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Sample records for contaminated stored pistachio

  1. Prevention and Control of Fungi Contaminated Stored Pistachio Nuts Imported to Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawar, Lubna Saleh

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the contamination risk of the improper storage of pistachio nuts was studied in the major location of Saudi Arabia by studying the fungi associated with non and salted pistachio nuts. The infection with Aspergillus flavus and A. niger and treatment of this infection with some abiotic factors , salting and fumigation with acetic acid on the invasion and colonization were also stu ded. High percentage infection (100%) were found in salted pistachio of Maidenhead , while low infection (68.75%) was found in non salted pistachio of Jihad. Referring to the total fungal counts (9845.5 and 5681.8 CFU/g nuts) were detected on malt extract yeast agar and rose bengal agar media respectively. Aspergillus niger and A. flavus were found common in all pistachio samples collected from the three locations on the two media used. The both fungi were grew at temperatures between 20 and 35 degree C, also as the relative humidity increased the fungal growth increased reached its maximum at 100% RH. Sodium chloride at 20 and 25 % completely stopped the linear of the both fungi on malt yeast extract agar medium. Application of nuts with sodium chloride was found to increased the resistance of pistachio nut to invasion and colonization by the fungi during storage. Also, the resistance to invasion was increased by increasing the doses of fumigation with acetic acid applied to the pistachio nuts reached 0% infection at the higher dose of acetic acid (60%). (author)

  2. Prevention and Control of Fungi Contaminated Stored Pistachio Nuts Imported to Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawar, Lubna Saleh [Dept. of Biology, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the contamination risk of the improper storage of pistachio nuts was studied in the major location of Saudi Arabia by studying the fungi associated with non and salted pistachio nuts. The infection with Aspergillus flavus and A. niger and treatment of this infection with some abiotic factors , salting and fumigation with acetic acid on the invasion and colonization were also stu ded. High percentage infection (100%) were found in salted pistachio of Maidenhead , while low infection (68.75%) was found in non salted pistachio of Jihad. Referring to the total fungal counts (9845.5 and 5681.8 CFU/g nuts) were detected on malt extract yeast agar and rose bengal agar media respectively. Aspergillus niger and A. flavus were found common in all pistachio samples collected from the three locations on the two media used. The both fungi were grew at temperatures between 20 and 35 degree C, also as the relative humidity increased the fungal growth increased reached its maximum at 100% RH. Sodium chloride at 20 and 25 % completely stopped the linear of the both fungi on malt yeast extract agar medium. Application of nuts with sodium chloride was found to increased the resistance of pistachio nut to invasion and colonization by the fungi during storage. Also, the resistance to invasion was increased by increasing the doses of fumigation with acetic acid applied to the pistachio nuts reached 0% infection at the higher dose of acetic acid (60%). (author)

  3. Real-time, in-situ detection of volatile profiles for the prevention of aflatoxin fungal contamination in pistachios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Tiziana C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center of Micro and Nano Technology, Material Engineering Division; Chang, Allan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center of Micro and Nano Technology, Material Engineering Division; Zhou, Jenny [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center of Micro and Nano Technology, Material Engineering Division

    2017-10-18

    The objective in this project is to provide a proof of concept will demonstrate the feasibility of a Raman, in-situ warning system for detecting and removing developing fungal hot spots from pistachio stockpiles and transit containers, thus decreasing human health risks and product loss as a result of contamination. The proposed project has the following goals: to calibrate the Raman fingerprinting of biomarkers, standalone and in premixed samples, to build a database with the vibrational profiles distinctive to the signatures of the bouquet emitted by the contaminated pistachios; to test the improvement in the detection of the detectable markers with enhanced Raman on a small probe.

  4. Silo-stored pistachios at varying humidity levels produce distinct volatile biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin contamination in California tree nuts results in millions of dollars of lost product annually. The current method for detection of aflatoxin is destructive, expensive and time-intensive. Previous studies have demonstrated that volatile profiles of fungal-contaminated tissues are different ...

