration on day 1, the extract was given at the doses of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight daily during 6 days. Almost all doses of UDME performed a significant (P < 0.05) preventive role against CP toxicity by decreasing aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation levels, and myeloperoxidase activity, as well as increasing reduced glutathione content, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase activities. This suggests that UDME has a protective capacity and antioxidant activity against CP toxicity in EAT-bearing mice, probably by promoting antioxidative defense systems.

  9. Extraction and HPLC analysis of phenolic compounds in leaves, stalks, and textile fibers of Urtica dioica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Patrizia; Ieri, Francesca; Vignolini, Pamela; Bacci, Laura; Baronti, Silvia; Romani, Annalisa

    2008-10-08

    In the present study the phenolic composition of leaves, stalks, and textile fiber extracts from Urtica dioica L. is described. Taking into account the increasing demand for textile products made from natural fibers and the necessity to create sustainable "local" processing chains, an Italian project was funded to evaluate the cultivation of nettle fibers in the region of Tuscany. The leaves of two nettle samples, cultivated and wild (C and W), contain large amounts of chlorogenic and 2- O-caffeoylmalic acid, which represent 71.5 and 76.5% of total phenolics, respectively. Flavonoids are the main class in the stalks: 54.4% of total phenolics in C and 31.2% in W samples. Anthocyanins are second in quantitative importance and are present only in nettle stalks: 28.6% of total phenolics in C and 24.4% in W extracts. Characterization of phenolic compounds in nettle extracts is an important result with regard to the biological properties (antioxidant and antiradical) of these metabolites for their possible applications in various industrial activities, such as food/feed, cosmetics, phytomedicine, and textiles.

  10. 2D FTIR correlation spectroscopy and EPR analysis of Urtica dioica leaves from areas of different environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, Paulina; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Łabanowska, Maria; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Filek, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Leaves of Urtica dioica collected from two areas of different environmental pollution were analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Analysis of FTIR spectra allows to describe main component of plant like proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Although the FTIR spectra of plants from these two geographical locations of different environmental pollution appear to be relatively similar, 2D correlation shows completely different patterns. Synchronous and asynchronous correlation maps showed sequences of changes occurring during development of plant, manly in Amide I and Amide II, lignin, lipids and cellulose. In addition, 2D analysis revealed another sequence of changes as the function of plant growth depending on the degree of the environmental pollution. Two various kinds of paramagnetic species, transition metal ions (Mn(II), Fe(III)) and stable organic radicals (chlorophyll, semiquinone, tyrosyl and carbon centered) were found in leaves of nettle collected at different stages of development and growing in clean and polluted environment. In plants growing in polluted area the injuries of protein molecules bonding metal ions and the disturbances of photosynthesis and redox equilibrium in cells, as well as instability of polysaccharide structure of cell walls were observed.

  11. Chitosan films incorporated with nettle (Urtica Dioica L.) extract-loaded nanoliposomes: II. Antioxidant activity and release properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Hadi; Zandi, Mohsen; Beigzadeh, Sara; Haghju, Sara; Mehrnow, Nazila

    2016-07-14

    Chitosan films were loaded with NE nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extract (NE) at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5%w/w in the free or nanoliposomal form to obtain active and nanoactive films, respectively. The antioxidant potential of the films containing NE-loaded nanoliposomes was decreased in comparison of free NE incorporated films. Diffusion of NE to soybean oil was enough to delay the induction of the oxidation of soybean oil stored for 60 days in contact with chitosan based films. Release studies indicated that the release rate of NE in 95% ethanol simulant significantly decreased by the nanoencapsulation of NE. The diffusion coefficient (D) for chitosan films containing 1.5%w/w of free and encapsulated NE at 25 °C was 18.80 and 3.68 × 10 -7 cm 2  s -1 , respectively. Moreover, the formation of nanoliposomes diminished the increasing effect of temperature on the release rate as when storage temperature increased from 4 °C to 40 °C.

  12. Urtica dioica attenuates ovalbumin-induced inflammation and lipid peroxidation of lung tissues in rat asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemmouri, Hanene; Sekiou, Omar; Ammar, Sonda; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Messarah, Mahfoud; Boumendjel, Amel

    2017-12-01

    To find bioactive medicinal herbs exerting anti-asthmatic activity, we investigated the effect of an aqueous extract of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) leaves (UD), the closest extract to the Algerian traditional use. In this study, we investigated the in vivo anti-asthmatic and antioxidant activities of nettle extract. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Group I: negative control; group II: Ovalbumin sensitized/challenged rats (positive control); group III: received UD extract (1.5 g/kg/day) orally along the experimental protocol; group IV: received UD extract (1.5 g/kg/day) orally along the experimental protocol and sensitized/challenged with ovalbumin. After 25 days, blood and tissue samples were collected for haematological and histopathological analysis, respectively. The oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in the lungs, liver and erythrocytes. Then, correlations between markers of airway inflammation and markers of oxidative stress were explored. UD extract significantly (p nettle extract was also investigated for the total phenolic content (30.79 ± 0.96 mg gallic acid/g dry extract) and shows DPPH radical scavenging activity with 152.34 ± 0.37 μg/mL IC 50 value. The results confirmed that UD administration might be responsible for the protective effects of this extract against airway inflammation.

  13. Protective effects of nettle (Urtica dioica extract against acute kidney injury induced by gentamycin in the rat

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    سید پژمان مرتضوی

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aminoglycosides are often used in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics and have a rapid bactericidal effect, are available at an affordable cost and have less incidence of resistance, making them a drug of choice for treatment of several life-threatening infections. However, the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides prevent their long term use. The use of herbal extracts in order to decrease injuries of injurious materials has long been considered. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the protective effects of nettle (Urtica dioica extract against gentamicin induced kidney injuries in the rat. Forty five male Wistar rats were divided into 9 groups consisting of: 1-healthy control group, 2- negative control group that received tween 20 (extract solvent, 3- patient control group which received onlygentamicin at 100 mg/kg, experimental healthy groups 4-6 which received nettle extract at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg and patient experimental groups 7-9 which received nettle extract along with gentamicin at 100 mg/kg. At the end of the experiment (28 days, blood samples were obtained, and the kidneys were removed for histopathologic investigations. The results showed that gentamicin alone induced renal tissue damage and significantly increased the serum levels of creatinine and urea (p

  14. Effect of Urtica Dioica Extract on Histological and Histometrical Changes of Testis of Hamster after Testosteron Administration

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    Hassan Morovvati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperactivity of testosterone is one cause of infertility and its incorrect use can produces reproductive disorders. Nettle (Urtica dioica has antiandrogenic effect and may antagonized effect of testosterone. In present study structure of testes of golden hamster was evaluated after testosterone and extract. Materials and Methods: In this experimental and animal modeling study, twenty male mature hamsters were divided to 4 groups, group 1 was control, group 2 received testosterone at dose 3 mg/kg subcutaneously, group 3 received nettle extract dose 30 mg/kg orally and group 4 received testosterone and nettle for 30 days daily. The hamsters were euthanized and testes were removed and detected macroscopic parameters (weight, height, wide and volume and fixed with formalin. The samples were sectioned and colored with H & E. Results: The volume, weight, length and wide of testes was at least in testosterone group and statistically was lesser than control and testosterone -nettle group (p<0.05, but did not the height epithelium of seminifer tubules, compact of spermatogenic cells and number of serotolli cells in testosterone group was lesser than control group significantly (p<0.05.Conclusion: The nettle extract decreased histological changes of testes by testosterone and improved its structure.

  15. Chitosan films incorporated with nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extract-loaded nanoliposomes: I. Physicochemical characterisation and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghju, Sara; Beigzadeh, Sara; Almasi, Hadi; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2016-07-17

    The objective of this study was to characterise and compare physical, mechanical and antimicrobial properties of chitosan-based films, containing free or nanoencapsulated nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extract (NE) at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% w/w. Nanoliposomes were prepared using soy-lecithin by thin-film hydration and sonication method to generate an average size of 107-136 nm with 70% encapsulation efficiency. The information on FT-IR reflected that some new interaction have occurred between chitosan and nanoliposomes. Despite the increasing yellowness and decreasing whiteness indexes, the nanoliposomes incorporation improved the thermal properties and mechanical stiffness and caused to decrease water vapour permeability (WVP), moisture uptake and water solubility. The possible antimicrobial activity of the films containing NE-loaded nanoliposomes against Staphylococcus aureus was decreased in comparison to free NE-incorporated films, which could be due to the inhibition effect of the encapsulation that prevents the release of NE from the matrix.

  16. Anti-mycobacterial screening of five Indian medicinal plants and partial purification of active extracts of Cassia sophera and Urtica dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rambir; Hussain, Shariq; Verma, Rajesh; Sharma, Poonam

    2013-05-13

    To find out the anti-mycobacterial potential of Cassia sophera (C. sophera), Urtica dioica (U. dioica), Momordica dioica, Tribulus terrestris and Coccinia indica plants against multi-drug resistant (MDR) strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Plant materials were extracted successively with solvents of increasing polarity. Solvent extracts were screened for anti-mycobacterial activity against fast growing, non-pathogenic mycobacterium strain, Mycobacterium semegmatis, by disk diffusion method. The active extracts were tested against MDR and clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis by absolute concentration and proportion methods. The active extracts were subjected to bio-autoassay on TLC followed by silica column chromatography for isolation of potential drug leads. Hexane extract of U. dioica (HEUD) and methanol extract of C. sophera (MECS) produced inhibition zone of 20 mm in disc diffusion assay and MIC of 250 and 125 μ g/mL respectively in broth dilution assay against Mycobacterium semegmatis. Semipurified fraction F2 from MECS produced 86% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. F18 from HEUD produced 81% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. Phytochemical analysis indicated that anti-mycobacterial activity of MECS may be due to presence of alkaloids or flavonoids and that of HEUD due to terpenoids. C. sophera and U. dioica plant extracts exhibited promising anti-mycobacterial activity against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. This is the first report of anti-mycobacterial activity form C. sophera. This study showed possibility of purifying novel anti-mycobacterial compound(s) from C. sophera and U. dioica. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antioxidant-Rich Fraction of Urtica dioica Mediated Rescue of Striatal Mito-Oxidative Damage in MPTP-Induced Behavioral, Cellular, and Neurochemical Alterations in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Rohit; Joshi, Bhuwan Chandra; Kalia, Ajudhiya Nath; Prakash, Atish

    2017-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) having a complex and multi-factorial neuropathology includes mainly the degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway, which is a cumulative effect of depleted endogenous antioxidant enzymes, increased oxidative DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, and neuroinflammation. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of a potent antioxidant from Urtica dioica in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of parkinsonism. MPTP was administered intranigrally for the induction of PD in male Wistar rats. Behavioral alterations were assessed in between the study period. Animals were sacrificed immediately after behavioral session, and different biochemical, cellular, and neurochemical parameters were measured. Intranigrally repeated administration of MPTP showed significant impairment of motor co-ordination and marked increase of mito-oxidative damage and neuroinflammation in rats. Intranigral MPTP significantly decreases the dopamine and its metabolites with impairment of dopaminergic cell density in rat brain. However, post-treatment with the potent antioxidant fraction of Urtica dioica Linn. (UD) (20, 40, 80 mg/kg) improved the motor function, mito-oxidative defense alteration significantly and dose dependently in MPTP-treated rats. In addition, the potent antioxidant fraction of UD attenuated the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-β) and restored the level of dopamine and its metabolites in MPTP-induced PD in rats. Moreover, minocycline (30 mg/kg) with lower dose of UD (20 mg/kg) had significantly potentiated the protective effect of minocycline as compared to its effect with other individual drug-treated groups. In conclusion, Urtica dioica protected the dopaminergic neurons probably by reducing mito-oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and cellular alteration along with enhanced neurotrophic potential. The above results revealed that the antioxidant rich

  18. Use of lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, and stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, as feed additives to prevent Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, E; Austin, B

    2010-05-01

    Feeding rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with 1% lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, or stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, for 14 days led to reductions in mortality after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, there was significant enhancement in serum bactericidal activity, respiratory burst and lysozyme activity in the treatment groups compared to the controls. Use of lupin and mango led to the highest number of red blood and white blood cells in recipient fish, with use of stinging nettle leading to the highest haematocrit and haemoglobin values; the highest value of mean corpuscular volume and haemoglobin was in the control groups and those fed with stinging nettle.

  19. Mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to diabetic neurotoxicity induced by streptozocin in mice: protective effect of Urtica dioica and pioglitazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Mirshafa, Atefeh; Yekta Moghaddam, Niusha; Birjandian, Behnoosh; Shaki, Fatemeh

    2018-04-18

    Uncontrolled chronic hyperglycemia in diabetic patients could result in various complications, including neurotoxicity. Urtica dioica L. (UD) is known for its hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of UD and pioglitazone (PIO) in reduction of neurotoxicity and oxidative stress in streptozocin-induced diabetic mice. Male mice were divided into seven groups: control, diabetic, dimethyl sulfoxide-treated control, PIO-treated, UD-treated, UD-PIO-treated, and vitamin E-treated. For induction of diabetes, streptozocin was injected in a single dose (65 mg/kg, i.p.). All treatments were performed for 5 weeks. Neurotoxicity was evaluated through hot plate and formalin test. Then, animals were killed, brain tissue was separated and the mitochondrial fraction was isolated with different centrifuge technique. Also, oxidative stress markers (reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl, glutathione) were measured in brain. Mitochondrial function was evaluated by MTT test in brain isolated mitochondria. Elevation of oxidative stress markers and mitochondrial damage were observed in diabetic mice compared to control group. Administration of PIO and UD ameliorated the oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage (p < 0.05) in diabetic mice. Also increase in pain score was shown in diabetic mice that treatment with UD and PIO diminished elevation of pain score in diabetic mice. Interestingly, simultaneous administration of PIO and UD showed synergism effect in attenuation of oxidative stress and hyperglycemia. UD showed a therapeutic potential for the attenuation of oxidative stress and diabetes-induced hyperglycemia that can be considered as co-treatment in treatment of diabetic neurotoxicity.

  20. Inter- and intra-guild interactions related to aphids in nettle (Urtica dioica L.) strips closed to field crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhmedi, A; Haubruge, E; Bodson, B; Francis, F

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment designed to assess the biodiversity related to nettle strips closed to crops, and more particularly the aphid and related beneficial populations, was established in experimental farm located in Gembloux (Belgium). Margin strips of nettle (Urtica dioica) closed to wheat (Triticum aestivum), green pea (Pisum sativum) and rape (Brassicae napus) fields were investigated. The diversity, abundance of aphids and related predators were analysed according to the plant crop species and the differential pesticide application (treated plot and control). Insects were visually observed every week during all the cultivation season. Two main families of aphidophagous predators were found in all field crops and nettle, the Coccinellidae and Syrphidae. The diversity of the aphidophagous predators was shown to be higher on nettle than in field crops, particularly the Chrysopidae, the Anthocoridae and the Miridae. However, a striking difference of ladybird abundance was observed according to the aphid host plant. In one side, Coccinella septempunctata was much more abundant on Acyrthosiphon pisum infested green pea than on the other host plant species. At the opposite, higher occurrence of Harmonia axyridis was observed on the aphid infested nettle plants than on the crop plants. In particular, none of H. axyridis was found in wheat crop. Also, more than only a significant positive correlation between predator and aphid abundance, specialised relations between particular aphid species and some so-called generalist predators was determined in the fields. Finally, intraguild interactions between the aphidophagous predators was assessed and shown that only a significant negative correlation between Episyrphus balteatus and H. axyridis related to the nettle aphid, Micrlophium carnosum, was observed. The relative distribution of the ladybirds, namely C. septempunctata and H. axyridis according to the host plant, nettle strips and crop plots was discussed in relation to

  1. Biochemical and hemato-immunological parameters in juvenile beluga (Huso huso) following the diet supplemented with nettle (Urtica dioica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binaii, Mohammad; Ghiasi, Maryam; Farabi, Seyed Mohammad Vahid; Pourgholam, Reza; Fazli, Hasan; Safari, Reza; Alavi, Seyed Eshagh; Taghavi, Mohammad Javad; Bankehsaz, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of different dietary nettle (Urtica dioica) levels on biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in beluga (Huso huso). Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed for 8 weeks with 0%, 3%, 6% and 12% of nettle. The blood samples were collected on week 4 and 8. The use of nettle did not significantly change the mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, lymphocytes, eosinophils, albumin, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lysozyme activity on week 4 and 8. After 4 weeks, the total red blood cell (RBC) and hematocrit (Ht) showed a significant increase in 12% nettle group compared to the 3% nettle and control groups but haemoglobin (Hb) had a significant change in 12% nettle compared to the control. At the same time was not found a significant change in the mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, respiratory burst activity (RB), total immunoglobulin (Ig) and total protein (TP), triglyceride (Tri) and cholesterol (Chol). After 8 weeks, the fish treated with nettle exhibited significantly increase in neutrophil and Hb levels compared to the control and between treatment groups, 12% nettle group shown the highest Hb while RBC and Hct values significantly rose in fish fed by 12% compared to the control. Supplementing 6% and 12% nettle increased the WBC and MCHC compared to the other groups. The group fed 12% showed a highly significant difference in RB, TP and Ig after 8 weeks. However, Tri and Chol were significantly decreased in the juvenile beluga fed by the 6% and 12% nettle diet compared to the other groups. The results suggest that by using this herb there will be an improvement in hemato-biochemical parameters and immune function of juvenile beluga.

  2. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshoff M.C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  3. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshoff M. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  4. Effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on the growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Charles C; Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Mugo-Bundi, James; Orina, Paul Sagwe; Chemoiwa, Emily Jepyegon; Aloo, Peninah A

    2015-06-01

    We investigated effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish were divided into 4 groups and fed for 4 and 16 weeks with 0%, 1%, 2% and 5% of U. dioica incorporated into the diet. Use of U. dioica in the diet resulted in improved biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters. Among the biochemical parameters; plasma cortisol, glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol decreased while total protein and albumin in fish increased with increasing dietary inclusion of U. dioica. Among the haematology parameters: red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC) counts, haematocrit (Htc), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and netrophiles increased with increasing dietary inclusion levels of U. dioica, some depending on the fish age. Serum immunoglobulins, lysozyme activity and respiratory burst were the main immunological parameters in the adult and juvenile L. victorianus measured and they all increased with increasing herbal inclusion of U. dioica in the diet. Dietary incorporation of U. dioica at 5% showed significantly higher relative percentage survival (up to 95%) against A. hydrophila. The current results demonstrate that using U. dioica can stimulate fish immunity and make L. victorianus more resistant to bacterial infection (A. hydrophila). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Urtica dioica leaves modulates hippocampal smoothened-glioma associated oncogene-1 pathway and cognitive dysfunction in chronically stressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Mahindroo, Neeraj; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2016-10-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Urtica dioica (UD) extract against chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced associative memory dysfunction and attempted to explore the possible mechanism. Male Swiss albino mice (25-30g) were divided into six groups, viz. group-I received 0.3% carboxymethyl cellulose and served as control (CTRL), group II was exposed to CUS (21days) and received vehicle (CUS), group III was subjected to CUS and received Hypericum perforatum extract (350mg/kg, p.o.) (CUS+HYP), group IV received Hypericum perforatum extract (350mg/kg, p.o.) (CTRL+HYP); group V was subjected to CUS and received UD extract (50mg/kg, p.o.) (CUS+UD), group VI received UD extract (50mg/kg, p.o.) (CTRL+UD). CUS significantly induced body weight loss (p<0.05) and associative memory impairment in step down task (p<0.05) as compared to control mice. CUS significantly downregulated Smo (p<0.05), Gli1 (p<0.01), cyclin D1 (p<0.05), BDNF (p<0.01), TrKB (p<0.01) and MAPK1 (p<0.01) mRNA expression in hippocampus as compared to control mice. CUS significantly increased the levels of TBARS (p<0.01) and nitric oxide (p<0.001), and decreased catalase (p<0.001) and total thiol (p<0.01) in plasma resulting in oxidative stress and inflammation. Chronic UD administration significantly reverted CUS mediated body weight loss (p<0.05) and cognitive impairment (p<0.05). UD administration significantly decreased the levels of TBARS (p<0.01) and nitric oxide (p<0.05), and increased the levels of catalase (p<0.01) and total thiol (p<0.05) in plasma. Chronic UD administration significantly upregulated hippocampal Smo (p<0.05), Gli1 (p<0.001), cyclin D1 (p<0.05), BDNF (p<0.05), TrKB (p<0.05) and MAPK1 (p<0.05) in stressed mice. Further, UD extract did not reverse cyclopamine induced downregulation of Gli1 and Ptch1 mRNA in hippocampal slices. UD modulated Smo-Gli1 pathway in the hippocampus as well as exerted anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. UD extract might prove

  6. Antifungal activity of nettle (Urtica dioica L.), colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), oleander (Nerium oleander L.) and konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) extracts on plants pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadizadeh, I; Peivastegan, B; Kolahi, M

    2009-01-01

    Anti-mycotic activity of the ethanol extracts from Nettle (Urtica dioica L.), Colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), Konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) and Oleander (Nerium oleander L.) floral parts were screened in vitro against four important plant pathogenic fungi viz.; Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Rizoctonia solani using agar dilution bioassay. Extracts showed antifungal activity against all the tested fungi. Among the plants, Nettle and Colocynth were the most effective against A. alternate and R. solani while Oleander possesses the best inhibition on F. oxysporum and F. solani. Konar was the most effective extract by reducing the growth of Rizoctonia solani than other fungi. These results showed that extracts could be considered suitable alternatives to chemical additives for the control of fungal diseases in plants.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of an effective organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, E.; Naderi, Reza; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive pigment was synthesized and characterized. • Chemical structure and morphology of the hybrid complex were characterized. • Zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica showed effective inhibition action in saline solution on carbon steel. • The synergistic effect between Zn 2+ cations and inhibitive compounds existed in U.D resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface. - Abstract: This study aims at synthesis and characterization of an effective corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica (ZnA-U.D) for corrosion protection of mild steel in chloride solution. The chemical structure and morphology of the complex were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV–vis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion protection performance of the mild steel samples dipped in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions with and without ZnA-U.D extract was investigated by visual observations, open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization test. Results revealed that the ZnA successfully chelated with organic inhibitive compounds (i.e Quercetin, Quinic acid, Caffeic acid, Hystamine and Serotonin) present in the U.D extract. The electrochemical measurements revealed the effective inhibition action of ZnA-U.D complex in the sodium chloride solution on the mild steel. The synergistic effect between Zn 2+ and organic compounds present in the U.D extract resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface, which was proved by SEM and XPS analyses.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of an effective organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salehi, E.; Naderi, Reza [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezanzadeh, B., E-mail: ramezanzadeh@aut.ac.ir [Department of Surface Coatings and Corrosion, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • An organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive pigment was synthesized and characterized. • Chemical structure and morphology of the hybrid complex were characterized. • Zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica showed effective inhibition action in saline solution on carbon steel. • The synergistic effect between Zn{sup 2+} cations and inhibitive compounds existed in U.D resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface. - Abstract: This study aims at synthesis and characterization of an effective corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica (ZnA-U.D) for corrosion protection of mild steel in chloride solution. The chemical structure and morphology of the complex were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV–vis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion protection performance of the mild steel samples dipped in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions with and without ZnA-U.D extract was investigated by visual observations, open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization test. Results revealed that the ZnA successfully chelated with organic inhibitive compounds (i.e Quercetin, Quinic acid, Caffeic acid, Hystamine and Serotonin) present in the U.D extract. The electrochemical measurements revealed the effective inhibition action of ZnA-U.D complex in the sodium chloride solution on the mild steel. The synergistic effect between Zn{sup 2+} and organic compounds present in the U.D extract resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface, which was proved by SEM and XPS analyses.

  9. Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L. Attenuates FFA Induced Ceramide Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes in an Adiponectin Dependent Manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana N Obanda

    Full Text Available Excess dietary lipids result in the accumulation of lipid metabolites including ceramides that can attenuate insulin signaling. There is evidence that a botanical extract of Urtica dioica L. (stinging nettle improves insulin action, yet the precise mechanism(s are not known. Hence, we examined the effects of Urtica dioica L. (UT on adipocytes.We investigated the effects of an ethanolic extract of UT on free fatty acid (palmitic acid induced inhibition of insulin-stimulated Akt serine phosphorylation and modulation of ceramidase expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocytes were exposed to excess FFAs in the presence or absence of UT. Effects on adiponectin expression, ceramidase expression, ceramidase activity, ceramide accumulation and insulin signaling were determined.As expected, FFAs reduced adiponectin expression and increased the expression of ceramidase enzymes but not their activity. FFA also induced the accumulation of ceramides and reduced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in adipocytes. The effects of FFA were partially reversed by UT. UT enhanced adiponectin expression and ceramidase activity in the presence of excess FFAs. UT abated ceramide accumulation and increased insulin sensitivity via enhanced Akt phosphorylation. A siRNA knockdown of adiponectin expression prevented UT from exerting positive effects on ceramidase activity but not Akt phosphorylation.In adipocytes, the ability of UT to antagonize the negative effects of FFA by modulating ceramidase activity and ceramide accumulation is dependent on the presence of adiponectin. However, the ability of UT to enhance Akt phosphorylation is independent of adiponectin expression. These studies demonstrate direct effects of UT on adipocytes and suggest this botanical extract is metabolically beneficial.

  10. Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) Attenuates FFA Induced Ceramide Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes in an Adiponectin Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obanda, Diana N; Zhao, Peng; Richard, Allison J; Ribnicky, David; Cefalu, William T; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2016-01-01

    Excess dietary lipids result in the accumulation of lipid metabolites including ceramides that can attenuate insulin signaling. There is evidence that a botanical extract of Urtica dioica L. (stinging nettle) improves insulin action, yet the precise mechanism(s) are not known. Hence, we examined the effects of Urtica dioica L. (UT) on adipocytes. We investigated the effects of an ethanolic extract of UT on free fatty acid (palmitic acid) induced inhibition of insulin-stimulated Akt serine phosphorylation and modulation of ceramidase expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocytes were exposed to excess FFAs in the presence or absence of UT. Effects on adiponectin expression, ceramidase expression, ceramidase activity, ceramide accumulation and insulin signaling were determined. As expected, FFAs reduced adiponectin expression and increased the expression of ceramidase enzymes but not their activity. FFA also induced the accumulation of ceramides and reduced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in adipocytes. The effects of FFA were partially reversed by UT. UT enhanced adiponectin expression and ceramidase activity in the presence of excess FFAs. UT abated ceramide accumulation and increased insulin sensitivity via enhanced Akt phosphorylation. A siRNA knockdown of adiponectin expression prevented UT from exerting positive effects on ceramidase activity but not Akt phosphorylation. In adipocytes, the ability of UT to antagonize the negative effects of FFA by modulating ceramidase activity and ceramide accumulation is dependent on the presence of adiponectin. However, the ability of UT to enhance Akt phosphorylation is independent of adiponectin expression. These studies demonstrate direct effects of UT on adipocytes and suggest this botanical extract is metabolically beneficial.

  11. Quantitative determination of plant phenolics in Urtica dioica extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orčić, Dejan; Francišković, Marina; Bekvalac, Kristina; Svirčev, Emilija; Beara, Ivana; Lesjak, Marija; Mimica-Dukić, Neda

    2014-01-15

    A method for quantification of 45 plant phenolics (including benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, flavonoid aglycones, C- and O-glycosides, coumarins, and lignans) in plant extracts was developed, based on reversed phase HPLC separation of extract components, followed by tandem mass spectrometric detection. The phenolic profile of 80% MeOH extracts of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) herb, root, stem, leaf and inflorescence was obtained by using this method. Twenty-one of the investigated compounds were present at levels above the reliable quantification limit, with 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin as the most abundant. The inflorescence extracts were by far the richest in phenolics, with the investigated compounds amounting 2.5-5.1% by weight. As opposed to this, the root extracts were poor in phenolics, with only several acids and derivatives being present in significant amounts. The results obtained by the developed method represent the most detailed U. dioica chemical profile so far. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The landsnail Cepaea nemoralis regulates internal Cd levels when fed on Cd-enriched stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) leaves at low, field-relevant concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Oosthoek, A.J.P.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2006-01-01

    We studied Cd accumulation in Cepaea nemoralis snails at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the diet (Urtica dioica leaves). Six treatments of U. dioica plants were grown, resulting in leaf Cd concentrations between 0 and 2.6 μg g -1 dw. Seven snails per treatment were fed for 38 days. Leaf Cd concentrations did not affect food consumption rates, and consequently Cd intake rates increased with increasing leaf concentrations. No differences were detected among treatments in the final soft tissue Cd concentrations and body burdens in the snails. Regression analyses showed no positive relationship between either snail Cd concentrations or body burdens and total Cd intake. This suggests a regulation of internal Cd concentrations at low food Cd concentrations. Our data suggest that Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in this regulation, in addition to Cd excretion via the faeces. Snail shells were no sinks for Cd. - Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in the regulation of C. nemoralis soft tissue Cd concentrations at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the food

  13. Neuroprotective Effects of Herbal Extract (Rosa canina, Tanacetum vulgare and Urtica dioica) on Rat Model of Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshmand, Parvaneh; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Marzieh; Kamali, Koorosh; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Nazari, Reza; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease (SAD) is caused by genetic risk factors, aging and oxidative stresses. The herbal extract of Rosa canina (R. canina), Tanacetum vulgare (T. vulgare) and Urtica dioica (U. dioica) has a beneficial role in aging, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of this herbal extract in the rat model of SAD was investigated. Methods: The rats were divided into control, sham, model, herbal extract -treated and ethanol-treated groups. Drug interventions were started on the 21st day after modeling and each treatment group was given the drugs by intraperitoneal (I.P.) route for 21 days. The expression levels of the five important genes for pathogenesis of SAD including Syp, Psen1, Mapk3, Map2 and Tnf-α were measured by qPCR between the hippocampi of SAD model which were treated by this herbal extract and control groups. The Morris Water Maze was adapted to test spatial learning and memory ability of the rats. Results: Treatment of the rat model of SAD with herbal extract induced a significant change in expression of Syp (p=0.001) and Psen1 (p=0.029). In Morris Water Maze, significant changes in spatial learning seen in the rat model group were improved in herbal-treated group. Conclusion: This herbal extract could have anti-dementia properties and improve spatial learning and memory in SAD rat model. PMID:27563424

  14. The distribution of macronutrients, anti-nutrients and essential elements in nettles, Laportea peduncularis susp. peduncularis (River nettle) and Urtica dioica (Stinging nettle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlangeni, Nomfundo T; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2016-01-01

    Laportea peduncularis and Urtica dioica, which are popularly known as "Nettles" belong to the plant family Urticaceae and are consumed as green vegetables or used for their medicinal benefit in many countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and America. This study aimed at investigating the effect of cooking on the macronutrient, anti-nutrient and elemental composition of L. peduncularis and U. dioica leaves. The results showed a decrease in the crude fat, ash, carbohydrate and vitamin C content with cooking, but an increase in the vitamin E content. The anti-nutrient content (cyanides, phytates and saponins) increased slightly with cooking, while the oxalate content has decreased. The concentration of essential elements in cooked L. peduncularis leaves were found to be in decreasing order of Ca > Mg > Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Co. Both raw and cooked leaves of nettles were found to be rich sources of macronutrients and essential elements and may be used as alternatives to commercially available nutrient supplements. Statistical analyses (principal component analysis and correlations) indicated that certain elements taken up by these plants were from common sources. Both positive and negative relationships between nutrients, anti-nutrients and elements were observed in the plant leaves.

  15. The landsnail Cepaea nemoralis regulates internal Cd levels when fed on Cd-enriched stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) leaves at low, field-relevant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notten, M.J.M. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: martje.notten@ecology.falw.vu.nl; Oosthoek, A.J.P. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rozema, J. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aerts, R. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-01-15

    We studied Cd accumulation in Cepaea nemoralis snails at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the diet (Urtica dioica leaves). Six treatments of U. dioica plants were grown, resulting in leaf Cd concentrations between 0 and 2.6 {mu}g g{sup -1} dw. Seven snails per treatment were fed for 38 days. Leaf Cd concentrations did not affect food consumption rates, and consequently Cd intake rates increased with increasing leaf concentrations. No differences were detected among treatments in the final soft tissue Cd concentrations and body burdens in the snails. Regression analyses showed no positive relationship between either snail Cd concentrations or body burdens and total Cd intake. This suggests a regulation of internal Cd concentrations at low food Cd concentrations. Our data suggest that Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in this regulation, in addition to Cd excretion via the faeces. Snail shells were no sinks for Cd. - Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in the regulation of C. nemoralis soft tissue Cd concentrations at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the food.

  16. Urtica dioica inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis by targeting Ornithine decarboxylase and Adenosine deaminase as key regulatory enzymes in adenosine and polyamines homeostasis in human breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Sadegh; Ghadami, Elham; Asouri, Mohsen; Motevalizadeh Ardekanid, Ali; Akhavan-Niaki, Haleh

    2018-02-28

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous and multifactorial disease with variable disease progression risk, and treatment response. Urtica dioica is a traditional herb used as an adjuvant therapeutic agent in cancer. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of the aqueous extract of Urtica dioica on Adenosine deaminase (ADA) and Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) gene expression in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, two breast cancer cell lines being estrogen receptor positive and estrogen receptor negative, respectively.  Cell lines were cultured in suitable media. After 24 h, different concentrations of the extract were added and after 72 h, ADA and ODC1 gene expression as well as BCL2 and BAX apoptotic genes were assessed by Taqman real time PCR assay. Cells viability was assessed by MTT assay, and apoptosis was also evaluated at cellular level. The intra and extracellular levels of ODC1 and ADA enzymes were evaluated by ELISA. Results showed differential expression of ADA and ODC1 genes in cancer cell lines. In MCF-7 cell line, the expression level of ADA was upregulated in a dose-dependent manner but its expression did not change in MDA-MB cell line. ODC1 expression was increased in both examined cell lines. Also, increased level of the apoptotic BAX/BCL-2 ratio was detected in MCF-7 cells. These results demonstrated that Urtica dioica induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by influencing ODC1 and ADA genes expression, and estrogen receptors. The different responses observed with these cell lines could be due to the interaction of Urtica dioica as a phytoestrogen with the estrogen receptor.

  17. The healing effects of herbal preparations from Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica in full-thickness wound models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Babaei

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: Topical ointments prepared from the extracts of U. dioica and S. ebulus and their combination possess strong wound healing properties. It is postulated that a synergistic effect may exist between the two extracts since the combination 2% showed better results than the sole extracts.

  18. Urtica dioica Extract Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis and Related Gene Expression of Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Mansoori, Behzad; Baradaran, Pooneh Chokhachi; Khaze, Vahid; Aghapour, Mahyar; Farhadi, Mehrdad; Baradaran, Behzad

    2017-10-01

    Currently, because the prevalence of breast cancer and its consequent mortality has increased enormously in the female population, a number of studies have been designed to identify natural products with special antitumor properties. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of Urtica dioica on triggering apoptosis and diminishing growth, size, and weight of the tumor in an allograft model of BALB/c mice. In the present study, a BALB/c mouse model of breast cancer (4T1) was used. After emergence of tumor, 2 groups of mice received the extract, 1 group at a dose of 10 mg/kg and 1 group at a dose of 20 mg/kg, by intraperitoneal injection for 28 days. During the test and after removal of the tumor mass, the size and weight of the tumor were measured. To assess the induction of apoptosis in the cancer cells, the TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling) assay was performed. The Ki-67 test was used to evaluate tumor proliferation. The results showed that the tumor size in the mice treated with the extract decreased significantly. The weight of the tumor mass in the treated mice after resection was less than that in the control group. The TUNEL assay findings revealed that apoptosis occurred in the treated group. The Ki-67 test findings also demonstrated that administration of the extract suppressed the growth of tumor cells. These results suggest that U. dioica extract can decrease the growth of breast tumors and induce apoptosis in tumor cells; thus, it might represent an ideal therapeutic tool for breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Associating Serenoa repens, Urtica dioica and Pinus pinaster. Safety and efficacy in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms. Prospective study on 320 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, C; Abbadessa, D; Tarantino, M L; Oxenius, I; Laganà, A; Lupo, A; Rinella, M

    2010-01-01

    Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) has been employed for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) for several years. Its mechanism of action is believed to be due to antiandrogenic, antiproliferative and antinflammatory properties. An association of Serenoa with the nettle "Urtica dioica" showing antiproliferative activity and the pine "Pinus pinaster" derivative, showing antinflammatory action, has been proposed in recent years. Such an action is hoped to act not only by reducing LUTS but also by preventing the development of prostate cancer. During the years 2007 and 2008, 320 patients suffering from LUTS were treated with an association of Serenoa repens 320 mg, Urtica dioica 120 mg and Pinus pinaster 5 mg, named IPBTRE. This treatment was administered to all patients for a minimal duration of 30 days to a maximum of a year, either alone or in association with antibiotics or alpha-blockers, if needed. Outcome analysis was based on evaluation of symptoms, prostate volume and maximum flow rate (Qmax). From a careful analysis of the data collected in our database, the following observations can be made: ages varied between 19 and 78 years. The patients were affected by BPH in 46% of cases, chronic prostatitis syndrome in 43%, chronic genital-pelvic pain in 7% and other conditions in 4%, the absolute numbers being 147, 138, 22 and 7 patients, respectively. No untoward side effect was reported in any case. Variations in symptom score could be fully evaluated only in 80 of 320 patients (25%), of whom 68 (85%) reported a significant benefit, with special reference to an improvement of pain, urgency, strangury and nocturia. Data on variations in prostate volume, as measured by digital rectal examination, were available in 84 (26.5%) patients. No significant change was observed. Qmax after treatment was measured in 83 (26%) patients. It did not show significant changes from the initial values. The association tested in our study appeared to be safe and well

  20. Efficacy of Supportive Therapy of Allergic Rhinitis by Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica) root extract: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo- Controlled, Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Mohammad Pour, Amir Hooshang; Esmaeili, Majid; Jabbari Azad, Farahzad; Alipour Talesh, Ghazal; Salehi, Maryam; Noorollahian Mohajer, Morteza

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the exact benefit of this herb in the management of clinical and laboratory signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitis. In a randomized double blind clinical trial, 74 patients with the signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitis and a positive skin prick test were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups who were taken Urtica dioica 150-mg, Urtidin ® F.C Tablet) or placebo for one month. Their signs and symptoms, eosinophil percentage on nasal smear, serum IgE, and interleukin IL-4, IL-5, interferon- γ) levels were recorded. Forty patients completed the trial. Based on the Sino- Nasal Outcome Test 22 SNOT-22), a significant improvement in clinical symptom severity was observed in both groups P Nettle P Nettle saw no significant changes P > .1). Intergroup pre- and post-treatment laboratory findings suggested that there was a significant difference in post-treatment changes of mean IFN γ levels between the study and placebo group P = 0.017). Although the current study showed certain positive effects of Nettle in the management of allergic rhinitis on controlling the symptoms based on the SNOT-22, similar effects were demonstrated by placebo as well. We believe that our limitations underscore the need for larger, longer term studies of Nettle for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

  1. Molecular cloning and tissue-specific transcriptional regulation of the first peroxidase family member, Udp1, in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douroupi, Triantafyllia G; Papassideri, Issidora S; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2005-12-05

    A full-length cDNA clone, designated Udp1, was isolated from Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), using a polymerase chain reaction based strategy. The putative Udp1 protein is characterized by a cleavable N-terminal signal sequence, likely responsible for the rough endoplasmic reticulum entry and a 310 amino acids mature protein, containing all the important residues, which are evolutionary conserved among different members of the plant peroxidase family. A unique structural feature of the Udp1 peroxidase is defined into the short carboxyl-terminal extension, which could be associated with the vacuolar targeting process. Udp1 peroxidase is differentially regulated at the transcriptional level and is specifically expressed in the roots. Interestingly, wounding and ultraviolet radiation stress cause an ectopic induction of the Udp1 gene expression in the aerial parts of the plant. A genomic DNA fragment encoding the Udp1 peroxidase was also cloned and fully sequenced, revealing a structural organization of three exons and two introns. The phylogenetic relationships of the Udp1 protein to the Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase family members were also examined and, in combination with the homology modelling approach, dictated the presence of distinct structural elements, which could be specifically involved in the determination of substrate recognition and subcellular localization of the Udp1 peroxidase.

  2. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of the effects of Urtica dioica and swimming activity on diabetic factors and pancreatic beta cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbari, Abbas; Azarbayjani, Mohammad Ali; Yusof, Ashril; Halim Mokhtar, Abdul; Akbarzadeh, Samad; Ibrahim, Mohamed Yousif; Tarverdizadeh, Bahman; Farzadinia, Parviz; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Dehghan, Firouzeh

    2016-03-15

    Urtica dioica (UD) has been identified as a traditional herbal medicine. This study aimed to investigate the effect of UD extract and swimming activity on diabetic parameters through in vivo and in vitro experiments. Adult WKY male rats were randomly distributed in nine groups: intact control, diabetic control, diabetic + 625 mg/kg, 1.25 g/kg UD, diabetic + 100 mg/kg Metformin, diabetic + swimming, diabetic + swimming 625 mg/kg, 1.25 g/kg UD, and diabetic +100 mg/kg Metformin + swimming. The hearts of the animals were punctured, and blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. The entire pancreas was exposed for histologic examination. The effect of UD on insulin secretion by RIN-5F cells in 6.25 or 12.5 mM glucose dose was examined. Glucose uptake by cultured L6 myotubes was determined. The serum glucose concentration decreased, the insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity significantly increased in treated groups. These changes were more pronounced in the group that received UD extract and swimming training. Regeneration and less beta cell damage of Langerhans islets were observed in the treated groups. UD treatment increased insulin secretion in the RIN-5F cells and glucose uptake in the L6 myotubes cells. Swimming exercises accompanied by consuming UD aqueous extracts effectively improved diabetic parameters, repaired pancreatic tissues in streptozotocin-induced diabetics in vivo, and increased glucose uptake or insulin in UD-treated cells in vitro.

  3. An extract of Urtica dioica L. mitigates obesity induced insulin resistance in mice skeletal muscle via protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obanda, Diana N; Ribnicky, David; Yu, Yongmei; Stephens, Jacqueline; Cefalu, William T

    2016-02-26

    The leaf extract of Urtica dioica L. (UT) has been reported to improve glucose homeostasis in vivo, but definitive studies on efficacy and mechanism of action are lacking. We investigated the effects of UT on obesity- induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups: low-fat diet (LFD), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD supplemented with UT. Body weight, body composition, plasma glucose and plasma insulin were monitored. Skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) was analyzed for insulin sensitivity, ceramide accumulation and the post translational modification and activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). PP2A is activated by ceramides and dephosphorylates Akt. C2C12 myotubes exposed to excess free fatty acids with or without UT were also evaluated for insulin signaling and modulation of PP2A. The HFD induced insulin resistance, increased fasting plasma glucose, enhanced ceramide accumulation and PP2A activity in skeletal muscle. Supplementation with UT improved plasma glucose homeostasis and enhanced skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity without affecting body weight and body composition. In myotubes, UT attenuated the ability of FFAs to induce insulin resistance and PP2A hyperactivity without affecting ceramide accumulation and PP2A expression. UT decreased PP2A activity through posttranslational modification that was accompanied by a reduction in Akt dephosphorylation.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of an effective organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, E.; Naderi, Reza; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2017-02-01

    This study aims at synthesis and characterization of an effective corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica (ZnA-U.D) for corrosion protection of mild steel in chloride solution. The chemical structure and morphology of the complex were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-vis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion protection performance of the mild steel samples dipped in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions with and without ZnA-U.D extract was investigated by visual observations, open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization test. Results revealed that the ZnA successfully chelated with organic inhibitive compounds (i.e Quercetin, Quinic acid, Caffeic acid, Hystamine and Serotonin) present in the U.D extract. The electrochemical measurements revealed the effective inhibition action of ZnA-U.D complex in the sodium chloride solution on the mild steel. The synergistic effect between Zn2+ and organic compounds present in the U.D extract resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface, which was proved by SEM and XPS analyses.

  5. Salix transect of Europe: variation in ploidy and genome size in willow-associated common nettle, Urtica dioica L. sens. lat., from Greece to arctic Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronk, Quentin; Hidalgo, Oriane; Pellicer, Jaume; Percy, Diana; Leitch, Ilia J

    2016-01-01

    The common stinging nettle, Urtica dioica L. sensu lato, is an invertebrate "superhost", its clonal patches maintaining large populations of insects and molluscs. It is extremely widespread in Europe and highly variable, and two ploidy levels (diploid and tetraploid) are known. However, geographical patterns in cytotype variation require further study. We assembled a collection of nettles in conjunction with a transect of Europe from the Aegean to Arctic Norway (primarily conducted to examine the diversity of Salix and Salix -associated insects). Using flow cytometry to measure genome size, our sample of 29 plants reveals 5 diploids and 24 tetraploids. Two diploids were found in SE Europe (Bulgaria and Romania) and three diploids in S. Finland. More detailed cytotype surveys in these regions are suggested. The tetraploid genome size (2C value) varied between accessions from 2.36 to 2.59 pg. The diploids varied from 1.31 to 1.35 pg per 2C nucleus, equivalent to a haploid genome size of c. 650 Mbp. Within the tetraploids, we find that the most northerly samples (from N. Finland and arctic Norway) have a generally higher genome size. This is possibly indicative of a distinct population in this region.

  6. Improved glycemic control in patients with advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus taking Urtica dioica leaf extract: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianbakht, Saeed; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Farahnaz; Dabaghian, Fataneh Hashem

    2013-01-01

    Advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) needing insulin therapy is common. Most conventional anti-hyperglycemic drugs have limited efficacies and significant side effects, so that better anti-hyperglycemic agents are needed. Urtica dioica L. (nettle) leaves have insulin secretagogue, PPARgamma agonistic, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effects. Moreover, nettle leaves are used in traditional medicine as an anti-hyperglycemic agent to treat diabetes mellitus. Thus, efficacy and safety of nettle in the treatment of patients with advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus needing insulin were studied. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, we evaluated the effects of taking nettle leaf extract (one 500 mg capsule every 8 hours for 3 months) combined with the conventional oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs on the blood levels of fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), creatinine and liver enzymes SGOT and SGPT, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures in 46 patients and compared with the placebo group (n = 46). At the endpoint, the extract lowered the blood levels of fasting glucose, 2 hours postprandial glucose, and HbA1c significantly (p 0.05) compared with placebo. Nettle may safely improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients needing insulin therapy.

  7. Effects of Nigella sativa L. and Urtica dioica L. on selected mineral status and hematological values in CCl4-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meral, Ismail; Kanter, Mehmet

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa L. (NS), known as black seed, or/and Urtica dioica L. (UD), known as stinging nettle root, treatments on serum Na, K, Cl, and Ca levels and some hematological values of CCl4-treated rats. Sixty healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 250-300 g, were randomly allotted into 1 of 4 experimental groups: A (CCl4-only treated), B (CCl4+UD treated), C (CCl4+NS treated), and D (CCl4+UD+NS treated), each containing 15 animals. All groups received CCl4 (0.8 mL/kg of body weight, subcutaneously, twice a week for 90 d starting d 1). In addition, B, C, and D groups also received the daily ip injection of 0.2 mL/kg NS and/or 2 mL/kg UD oils for 45 d starting d 46. Group A, on the other hand, received only 2 mL/kg normal saline solution for 45 d starting d 46. Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from five randomly chosen rats in each treatment group at the beginning, d 45, and d 90 of the experiment. The CCl4 treatment for 45 d significantly (p0.05) the serum Na and Cl levels. NS or UD treatments (alone or combination) for 45 d starting d 46 significantly (p<0.05) decreased the elevated serum K and Ca levels and also increased (p<0.05) the reduced RBC, WBC, PCV, and Hb levels. It is concluded that NS and/or UD treatments might ameliorate the CCl4-induced disturbances of anemia, some minerals, and body's defense mechanism in CCl4-treated rats.

  8. Modulation of carbon and nitrogen allocation in Urtica dioica and Plantago major by elevated CO{sub 2}. Impact of accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates and ontogenetic drift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertog, J. den; Stulen, I.; Fonseca, F.; Delea, P.

    1996-10-01

    Doubling the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration from 350 to 700 {mu} l{sup -1} increased the relative growth rate (RGR) of hydroponically grown Urtica dioica L. and Plantagomajor ssp. pleiospherma Pilger only for the first 10-14 days. Previous experiments with P. major indicated that RGR did not respond i proportion to the rate of photosynthesis. The impact of changes in leaf morphology, dry matter partitioning, dry matter chemical composition and ontogenetic drift on this discrepancy is analysed. Soon after the start of the treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were higher at elevated CO{sub 2}; largely due to starch accumulation. An increase in the percentage of leaf dry matter and decreases in the specific leaf area (SLA) and the shoot nitrogen concentration were correlated with an increase in the total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration (TNC). A combination of accumulation of soluble sugars and starch and ontogenetic drift explains the decrease in SLA at the elevated CO{sub 2} level. A similar ontogenetic effect of elevated CO{sub 2} was observed on the specific root length (SRL). Shoot nitrogen concentration and percentage leaf dry matter were not affected. The net diurnal fluctuation of the carbohydrate pool in P. major was equal for both CO{sub 2} concentrations, indicating that the growth response to elevated CO{sub 2} may be ruled by other variables such as sink strength. Elevated CO{sub 2} did not greatly influence the partitioning of nitrogen between soluble and insoluble, reduced N and nitrate, nor the allocation of dry matter between leaf, stem and root. That the root to shoot ratio (F/S) was not affected by elevated CO{sub 2} implies that, to maintain a balanced activity between roots and shoot, no shift in partitioning of dry matter upon doubling of the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is required. (AB)

  9. Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Mehmet; Coskun, Omer; Budancamanak, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Nigella sativa L (NS) and Urtica dioica L (UD) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats. METHODS: Fifty-six healthy male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly allotted into one of the four experimental groups: A (CCl4-only treated), B (CCl4+UD treated), C (CCl4+NS treated) and D (CCl4+UD+NS treated), each containing 14 animals. All groups received CCl4 (0.8 mL/kg of body weight, sc, twice a week for 60 d). In addition, B, C and D groups also received daily i.p. injections of 0.2 mL/kg NS or/and 2 mL/kg UD oils for 60 d. Group A, on the other hand, received only 2 mL/kg normal saline solution for 60 d. Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from randomly chosen-seven rats in each treatment group at beginning and on the 60th d of the experiment. RESULTS: The CCl4 treatment for 60 d increased the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and also decreased the antioxidant enzyme levels. NS or UD treatment (alone or combination) for 60 d decreased the elevated lipid peroxidation and liver enzyme levels and also increased the reduced antioxidant enzyme levels. The weight of rats decreased in group A, and increased in groups B, C and D. CONCLUSION: NS and UD decrease the lipid per-oxidation and liver enzymes, and increase the anti-oxidant defense system activity in the CCl4-treated rats. PMID:16425366

  10. Effects of a triplex mixture of Peganum harmala, Rhus coriaria, and Urtica dioica aqueous extracts on metabolic and histological parameters in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi Gaballu, Fereydoon; Abedi Gaballu, Yousef; Moazenzade Khyavy, Omid; Mardomi, Alireza; Ghahremanzadeh, Kazem; Shokouhi, Behrooz; Mamandy, Himan

    2015-08-01

    Several therapeutic effects such as antioxidant and blood glucose-lowering activities have been reported for Peganum harmala L (Zygophyllaceae) (PH) seeds, Rhus coriaria L (Anacardiaceae) (RC) fruits, and Urtica dioica L (Urticaceae) (UD) leaves. This study investigates the effects of a triplex mixture (1:1:1) of these medicinal plants on metabolic and histological parameters in diabetic rats. Aqueous extracts of PH, RC and UD were administered as either monotherapy or in combination at a final dose of 200 mg/kg to alloxan-induced diabetic rats by daily gavage. Biochemical parameters including blood glucose, liver function-related enzymes, lipid profile, and creatinine were estimated by spectrophotometric methods. Tissues from the liver and kidney stained with hematoxylin/eosin were histologically examined. The results obtained from the exposure groups were compared to either healthy or diabetic control groups. Compared with the diabetic control rats, all aqueous extracts (ED50 = 11.5 ± 2.57 mg/ml) led to significant decreases in the levels of ALP (1.39-2.23-fold, p < 0.05), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (1.79-3.26-fold, p < 0.05), and blood glucose (1.27-4.16-fold, p < 0.05). The serum concentrations of TG was decreased only by treatment with UD and triplex mixture (1.25- and 1.20-fold, respectively, p < 0.05). Among the studied parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), LDL-C, TG, and creatinine recovered to healthy control levels after 4 weeks of treatment with the extract mixture. This study showed that PH, RC, and UD extracts, especially their combination, had significant antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, and liver and renal damage recovering effects.

  11. Ex-vivo in-vitro inhibition of lipopolysaccharide stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta secretion in human whole blood by extractum urticae dioicae foliorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obertreis, B; Ruttkowski, T; Teucher, T; Behnke, B; Schmitz, H

    1996-04-01

    An extract of Urtica dioica folium (IDS 23, Rheuma-Hek), monographed positively for adjuvant therapy of rheumatic diseases and with known effects in partial inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis in vitro, was investigated with respect to effects of the extract on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in human whole blood of healthy volunteers. In the assay system used, LPS stimulated human whole blood showed a straight increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) secretion reaching maximum concentrations within 24 h following a plateau and slight decrease up to 65 h, respectively. The concentrations of these cytokines was strongly positively correlated with the number of monocytes/macrophages of each volunteer. TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta concentration after LPS stimulation was significantly reduced by simultaneously given IDS 23 in a strictly dose dependent manner. At time 24 h these cytokine concentrations were reduced by 50.8% and 99.7%, respectively, using the highest test IDS 23 assay concentration of 5 mg/ml (p flavonoides such as caffeic malic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, quercetin and rutin did not influence LPS stimulated TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 secretion in tested concentrations up to 5 x 10(-5) mol/l. These further findings on the pharmacological mechanism of action of Urticae dioica folia may explain the positive effects of this extract in the treatment of rheumatic diseases.

  12. A Rosa canina - Urtica dioica - Harpagophytum procumbens/zeyheri Combination Significantly Reduces Gonarthritis Symptoms in a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, Margret; Gruenwald, Joerg; Pohl, Ute; Uebelhack, Ralf

    2017-12-01

    The special formulation MA212 (Rosaxan) is composed of rosehip ( Rosa canina L.) puree/juice concentrate, nettle ( Urtica dioica L.) leaf extract, and devil's claw ( Harpagophytum procumbens DC. ex Meisn. or Harpagophytum zeyheri Decne.) root extract and also supplies vitamin D. It is a food for special medical purposes ([EU] No 609/2013) for the dietary management of pain in patients with gonarthritis.This 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind parallel-design study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of MA212 versus placebo in patients with gonarthritis.A 3D-HPLC-fingerprint (3-dimensional high pressure liquid chromatography fingerprint) of MA212 demonstrated the presence of its herbal ingredients. Ninety-two randomized patients consumed 40 mL of MA212 (n = 46) or placebo (n = 44) daily. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), quality-of-life scores at 0, 6, and 12 weeks, and analgesic consumption were documented. Statistically, the initial WOMAC subscores/scores did not differ between groups. During the study, their means significantly improved in both groups. The mean pre-post change of the WOMAC pain score (primary endpoint) was 29.87 in the MA212 group and 10.23 in the placebo group. The group difference demonstrated a significant superiority in favor of MA212 (p U  < 0.001; p t  < 0.001). Group comparisons of all WOMAC subscores/scores at 6 and 12 weeks reached same significances. Compared to placebo, both physical and mental quality of life significantly improved with MA212. There was a trend towards reduced analgesics consumption with MA212, compared to placebo. In the final efficacy evaluation, physicians (p Chi  < 0.001) and patients (p Chi  < 0.001) rated MA212 superior to placebo. MA212 was well tolerated.This study demonstrates excellent efficacy for MA212 in gonarthritis patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication in a lethal SARS-CoV BALB/c mouse model by stinging nettle lectin, Urtica dioica agglutinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaki, Yohichi; Wandersee, Miles K.; Smith, Aaron J.; Zhou, Yanchen; Simmons, Graham; Nelson, Nathan M.; Bailey, Kevin W.; Vest, Zachary G.; Li, Joseph K.-K.; Chan, Paul Kay-Sheung; Smee, Donald F.; Barnard, Dale L.

    2011-01-01

    Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) is a small plant monomeric lectin, 8.7 kDa in size, with an N-acetylglucosamine specificity that inhibits viruses from Nidovirales in vitro. In the current study, we first examined the efficacy of UDA on the replication of different SARS-CoV strains in Vero 76 cells. UDA inhibited virus replication in a dose-dependent manner and reduced virus yields of the Urbani strain by 90% at 1.1 ± 0.4 µg/ml in Vero 76 cells. Then, UDA was tested for efficacy in a lethal SARS-CoV-infected BALB/c mouse model. BALB/c mice were infected with two LD50 (575 PFU) of virus for 4 hours before the mice were treated intraperitoneally with UDA at 20, 10, 5 or 0 mg/kg/day for 4 days. Treatment with UDA at 5 mg/kg significantly protected the mice against a lethal infection with mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (p<0.001), but did not significantly reduce virus lung titers. All virus-infected mice receiving UDA treatments were also significantly protected against weight loss (p<0.001). UDA also effectively reduced lung pathology scores. At day 6 after virus exposure, all groups of mice receiving UDA had much lower lung weights than did the placebo-treated mice. Thus, our data suggest that UDA treatment of SARS infection in mice leads to a substantial therapeutic effect that protects mice against death and weight loss. Furthermore, the mode of action of UDA in vitro was further investigated using live SARS-CoV Urbani strain virus and retroviral particles pseudotyped with SARS-CoV spike (S). UDA specifically inhibited the replication of live SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV pseudotyped virus when added just before, but not after, adsorption. These data suggested that UDA likely inhibits SARS-CoV infection by targeting early stages of the replication cycle, namely, adsorption or penetration. In addition, we demonstrated that UDA neutralizes the virus infectivity, presumably by binding to the SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein. Finally, the target molecule for inhibition of virus

  14. Inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication in a lethal SARS-CoV BALB/c mouse model by stinging nettle lectin, Urtica dioica agglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaki, Yohichi; Wandersee, Miles K; Smith, Aaron J; Zhou, Yanchen; Simmons, Graham; Nelson, Nathan M; Bailey, Kevin W; Vest, Zachary G; Li, Joseph K-K; Chan, Paul Kay-Sheung; Smee, Donald F; Barnard, Dale L

    2011-04-01

    Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) is a small plant monomeric lectin, 8.7 kDa in size, with an N-acetylglucosamine specificity that inhibits viruses from Nidovirales in vitro. In the current study, we first examined the efficacy of UDA on the replication of different SARS-CoV strains in Vero 76 cells. UDA inhibited virus replication in a dose-dependent manner and reduced virus yields of the Urbani strain by 90% at 1.1 ± 0.4 μg/ml in Vero 76 cells. Then, UDA was tested for efficacy in a lethal SARS-CoV-infected BALB/c mouse model. BALB/c mice were infected with two LD50 (575 PFU) of virus for 4 h before the mice were treated intraperitoneally with UDA at 20, 10, 5 or 0 mg/kg/day for 4 days. Treatment with UDA at 5 mg/kg significantly protected the mice against a lethal infection with mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (p < 0.001), but did not significantly reduce virus lung titers. All virus-infected mice receiving UDA treatments were also significantly protected against weight loss (p < 0.001). UDA also effectively reduced lung pathology scores. At day 6 after virus exposure, all groups of mice receiving UDA had much lower lung weights than did the placebo-treated mice. Thus, our data suggest that UDA treatment of SARS infection in mice leads to a substantial therapeutic effect that protects mice against death and weight loss. Furthermore, the mode of action of UDA in vitro was further investigated using live SARS-CoV Urbani strain virus and retroviral particles pseudotyped with SARS-CoV spike (S). UDA specifically inhibited the replication of live SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV pseudotyped virus when added just before, but not after, adsorption. These data suggested that UDA likely inhibits SARS-CoV infection by targeting early stages of the replication cycle, namely, adsorption or penetration. In addition, we demonstrated that UDA neutralizes the virus infectivity, presumably by binding to the SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein. Finally, the target molecule for the inhibition of virus

  15. Cytotoxic effects of Urtica dioica radix on human colon (HT29) and gastric (MKN45) cancer cells mediated through oxidative and apoptotic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, S; Moradzadeh, M; Mousavi, S H; Sadeghnia, H R

    2016-10-15

    Defects in the apoptotic pathways are responsible for both the colorectal cancer pathogenesis and resistance to therapy. In this study, we examined the level of cellular oxidants, cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica radix (0-2000 µg/mL) and oxaliplatin (0-1000 µg/mL, as positive control) in human gastric (MKN45) and colon (HT29) cancer, as well as normal human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells. Exposure to U. dioica or oxaliplatin showed a concentration dependent suppression in cell survival with IC50 values of 24.7, 249.9 and 857.5 µg/mL for HT29, MKN45 and HFF cells after 72 h treatment, respectively. ROS formation and lipid peroxidation were also concentration-dependently increased following treatment with U. dioica, similar to oxaliplatin. In addition, the number of apoptotic cells significantly increased concomitantly with concentration of U. dioica as compared with control cells, which is similar to oxaliplatin and serum-deprived cancer cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that U. dioica inhibited proliferation of gastric and colorectal cancer cells while posing no significant toxic effect on normal cells. U. dioica not only increased levels of oxidants, but also induced concomitant increase of apoptosis. The precise signaling pathway by which U. dioica induce apoptosis needs further research.

  16. Anti-mycobacterial screening of five Indian medicinal plants and partial purification of active extracts of Cassia sophera and Urtica dioica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rambir Singh; Shariq Hussain; Rajesh Verma; Poonam Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find out the anti-mycobacterial potential of Cassia sophera (C. sophera), Urticadioica (U. dioica), Momordica dioica, Tribulus terrestris and Coccinia indica plants against multi-drug resistant (MDR) strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Methods: Plant materials were extracted successively with solvents of increasing polarity. Solvent extracts were screened for anti-mycobacterial activity against fast growing, non-pathogenic mycobacterium strain, Mycobacterium semegmatis, by disk diffusion method. The active extracts were tested against MDR and clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis by absolute concentration and proportion methods. The active extracts were subjected to bio-autoassay on TLC followed by silica column chromatography for isolation of potential drug leads. Results: Hexane extract of U. dioica (HEUD) and methanol extract of C. sophera (MECS) produced inhibition zone of 20 mm in disc diffusion assay and MIC of 250 and 125 μg/mL respectively in broth dilution assay against Mycobacteriumsemegmatis. Semipurified fraction F2 from MECS produced 86% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. F18 from HEUD produced 81% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. Phytochemical analysis indicated that anti-mycobacterial activity of MECS may be due to presence of alkaloids or flavonoids and that of HEUD due to terpenoids. Conclusions: C. sophera and U. dioica plant extracts exhibited promising anti-mycobacterial activity against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. This is the first report of anti-mycobacterial activity form C. sophera. This study showed possibility of purifying novel anti-mycobacterial compound(s) from C. sophera and U. dioica.

  17. Sex-related differences in photoinhibition, photo-oxidative stress and photoprotection in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) exposed to drought and nutrient deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simancas, Bárbara; Juvany, Marta; Cotado, Alba; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-03-01

    Dimorphic plant species can show distinct nutrient needs due to sex-related differences in nutrient allocation to reproductive structures, which can potentially affect their sensitivity to photoinhibition and photo-oxidative stress. Here, we investigated sex-related differences in the extent of photo-oxidative stress in male and female individuals of U. dioica exposed to a combination of severe drought and nutrient starvation. Male and female individuals of U. dioica subject to severe drought stress were exposed to various levels of nutrient availability. First, a set of plants grown under field conditions and exposed to summer drought was used to test the effects of nutrient supply (given as NPK fertilizer). Secondly, the effects of various phosphate concentrations in the nutrient solution were tested in drought-stressed potted plants. The Fv/Fm ratio (maximum efficiency of PSII photochemistry), photoprotection capacity (levels of carotenoids, including the xanthophyll cycle, and vitamins C and E), and the extent of lipid peroxidation (hydroperoxide levels) were measured. Results showed that an application of the NPK fertilizer to the soil had a positive effect on drought-stressed plants, reducing the extent of lipid peroxidation in both males and females. P deficiency led to residual photoinhibition, as indicated by significant reductions in the Fv/Fm ratio, and enhanced lipid peroxidation in females, but not in males. We conclude that (i) increased nutrient availability in the soil can alleviate photo-oxidative stress in drought-stressed U. dioica plants, and (ii) U. dioica plants show sexual secondary dimorphism in terms of photoinhibition and photo-oxidative stress, but this is only apparent when stress infringed on plants is very severe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Extracts from fruits of saw palmetto (Sabal serrulata) and roots of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica): viable alternatives in the medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and associated lower urinary tracts symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, E

    2001-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are very common disorders in aging men. Despite the great clinical importance, many aspects of their aetiology remain uncertain although it is generally accepted that advanced age and testicular androgens are important requirements for the development of these complaints. The currently available therapeutic options include watchful waiting, changes of life style, medical treatments and invasive therapies. In many European countries the use of phytopharmaceuticals for the management of BPH and related LUTS is common and these products represent up to 80 % of all drugs prescribed for this disorder. In particularly, extracts from the fruits of saw palmetto (Sabal serrulata, syn. Serenoa repens) and the roots of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) are popular. During the last years numerous papers have been published which elaborated on the pharmacological activities and the clinical assessment of these herbal remedies. These investigations have not only broadened the scientific basis for the rational use of phytotherapeutics but have also provided evidence for their therapeutic efficacy and favourable safety profile.

  19. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles. PMID:22474508

  20. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles.

  1. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina, Willow Bark (Salix alba, and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shakibaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina, willow bark (Salix alba, and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG, β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles.

  2. The effect of hydro alcoholic Nettle (Urtica dioica) extracts on insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory indicators in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, N; Esfanjani, A T; Heshmati, J; Bahrami, A

    2011-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is strongly associated with cardiovascular risk. Inflammation is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In this study, hydro alcoholic extract of Nettle (Urtica dioica) on insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory indicators in type 2 diabetic patients were studied. A randomized double-blind clinical trial on 50 men and women with type 2 diabetes was done for 8 weeks. Patients were adjusted by age, sex and duration of diabetes, then randomly divided into two groups, an intervention and control group. They received, 100 mg kg-1nettle extract or placebo in three portions a day for 8 weeks. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), High Sensitive C-Reactive protein (hs-CRP) and Fasting Insulin concentration were measured. Insulin Sensitivity was calculated, at the beginning and the end of the study. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 18, pnettle has decreasing effects on IL-6 and hs-CRP in patients with type 2 diabetes after eight weeks intervention.

  3. Functioning of Plantago major and Urtica dioica exposed to elevated CO{sub 2}. Analysis of growth pattern in relation to C and N allocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Hertog, J.

    1997-12-31

    The first part of this thesis deals with the growth response of P. major and U. dioica to a doubling of the ambient CO2 concentration grown with free access to nutrients (chapters 2 and 3). The questions, how relative growth rate (RGR) and other growth variables of wild plants are affected by elevated CO2 and what time course CO2 effects on the various growth variables have, are dealt with in chapter 2 for P. major. This analysis is extended to the relationship between the C and N metabolism in P. major and U. dioica, as affected by the CO2 concentration, in chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on the response of P. major to a combination of elevated CO2 and a growth-limiting dose of N. The analysis includes all factors needed to calculate a carbon balance, as well as data on nonstructural carbohydrates and total nitrogen concentrations. The use of fixed exponential addition rates for the supply of nitrate allows to establish relationships between growth variables and total plant nitrogen concentration (N), without interference of differences in plant size, such as often occurs in studies on growth under nutrient-limited conditions. The data from chapter 4 are used in a model study to evaluate the impact of the mode of nutrient limitation, as used in many studies, on the effect of elevated CO2, in combination with nutrient limitation, on plant growth. This chapter elucidates pitfalls in the experimental setup that are often overlooked and indicates possible causes for discrepancies between various studies concerned with the allocation of dry matter in relation to the CO2 treatment. The effect of an increase of the atmospheric CO2 concentration on the rate of respiration has caused controversy over the last ten years. Data on root respiration are presented in chapter 6. The data are related to possible effects of elevated CO, on the degree of stimulation of the RGR and on the concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates. A possible role for CO2 effects on cytochrome and

  4. Urtica spp.: Phenolic composition, safety, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Rita; Costa, Gustavo; Figueirinha, Artur; Liberal, Joana; Prior, João A V; Lopes, Maria Celeste; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2017-09-01

    Urtica dioica and other less studied Urtica species (Urticaceae) are often used as a food ingredient. Fifteen hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and sixteen flavonoids, flavone and flavonol-type glycosides were identified in hydroalcoholic extracts from aerial parts of Urtica dioica L., Urtica urens L. and Urtica membranacea using HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS n . Among them, the 4-caffeoyl-5-p-coumaroylquinic acid and three statin-like 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl flavone derivatives were identified for the first time in Urtica urens and U. membranacea respectively. Urtica membranacea showed the higher content of flavonoids, mainly luteolin and apigenin C-glycosides, which are almost absent in the other species studied. In vitro, Urtica dioica exhibited greater antioxidant activity but Urtica urens exhibited stronger anti-inflammatory potential. Interestingly, statin-like compounds detected in Urtica membranacea have been associated with hypocholesterolemic activity making this plant interesting for future investigations. None of the extracts were cytotoxic to macrophages and hepatocytes in bioactive concentrations (200 and 350μg/mL), suggesting their safety use in food applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Urtica dioica Induces Cytotoxicity in Human Prostate Carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to evaluate the involvement of caspases in UD-AQ induced cytotoxicity, the activities of caspase 3 and 9 were measured using a colorimetric assay. Following treatment of. LNCaP cells with UD-AQ extract (50 µg/ml) in 6- well plates, cells were collected by centrifugation and lysed with lysis buffer (1 % Triton X-100,.

  6. Udio bioaktivnih spojeva u rizomu dvodomne koprive (Urtica dioica l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Planinčić, Hedviga

    2016-01-01

    Cilj ovog istraživanja bio je odrediti utjecaj gnojidbe tla dušikom na udio bioaktivnih spojeva (fenolni spojevi) u rizomu dvodomne koprive. Kao kontrolni uzorak korišten je rizom uzgojen na tlu koje nije tretirano gnojivom, a drugi rizom na tlu koje je tretirano gnojivom u količini 100 kg N/ha. Ekstrakcija ukupnih fenola provedena je primjenom destilirane vode i 50 %-tne vodene otopine etanola (v/v) uz primjenu ultrazvučne kupelji. Fenolni spojevi (ukupni fenoli, flavan-3-oli i hidroksicimet...

  7. Bioaktivni spojevi praha korijena koprive (Urtica dioica l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Simonović, Niki

    2016-01-01

    Cilj ovog istraživanja bio je odrediti količinu bioaktivnih spojeva u vodenim ekstraktima praha korijena koprive, uzgojenih uz gnojidbu (100 kgN/ha) i bez gnojidbe (0 kgN/ha), te u ekstraktu komercijalnog praha korijena koprive. Određivanje ukupnih fenola, hidroksicimetnih kiselina i flavan-3-ola provedeno je spektrofotometrijski. Najviše koncentracije fenolnih spojeva određene su u komercijalnom prahu korjena koprive. Koncentracije ukupnih fenola, hidroksicimetnih kiselina i flavan-3-ola viš...

  8. Ekstrakcija polifenola iz korijena biljke Urtica dioica L.

    OpenAIRE

    Paić-Karega, Matea

    2017-01-01

    Cilj ovog istraţivanja bio je usporediti različite metode ekstrakcije polifenola iz korijena koprive te prinose fenolnih spojeva u ovisnosi o primijenjenim metodama i uvjetima ekstrakcije UsporeĎivane su Soxhlet ekstrakcija te ekstrakcija superkritičnim CO2 Za Soxhlet ekstrakciju kao otapala su korišteni 96%-tni etanol te n-heksan kako bi se prikazao i utjecaj odabira otapala na prinos ekstrakcije. Soxhlet ekstrakcijom uz primjenu 96%-tnog etanola prinos polifenola iznosio je 14,14%, dok je p...

  9. INVESTIGATION OF STINGING NETTLE (URTICA DIOICA L.) IN LITHUANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Jankauskienė, Zofija; Gruzdevienė, Elvyra

    2010-01-01

    Fiber nettle is a cultivated form of the wild nettle and could become a renewable recourse of natural fibres in Lithuania. The aim of research was to investigate propagation ability (shoot rooting) of stinging nettle, investigate influence of different crop density on plant biometrical indices, productivity. The investigation was carried out at the Upytė Research Station of LIA in 2008-2009. The shoots of stinging nettle were cut into segments, the top part of the stem and the segments of the...

  10. Phytochemical, phylogenetic, and anti-inflammatory evaluation of 43 Urtica accessions (stinging nettle) based on UPLC-Q-TOF-MS metabolomic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Weigend, Maximilian; Luebert, Federico; Brokamp, Grischa; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2013-12-01

    Several species of the genus Urtica (especially Urtica dioica, Urticaceae), are used medicinally to treat a variety of ailments. To better understand the chemical diversity of the genus and to compare different accessions and different taxa of Urtica, 63 leaf samples representing a broad geographical, taxonomical and morphological diversity were evaluated under controlled conditions. A molecular phylogeny for all taxa investigated was prepared to compare phytochemical similarity with phylogenetic relatedness. Metabolites were analyzed via UPLC-PDA-MS and multivariate data analyses. In total, 43 metabolites were identified, with phenolic compounds and hydroxy fatty acids as the dominant substance groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) provides a first structured chemotaxonomy of the genus. The molecular data present a highly resolved phylogeny with well-supported clades and subclades. U. dioica is retrieved as both para- and polyphyletic. European members of the U. dioica group and the North American subspecies share a rather similar metabolite profile and were largely retrieved as one, nearly exclusive cluster by metabolite data. This latter cluster also includes - remotely related - Urtica urens, which is pharmaceutically used in the same way as U. dioica. However, most highly supported phylogenetic clades were not retrieved in the metabolite cluster analyses. Overall, metabolite profiles indicate considerable phytochemical diversity in the genus, which largely falls into a group characterized by high contents of hydroxy fatty acids (e.g., most Andean-American taxa) and another group characterized by high contents of phenolic acids (especially the U. dioica-clade). Anti-inflammatory in vitro COX1 enzyme inhibition assays suggest that bioactivity may be predicted by gross metabolic profiling in Urtica. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Морфологические особенности крапивы двудомной (Urtica dioica) в различных фитоценозах Оренбуржья

    OpenAIRE

    Деннер Виктор Андреевич; Галиакбарова Виктория Альбертовна; Федюнина Полина Сергеевна

    2016-01-01

    химический состав Urtica dioica семейства Крапивные (Urtíca dióica L.) представлен различными микро- и макроэлементами, в частности кальцием и магнием, а также целым рядом групп биологически активных веществ, среди которых преобладающим является пигмент хлорофилл. Целью работы явилось определение количественного содержания ионов магния и хлорофилла в листьях крапивы двудомной, произрастающей в Соль-Илецком, Орском и Беляевском районах Оренбургской области. Установлено, что по сравнению с офиц...

  12. Содержание эссенциальных и токсичных элементов в надземной части Urtica dioica L. на шламовом поле криолитового завода

    OpenAIRE

    Карпюк, Михаил; Гладышев, Алексей; Трубников, Виктор

    2011-01-01

    Автором статьи определено содержание тяжелых металлов в тканях растений Urtica dioica L. произрастающей на шламовом поле Южно8Уральского криолитового завода. Установлено от8 личие концентраций эссенциальных и токсичных элементоы в контрольной зоне и на шламовом поле. Растения крапивы являются биоконцентраторами цинка, никеля и хрома....

  13. Pulling the sting out of nettle systematics - A comprehensive phylogeny of the genus Urtica L. (Urticaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse-Veldmann, Bernadette; Nürk, Nicolai M; Smissen, Rob; Breitwieser, Ilse; Quandt, Dietmar; Weigend, Maximilian

    2016-09-01

    The genus Urtica L. is subcosmopolitan, found on all continents (except Antarctica) and most extratropical islands and ranges from Alaska to Patagonia, Spitzbergen to the Cape and Camtschatka to the subantarctic islands. However, throughout its geographical range morphologically nearly indistinguishable species are found alongside morphologically quite disparate species, with the overall diversity of morphological characters extremely limited. The systematics of Urtica have puzzled scientists for the past 200years and no single comprehensive attempt at understanding infrageneric relationships has been published in the past, nor are species delimitations unequivocally established. We here provide the first comprehensive phylogeny of the genus including 61 of the 63 species recognized, represented by 144 ingroup accessions and 14 outgroup taxa. The markers ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, psbA-trnH intergenic spacer, trnL-trnF and trnS-trnG are used. The phylogeny is well resolved. The eastern Asian Zhengyia shennongensis T. Deng, D.G. Zhang & H. Sun is retrieved as sister to Urtica. Within Urtica, a clade comprising the western Eurasian species U. pilulifera L. and U. neubaueri Chrtek is sister to all other species of the genus. The phylogenetic analyses retrieve numerous well-supported clades, suggesting previously unsuspected relationships and implying that classically used taxonomic characters such as leaf morphology and growth habit are highly homoplasious. Species delimitation is problematical, and several accessions assigned to Urtica dioica L. (as subspecies) are retrieved in widely different places in the phylogeny. The genus seems to have undergone numerous dispersal-establishment events both between continents and onto different islands. Three recent species radiations are inferred, one in America centered in the Andes, one in New Zealand, and one in northern Eurasia which includes Urtica dioica s.str. sensu Henning et al. (2014). The present study provides the basis of a

  14. High-antibacterial activity of Urtica spp. seed extracts on food and plant pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körpe, Didem Aksoy; İşerı, Özlem Darcansoy; Sahin, Feride Iffet; Cabi, Evren; Haberal, Mehmet

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate antibacterial activities of methanol (MetOH) and aqueous (dw) leaf (L), root (R) and seed (S) extracts of Urtica dioica L. (Ud; stinging nettle) and Urtica pilulifera L. (Up; Roman nettle) on both food- and plant-borne pathogens, with total phenolic contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities (DRSA). MetOH extracts of leaves and roots of U. dioica had the highest DRSA. Extracts with high antibacterial activity were in the order Up-LMetOH (13/16) > Ud-SMetOH (11/16) > Up-SMetOH (9/16). Results obtained with Up-SMetOH against food spoiling Bacillus pumilus, Shigella spp. and Enterococcus gallinarum with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in 128-1024 μg/ml range seem to be promising. Up-SMetOH also exerted strong inhibition against Clavibacter michiganensis with a considerably low MIC (32 μg/ml). Ud-SMetOH and Up-LMetOH were also effective against C. michiganensis (MIC = 256 and 1024 μg/ml, respectively). Ud-SMetOH and Ud-RMetOH had also antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas vesicatoria (MIC = 512 and 1024 μg/ml, respectively). Results presented here demonstrate high-antibacterial activity of U. pilulifera extracts and U. dioica seed extract against phytopathogens for the first time, and provide the most comprehensive data on the antibacterial activity screening of U. pilulifera against food-borne pathogens. Considering limitations in plant disease control, antibacterial activities of these extracts would be of agricultural importance.

  15. Antennaria dioica na Pálavě?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danihelka, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2017), s. 134-134 ISSN 1211-5258 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Antennaria dioica * Asteraceae * phytogeography Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany

  16. Salix transect of Europe: structured genetic variation and isolation-by-distance in the nettle psyllid, Trioza urticae (Psylloidea, Hemiptera), from Greece to Arctic Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonglersak, Rungtip; Cronk, Quentin; Percy, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The common nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is co-associated with willows (Salix spp.) in riparian habitats across Europe. We sampled the widespread nettle psyllid, Trioza urticae (Linné, 1758), from Urtica in willow habitats on a megatransect of Europe from the Aegean to the Arctic Ocean. The aim of this study was to use an unusually widespread insect to assess the influence of geographic distances and natural geographic barriers on patterns of genetic variation and haplotype distribution. New information Phylogeographic analysis using DNA sequences of two mtDNA regions, COI and cytB, shows that T. urticae specimens are organized into four regional groups (southern, central, northern and arctic). These groups are supported by both phylogenetic analysis (four geographically-based clades) and network analysis (four major haplotype groups). The boundary between southern and central groups corresponds to the Carpathian Mountains and the boundary between the central and northern groups corresponds to the Gulf of Finland. Overall these groups form a latitudinal cline in genetic diversity, which decreases with increasing latitude. PMID:28325977

  17. Specific activity of radionuclides in technological processing of nettle (urtica) for food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, T.N.; Odintsov, Yu.A.; Zakharchenko, G.A.; Chernikov, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Possibility of using nettle (urtica) for food in the regions, contaminated after the Chernobyl accident, is studied. Clear dependence of 137 Cs transport from the soil into the nettle is not determined even in the regions with high density of soil contamination. It is established that nettle wetting during one hour in water completely relieves it from 137 Cs. It is recommended to use the nettle as source material of biologically active substances for nutrition purposes. 6 refs

  18. The histological and histometrical effects of Urtica dioica extract on rat's prostate hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Hamid Reza; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Esmaeilzadeh, Saleh; Fatemi Tabatabaei, Sayed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in human that gradual overgrowth of the prostate gland leads to impinge on the urethra with impairment in urinary function. Numerous plants improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and improve urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH. In this study, 25 healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly in five groups: G1 (Control group) received ordinary feed without any treatment, G2 received 10 mg kg(-1) testosterone subcutaneously, G3 received 50 mg kg(-1) nettle root extract orally, G4 received 50 mg kg(-1) nettle root extract orally and 10 mg kg(-1) testosterone, G5 received 10 mg kg(-1) almond oil (Almond oil was used as testosterone solvent) subcutaneously. After six weeks, volume and weight of each lobe were measured and samples were taken. The 5 to 6 µm thickness sections were made using paraffin embedding method and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff. The results showed that prostate volume and ratio of prostate to body weight were increased significantly in the testosterone. Histological and histometrical results showed that dorsal and lateral type 1 and 2 lobes were not changed significantly but the ventral and anterior lobes have changed significantly. Over all, the nettle root could prevent from some of prostatic hyperplasia effects, so that percentage of folded alveoli in ventral lobe reduced insignificantly.