  5. Inhibition of the Aspergillus flavus Growth and Aflatoxin B1 Contamination on Pistachio Nut by Fengycin and Surfactin-Producing Bacillus subtilis UTBSP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Farzaneh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the treatment of pistachio nuts by Bacillus subtilis UTBSP1, a promising isolate to degrade aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, caused to reduce the growth of Aspergillus flavus R5 and AFB1 content on pistachio nuts. Fluorescence probes revealed that the cell free supernatant fluid from UTBSP1 affects spore viability considerably. Using high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method, 10 fractions were separated and collected from methanol extract of cell free supernatant fluid. Two fractions showed inhibition zones against A. flavus. Mass spectrometric analysis of the both antifungal fractions revealed a high similarity between these anti-A. flavus compounds and cyclic-lipopeptides of surfactin, and fengycin families. Coproduction of surfactin and fengycin acted in a synergistic manner and consequently caused a strong antifungal activity against A. flavus R5. There was a positive significant correlation between the reduction of A. flavus growth and the reduction of AFB1 contamination on pistachio nut by UTBSP1. The results indicated that fengycin and surfactin-producing B. subtilis UTBSP1 can potentially reduce A. flavus growth and AFB1 content in pistachio nut.

  6. Pistachio Product Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes food subject to recall in the United States since March 2009 related to pistachios distributed by Setton Pistachio of Terra Bella, Inc. The FDA...

  7. Evaluation of aflatoxin B1 in different parts of pistachio fruit and effects of processing stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dargahi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio nut as the most important agricultural export products is facing challenges trough production and conception. Toxigenic Aspergillus species are able to grow and produce dangerous mycotoxins on pistachio nut. Distribution of aflatoxin in different pistachio samples collected pre- (early splitting and healthy pistachios in orchards and post-harvest (steps in processing plants was evaluated. Aflatoxin B1 content of samples was quantified using ELISA.  Overall, high content of aflatoxin B1 in pre-harvest was observed in early splitting pistachios which were 5 times higher than healthy ones. The mean value of aflatoxin B1 content in early splitting and healthy pistachio was 10.2 and 1.8 ng/g, respectively. In processing plant, the content of aflatoxin B1 in stained, small, floater and open shell pistachios was 21, 4, 15 and 2 times higher than unstained, large, sinker and closed shell pistachios, respectively. The presence of aflatoxin B1 in samples taken from orchards and processing plants indicates pre-harvest contamination by aflatoxin-producing fungi, which may exacerbate by inadequate post-harvest conditions. Physical properties of contaminated pistachios may be used to reduce aflatoxin levels in pistachio bulks during or after processing. ELISA, as practical, sensitive and cheap method, may apply to determine the aflatoxin content of pistachios.

  8. Stores

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Following the introduction of Condensators, resistors and potentiometers from the Farnell electronic-catalogue into CERN Stores' catalogue, following products are now available: PRODUCT FAMILY GROUP SCEM Oscillators and quartz crystals 07.94.10 / 07.94.12 Diodes 08.51.14 / 08.51.54 Thyristors 08.51.60 / 08.51.66 Opto-electronics 08.52 Transistors 08.53 Integrated circuits 08.54 / 08.55 These articles can be procured in the same way as any other stores item, by completing a Material Request. N.B. Individual Farnell order codes can be used as keywords to facilitate searches in the CERN Stores Catalogue.

  9. Treatment of Arsenazo III contaminated heavy water stored at Darlington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanarayan, S.; Husain, A.; Williams, D.

    2010-01-01

    Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (DNGS) has accumulated over 48 drums of chemistry laboratory waste arising from analysis of heavy water (D 2 O). Several organic, including Arsenazo III, and inorganic contaminants present in these drums results in high total organic carbon (TOC) and conductivity. These drums have not been processed due to uncertainties related to clean-up of Arsenazo III contaminated heavy water. This paper provides details of chemical characterization as well as bench scale studies performed to demonstrate the feasibility of treating the downgraded D 2 O to the stringent target specifications of <1 ppm TOC and <0.1mS/m conductivity, required for feed to the Station Upgrading Plant (SUP). Both ionic organic species such as glycolate, acetate and formate as well as neutral organics such as acetone, methanol and ethylene glycol were detected in all the samples. Morpholine and propylene glycol were detected in one sample. Arsenazo III was determined to be not a major contaminant (maximum 8.4 ppm) in these waste drums, compared to the other organic contaminants present. Various unit processes such as pH adjustment, granular activated carbon (GAC), ion exchange resin (IX), UV-peroxide oxidation (UV-H 2 O 2 ) treatments, nanofiltration (NF) as well as reverse osmosis (RO) were tested on a bench scale both singly as well as in various combinations to evaluate their ability to achieve the stringent target conductivity and TOC specifications. Among the various bench scale tests evaluated, the successive processing train used at DNGS and consisting of GAC+IX+UV/H 2 O 2 +IX (polishing) unit operations was found to meet target specifications for both conductivity and TOC. Unit processes comprising (GAC+IX) and (RO-double pass + GAC+IX) met conductivity targets but failed to meet TOC specifications. The results of GAC+IX tests clearly emphasize the importance of using low flow rates for successful reduction in both conductivity as well as TOC. Detailed

  10. Machine recognition of navel orange worm damage in X-ray images of pistachio nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keagy, P.M.; Schatzki, T.F. [USDA-ARS Western Regional Research Center, Albany, CA (United States); Parvin, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Insect infestation increases the probability of aflatoxin contamination in pistachio nuts. A non-destructive test is currently not available to determine the insect content of pistachio nuts. This paper presents the use of film X-ray images of various types of pistachio nuts to assess the possibility of machine recognition of insect infested nuts. Histogram parameters of four derived images are used in discriminant functions to select insect infested nuts from specific processing streams.

  11. Machine recognition of navel orange worm damage in x-ray images of pistachio nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keagy, Pamela M.; Parvin, Bahram; Schatzki, Thomas F.

    1995-01-01

    Insect infestation increases the probability of aflatoxin contamination in pistachio nuts. A non- destructive test is currently not available to determine the insect content of pistachio nuts. This paper uses film X-ray images of various types of pistachio nuts to assess the possibility of machine recognition of insect infested nuts. Histogram parameters of four derived images are used in discriminant functions to select insect infested nuts from specific processing streams.

  12. 7 CFR 983.29 - Shelled pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled pistachios. 983.29 Section 983.29 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.29 Shelled pistachios. Shelled pistachios means pistachio...

  13. 7 CFR 983.22 - Pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pistachios. 983.22 Section 983.22 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.22 Pistachios. Pistachios means the nuts of the pistachio tree...

  14. 7 CFR 983.16 - Inshell pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inshell pistachios. 983.16 Section 983.16 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.16 Inshell pistachios. Inshell pistachios means pistachios that...

  15. Evaluation of the atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain AF36 in pistachio orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The atoxigenic strain Aspergillus flavus AF36, which has been extensively used as a biocontrol agent in commercial corn and cotton fields to reduce aflatoxin contamination, was applied in research pistachio orchards from 2002 to 2005 and in commercial pistachio orchards from 2008 to 2011. AF36 was a...

  16. Drying and decontamination of pistachios with sequential infrared drying, tempering and hot air drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pistachio industry is in need of improved drying technology as the current hot air drying has low energy efficiency and drying rate and high labor cost and also does not produce safe products against microbial contamination. In the current study, dehulled and water- sorted pistachios with a mois...

  17. 7 CFR 983.7 - Certified pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified pistachios. 983.7 Section 983.7 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.7 Certified pistachios. Certified pistachios are those that meet...

  18. 7 CFR 983.30 - Substandard pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substandard pistachios. 983.30 Section 983.30... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.30 Substandard pistachios. Substandard pistachios means...

  19. Evaluation of Coagulase-Positive Staphylococcus Aureus Contamination in Lighvan Cheese on Retail Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salehi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, non-sporulated, lack of capsule, immovable, aerobic and anaerobic and able to tolerate high levels of salt (up to 15 percent. Therefore, foods containing salt provides an ideal environment for bacterial growth. It is also one of the most important bacterial born of spoilable food products, especially in dairy products. Lighvan traditional cheese is consumed in many regions of Iran, especially consumption of these cheeses is very high in Tehran which in the manufacture of such cheeses, the unpasteurized and raw milk is used and the sanitary conditions during processing and subsequent storage are low. So, considering the importance of this issue in the release of poisoning, the coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus contamination in Lighvan cheese on Retail Stores was evaluated. Materials and Methods: In order to perform this study, 22 samples of traditional Lighvan cheese were collected randomly from Tehran stores and according to Iran national standards and by using of bird-parker, Cook Meat cultures and coagulase test were evaluated. Results: Total of 22 samples, 14 samples (63/6% were contaminated by S. aureus over standard and 5 (22/7% were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus coagulase positive. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that sanitary conditions should be observed during the production and Use of pasteurized milk in cheese production.

  20. Machine vision system for automated detection of stained pistachio nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tom C.

    1995-01-01

    A machine vision system was developed to separate stained pistachio nuts, which comprise of about 5% of the California crop, from unstained nuts. The system may be used to reduce labor involved with manual grading or to remove aflatoxin contaminated product from low grade process streams. The system was tested on two different pistachio process streams: the bi- chromatic color sorter reject stream and the small nut shelling stock stream. The system had a minimum overall error rate of 14% for the bi-chromatic sorter reject stream and 15% for the small shelling stock stream.