  19. The histological and histometrical effects of Urtica dioica extract on rat’s prostate hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Hamid Reza; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Esmaeilzadeh, Saleh; Fatemi Tabatabaei, Sayed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in human that gradual overgrowth of the prostate gland leads to impinge on the urethra with impairment in urinary function. Numerous plants improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and improve urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH. In this study, 25 healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly in five groups: G1 (Control group) received ordinary feed without any treatment, G2 received 10 mg kg-1 testosterone subcutaneously, G3 received 50 mg kg-1 nettle root extract orally, G4 received 50 mg kg-1 nettle root extract orally and 10 mg kg-1 testosterone, G5 received 10 mg kg-1 almond oil (Almond oil was used as testosterone solvent) subcutaneously. After six weeks, volume and weight of each lobe were measured and samples were taken. The 5 to 6 µm thickness sections were made using paraffin embedding method and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff. The results showed that prostate volume and ratio of prostate to body weight were increased significantly in the testosterone. Histological and histometrical results showed that dorsal and lateral type 1 and 2 lobes were not changed significantly but the ventral and anterior lobes have changed significantly. Over all, the nettle root could prevent from some of prostatic hyperplasia effects, so that percentage of folded alveoli in ventral lobe reduced insignificantly. PMID:25992248

  20. The histological and histometrical effects of Urtica dioica extract on rat?s prostate hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Moradi, Hamid Reza; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Esmaeilzadeh, Saleh; Fatemi Tabatabaei, Sayed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in human that gradual overgrowth of the prostate gland leads to impinge on the urethra with impairment in urinary function. Numerous plants improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and improve urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH. In this study, 25 healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly in five groups: G1 (Control group) received ordinary feed without any treatment, G2 received 10 mg kg-1 testosterone subcutan...

  1. Chemical Composition and Immuno-Modulatory Effects of Urtica dioica L. (Stinging Nettle) Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francišković, Marina; Gonzalez-Pérez, Raquel; Orčić, Dejan; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Svirčev, Emilija; Simin, Nataša; Mimica-Dukić, Neda

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the chemical profile of stinging nettle and to provide an insight into the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the immune response. Qualitative and quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analyses indicated that phenolic acids (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid as dominant) and flavonol glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside) are present in the aerial parts, while lignans (secoisolariciresinol, 9,9'-bisacetyl-neo-olivil and their glucosides) were detected in the root. Herb and root extracts expressed selective inhibition toward cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase branches in human platelets: root extracts were better at inhibiting thromboxane production, while herb extracts were more specific toward inhibition of 12-lipoxygenase pathway. Stinging nettle extracts mildly increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and growth-related oncogene release from nonstimulated intestinal epithelial cells, stimulating MyD88/NF-κB/p38 signaling, hence preserving the epithelial integrity and enhancing intestinal steady-state defense. Additionally, root extract reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/growth-related oncogene secretion and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in intestinal epithelial cells, thus showing the potential protective effect against tissue damage caused by inflammation processes. These observations suggest that stinging nettle is an interesting candidate for the development of phytopharmaceuticals or dietary supplements for cotreatment of various inflammatory diseases, particularly inflammatory bowel diseases. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Potentiële ziekten en plagen in brandnetel (Urtica dioica) : een beknopt literatuur overzicht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alebeek, van F.A.N.

    2006-01-01

    Wilde brandnetelvegetaties vormen een biotoop waarin grote aantallen verschillende insecten zich thuis voelen. Slechts een paar soorten bereiken dichtheden die leiden tot zware aantasting van de planten. Het zou kunnen dat bij grootschalige teelten van geselecteerde brandnetelklonen, en door de

  3. Eenhuizigheid en sex-ratio bij Grote brandnetel (Urtica dioica L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, Martin; Oliehoek, Jan; Jong, de Tom

    1998-01-01

    Bloeiende planten zijn over het algemeen hermafrodiet (elke bloem heeft zowel mannelijke als vrouwelijke delen). Er zijn echter ook eenhuizige (aparte mannelijke en vrouwelijke bloemen op één individu) en tweehuizige planten (aparte mannelijke en vrouwelijke individuen). Tweehuizige planten zijn het

  4. Evaluation of a root extract gel from Urtica dioica (Urticaceae) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The prepared herbal gel was of light gray color with a smooth texture. ... International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, African .... with Origin 9 software (Origin Labs., USA). P <.

  5. Effect of nettle (Urtica dioica extract on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in male rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Abdulkarim Salih

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Therefore, it can be assumed that the nephroprotective effect shown by nettle in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity can reserve intracellular levels of biological pathways and supportively enhance excretion of toxic levels of gentamicin.

  6. Plants growing on contaminated and brownfield sites appropriate for use in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development terrestrial plant growth test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnett, Danielle E; Lawrence, Victoria K; Hutchings, Tony R; Hodson, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) terrestrial plant test is often used for the ecological risk assessment of contaminated land. However, its origins in plant protection product testing mean that the species recommended in the OECD guidelines are unlikely to occur on contaminated land. Six alternative species were tested on contaminated soils from a former Zn smelter and a metal fragmentizer with elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The response of the alternative species was compared with that of two species recommended by the OECD: Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) and Trifolium pratense (red clover). Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Poa annua (annual meadowgrass) had low emergence rates in the control soil and so may be considered unsuitable. Festuca rubra (Chewings fescue), Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire fog), Senecio vulgaris (common groundsel), and Verbascum thapsus (great mullein) offer good alternatives to the OECD species. In particular, H. lanatus and S. vulgaris were more sensitive to the soils with moderate concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than the OECD species. © 2010 SETAC.

  7. Feeding Behaviour on Host Plants May Influence Potential Exposure to Bt Maize Pollen of Aglais Urticae Larvae (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andreas; Otto, Mathias

    2015-08-31

    Non-target butterfly larvae may be harmed by feeding on host plants dusted with Bt maize pollen. Feeding patterns of larvae and their utilization of host plants can affect the adverse Bt impact because the maize pollen is distributed unequally on the plant. In a field study, we investigated the feeding of larvae of the Small Tortoiseshell, Aglais urticae, on nettles, Urtica dioica. Young larvae used smaller host plants than older larvae. In general, the position of the larvae was in the top part of the host plant, but older larvae showed a broader vertical distribution on the nettles. Leaf blades and leaf tips were the plant parts most often consumed. Leaf veins were consumed but midribs were fed on to a lesser extent than other plant veins, particularly by young larvae. The feeding behavior of the larvae may increase possible exposure to Bt maize pollen because pollen densities are expected to be higher on the top parts and along leaf veins of nettles.

  8. Feeding Behaviour on Host Plants May Influence Potential Exposure to Bt Maize Pollen of Aglais Urticae Larvae (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-target butterfly larvae may be harmed by feeding on host plants dusted with Bt maize pollen. Feeding patterns of larvae and their utilization of host plants can affect the adverse Bt impact because the maize pollen is distributed unequally on the plant. In a field study, we investigated the feeding of larvae of the Small Tortoiseshell, Aglais urticae, on nettles, Urtica dioica. Young larvae used smaller host plants than older larvae. In general, the position of the larvae was in the top part of the host plant, but older larvae showed a broader vertical distribution on the nettles. Leaf blades and leaf tips were the plant parts most often consumed. Leaf veins were consumed but midribs were fed on to a lesser extent than other plant veins, particularly by young larvae. The feeding behavior of the larvae may increase possible exposure to Bt maize pollen because pollen densities are expected to be higher on the top parts and along leaf veins of nettles.

  9. Toxicity of thiamethoxam to Tetranychus urticae Koch and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae) through different routes of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzebon, Alberto; Duso, Carlo; Tirello, Paola; Ortiz, Paulina Bermudez

    2011-03-01

    Knowledge of the impact of insecticides on Tetranychus urticae Koch and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot is crucial for IPM. This study evaluates the effect of thiamethoxam on T. urticae and its predator by considering different routes of exposure (topical, residual and contaminated food exposures) and their combinations. Thiamethoxam effects on T. urticae were higher when residual and contaminated food exposures were considered. The total effect was higher than 90% where contaminated food exposure was involved. On P. persimilis, the total effect was higher in residual and contaminated prey exposures compared with topical exposure, and all combinations of routes of exposure attained a total effect higher than 90%. Thiamethoxam was found to be toxic to T. urticae and P. persimilis; however, the impact of the insecticide depended on the routes of exposure and their combinations. Lethal and sublethal effects occurred in residual and contaminated food exposures, while only sublethal effects occurred in topical exposure of predators and prey. The toxicity of thiamethoxam on prey and predator increased with the number of exposure routes involved. By limiting exposure to thiamethoxam to ingestion of contaminated food only, the impact of the pesticide was more favourable to P. persimilis than to its prey. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Does fragmentation of Urtica habitats affect phytophagous and predatory insects differentially?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabel, Jörg; Tscharntke, Teja

    1998-09-01

    Effects of habitat fragmentation on the insect community of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) were studied, using 32 natural nettle patches of different area and degree of isolation in an agricultural landscape. Habitat fragmentation reduced the species richness of Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha, and Coleoptera, and the abundance of populations. Habitat isolation and area reduction did not affect all insect species equally. Monophagous herbivores had a higher probability of absence from small patches than all (monophagous and polyphagous) herbivore species, and the percentage of monophagous herbivores increased with habitat area. Abundance and population variability of species were negatively correlated and could both be used as a predictor of the percentage of occupied habitats. Species richness of herbivores correlated (positively) with habitat area, while species richness of predators correlated (negatively) with habitat isolation. In logistic regressions, the probability of absence of monophagous herbivores from habitat patches could only be explained by habitat area (in 4 out of 10 species) and predator absence probability only by habitat isolation (in 3 out of 14 species). Presumably because of the instability of higher-trophic-level populations and dispersal limitation, predators were more affected by habitat isolation than herbivores, while they did not differ from herbivore populations with respect to abundance or variability. Thus increasing habitat connectivity in the agricultural landscape should primarily promote predator populations.

  11. Study of anticancer and antibacterial activities of Foeniculum vulgare, Justicia adhatoda and Urtica dioica as natural curatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, R; Salahuddin, H; Mahmood, T; Ismail, M

    2017-09-30

    High-throughput technologies, such as synthetic biology and genomics have paved new paths for discovery and utility of medicinally beneficial plants. Bioactive molecules isolated from different plants have significantly higher biological activities. The present study was done to analyze antibacterial potential of some medicinal plants against multi drug resistant (MDR) pathogens and anticancer effect against MCF-7 cell line. Methanolic and ethanolic extracts were tested for their antibacterial activity by disc diffusion method against six MDR bacterial strains and for cytotoxicity evaluation by MTT assay. Ethanolic extracts of the three tested plants exhibited growth inhibitory effect against Klebsiella pneumonia, Serratia marcescens and Methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more resistant to all extracts as its growth was least inhibited by the extracts of all tested plants. Ethanol extract of Foeniculum vulgare exhibited significant inhibition of cancer cells proliferation. Methanol extract of Justicia adhatoda also showed considerable inhibition of cancer cells. Future studies must converge on detailed investigation of modes of action of extracts of tested plants.

  12. Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extracts as functional ingredients for production of chocolates with improved bioactive composition and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Durgo, Ksenija; Vojvodić, Aleksandra; Bušić, Arijana

    2015-12-01

    Pursuant to the tendencies of producing functional foods, attractive to a wide range of consumers, in this study chocolates enriched with freeze dried (FD) and concentrated (CE) nettle extracts were formulated, and their polyphenolic and antioxidant capacity stability evaluated during 12 months of storage. A simple aqueous extraction procedure of nettle was developed, and the defined extract evaluated for its cytotoxic and antioxidant/prooxidant activity on human colon cancer cell line (SW 480). An increase in total polyphenolic content, chlorogenic acid and flavonoid derivatives (originating from nettle extract) contents was achieved in enriched chocolates. Implementation of FD extract enabled higher increase of polyphenolic content in comparison to CE extract. During storage, fluctuations of polyphenolic content were observed, but the final bioactive parameters did not differ (or increased) from the initial ones. Nettle enriched chocolates exhibited more intense bitterness and astringency, while dark chocolates were preferred over milk and semisweet ones.

  13. Does stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) have an effect on bone formation in the expanded inter-premaxillary suture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgin, Celal; Çörekçi, Bayram; Ozan, Fatih; Halicioğlu, Koray; Toptaş, Orçun; Birinci Yildirim, Arzu; Türker, Arzu; Yilmaz, Fahri

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether systemically given stinging nettle (SN) has an effect on bone formation in response to expansion of the rat inter-premaxillary suture. A total of 28 male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: control (C), only expansion (OE), SN extract given only during the expansion and retention periods (SN group; a total of 17days), and SN extract given during the nursery phase before expansion (a period of 40days) and during the expansion and retention periods (N+SN group; a total of 57days). After the 5-day expansion period was completed, the rats in the OE, SN, and N+SN groups underwent 12days of mechanical retention, after which they were sacrificed, and their premaxilla were dissected and fixed. A histologic evaluation was done to determine the number of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and capillaries, as well as the number and intensity of inflammatory cells and new bone formation. Statistically significant differences were found between the groups in all histologic parameters except the ratio of intensities of inflammatory cells. New bone formation and the number of capillaries were significantly higher in the SN groups than in the other groups. The statistical analysis also showed that the numbers of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and capillaries were highest in the N+SN group. Systemic administration of SN may be effective in accelerating new bone formation and reducing inflammation in the maxillary expansion procedure. It may also be beneficial in preventing relapse after the expansion procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. one step method of plantlet regeneration in trichosanthes dioica roxb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-01-03

    Jan 3, 2011 ... Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Botany, Patna University, Patna, India. E-mail: rashmi0911@gmail.com. Accepted 23 December, 2010. In order to reduce the cost and time of in vitro raised plants of Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., a minimal .... 1951), tomato juice (Nitsch, 1951; Straus and La Rue,.

  15. De novo transcriptome assembly of heavy metal tolerant Silene dioica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čegan, R.; Hudzieczek, V.; Hobza, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, MAR (2017), s. 118-119 ISSN 2213-5960 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : genome * Silene dioica * RNA-Seq * Transcriptome * Heavy metal tolerance * Sex chromosomes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany

  16. Bioavailability and bioaccumulation characterization of essential and heavy metals contents in R. acetosa, S. oleracea and U. dioica from copper polluted and referent areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Biljana; Stafilov, Trajče; Bačeva, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    Bioavailability of metals occurring in soil is the basic source of its accumulation in vegetables and herbs. The impact of soil pollution (due to urban and mining areas) on the food chain presents a challenge for many investigations. Availability of metals in a potentially polluted soil and their possible transfer and bioaccumulation in sorrel (Rumex acetosa), spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and common nettle (Urtica dioica), were examined. Microwave digestion was applied for total digestion of the plant tissues, while on the soil samples open wet digestion with a mixture of acids was applied. Three extraction methods were implemented for the bioavailable metals in the soil. Atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma was used for determination of the total contents of 21 elements. Significant enrichments in agricultural soil for As, Pb and Zn (in urban area), Cd, Cu and Ni (in a copper mine area), compared with the respective values from European standards were detected. On the basis of three different extraction methods, higher availability was assumed for both lithogenic and anthropogenic elements. Translocation values >1 were obtained for As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Higher bioconcentrating value was obtained only for Cd, while the bioaccumulation values vary from 0.17 for Cd to 0.82 for Zn. The potential availability of hazardous metals in urban and mining soils is examined using DTPA-TEA-CaCl2 (urban) and HCl (Cu-mines areas). Our results suggested that S. oleracea and R. acetosa have a phytostabilization potential for Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb, while U. dioica only for Cu. R. acetosa has a potential for phytoextraction of Cd in urban and copper polluted areas.

  17. The genome of Tetranychus urticae reveals herbivorous pest adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grbić, M.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Clark, R.M.; Rombauts, S.; Grbić, V.; Osborne, E.J.; Dermauw, W.; Phuong, C.T.N.; Ortego, F.; Hernández-Crespo, P.; Diaz, I.; Martinez, M.; Navajas, M.; Sucena, E.; Magalhães, S.; Nagy, L.; Pace, R.M.; Djuranović, S.; Smagghe, G.; Iga, M.; Christiaens, O.; Veenstra, J.A.; Ewer, J.; Villalobos, R.M.; Hutter, J.L.; Hudson, S.D.; Velez, M.; Yi, S.V.; Zeng, J.; Pires-dasilva, A.; Roch, F.; Cazaux, M.; Navarro, M.; Zhurov, V.; Acevedo, G.; Bjelica, A.; Fawcett, J.A.; Bonnet, E.; Martens, C.; Baele, G.; Wissler, L.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, A.; Tirry, L.; Blais, C.; Demeestere, K.; Henz, S.R.; Gregory, T.R.; Mathieu, J.; Verdon, L.; Farinelli, L.; Schmutz, J.; Lindquist, E.; Feyereisen, R.; Van de Peer, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest with an extensive host plant range and an extreme record of pesticide resistance. Here we present the completely sequenced and annotated spider mite genome, representing the first complete chelicerate genome. At 90 megabases T.

  18. Resistance in Cucumis sativus L. to Tetranychus urticae Koch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponti, de O.M.B.

    1980-01-01


    Chapter 1
    The role of plant breeding and particularly of host plant resistance in integrated control is discussed. Host plant resistance to insects and mites, especially to Tetranychus urticae is reviewed. A standard terminology for disease and pest

  19. Assessment of reproductive capacity of seeds sampled from natural populations of plants from a territory contaminated with radionuclides and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakhusheva, O.; Evseeva, T. [Institute of biology Komi SC Ural Branch of RAS (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Plants are an essential component of any ecosystem and are permanently exposed to soil contamination. Therefore, they are widely used for characterization of ecological situation of the territory. Located at the base of the food chain, plants are exposed to toxic agents before the organisms at higher trophic levels. Kirovo-Chepetsk chemical plant (Kirov, Russia) is one of the biggest chemical enterprises in Europe. Vascular plant communities from surrounding area are exposed to industrial wastes, including uranium production wastes from 1938. The aim of this work was to estimate reproductive capacity of Urtica dioica L., Cirsium setosum (Willd.) Bess and Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim - natural populations inhabiting the chemical plant industrial zone. The plant species studied are common for the meadow communities of south taiga zone, and are characterized by high seed yield and living in wide range of ecological conditions. Plant seeds were collected from two experimental sites with different soil contamination levels, located in the vicinity of the Kirovo-Chepetsk chemical plant, as well as from the reference site, in 2011 and 2012. Soil specific activities of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr and concentrations of Ni, Pb, Cd, Zn, Hg and Cu were measured and ecological criteria of the radioactive (C{sub r}) and chemical (C{sub c}) contamination of the soil cover were calculated. Seeds germination, germinative energy and seedling survival rate were used for assessing reproductive capacity. Urtica dioicawas found to be the most sensitive among plant species studied. Germination of seeds from contaminated sites was significantly lower compared with the reference values. Exponential relationship was found between the levels of soil radioactive contamination and seeds germination (R{sup 2}=0.8, p<0.001). Germination of Cirsium setosum seeds, sampled from contaminated sites, exceeded the values obtained for the reference plant population and was linearly dependent (R{sup 2

  20. Resistance in Cucumis sativus L. to Tetranychus urticae Koch

    OpenAIRE

    Ponti, de, O.M.B.

    1980-01-01


    Chapter 1
    The role of plant breeding and particularly of host plant resistance in integrated control is discussed. Host plant resistance to insects and mites, especially to Tetranychus urticae is reviewed. A standard terminology for disease and pest resistance is recommended.

    Chapter 2
    The relationship between the twospotted spider mite and cucumber has been studied on plants and on leaf disks of a number of varieties with different...

  1. Trophic Interactions between Generalist Predators and the Two Spotted Spide Mite, Tetranychus urticae in, Strawberry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Kramer

    The two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a major cause of pest damage worldwide. Its host range includes among many the strawberry crop, a high value crop in Denmark as well as in many other temperate and subtropical regions. Chemical control of T. urticae...... occurrence and diversity of predatory insects and predatory mites in Danish strawberry fields and surrounding vegetation is lacking, as is the knowledge of the potential of generalist insect predators to control T. urticae. The overall objective of this PhD thesis was to investigate the trophic interactions...... between natural enemies, in particular generalist predators and the two spotted spider mite, T. urticae, in strawberry. This was done by investigating interactions of T. urticae and its natural enemies as influenced by cropping practice and the surrounding vegetation (Manuscript I) as well as more...

  2. Anticancer and antioxidant tannins from Pimenta dioica leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Mohamed S A; Moharram, Fatma A; Mohamed, Mona A; Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; Aboutabl, Elsayed A

    2007-01-01

    Two galloylglucosides, 6-hydroxy-eugenol 4-O-(6'-O-galloyl)-beta-D-4C1-glucopyranoside (4) and 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-propane-1,2-diol-2-O-(2',6'-di-O-galloyl)-beta-D -4C1-glucopyranoside (7), and two C-glycosidic tannins, vascalaginone (10) and grandininol (14), together with fourteen known metabolites, gallic acid (1), methyl gallate (2), nilocitin (3), 1-O-galloyl-4,6-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-(alpha/beta)-D-glucopyranose (5), 4,6-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-(alpha/beta)-D-glucopyranose (6), 3,4,6-valoneoyl-(alpha/beta)-D-glucopyranose (8), pedunculagin (9), casuariin (11), castalagin (12), vascalagin (13), casuarinin (15), grandinin (16), methyl-flavogallonate (17) and ellagic acid (18), were identified from the leaves of Pimenta dioica (Merr.) L. (Myrtaceae) on the basis of their chemical and physicochemical analysis (UV, HRESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). It was found that 9 is the most cytotoxic compound against solid tumour cancer cells, the most potent scavenger against the artificial radical DPPH and physiological radicals including ROO*, OH*, and O2-*, and strongly inhibited the NO generation and induced the proliferation of T-lymphocytes and macrophages. On the other hand, 3 was the strongest NO inhibitor and 16 the highest stimulator for the proliferation of T-lymphocytes, while 10 was the most active inducer of macrophage proliferation.

  3. DETERMINATION ON THE AGRICULTURAL AND QUALITY PROPERTIES OF URTICA PILULIFERA L. (ISIRGAN) UNDER BORNOVA ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Sancaktaroğlu, Sezgin; Bayram, Emine

    2011-01-01

    Five species of nettle (Urtica sp.) are found in Turkey. Stinging Nettle (Urtica pilulifera L.), is naturally distributed in the temperate zone of the world. It contains proteins, flavonoids, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. So, its leaves, roots and seeds are used for food, fiber, herbal medicine, colour agent and cosmetic industry. U. pilulifera is an annual plant and its seeds are locally called ‘'black nettle seed''. The species hasn't been cultivated yet in agriculture. The aim ...

  4. Antioxidant capacity changes and phenolic profile of Echinacea purpurea, nettle (Urtica dioica L.), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) after application of polyamine and phenolic biosynthesis regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, Jozef; Burdová, Mária; Kobida, L'ubomír; Komora, Ladislav; Macho, Vendelín; Kogan, Grigorij; Turianica, Ivan; Kochanová, Radka; Lozek, Otto; Habán, Miroslav; Chlebo, Peter

    2007-07-11

    The changes of the antioxidant (AOA) and antiradical activities (ARA) and the total contents of phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonols, and hydroxybenzoic acid in roots and different aerial sections of Echinacea purpurea, nettle, and dandelion, after treatment with ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, a polyamine inhibitor (O-phosphoethanolamine, KF), and a phenol biosynthesis stimulator (carboxymethyl chitin glucan, CCHG) were analyzed spectrophotometrically; hydroxycinnamic acids content was analyzed by RP-HPLC with UV detection. Both regulators increased the AOA measured as inhibition of peroxidation (IP) in all herb sections, with the exception of Echinacea stems after treatment with KF. In root tissues IP was dramatically elevated mainly after CCHG application: 8.5-fold in Echinacea, 4.14-fold in nettle, and 2.08-fold in dandelion. ARA decrease of Echinacea leaves treated with regulators was in direct relation only with cichoric acid and caftaric acid contents. Both regulators uphold the formation of cinnamic acid conjugates, the most expressive being that of cichoric acid after treatment with CCHG in Echinacea roots from 2.71 to 20.92 mg g(-1). There was a strong relationship between increase of the total phenolics in all sections of Echinacea, as well as in the studied sections of dandelion, and the anthocyanin content.

  5. Production and processing of organically grown fiber nettle (Urtica dioica L.) and its potential use in the natural textiles industry: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, C. R.; Hartl, A.

    2003-01-01

    In Europe, the perennial stinging nettle was cultivated during the 19th century until the Second World War and has a long history as a fiber plant. Clone varieties dating back to the early 20th century are still maintained at European research institutions. The fiber content of clones ranges from 1.2 to 16% dry matter, and fiber yields range from 0.14 to 1.28 Mg/ha. Varietal purity of fiber nettle can only be achieved by planting cuttings. The harvesting of fiber starts in the second year of ...

  6. The effect of hydro alcoholic nettle (Urtica dioica) extract on oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, N; Tarighat, A; Bahrami, A

    2012-01-15

    Diabetes type 2 is a metabolic disorder that characterized by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Hyperglycemia and impairment of oxidant/antioxidant balance, can increase oxidative stress and increase risk of cardiovascular disease. In the present study, Effects of hydro alcoholic extract of Nettle on oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes were evaluated. Fifty patients (27 men, 23 women) with type 2 diabetes patients were studied. They received 100 mg kg(-1) of nettle extract of body weight hydro alcoholic for 8 weeks. At the baseline and end of 8th weeks of intervention blood levels of oxidative stress markers were measured. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 18, p nettle has increasing effects on TAC and SOD in patients with type 2 diabetes without no changes in Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Glutathione Peroxides (GPX) after eight weeks intervention.

  7. Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum race 3 (biovar 2) in surface water and natural weed hosts: First report on stinging nettle (Urtica dioica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Verdel, M.S.W.; Groeneveld, R.M.W.; Kempenaar, C.; Beuningen, van A.R.; Janse, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    The population dynamics of the brown rot bacterium Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum in surface water of two selected water-areas were monitored over a two-year period. In some cases during summer, high bacterial numbers (up to 106 cfu l−1) were observed. In a host plant survey a few plants of

  8. Binomial and enumerative sampling of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on peppermint in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollerup, Kris E; Marcum, Daniel; Wilson, Rob; Godfrey, Larry

    2013-08-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is an economic pest on peppermint [Mentha x piperita (L.), 'Black Mitcham'] grown in California. A sampling plan for T. urticae was developed under Pacific Northwest conditions in the early 1980s and has been used by California growers since approximately 1998. This sampling plan, however, is cumbersome and a poor predictor of T. urticae densities in California. Between June and August, the numbers of immature and adult T. urticae were counted on leaves at three commercial peppermint fields (sites) in 2010 and a single field in 2011. In each of seven locations per site, 45 leaves were sampled, that is, 9 leaves per five stems. Leaf samples were stratified by collecting three leaves from the top, middle, and bottom strata per stem. The on-plant distribution of T. urticae did not significantly differ among the stem strata through the growing season. Binomial and enumerative sampling plans were developed using generic Taylor's power law coefficient values. The best fit of our data for binomial sampling occurred using a tally threshold of T = 0. The optimum number of leaves required for T urticae at the critical density of five mites per leaf was 20 for the binomial and 23 for the enumerative sampling plans, respectively. Sampling models were validated using Resampling for Validation of Sampling Plan Software.

  9. Biogenic debris from the pelagic tunicate, Oikopleura dioica, and its role in the vertical transport of a transuranium element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsky, G; Fisher, N S; Fowler, S W [International Atomic Energy Agency, Monaco-Ville (Monaco). Lab. of Marine Radioactivity

    1984-01-01

    The accumulation and retention of /sup 241/Am by the pelagic tunicate Oikopleura dioica were examined using laboratory cultures and radiotracer methodology. Animals (i.e., trunks and tails) and discarded empty houses accumulated Am from seawater, giving volume/volume concentration factors of 59 +- 8 and 10 +- 1, respectively. The half-time for retention of Am in empty labelled houses transferred to non-contaminated seawater was 29 h; the retention half-time of Am in houses discarded by larvaceans feeding on Am-labelled diatoms was 219 h; the half-time of Am in fecal pellets produced by animals feeding on a monospecific diet of diatoms was 134 h, and 247 h for fecal pellets from animals fed a mixed diet. Approximately 30% of filtered cells remained in houses after the houses were discarded. Sinking rates of discarded houses and fecal pellets were found to vary with temperature and size, ranging from 26-157 m day/sup -1/ (houses) and from 25-166 m day/sup -1/ (fecal pellets). The ubiquity and abundance of appendicularians, together with their prodigious production of houses (e.g., 10 +- 2 houses day/sup -1/ at 17/sup 0/C for each experimental animal) point to their potential significance in the vertical transport of Am, and probably other reactive metals, to intermediate depths in the ocean.

  10. Biogenic debris from the pelagic tunicate, Oikopleura dioica, and its role in the vertical transport of a transuranium element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorsky, G.; Fisher, N.S.; Fowler, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    The accumulation and retention of 241 Am by the pelagic tunicate Oikopleura dioica were examined using laboratory cultures and radiotracer methodology. Animals (i.e., trunks and tails) and discarded empty houses accumulated Am from seawater, giving volume/volume concentration factors of 59 +- 8 and 10 +- 1, respectively. The half-time for retention of Am in empty labelled houses transferred to non-contaminated seawater was 29 h; the retention half-time of Am in houses discarded by larvaceans feeding on Am-labelled diatoms was 219 h; the half-time of Am in fecal pellets produced by animals feeding on a monospecific diet of diatoms was 134 h, and 247 h for fecal pellets from animals fed a mixed diet. Approximately 30% of filtered cells remained in houses after the houses were discarded. Sinking rates of discarded houses and fecal pellets were found to vary with temperature and size, ranging from 26-157 m day -1 (houses) and from 25-166 m day -1 (fecal pellets). The ubiquity and abundance of appendicularians, together with their prodigious production of houses (e.g., 10 +- 2 houses day -1 at 17 0 C for each experimental animal) point to their potential significance in the vertical transport of Am, and probably other reactive metals, to intermediate depths in the ocean. (author)

  11. A burst of ABC genes in the genome of the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, Wannes; Osborne, Edward John; Clark, Richard M; Grbić, Miodrag; Tirry, Luc; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2013-05-10

    The ABC (ATP-binding cassette) gene superfamily is widespread across all living species. The majority of ABC genes encode ABC transporters, which are membrane-spanning proteins capable of transferring substrates across biological membranes by hydrolyzing ATP. Although ABC transporters have often been associated with resistance to drugs and toxic compounds, within the Arthropoda ABC gene families have only been characterized in detail in several insects and a crustacean. In this study, we report a genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC gene superfamily in the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, a chelicerate ~ 450 million years diverged from other Arthropod lineages. T. urticae is a major agricultural pest, and is among of the most polyphagous arthropod herbivores known. The species resists a staggering array of toxic plant secondary metabolites, and has developed resistance to all major classes of pesticides in use for its control. We identified 103 ABC genes in the T. urticae genome, the highest number discovered in a metazoan species to date. Within the T. urticae ABC gene set, all members of the eight currently described subfamilies (A to H) were detected. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the high number of ABC genes in T. urticae is due primarily to lineage-specific expansions of ABC genes within the ABCC, ABCG and ABCH subfamilies. In particular, the ABCC subfamily harbors the highest number of T. urticae ABC genes (39). In a comparative genomic analysis, we found clear orthologous relationships between a subset of T. urticae ABC proteins and ABC proteins in both vertebrates and invertebrates known to be involved in fundamental cellular processes. These included members of the ABCB-half transporters, and the ABCD, ABCE and ABCF families. Furthermore, one-to-one orthologues could be distinguished between T. urticae proteins and human ABCC10, ABCG5 and ABCG8, the Drosophila melanogaster sulfonylurea receptor and ecdysone-regulated transporter E

  12. Toxicity of plant essential oils to Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Sang-Geui; Park, Hyung-Man; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2004-04-01

    Fifty-three plant essential oils were tested for their toxicity against eggs and adults of Tetranychus urticae Koch as well as adults of Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, by using a filter paper diffusion bioassay without allowing direct contact. Responses varied according to oil type and dose, and mite species. In a plastic container (4.5 by 9.5 cm) bioassay at 14 x 10(-3) microl/ml air, caraway seed, citronella java, lemon eucalyptus, pennyroyal, and peppermint oils gave > 90% mortality against adult T. urticae, whereas 82 and 81% mortality was observed with sage and spearmint oils, respectively. With the exception of sage oil, the other six essential oils were highly effective against T. urticae eggs at 9.3 x 10(-3) microl/ml air. Against adult P. persimilis, these six test oils caused > 90% mortality at 7.1 x 10(-3) microl/ml air. Particularly peppermint oil at 4.7 x 10(-3) microl/ml air was highly toxic. In an acrylic cage (30 by 30 by 40 cm ) test, lemon eucalyptus, pennyroyal, peppermint, and spearmint oils were highly effective against adult T. urticae at 1.4 x 10(-3) microl/ml air. These results indicate that the mode of delivery of these essential oils was largely a result of action in the vapor phase via the respiratory system. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for T. urticae control.

  13. Toxicity of spiromesifen and natural acaricides to Tetranychus urticae koch and compatibility with Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vargas de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, is one important pest of cotton crop due to reductions in cotton yield and fiber quality. Thus, this work evaluated the toxicity of the synthetic acaricide spiromesifen and natural products on T. urticae and the compatibility with the predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Spiromesifen and the natural products Azadirachtin A/B, Azadirachtin 1%, Jatropha curcas L. and Ricinus communis L. oils were used at different concentrations; the leaf dipping method was employed. The mortality of T. urticae females and eggs was evaluated 48 and 96 h after treatment to calculate the lethal concentrations. The effect on P. macropilis was studied using the LC50s obtained to T. urticae. All acaricides tested were effective in controlling females and eggs of T. urticae. However, according to the LC50s and LC90s calculated, spiromesifen was the most toxic acaricide to females and J. curcas oil presented the higher toxicity to eggs. Spiromesifen, J. curcas oil and Azadiractina 1% caused side effects on P. macropilis. However, only espiromesifeno was classified as harmful to the predator, whereas Azadirachtin A/B and R. communis oil were slightly harmful. R. communis and Azadirachtin A/B were effective in controlling the two-spotted spider mite and promising for the management of this pest in cotton considering their low toxicity to the predator.

  14. Efficacy of Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis in suppression of Tetranychus urticae in young clementine plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Moyano, Raquel; Pina, Tatiana; Pérez-Panadés, Jordi; Carbonell, Emilio A; Urbaneja, Alberto

    2010-04-01

    Tetranychus urticae is one of the most damaging tetranychid mites affecting clementine orchards in Spain, where natural control is insufficient. Furthermore, in clementine nurseries, tender foliage is highly susceptible to attack and natural enemies are almost always absent. Therefore, acaricides are often used indiscriminately. Alternative control measures are necessary, both in commercial orchards and clementine nurseries. In order to assess the efficacy of inoculative releases of N. californicus and P. persimilis to reduce T. urticae populations in young Spanish clementine plants, a semi-field experiment was conducted and repeated in three seasons (spring, summer and autumn). Phytoseiulus persimilis was highly effective in reducing both T. urticae infestations and the damage level inflicted on plants at both release rates evaluated (40 and 80 phytoseiids/plant) and all three periods considered. By contrast, N. californicus demonstrated low performance under certain conditions. The results of this study could be adapted and transferred to nurseries and young citrus plantations.

  15. The predatory mite Neoseiulus womersleyi (Acari: Phytoseiidae) follows extracts of trails left by the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmen, Tsubasa; Yano, Shuichi; Osakabe, Mh

    2010-10-01

    As it walks, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) spins a trail of silk threads, that is followed by the predatory mite, Neoseiulus womersleyi Schicha (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Starved adult female N. womersleyi followed T. urticae trails laid down by five T. urticae females but did not follow a trail of one T. urticae female, suggesting that the amount of spun threads and their chemical components should correlate positively with the number of T. urticae individuals. To examine whether chemical components of T. urticae trails are responsible for the predatory mite's trail following, we collected separate T. urticae threads from the exuviae and eggs, and then washed the threads with methanol to separate chemical components from physical attributes of the threads. Female N. womersleyi did not follow T. urticae trails that had been washed with methanol but contained physical residues, but they did follow the direction to which the methanol extracts of the T. urticae trails was applied. These results suggest that the predatory mite follows chemical, not physical, attributes of T. urticae trails.

  16. Tetranychus urticae mites do not mount an induced immune response against bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Matos, Gonçalo; Wybouw, Nicky; Martins, Nelson E; Zélé, Flore; Riga, Maria; Leitão, Alexandre B; Vontas, John; Grbić, Miodrag; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Magalhães, Sara; Sucena, Élio

    2017-06-14

    The genome of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae , a herbivore, is missing important elements of the canonical Drosophila immune pathways necessary to fight bacterial infections. However, it is not known whether spider mites can mount an immune response and survive bacterial infection. In other chelicerates, bacterial infection elicits a response mediated by immune effectors leading to the survival of infected organisms. In T. urticae , infection by either Escherichia coli or Bacillus megaterium did not elicit a response as assessed through genome-wide transcriptomic analysis. In line with this, spider mites died within days even upon injection with low doses of bacteria that are non-pathogenic to Drosophila Moreover, bacterial populations grew exponentially inside the infected spider mites. By contrast, Sancassania berlesei , a litter-dwelling mite, controlled bacterial proliferation and resisted infections with both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria lethal to T. urticae This differential mortality between mite species was absent when mites were infected with heat-killed bacteria. Also, we found that spider mites harbour in their gut 1000-fold less bacteria than S. berlesei We show that T. urticae has lost the capacity to mount an induced immune response against bacteria, in contrast to other mites and chelicerates but similarly to the phloem feeding aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Hence, our results reinforce the putative evolutionary link between ecological conditions regarding exposure to bacteria and the architecture of the immune response. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Sublethal effects of abamectin and fenpropathrin on the consumption of Tetranychus urticae eggs by Scolothrips longicornis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakyari, Hajar; Enkegaard, Annie

    2015-01-01

    consumption rates of exposed females of Scolothrips longicornis Priesner and their offspring when fed on Tetranychus urticae Koch eggs. Prey consumption of female thrips was significantly affected by treatment with all concentrations of the two pesticides with the effect of fenpropathrin being more severe...

  18. Primeiro registro de Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae em mudas de teca no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro fitófago Tetranychus urticae (Kock, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae foi relatado e suas injúrias caracterizadas pela primeira vez em viveiro de produção mudas de teca (Tectona grandis no Brasil.

  19. Acaricide resistance and resistance mechanisms in Tetranychus urticae populations from rose greenhouses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khajehali, J.; Van Nieuwenhuyse, P.; Demaeght, P.; Tirry, L.; Van Leeuwen, T.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spider mites are important crop pests that rapidly develop resistance to acaricides. To investigate whether acaricide resistance is a threat to greenhouse rose culture in the Netherlands, the susceptibility of 15 strains of Tetranychus urticae was tested to several currently used

  20. Differences among plant species in acceptance by the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van den C.E.M.; Beek, van T.A.; Dicke, M.

    2003-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch has a broad range of host plants. However, the spider mite does not accept all plants to the same degree because of differences in nutritive and toxic constituents. Other factors, such as the induction of secondary metabolites, the morphology of a leaf

  1. Interaction between two predator mites of Tetranychus urticae koch (Acariformes: Tetranychidae) in laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arguelles R, Angelica; Plazas, Natali; Bustos R, Alexander; Cantor R, Fernando; Rodriguez, Daniel; Hilarion, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) is an important pest of ornamental crops. A species of predatory mite used for its control is Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae). This research proposes the use of joint releases of the two cited predators for the control of the pest. Several situations leading to interaction were evaluated: high density of one predator and low density of the other one, being the prey present or absent. The scenario with predators in equal densities and in presence of the prey was also evaluated. When a predator is in higher density and the prey present, the predator with the lower density increases the interference with the consumption of preys by the predator with higher density. On the other hand, when the consumption of T. urticae reduces, intraguild predation increases. P. persimilis shows intraguild predation behavior when t. urticae is absent and N. californicus is present, consuming all developmental stages of its conspecific. Instead, N. californicus only feed on conspecific larvae, when the fitofagous was absent and P. persimilis was present. When the two predators were present in the same assemblage and with the same population density, the quantity of T. urticae consumed by both of them was not higher than the consumed one when each predator was present in separate way.

  2. Functional characterization of glutathione S-transferases associated with insecticide resistance in Tetranychus urticae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlidi, N.; Tseliou, V.; Riga, M.; Nauen, R.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Labrou, N.E.; Vontas, J.

    2015-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is one of the most important agricultural pests world-wide. It is extremely polyphagous and develops resistance to acaricides. The overexpression of several glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) has been associated with insecticide resistance. Here, we

  3. The role of horizontally transferred genes in the xenobiotic adaptations of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wybouw, N.R.

    2015-01-01

    Plant feeding arthropods adapt in diverse ways to dietary plant toxins. The genetic basis of these adaptations is not well characterized, especially in non-insect lineages. Using the sequenced genome of the herbivorous spider mite Tetranychus urticae as a starting point, this work aimed at

  4. Combined sabal and urtica extract compared with finasteride in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia: analysis of prostate volume and therapeutic outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sökeland, J

    2000-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), the outcome of drug therapy with finasteride may be predictable from the baseline prostate volume and that positive clinical effects might be expected only in patients with prostate volumes of > 40 mL, using a subgroup analysis of results from a previously reported clinical trial of finasteride and phytotherapy. A subgroup of 431 patients was analysed from a randomized, multicentre, double-blind clinical trial involving 543 patients with the early stages of BPH. Patients received a fixed combination of extracts of saw palmetto fruit (Serenoa repens) and nettle root (Urtica dioica) (PRO 160/120) or the synthetic 5alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride. The patients assessed had valid ultrasonographic measurements and baseline prostate volumes of either 40 mL. All 516 patients were included in the safety analysis. The results of the original trial showed equivalent efficacy for both treatments. The mean (SD) maximum urinary flow (the main outcome variable) increased (from baseline values) after 24 weeks by 1.9 (5.6) mL/s with PRO 160/120 and by 2.4 (6.3) mL/s with finasteride. There were no statistically significant group differences (P = 0.52). The subgroups with small prostates ( 40 mL were similar, at 2.3 (6.1) and 2. 2 (5.3) mL/s, respectively. There were improvements in the International Prostate Symptom Score in both treatment groups, with no statistically significant differences. The subgroup analysis showed slightly better results for voiding symptoms in the patients with prostates of > 40 mL, but there were also improvements in the subgroup with smaller prostates. The safety analysis showed that more patients in the finasteride group reported adverse events and also there were more adverse events in this group than in patients treated with PRO 160/120. The present analysis showed that the efficacy of both PRO 160/120 and finasteride was equivalent and unrelated to prostate volume

  5. Jasmonic and salicylic acids enhanced phytochemical production and biological activities in cell suspension cultures of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Thiruvengadam, Muthu

    2017-03-01

    In vitro cell suspension culture was established for the production of commercially valuable phytochemicals in Momordica dioica. The influence of elicitors in jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) increased their effect on phytochemical production and biomass accumulation in M. dioica. The results indicate that compared with non-elicited cultures, JA- and SA-elicited cell suspension cultures had significantly enhanced phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid production, as well as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities. Furthermore, elicited cultures produced 22 phenolic compounds, such as flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids, and hydroxybenzoic acids. Greater biomass production, phytochemical accumulation, and biological activity occurred in JA- than in SA-elicited cell cultures. This study is the first to successfully establish M. dioica cell suspension cultures for the production of phenolic compounds and carotenoids, as well as for biomass accumulation.

  6. The determination of multiple resistance, inheritance and cytochrome P450 activity in bifenthrinresistant Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    AY, Recep; YORULMAZ, Sibel

    2010-01-01

    In this study, multiple resistance, inheritance and cytochrome P450 enzyme activity were determined in Tetranychus urticae Koch (SAK) population after 20 selections for bifenthrin resistance. Selection study and LC50, 60 levels of SAK population of T. urticae were determined by dry film method. LC50 level of the SAK population selected twenty times with bifenthrin was increased from 984.49 to 11914.40 µl l-1 distiled water. Selected population showing 21.84 fold resistances was named ...

  7. Biological control of Eotetranychus lewisi and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on strawberry by four phytoseiids (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Anna D; Daugovish, Oleg

    2013-02-01

    The spider mite, Eotetranychus lewisi (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a new emerging pest in California commercial strawberries. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), typically used for biocontrol of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae), provided growers little to no control of E. lewisi. Four commonly used phytoseiid predatory mites: P. persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), N. fallacis (Garman), and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant), were used in lab studies to investigate which is best at managing E. lewisi populations. We als o investigated t he interactions between T. urticae and E. lewisi and in relation to phytoseiid efficiency given the potential for indirect effects of biocontrol. When E. lewisi and T. urticae are present on the same leaf, T. urticae populations increase and begin displacing E. lewisi. P. persimilis did not feed on E. lewisi, but the other three predatory mites consumed the spider mites and lowered their populations. When both E. lewisi and T. urticae are present on the same leaf, N. fallacis and A. andersoni fed on both types of mites equally and were capable of decreasing both populations. N. californicus fed on E. lewisi first and decreased its population, but allowed T. urticae populations to increase. P. persimilis may be insufficient at controlling E. lewisi and its use may instead enhance E. lewisi populations.

  8. Effects of azadirachtin on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and its compatibility with predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Daniel; Botton, Marcos; da Cunha, Uemerson Silva; Bernardi, Oderlei; Malausa, Thibaut; Garcia, Mauro Silveira; Nava, Dori Edson

    2013-01-01

    The spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is the major strawberry pest in Brazil. The main strategies for its control comprise synthetic acaricides and predatory mites. The recent register of a commercial formula of azadirachtin (Azamax(®) 12 g L(-1) ) can be viable for control of T. urticae. In this work, the effects of azadirachtin on T. urticae and its compatibility with predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus macropilis in the strawberry crop were evaluated. Azadirachtin was efficient against T. urticae, with a mortality rate similar to that of abamectin. In addition, the azadirachtin showed lower biological persistence (7 days) than abamectin (21 days). Azadirachtin did not cause significant mortality of adult predatory mites (N. californicus and P. macropilis), but it did reduce fecundity by 50%. However, egg viability of the azadirachtin treatments was similar to that of the control (>80% viability). The use of azadirachtin and predatory mites is a valuable tool for controlling T. urticae in strawberry crop. Azadirachtin provided effective control of T. urticae and is compatible with the predatory mites N. californicus and P. macropilis. It is an excellent tool to be incorporated into integrated pest management for strawberry crop in Brazil. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Can Plant Defence Mechanisms Provide New Approaches for the Sustainable Control of the Two-Spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blas Agut

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae (T. urticae Koch is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous mite which causes economic losses in both agricultural and ornamental plants. Some traits of T. urticae hamper its management, including a short life cycle, arrhenotokous parthenogenesis, its haplodiploid sex determination system, and its extraordinary ability to adapt to different hosts and environmental conditions. Currently, the use of chemical and biological control are the major control methods used against this mite. In recent years, some studies have focused on plant defence mechanisms against herbivores. Various families of plant compounds (such as flavonoids, glucosinolates, or acyl sugars have been shown to behave as acaricides. Plants can be induced upon appropriate stimuli to increase their resistance against spider mites. This knowledge, together with the understanding of mechanisms by which T. urticae detoxifies and adapts to pesticides, may complement the control of this pest. Herein, we describe plant volatile compounds (VOCs with repellent activity, and new findings about defence priming against spider mites, which interfere with the T. urticae performance. The use of VOCs and defence priming can be integrated into current management practices and reduce the damage caused by T. urticae in the field by implementing new, more sustainable crop management tools.

  10. High-Resolution Lipidomics of the Early Life Stages of the Red Seaweed Porphyra dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Elisabete; Azevedo, Vitor; Melo, Tânia; Rego, Andreia M; V Evtuguin, Dmitry; Domingues, Pedro; Calado, Ricardo; Pereira, Rui; Abreu, Maria H; Domingues, Maria R

    2018-01-17

    Porphyra dioica is a commercial seaweed consumed all over the world, mostly in the shape of nori sheets used for "sushi" preparation. It is a well-known part of the Asian diet with health benefits, which have been associated, among others, to the high levels of n -3 and n- 6 fatty acids in this red alga. However, other highly valued lipids of Porphyra are polar lipids that remain largely undescribed and can have both nutritional value and bioactivity, thus could contribute to the valorization of this seaweed. In this context, the present work aims to identify the lipidome of two life cycle stages of the Atlantic species Porphyra dioica : the early life stage conchocelis produced in an indoor-nursery, and young blades produced outdoors using an integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) framework. Both the blades (gametophyte) and conchocelis (sporophyte) are commercialized in the food and cosmetics sectors. Liquid chromatography coupled to Q-Exactive high resolution-mass spectrometry (MS) platform was used to gain insight into the lipidome of these species. Our results allowed the identification of 110 and 100 lipid molecular species in the lipidome of the blade and conchocelis, respectively. These lipid molecular species were distributed as follows (blade/conchocelis): 14/15 glycolipids (GLs), 93/79 phospholipids (PLs), and 3/6 betaine lipids. Both life stages displayed a similar profile of GLs and comprised 20:4( n -6) and 20:5( n -3) fatty acids that contribute to n -3 and n -6 fatty acid pool recorded and rank among the molecular species with higher potential bioactivity. PLs' profile was different between the two life stages surveyed, mainly due to the number and relative abundance of molecular species. This finding suggests that differences between both life stages were more likely related with shifts in the lipids of extraplastidial membranes rather than in plastidial membranes. PLs contained n -6 and n -3 precursors and in both life stages of Porphyra

  11. High-Resolution Lipidomics of the Early Life Stages of the Red Seaweed Porphyra dioica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete da Costa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyra dioica is a commercial seaweed consumed all over the world, mostly in the shape of nori sheets used for “sushi” preparation. It is a well-known part of the Asian diet with health benefits, which have been associated, among others, to the high levels of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in this red alga. However, other highly valued lipids of Porphyra are polar lipids that remain largely undescribed and can have both nutritional value and bioactivity, thus could contribute to the valorization of this seaweed. In this context, the present work aims to identify the lipidome of two life cycle stages of the Atlantic species Porphyra dioica: the early life stage conchocelis produced in an indoor-nursery, and young blades produced outdoors using an integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA framework. Both the blades (gametophyte and conchocelis (sporophyte are commercialized in the food and cosmetics sectors. Liquid chromatography coupled to Q–Exactive high resolution-mass spectrometry (MS platform was used to gain insight into the lipidome of these species. Our results allowed the identification of 110 and 100 lipid molecular species in the lipidome of the blade and conchocelis, respectively. These lipid molecular species were distributed as follows (blade/conchocelis: 14/15 glycolipids (GLs, 93/79 phospholipids (PLs, and 3/6 betaine lipids. Both life stages displayed a similar profile of GLs and comprised 20:4(n-6 and 20:5(n-3 fatty acids that contribute to n-3 and n-6 fatty acid pool recorded and rank among the molecular species with higher potential bioactivity. PLs’ profile was different between the two life stages surveyed, mainly due to the number and relative abundance of molecular species. This finding suggests that differences between both life stages were more likely related with shifts in the lipids of extraplastidial membranes rather than in plastidial membranes. PLs contained n-6 and n-3 precursors and in both life stages of

  12. Ozonation of Indigo Carmine Enhanced by Fe/Pimenta dioica L. Merrill Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Torres-Blancas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Green synthesis of metallic particles has become an economic way to improve and protect the environment by decreasing the use of toxic chemicals and eliminating dyes. The synthesis of metal particles is gaining more importance due to its simplicity, rapid rate of synthesis of particles, and environmentally friendly. The present work aims to report a novel and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of iron particles using deoiled Pimenta dioica L. Merrill husk as support. The indigo carmine removal efficiency by ozonation and catalyzed ozonation is also presented. Synthesized materials were characterized by N2 physisorption and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS. By UV-Vis spectrophotometry the removal efficiency of indigo carmine was found to be nearly 100% after only 20 minutes of treatment under pH 3 and with a catalyst loading of 1000 mgL−1. Analytical techniques such as determination of the total organic carbon content (TOC and chemical oxygen demand (COD showed that iron particles supported on deoiled Pimenta dioica L. Merrill husk can be efficiently employed to degrade indigo carmine and achieved a partial mineralization (conversion to CO2 and H2O of the molecule. From the results can be inferred that the prepared biocomposite increases the hydroxyl radicals generation.

  13. Competitive interactions are mediated in a sex-specific manner by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Antennaria dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, S; Vega-Frutis, R; Kytöviita, M-M

    2017-03-01

    Plants usually interact with other plants, and the outcome of such interaction ranges from facilitation to competition depending on the identity of the plants, including their sexual expression. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been shown to modify competitive interactions in plants. However, few studies have evaluated how AM fungi influence plant intraspecific and interspecific interactions in dioecious species. The competitive abilities of female and male plants of Antennaria dioica were examined in a greenhouse experiment. Females and males were grown in the following competitive settings: (i) without competition, (ii) with intrasexual competition, (iii) with intersexual competition, and (iv) with interspecific competition by Hieracium pilosella - a plant with similar characteristics to A. dioica. Half of the pots were grown with Claroideoglomus claroideum, an AM fungus isolated from the same habitat as the plant material. We evaluated plant survival, growth, flowering phenology, and production of AM fungal structures. Plant survival was unaffected by competition or AM fungi. Competition and the presence of AM fungi reduced plant biomass. However, the sexes responded differently to the interaction between fungal and competition treatments. Both intra- and interspecific competition results were sex-specific, and in general, female performance was reduced by AM colonization. Plant competition or sex did not affect the intraradical structures, extraradical hyphae, or spore production of the AM fungus. These findings suggest that plant sexual differences affect fundamental processes such as competitive ability and symbiotic relationships with AM fungi. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Divergent methylation pattern in adult stage between two forms of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Si-Xia; Guo, Chao; Zhao, Xiu-Ting; Sun, Jing-Tao; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2017-02-19

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch has two forms: green form and red form. Understanding the molecular basis of how these two forms established without divergent genetic background is an intriguing area. As a well-known epigenetic process, DNA methylation has particularly important roles in gene regulation and developmental variation across diverse organisms that do not alter genetic background. Here, to investigate whether DNA methylation could be associated with different phenotypic consequences in the two forms of T. urticae, we surveyed the genome-wide cytosine methylation status and expression level of DNA methyltransferase 3 (Tudnmt3) throughout their entire life cycle. Methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) analyses of 585 loci revealed variable methylation patterns in the different developmental stages. In particular, principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) indicates a significant epigenetic differentiation between female adults of the two forms. The gene expression of Tudnmt3 was detected in all examined developmental stages, which was significantly different in the adult stage of the two forms. Together, our results reveal the epigenetic distance between the two forms of T. urticae, suggesting that DNA methylation might be implicated in different developmental demands, and contribute to different phenotypes in the adult stage of these two forms. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Phenotypic- and Genotypic-Resistance Detection for Adaptive Resistance Management in Tetranychus urticae Koch.

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    Deok Ho Kwon

    Full Text Available Rapid resistance detection is necessary for the adaptive management of acaricide-resistant populations of Tetranychus urticae. Detection of phenotypic and genotypic resistance was conducted by employing residual contact vial bioassay (RCV and quantitative sequencing (QS methods, respectively. RCV was useful for detecting the acaricide resistance levels of T. urticae, particularly for on-site resistance detection; however, it was only applicable for rapid-acting acaricides (12 out of 19 tested acaricides. QS was effective for determining the frequencies of resistance alleles on a population basis, which corresponded to 12 nonsynonymous point mutations associated with target-site resistance to five types of acaricides [organophosphates (monocrotophos, pirimiphos-methyl, dimethoate and chlorpyrifos, pyrethroids (fenpropathrin and bifenthrin, abamectin, bifenazate and etoxazole]. Most field-collected mites exhibited high levels of multiple resistance, as determined by RCV and QS data, suggesting the seriousness of their current acaricide resistance status in rose cultivation areas in Korea. The correlation analyses revealed moderate to high levels of positive relationships between the resistance allele frequencies and the actual resistance levels in only five of the acaricides evaluated, which limits the general application of allele frequency as a direct indicator for estimating actual resistance levels. Nevertheless, the resistance allele frequency data alone allowed for the evaluation of the genetic resistance potential and background of test mite populations. The combined use of RCV and QS provides basic information on resistance levels, which is essential for choosing appropriate acaricides for the management of resistant T. urticae.

  16. Ethanol extract of Cymbopogon winterianus on mortality and number of eggs of Tetranychus urticae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bernardo Vicentini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts have been studied as a promising source of natural insecticides. This study assessed the effect of the ethanol extract of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella grass in comparison with an insecticide containing azadirachtin (ICA on mortality and number of eggs of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae in laboratory conditions. For the tests, the mites were sprayed with the aid of a Potter spray tower. To assess the mortality of females, LC50 value for extract of citronella grass and ICA was, respectively, 2.63 and 2.83%. With respect to the number of eggs, the greatest reduction was observed at a concentration of 5% for the evaluation period of 120h, both for the extract of citronella grass (86% and for ICA (81%. These results suggest the potential of the ethanol extract of citronella grass to control of T. urticae. However, experiments, under field conditions, involving other populations of T. urticae should be performed to verify the efficacy of this extract as an alternative to be used in pest management programs

  17. TOXICIDADE DE ÓLEOS ESSENCIAIS PARA O CONTROLE DE Tetranychus urticae KOCH, 1836 (ACARI: TETRANYCHIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Santos Teixeira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro rajado é considerado uma importante praga agrícola, causando danos em diferentes cultivos. O controle à base de acaricidas químicos pode vir a causar problemas ambientais e à saúde do homem. Desta forma o uso de óleos essenciais obtidos de produtos botânicos é uma alternativa no controle de pragas por apresentar baixo efeito residual, sendo objetivo deste trabalho avaliar a mortalidade e o efeito na fertilidade de fêmeas adultas de Tetranychus urticae submetidas a tratamentos com óleos essenciais de laranja doce e limoneno, fornecidos pela empresa Ferquima Indústria e Comércio LTDA., e pela empresa Pack Indústria e Comércio de Produtos Agropecuários LTDA., respectivamente. Para avaliar a ação fumigante do óleo essencial sobre os ácaros foram realizados testes submetendo fêmeas adultas de T. urticae à dose pura do óleo essencial utilizando as dosagens de 5, 15 e 25 µL em câmaras de fumigação. Após o período de exposição ao óleo foi contabilizado o número de ácaros mortos e a quantidade de ovos depositados. Os resultados não foram significativos para mortalidade e para fertilidade de fêmeas adultas de T. urticae.

  18. Host-related genetic differentiation in the anther smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum in sympatric, parapatric and allopatric populations of two host species Silene latifolia and S. dioica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Putten, W.F.; Biere, A.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated genetic diversity in West European populations of the fungal pathogen Microbotryum violaceum in sympatric, parapatric and allopatric populations of the host species Silene latifolia and S. dioica, using four polymorphic microsatellite loci. In allopatric host populations, the fungus

  19. Host-related genetic differentiation in the anther smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum in sympatric, parapatric and allopatric populations of two host species Silene latifolia and S-dioica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Putten, WF; Biere, A; Van Damme, JMM

    We investigated genetic diversity in West European populations of the fungal pathogen Microbotryum violaceum in sympatric, parapatric and allopatric populations of the host species Silene latifolia and S. dioica, using four polymorphic microsatellite loci. In allopatric host populations, the fungus

  20. Interactions in a tritrophic acarine predator-prey metapopulation system V: Within-plant dynamics of Phytoseiulus persimilis and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nachman, Gösta; Zemek, Rostislav

    2003-01-01

    Biological control, Bottom-up factor, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Plant condition, Predacious mites, Simulation model, Tetranychus urticae, Top-down factor, Two-spotted spider mites......Biological control, Bottom-up factor, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Plant condition, Predacious mites, Simulation model, Tetranychus urticae, Top-down factor, Two-spotted spider mites...

  1. Olfactory response of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to untreated and Beauveria bassiana-treated Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiedy, Marjan; Saboori, Alireza; Zahedi-Golpayegani, Azadeh

    2013-06-01

    Determination of attraction and avoidance behavior of predators is important in concomitant use of multiple natural enemies to control a pest. The olfactory response of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis was studied to odors related to Tetranychus urticae adults infected by Beauveria bassiana DEBI008 in 0, 24, 48 and 72 h intervals, both in absence and in presence of plants. In plant-present experiments, P. persimilis attraction was neither towards adults of T. urticae infected by 0.02 % Tween 80 (as control), nor to the ones infected by B. bassiana for 0 or 24 h, whereas significant attraction towards the control was observed when tested against T. urticae infected by B. bassiana for 48 or 72 h. In absence of plants, P. persimilis displayed significant avoidance of T. urticae infected by B. bassiana for 48 or 72 h, when their alternative option was 0.02 % Tween 80-infected T. urticae adults. These results indicate that P. persimilis can recognize the presence of B. bassiana and that the predator avoids the fungus. This suggests that the two natural enemy species can be used together in biological control programmes.

  2. Molecular characterisation of four double-flowered mutants of Silene dioica representing four centuries of variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Elizabeth K. S.; Gilmartin, Philip M.

    2015-01-01

    Records of double-flowered Silene dioica date from the late sixteenth century and four named varieties are grown today, as previously, for their horticultural interest. Although double-flowered mutants have been characterized in several plants, their study in dioecious species is of particular interest due to influences of the homeotic mutation on the different floral whorl configurations in males and females. We have analysed four double-flowered varieties of Silene dioica: Flore Pleno and Rosea Plena date back to the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, Thelma Kay and Firefly were recognized in the latter part of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. We have analysed the floral structure of the four varieties, which have distinct floral architectures. Based on Y chromosome-specific PCR analysis we show that Firefly is male and that the other three varieties are female: Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses suggested a common origin for the three female varieties. The double-flowered phenotype in all four varieties is caused by mutation of the C-function MADS-box transcription factor gene SDM1. We show that Firefly carries a unique 44bp insertion into SDM1, revealing an independent origin for this variety. Comparative analysis of SDM1 cDNA and genomic sequences in Flore Pleno, Rosea Plena and Thelma Kay shows that all three are caused by the same 7bp insertion within SDM1 and therefore share a common origin. The three alleles also differ by several single nucleotide polymorphisms, which represent somatic mutations accumulated over four centuries of asexual propagation. PMID:25878355

  3. A specific insertion of a solo-LTR characterizes the Y-chromosome of Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Ryan K; Silber, Martina V; Renner, Susanne S

    2010-06-14

    Relatively few species of flowering plants are dioecious and even fewer are known to have sex chromosomes. Current theory posits that homomorphic sex chromosomes, such as found in Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae), offer insight into the early stages in the evolution of sex chromosomes from autosomes. Little is known about these early steps, but an accumulation of transposable element sequences has been observed on the Y-chromosomes of some species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Recombination, by which transposable elements are removed, is suppressed on at least part of the emerging Y-chromosome, and this may explain the correlation between the emergence of sex chromosomes and transposable element enrichment. We sequenced 2321 bp of the Y-chromosome in Bryonia dioica that flank a male-linked marker, BdY1, reported previously. Within this region, which should be suppressed for recombination, we observed a solo-LTR nested in a Copia-like transposable element. We also found other, presumably paralogous, solo-LTRs in a consensus sequence of the underlying Copia-like transposable element. Given that solo-LTRs arise via recombination events, it is noteworthy that we find one in a genomic region where recombination should be suppressed. Although the solo-LTR could have arisen before recombination was suppressed, creating the male-linked marker BdY1, our previous study on B. dioica suggested that BdY1 may not lie in the recombination-suppressed region of the Y-chromosome in all populations. Presence of a solo-LTR near BdY1 therefore fits with the observed correlation between retrotransposon accumulation and the suppression of recombination early in the evolution of sex chromosomes. These findings further suggest that the homomorphic sex chromosomes of B. dioica, the first organism for which genetic XY sex-determination was inferred, are evolutionarily young and offer reference information for comparative studies of other plant sex chromosomes.

  4. The flavonoid content and antiproliferative, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of Annona dioica St. Hill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formagio Anelise S N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annona dioica St. Hill (Annonacaeae is a Brazilian plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of several types of rheumatisms and diarrhoea. The focus of this work was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant activity and the in vivo hypoglycaemic and anti-inflammatory activity of A. dioica and identify the principal constituents of this plant. Methods The crude methanol extract (EAD and hexane (HF, chloroform (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF and hydromethanol fractions (HMF were evaluated for free radical scavenging activity using the DPPH assay. The EAD and EAF were assayed for hypoglycaemic activity in rats. The EAD was tested in an antiproliferation assay and for anti-inflammatory effects in paw oedema, in addition to myeloperoxidase activity induced by carrageenan (Cg in mice. The EAF was assayed using chromatographic methods. Results The fractionation of the EAF through chromatographic methods identified derivatives of the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol. Among all the tested fractions, the ethyl acetate and hydromethanol fractions were the most potent, exhibiting an IC50 of 8.53 and 10.57 μg/mL, respectively, which is comparable to that of the commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. The oral administration of the EAD (100 mg/kg and EAF (15 mg/kg inhibited the increase of glucose levels, resulting in a hypoglycaemic effect. The EAD (30 to 300 mg/kg exhibited an anti-oedematogenic effect in Cg-induced paw oedema in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The results showed a reduction of MPO activity by A. dioica 6 h after the induction of paw oedema at all doses tested with maximal inhibition at 300 mg/kg. Conclusions Our results reveal for the first time that compounds contained in the A. dioica leaves exert anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, antiproliferative, and antioxidant effects. The antioxidant activity may be associated with the presence of flavonoids.

  5. Flavonoids from Annona dioica leaves and their effects in Ehrlich carcinoma cells, DNA-topoisomerase I and II

    OpenAIRE

    Vega,Maria R. G.; Esteves-Souza,Andressa; Vieira,Ivo J. C.; Mathias,Leda; Braz-Filho,Raimundo; Echevarria,Aurea

    2007-01-01

    Chemical investigation of methanol extract leaves from Annona dioica (Annonaceae) resulted in the identification of flavonoids kaempferol (1), 3-O-[3",6"-di-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl]-beta-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (2), 6"-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl-beta-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (3) and 3-O-beta-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (4). The structures were unequivocally characterized by ¹H and 13C NMR spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D experiments. The cytotoxic effects of the flavonoids and flavonoid f...

  6. Assessment of the interactions between two predator mites of Tetranychus urticae (Acariformes: Tetranychidae in laboratory

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    Angelica María Argüelles

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae is one of the most important pests in ornamental cultures. Between the species most used for its control are Neoseilus sp. and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Knowing the effectivity and ages of the prefers prey of each species of predator. In this search purposed the management of the plague through the use of combined releases, is necessary to evaluate that could occur between them with the prey when they act together. With this aim, we evaluated any situations. For one side was evaluated when a predator with a second predator with more density for the first predator. This situation was analyzed in presence and with absence of its prey. For other side, was evaluated the interactions of both predators are presents at the same density and with the prey. In the fist situation in presence of the prey was observe that increase the age of predator in minor density also increase the interference over the consumption of the high population’s predator over the prey. Moreover when decreased the T. urticae’s consumption increased the intraguild consumption. P. persimilis in absence of T. urticae and in presence of N. californicus approve a behavior of intraguild predation over all the ages of its cospecifics, while that N. californicus only consumed coespecific’s larvae in the phytofagous absence and in presence of  P. persimilis.  When both predators were in the same test at the same population’s density, was not observe a higher consumption of T. urticae that when each predator act for its way.

  7. Greenhouse and field-based studies on the distribution of dimethoate in cotton and its effect on Tetranychus urticae by drip irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangtao; Zhou, Lijuan; Yao, Qiang; Liu, Bo; Xu, Hanhong; Huang, Jiguang

    2018-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is an important pest of cotton. We investigated the efficacy of dimethoate in controlling T. urticae by drip irrigation. Greenhouse and field experiments were carried out to determine the efficacy of dimethoate to T. urticae and the absorption and distribution of dimethoate in cotton. Greenhouse results showed that cotton leaves received higher amounts of dimethoate compared with cotton roots and stems, with higher amounts in young leaves compared with old leaves and cotyledon having the lowest amounts among leaves. Field results showed the efficacy of dimethoate to T. urticae by drip irrigation varied by volume of dripping water, soil pH and dimethoate dosage. Dimethoate applied at 3.00 kg ha -1 with 200 m 3  ha -1 water at weak acidic soil pH (5.70-6.70) through drip irrigation can obtain satisfactory control efficacy (81.49%, 7 days) to T. urticae, without negatively impacting on its natural enemy Neoseiulus cucumeris. The residue of dimethoate in all cotton seed samples were not detectable. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of applying dimethoate by drip irrigation for control of T. urticae on cotton. This knowledge could aid in the applicability of dimethoate by drip irrigation for field management of T. urticae populations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. TOXICIDADE DE ÓLEOS ESSENCIAIS PARA O CONTROLE DE Tetranychus urticae KOCH, 1836 (ACARI: TETRANYCHIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Santos Teixeira; Camila Costabeber Nunes; Romário Vargas; José Romário de Carvalho; Hugo Bolsoni Zago

    2017-01-01

    O ácaro rajado é considerado uma importante praga agrícola, causando danos em diferentes cultivos. O controle à base de acaricidas químicos pode vir a causar problemas ambientais e à saúde do homem. Desta forma o uso de óleos essenciais obtidos de produtos botânicos é uma alternativa no controle de pragas por apresentar baixo efeito residual, sendo objetivo deste trabalho avaliar a mortalidade e o efeito na fertilidade de fêmeas adultas de Tetranychus urticae submetidas a tratamentos com óleo...

  9. Antipredator responses in Tetranychus urticae differ with predator specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Kramer; Alexakis, I.; Sigsgaard, Lene

    2016-01-01

    The behavioural response of Tetranychus urticae to chemical cues from specialist predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, or generalist predatory bugs, Orius majusculus, on either bean or strawberry was studied in experimental arenas. Predators were placed on the leaf disc for 24 h and removed...... and control treatments. No interaction effect was found between plant species and prey fecundity, while significantly more eggs were laid on bean than on strawberry. Predator cues irrespective of predator specialization resulted in more prey dispersal than in the control. Findings emphasize the importance...

  10. The impact of cucumber nitrogen nutrition on life history traits of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Motahari , M.; Kheradmand , K.; Roustaee , A.M.; Talebi , A.A.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The nutritional quality of the host plant is one of the most important factors of growth and reproduction for crop pests. In order to investigate the impact of nitrogen on the biology and demography of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), cucumber plants were nourished by four levels of nitrogen: N1 (10 meq /L NO3-), N2 (12 meq/L NO3-), N3 (15 meq/L NO3-) and N4 (20 meq /L NO3-). The experiments were performed under laboratory conditions at 25+/-1 °C, 60+/-...

  11. Effects of a mixture of vegetable and essential oils and fatty acid potassium salts on Tetranychus urticae and Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolakis, H; Ragusa, S

    2008-06-01

    Laboratory trials were carried out to evaluate the toxicity and the influence of a commercial mixture of vegetal, essential oils, and potassium salts of fatty acids (Acaridoil 13SL) on the population growth rate (r(i)--instantaneous rate of increase) of two mite species, the phytophagous Tetranychus urticae Koch and the predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. A residue of 1.3 mg/cm(2) of pesticide solution was harmless for Ph. persimilis eggs, while a moderate mortality of eggs and of larvae from treated eggs of T. urticae, was observed (53.8%). The pesticide also caused a delay in the postembryonic development of the tetranychid. Moreover, 83.4% mortality was reported for treated females tetranychids and only 24.0% for Ph. persimilis females. The pesticide influenced negatively the population growth of T. urticae which showed a very low rate of increase (r(i)=0.07), compared to that obtained in the control (r(i)=0.68). The pesticide did not affect negatively the reproductive potential of Ph. persimilis (r(i)=0.54 and r(i)=0.57 for test and control, respectively). These results suggest a considerable acaricidal activity of potassium salts of fatty acids and caraway oil on T. urticae and a good selectivity on Ph. persimilis.

  12. Tomato whole genome transcriptional response to Tetranychus urticae identifies divergence of spider mite-induced responses between tomato and Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martel, C.; Zhurov, V.; Navarro, M.; Martinez, M.; Cazaux, M.; Auger, P.; Migeon, A.; Santamaria, M.E.; Wybouw, N.; Diaz, I.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Navajas, M.; Grbic, M.; Grbic, V.

    2015-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is one of the most significant mite pests in agriculture, feeding on more than 1,100 plant hosts, including model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. Here, we describe timecourse tomato transcriptional responses to spider mite

  13. Population density and phenology of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is linked to sulfur-induced outbreaks of this pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is a worldwide pest of numerous agronomic and horticultural plants. Sulfur fungicides are known to induce outbreaks of this pest on several crops, although mechanisms associated with sulfur-induced mite outbreaks are largely unknown. Studies were...

  14. The effect of ionizing radiation on reproductive potential of Tetranychus urticae Koch. spider and its response to pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zil'bermints, I.V.; Zhuravleva, L.M.; Dubovoj, V.P.

    1988-01-01

    It was shown that even a single exposure of spider (tetranychus urticae Koch.) to ionizing radiation changes its reproductive potency, shortens the life span of females, reduces the time of laying and causes unfavourable shifts in sex ratio within at least two generations, whereas its response to pesticides does not change

  15. Reproductive parameters of Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks fed with Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Souza-Pimentel

    Full Text Available Abstract Predatory mites that belong to the Phytoseiidae family are one of the main natural enemies of phytophagous mites, thus allowing for their use as a biological control. Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 (Acari: Phytoseiidae is among the main species of predatory mites used for this purpose. Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae is considered to be one of the most important species of mite pests and has been described as attacking over 1,100 species of plants in 140 families with economic value. The objective of the present study was to investigate, in the laboratory, the reproductive parameters of the predatory mite P. macropilis when fed T. urticae. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 2 °C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photophase. In addition, biological aspects were evaluated and a fertility life table was established. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the longevity of adult female was 27.5 days and adult male was 29.0 days. The population was estimated to increase approximately 27 times (Ro in mean generation time (T, which was 17.7 days. Lastly, the mite population grew 1.2 times/day (λ and doubled every 3.7 days (TD.

  16. A massive incorporation of microbial genes into the genome of Tetranychus urticae, a polyphagous arthropod herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybouw, N; Van Leeuwen, T; Dermauw, W

    2018-06-01

    A number of horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) have been identified in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, a chelicerate herbivore. However, the genome of this mite species has at present not been thoroughly mined for the presence of HGT genes. Here, we performed a systematic screen for HGT genes in the T. urticae genome using the h-index metric. Our results not only validated previously identified HGT genes but also uncovered 25 novel HGT genes. In addition to HGT genes with a predicted biochemical function in carbohydrate, lipid and folate metabolism, we also identified the horizontal transfer of a ketopantoate hydroxymethyltransferase and a pantoate β-alanine ligase gene. In plants and bacteria, both genes are essential for vitamin B5 biosynthesis and their presence in the mite genome strongly suggests that spider mites, similar to Bemisia tabaci and nematodes, can synthesize their own vitamin B5. We further show that HGT genes were physically embedded within the mite genome and were expressed in different life stages. By screening chelicerate genomes and transcriptomes, we were able to estimate the evolutionary histories of these HGTs during chelicerate evolution. Our study suggests that HGT has made a significant and underestimated impact on the metabolic repertoire of plant-feeding spider mites. © 2018 The Royal Entomological Society.

  17. Protocols for the delivery of small molecules to the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a chelicerate herbivore with an extremely wide host range and an extraordinary ability to develop pesticide resistance. Due to its responsiveness to natural and synthetic xenobiotics, the spider mite is becoming a prime pest herbivore model for studies of the evolution of host range, plant-herbivore interactions and mechanisms of xenobiotic resistance. The spider mite genome has been sequenced and its transcriptional responses to developmental and various biotic and abiotic cues have been documented. However, to identify biological and evolutionary roles of T. urticae genes and proteins, it is necessary to develop methods for the efficient manipulation of mite gene function or protein activity. Here, we describe protocols developed for the delivery of small molecules into spider mites. Starting with mite maintenance and the preparation of the experimental mite populations of developmentally synchronized larvae and adults, we describe 3 methods for delivery of small molecules including artificial diet, leaf coating, and soaking. The presented results define critical steps in these methods and demonstrate that they can successfully deliver tracer dyes into mites. Described protocols provide guidelines for high-throughput setups for delivery of experimental compounds that could be used in reverse genetics platforms to modulate gene expression or protein activity, or for screens focused on discovery of new molecules for mite control. In addition, described protocols could be adapted for other Tetranychidae and related species of economic importance such as Varroa, dust and poultry mites.

  18. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of quantitative characters in spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliya, F; Begum, H; Reddy, M T; Sivaraj, N; Pandravada, S R; Narshimulu, G

    2014-05-01

    Fifty genotypes of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replications at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India during kharif, 2012. Correlation and path coefficient analysis were carried out to study the character association and contribution, respectively for twelve quantitative characters namely vine length (m), number of stems per plant, days to first female flower appearance, first female flowering node, days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period (days), fruit length (cm), fruit width (cm), fruit weight (g), number of fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant (kg) for identification of the potential selection indices. Correlation and path coefficient analyses revealed that fruiting period and number of fruits per plant not only had positively significant correlation with fruit yield but also had positively high direct effect on it and are regarded as the main determinants of fruit yield. Days to first fruit harvest had positively moderate direct effect on fruit yield and its association was negatively significant, days to last fruit harvest had negatively high direct effect on fruit yield and its association was significant positively, hence restricted simultaneous selection can be made for days to first fruit harvest and days to last fruit harvest. The improvement in fruit yield can be effective if selection is based on days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period and number of fruits per plant.

  19. The preliminary assessment and isolation of entomopathogenic fungi to be used in biological control with twospotted spider mite [Tetranychus urticae (acari, tetranychidae)] from East Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örtücü, Serkan; Algur, Ömer Faruk

    2017-04-01

    This study was conducted to isolation entomopathogenic fungi for possible use in biocontrol of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. and to determine their pathogenicity. For this purpose, plant leaves infected with T. urticae were collected from Erzurum, Kars and Ardahan. At laboratory, the internal and external mycoflora of T.urticae individuals on plant leaves were determined. As a result of isolation, twenty-five different fungi species belonging to the genera Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Beauveria, Cladosporium, Gliocladium, Humicola, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Isaria, Ulocladium and Verticillium were obtained. Pathogenicity of this forty-five isolate belonging to twenty-five species were evaluated. As a test organism, T. urticae was used and suspensions (1 × 108conidia ml-1) were prepared in Tween 80. 2ml suspension of a single dose was sprayed onto down side of bean leaf discs using hand sprayer. Mortality was recorded daily for 7 days. A total of twelve isolates belonging to three species were determined to be pathogen against T.urticae. According to scale used: AT020 Isaria farinosa and AT025 Cladosporium cladosporioides were determined as least pathogen, AT037 and AT101 Beauveria bassiana, and AT019 and AT026 C. cladosporioides, and AT035 and AT036 I. farinosa as moderate pathogen, AT007, AT021, AT034 and AT076 B. bassiana as highly pathogen. The other thirty-three isolates found that not pathogenic against T.urticae.

  20. Albino Farelerde Paraben Toksisitesine Karşı Urtica Dioica L. (Urticaceae Özütünün Koruyucu Rolünün Araştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine YALÇIN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Özet. Bu çalışmada parabenin (hidroksibenzoik asit (HBA albino farelerde bazı biyokimyasal parametreler üzerine etkisi incelenmiştir. HBA’nın toksik etkisine karşı ısırgan otu özütü koruyucu madde olarak seçilmiş ve tüm uygulama gruplarına iki doz halinde uygulanmıştır. Bu kapsamda bir grupta 6 albino fare (Mus musculus, 12-14 haftalık, 25-30 g olmak üzere 6 uygulama grubu oluşturulmuştur.  Çalışma süresince I. gruba pellet yem ve çeşme suyu, II. gruba 125 mg/kg.ca dozunda ısırgan otu özütü, III. gruba 250 mg/kg.ca dozunda ısırgan otu özütü, IV. Gruba 150 mg/kg.ca dozunda HBA, V. gruba 150 mg/kg.ca dozunda HBA + 125 mg/kg.ca dozunda ısırgan otu özütü, VI. gruba 150 mg/kg.ca dozunda HBA + 250 mg/kg.ca dozunda ısırgan otu özütü verilmiştir. Uygulama süresi sonunda farelerin kan örnekleri alınarak serum örnekleri elde edilmiştir. Serum örneklerinde Alanintransaminaz (ALT, Aspartattransaminaz (AST, kan üre azotu (BUN ve kreatinin parametreleri incelenmiştir. Ayrıca her uygulama grubuna ait karaciğer ve böbrek dokuları izole edilmiş ve GSH, MDA analizleri gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışma sonucunda HBA uygulanan gruplarda serum ALT, AST, BUN ve kreatinin plazma seviyelerinde önemli değişmeler gözlenmiştir. Bu değişimler HBA’nın hücreler üzerindeki muhtemel toksik etkileri ile açıklanabilir. Benzer şekilde HBA uygulanan gruplarda kontrol grubuna kıyasla MDA seviyelerinde artış gözlenirken, GSH seviyelerinde azalmanın olduğu tespit edilmiştir. HBA ile birlikte ısırgan otu özütü uygulanan gruplarda test edilen parametrelerde yeniden düzelme olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bu sonuçlar ısırgan otu özütünün HBA toksisitesine karşı koruyucu etkisini ortaya koymaktadır.Anahtar Kelimeler: Paraben, Isırgan otu özütü, ALT, AST Abstract. In this study effects of paraben (hydroxybenzoicacid (HBA on some biochemical parameters in albino mice were investigated. Nettle extract selected as protective agent against the toxic effects of HBA and the Nettle extract applied to all treatment groups in two dosage. In this scope, mice were  divided into six groups, each containing 6 mice (Mus musculus, 12–14 week, 25–30 g. In experimental period, group I treated with tap water, group II treated with 125 mg/kg.bw nettle extract, group III treated with 250 mg/kg.bw nettle extract, group IV treated with 150 mg/kg.bw HBA, group V treated with 125 mg/kg.bw nettle extract+ 150 mg/kg.bw HBA, group VI treated with 250 mg/kg.bw nettle extract+ 150 mg/kg.bw HBA. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected and then the serum samples were obtained. Alanine transaminase (ALT, Aspartate transaminase (AST, Blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine parameters were investigated in serum samples. Liver and kidney tissues were isolated and then MDA, GSH analysis were performed. As a result of the study, important alterations were observed in ALT, AST, BUN and creatinine levels of HBA treated group. These changes can be explained by potential toxic effects of HBA on cells. MDA levels of HBA treated group were increased and GSH levels were decreased. Some ameliorations were observed in all tested parameters in nettle extract and HBA treated groups compared to HBA treated group. These results demonstrate the protective effect of nettle extract against the toxicity of HBA.Keyword: Paraben, Nettle extract, AST, ALT

  1. Investigating the effects of using Nettle (Urtica dioica , Menta pulagum (Oreganum valgare and Zizaphora (Thymyus valgaris medicinal plants on performance, carcass quality, blood biochemical parameters and blood cells of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Heydari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of using Nettle,Menta pulagum and ‌‌Zizaphora medicinal plants on performance, carcass quality, blood biochemical parameters and blood cells of broilers. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 288 broilers (Ross-308 in 8 treatments and 3 replicates (with 12 birds in each replicate from 1 to 42 days and included: 1 control group without using any medicinal plants, 2 1.5% of ‌‌Nettle, 3 1.5% of Menta pulagum, 4 1.5% of Zizaphora, 5 1.5% of Nettle and Menta pulagum, 6 1.5% of  Nettle and Zizaphora, 7 1.5% of Menta pulagum and ‌‌Zizaphora, 8 1.5% of Nettle,Menta pulagum and ‌‌Zizaphora. The results showed that using these medicinal plants and their mixtures had significant effects on performance, carcass traits and blood biochemical parameters of broilers (p

  2. Amino-acid sequences of trypsin inhibitors from watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) and red bryony (Bryonia dioica) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlewski, J; Whatley, H; Polanowski, A; Wilusz, T

    1987-11-01

    The amino-acid sequences of two trypsin inhibitors isolated from red bryony (Bryonia dioica) and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) seeds are reported. Both species represent different genera of the Cucurbitaceae family, which have not been previously investigated as a source of proteinase inhibitors. The sequences are unique but are very similar to those of other proteinase inhibitors which have been isolated from squash seeds. Based on structural homology we assume that the Arg5-Ile6 peptide bond represents the reactive site bond of both inhibitors.