  1. Bacterial Contamination and Disinfection Status of Laryngoscopes Stored in Emergency Crash Carts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Won; Shin, Hee Bong; Lee, In Kyung

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To identify bacterial contamination rates of laryngoscope blades and handles stored in emergency crash carts by hospital and area according to the frequency of intubation attempts. Methods One hundred forty-eight handles and 71 blades deemed ready for patient use from two tertiary hospitals were sampled with sterile swabs using a standardized rolling technique. Samples were considered negative (not contaminated) if no colonies were present on the blood agar plate after an 18-hour incubation period. Samples were stratified by hospital and according to the frequency of intubation attempts (10 attempts per year) using the χ2-test and Fisher exact test. Results One or more species of bacteria were isolated from 4 (5.6%) handle tops, 20 (28.2%) handles with knurled surfaces, and 27 (18.2%) blades. No significant differences were found in microbial contamination levels on the handle tops and blades between the two hospitals and two areas according to the frequency of intubation attempts. However, significant differences were found between the two hospitals and two areas in the level of microbial contamination on the handles with knurled surfaces (pdisinfect laryngoscope blades and handles; handles should be re-designed to eliminate points of contact with the blade; and single-use, one-piece laryngoscopes should be introduced. PMID:28605891

  2. Storing drinking-water in copper pots kills contaminating diarrhoeagenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, V B Preethi; Ganesan, Sheeba; Pazhani, G P; Ramamurthy, T; Nair, G B; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2012-03-01

    Microbially-unsafe water is still a major concern in most developing countries. Although many water-purification methods exist, these are expensive and beyond the reach of many people, especially in rural areas. Ayurveda recommends the use of copper for storing drinking-water. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of copper pot on microbially-contaminated drinking-water. The antibacterial effect of copper pot against important diarrhoeagenic bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae O1, Shigella flexneri 2a, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, Salmonella enterica Typhi, and Salmonella Paratyphi is reported. When drinking-water (pH 7.83 +/- 0.4; source: ground) was contaminated with 500 CFU/mL of the above bacteria and stored in copper pots for 16 hours at room temperature, no bacteria could be recovered on the culture medium. Recovery failed even after resuscitation in enrichment broth, followed by plating on selective media, indicating loss of culturability. This is the first report on the effect of copper on S. flexneri 2a, enteropathogenic E. coli, and Salmonella Paratyphi. After 16 hours, there was a slight increase in the pH of water from 7.83 to 7.93 in the copper pots while the other physicochemical parameters remained unchanged. Copper content (177 +/- 16 ppb) in water stored in copper pots was well within the permissible limits of the World Health Organization. Copper holds promise as a point-of-use solution for microbial purification of drinking-water, especially in developing countries.

  3. Aflatoxin regulations and global pistachio trade: insights from social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui-Klimke, Travis R; Guclu, Hasan; Kensler, Thomas W; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins, carcinogenic toxins produced by Aspergillus fungi, contaminate maize, peanuts, and tree nuts in many regions of the world. Pistachios are the main source of human dietary aflatoxins from tree nuts worldwide. Over 120 countries have regulations for maximum allowable aflatoxin levels in food commodities. We developed social network models to analyze the association between nations' aflatoxin regulations and global trade patterns of pistachios from 1996-2010. The main pistachio producing countries are Iran and the United States (US), which together contribute to nearly 75% of the total global pistachio market. Over this time period, during which many nations developed or changed their aflatoxin regulations in pistachios, global pistachio trade patterns changed; with the US increasingly exporting to countries with stricter aflatoxin standards. The US pistachio crop has had consistently lower levels of aflatoxin than the Iranian crop over this same time period. As similar trading patterns have also been documented in maize, public health may be affected if countries without aflatoxin regulations, or with more relaxed regulations, continually import crops with higher aflatoxin contamination. Unlike the previous studies on maize, this analysis includes a dynamic element, examining how trade patterns change over time with introduction or adjustment of aflatoxin regulations.

  4. Storing of Extracts in Polypropylene Microcentrifuge Tubes Yields Contaminant Peak During Ultra-flow Liquid Chromatographic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kshirsagar, Parthraj R.; Hegde, Harsha; Pai, Sandeep R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: This study was designed to understand the effect of storage in polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials during ultra-flow liquid chromatographic (UFLC) analysis. Materials and Methods: One ml of methanol was placed in polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes (PP material, Autoclavable) and glass vials (Borosilicate) separately for 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 20, 40, and 80 days intervals stored at ?4?C. Results: Contaminant peak was detected in methanol stored in polypropylene m...