  3. Fundamental aspects of genetic control of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    Radiobiological properties of Tetranychus urticae and other topics of genetic control have been evaluated. The induction by X-rays or fast neutrons of dominant lethals in mature sperm and of dominant lethals and recessive lethals in prophase-1 oocytes and the induction by both radiation types of chromosome mutations, recessive lethals and factors causing F 1 -infertility in sperm and oocytes, have been studied. From the results the optimal dose, radiation type and germ cell type could be chosen for obtaining either fully sterile males or substerile males, producing fully infertile F 1 -females. Also the most favourable conditions were determined for the induction of chromosome mutations with the lowest frequency of linked recessive lethals. The radiobiological properties of holokinetic chromosomes are extensively discussed. The successful displacement of the standard karyotype by a radiation arranged karyotype is presented and discussed in its relevance for practical application. (Auth./C.F.)

  4. Biological and ecological characterization of two mites (Tetranychus Urticae and Phytoseiulus Persimilis) occurring in some agro-ecosystems; Caratterizzazione biologica ed ecologica di due acari (Tetranichus Urticae e Phytoseiulus Persimilis) interagenti in alcuni ecosistemi agrari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvitti, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Roma (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1995-12-01

    This work is a brief review of the actual knowledge about biological and ecological characteristics of two species of mites: Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina Tetranychidae) (two-spotted spider mite) and the predaceous mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias Henriot (Acarina Phytoseiidae). Success obtained in biological control of spider mite, by mass release of P. persimilis, has increased the interest in biological and ecological study of these mites. Particularly, the following biological and ecological aspects of both P. persimilis and T. urticae are hereby discussed: reproductive biology; population dynamics (spider mites outbreaks) and natural regulation of the trophic interaction; feeding behaviour; biological control of two-spotted spider mite by P. persimilis. In this report experimental data obtained in laboratory have been integrated with bibliographic information concerning studies produced in natural conditions.

  5. Bioactivity of Licaria puchury-major Essential Oil Against Aedes aegypti , Tetranychus urticae and Cerataphis lataniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney G. Azevedo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate an alternative controlling agent for greenhouse pests and the yellow fever mosquito larvae. The potential bioactivity of Licaria puchury-major (Mart. Kosterm. (“puxuri” was evaluated here against three most common pests in tropical and subtropical countries: Aedes aegypti Linn. Larvae, Tetranychus urticae Koch. mites and Cerataphis lataniae Boisd. aphids. The essential oil from seeds was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major compounds were safrole (38.8% and eucalyptol (21.7%. Phenylpropanes (51.7% was the main group of compounds and oxygenated monoterpenes represented 28.8% of the total oil. The essential oil has shown no inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE in the tested concentrations. However, potential antioxidant activities were evaluated by different methods [DPPH: LD 50 = (27.8 ± 1.0 µg/.mL; ABTS: (977.3 ± 25.2 µM TEs/g (Trolox Equivalents; FRAP: (548.2 ± 29.0 µM Fe(II/g]. A significant larvicidal potential for 24 h of exposure was observed with LD 50 = 98.9 µg/mL, being an indicative that the larval mortality may occur by ingestion or contact due to the no inhibition against AChE. Volatile phase effects were evaluated against T. urticae Koch. and C. lataniae Boisd. and LD 50 were found about 30.8 and 13.5 µg/mL , respectively. These results are consistent with an octopaminergic effect , since some phenylpropanoids (such as Safrole, identified as the major compound in this work can block octopamine, a multi-functional, naturally occurring biogenic amine. Then, this study clearly illustrated the efficacy of the investigated seeds, which encourages the development of a new potential natural controlling agent against these common pests due to the abundance of these seeds in the Amazon region and to the high essential oil yield .

  6. Intercropping Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Sprengel (Amaryllidaceae reduces Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae populations in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Hata

    2017-12-01

    Efeito do cultivo consorciado de Allium tuberosum Rottlerex Sprengel(Amaryllidaceae em populações de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae em morangueiro Resumo. O ácaro-rajado, Tetranychus urticae Koch, é uma das mais importantes pragas em casas de vegetação no mundo. Foi avaliado o efeito do consórcio de cebolinha chinesa, cultivada sob as estruturas de madeira que suportam as sacolas para o cultivo de morangueiro (sistema suspenso, em duas casas de vegetação, entre novembro de 2016 e janeiro de 2017. Formas móveis e ovos de ácaros foram contabilizados em folhas de morangueiro. Para as avaliações, cinco plantas foram aleatoriamente selecionadas em cada parcela. Populações de ácaro-rajado em folhas de morangueiro foram avaliadas com lupa de bolso, com 10 x de aumento. Reduções foram observadas em três de oito avaliações de formas móveis de ácaro-rajado. Foram observadas reduções no número de ovos em uma avaliação. Tomando em consideração os dados de ácaros acumulados por dia, foi observado que o consórcio reduziu em 54% a população de ácaros. Por outro lado, o número de ovos não foi alterado.

  7. Atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, Juerg

    1997-01-01

    It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination

  8. Standardization of a rearing procedure of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): plant age and harvest time; Padronizacao da criacao de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris): idade da planta e tempo de colheita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos, Alexander; Cantor, Fernando; Cure, Jose R; Rodriguez, Daniel [Universidade Militar Nueva Granada, Bogota (Colombia). Facutad de Ciencias. Programa de Biologia Aplicada], e-mail: fernando.cantor@unimilitar.edu.co

    2009-09-15

    A rearing technique was standardized to produce Tetranychus urticae Koch on Phaseolus vulgaris (ICA Cerinza variety) as a prey of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Two assays were conducted to assess the following variables: the most suitable plant age for mite infestation, and the best time to harvest the mites and re infest the plants. In the first experiment, four, five, six, and seven-week-old plants of P. vulgaris were infested with six T. urticae per foliole. The lower plant stratum exhibited the largest number of mites regardless of plant age. However, four-week old plants had the larger average number of individuals. In the second experiment four-week-old plants were infested with 0.5 female mite/cm{sup 2} of leaf. The number of individuals per instar of T. urticae was recorded weekly. The highest mite production occurred between four and five weeks after infestation, indicating this to be the most suitable for mite harvesting and for plant reinfestation. (author)

  9. Intraspecific competition and mating between fungal strains of the anther smut Microbotryum violaceum from the host plants Silene latifolia and S-dioica.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Putten, W.F.; Biere, A.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2003-01-01

    We studied intraspecific competition and assortative mating between strains of the anther smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum from two of its host species, Silene latifolia and S. dioica. Specifically, we investigated whether strains from allopatric host populations have higher competitive ability on

  10. Intraspecific competition and mating between fungal strains of the anther smut Microbotryum violaceum from the host plants Silene latifolia and S-dioica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Putten, WF; Biere, A; Van Damme, JMM

    We studied intraspecific competition and assortative mating between strains of the anther smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum from two of its host species, Silene latifolia and S. dioica. Specifically. we investigated whether strains from allopatric host populations have higher competitive ability on

  11. Integrated pest management of two-spotted mite Tetranychus urticae on greenhouse roses using petroleum spray oil and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicetic; Watson, D M; Beattie, G A; Meats, A; Zheng, J

    2001-01-01

    From 1995 to 1999, four experiments were conducted on greenhouse roses to assess the effectiveness of the nC24 petroleum spray oil (PSO), D-C-Tron Plus, against two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae), and to determine how the oil could be most efficiently and effectively used in combination with the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) in an integrated pest management program. The results showed that 0.5% PSO applied fortnightly to roses gave excellent protection from T urticae infestation when the mite population was not already established. However, PSO applied after roses were infested with T. urticae above the economic threshold only stabilised populations without reducing them below that threshold. Populations of P. persimilis in the upper and lower canopies were unchanged after two sprays of PSO at 7-day intervals, and application of PSO to the upper canopy was as effective in controlling T. urticae in the presence of P persimilis as spraying the entire plant. Combining PSO with P. persimilis gave better control of T. urticae than using P. persimilis alone. The most cost-effective use of PSO in the presence of P. persimilis is, therefore, to apply spray only to the upper canopy. This will not affect control of powdery mildew with PSO. Comparison of a control program for T urticae based on the monitored use of synthetic miticides with that based on calendar application of PSO revealed that both gave equally effective control. The benefits of combining PSO and P. persimilis in an integrated pest management program for T. urticae on roses over a program based on synthetic fungicides are discussed.

  12. Standardization of a rearing procedure of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): plant age and harvest time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos, Alexander; Cantor, Fernando; Cure, Jose R; Rodriguez, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    A rearing technique was standardized to produce Tetranychus urticae Koch on Phaseolus vulgaris (ICA Cerinza variety) as a prey of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Two assays were conducted to assess the following variables: the most suitable plant age for mite infestation, and the best time to harvest the mites and re infest the plants. In the first experiment, four, five, six, and seven-week-old plants of P. vulgaris were infested with six T. urticae per foliole. The lower plant stratum exhibited the largest number of mites regardless of plant age. However, four-week old plants had the larger average number of individuals. In the second experiment four-week-old plants were infested with 0.5 female mite/cm 2 of leaf. The number of individuals per instar of T. urticae was recorded weekly. The highest mite production occurred between four and five weeks after infestation, indicating this to be the most suitable for mite harvesting and for plant reinfestation. (author)

  13. Acaricidal Potentials of the Terpene-rich Essential Oils of Two Iranian Eucalyptus Species against Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadollahi, Asgar; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Maroufpoor, Mostafa; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    There is a rapid growth in the screening of plant materials for finding new bio-pesticides. In the present study, the essential oils of E. oleosa and E. torquata leaves were extracted using a Clevenger apparatus and their chemical profiles were investigated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Among identified compounds, the terpenes had highest amount for both essential oils; 93.59% for E. oleosa and 97.69% for E. torquata. 1,8-Cineole (31.96%), α-pinene (15.25%) and trans-anethole (7.32%) in the essential oil of E. oleosa and 1,8-cineole (28.57%), α-pinene (15.74%) and globulol (13.11%) in the E. torquata essential oil were identified as the main components. The acaricidal activity of the essential oils of E. oleosa and E. torquata were examined using fumigation methods against the adult females of Tetranychus urticae Koch. The essential oils have potential acaricidal effects on T. urticae. The essential oil of E. oleosa with LC 50 value of 2.42 µL/L air was stronger than E. torquata. A correlation between log concentration and mite mortality has been observed. Based on the results of present study, it can be stated that the essential oils of E. oleosa and E. torquata have a worthy potential in the management of T. urticae.

  14. Toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Veronez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis. A mortalidade e a taxa de crescimento de T. urticae e seu predador foram avaliadas após a aplicação de: abamectina, clofentezina, fenpropatrina, fenpiroximato, propargito, enxofre e espiromesifeno, nas concentrações recomendadas; óleos de nim (Natuneem e Sempre Verde Killer Neem a 1%; e extratos aquosos a 10% de Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Annona squamosa, Ruta graveolens, Agave angustifolia, Melia azedarach, Sonchus oleraceus, Mentha spicata x M. suaveolens, Allium cepa, Laurus nobilis e Eucalyptus saligna. A toxicidade aguda e a influência dos compostos sobre a taxa de crescimento instantâneo dos ácaros foram avaliadas em laboratório. Extratos de A. cepa, A. angustifolia, produtos à base de óleo de nim, espiromesifeno, propargito, fenpiroximato, abamectina e fenpropatrina causaram mortalidade superior a 83% em T. urticae. Extrato de A. angustifolia, Natuneem e clofentezina não causaram mortalidade significativa em P. macropilis. Agave angustifolia e Natuneem não afetaram significativamente a taxa de crescimento deste predador. Propargito, fenpiroximato, abamectina, fenpropatrina, espiromesifeno e extrato de L. nobilis afetaram severamente a população de P. macropilis.

  15. Laboratory and field evaluation of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria cateniannulata strain 08XS-1, against Tetranychus urticae (Koch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaona; Jin, Daochao; Zou, Xiao; Guo, Jianjun

    2016-05-01

    The two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is one of the most serious mite pests of crops throughout the world. Biocontrol of the mite with fungal agents has long been paid much attention because of the development of insecticide resistance and the severe restriction of chemical pesticides. In this study, the efficacy of submerged conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria cateniannulata strain 08XS-1 against T. urticae eggs, larvae and female adults was evaluated at different temperatures and humidity in the laboratory and under field conditions. The results showed that a suspension of 2 × 10(7) submerged conidia mL(-1) caused the highest mortalities of mite eggs, larvae and females (100, 100 and 70% respectively) at 100% relative humidity and 25 °C in the laboratory. In the field experiments against the mites, a suspension of 2 × 10(8) submerged conidia mL(-1) achieved significant efficiency - the relative control effects were 88.6, 83.8 and 83%, respectively, in cucumber, eggplant and bean fields after 10 days of treatment. The results suggest that the I. cateniannulata strain 08XS-1 is a potential fungal agent, with acceptable production cost of conidia, against T. urticae in the field in an area such as southwestern China with higher air humidity. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Characterization of spatial distribution of Tetranychus urticae in peppermint in California and implication for improving sampling plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijal, Jhalendra P; Wilson, Rob; Godfrey, Larry D

    2016-02-01

    Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is an important pest of peppermint in California, USA. Spider mite feeding on peppermint leaves causes physiological changes in the plant, which coupling with the favorable environmental condition can lead to increased mite infestations. Significant yield loss can occur in absence of pest monitoring and timely management. Understating the within-field spatial distribution of T. urticae is critical for the development of reliable sampling plan. The study reported here aims to characterize the spatial distribution of mite infestation in four commercial peppermint fields in northern California using spatial techniques, variogram and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs (SADIE). Variogram analysis revealed that there was a strong evidence for spatially dependent (aggregated) mite population in 13 of 17 sampling dates and the physical distance of the aggregation reached maximum to 7 m in peppermint fields. Using SADIE, 11 of 17 sampling dates showed aggregated distribution pattern of mite infestation. Combining results from variogram and SADIE analysis, the spatial aggregation of T. urticae was evident in all four fields for all 17 sampling dates evaluated. Comparing spatial association using SADIE, ca. 62% of the total sampling pairs showed a positive association of mite spatial distribution patterns between two consecutive sampling dates, which indicates a strong spatial and temporal stability of mite infestation in peppermint fields. These results are discussed in relation to behavior of spider mite distribution within field, and its implications for improving sampling guidelines that are essential for effective pest monitoring and management.

  17. Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench. and Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn. Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babotă, Mihai; Mocan, Andrei; Vlase, Laurian; Crișan, Ovidiu; Ielciu, Irina; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Crișan, Gianina; Păltinean, Ramona

    2018-02-13

    Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn. and Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench. are two species of the Asteraceae family, known in Romanian traditional medicine for their diuretic, choleretic, and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the phenolic and sterolic composition of flowers from the two species and to assess their antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal properties. LC-MS analyses were performed on methanolic, ethanolic and 70% v/v ethanolic extracts, before and after acid hydrolysis, and revealed high amounts of polyphenols. Chlorogenic acid was found as the main compound for the flowers of A. dioica (502.70 ± 25.11 mg/100 g d.w.), while quercitrin was dominant in H. arenarium (424.28 ± 21.21 mg/100 g d.w.) in 70% v / v ethanolic extracts before hydrolysis. Antioxidant capacity assays showed an important antioxidant potential, which can be correlated with the determined polyphenolic compounds, showing the 70% v / v ethanolic extracts of the two species as being the most effective antioxidant samples for the DPPH assay. Antibacterial and antifungal assays confirm a modest biological potential for the same extract of both species. Results obtained in the present study bring important data and offer scientific evidence on the chemical composition and on the biological activities of the flowers belonging to the two species.

  18. Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Helichrysum arenarium (L. Moench. and Antennaria dioica (L. Gaertn. Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Babotă

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Antennaria dioica (L. Gaertn. and Helichrysum arenarium (L. Moench. are two species of the Asteraceae family, known in Romanian traditional medicine for their diuretic, choleretic, and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the phenolic and sterolic composition of flowers from the two species and to assess their antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal properties. LC-MS analyses were performed on methanolic, ethanolic and 70% v/v ethanolic extracts, before and after acid hydrolysis, and revealed high amounts of polyphenols. Chlorogenic acid was found as the main compound for the flowers of A. dioica (502.70 ± 25.11 mg/100 g d.w., while quercitrin was dominant in H. arenarium (424.28 ± 21.21 mg/100 g d.w. in 70% v/v ethanolic extracts before hydrolysis. Antioxidant capacity assays showed an important antioxidant potential, which can be correlated with the determined polyphenolic compounds, showing the 70% v/v ethanolic extracts of the two species as being the most effective antioxidant samples for the DPPH assay. Antibacterial and antifungal assays confirm a modest biological potential for the same extract of both species. Results obtained in the present study bring important data and offer scientific evidence on the chemical composition and on the biological activities of the flowers belonging to the two species.

  19. Intraguild interactions between Euseius stipulatus and the candidate biocontrol agents of Tetranychus urticae in Spanish clementine orchards: Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Moyano, Raquel; Urbaneja, Alberto; Schausberger, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Spanish clementine orchards are frequently infested by the two-spotted spider mte Tetranychus urticae. Natural control of T. urticae is insufficient despite the presence of Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis. The phytoseiid community is dominated by the generalist Euseius stipulatus which is poorly adapted to exploit T. urticae. Having the intention to promote biological control of T. urticae by augmentative releases we were interested whether P. persimilis and N. californicus are negatively affected by intraguild (IG) interactions with E. stipulatus. Two experiments were conducted. Firstly, we assessed female aggressiveness (quantified as combination of attack probability and latency) in IG predation on larvae. Secondly, we measured mortality, escaping rate and developmental time of immature IG prey in presence and absence of an adult IG predator female. Euseius stipulatus appeared the strongest IG opponent but microhabitat structure modulated the IG interactions and the advantage of E. stipulatus was partially offset when spider mite webbing was present. Implications of these IG interactions for natural and biological control of T. urticae in clementine orchards are discussed.

  20. The Effect of Spiromesifen on the Reproductive Potential of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

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    Dejan Marčić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the effects of spiromesifen on the fecundity, fertility and population growth of two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch after treatment of pre-ovipositing females with five acaricide concentrations: 180mg/l (maximum recommended concentration for use in glasshouses against spider mites, 18 mg/l, 1.8 mg/l and 0.18 mg/l (the last one was discriminative for eggs and immatures in preliminary studies, i.e. produced 100% mortality of those stages and 0.018 mg/l. After24h exposure, the percentages of females surviving treatment without visible symptoms of poisoning were 50% (180 mg/l, 45% (18 mg/l, 51% (1.8 mg/l, 74% (0.18 mg/l, 96% (0.018 mg/l and 98% (0 mg/l. Over the first four days after treatment, the females that survived180 mg/l and 18 mg/l laid no eggs. The total number of eggs laid after treatment with these two concentrations was reduced to less than 2% against the control by the end of the trial. The females that survived 1.8 mg/l laid 50% less eggs, compared to the control, while the number of eggs laid by the females treated with 0.18 mg/l and 0.018 mg/l were 19% and 4% lower, respectively. Over the initial four days, egg hatch rates in treatments were 73-87%, and 92-93% in the control. Significant statistical differences between gross fecundity (FCg and gross fertility (FTg values in the control and treatments were detected for females surviving 180 mg/l, 18 mg/l and 1.8 mg/l. On the other hand, only the net fertility (FTn value of females treated with 0.018 mg/l showed no statistically significant difference from the control value. Treatments with 180 mg/l and 18 mg/l significantly reduced the instantaneous rate of increase (ri 6, 8 and 10 days after treatment, compared to the control. The negative ri values in those treatments indicated a declining population. Sublethal effects of spiromesifen and its impact on T. urticae management are discussed.

  1. From repulsion to attraction: species- and spatial context-dependent threat sensitive response of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae to predatory mite cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Ferrari, M. Celeste; Schausberger, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Prey perceiving predation risk commonly change their behavior to avoid predation. However, antipredator strategies are costly. Therefore, according to the threat-sensitive predator avoidance hypothesis, prey should match the intensity of their antipredator behaviors to the degree of threat, which may depend on the predator species and the spatial context. We assessed threat sensitivity of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, to the cues of three predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus, and Amblyseius andersoni, posing different degrees of risk in two spatial contexts. We first conducted a no-choice test measuring oviposition and activity of T. urticae exposed to chemical traces of predators or traces plus predator eggs. Then, we tested the site preference of T. urticae in choice tests, using artificial cages and leaves. In the no-choice test, T. urticae deposited their first egg later in the presence of cues of P. persimilis than of the other two predators and cue absence, indicating interspecific threat-sensitivity. T. urticae laid also fewer eggs in the presence of cues of P. persimilis and A. andersoni than of N. californicus and cue absence. In the artificial cage test, the spider mites preferred the site with predator traces, whereas in the leaf test, they preferentially resided on leaves without traces. We argue that in a nonplant environment, chemical predator traces do not indicate a risk for T. urticae, and instead, these traces function as indirect habitat cues. The spider mites were attracted to these cues because they associated them with the existence of a nearby host plant.

  2. Assessment of Cd-induced genotoxic damage in Urtica pilulifera L. using RAPD-PCR analysis

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    Ilhan Dogan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants can be used as biological indicators in assessing the damage done by bioaccumulation of heavy metals and their negative impact on the environment. In the present research, Roman nettle (Urtica pilulifera L. was employed as a bioindicator for cadmium (Cd pollution. The comparisons between unexposed and exposed plant samples revealed inhibition of the root growth (∼25.96% and ∼45.92% after treatment with 100 and 200 µmol/L Cd concentrations, respectively, reduction in the total soluble protein quantities (∼53.92% and ∼66.29% after treatment with 100 and 200 µmol/L Cd concentrations, respectively and a gradual genomic instability when the Cd concentrations were increased. The results indicated that alterations in randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD profiles, following the Cd treatments, included normal band losses and emergence of new bands, when compared to the controls. Also, the obtained data from F1 plants, utilized for analysis of genotoxicity, revealed that DNA alterations, occurring in parent plants due to Cd pollution, were transmitted to the next generation.

  3. Acaricidal activity and repellency of essential oil from Piper aduncum and its components against Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Mário J C; Câmara, Cláudio A G; Born, Flávia S; Moraes, Marcílio M; Badji, César A

    2012-06-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil of leaves of Piper aduncum L., growing wild in a fragment of the Atlantic Rainforest biome in northeastern Brazil, was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The acaricidal activity and repellency of the essential oil and its components [dillapiole (0.28 g/ml), α-humulene (0.016 g/ml), (E)-nerolidol (0.0007 g/ml) and β-caryophyllene (0.0021 g/ml)] were evaluated in the laboratory against adults of Tetranychus urticae Koch. The mites were more susceptible to the oil in fumigation tests (LC(50) = 0.01 μl/l of air) than in contact test with closed Petri dish (LC(50) = 7.17 μl/ml); mortality was reduced by approximately 50 % in the latter test. The repellent action of the oil and toxicity by fumigation and contact did not differ significantly from the positive control (eugenol). The repellent activity was attributed to the components (E)-nerolidol, α-humulene and β-caryophyllene, whereas toxicity by fumigation and contact was attributed to β-caryophyllene. The effect of Piper oil and the role of its components regarding host plant preference with a two-choice leaf disk test are also discussed.

  4. Attraction of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) towards volatiles from various Tetranychus urticae-infested plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boom, C E M; van Beek, T A; Dicke, M

    2002-12-01

    Plants infested with the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, may indirectly defend themselves by releasing volatiles that attract the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Several plants from different plant families that varied in the level of spider mite acceptance were tested in an olfactometer. The predatory mites were significantly attracted to the spider mite-infested leaves of all test plant species. No differences in attractiveness of the infested plant leaves were found for predatory mites reared on spider mites on the different test plants or on lima bean. Thus, experience with the spider mite-induced plant volatiles did not affect the predatory mites. Jasmonic acid was applied to ginkgo leaves to induce a mimic of a spider mite-induced volatile blend, because the spider mites did not survive when incubated on ginkgo. The volatile blend induced in ginkgo by jasmonic acid was slightly attractive to predatory mites. Plants with a high degree of direct defence were thought to invest less in indirect defence than plants with a low degree of direct defence. However, plants that had a strong direct defence such as ginkgo and sweet pepper, did emit induced volatiles that attracted the predatory mite. This indicates that a combination of direct and indirect defence is to some extent compatible in plant species.

  5. Gamma irradiation used on adult Tetranychus urticae Koch as a quarantine treatment

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    Osouli Shiva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of gamma radiation with 0, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, and 450 Gy intensities on the longevity, total number of eggs, and the percent of hatched eggs laid by irradiated females of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae was evaluated. Two different groups (0–24 h old and 48–72 h old of adult females were irradiated. The results showed that 350 and 300 Gy doses significantly reduced the longevity of the 0–24 h old females and the 48–72 h old females. The younger females were more tolerant at lower dose rates than the older females. There was a quadratic relationship between dose rates and young females, while it was linear in older females. The total number of eggs laid by females of both ages was significantly reduced with a linear trend by 250 Gy irradiation. The eggs laid by females of both the 0–24 h olds and the 48–72 h olds lost their hatchability when the dose rate was 350 Gy. It was concluded, that applying a dose rate of 320 Gy on one of the mates (male or female before mating, or a 300 Gy on both of them, would be sufficient to cause sterility in adult mites.

  6. Compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with flufenoxuron and azadirachtin against Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M M; Martínez-Villar, E; Peace, C; Pérez-Moreno, I; Marco, V

    2012-12-01

    Laboratory studies were developed to evaluate the compatibility of flufenoxuron and azadirachtin with Beauveria bassiana against Tetranychus urticae larvae along with the required Probit analysis of the involved chemicals on all of the life stages of this mite. Flufenoxuron displayed parallel regression lines for the mortality of eggs, deutonymphs and adults. Larvae and protonymphs were the most susceptible life stages. Protonymphs were 35 times more sensitive than eggs and adults. Azadirachtin gave equal mortality on proto- and deutonymphs. The response of eggs and adults was equivalent when treated with azadirachtin. The regression lines for proto- and deutonymphs were parallel to those of adults and eggs yet three times more sensitive. The effects of separate combinations of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana at its LC(20) with flufenoxuron and azadirachtin at their corresponding LC(40) were evaluated on mite larvae. The application of flufenoxuron with B. bassiana revealed a clear synergy. While the combination of azadirachtin and B. bassiana had an additive effect. These combinations with B. bassiana could improve mite control by contributing to a decline in the likelihood of resistance so often described in the literature.

  7. Identification and Validation of a New Male Sex-Specific ISSR Marker in Pointed Gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.

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    Sinchan Adhikari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop a genetic sex marker for the pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. to allow gender determination at any stage in the life cycle. Screening of genomic DNA with intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR primers was used to discover sex-specific touch-down polymerase chain reaction (Td-PCR amplification products. Using pooled DNA from male and female genotypes and 42 ISSR primers, a putative male specific marker (~550 bp was identified. DNA marker specific to male is an indication of existence of nonepigenetic factors involved in gender development in pointed gourd. The ISSR technique has proved to be a reliable technique in gender determination of pointed gourd genotypes at the seedling phenophase. The sex marker developed here could also be used as a starting material towards sequence characterization of sex linked genes for better understanding the developmental as well as evolutionary pathways in sexual dimorphism.

  8. Population density and phenology of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in hop is linked to the timing of sulfur applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J L; Dreves, A J; Fisher, G C; James, D G; Wright, L C; Gent, D H

    2012-06-01

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is a worldwide pest of numerous agronomic and horticultural plants. Sulfur fungicides are known to induce outbreaks of this pest on several crops, although mechanisms associated with sulfur-induced mite outbreaks are largely unknown. Studies were conducted during 2007-2009 in Oregon and Washington hop yards to evaluate the effect of timing of sulfur applications on T. urticae and key predators. In both regions, applications of sulfur made relatively late in the growing season (mid-June to mid-July) were associated with the greatest exacerbation of spider mite outbreaks, particularly in the upper canopy of the crop. The severity of mite outbreaks was closely associated with sulfur applications made during a relatively narrow time period coincident with the early exponential phase of spider mite increase and rapid host growth. A nonlinear model relating mean cumulative mite days during the time of sulfur sprays to the percent increase in total cumulative mite days (standardized to a nontreated plot) explained 58% of the variability observed in increased spider mite severity related to sulfur spray timing. Spatial patterns of spider mites in the Oregon plots indicated similar dispersal of motile stages of spider mites among leaves treated with sulfur versus nontreated leaves; however, in two of three years, eggs were less aggregated on leaves of sulfur-treated plants, pointing to enhanced dispersal. Apart from one experiment in Washington, relatively few predatory mites were observed during the course of these studies, and sulfur-induced mite outbreaks generally occurred irrespective of predatory mite abundance. Collectively, these studies indicate sulfur induces mite outbreaks through direct or indirect effects on T. urticae, mostly independent of predatory mite abundance or toxicity to these predators. Avoidance of exacerbation of spider mite outbreaks by sulfur sprays was achieved by carefully timing

  9. Toxicity of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium to predatory insects and mites of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Y J; Kim, Y J; Yoo, J K

    2001-02-01

    The toxicities of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium to three predatory insect and two predatory mite species of Tetranychus urticae Koch were determined in the laboratory by the direct contact application. At a concentration of 540 ppm (a field application rate for weed control in apple orchards), glufosinate-ammonium was almost nontoxic to eggs of Amblyseius womersleyi Schicha, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, and T. urticae but highly toxic to nymphs and adults of these three mite species, indicating that a common mode of action between predatory and phytophagous mites might be involved. In tests with predatory insects using 540 ppm, glufosinate-ammonium revealed little or no harm to larvae and pupae of Chrysopa pallens Rambur but was slightly harmful to eggs (71.2% mortality), nymphs (65.0% mortality), and adults (57.7% mortality) of Orius strigicollis Poppius. The herbicide showed no direct effect on eggs and adults of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) but was harmful, slightly harmful, and harmless to first instars (100% mortality), fourth instars (51.1% mortality), and pupae (24.5% mortality), respectively. The larvae and nymphs of predators died within 12 h after treatment, suggesting that the larvicidal and nymphicidal action may be attributable to a direct effect rather than an inhibitory action of chitin synthesis. On the basis of our data, glufosinate-ammonium caused smaller effects on test predators than on T. urticae with the exception of P. persimilis, although the mechanism or cause of selectivity remains unknown. Glufosinate-ammonium merits further study as a key component of integrated pest management.

  10. In vitro alpha-amylase inhibition and in vivo antioxidant potential of Momordica dioica seeds in streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress in diabetic rats

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    P. Sailaja Rao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Momordica dioica Roxb. Commonly known as “Kakora” in Telugu, is used in the Indian traditional system of medicine for the treatment of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of M. dioica seeds (MEMD in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. The in vitro α-amylase inhibitory activity of the MEMD was done by spectrophotometric method. Diabetes was induced by STZ (45 mg/kg; i.p, MEMD (100 & 200 mg/kg; b.wt and standard drug metformin (50 mg/kg; b.wt were administered to the diabetic rats. Blood glucose was estimated on the 11th day and the level of MDA, SOD and CAT was estimated in the liver tissue homogenate after the 15 days of experimental period. MEMD showed significant inhibition of alpha amylase activity and the IC50 was found to be 48 μg/ml. Oral administration of MEMD significantly reduced blood glucose level (P < 0.05, diminished the MDA level and refurbished depleted antioxidant enzymes and Insulin level to normalcy. These findings revealed that M. dioica seeds possess antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and anti lipid peroxidative activity and thus mitigate STZ-induced oxidative damage.

  11. Tri-trophic level Impact of Host Plant Linamarin and Lotaustralin on Tetranychus urticae (Mesostigmata: Tetranychidae) and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis (Prostigmata: Phytoseiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of linamarin and lotaustralin content in the leaves of Phaseolus lunatus L. on the second and third trophic levels was studied in Tetranychus urticae (Koch) and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Chemical analyzes showed that the content of linamarin was higher in termin...

  12. Abamectin is metabolized by CYP392A16, a cytochrome P450 associated with high levels of acaricide resistance in Tetranychus urticae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riga, M.; Tsakireli, D.; Ilias, A.; Morou, E.; Myridakis, A.; Stephanou, E.G.; Nauen, R.; Dermauw, W.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Paine, M.; Vontas, J.

    2014-01-01

    Abamectin is one of the most important insecticides worldwide. It is used against major agricultural pests and insects of public health importance, as well as against endoparasites in animal health. Abamectin has been used successfully for the control of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, a major

  13. The effects of prey patchiness, predator aggregation, and mutual interference on the functional response of Phytoseiulus persimilis feeding on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nachman, Gösta

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distributions of two-spotted spider mites Tetranychus urticae and their natural enemy, the phytoseiid predator Phytoseiulus persimilis, were studied on six full-grown cucumber plants. Both mite species were very patchily distributed and P. persimilis tended to aggregate on leaves...

  14. Sublethal effects of spirodiclofen, abamectin and pyridaben on life-history traits and life-table parameters of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Moosa; Ahmadi, Zeinab; Mahdavinia, Gholamreza

    2018-05-01

    Two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is one of the economically most important pests on a wide range of crops in greenhouses and orchards worldwide. Control of T. urticae has been largely based on the use of acaricides. Sublethal effects of spirodiclofen, pyridaben and abamectin were studied on life-table parameters of T. urticae females treated with the acaricides. LC 25 values of spirodiclofen, abamectin and pyridaben (3.84, 0.04 and 136.96 µg a.i./ml, respectively) were used for sublethal studies. All acaricides showed significant effects on T. urticae biological parameters including developmental time, survival rate, and fecundity. The females treated with spirodiclofen, abamectin and pyridaben at LC 25 exhibited significantly reduced net reproductive rate (R 0 ), finite rate of increase (λ) and intrinsic rate of increase (r). The intrinsic rate of increase in spirodiclofen, abamectin and pyridaben treated groups and control were 0.0138, 0.0273, 0.039 and 0.2481 female offspring per female per day, respectively. The results indicated that sublethal concentrations of tested pesticides strongly affected the life characteristics of spider mite and consequently may influence mite population growth in future generations.

  15. A horizontally transferred cyanase gene in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae is involved in cyanate metabolism and is differentially expressed upon host plant chang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wybouw, N.; Balabanidou, V.; Ballhorn, D.J.; Dermauw, W.; Grbić, M.; Vontas, J.; Van Leeuwen, T.

    2012-01-01

    The genome of the phytophagous two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae was recently sequenced, representing the first complete chelicerate genome, but also the first genome of a highly polyphagous agricultural pest. Genome analysis revealed the presence of an unexpected high number of cases of

  16. Functional responses and prey-stage preferences of a predatory gall midge and two predacious mites wtih twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae as host

    Science.gov (United States)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of vegetables and other crops. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the potential role of three commercially available predators, predatory gall midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) (Diptera: Ceci...

  17. Vitamin A deficiency modifies response of predatory mite Amblyseius potentillae to volatile kairomone of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.; Sabelis, M.W.; Groeneveld, A.

    1986-01-01

    volatile kairomone of the two-spotted spider mite,Tetranychus urticae, elicits a searching response of the phytoseiid predatorAmblyseius potentillae, only when the predator is reared on a carotenoid-free diet. However, after addition of crystalline betta-carotene or vitamin A acetate to the

  18. An analysis of potential resistance of the phytophagous mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae to four botanical pesticides

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    Attia, S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Synthetic acaricides have been widely used to manage Tetranychus urticae. Due to the excessive use of biocide and the associated problems of pesticide resistance and environmental pollution, there is an increasing demand for sustainable, environmentally-friendly control methods. Among the current alternative strategies aimed at decreasing the pest populations, the pesticides based on plant extracts are currently one of the most promising methods. Essential oils with acaricidal properties have been categorized as green pesticides because they are biodegradable and predominantly non-toxic to vertebrates. Objectives. With an aim to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides, they represent a promising approach for eco-chemical control of mites. Method. The aim of the present work was to analyze the risk of resistance emergence of T. urticae to repeated treatments with four plant extracts: Deverra scoparia Coss. & Durieu (Araliales: Apiaceae, Hertia cheirifolia (L. Kuntze (Asterales: Ateraceae, Santolina africana Jord. & Fourr. (Asterales: Asteraceae essential oils and garlic distillate Allium sativum L. (Asparagales: Alliaceae after 20 generations. Results. Repeated treatments with S. africana essential oil during 20 generations did not provoke an emergence of resistance while a low development of resistance was observed with H. cheirifolia, A. sativum and D. scoparia extracts. Conclusions. The efficacy of these extracts against the two spotted spider mite and their low development of resistance make them a promising use for pest management.

  19. Plant-herbivore interaction: dissection of the cellular pattern of Tetranychus urticae feeding on the host plant

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    Nicolas Bensoussan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, is one of the most polyphagous herbivores feeding on cell contents of over 1,100 plant species including more than 150 crops. It is being established as a model for chelicerate herbivores with tools that enable tracking of reciprocal responses in plant-spider mite interactions. However, despite their important pest status and a growing understanding of the molecular basis of interactions with plant hosts, knowledge of the way mites interface with the plant while feeding and the plant damage directly inflicted by mites is lacking. Here, utilizing histology and microscopy methods, we uncovered several key features of T. urticae feeding. By following the stylet path within the plant tissue, we determined that the stylet penetrates the leaf either in between epidermal pavement cells or through a stomatal opening, without damaging the epidermal cellular layer. Our recordings of mite feeding established that duration of the feeding event ranges from several minutes to more than half an hour, during which time mites consume a single mesophyll cell in a pattern that is common to both bean and Arabidopsis plant hosts. In addition, this study determined that leaf chlorotic spots, a common symptom of mite herbivory, do not form as an immediate consequence of mite feeding. Our results establish a cellular context for the plant-spider mite interaction that will support our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and cell signaling associated with spider mite feeding.

  20. Overexpression of HvIcy6 in Barley Enhances Resistance against Tetranychus urticae and Entails Partial Transcriptomic Reprogramming

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    M. Estrella Santamaria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cystatins have been largely used for pest control against phytophagous species. However, cystatins have not been commonly overexpressed in its cognate plant species to test their pesticide capacity. Since the inhibitory role of barley HvCPI-6 cystatin against the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae has been previously demonstrated, the purpose of our study was to determine if barley transgenic lines overexpressing its own HvIcy6 gene were more resistant against this phytophagous infestation. Besides, a transcriptomic analysis was done to find differential expressed genes among wild-type and transformed barley plants. Barley plants overexpressing HvIcy6 cystatin gene remained less susceptible to T. urticae attack when compared to wild-type plants, with a significant lesser foliar damaged area and a lower presence of the mite. Transcriptomic analysis revealed a certain reprogramming of cellular metabolism and a lower expression of several genes related to photosynthetic activity. Therefore, although caution should be taken to discard potential deleterious pleiotropic effects, cystatins may be used as transgenes with impact on agricultural crops by conferring enhanced levels of resistance to phytophagous pests.

  1. Egg hatching response to a range of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation doses for four predatory mites and the herbivorous spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koveos, Dimitrios S; Suzuki, Takeshi; Terzidou, Anastasia; Kokkari, Anastasia; Floros, George; Damos, Petros; Kouloussis, Nikos A

    2017-01-01

    Egg hatchability of four predatory mites-Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Iphiseius [Amblyseius] degenerans Berlese, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot, and Euseius finlandicus Oudemans (Acari: Phytoseiidae)-and the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) was determined under various UV-B doses either in constant darkness (DD) or with simultaneous irradiation using white light. Under UV-B irradiation and DD or simultaneous irradiation with white light, the predator's eggs hatched in significantly lower percentages than in the control non-exposed eggs, which indicates deleterious effects of UV-B on embryonic development. In addition, higher hatchability percentages were observed under UV-B irradiation and DD in eggs of the predatory mites than in eggs of T. urticae. This might be caused by a higher involvement of an antioxidant system, shield effects by pigments or a mere shorter duration of embryonic development in predatory mites than in T. urticae, thus avoiding accumulative effects of UV-B. Although no eggs of T. urticae hatched under UV-B irradiation and DD, variable hatchability percentages were observed under simultaneous irradiation with white light, which suggests the involvement of a photoreactivation system that reduces UV-B damages. Under the same doses with simultaneous irradiation with white light, eggs of T. urticae displayed higher photoreactivation and were more tolerant to UV-B than eggs of the predatory mites. Among predators variation regarding the tolerance to UV-B effects was observed, with eggs of P. persimilis and I. degenerans being more tolerant to UV-B radiation than eggs of A. swirskii and E. finlandicus.

  2. Interactions in a tritrophic acarine predator-prey metapopulation system V: within-plant dynamics of Phytoseiulus persimilis and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Gösta; Zemek, Rostislav

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the relative contributions of bottom-up (plant condition) and top-down (predatory mites) factors on the dynamics of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), a series of experiments were conducted in which spider mites and predatory mites were released on bean plants. Plants inoculated with 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 adult female T. urticae were either left untreated or were inoculated with 3 or 5 adult female predators (Phytoseiulus persimilis) one week after the introduction of spider mites. Plant area, densities of T. urticae and P. persimilis, and plant injury were assessed by weekly sampling. Data were analysed by a combination of statistical methods and a tri-trophic mechanistic simulation model partly parameterised from the current experiments and partly from previous data. The results showed a clear effect of predators on the density of spider mites and on the plant injury they cause. Plant injury increased with the initial number of spider mites and decreased with the initial number of predators. Extinction of T. urticae, followed by extinction of P. persimilis, was the most likely outcome for most initial combinations of prey and predators. Eggs constituted a relatively smaller part of the prey population as plant injury increased and of the predator population as prey density decreased. We did not find statistical evidence of P. persimilis having preference for feeding on T. urticae eggs. The simulation model demonstrated that bottom-up and top-down factors interact synergistically to reduce the density of spider mites. This may have important implications for biological control of spider mites by means of predatory mites.

  3. Pre-adult development of Phytoseiulus persimilis on diets of Tetranychus urticae and Tetranychus lintearius: implications for the biological control of Ulex europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jamie T; Ireson, John E; Allen, Geoff R

    2009-02-01

    Predation by the phytoseiid mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, is considered a major threat to the effectiveness of biological control of gorse, Ulex europaeus, using Tetranychus lintearius. To assess this threat and to determine if the impact of P. persimilis on T. lintearius populations is comparable to its impact on T. urticae populations, its development and predator : prey generation time ratios were assessed. The pre-adult mortality and development time of two populations of P. persimilis fed on two diets, T. urticae and T. lintearius, were determined at two temperatures, 14 and 24 degrees C. There were no significant differences in either mortality or development time between the two populations of P. persimilis at these temperatures. There is therefore no evidence that the two tested populations of P. persimilis are behaving as different strains. Similarly, diet had no significant effect on either mortality or development time at these temperatures. At 14 degrees C the mortality of P. persimilis was significantly higher and development was significantly longer than at 24 degrees C. Using pre-adult development as a surrogate for generation times, predator : prey generation time ratios were calculated between P. persimilis and both T. urticae and T. lintearius using data from this and other studies. The predator : prey generation time ratios between P. persimilis and T. lintearius were lower than those between P. persimilis and T. urticae. These results indicate that the impact of P. persimilis on T. lintearius populations is likely to be comparable to its impact on T. urticae populations. This provides further evidence that predation by P. persimilis is having a deleterious effect on T. lintearius populations and therefore reducing its effectiveness as a biological control agent for gorse.

  4. La pimienta de Jamaica [Pimenta dioica (L. Merrill, Myrtaceae] en la Sierra Norte de Puebla (México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macía Barco, Manuel Juan

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Pimenta dioica, allspice, is a neotropical Myrtaceae distributed in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean region. Its área of distribution in México ranges along East and Southeast parts of the country. The main use of its dried fruits is as spice, being sold in Mexican nacional markets as well as exported to Germany, the United States, Jamaica and Great Britain. Most of the harvest comes from trees growing wild in tropical forests, although lately there is a trend to domesticate and cultivate the plant. This paper describes the propagation, domestication, harvesting, processing, marketing and socioeconomic importance of allspice in the Sierra Norte de Puebla (México. The fieldwork has been focused on Totonaca indigenous communities from this area. In these communities, allspice has medicinal use, and is used as a condiment for food; other technological and cultural uses have been also recorded. A historical monograph from Casimiro Gómez Ortega is reviewed. It includes information of the history, botany, cultivation and commerce of allspice.Pimenta dioica es una miliacea neotropical de distribución mesoamericana y caribeña. En México vive hacia el este y sudeste. Sus frutos secos se utilizan como condimento, y se trata de un producto del mercado nacional mexicano que también se exporta a Alemania, Estados Unidos, Jamaica y Reino Unido. Aunque la mayoría de la cosecha proviene de la recolección de los frutos en árboles silvestres del bosque tropical, últimamente se tiende a cultivar esta especie en un proceso actual de domesticación. Se exponen datos sobre propagación, domesticación, cosecha, procesado, mercado e importancia socioeconómica de la pimienta de Jamaica en la Sierra Norte de Puebla (México, a partir de los datos de campo obtenidos principalmente en una comunidad indígena totonaca, en donde se usa como medicinal, en alimentación y en tecnología. Además se reseña una obra de carácter histórico sobre la pimienta de G

  5. Light contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda Pena, William Enrique

    1998-01-01

    The article tries on the wrong use of the artificial light, of the main problems of the light contamination, dispersion of the light, noxious effects of the light contamination, ecological effects, effects on the man's biological rhythm, economic effects and effects about the civic and vial security, among other topics

  6. Alternating temperatures affect life table parameters of Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and their prey Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangansbeke, Dominiek; De Schrijver, Lien; Spranghers, Thomas; Audenaert, Joachim; Verhoeven, Ruth; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Gobin, Bruno; Tirry, Luc; De Clercq, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Increasing energy costs force glasshouse growers to switch to energy saving strategies. In the temperature integration approach, considerable daily temperature variations are allowed, which not only have an important influence on plant growth but also on the development rate of arthropods in the crop. Therefore, we examined the influence of two constant temperature regimes (15 °C/15 °C and 20 °C/20 °C) and one alternating temperature regime (20 °C/5 °C, with an average of 15 °C) on life table parameters of Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus and their target pest, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae at a 16:8 (L:D) h photoperiod and 65 ± 5 % RH. For females of both predatory mites the alternating temperature regime resulted in a 25-30 % shorter developmental time as compared to the corresponding mean constant temperature regime of 15 °C/15 °C. The immature development of female spider mites was prolonged for 7 days at 15 °C/15 °C as compared to 20 °C/5 °C. With a daytime temperature of 20 °C, no differences in lifetime fecundity were observed between a nighttime temperature of 20 and 5 °C for P. persimilis and T. urticae. The two latter species did show a higher lifetime fecundity at 20 °C/5 °C than at 15 °C/15 °C, and their daily fecundity at the alternating regime was about 30 % higher than at the corresponding mean constant temperature. P. persimilis and T. urticae showed no differences in sex ratio between the three temperature regimes, whereas the proportion of N. californicus females at 15 °C/15 °C (54.2 %) was significantly lower than that at 20 °C/5 °C (69.4 %) and 20 °C/20 °C (67.2 %). Intrinsic rates of increase were higher at the alternating temperature than at the corresponding mean constant temperature for both pest and predators. Our results indicate that thermal responses of the studied phytoseiid predators to alternating temperature regimes used in energy saving strategies in glasshouse crops may

  7. Particle shape impacts export and fate in the ocean through interactions with the globally abundant appendicularian Oikopleura dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Keats R; Sutherland, Kelly R

    2017-01-01

    Marine microbes exhibit highly varied, often non-spherical shapes that have functional significance for essential processes, including nutrient acquisition and sinking rates. There is a surprising absence of data, however, on how cell shape affects grazing, which is crucial for predicting the fate of oceanic carbon. We used synthetic spherical and prolate spheroid microbeads to isolate the effect of particle length-to-width ratios on grazing and fate in the ocean. Here we show that the shape of microbe-sized particles affects predation by the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica, a globally abundant marine grazer. Using incubation experiments, we demonstrate that shape affects how particles are retained in the house and that the minimum particle diameter is the key variable determining how particles are ingested. High-speed videography revealed the mechanism behind these results: microbe-sized spheroids oriented with the long axis parallel to fluid streamlines, matching the speed and tortuosity of spheres of equivalent width. Our results suggest that the minimum particle diameter determines how elongated prey interact with the feeding-filters of appendicularians, which may help to explain the prevalence of ellipsoidal cells in the ocean, since a cell's increased surface-to-volume ratio does not always increase predation. We provide the first evidence that grazing by appendicularians can cause non-uniform export of different shaped particles, thereby influencing particle fate.

  8. A preliminary report on the genetic variation in pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) as assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, S; Biswas, A; Bandyopadhyay, T K; Ghosh, P D

    2014-06-01

    Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is an economically important cucurbit and is extensively propagated through vegetative means, viz vine and root cuttings. As the accessions are poorly characterized it is important at the beginning of a breeding programme to discriminate among available genotypes to establish the level of genetic diversity. The genetic diversity of 10 pointed gourd races, referred to as accessions was evaluated. DNA profiling was generated using 10 sequence independent RAPD markers. A total of 58 scorable loci were observed out of which 18 (31.03%) loci were considered polymorphic. Genetic diversity parameters [average and effective number of alleles, Shannon's index, percent polymorphism, Nei's gene diversity, polymorphic information content (PIC)] for RAPD along with UPGMA clustering based on Jaccard's coefficient were estimated. The UPGMA dendogram constructed based on RAPD analysis in 10 pointed gourd accessions were found to be grouped in a single cluster and may represent members of one heterotic group. RAPD analysis showed promise as an effective tool in estimating genetic polymorphism in different accessions of pointed gourd.

  9. Flavonoids from Annona dioica leaves and their effects in Ehrlich carcinoma cells, DNA-topoisomerase I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Maria R.G.; Esteves-Souza, Andressa; Echevarria, Aurea; Vieira, Ivo J.C.; Mathias, Leda; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2007-01-01

    Chemical investigation of methanol extract leaves from Annona dioica (Annonaceae) resulted in the identification of flavonoids kaempferol (1), 3-O-[3'',6''-di-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl]-β- galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (2), 6''-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl-β-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (3) and 3-O-β-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (4). The structures were unequivocally characterized by 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D experiments. The cytotoxic effects of the flavonoids and flavonoid fraction (FF) were evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay against Ehrlich carcinoma cells. The results indicated that 1, 2, 3 and FF exhibit significant antiproliferative action when compared to quercetin. The inhibitory action on DNA-topoisomerase I and II of all the flavonoids was evaluated by relaxation assays on pBR322 plasmid DNA. The results indicated the inhibitory and non-selective effects of the flavonoids on DNA-topoisomerase I and II. (author)

  10. Flavonoids from Annona dioica leaves and their effects in Ehrlich carcinoma cells, DNA-topoisomerase I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Maria R.G.; Esteves-Souza, Andressa; Echevarria, Aurea [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: echevarr@ufrrj.br; Vieira, Ivo J.C.; Mathias, Leda; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2007-07-01

    Chemical investigation of methanol extract leaves from Annona dioica (Annonaceae) resulted in the identification of flavonoids kaempferol (1), 3-O-[3'',6''-di-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl]-{beta}- galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (2), 6''-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (3) and 3-O-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (4). The structures were unequivocally characterized by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D experiments. The cytotoxic effects of the flavonoids and flavonoid fraction (FF) were evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay against Ehrlich carcinoma cells. The results indicated that 1, 2, 3 and FF exhibit significant antiproliferative action when compared to quercetin. The inhibitory action on DNA-topoisomerase I and II of all the flavonoids was evaluated by relaxation assays on pBR322 plasmid DNA. The results indicated the inhibitory and non-selective effects of the flavonoids on DNA-topoisomerase I and II. (author)

  11. Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Training & Education Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Water Contamination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ...

  12. An improved micropropagation system, ex vitro rooting and validation of genetic homogeneity in wild female Momordica dioica: an underutilized nutraceutical vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sumitra Kumari; Patel, Ashok Kumar; Harish; Shekhawat, Smita; Shekhawat, Narpat S

    2017-07-01

    Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd., is a perennial and dioecious (2n = 28) plant of family Cucurbitaceae. Conventional methods of propagation through seeds, stem cuttings and rhizomatous/tuberous roots are inadequate for its mass cultivation as a vegetable crop. This paper reports an improved and efficient micropropagation method for wild female M. dioica using nodal explants. Shoot amplification was achieved using subculturing of in vitro raised shoots on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) alone or in combination with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The maximum number of shoots (45.30 ± 3.83) with an average length 6.52 ± 0.89 cm were differentiated on MS medium containing 0.5 mg L -1 BAP, 0.1 mg L -1 IAA and additives (50 mg L -1 ascorbic acid, 25 mg L -1 each of adenine sulphate, citric acid and l-arginine). The cloned shoots were rooted ex vitro. Each shoot treated with 250 mg L -1 IBA for 5 min produced 12.3 ± 1.33 with a mean length 5.4 ± 0.73 cm. More than 85% (46 plants) of ex vitro rooted plantlets were successfully hardened in a greenhouse with normal growth characteristics. In order to evaluate the genetic stability of micropropagated plants, the two PCR-based techniques, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) were used. The amplification patterns of the micropropagated and mother plant were monomorphic thus depicting genetic stability of the micropropagation system. This protocol could be effectively employed for the mass multiplication of wild female M. dioica , a popular summer vegetable crop.

  13. Mating competitiveness and the effect of X-rays and aging on males of Tetranychus urticae (Acarina, Tetranychidae) in relation to genetic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Males of Tetranychus urticae Koch were irradiated with X-ray doses of 4, 8, 24 and 32 krad (which were applied to 0-1 day-old adult virgin males) and tested in mating competition with one-day-old non-irradiated males. A non-significant excess of parental females were mated to the unirradiated males. This consistent trend in favour of females, mated with unirradiated males was highly significant, when the results of all the experiments were bulked. This indicated that radiation impaired the mating competitiveness of males of T. urticae. Aging of irradiated males resulted in a significant decrease of male-mating competitiveness at least within 2 days after irradiation. When 24 krad X-rays irradiated males were tested in mating competition at different ages, with unirradiated males of equal age, it was demonstrated that the reduction in mating competitiveness of aging irradiated males is caused by accelerated aging due to the irradiation treatment

  14. Environmental Assessment Tent City at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-15

    animals such as sponges, flatworms, nematode worms, segmented worms, snails, clams, and immature and adult insects , fish, amphibians, turtles, and... nettle (Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), beggars’ ticks (Bidens frondosa), and waterleaf (Hydrophyllum viginianum) are

  15. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... possess antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals in vivo. ..... H., Sahu, A. & Bora, U. (2008) Indian medicinal herbs as sources of antioxidants. ... analgesic activities of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) Journal of Ethnopharmacology ...

  16. Prey Preference of the Predatory Mite, Amblyseius swirskii between First Instar Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Nymphs of the Twospotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xuenong; Enkegaard, Annie

    2010-01-01

    The prey preference of polyphagous predators plays an important role in suppressing different species of pest insects. In this study the prey preference of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined between nymphs of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and first instar larvae of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), as well as between active and chrysa...

  17. A Laboratory Assessment of Two Local Strains of the Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. against the Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Their Potential as a Mycopesticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algur, Omer Faruk

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess highly pathogenic Beauveria bassiana isolates to be used in biocontrol and to determine their potentials as mycopesticide. For this purpose, two B. bassiana isolates, which were locally isolated from T. urticae, were chosen. Firstly, three suspensions were investigated at the degree of humidity of 65 ± 5% and 100% RH. Secondly, these strains were selected according to their tendency to mass production, tolerance to UV radiation, and capability of producing spore at the different temperatures. Finally, identification of the selected isolate was performed by using ITS rDNA analysis. Both tested fungal isolates were pathogenic to the T. urticae. Mycelial growths of isolate AT076 at 20°C and 30°C were found to be greater than isolate AT007. It was observed that isolate AT076 had more spore production with 1.61 × 107 spore/disc at 30°C and 44.33% germination after UV radiation for 15 min. The numbers of spores per 5 mm disk area for isolates AT076 and AT007 were found to be 1.2 × 106 and 1.0 × 106. These results show that isolate AT076 was more virulent and more UV-tolerant and had higher tendency to mass production compared to isolate AT007 against T. urticae. As a result of this study, isolate AT076 can be used in the biocontrol as mycopesticide. PMID:29250446

  18. A Laboratory Assessment of Two Local Strains of the Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. against the Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae and Their Potential as a Mycopesticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Ortucu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess highly pathogenic Beauveria bassiana isolates to be used in biocontrol and to determine their potentials as mycopesticide. For this purpose, two B. bassiana isolates, which were locally isolated from T. urticae, were chosen. Firstly, three suspensions were investigated at the degree of humidity of 65 ± 5% and 100% RH. Secondly, these strains were selected according to their tendency to mass production, tolerance to UV radiation, and capability of producing spore at the different temperatures. Finally, identification of the selected isolate was performed by using ITS rDNA analysis. Both tested fungal isolates were pathogenic to the T. urticae. Mycelial growths of isolate AT076 at 20°C and 30°C were found to be greater than isolate AT007. It was observed that isolate AT076 had more spore production with 1.61 × 107 spore/disc at 30°C and 44.33% germination after UV radiation for 15 min. The numbers of spores per 5 mm disk area for isolates AT076 and AT007 were found to be 1.2 × 106 and 1.0 × 106. These results show that isolate AT076 was more virulent and more UV-tolerant and had higher tendency to mass production compared to isolate AT007 against T. urticae. As a result of this study, isolate AT076 can be used in the biocontrol as mycopesticide.

  19. A Gene Family Coding for Salivary Proteins (SHOT) of the Polyphagous Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae Exhibits Fast Host-Dependent Transcriptional Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, Wim; Dermauw, Wannes; Khalighi, Mousaalreza; Pavlidi, Nena; Reubens, Wim; Baggerman, Geert; Tirry, Luc; Menschaert, Gerben; Kant, Merijn R; Vanholme, Bartel; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The salivary protein repertoire released by the herbivorous pest Tetranychus urticae is assumed to hold keys to its success on diverse crops. We report on a spider mite-specific protein family that is expanded in T. urticae. The encoding genes have an expression pattern restricted to the anterior podocephalic glands, while peptide fragments were found in the T. urticae secretome, supporting the salivary nature of these proteins. As peptide fragments were identified in a host-dependent manner, we designated this family as the SHOT (secreted host-responsive protein of Tetranychidae) family. The proteins were divided in three groups based on sequence similarity. Unlike TuSHOT3 genes, TuSHOT1 and TuSHOT2 genes were highly expressed when feeding on a subset of family Fabaceae, while expression was depleted on other hosts. TuSHOT1 and TuSHOT2 expression was induced within 24 h after certain host transfers, pointing toward transcriptional plasticity rather than selection as the cause. Transfer from an 'inducer' to a 'noninducer' plant was associated with slow yet strong downregulation of TuSHOT1 and TuSHOT2, occurring over generations rather than hours. This asymmetric on and off regulation points toward host-specific effects of SHOT proteins, which is further supported by the diversity of SHOT genes identified in Tetranychidae with a distinct host repertoire.

  20. Conservation and divergence of chemical defense system in the tunicate Oikopleura dioica revealed by genome wide response to two xenobiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadetie Fekadu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animals have developed extensive mechanisms of response to xenobiotic chemical attacks. Although recent genome surveys have suggested a broad conservation of the chemical defensome across metazoans, global gene expression responses to xenobiotics have not been well investigated in most invertebrates. Here, we performed genome survey for key defensome genes in Oikopleura dioica genome, and explored genome-wide gene expression using high density tiling arrays with over 2 million probes, in response to two model xenobiotic chemicals - the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene (BaP the pharmaceutical compound Clofibrate (Clo. Results Oikopleura genome surveys for key genes of the chemical defensome suggested a reduced repertoire. Not more than 23 cytochrome P450 (CYP genes could be identified, and neither CYP1 family genes nor their transcriptional activator AhR was detected. These two genes were present in deuterostome ancestors. As in vertebrates, the genotoxic compound BaP induced xenobiotic biotransformation and oxidative stress responsive genes. Notable exceptions were genes of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR signaling pathway. Clo also affected the expression of many biotransformation genes and markedly repressed genes involved in energy metabolism and muscle contraction pathways. Conclusions Oikopleura has the smallest number of CYP genes among sequenced animal genomes and lacks the AhR signaling pathway. However it appears to have basic xenobiotic inducible biotransformation genes such as a conserved genotoxic stress response gene set. Our genome survey and expression study does not support a role of AhR signaling pathway in the chemical defense of metazoans prior to the emergence of vertebrates.

  1. Substitution rates in the X- and Y-linked genes of the plants, Silene latifolia and S. dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, Dmitry A; Charlesworth, Deborah

    2002-06-01

    Theory predicts that selection should be less effective in the nonrecombining genes of Y-chromosomes, relative to the situation for genes on the other chromosomes, and this should lead to the accumulation of deleterious nonsynonymous substitutions. In addition, synonymous substitution rates may differ between X- and Y-linked genes because of the male-driven evolution effect and also because of actual differences in per-replication mutation rates between the sex chromosomes. Here, we report the first study of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates on plant sex chromosomes. We sequenced two pairs of sex-linked genes, SlX1-SlY1 and SlX4-SlY4, from dioecious Silene latifolia and S. dioica, and their non-sex-linked homologues from nondioecious S. vulgaris and Lychnis flos-jovis, respectively. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions in the SlY4 gene is significantly higher than that in the SlX4 gene. Silent substitution rates are also significantly higher in both Y-linked genes, compared with their X-linked homologues. The higher nonsynonymous substitution rate in the SlY4 gene is therefore likely to be caused by a mutation rate difference between the sex chromosomes. The difference in silent substitution rates between the SlX4 and SlY4 genes is too great to be explained solely by a higher per-generation mutation rate in males than females. It is thus probably caused by a difference in per-replication mutation rates between the sex chromosomes. This suggests that the local mutation rate can change in a relatively short evolutionary time.

  2. Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum, Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Velazquez, Moises; Castillo-Herrera, Gustavo Adolfo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Lopez-Ramirez, Julisa; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia del Carmen

    2011-02-01

    Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), allspice berries (Pimenta dioica) and basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were tested on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick larvae using the LPT. Two-fold dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting dilution of 20% down to 1.25%. Results showed a high toxicological effect for cumin, producing 100% mortality in all tested concentrations on R. microplus larvae. Similarly, allspice essential oil produced 100% mortality at all concentrations with the exception of a dramatic decrease at 1.25% concentration. Conversely, basil essential oil was not shown to be toxic against R. microplus larvae. The most common compounds detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were as follows: cumin: cuminaldehyde (22.03%), γ-terpinene (15.69%) and 2-caren-10-al (12.89%); allspice: methyl eugenol (62.7%) and eugenol (8.3%); basil: linalool (30.61%) and estragole (20.04%). Results clearly indicate that C. cyminum and P. dioica essential oils can be used as an effective alternative for R. microplus tick control, and there is a high probability they can be used for other ticks affecting cattle in Mexico and throughout the world, thereby reducing the necessity for traditional and unfriendly synthetic acaricides.

  3. Contamination shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, W.; Pecornik, D.

    1982-01-01

    An acrylate resin is presented as contamination protection coating for components and instruments in nuclear facilities and for spent fuel transport containers. The resin is evaporated or sublimated at 130 0 C and can thus be removed easily from the protected component. The radioactive particles entrained during evaporation are retained by suitable filters. (TK) [de

  4. Cotton contamination

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Sluijs, MHJ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This review focusses on physical forms of contaminant including the presence, prevention and/or removal of foreign bodies, stickiness and seed-coat fragments rather than the type and quantity of chemical residues that might be present in cotton...

  5. Effect of gamma radiation on the toxicity of milbemectin and chlorfenapyr in acaricide resistant and susceptible strains of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicastro, Roberto L.; Arthur, Valter; Machi, Andre R.; Sato, Mario E.

    2011-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is considered one of the most important phytophagous mites, causing considerable damage in several agricultural crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on the toxicity of the acaricides milbemectin and chlorfenapyr in resistant and susceptible strains of T. urticae. The R and S strains for milbemectin and chlorfenapyr were irradiated with gamma radiation at Gamma cell-220 source at doses of 5, 10, 20, 40 e 80 Gy. Five concentrations of milbemectin and chlorfenapyr were evaluated, making applications 24 hours after irradiation. Mites of the controls were sprayed with the same acaricide concentrations used for the R and S strains but they were not exposed to gamma radiation. Experiments on the effects of gamma radiation on the growth rates of mites for acaricide resistant and susceptible strains of T. urticae were also carried out. Tests with the Milbemectin S strain showed an increased susceptibility to the acaricide milbemectin, when the mites were irradiated (20 Gy), in comparison with the control (non irradiated mites). For the Milbemectin R strain, there was no significant influence of gamma irradiation on the toxicity of milbemectin to the mites of this strain. For the Chlorfenapyr S strain, the effect of gamma radiation was similar to that observed for Milbemectin S strain, with increased toxicity of chlorfenapyr to the mites of this susceptible strain. In the case of the Chlorfenapyr R strain, the mites exposed to gamma radiation showed to be more tolerant to chlorfenapyr, considering the LC 10 values. The same trend was observed for the LC 50 values, however, there was no significant difference with the control. The experiments showed that doses of 200 and 300 Gy eliminated the mite populations of acaricide resistant and susceptible strains of T. urticae, in a period of ten days. The dose of 100 Gy did not lead to total elimination of the mite populations, but reduced significantly

  6. Effect of gamma radiation on the toxicity of milbemectin and chlorfenapyr in acaricide resistant and susceptible strains of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicastro, Roberto L.; Arthur, Valter; Machi, Andre R., E-mail: rnicastro@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Ambiente (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Sato, Mario E., E-mail: mesato@biologico.sp.gov.br [Laboratorio de Acarologia, Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is considered one of the most important phytophagous mites, causing considerable damage in several agricultural crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on the toxicity of the acaricides milbemectin and chlorfenapyr in resistant and susceptible strains of T. urticae. The R and S strains for milbemectin and chlorfenapyr were irradiated with gamma radiation at Gamma cell-220 source at doses of 5, 10, 20, 40 e 80 Gy. Five concentrations of milbemectin and chlorfenapyr were evaluated, making applications 24 hours after irradiation. Mites of the controls were sprayed with the same acaricide concentrations used for the R and S strains but they were not exposed to gamma radiation. Experiments on the effects of gamma radiation on the growth rates of mites for acaricide resistant and susceptible strains of T. urticae were also carried out. Tests with the Milbemectin S strain showed an increased susceptibility to the acaricide milbemectin, when the mites were irradiated (20 Gy), in comparison with the control (non irradiated mites). For the Milbemectin R strain, there was no significant influence of gamma irradiation on the toxicity of milbemectin to the mites of this strain. For the Chlorfenapyr S strain, the effect of gamma radiation was similar to that observed for Milbemectin S strain, with increased toxicity of chlorfenapyr to the mites of this susceptible strain. In the case of the Chlorfenapyr R strain, the mites exposed to gamma radiation showed to be more tolerant to chlorfenapyr, considering the LC{sub 10} values. The same trend was observed for the LC{sub 50} values, however, there was no significant difference with the control. The experiments showed that doses of 200 and 300 Gy eliminated the mite populations of acaricide resistant and susceptible strains of T. urticae, in a period of ten days. The dose of 100 Gy did not lead to total elimination of the mite populations, but reduced

  7. Efeito alelopático de frutos de umbu (Phytolacca dioica L. sobre a germinação e crescimento inicial de alface e picão-preto Allelopathic effects of fruits of Phytolacca dioica L. on the germination and early growth of lettuce and beggartick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Borella

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As plantas produzem substâncias por meio do metabolismo secundário. Quando liberadas no meio ambiente são capazes de interferir na germinação e no desenvolvimento de outras plantas. Objetivou-se, nesta pesquisa investigar os efeitos alelopáticos de umbu (Phytolacca dioica L. sobre a germinação e o crescimento inicial de alface e picão-preto, em laboratório, utilizando-se extratos aquosos de frutos de umbu nas concentrações 0, 1, 2, 4 e 8%; foi realizada análise fitoquímica dos frutos e testes de pH e potencial osmótico dos extratos de frutos. Analisaram-se, para a germinação os parâmetros: porcentagem de germinação (PG, velocidade de germinação (VG e índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG; para o crescimento inicial analisaram-se os parâmetros: comprimento (radicular e da parte aérea e biomassa (fresca e seca das plântulas de alface e picão-preto. Os dados foram submetidos ao teste de Tukey, a 1% de probabilidade. Os parâmetros PG, VG e IVG foram alterados significativamente, proporcionais ao aumento da concentração dos extratos de frutos do umbu. O comprimento (radicular e da parte aérea e a biomassa (fresca e seca das plântulas de alface e picão-preto foram reduzidos significativamente com o aumento da concentração dos extratos aquosos de frutos de umbu. O pH e potencial osmótico dos extratos mantiveram-se dentro de padrões adequados e a análise fitoquímica revelou a presença de flavonoides. Pelos resultados os frutos de umbu apresentaram-se com efeito alelopático sobre a alface e o picão-preto.Plants produce substances through secondary metabolism. When these chemicals are released into the environment they can interfere in the germination and development of other plants. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of allelopathic Phytolacca dioica L. on the germination and early growth of lettuce and beggartick, under laboratory conditions, using aqueous extracts of fruits of

  8. Phragmites Management at Times Beach, Buffalo, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    nettle Urtica dioica L. ssp dioica N RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Baseline data collected in summer 2012 was used to characterize the site (Table 3...because eighty percent of phragmites biomass is produced underground in the roots and rhizomes (Holm et al. 1977), and rhizomes can live for three to six

  9. Meta-transcriptomics indicates biotic cross-tolerance in willow trees cultivated on petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Emmanuel; Brereton, Nicholas J B; Marleau, Julie; Guidi Nissim, Werther; Labrecque, Michel; Pitre, Frederic E; Joly, Simon

    2015-10-12

    High concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) pollution can be hazardous to human health and leave soils incapable of supporting agricultural crops. A cheap solution, which can help restore biodiversity and bring land back to productivity, is cultivation of high biomass yielding willow trees. However, the genetic mechanisms which allow these fast-growing trees to tolerate PHCs are as yet unclear. Salix purpurea 'Fish Creek' trees were pot-grown in soil from a former petroleum refinery, either lacking or enriched with C10-C50 PHCs. De novo assembled transcriptomes were compared between tree organs and impartially annotated without a priori constraint to any organism. Over 45% of differentially expressed genes originated from foreign organisms, the majority from the two-spotted spidermite, Tetranychus urticae. Over 99% of T. urticae transcripts were differentially expressed with greater abundance in non-contaminated trees. Plant transcripts involved in the polypropanoid pathway, including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), had greater expression in contaminated trees whereas most resistance genes showed higher expression in non-contaminated trees. The impartial approach to annotation of the de novo transcriptomes, allowing for the possibility for multiple species identification, was essential for interpretation of the crop's response treatment. The meta-transcriptomic pattern of expression suggests a cross-tolerance mechanism whereby abiotic stress resistance systems provide improved biotic resistance. These findings highlight a valuable but complex biotic and abiotic stress response to real-world, multidimensional contamination which could, in part, help explain why crops such as willow can produce uniquely high biomass yields on challenging marginal land.

  10. Ocorrência de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari, Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acari, Tetranychidae e Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks (Acari, Tarsonemidae sobre folhas de Ipomoea cairica (Linnaeus Sweet (Solanales, Convolvulaceae Occurrence of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari, Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acari, Tetranychidae and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks (Acari, Tarsonemidae on leaves of I. cairica (Linnaeus Sweet (Solanales, Convolvulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozana M. de A. Maia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de três espécies acarinas fitófagas é relatada pela primeira vez sobre folhas de Ipomoea cairica. As espécies Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, Tetranychus urticae (Koch e Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, foram coletadas sobre folhas de I. cairica nas imediações da Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil, em 20 de janeiro de 2005.The first occurrence of three phytophagus mites on Ipomoea cairica, is reported. The species Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, Tetranychus urticae (Koch and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks were caught on leaves of I. cairica, around Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, in January 20th, 2005.

  11. Plant species modifies the functional response of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae): implications for biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirvin, D J; Fenlon, J S

    2001-02-01

    The functional response of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot to eggs of its prey, the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch was examined on three plant species. Experiments were done to determine whether differences in the functional response on the three plant species were due to the morphological features of the crop directly on the predator or through an effect of the plant species on the prey. The results show that crop morphology is the only factor influencing the predatory ability of P. persimilis on the three plant species. Fewer eggs were eaten on Ceanothus thyrsiflorus var. 'Autumnal Blue', the plant species with hairy leaves, and greater numbers of prey consumed on Choisya ternata, a species with smooth leaves. However, similarly few eggs were eaten on the smooth, but waxy leaved Euonymus japonicus as on Ceanothus thyrsiflorus, demonstrating that morphological characters of leaves other than the possession of hairs and trichomes may affect the rates of predation. The implications of these results for the tritrophic interactions between plant, predator and prey, and the development of suitable biological control strategies are discussed.

  12. Aberrations of holokinetic chromosomes and associated lethality after X-irradiation of meiotic stages in Tetranychus urticae Koch (acari, tetranychidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempelaar, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Chromosomes of the holokinetic organization type were irradiated with X-rays in various stages of meiosis in unfertillized eggs of Tetranychus urticae Koch. Visible cytological aberrations, lethality and sterility were investigated in subsequent generations. Chromosome fragments are the most frequently occuring light-microscopically visible chromosome aberrations; bridges are not formed. Contrary to expectations, the presence of fragments appears to be positively correlated with the occurrence of lethality; loss of fragments, missegregation and the measure of damage of the broken chromosome parts are involved. In contrast with monokinetic chromosomes the earliest lethality occurs only after about 10 divisions. The ratios between different embryonic lethality types (early vs. late) differ depending on the stage irradiated: in more compact chromatin, more serious damage (i.e. more early lethality syndromes) is induced than in less compact chromatin. In the progeny of the surviving males, neither translocations nor independent fragments are found; indirect evidence indicated the occasional presence of inversions. The presumtive inversions are induced more frequently in a chromatin-compact stage (metaphase I) than in a less compact one (telophase I). (Auth.)

  13. Investigations on the Effects of Five Different Plant Extracts on the Two-Spotted Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Arachnida: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervin Erdogan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Arac.: Tetranychidae, is an economic pest worldwide including Turkey, causing serious damage to vegetables, flowers, and fruit crops. In recent years, broad-spectrum insecticides/miticides have been used to control this pest in Turkey. Control is difficult mainly due to resistance to conventional pesticides. This study was conducted to determine efficacy of pesticides extracted from five different plants [i.e., Allium sativum L. (Amaryllidaceae, Rhododendron luteum S. (Ericaceae, Helichrysum arenarium L. (Asteraceae, Veratrum album L. (Liliaceae, and Tanacetum parthenium L. (Asteraceae] against this mite. Bioassays were tested by two different methods to determine the effects of varying concentrations. Experiments were performed using 3 cm diameter leaf disk from unsprayed bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. In addition, the effects of the extracts on reproduction and oviposition were investigated. The extract yielded high mortality. In the lowest-concentration bioassays, the adult mites laid lower numbers of eggs compared to the untreated control. No ovicidal effect was observed.

  14. Essential oil composition and acaricidal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius from Atlantic Forest of Pernambuco, Brazil against Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Aline Fonseca; da Camara, Claudio Augusto Gomes; de Moraes, Marcílio Martins; Ramos, Clécio Souza

    2012-01-01

    The compositions of the essential oils from unripe (UFr) and ripe (RFr) fruits of Schinus terebinthifolius were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The major compound identified in both oils was limonene (UFr = 44.1 +/- 1.3%; RFr = 31.8 +/- 1.2%), followed by alpha-phellandrene (15.7 +/- 0.4%) in the UFr oil and thujene (21.7 +/- 0.9%) in the RFr oil. Repellent and toxicity activities of the two oils were also evaluated, and the results compared with eugenol. The UFr oil was more active in the fumigation tests (LC50 = 1.46 microL/L of air), whereas the RFr oil was more active in the sealed dishes (SD) than open dishes (OD) contact assay (LC50 = 3.04 microL/cm2) and not significantly different from eugenol. Both oils exhibited significant repellent activity comparable with that of eugenol. The results suggest that the repellent activity of these oils in association with its toxicity could be a great advantage for the integrated management of T. urticae.

  15. Notes on some species of Ascochyta (Coelomycetes new and rare for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kozłowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Three species of Ascochyta (conidial fungi, Coelomycetes are described in the paper. Ascochyta urticae A. L. Smith et Ramsbottom (on Urtica dioica L. and Ascochyta phomoides Saccardo (on Aegopodium podagraria L. are species new for Poland. Ascochyta podagrariae Bresadola (on A. podagraria L. is known from one locality only. All species are rarely noted in the world.

  16. Contamination Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the total organic carbon content in water is important in assessing contamination levels in high purity water for power generation, pharmaceutical production and electronics manufacture. Even trace levels of organic compounds can cause defects in manufactured products. The Sievers Model 800 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, based on technology developed for the Space Station, uses a strong chemical oxidizing agent and ultraviolet light to convert organic compounds in water to carbon dioxide. After ionizing the carbon dioxide, the amount of ions is determined by measuring the conductivity of the deionized water. The new technique is highly sensitive, does not require compressed gas, and maintenance is minimal.

  17. The responses of cucumber plants subjected to different salinity or fertilizer concentrations and reproductive success of Tetranychus urticae mites on these plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayari, Samira; Abedini, Fatemeh; Renault, David

    2018-05-01

    The plant stress hypothesis posits that a herbivore's reproductive success increases when it feeds on stressed plants, while the plant vigor hypothesis predicts that a herbivore preferentially feeds on more vigorous plants. We examined these opposing hypotheses by growing spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) on the leaves of stressed and healthy (vigorous) cucumber plants. Host plants were grown under controlled conditions at low, moderate, and high concentrations of NaCl (to induce salinity stress), at low, moderate, and high fertilizer concentrations (to support growth), and without these additions (control). The effects of these treatments were evaluated by measuring fresh and dry plant biomass, carotenoid and chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activity, and concentrations of PO 4 3- , K + , and Na + in plant tissues. The addition of low concentrations of fertilizer increased dry mass, protein, and carotenoid content relative to controls, suggesting a beneficial effect on plants. The highest NaCl treatment (2560 mg L -1 ) resulted in increased Na + and protein content relative to control plants, as well as reduced PO 4 3- , K + , and chlorophyll levels and reduced catalase and ascorbate peroxidase enzyme activity levels. Analysis of life table data of T. urticae mites raised on leaves from the aforementioned plant groups showed the intrinsic rate of increase (r) for mites was 0.167 day -1 in control specimens, 0.125 day -1 for mites reared on plants treated with a moderate concentration of fertilizer (10 mL L -1 ), and was highest (0.241 day -1 ) on plants grown under moderate salinity conditions (1920 mg L -1 NaCl). Reproductive success of T. urticae did not differ on plants watered with a moderate concentration of NaCl or a high concentration of fertilizer. The moderately-stressed plants formed a favorable environment for the development and reproduction of spider mites, supporting the plant stress hypothesis.

  18. Efficacy of Nanoencapsulated Thymus eriocalyx and Thymus kotschyanus Essential Oils by a Mesoporous Material MCM-41 Against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadollahi, Asgar; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Aliakbar, Alireza

    2017-12-05

    Inspite of well-established potentiality of plant essential oils as biopesticides, their environmentally low persistence is considered as a hindering obstacle for its commercialization. In the present study, chemical composition and toxicity of essential oils isolated from leaves of Thymus eriocalyx and Thymus kotschyanus were evaluated against two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. The chemicals present in the crude oil were found to be thymol (28.83%), oleic acid (11.51%), palmitic acid (8.60%), borneol (5.72%), ρ-cymene (3.60%), and 1,8-cineole (3.57%) in the essential oil of T. eriocalyx, and camphene (35.59%), linalyl acetate (20.47%), linalool (14.75%), α-terpineol (13.87%), and geranyl acetate (3.07%) in the essential oil of T. kotschyanus. The essential oils had strong fumigant toxicity on the adult females of Te. urticae and their fumigation persistence was prolonged until 6 and 5 d, respectively, for T. eriocalyx and T. kotschyanus. Loading of essential oils in MCM-41 increased their stability and persistence was extended up to 20 and 18 d for T. eriocalyx and T. kotschyanus. Further, mite mortality increased from 80 to 203 mites by T. eriocalyx and from 58 to 186 mites by T. kotschyanus nanoencapsulated essential oils. Based on these results, nanoencapsulation of T. eriocalyx and T. kotschyanus essential oils in MCM-41 may be a useful method for their application in the management of Te. urticae. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Validated HPTLC technique for simultaneous evaluation of biomarkers gallic acid and quercetin in Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.: A systematic approach for quality control of herbals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sarfaraj Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the simultaneous quantification of two biologically active elements, flavonoids gallic acid (GA and quercetin (QE, in methanolic extract of Trichosanthes dioica that was customarily used to lower blood sugar and cholesterol. Methods: Silica gel 60F254 having receded with aluminum plate was applied for the separation. We used toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid (5:4:1, v/v/v as a solvent system for the separation. Results: At 270 nm in reflectance mode densitometric analysis was performed. Squeezed bands for GA and QE were achieved at Rf (0.31 ± 0.03 and (0.50 ± 0.02. The scheme was validated for sensitivity, specificity, limit of detection and quantification. Linear relationship was found between the concentration range of 100–1 000 ng spot–1 for GA and 150–900 ng spot–1 for GA and QE, respectively. The instrumental precision was noted to be 1.03–1.96 (% RSD and 1.09–1.98 (% RSD for GA and QE, separately. Methodology specificity was determined at three different study point with varying concentration for recovery studies. Mean % recovery was noted to be 99.4%–99.9% and 98.7%–99.3% and the content estimated as (31.00 ± 1.18% and (39.00 ± 1.24% for GA and QE, respectively. Conclusions: The developed high performance thin layer chromatography scheme can be used for routine quality control analysis of Trichosanthes dioica and several other formulations containing these markers.

  20. Urtica urens L., Urtica membranacea Poiret et Urtica pilulifera L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 mars 2015 ... Methods and results: The crude and fractionated extracts of the ... screening, flavonoids and total phenolic dosing and antibacterial activity against five pathogenic bacteria, ..... phytochimique de Caesalpinia benthamiana.

  1. Application of gamma irradiation on eggs, active and quiescence stages of Tetranychus urticae Koch as a quarantine treatment of cut flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osouli, Sh.; Ziaie, F.; Haddad Irani Nejad, K.; Moghaddam, M.

    2013-01-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) is amongst the most serious pests of cut flowers and ornamentals. In this research the effects of gamma irradiation on different biological stages (including quiescent stages) of this pest have been studied. Irradiation at the doses of 250, 250, 200, 250, 200, 350 and 300 Gy causes sterility of females who were able to reach to adult stage from eggs, larva, protochrysalis, protonymph, deutochrysalis, deutonymph and teliochrysalis stages, respectively. The irradiation caused a decrease in percentage of mites entering the adult stage, developed the adult mite‘s longevity, number of laid eggs per adult female emerged from irradiated immature stages, and finally a retardation of embryonic and post-embryonic development. The sex ratio of the adult mites resulted from irradiated immature stages was biased towards females through increase of dose. The adult mites developed from irradiated two-day old eggs, three-day old eggs, larva, protochrysalis and deutochrysalis at 100, 350, 300, 350 and 350 Gy, respectively, were 100% females. In general the females resulted from irradiated quiescent stages have shown a high sensitivity to characteristics like eggs hatchability percentage and the emerged adult's sex ratio. On the other hand with regard to percentage of immature mites developed to adult stages, longevity of adult males and females, number of eggs laid by females and the time needed to complete their development, teliochrysalis has been the most tolerant stage. Also a 300 Gy dose could cause sterility in females irradiated at deutonymph stage and mated with adult males irradiated before mating and prevent their eggs to be hatched. In conclusion the most tolerance stages of this mite for most of characteristics was generally the most developed ones and a dose of around 300 Gy could be a phytosanitary irradiation treatment for Tetranychus urticae Koch. - Highlights: • The effects of γ-radiation on embryonic stages of

  2. Bazı Pestisitlerin Tetranychus urticae Koch'nin Ergin Yaşam Süresi ve Yumurta Verimine Etkileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Hakan BALCI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada deltamethrin, cypermethrin, imidacloprid ve thiacloprid etkili maddeye sahip insektisitlerin tarla uygulama dozu (T ve tarla uygulama dozunun yarısı (T/2'nın uygulandığı Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae erginlerinde üreme parametreleri ve yaşam süreleri incelenmiştir. İnsektisit dozları ve kontrol grubunda kullanılan saf su ilaçlama kulesi ile Petri kabındaki yaprak diskler üzerinde bulunan T. urticae'nin ergin bireylerine uygulanmıştır. Deltamethrin'in T/2 dozu uygulaması sonucunda, ergin bireylerinde ortalama yaşam süresi (5.35 gün ve ortalama ovipozisyon süresi (4.29 g kontrol grubuna (6.57 ve 5.44 g göre kısalmış, ayrıca yumurta sayısı/dişi oranıda azalmıştır. İmidacloprid, thiacloprid ve cypermethrin uygulanan her iki dozunda da T. urticae erginlerinde ortalama yaşam süresi ve ortalama preovipozisyon süresi kontrol grubu ile istatistiki olarak benzer bulunmuş ve dozlar arasında fark belirlenememiştir. İmidacloprid'in T/2 dozu uygulanan ergin bireylerin yumurta sayısı/dişi (64.03 oranının kontrol grubuna (39.96 göre arttığı belirlenmiştir. Sonuç olarak, imidacloprid ve deltamethrin’in T/2 dozlarının T. urticae ergin bireylerinde ortalama yaşam süresi, ortalama ovipozisyon süresi gibi bazı biyolojik özelikler üzerinde etkili olabileceği kanısına varılmıştır. 

  3. ACTIVIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA Y COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA DE LOS ACEITES ESENCIALES DE Malvaviscus arboreus Cav, Pimenta dioica (L. Merr., Byrsonima crassifolia (L. Kunth Y Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vázquez Cahuich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los aceites esenciales de las hojas de Malvaviscus arboreus Cav., Pimenta dioica (L. Merr., Byrsonima crassifolia (L. Kunth y Psidium guajava L., obtenidos por hidrodeltilación, fueron evaluados como antimicrobianos potenciales contra Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 4028 y Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778. Para la evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana se emplearon los métodos de difusión en disco, bioautografía y microdilución, subsecuentemente cada extracto fue analizado por cromatografía de gases/masas (CG-MS para la obtención del perfil químico. Los aceites esenciales de las cuatro especies presentaron actividad antimicrobiana por el método de difusión en agar contra las tres cepas de microorganismos. En cuanto a la bioautografía, se detectó que la fracción 4 en el aceite esencial de P. dioica, con una referencia frontal (Rf de 0.42 cm, inhibió el crecimiento de B. cereus, S. typhimurium y S. aureus. En la microdilución se determinó que B. cereus fue el microorganismo más susceptible a la presencia de los aceites esenciales de M. arboreus, P. dioica, B. crassifolia y P. guajava. El eugenol fue el principal componente de P. dioica y P. guajava con porcentajes de abundancia de 94.86% y 33.84% respectivamente, determinado por CG-MS.

  4. Tri-trophic level impact of host plant linamarin and lotaustralin on Tetranychus urticae and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, M Guadalupe; Morales-Ramos, Juan Alfredo

    2010-12-01

    The impact of linamarin and lotaustralin content in the leaves of lima beans, Phaseolus lunatus L., on the second and third trophic levels was studied in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Koch), and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. The content of linamarin was higher in terminal trifoliate leaves (435.5 ppm) than in primary leaves (142.1 ppm) of Henderson bush lima beans. However, linamarin concentrations were reversed at the second trophic level showing higher concentrations in spider mites feeding on primary leaves (429.8 ppm) than those feeding on terminal trifoliate leaves (298.2 ppm). Concentrations of linamarin in the predatory mites were 18.4 and 71.9 ppm when feeding on spider mites grown on primary and terminal leaves, respectively. The concentration of lotaustralin in primary lima bean leaves was 103.12 ppm, and in spider mites feeding on these leaves was 175.0 ppm. Lotaustralin was absent in lima bean terminal trifoliate leaves and in mites feeding on these leaves. Fecundity of spider mites feeding on lima bean leaves (primary or trifoliate) was not significantly different from mites feeding on red bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., primary leaves. However, the progeny sex ratio (in females per male) of spider mites feeding on lima bean leaves was significantly lower than progeny of spider mites feeding on red bean leaves (control). Fecundity and progeny sex ratio of P. persimilis were both significantly affected by the concentration of linamarin present in the prey. Changes in concentration of linamarin in living tissue across the three trophic levels are discussed.

  5. Deciphering the Metabolic Changes Associated with Diapause Syndrome and Cold Acclimation in the Two-Spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayari, Samira; Moharramipour, Saeid; Larvor, Vanessa; Hidalgo, Kévin; Renault, David

    2013-01-01

    Diapause is a common feature in several arthropod species that are subject to unfavorable growing seasons. The range of environmental cues that trigger the onset and termination of diapause, in addition to associated hormonal, biochemical, and molecular changes, have been studied extensively in recent years; however, such information is only available for a few insect species. Diapause and cold hardening usually occur together in overwintering arthropods, and can be characterized by recording changes to the wealth of molecules present in the tissue, hemolymph, or whole body of organisms. Recent technological advances, such as high throughput screening and quantification of metabolites via chromatographic analyses, are able to identify such molecules. In the present work, we examined the survival ability of diapausing and non-diapausing females of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, in the presence (0 or 5°C) or absence of cold acclimation. Furthermore, we examined the metabolic fingerprints of these specimens via gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS). Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) of metabolites revealed that major metabolic variations were related to diapause, indicating in a clear cut-off between diapausing and non-diapausing females, regardless of acclimation state. Signs of metabolic depression were evident in diapausing females, with most amino acids and TCA cycle intermediates being significantly reduced. Out of the 40 accurately quantified metabolites, seven metabolites remained elevated or were accumulated in diapausing mites, i.e. cadaverine, gluconolactone, glucose, inositol, maltose, mannitol and sorbitol. The capacity to accumulate winter polyols during cold-acclimation was restricted to diapausing females. We conclude that the induction of increased cold hardiness in this species is associated with the diapause syndrome, rather than being a direct effect of low temperature. Our results provide novel

  6. Treatment of plutonium contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    Three kinds of plutonium contaminations were considered: skin contamination; contaminated wounds; contamination by inhalation. The treatment of these contaminations was studied for insoluble (oxide and metal forms) and soluble plutonium (complexes). The use of DTPA and therapeutic problems encountered with stable plutonium complexes were analyzed. The new possibilities of internal decontamination using Puchel and LICAM were evaluated [fr

  7. Toxicity of bifenazate and its principal active metabolite, diazene, to Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus citri and their relative toxicity to the predaceous mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Noriaki; Mizuno, Masayuki; Mimori, Norihiko; Miyake, Toshihiko; Dekeyser, Mark; Canlas, Liza Jara; Takeda, Makio

    2007-01-01

    Bifenazate is a novel carbazate acaricide discovered by Uniroyal Chemical (now Chemtura Corporation) for the control of phytophagous mites infesting agricultural and ornamental crops. Its acaricidal activity and that of its principal active metabolite, diazene, were characterized. Bifenazate and diazene had high toxicity and specificity both orally and topically to all life stages of Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus citri. Acute poisoning was observed with no temperature dependency. No cross-resistance was found to mites resistant to several other classes of acaricides, such as tebufenpyrad, etoxazole, fenbutatin oxide and dicofol. Bifenazate remained effective for a long time with only about a 10% loss of efficacy on T. urticae after 1 month of application in the field. All stages of development of the predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus, survived treatment by both bifenazate and diazene. When adult females of the two predatory mite species were treated with either bifenazate or diazene, they showed a normal level of fecundity and predatory activity in the laboratory, effectively suppressing spider mite population growth. Even when the predators were fed spider mite eggs that had been treated previously with bifenazate, they survived. These findings indicate that bifenazate is a very useful acaricide giving high efficacy, long-lasting activity and excellent selectivity for spider mites. It is, therefore, concluded that bifenazate is an ideal compound for controlling these pest mites.

  8. Life table and male mating competitiveness of wild type and of a chromosome mutation strain of Tetranychus urticae in relation to genetic pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Males of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae) from a strain, homozygous for a structural chromosome mutation (T) were competed against males from a standard (wild-type) strain for mating of wild-type fermales. The T-males exhibited only a slight reduction in male mating competitiveness. The debilitating influence of ageing on male mating competitiveness was equal for males of both strains. Life-table studies on both strains showed that the net reproductive rate (R 0 ) of the T-strain was 53.3, which was higher than the R 0 -value of the standard strain (43.3). This difference was caused by the higher rate of age-dependent mortality of adult females of the standard strain. Also differences between both strains in the total sex-ratio were observed; the T-strain produced significantly fewer males and more females than the standard strain. The mean generation time of both strains was almost equal (14 days). The values of the intrinsic rate of increase (rsub(m)) for the T-strain and the standard strain were 0.286 and 0.273, respectively. The life-table data correspond well with those published elsewhere on Tetranychus urticae. The feasibility of T-strains for application in genetic pest control considering the use of structural chromosome mutations as a 'transport mechanism' for conditional lethals is discussed. (orig.)

  9. Contamination vs. Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... into the environment can cause air, water, surfaces, soil, plants, buildings, people, or animals to become contaminated. ... water to remove contamination. This process is called decontamination. Try to avoid spreading contamination to parts of ...

  10. Antennaria dioica L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánková, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2016), s. 62-63 ISSN 1211-5258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : floristics * distribution * endangered species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  11. Radiation contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tsutomu; Iba, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    To make sure of no contamination on people, used articles and working uniforms coming out of the radiation controlled area, nuclear power plants are equipped with radioactive contamination monitors. This paper outlines the basic specifications and advantages of our personnel surface contamination monitors to inspect whole-body surface contamination of people coming out, article surface contamination monitors to inspect the surface and inside contamination of used articles brought out, laundry monitors to inspect surface contamination of working uniforms used in the area before and after a wash, and whole-body counters to inspect and measure the internal contamination of a person out of the area. (author)

  12. Comparison and Characterization of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Bulbs Extracts and Their Effect on Mortality and Repellency of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae Comparación y Caracterización de Extractos de Bulbos de Ajo (Allium sativum L. y su Efecto en a Mortalidad y Repelencia de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Hincapié Ll

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae Koch is a pest that causes great economic losses because it attacks a wide range of host plants. Also, some populations have developed resistance against commercial acaricides. This work compares different extracts from garlic (Allium sativum L. bulbs measuring their toxicity and repellency effects on T. urticae. Extracts were obtained using as solvents CO2 in supercritical conditions (CSC, ethanol and petroleum ether using soxhlet and soaking methods and soaking in water. The supercritical fluid extraction technique allows for obtaining extracts at low temperature using high pressures, avoiding compound degradation and making possible solvent separation by exposing the extract at room temperature. Mites were bred on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a laboratory environment in Laureles Campus, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia. Mortality was evaluated putting 10 mites in P. vulgaris 3 cm diameter leaf discs previously submersed in the extract. The lowest mean lethal concentrations (LC50 were obtained with the CSC method (8.1188, 5.4105, 2.8206 mg g-1 at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Extracts were characterized using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS, finding vinyl dithiins (63.11%, diallyl disulfide (10.88% and diallyl trisulfide (10.4% as the main compounds in the CSC extract. The main conclusion is that, in comparison with other techniques of extraction from garlic bulbs used in this study, supercritical fluids allow for obtaining extracts with a higher concentration of biologically active compounds against T. urticae.Tetranychus urticae Koch es una plaga que causa grandes pérdidas económicas porque ataca un numeroso grupo de cultivos. Además, algunas poblaciones han desarrollado resistencia a acaricidas comerciales. Este trabajo compara diferentes extractos a partir de bulbos de ajo (Allium sativum L. a través de su toxicidad y repelencia sobre T. urticae. Los extractos se

  13. Purification, physicochemical characterization, saccharide specificity, and chemical modification of a Gal/GalNAc specific lectin from the seeds of Trichosanthes dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Nabil Ali Mohammed; Kenoth, Roopa; Swamy, Musti J

    2004-12-15

    A new galactose-specific lectin has been purified from the extracts of Trichosanthes dioica seeds by affinity chromatography on cross-linked guar gum. The purified lectin (T. dioica seed lectin, TDSL) moved as a single symmetrical peak on gel filtration on Superose-12 in the presence of 0.1 M lactose with an M(r) of 55 kDa. In the absence of ligand, the movement was retarded, indicating a possible interaction of the lectin with the column matrix. In SDS-PAGE, in the presence of beta-mercaptoethanol, two non-identical bands of M(r) 24 and 37 kDa were observed, whereas in the absence of beta-mercaptoethanol, the lectin yielded a single band corresponding to approximately 55,000 Da, indicating that the two subunits of TDSL are connected by one or more disulfide bridges. TDSL is a glycoprotein with about 4.9% covalently bound neutral sugar. Analysis of near-UV CD spectrum by three different methods (CDSSTR, CONTINLL, and SELCON3) shows that TDSL contains 13.3% alpha-helix, 36.7% beta-sheet, 19.4% beta-turns, and 31.6% unordered structure. Among a battery of sugars investigated, TDSL was inhibited strongly by beta-d-galactopyranosides, with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside being the best ligand. Chemical modification studies indicate that tyrosine residues are important for the carbohydrate-binding and hemagglutinating activities of the lectin. A partial protection was observed when the tyrosine modification was performed in the presence of 0.2 M lactose. The tryptophan residues of TDSL appear to be buried in the protein interior as they could not be modified under native conditions, whereas upon denaturation with 8 M urea two Trp residues could be selectively modified by N-bromosuccinimide. The subunit composition and size, secondary structure, and sugar specificity of this lectin are similar to those of type-2 ribosome inactivating proteins, suggesting that TDSL may belong to this protein family.

  14. Actividad analgésica y antipirética de un extracto fluido de Pimenta dioica L. y evaluación de su toxicidad aguda oral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Benítez López

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la actividad analgésica y antipirética del extracto fluido de Pimenta dioica L. en animales de experimentación, así como su toxicidad aguda oral. Se evaluó el efecto analgésico a las dosis 825, 1 320 y 1 650 mg/kg mediante la técnica de contorsiones inducidas por agentes químicos (Witkin y col, 1961, y la antipiresia fue testada en conejos a las dosis 206 y 406 mg/kg, frente a una endotoxina de E. coli. Se compararon los resultados obtenidos en ambos estudios con ibuprofeno 200 mg/kg, y se demostró que el extracto administrado por vía oral, a las dosis de 1 650 mg/kg -analgesia- y 406 mg/kg -antipiresia- posee una efectividad similar al ibuprofeno. Se realizó el estudio toxicológico en ratones, y se obtuvo una DL50 de 2,56 g/kg, lo que permite clasificar al extracto como no tóxico.The analgesic and antipyretic activity of the Pimenta dioica L. fluid extract was studied in experimental animals, as well as its acute oral toxicity. The analgesic effect was evaluated at doses of 825, 1 320 and 1 650 mg/kg by the technique of contorsions induced by chemical agents (Witkin et. al., 1961, whereas antipyresis was tested in rabbits at doses of 206 and 406 mg/kg against an endotoxin of E. coli. The results obtained in both studies were compared with ibuprofen 200 mg/kg, and it was proved that the oral administration of the extract at doses of 1 650 mg/kg -analgesia- and 406 mg/kg -antipyresis- has an efectivity similar to that of ibuprofen. The toxicological study was conducted in mice and it was obtained a DL50 of 2.56 g/kg, which allows to classify the extract as non toxic.

  15. Radioactive surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Kei; Minagoshi, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Toru

    1994-01-01

    To reduce radiation exposure and prevent contamination from spreading, each nuclear power plant has established a radiation controlled area. People and articles out of the controlled area are checked for the surface contamination of radioactive materials with surface contamination monitors. Fuji Electric has repeatedly improved these monitors on the basis of user's needs. This paper outlines typical of a surface contamination monitor, a personal surface contamination monitor, an article surface contamination monitor and a laundry monitor, and the whole-body counter of an internal contamination monitor. (author)

  16. Harvesting contaminants from liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott R.

    2016-05-31

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus allowing the contaminants to be harvested.

  17. Chlorophyll and its degradation products in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae: observations using epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhipinti, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E

    2013-10-01

    Chlorophyll and chlorophyll degradation products were observed in the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) using epifluorescence microscopy (EFM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). A clear red fluorescence (EFM) and a fluorescence induced by a laser wavelength of 650 nm (CLSM) were observed. In the lateral caeca, in the ventriculus and in the excretory organ, a bright light blue fluorescence was observed in close association with chlorophyll by using EFM. The same material can be localized with CLSM by using a laser with a wavelength of 488 nm. By comparison with synthetic guanine, this bright fluorescence is supposed to be guanine. The presence of guanine fluorescence in the mite pellets confirms this hypothesis. A possible mechanism for guanine formation is discussed.

  18. Mugwort (Artemisia L., nettle (Urtica L. and plantain (Plantago L. pollen in the atmosphere of Wrocław in the years 2002-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Malkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes the results of pollen season analysis of the selected plants (mugwort, nettle, plantain regarded as the most allergenic in Wrocław in 2002-2004. The studies were carried out using volumetric method (Burkard trap. The results show strong variation in pollen seasons. The average duration of the pollen season of Artemisia was 82 days. The highest pollen concentration of mugwort was recorded in 2004 (156 grains × m-3. The start of nettle pollen seasons varied in studied period on average by 24 days, on average, but its end was almost the same. The pollen season of Urtica was the earliest in 2004. It started on 5th May and lasted 136 days. The annual pollen total of Plantago was relatively low, on average 0.2-0.4% in annual pollen totals.

  19. Metabolite profiling reveals a specific response in tomato to predaceous Chrysoperla carnea larvae and herbivore(s-predator interactions with the generalist pests Tetranychus urticae and Myzus persicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Errard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer both infest a number of economically significant crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Although used for decades to control pests, the impact of green lacewing larvae Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens on plant biochemistry was not investigated. Here we used profiling methods and targeted analyses to explore the impact of the predator and herbivore(s-predator interactions on tomato biochemistry. Each pest and pest-predator combination induced a characteristic metabolite signature in the leaf and the fruit thus, the plant exhibited a systemic response. The treatments had a stronger impact on non-volatile metabolites including abscisic acid and amino acids in the leaves in comparison with the fruits. In contrast, the various biotic factors had a greater impact on the carotenoids in the fruits. We identified volatiles such as myrcene and α-terpinene which were induced by pest-predator interactions but not by single species, and we demonstrated the involvement of the phytohormone abscisic acid in tritrophic interactions for the first time. More importantly, C. carnea larvae alone impacted the plant metabolome, but the predator did not appear to elicit particular defense pathways on its own. Since the presence of both C. carnea larvae and pest individuals elicited volatiles which were shown to contribute to plant defense, C. carnea larvae could therefore contribute to the reduction of pest infestation, not only by its preying activity, but also by priming responses to generalist herbivores such as T. urticae and M. persicae. On the other hand, the use of C. carnea larvae alone did not impact carotenoids thus, was not prejudicial to the fruit quality. The present piece of research highlights the specific impact of predator and tritrophic interactions with green lacewing larvae, spider mites and aphids on different components of the tomato primary and secondary metabolism

  20. Center for Contaminated Sediments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Center for Contaminated Sediments serves as a clearinghouse for technology and expertise concerned with contaminated sediments. The...

  1. Contaminated Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Sites contaminated by hazardous materials or wastes. These sites are those administered by the Contaminated Sites Section of Iowa DNR. Many are sites which are...

  2. Influence de l'usage préventif des pesticides sur les acariens Tetranychus urticae et Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari : Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae présents en cultures de fraisiers du Nord du Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagziri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of previous pesticide use on Tetranychus urticae and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae from strawberry crops in the north of Morocco. Description of the subject. Effects of recommended doses of five common pesticides in the strawberries of Loukkos area (Morocco were tested on the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and its predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Laboratory study assessed the contact toxicity of one avermectin miticide (abamectin, two pyrethrinoid insecticide-acaricides (bifenthrin and lambda-cyalothrin, and two fungicides: firstly, mancozeb, which belongs to the dithiocarbamates family of chemicals and secondly, hexaconazole, of the triazole family. Objectives. The aim of the present study was to test in laboratory conditions the effect of five pesticides on the two-spotted spider mite, T. urticae and its predatory mite, P. persimilis. The five pesticides tested were those most frequently applied for at least two years on strawberries at the experimental site. Method. Bioassays were performed with populations of mites originating from different plots with various crop protection backgrounds. The first group of plots had been repeatedly treated with the five tested pesticides during a two-year period, the second group had been moderately treated, and the third had been treated once with the tested pesticides. Results. Our results showed that the tested pesticides provided effective control of T. urticae but that they were not compatible with use on the predatory mite P. persimilis, as these particular mites did not usually come into contact with these products. On the other hand, in plots where pesticides had been used for a long time, the susceptibility of P. persimilis populations to these products was significantly reduced. Conclusions. If the tested pesticides are to be considered for integrated pest control programs in plots where they have been used for a long time and where P

  3. Restoration of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda J, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    A great variety of techniques are used for the restoration of contaminated soils. The contamination is present by both organic and inorganic pollutants. Environmental conditions and soil characteristics should take into account in order to implement a remedial technique. The bioremediation technologies are showed as help to remove a variety of soil contaminants. (author) [es

  4. Urban atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldasano Jose, M.

    1997-01-01

    The problems of contamination are not only limited to this century, pale pathology evidences of the effects of the contamination of the air exist in interiors in the health of the old ones; the article mention the elements that configure the problem of the atmospheric contamination, atmospheric pollutants and emission sources, orography condition and effects induced by the urbanization process

  5. Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samson Edoja

    2016-07-27

    Jul 27, 2016 ... Simas NK, Lima EC, Conceição SR, Kuster RM, Filho AMO (2004). Natural products for control of dengue transmission – larvicidal activity of Myrozylon balsamum (red oil) and terpenoids and phenylpropanoids. Quim. Nova 27:46-49. Siqueira FFS, Oliveira JV, Ferraz CS, Oliveira CRF, Matos CHC (2014).

  6. Polyphenol-rich extract of Pimenta dioica berries (Allspice) kills breast cancer cells by autophagy and delays growth of triple negative breast cancer in athymic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Shamaladevi, Nagarajarao; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K.; Patil, Bhimu S.; Lokeshwar, Bal L.

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from edible plants have limited efficacy in treating advanced cancers, but they have potential to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy drugs in a combined treatment. An aqueous extract of berries of Pimenta dioica (Allspice) shows promise as one such candidate for combination therapy or chemoprevention. An aqueous extract of Allspice (AAE) was tested against human breast cancer (BrCa) cells in vitro and in vivo. AAE reduced the viability and clonogenic growth of several types of BrCa cells (IC50 ≤ 100 μg/ml) with limited toxicity in non-tumorigenic, quiescent cells (IC50 >200 μg/ml). AAE induced cytotoxicity in BrCa was inconsistent with apoptosis, but was associated with increased levels of autophagy markers LC3B and LC3B-positive puncta. Silencing the expression of autophagy related genes (ATGs) prevented AAE-induced cell death. Further, AAE caused inhibition of Akt/mTOR signaling, and showed enhanced cytotoxicity when combined with rapamycin, a chemotherapy drug and an inhibitor of mTOR signaling. Oral administration (gavage) of AAE into athymic mice implanted with MDA-MB231 tumors inhibited tumor growth slightly but not significantly (mean decrease ~ 14%, p ≥ 0.20) if mice were gavaged post-tumor implant. Tumor growth showed a significant delay (38%) in tumor palpability and growth rate (time to reach tumor volume ≥ 1,000 mm3) when mice were pre-dosed with AAE for two weeks. Analysis of tumor tissues showed increased levels of LC3B in AAE treated tumors, indicating elevated autophagic tumor cell death in vivo in treated mice. These results demonstrate antitumor and chemo-preventive activity of AAE against BrCa and potential for adjuvant to mTOR inhibition. PMID:25945840

  7. Contamination analysis unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig

  8. JPL Contamination Control Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakkolb, Brian

    2013-01-01

    JPL has extensive expertise fielding contamination sensitive missions-in house and with our NASA/industry/academic partners.t Development and implementation of performance-driven cleanliness requirements for a wide range missions and payloads - UV-Vis-IR: GALEX, Dawn, Juno, WFPC-II, AIRS, TES, et al - Propulsion, thermal control, robotic sample acquisition systems. Contamination control engineering across the mission life cycle: - System and payload requirements derivation, analysis, and contamination control implementation plans - Hardware Design, Risk trades, Requirements V-V - Assembly, Integration & Test planning and implementation - Launch site operations and launch vehicle/payload integration - Flight ops center dot Personnel on staff have expertise with space materials development and flight experiments. JPL has capabilities and expertise to successfully address contamination issues presented by space and habitable environments. JPL has extensive experience fielding and managing contamination sensitive missions. Excellent working relationship with the aerospace contamination control engineering community/.

  9. Atividade acaricida dos óleos essencias de folhas e frutos de Xylopia sericea sobre o ácaro rajado (Tetranychus urticae Koch Acaricidal activity of the essential oils leaves and fruits of Xylopia sericea St. Hill. on the two spotted spide mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendel José Teles Pontes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of the leaves and fruits obtained by hydrodistillation of Xylopia sericea, collected in the restinga area of Pernambuco, were analyzed by GC (HP 5890 SERIES II and GC/MS (HP 5890B SERIES II/ MSD 5971. A major part of the volatile components identified in the oils of fruits and leaves were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Cubenol (57.43% and alpha-epi-muurolol (26.09% were the main compounds found in the leaves, whereas beta-pinene (45.59% and alpha-pinene (17.18% were the fruits major components. The acaricidal activity of the essential oils was evaluated for Tetranychus urticae. The oil of the leaves was more active than that of the fruits showing an LC50 value of 4.08 µL/L of air for a 72 h period.

  10. Analysis of food contaminants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbert, John

    1984-01-01

    ... quantification methods used in the analysis of mycotoxins in foods - Confirmation and quantification of trace organic food contaminants by mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring - Chemiluminescence...

  11. The influence of sublethal deposits of agricultural mineral oil on the functional and numerical responses of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to its prey, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yingen; Meats, Alan; Beattie, G Andrew C; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Herron, Grant A

    2009-08-01

    Occasional pesticide application in integrated pest management to at least part of a crop requires that any biological control agents must re-invade previously sprayed areas in order that resurgent pests can be constrained. The ability of the phytoseiid predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis to feed on adult two-spotted spider mite (TSSM) Tetranychus urticae on excised leaf discs in both control conditions and in a treatment with a sub lethal residue of agricultural mineral oil (AMO) was assessed. The predator exhibited a Type II functional response with the asymptote significantly higher in the AMO conditions due to the fact that the prey grew slower and reached a smaller size in this treatment. In terms of prey volume eaten, the satiation level of the predator was unchanged by the AMO deposits. The numbers of eggs produced by adult P. persimilis females at densities of 4, 8 and 16 TSSM adult females/disc in the control were significantly higher than those in the AMO treatment, but were similar for the higher density levels, 32 and 64 prey per disc. Thus the functional response in terms of volume of prey eaten explained the numerical response in terms of predator eggs produced. The presence of AMO deposits when the prey were at high density had no effect on predator efficiency (volume eaten) but resulted in a lower intake than that in control conditions when there was a greater distance between prey.

  12. The effect of chrysanthemum leaf trichome density and prey spatial distribution on predation of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) by Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirvin, D J; Stavrinides, M C; Skirvin, D J

    2003-08-01

    The effect of plant architecture, in terms of leaf hairiness, and prey spatial arrangement, on predation rate of eggs of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, by the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot was examined on cut stems of chrysanthemums. Three levels of leaf hairiness (trichome density) were obtained using two different chrysanthemum cultivars and two ages within one of the cultivars. The number of prey consumed by P. persimilis was inversely related to trichome density. At low prey densities (less than ten eggs per stem), prey consumption did not differ in a biologically meaningful way between treatments. The effect of prey spatial arrangement on the predation rate of P. persimilis was also examined. Predation rates were higher in prey patches on leaves adjacent to the release point of P. persimilis, but significantly greater numbers of prey were consumed in higher density prey patches compared to low density patches. The predators exhibited non-random searching behaviour, spending more time on leaves closest to the release point. The implications of these findings for biological control and predator-prey dynamics are discussed.

  13. The effects of prey patchiness, predator aggregation, and mutual interference on the functional response of Phytoseiulus persimilis feeding on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Gösta

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distributions of two-spotted spider mites Tetranychus urticae and their natural enemy, the phytoseiid predator Phytoseiulus persimilis, were studied on six full-grown cucumber plants. Both mite species were very patchily distributed and P. persimilis tended to aggregate on leaves with abundant prey. The effects of non-homogenous distributions and degree of spatial overlap between prey and predators on the per capita predation rate were studied by means of a stage-specific predation model that averages the predation rates over all the local populations inhabiting the individual leaves. The empirical predation rates were compared with predictions assuming random predator search and/or an even distribution of prey. The analysis clearly shows that the ability of the predators to search non-randomly increases their predation rate. On the other hand, the prey may gain if it adopts a more even distribution when its density is low and a more patchy distribution when density increases. Mutual interference between searching predators reduces the predation rate, but the effect is negligible. The stage-specific functional response model was compared with two simpler models without explicit stage structure. Both unstructured models yielded predictions that were quite similar to those of the stage-structured model.

  14. Efeitos do nim sobre tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks e Neoseiulus californicus (Mcgregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cristine Hoffmann Schlesener

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de controle e os efeitos adversos de dois produtos à base de nim Azamax® (Azadiractina A/B 12g/L e Neemseto® (Azadiractina A/B, Nimbina e Salanina 2,389 g/L sobre o ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis e Neoseiulus californicus em laboratório. Para o ácaro-rajado, foram consideradas as variáveis mortalidade, fecundidade, efeito ovicida e persistência biológica, enquanto para os fitoseídeos consideraram-se mortalidade e fecundidade. A mortalidade máxima observada para o ácaro-rajado foi de 89,7% e 91,5% para Azamax® e Neemseto®, respectivamente, na concentração de 0,5% após a reaplicação do produto no sétimo dia. Também foram observados efeitos adversos sobre a fecundidade e a viabilidade dos ovos quando tratados com os produtos comerciais (p.c.. A persistência biológica dos produtos foi de aproximadamente três dias após a pulverização. As formulações apresentaram seletividade em relação aos fitoseídeos, porém causaram redução da fecundidade dos mesmos.

  15. New developments in insecticide resistance in the glasshouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) and the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Kevin; Hewitt, Fiona; Denholm, Ian; Devine, Gregor J

    2002-02-01

    A recent survey of insecticide resistance in two of the most problematic pests in UK glasshouses revealed some new developments. At least some individuals in all UK samples of Trialeurodes vaporariorum that were tested resisted the insect growth regulator (IGR) buprofezin. The most strongly resistant strains were unaffected by the field application rate of this compound, and even samples from populations that had never been exposed to buprofezin contained individuals that survived the highest concentration applied (10,000 mg litre-1). The field rate of buprofezin was shown to select for resistance through vapour action alone. The benzophenylurea teflubenzuron, an unrelated IGR, was cross-resisted by buprofezin-resistant individuals. There was no evidence of resistance to imidacloprid, but all T vaporariorum strains tested, regardless of origin, exhibited a high innate tolerance to nicotine, when compared with another whitefly species, Bemisia tabaci. Marked resistance to fenbutatin oxide and tebufenpyrad was found in single glasshouse populations of Tetranychus urticae, but these compounds and abamectin appeared to remain highly effective against all other strains collected.

  16. DNA-content in isolated nuclei of postembryonic stages of progeny from normal and irradiated males of Tetranychus urticae (Acari Tetranychidoe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempelaar, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    The lC DNA-content of isolated nuclei of postembryonic stages of Tetranychus urticae stained with the classic and a modified Schiff's reagent was cytophotometrically estimated as 0.1 pg, a low value in animals. For many tissues of this arrhenotokus species the ploidy ratio between males and females is 1:2, indicating the absence of sex-related differences in ploidy. In addition, DNA measurements were performed to evaluate irradiation-experiments, starting with X-irradiation of mature sperm in males with doses known from previous work to induce chromosomal fragments that are subject to loss and missegregation in the embryonic mitotic stages of the female progeny despite the presumed holokinetic nature of the chromosomes. The DNA-content of the nuclei of the surviving postembryonic preadult stages did not indicate the occurrence of nuclei with in-between male/female values, ruling out loss and missegregation of fragments as important factors in postembryonic lethality. Abnormally low DNA-values in some adult females could be attributed to development of embryos before oviposition caused by radiation-induced effects. (orig.) [de

  17. Effect Of Agrotechnical Measures And Varieties On Seasonal Dynamics Of Tetranychus Urticae Koch (Acari, Trombidiformes, Tetranychidae On High Tunnel-Cultivated Garden Strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmane Ineta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the seasonal pattern of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae on strawberries cultivated in polythene-covered high tunnels in temperate climatic conditions. Various cultivars were used and the effect of modification of plant covering indices on abundance and incidence of these mites was also tested. The number of two-spotted spider mites was relatively low at the beginning of the vegetation season and started to increase when average air temperature rose above 20 to 25 °C. In the experiment two types of tunnels differing in additional plant cover were used. The maximum mite abundance did not significantly vary between varieties in tunnel 1 conditions, but it was significantly lower for variety 'Sonata' in tunnel 2 conditions. Mite numbers significantly declined after strawberry foliage mowing and removal of polythene cover. Mite development was prolonged in tunnel 1, where additional cover of plants was used and higher early season air temperature was recorded in comparison to tunnel 2. It was concluded that increase in early season temperature can increase two-spotted spider mite abundance and have a more negative effect on strawberry plants in respect of foliage damage by mites.

  18. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In

  19. Surface soil contamination standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define surface soil contamination limits for radioactive materials below which posting, restrictions and environmental controls are not necessary in order to protect personnel and the environment. The standards can also be used to determine if solid waste or other material is contaminated relative to disposal requirements. The derivation of the standards is given

  20. Contamination Control Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  1. Contamination Control Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics

  2. Contaminated water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormly, Sherwin J. (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for processing of a liquid ("contaminant liquid") containing water and containing urine and/or other contaminants in a two step process. Urine, or a contaminated liquid similar to and/or containing urine and thus having a relatively high salt and urea content is passed through an activated carbon filter to provide a resulting liquid, to remove most of the organic molecules. The resulting liquid is passed through a semipermeable membrane from a membrane first side to a membrane second side, where a fortified drink having a lower water concentration (higher osmotic potential) than the resulting liquid is positioned. Osmotic pressure differential causes the water, but not most of the remaining inorganic (salts) contaminant(s) to pass through the membrane to the fortified drink. Optionally, the resulting liquid is allowed to precipitate additional organic molecules before passage through the membrane.

  3. Bioremediation of contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balba, M.T.; Ying, A.C.; McNeice, T.G.

    1992-01-01

    Microorganisms, especially bacteria, yeast and fungi are capable of degrading many kinds of xenobiotic compounds and toxic chemicals such as petroleum hydrocarbon compounds. These microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and, despite their enormous versatility, there are numerous cases in which long-term contamination of soil and groundwater has been observed. The persistence of the contamination is usually caused by the inability of microorganisms to metabolize these compounds under the prevailing environmental condition. This paper reports on biological remediation of contaminated sites which can be accomplished by using naturally-occurring microorganisms to treat the contaminants. The development of a bioremediation program for a specific contaminated soil system usually includes: A thorough site/soil/waste characterization; Treatability studies

  4. Contamination sources, prevention, and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination is defined as anything other than cotton in cotton lint. Worldwide, contamination is on the rise and plastic contamination has increased at a faster rate than contamination overall. In the U.S., there are many sources of plastic contaminants, such as plastic trash that collects in cott...

  5. Botanical medicines for the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Eric

    2002-11-01

    Four important categories of urologic herbs, their history, and modern scientific investigations regarding them are reviewed. Botanical diuretics are discussed with a focus on Solidago spp (goldenrod) herb, Levisticum officinale (lovage) root, Petroselinum crispus (parsley) fruit, and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) herb. Urinary antiseptic and anti-adhesion herbs, particularly Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (uva-uri) leaf, Juniperus spp (juniper) leaf, and Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) fruit are reviewed. The antinephrotoxic botanicals Rheum palmatum (Chinese rhubarb) root and Lespedeza capitata (round-head lespedeza) herb are surveyed, followed by herbs for symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, most notably Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) fruit, Urtica dioica root, and Prunus africana (pygeum) bark.

  6. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  7. Direct contamination - seasonality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1994-01-01

    Direct contamination is the primary pathway to terrestrial vegetation in the first period after an activity release to the atmosphere. All radionuclides are able to be transferred via this pathway. Deposition, interception and retention are the three processes involved in direct contamination of crops. Wet deposition is more important than dry deposition in temperature regions. Resuspension and rainsplash both belong to secondary direct deposition and became evident for e.g. radiocaesium after the Chernobyl accident. Seasonality is the varying response to radioactive contamination of crops according to the time of the year when the contamination occurs. Shortlived radionuclides (as 131 I) and those that mainly enter the foodchain by direct contamination (e.g. 137 Cs) are especially important in this connection. In particular, the contamination of cereal crops is influenced by seasonality. As a result of seasonality the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the radioactive contamination of human diet was for the same deposition density higher in southern than in northern Europe. (orig.)

  8. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  9. Safety against radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The ALWIT anticontamination suit is briefly described, consisting of lasting antistatic ''NDMEX III''. It was specially developed for the fire brigade who are exposed to a particular kind of contamination while carrying out radiation measurements during fire fighting, rescue and clearing up work. The ALWIT suit reliably prevents radioactive contamination of the surface of the body while wearing a breathing apparatus, independent of the ambient air. Tightly fitting cuffs on the neck, arms and legs together with zippers placed behind prevent contamination even with extreme movement. (P.F.K.)

  10. Florivory and sex ratio in Annona dioica St. Hil. (Annonaceae in the Pantanal at Nhecolândia, southwestern Brazil Florivoria e razão sexual em Annona dioica St. Hil. (Annonaceae no Pantanal da Nhecolândia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Ferreira Paulino Neto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Annona dioica St. Hil. is a species that grows to approximately 2 m tall and is very widespread in the cerrados. Individual plants of this androdioecious species produce numerous hermaphroditic or male flowers, but few fruits. The aim of this study was to determine the sex ratio among the plants and to compare the frequency of herbivory between male and hermaphroditic flowers. The fieldwork was done by studying flowering plants in grasslands used as pasture for cattle at Fazenda Nhumirim. One hundred and forty-seven male plants and 71 hermaphroditic plants were examined and produced a total of 194 and 94 flowers, respectively, during the study period. The male:hermaphrodite sex ratio was 2.07:1, and was similar to the male:hermaphrodite flower ratio of 2.06:1. The frequency of florivory rate in hermaphrodites was significantly higher than in male flowers (33.0%, n = 31, and 25.7%, n = 50, respectively; G = 14.83; d.f. = 1; p Annona dioica é uma espécie arbustiva de até dois metros de altura, amplamente distribuída nos cerrados. Esta espécie é conhecida por oferecer muitas flores, mas produzir poucos frutos. Enquadra-se como androdióica, possuindo indivíduos machos e hermafroditas na população. O objetivo deste estudo foi registrar a razão sexual e comparar a taxa de florivoria entre flores masculinas e hermafroditas. A coleta de dados ocorreu em campos de pastagem da Fazenda Nhumirim, consistindo na observação de arbustos floridos. Foram registrados 147 indivíduos masculinos e 71 hermafroditas, os quais apresentavam um total de 194 e 94 flores durante o período de estudo, respectivamente. A razão sexual observada foi de 2,07 indivíduos masculinos para cada hermafrodita, bem como 2,06 flores masculinas para cada flor hermafrodita. A taxa de florivoria foi significativamente maior em flores hermafroditas que em masculinas, com 33,0% (n = 31 e 25,7% (n = 50, respectivamente (G = 14,83; 1gl; p < 0,001. A média do peso fresco de 50

  11. Cleanup of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beone, G.; Carbone, A.I.; Zagaroli, M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of contaminated areas cleanup, in order to eliminate every possible damage for man safety and environment and to site recovery for some utilization, The first step of cleanup operation is site characterization, that is followed by a pianificazion activity for a better definition of staff qualification, technology to be used, protection and prevention instruments for the risks due to contaminants handling. The second section describes the different remedial technologies for contaminated sites. Remedial technologies may be divided into on-site/off-site and in-situ treatments, according to whether materials (waste, soil, water) are moved to another location or not, respectively. Finally, it is outlined that contaminated areas cleanup is a typical multidisciplinary activity because very different competences are required. (author)

  12. Contaminant Candidate List 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 2 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  13. Contaminant Candidate List 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 3 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  14. Contaminant Candidate List 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 1 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  15. Tracers Detect Aquifer Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enfield, Carl

    1995-01-01

    The EPA's National Laboratory (NRMRL) at Ada, OK, along with the University of Florida and the University of Texas, have developed a tracer procedure to detect the amount of contamination in aquifer formations...

  16. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

    2000-01-01

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift

  17. Monitoring of transport contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkin, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Organization of monitoring of transport contamination is considered. A particularly thorough monitoring is recommended to be carried out in loading-unloading operations. The monitoring is performed when leaving loading-unloading site and zone under control and prior to preventive examination, technical service or repair. The method of monitoring of auto transport contamination with high-energy β-emitters by means of a special stand permitting the automation of the monitoring process is described [ru

  18. Reconditioning contaminated gravel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, H.; Bowers, J.S.; Cadwell, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a portable screening system that will recondition radioactively contaminated gravel in the field. The separation technique employed by this system removes dirt, contaminated debris, and other fine particles from gravel. At LLNL, gravel is used in conjunction with the experimental testing of explosives to reduce shock wave propagation. The gravel surrounds the experimental device and buffers the energy generated from the explosion. During an explosion, some of the gravel is broken down into small particles and mixed with contaminants. Contaminants in the used gravel originate from metal sheathing and other parts comprising, the experimental device. These contaminants may consist of radionuclides and metals that are considered hazardous by the State of California when disposed. This paper describes the process that conveys contaminated material into the screener system, sprays the material with recycled water or other mild cleaning chemicals, and separates particles based on size. Particles greater than a specified size are discharged out of the screener separator and recycled back into use, thereby reducing the amount of mixed waste generated and minimizing the need for new gravel. The fines or silt are flushed out of the separator with the water and are removed from the water and consolidated into a drum with the use of a hydrocyclone separator and drum decant system. Because the water in the spray system is recycled, minimal makeup water is needed. The system monitors pH and total dissolved solids

  19. The residual and direct effects of reduced-risk and conventional miticides on twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liburd, O.E.; White, J.C.; Rhodes, E.M.; Browdy, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The residual effects of several reduced-risk and conventional miticides were evaluated in strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne) on the twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and on 2 predatory mites, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse. The greenhouse experiments also tested the direct effects of the miticides on TSSM. The efficacy of conventional and reduced-risk miticides was evaluated on strawberry leaf discs and on whole plants for control of TSSM. Furthermore, the residual effects of these miticides were evaluated on whole strawberry plants against selective predatory mites. For TSSM, 5 treatments were evaluated: a conventional miticide; fenbutatin-oxide (Vendex[reg]) and 3 reduced-risk miticides; binfenazate (Acramite 50WP[reg]), activated garlic extract (Repel[reg]), sesame seed and castor oil (Wipeout[reg]), and a water-treated control. For predatory mites, the residual effects of only Acramite[reg] and Vendex[reg] were evaluated. Acramite[reg] was the most effective acaricide in reducing TSSM populations in both the laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Vendex[reg] and Wipeout[reg] were also effective in the laboratory, but did not cause significant reduction of TSSM in the greenhouse. Repel[reg] was the least effective of the 4 pesticides evaluated. Neither Acramite[reg] nor Vendex[reg] had a significant effect on either predatory mite species. However, there appeared to be more predatory mites on the Vendex[reg]-treated plants than on the Acramite[reg]-treated plants. There were significantly more predatory mites of both species on the cue plants, which were inoculated with TSSM versus the non-cue plants, which were not inoculated. (author) [es

  20. Efeitos do nim sobre tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks e Neoseiulus californicus (Mcgregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae Effects of neem on tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae and the predators Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks and Neoseiulus Californicus (Mcgregor (Acari: phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cristine Hoffmann Schlesener

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de controle e os efeitos adversos de dois produtos à base de nim Azamax® (Azadiractina A/B 12g/L e Neemseto® (Azadiractina A/B, Nimbina e Salanina 2,389 g/L sobre o ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis e Neoseiulus californicus em laboratório. Para o ácaro-rajado, foram consideradas as variáveis mortalidade, fecundidade, efeito ovicida e persistência biológica, enquanto para os fitoseídeos consideraram-se mortalidade e fecundidade. A mortalidade máxima observada para o ácaro-rajado foi de 89,7% e 91,5% para Azamax® e Neemseto®, respectivamente, na concentração de 0,5% após a reaplicação do produto no sétimo dia. Também foram observados efeitos adversos sobre a fecundidade e a viabilidade dos ovos quando tratados com os produtos comerciais (p.c.. A persistência biológica dos produtos foi de aproximadamente três dias após a pulverização. As formulações apresentaram seletividade em relação aos fitoseídeos, porém causaram redução da fecundidade dos mesmos.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of control and adverse effects of two neem based products: Azamax TM (Azadirachtin A/B 12g/L and Neemseto TM (Azadirachtin A/B, Nimbin and Salanin 2,389 g/L over two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and the predators Phytoseiulus macropilis and Neoseiulus californicus in laboratory. Effects over the mortality, fecundity, eggs and biological persistence of the two-spotted spider mite when treated with neem based products were evaluated. For the phytoseiids the effects on mortality and fecundity were evaluated. The maximum mortality of two-spotted spider mites rates observed were 89.7% and 91.5% for Azamax TM and Neemseto TM respectively, on the 0.5% concentration after reapplying the product on the seventh day. Adverse effects were also observed over the fecundity and viability of the eggs when treated with

  1. Fluorescence Imaging Reveals Surface Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirato, Richard; Polichar, Raulf

    1992-01-01

    In technique to detect surface contamination, object inspected illuminated by ultraviolet light to make contaminants fluoresce; low-light-level video camera views fluorescence. Image-processing techniques quantify distribution of contaminants. If fluorescence of material expected to contaminate surface is not intense, tagged with low concentration of dye.

  2. Prevalence of Parasitic Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Yazan

    2016-01-01

    One of the main ways in transmitting parasites to humans is through consuming contaminated raw vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of parasitological contamination (helminthes eggs, Giardia and Entamoeba histolytica cysts) of salad vegetables sold at supermarkets and street vendors in Amman and Baqa’a – Jordan. A total of 133 samples of salad vegetables were collected and examined for the prevalence of parasites. It was found that 29% of the samples were contaminated with different parasites. Of the 30 lettuce, 33 tomato, 42 parsley and 28 cucumber samples examined the prevalence of Ascaris spp. eggs was 43%, 15%, 21% and 4%; Toxocara spp. eggs was 30%, 0%, 0% and 4%; Giardia spp. cysts was 23%, 6%, 0% and 0%; Taenia/Echinococcus eggs was 20%, 0%, 5% and 0%; Fasciola hepatica eggs was 13%, 3%, 2% and 0%; and E. histolytica cysts was 10%, 6%, 0% and 0%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of parasite in salad vegetables either between supermarkets and street vendors, or between Amman and Baqa’a, Ascaris spp. was found to be the highest prevalent parasite in salad vegetables from supermarkets and street vendors and from Amman and Baqa’a. Our results pointed out that, the parasitic contamination of salad vegetables found in our study might be caused by irrigating crops with faecal contaminated water. We concluded that salad vegetables sold in Amman and Baqa’a may cause a health risk to consumers.

  3. Separation of contaminated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakiewicz, J.L.; Reymer, A.P.S.

    1990-01-01

    Separating the contaminated parts from the non-contaminated parts from decommissioned nuclear facilities may strongly reduce the amount of contaminated concrete. The reduction in volume of the radioactive contaminated concrete is dependent on how much cementstone is in the concrete. This research program shows that the radioactive contamination is mostly in the cementstone. However the choice that the cementstone parts, (or better said the radioactive parts) are smaller than 1 mm may not always be true. Normally the cementstone takes about 30% of the total concrete volume. A separation procedure composed by a combination of milling and thermal shock has been assessed. Both the cold and hot thermal shock in combination with milling are not able to separate the cementstone from the larger aggregates completely. However, the cementstone from the concrete with a low nominal grain size seems to be almost completely removed by the combination cold thermal shock/milling, while the cementstone from the concrete with a high nominal grain size seems to be almost completely removed by the combination hot thermal shock/milling. After both methods a layer of cementstone was still visible on the aggregates. Washing followed by a nitric acid treatment removed each 2 wt% of cementstone

  4. Costs of groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, W.B.; Raucher, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Two factors determine the cost of groundwater contamination: (1) the ways in which water was being used or was expected to be used in the future and (2) the physical characteristics of the setting that constrain the responses available to regain lost uses or to prevent related damages to human health and the environment. Most contamination incidents can be managed at a low enough cost that uses will not be foreclosed. It is important to take into account the following when considering costs: (1) natural cleansing through recharge and dilution can take many years; (2) it is difficult and costly to identify the exact area and expected path of a contamination plume; and (3) treatment or replacement of contaminated water often may represent the cost-effective strategy for managing the event. The costs of contamination include adverse health effects, containment and remediation, treatment and replacement costs. In comparing the costs and benefits of prevention programs with those of remediation, replacement or treatment, it is essential to adjust the cost/benefit numbers by the probability of their actual occurrence. Better forecasts of water demand are needed to predict more accurately the scarcity of new supply and the associated cost of replacement. This research should include estimates of the price elasticity of water demand and the possible effect on demand of more rational cost-based pricing structures. Research and development of techniques for in situ remediation should be encouraged

  5. Contamination Control for Thermal Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Rachel B.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). This course will cover the basics of Contamination Control, including contamination control related failures, the effects of contamination on Flight Hardware, what contamination requirements translate to, design methodology, and implementing contamination control into Integration, Testing and Launch.

  6. The Contaminant Cobweb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech Albertsen, Anita Nell

    2017-01-01

    This article maps out character complexity in Penny Dreadful by focusing on the intertextuality of monstrous female characters. The aim of this study is twofold. First, it seeks to examine show how mashup characters gain complexity through textual contamination as they are woven into an intertext......This article maps out character complexity in Penny Dreadful by focusing on the intertextuality of monstrous female characters. The aim of this study is twofold. First, it seeks to examine show how mashup characters gain complexity through textual contamination as they are woven...... into an intertextual cobweb of signification. Secondly, it aims at examining how monstrous complex characters like Vanessa Ives can be conceived as mashups contaminated by different manifestations of the monstrous-feminine as coined by Barbara Creed. An overarching hypothesis of this study is that interfigural...

  7. Phytovolatilization of Organic Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Matt; Burken, Joel

    2016-07-05

    Plants can interact with a variety of organic compounds, and thereby affect the fate and transport of many environmental contaminants. Volatile organic compounds may be volatilized from stems or leaves (direct phytovolatilization) or from soil due to plant root activities (indirect phytovolatilization). Fluxes of contaminants volatilizing from plants are important across scales ranging from local contaminant spills to global fluxes of methane emanating from ecosystems biochemically reducing organic carbon. In this article past studies are reviewed to clearly differentiate between direct- and indirect-phytovolatilization and we discuss the plant physiology driving phytovolatilization in different ecosystems. Current measurement techniques are also described, including common difficulties in experimental design. We also discuss reports of phytovolatilization in the literature, finding that compounds with low octanol-air partitioning coefficients are more likely to be phytovolatilized (log KOA < 5). Reports of direct phytovolatilization at field sites compare favorably to model predictions. Finally, future research needs are presented that could better quantify phytovolatilization fluxes at field scale.

  8. Contamination Analysis Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieda, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    This talk presents 3 different tools developed recently for contamination analysis:HTML QCM analyzer: runs in a web browser, and allows for data analysis of QCM log filesJava RGA extractor: can load in multiple SRS.ana files and extract pressure vs. time dataC++ Contamination Simulation code: 3D particle tracing code for modeling transport of dust particulates and molecules. Uses residence time to determine if molecules stick. Particulates can be sampled from IEST-STD-1246 and be accelerated by aerodynamic forces.

  9. Transportation cask contamination weeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.C.; Doughty, D.H.; Chambers, W.B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the problem of cask contamination weeping, and efforts to understand the phenomenon and to eliminate its occurrence during spent nuclear fuel transport. The paper summarizes analyses of field experience and scoping experiments, and concentrates on current modelling and experimental validation efforts. (J.P.N.)

  10. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  11. Contaminants of Emerging Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-ug/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

  12. Mercury contamination extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Mark [Silver Spring, MD; Heiser, John [Bayport, NY; Kalb, Paul [Wading River, NY

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  13. DSCOVR Contamination Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    The Triana observatory was built at NASA GSFC in the late 1990's, then placed into storage. After approximately ten years it was removed from storage and repurposed as the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). This presentation outlines the contamination control program lessons learned during the integration, test and launch of DSCOVR.

  14. Automatic personnel contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattin, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    United Nuclear Industries, Inc. (UNI) has developed an automatic personnel contamination monitor (APCM), which uniquely combines the design features of both portal and hand and shoe monitors. In addition, this prototype system also has a number of new features, including: micro computer control and readout, nineteen large area gas flow detectors, real-time background compensation, self-checking for system failures, and card reader identification and control. UNI's experience in operating the Hanford N Reactor, located in Richland, Washington, has shown the necessity of automatically monitoring plant personnel for contamination after they have passed through the procedurally controlled radiation zones. This final check ensures that each radiation zone worker has been properly checked before leaving company controlled boundaries. Investigation of the commercially available portal and hand and shoe monitors indicated that they did not have the sensitivity or sophistication required for UNI's application, therefore, a development program was initiated, resulting in the subject monitor. Field testing shows good sensitivity to personnel contamination with the majority of alarms showing contaminants on clothing, face and head areas. In general, the APCM has sensitivity comparable to portal survey instrumentation. The inherit stand-in, walk-on feature of the APCM not only makes it easy to use, but makes it difficult to bypass. (author)

  15. Subsurface Contamination Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Yuan

    2001-12-12

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the

  16. Emerging Contaminants and Federal Facility Contaminants of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page links to fact sheets summarizing contaminants of concern and emerging contaminants that present unique issues and challenges to the environmental community in general and to FFRRO in particular.

  17. Probability mapping of contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, C.A.; Kaplan, P.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McGraw, M.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Istok, J.D. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Sigda, J.M. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Exhaustive characterization of a contaminated site is a physical and practical impossibility. Descriptions of the nature, extent, and level of contamination, as well as decisions regarding proposed remediation activities, must be made in a state of uncertainty based upon limited physical sampling. The probability mapping approach illustrated in this paper appears to offer site operators a reasonable, quantitative methodology for many environmental remediation decisions and allows evaluation of the risk associated with those decisions. For example, output from this approach can be used in quantitative, cost-based decision models for evaluating possible site characterization and/or remediation plans, resulting in selection of the risk-adjusted, least-cost alternative. The methodology is completely general, and the techniques are applicable to a wide variety of environmental restoration projects. The probability-mapping approach is illustrated by application to a contaminated site at the former DOE Feed Materials Production Center near Fernald, Ohio. Soil geochemical data, collected as part of the Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project, have been used to construct a number of geostatistical simulations of potential contamination for parcels approximately the size of a selective remediation unit (the 3-m width of a bulldozer blade). Each such simulation accurately reflects the actual measured sample values, and reproduces the univariate statistics and spatial character of the extant data. Post-processing of a large number of these equally likely statistically similar images produces maps directly showing the probability of exceeding specified levels of contamination (potential clean-up or personnel-hazard thresholds).

  18. Probability mapping of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.; Kaplan, P.G.; McGraw, M.A.; Istok, J.D.; Sigda, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Exhaustive characterization of a contaminated site is a physical and practical impossibility. Descriptions of the nature, extent, and level of contamination, as well as decisions regarding proposed remediation activities, must be made in a state of uncertainty based upon limited physical sampling. The probability mapping approach illustrated in this paper appears to offer site operators a reasonable, quantitative methodology for many environmental remediation decisions and allows evaluation of the risk associated with those decisions. For example, output from this approach can be used in quantitative, cost-based decision models for evaluating possible site characterization and/or remediation plans, resulting in selection of the risk-adjusted, least-cost alternative. The methodology is completely general, and the techniques are applicable to a wide variety of environmental restoration projects. The probability-mapping approach is illustrated by application to a contaminated site at the former DOE Feed Materials Production Center near Fernald, Ohio. Soil geochemical data, collected as part of the Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project, have been used to construct a number of geostatistical simulations of potential contamination for parcels approximately the size of a selective remediation unit (the 3-m width of a bulldozer blade). Each such simulation accurately reflects the actual measured sample values, and reproduces the univariate statistics and spatial character of the extant data. Post-processing of a large number of these equally likely statistically similar images produces maps directly showing the probability of exceeding specified levels of contamination (potential clean-up or personnel-hazard thresholds)

  19. Tabla de vida y parámetros poblacionales fundamentales de Tetranychus urticae koch (Acari: tetranychidae sobre rosa Sp. en condiciones de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Páramo Gabriel

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los ácaros más ampliamente distribuidos y que causan pérdidas en cultivos bajo Invernadero en la Sabana de Bogotá es T. urt/ca8 Koch. Utilizando la técnica del disco de hoja con follaje de rosa se determinó el ciclo de vida de esta especie y se elaboró la tabla de vida. El experimento se mantuvo en condiciones ambientales controladas con una temperatura de 23 ± 2°C y humedad relativa de 85 ± 5%. La duración de los diferentes estadios fue: Huevo 7.39 dlas, larva 1.87, nlnfocrlsállda 1.57, protonlnfa 1.53, deutocrlsállda 1.52, deutonlnfa 1.73 y tellocrlsállda 1.84 dlas. El periodo de ovlposición fue de 35 días con un promedio de 3.52
    huevos/hembra/día. Se construyó la curva de supervlvlencla para todo el ciclo de vida y se calcularon algunos parámetros poblaclonales tales como tasa neta de reproducción (Ro' tiempo medio generacional (T, tasa Intrinseca de crecimiento natural (rrn, tasa finita de multiplicación (A y distribución estable de edades.The two spotted spider mite, tetrenychus urticae Koch is one of the most widely dlstributed mites in the world and one of the maln causes of losses in commercial greenhouses in Bogota. Using the leaf dlsc technique some basic biologlcal data were studied under laboratory conditions with a temperature of 23 ±2°C and a relative humidlly of 85 ± 5%. Life cycle was
    determined uslng rose leaves as host plant. Ovlposition time for females was 35 days with an average of 3.52 eggs per female per day. Net reproductlve rate (Ro, mean length of a generation
    (T, Intrinsic rate of natural increase (r..,.,, finite rate of reproduction ('A and stable age distribution were calculated.

  20. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Program Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA uses the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring (UCM) program to collect data for contaminants suspected to be present in drinking water, but that do not have...

  1. Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) Finding of No Practicable Alternative (FONPA): Construct of a New Fire Station, Demolition of Buildings 530 and 606 and Relocation of the Hazardous Cargo Area at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-18

    vegetated (grass) buffer with a perimeter filter strip. Palustrine emergent marsh (PEM) wetlands are characterized by erect, rooted , herbaceous...Rosa woodsii) are common in the under story in this area. Wood nettle (Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), beggars’ ticks (Bidens

  2. Programmatic Environmental Assessment, 2007 General Plan for the Main Cantonment and the South Base Cantonment at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-05

    cunicularia) and mountain plover (Charadrius montanus). Central Coast Scrub This vegetation type is characterized by shallow- rooted , mesophylic plant...Wild blackberry (Rubus ursinus), mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana), and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) are common understory components of...feed until maturation. Upon maturation, larvae burrow into the soil and pupate, usually within the root and debris zone of the host plant (Mattoni

  3. Construction of a New Fire Station, Demolition of Buildings 530 and 606 and Relocation of the Hazardous Cargo Area at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. Finding of No Significant Impact (FOSNI). Finding of No Practical Alternative(FONPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-23

    wetlands are characterized by erect, rooted , herbaceous hydrophytes, excluding mosses and lichens. This vegetation is present for most of the growing...highly invasive exotic species), chokecherry and wood rose (Rosa woodsii) are common in the under story in this area. Wood nettle (Laportea canadensis...stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), beggars’ ticks (Bidens frondosa) and waterleaf (Hydrophyllum viginianum) are typical forbes. A prairie

  4. Final Environmental Assessment of Installation Development at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    buckthorn (a highly invasive exotic species), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), and wood rose (Rosa woodsii) are common understory species. Wood nettle ...Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), beggars-ticks (Bidens frondosa), and waterleaf (Hydrophyllum viginianum) are typical forbs...fertility, good water-holding capacity, and deep or thick effective rooting zones, and that are not subject to periodic flooding. Under the Farmland

  5. Finding of No Significant Impact: SLC-4 to SLC-6 Replacement Waterline Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-28

    marianum). stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum ). poison oak and introduced grasses dominate the understory. This site is...thistle * Coni cos a pugioniformis Slender leaved iceplant * * C ’onium maculatum Poison hemlock * Coreopsis gigantean Giant coreopsis * * C ’ortaderia

  6. Investigating the origin of Pb pollution in a terrestrial soil-plant-snail food chain by means of Pb isotope ratios.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Walraven, N.; Beets, K.; Vroon, P.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2008-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios were used to trace the origin of Pb in a soil-plant (Urtica dioica)-snail (Cepaea nemoralis) food chain in two polluted locations in the floodplains of the rivers Meuse and Rhine (Biesbosch National Park) and one reference location in the Netherlands. Lead isotope ratios and

  7. Investigating the origin of Pb pollution in a terrestrial soil­-plant-­snail food chain by means of Pb isotope ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Walraven, N.; Beets, C.J.; Vroon, P.Z.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2008-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios were used to trace the origin of Pb in a soil-plant (Urtica dioica)-snail (Cepaea nemoralis) food chain in two polluted locations in the floodplains of the rivers Meuse and Rhine (Biesbosch National Park) and one reference location in the Netherlands. Lead isotope ratios and

  8. RAPD-PCR and real-time Pcr Hrm based genetic variation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urtica dioica is an ethnobotanically and medicinally important Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) plant worldwide and in Turkey; 90 % of herbal CAM applications depend on it in Turkey. It has a wide range of habitats in nearly all continents. It is found in all three phytogeographical regions in Turkey (Euro- ...

  9. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica Against Clinical Isolates of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Ali Salehzadeh, L Asadpour, AS Naeemi, E Houshmand, 38- ...

  10. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lamium album or Urtica dioica? Which is more effective in decreasing serum glucose, lipid and hepatic enzymes in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats: A comparative study · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. MM Mehran, MR Norasfard, M Abedinzade, ...

  11. Is Phytalgic(R) a goldmine for osteoarthritis patients or is there something fishy about this nutraceutical? A summary of findings and risk-of-bias assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Robin; Bliddal, Henning

    2010-01-01

    A food supplement containing fish oils, urtica dioica, zinc, and vitamin E (Phytalgic) for osteoarthritis (OA) has now been tested in a placebo-controlled trial for 3 months and according to the authors has a very large clinical effect, considerably larger than that of any other known product. Even...

  12. Bioassay guided isolation and identification of anti-inflammatory and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study describes the anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial activity and lipophilic profile with acute toxicological studies of Urtica dioica. Successive extraction of the leaves with organic solvents of increasing polarity and their screening for anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activity was assessed. Hexane extract ...

  13. Heavy metal concentrations in a soil-plant-snail food chain along a terrestrial soil pollution gradient.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Oosthoek, A.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb in the compartments of a soil-plant (Urtica dioica)-snail (Cepaea nemoralis) food chain in four polluted locations in the Biesbosch floodplains, the Netherlands, and two reference locations. Total soil metal concentrations in the polluted locations

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akdeniz, G. Vol 10, No 2 (2013) - Articles RAPD-PCR and real-time Pcr Hrm based genetic variation evaluations of Urtica dioica parts, ecotypes and evaluations of morphotypes in Turkey Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Sambucus ebulus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Increase in the emergence of drug - resistant pathogens led to the development of natural antimicrobials. In this study the antimicrobial effect of methanolic extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica on 16 skin and wound infections isolates of methicillin resistant. S. aureus have been studied. Material and ...

  16. Environmental Assessment: Construct Airfield Lighting Vault and Demolish Building 531 at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    worms, segmented worms, snails, clams, and immature and adult insects , fish, amphibians, turtles, and aquatic birds and mammals. Dominant trees in...exotic species), chokecherry, and wood rose (Rosa woodsii) are common in the under story in this area. Wood nettle (Laportea canadensis), stinging... nettle (Urtica dioica), beggars’ ticks (Bidens frondosa), and waterleaf (Hydrophyllum viginianum) are typical forbes. A prairie restoration project

  17. Environmental Assessment - Construct a Ground-to-Air Transmitter and Receiver (GATR) Facility at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-06

    sponges, flatworms, nematode worms, segmented worms, snails, clams, and immature and adult insects , fish, amphibians, turtles, and aquatic birds and...buckthorn (a highly invasive exotic species), chokecherry, and wood rose (Rosa woodsii) are common in the under story in this area. Wood nettle ...Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), beggars’ ticks (Bidens frondosa), and waterleaf (Hydrophyllum viginianum) are typical forbes. A

  18. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 2. A Physical Description of Main Stem Levee Borrow Pits along the Lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    Eastern cottonwood, green ash, sugarberry. box elder, bald cypress, willow honey locust, slippery elm , overcup oak and bitter pecan. Principle...vines and understory. Woody vegetation surrounds the borrow pit and consists of American and slippery elms , silver maple, black willow, cottonwood, pin...aquatica Water elm Ulmus rubra Slippery elm Urtica dioica Stinging nettle Vaccinium sp. Blueberry Vaccinium spp. Vaccinum Vernonia altissima Ironweed

  19. The effect of L-carnitine on carbonic anhydrase level in rats exposed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... effects of dantrolene on carbonic anhydrase enzyme activities. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 27: 613-616. Gülçin I, Küfrevioğlu Öİ, Oktay M (2005). Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from nettle (Urtica dioica L.) and inhibition effects of some chemicals on the enzyme activity. J. Enzym. Inhib. Med.

  20. Near-Critical Extraction of Pigments and Oleoresin from Stinging Nettle Leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Helena; Sajfrtová, Marie; Bártlová, Milena; Opletal, L.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 2 (2004), s. 213-224 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/01/0550 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : Urtica dioica leaves * carbon dioxide * carotenoids Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2004

  1. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arzu

    Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiulcer and analgesic activities of nettle (Urtica dioica L.). J. Ethnopharmacol. 90: 205-215. 15. Hao, G., Yuan, Y.M., Hu, C.M., Ge, X.J. and Zhao, N.X. (2004). Molecular phylogeny of Lysimachia (Myrsinaceae) based on chloroplast. trnL-F and nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences. Mol. Phylogenet.

  2. Study on antioxidant activity of Echinacea purpurea L. extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... capacity changes and phenolic profile of Echinacea purpurea, nettle. (Urtica dioica L.), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) after application of polyamine and phenolic biosynthesis regulators. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55: 5689-5696. Kaiser MG, Cheeseman JH, Kaiser P, Lamont SJ (2006). Cytokine.

  3. Eskişehir'de Halk Arasında Kullanılan Bazı Bitkilerdeki Ağır Metal ve Besin Elementlerinin Belirlenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale SEÇİLMİŞ CANBAY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the leaves of sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella L, nettle (Urtica dioica L, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and walnut (Juglansregia L. that are used as medicinal plant and especially as food were collected from the gardens and their commercial samples were purchased from Eskişehir bazaar

  4. Contamination Control: a systems approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donck, J.C.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Contamination influences a wide variety of industrial processes. For complex systems, contamination control, the collective effort to control contamination to such a level that it guarantees or even improves process or product functionality, offers a way for finding workable solutions. Central in

  5. The contamination factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In 1989 the Senate Committee on Armed Services asked the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to investigate the environmental and public health impacts of contamination at the nation's nuclear weapons complex and to review the Department of Energy's (DOE) program to clean up past contamination and manage huge quantities of radioactive and hazardous wastes. The DOE Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Program is a massive, multibillion-dollar effort engaging state governments and several federal agencies, and including some of the most technically challenging environmental characterization and remediation projects ever attempted. Congress recognized the enormity of DOE's environmental and legal problems and is interested in insuring that the cleanup program is both adequate and efficient. This summary of the OTA report has been adapted for publication in the Bulletin

  6. Internal radioactive contamination treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobajas, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    In a radiological emergency, the internal radioactive contamination becomes a therapeutic urgency and must be established as fast as possible. Just when a radioactive contamination accident occurs, it is difficult to know exactly the amount of radioactive materials absorbed and to estimate the dose received.. The decision to be taken after the incorporation of the radioactive material depends on the method and on the Radiological Protection Department collaboration. Any treatment achieving a reduction of the doses received or expected will be useful. The International Radiological Protection Commission doesn't recommend the use of the dose limit, to decide about the intervention necessity. However the LIA can be used as the reference point to establish the necessity and reach of the treatment. The object of the present work, is to introduce the general principles to carry out the internal people decontamination, under the last international recommendations. (Author) 4 refs

  7. Electrolyze radioactive contamination away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedman, D.E.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.

    1996-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility is using electrolysis to clean the surfaces of hazardous materials. In the past, contaminated metals were cleaned with concentrated acids. Although these treatments make the surfaces safer, they produce other radioactive and toxic wastes in turn. Anodic current passes through a piece of stainless steel submersed in a sodium nitrate solution, and steel dissolves at the surfaces. Surface contamination strips away along with the surface layers. The authors are using this electrolysis approach to remove plutonium and americium from stainless steel and uranium. Unlike acid washing processes, electrolytic decontamination can be accomplished quickly. Little waste is generated regardless of how much material has to be removed from the surface. Material removal is proportional to the applied current, which gives the operator control over the rate and extent of decontamination

  8. Emerging contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Lapworth, Dan; Stuart, Marianne; Hart, Alwyn; Crane, Emily; Baran, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The term ‘emerging contaminants’ (ECs) is used to cover not only newly developed compounds but also includes newly discovered compounds in the environment (often due to analytical developments), and compounds that have been recently categorised as contaminants. ECs include a huge array of different compounds (and their metabolites) that are used by society for a range of purposes and include; pharmaceuticals, pesticides, personal care products, veterinary medicines, engineered nano-materials,...

  9. Indexing contamination surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The responsibility for safely managing the Tank Farms at Hanford belongs to Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation which is part of the six company Project Hanford Management Team led by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc.. These Tank Farm Facilities contain numerous outdoor contamination areas which are surveyed at a periodicity consistent with the potential radiological conditions, occupancy, and risk of changes in radiological conditions. This document describes the survey documentation and data tracking method devised to track the results of contamination surveys this process is referred to as indexing. The indexing process takes a representative data set as an indicator for the contamination status of the facility. The data are further manipulated into a single value that can be tracked and trended using standard statistical methodology. To report meaningful data, the routine contamination surveys must be performed in a manner that allows the survey method and the data collection process to be recreated. Three key criteria are necessary to accomplish this goal: Accurate maps, consistent documentation, and consistent consolidation of data meeting these criteria provides data of sufficient quality to be tracked. Tracking of survey data is accomplished by converting the individual survey results into a weighted value, corrected for the actual number of survey points. This information can be compared over time using standard statistical analysis to identify trends. At the Tank Farms, the need to track and trend the facility's radiological status presents unique challenges. Many of these Tank Farm facilities date back to the second world war. The Tank Farm Facilities are exposed to weather extremes, plant and animal intrusion, as well as all of the normal challenges associated with handling radiological waste streams. Routine radiological surveys did not provide a radiological status adequate for continuing comparisons

  10. Eliminating PCR contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.C.; Ait-Khaled, Mounir; Webster, Alison; Emery, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can mean that even very low levels of contamination with the target DNA will result in a positive signal. At present this aspect is a major limitation in the use of PCR as a routine diagnostic method. By exposing PCR reagents to UV light, contaminating DNA can be inactivated, thus providing an opportunity to eradicate false positive reactions. UV irradiation was applied to PCR systems used for detection of human cytomegalovirus CMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and shown to be effective in eradicating both laboratory encountered contamination and plasmid DNA (below 100 pg) added to PCR systems prior to UV exposure. Sensitivity of a PCR system to amplify the long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence of HIV-1 was not affected by the irradiation procedure; however, ultimate sensitivity of a PCR system for the amplification of an early gene pro-motor sequence of the CMV genome was reduced 1000-fold. UV irradiation did not affect the size of the PCR product as determined by strand separating polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a 32 P-labelled amplimer. Thus, a simple pre-exposure to UV light would seem a worth-wile step to incorporate into PCR protocols provided that the effects on sensitivity have been determined empirically for each PCR system. (author). 11 refs.; 3 figs

  11. Thorium-230 contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noey, K.C.; Liedle, S.D.; Hickey, C.R.; Doane, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    The authors are currently performing radiological surveys on approximately ninety properties in the St. Louis, Missouri area as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The properties involved are the St. Louis Airport Site, Latty Avenue Properties, St. Louis Downtown Site, Coldwater Creek, and the associated roads and vicinity properties. The primary radioactive contaminant on these properties is thorium-230. Since field instrumentation is not available to detect the presence of alpha-emitting contamination in soil, soil samples are being collected and sent to an analytical laboratory for analysis. Thorium-230 analysis is costly and time-consuming, and as a result, soil sample analysis results are not available to help direct the field sampling program. This paper provides discussion of the manner in which the properties became radioactively contaminated, followed by a discussion of the difficulties associated with the detection of thorium-230. Finally, new methodologies for detecting alpha-emitting radionuclides in the field are described

  12. Contaminant Hazard Reviews (compilation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.; Munro, R.E.; Loges, L.M.; Boone, K.; Paul, M.M.; Garrett, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    This compact disc (CD) contains the 35 reports in the Contaminant Hazard Reviews (CHR) that were published originally between 1985 and 1999 in the U.S. Department of the Interior Biological Report series. The CD was produced because printed supplies of these reviews--a total of 105,000--became exhausted and demand remained high. Each review was prepared at the request of environmental specialists of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and each contained specific information on the following: mirex, cadmium, carbofuran, toxaphene, selenium, chromium, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, diazinon, mercury, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic, chlorpyrifos, lead, tin, index issue, pentachlorophenol, atrazine, molybdenum, boron, chlordane, paraquat, cyanide, fenvalerate, diflubenzuron, zinc, famphur, acrolein, radiation, sodium monofluoroacetate, planar PCBs, silver, copper, nickel, and a cumulative index to chemicals and species. Each report reviewed and synthesized the technical literature on a single contaminant and its effects on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, aquatic plants and animals, avian and mammalian wildlife, and other natural resources. The subtopics include contaminant sources and uses; physical, chemical, and metabolic properties; concentrations in field collections of abiotic materials and living organisms; deficiency effects, where appropriate; lethal and sublethal effects, including effects on survival, growth, reproduction, metabolism, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity; proposed criteria for the protection of human health and sensitive natural resources; and recommendations for additional research.

  13. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors

  14. Contamination trapped in a cage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sender, E.

    2003-01-01

    Some abandoned industrial sites are so strongly contaminated that they threaten to contaminate underground waters. Pollutants are driven through the soil by raining waters. The principle of the ''hydro-Faraday'' cage is to prevent raining waters from flowing through the contaminated part of the soil. The cage is in fact a structure of buried drain tubes that envelop the contaminated zone. Physics make waters flow through the tubes rather than the soil, so the contaminated zone receives no more water and as a consequence pollutants are stopped in their way towards the phreatic bed. (A.C.)

  15. Understanding Mechanisms of Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer; John Drake; Ryan James, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, the study of radiological contamination and decontamination has expanded significantly. This paper addresses the mechanisms of radiological contamination that have been reported and then discusses which methods have recently been used during performance testing of several different decontamination technologies. About twenty years ago the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL began a search for decontamination processes which could minimize secondary waste. In order to test the effectiveness of these decontamination technologies, a new simulated contamination, termed SIMCON, was developed. SIMCON was designed to replicate the types of contamination found on stainless steel, spent fuel processing equipment. Ten years later, the INL began research into methods for simulating urban contamination resulting from a radiological dispersal device (RDD). This work was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and included the initial development an aqueous application of contaminant to substrate. Since 2007, research sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has advanced that effort and led to the development of a contamination method that simulates particulate fallout from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND). The IND method diverges from previous efforts to create tenacious contamination by simulating a reproducible “loose” contamination. Examining these different types of contamination (and subsequent decontamination processes), which have included several different radionuclides and substrates, sheds light on contamination processes that occur throughout the nuclear industry and in the urban environment.

  16. Nouvelle technique d'élevage de l'acarien phyllophage Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari : Tetranychidae et son application à l'étude de l'efficacité de quelques acaricides sur pomme de terre (Solarium tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badegana, AM.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A New Rearing Technique of Phytophagous Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari : Tetranychida and its Application in the Study of the Efficacy of some Acaricides on Potato [Solanum tuberosum L.. A 5 cm diameter leaf disc of potato or another host plant (or four on 2.5 cm diameter was used in a Petri dish of 9 cm diameter for the rearing technique. This leaf disc, pierced in its centre, slides along a rustproof pin and floats on a 1 mm thick lamina of demineralized fresh water. Water is a "strong barrier" which confines the tetranychid mites on the leaf disc, even if this one does not corne from a host plant (tetranychid mites deprived of food. This rearing technique was used as a bioassay to test the effectiveness of acaricides (pyrimiphos-methyl, bromopropylate, fenpropathrin, dienochlor on the developmental stages of Tetranychus urticae. The ovicidal activity against the eggs of one, three, seven days old (the eggs incubation duration being 8.1 ±0.15 days was also studied. The results obtained show that bromopropylate, fenpropathrin and dienochlor have an ovicidal activity against the eggs of the different ages, but dienochlor has the highest efficiency (90 % mortality. Pyrimiphos-methyl is only active against the seven-day old eggs and bromopropylate has a high efficiency only on the one-day old eggs. Concerning the other developmental stages such as chrysalis (protochrysalis, deu-tochrysalis, teleiochrysalis and mobile stages (larva, protonymph, deutonymph and adult female, pyrimiphos-methyl has de highest efficiency (90 % mortality ; dienochlor also, except mobile stages. Bromopropylate has no activity against the chrysalis and mobile stages and fenpropathrin has a remarkable repulsive effect.

  17. NCRP soil contamination task group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recently established a Task Group on Soil Contamination to describe and evaluate the migration pathways and modes of radiation exposure that can potentially arise due to radioactive contamination of soil. The purpose of this paper is to describe the scientific principles for evaluation of soil contamination which can be used as a basis for derivation of soil contamination limits for specific situations. This paper describes scenarios that can lead to soil contamination, important characteristics of soil contamination, the subsequent migration pathways and exposure modes, and the application of principles in the report in deriving soil contamination limits. The migration pathways and exposure modes discussed in this paper include: direct radiation exposure; and exhalation of gases

  18. Contamination monitoring activities in Kanupp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, S S [Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Pakistan)

    1997-06-01

    The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Kanupp) is a 137 MWe pressurized heavy water reactor, designed and erected by the Canadian General Electric Company as a turn key project. The plant is in operation since it was commissioned in the year 1972. It is located at the Arabian Sea Coast about 15 miles to the west of Karachi. During its more than two decades of operation, the plant has generated about 8 billion units of electricity with an average life time availability factor of 60%. In Kanupp, radioactive contamination may exit due to the release of fission product, activation products etc., which may somehow escape from its confinement and may contaminate surface or other media such as air, water etc. In this paper, following items are described: main aspects of contamination, status of contamination monitoring, need of contamination monitoring, radiation protection activity, instruments, contamination, current status of contamination survey materials and their disposal, and environmental monitoring. (G.K.)

  19. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  20. Leaf and stem CO/sub 2/ uptake in the three subfamilies of the Cactaceae. [Pereskia aculeata; Pereskia grandifolia; Maihuenia poeppigii; Carnegiea gigantea; Ferocactus acanthodes; Coryphantha vivipara; Mammillaria dioica; Opuntia ficus-inidica; Pereskiopsis porteri; Quiabentia chacoensis; Austrocylindropuntia subulata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.; Hartsock, T.L.

    1986-04-01

    Net CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24-hour periods was examined for the leaves and for the stems of 11 species of cacti representing all three subfamilies. For Pereskia aculeata, Pereskia grandifolia, and Maihuenia poeppigii (subfamily Pereskioideae), all the net shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the leaves and during the daytime. In contrast, for the leafless species Carnegiea gigantea, Ferocactus acanthodes, Coryphantha vivipara, and Mammillaria dioica (subfamily Cactoideae), all the shoot net CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the stems and at night. Similarly, for leafless Opuntia ficus-indica (subfamily Opuntioideae), all net CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. For leafy members of the Opuntioideae (Pereskiopsis porteri, Quiabentia chacoensis, Austrocylindropuntia subulata), at least 88% of the shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24 hours was by the leaves and some CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. Leaves responded to the instantaneous level of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) during the daytime, as occurs for C/sub 3/ plants, whereas nocturnal CO/sub 2/ uptake by stems of O. ficus-indica and F. acanthodes responded to the total daily PAR, as occurs for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants. Thus, under the well-watered conditions employed, the Pereskioideae behaved as C/sub 3/ plants, the Cactoideae behaved as CAM plants, and the Opuntioideae exhibited characteristics of both pathways.