  5. 7 CFR 983.57 - Substandard pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substandard pistachios. 983.57 Section 983.57... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.57 Substandard pistachios. The committee shall, with the...

  6. Application of PistachioWaste as Organic Manure in Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shahin Daneshmandi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant residuals and waste products of agricultural crops form organic fertilizer sources that are traditionally used as organic manure. From 230000 t of dry pistachios produced in 2014, more than 766000 t waste was generated and a large part was to pistachio orchards in fertile regions to be used as organic manure. This study investigated the positive and negative effects of the used of pistachio waste as organic fertilizer over two consecutive years in the form of statistical designs for compound decomposition (overtime. The results indicate that if pistachio waste accumulates without being disinfected, it is a suitable environment for the growth and activity of Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi. The presence of aflatoxin G2 was confirmed in the pistachio waste (0.028 μg, but this contamination did not exist in the soil of the orchard to which the pistachio waste was added. The addition of waste to soil significantly reduced the EC and pH and increased the levels of Zn, P, and K by 270%, 195%, and 89.5%, respectively, in comparison with the control. The level of B did not differ significantly at between treatments. The results suggest that adding pistachio waste to soil enriches it with elements that are directly absorbable by pistachio trees, but it is necessary for the waste to be disinfected with proper fungicides to prevent development of toxin contamination. Furthermore, to recover the decomposability of soil, application of waste to orchards with intervals of twice or three times a year is recommended.

  7. Storing of Extracts in Polypropylene Microcentrifuge Tubes Yields Contaminant Peak During Ultra-flow Liquid Chromatographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshirsagar, Parthraj R; Hegde, Harsha; Pai, Sandeep R

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to understand the effect of storage in polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials during ultra-flow liquid chromatographic (UFLC) analysis. One ml of methanol was placed in polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes (PP material, Autoclavable) and glass vials (Borosilicate) separately for 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 20, 40, and 80 days intervals stored at -4°C. Contaminant peak was detected in methanol stored in polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes using UFLC analysis. The contaminant peak detected was prominent, sharp detectable at 9.176 ± 0.138 min on a Waters 250-4.6 mm, 4 μ, Nova-Pak C18 column with mobile phase consisting of methanol:water (70:30). It was evident from the study that long-term storage of biological samples prepared using methanol in polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes produce contaminant peak. Further, this may mislead in future reporting an unnatural compound by researchers. Long-term storage of biological samples prepared using methanol in polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes produce contaminant peakContamination peak with higher area under the curve (609993) was obtained in ultra-flow liquid chromatographic run for methanol stored in PP microcentrifuge tubesContamination peak was detected at retention time 9.113 min with a lambda max of 220.38 nm and 300 mAU intensity on the given chromatographic conditionsGlass vials serve better option over PP microcentrifuge tubes for storing biological samples. Abbreviations used: UFLC: Ultra Flow Liquid Chromatography; LC: Liquid Chromatography; MS: Mass spectrometry; AUC: Area Under Curve.

  8. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification

  9. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  10. Irradiation disinfestation and decontamination of Iranian dates and pistachio nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Z.; Sayhoon, M.; Maghsoudi, V.

    1993-07-01

    Decontamination and disinfestation effect of gamma radiation on microflora of dates and artificially infested packed dates (Mazafaty, Zard and Sayer variety) with Tribolium Confusum, Oryzaephilus Surinamensis and Ephestia Cautella in different stages studied. Treatment with 0.75 kGy dose of gamma radiation leads to complete and satisfactory insect disinfestation of dates during a storage period of 9, 20 and 35 days. This study shows that microbiological quality of Mazafaty dates can be significantly improved when they have received a gamma radiation dose of 2.5 kGy. Finally the sugar content of irradiated and unirradiated samples have compared. In this study, we have also used gamma radiation treatment for the control of microbial spoilage of pistachio nuts caused by toxigenic Aspergillus Flavus. The first sequence involved, the freshly harvested pistachio nuts inoculated with A. Flavus spores and exposed to radiation treatment, then retention of samples in a environmental chamber, set at temperature of 15-20 C at 75-80% relative humidity and stored for six months. In the second sequence during the storage period the changes in protein, lipid content of pistachio nuts have analyzed.

  11. Irradiation disinfestation and decontamination of Iranian dates and pistachio nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, Z.; Sayhoon, M.; Maghsoudi, V.

    1993-01-01

    The decontamination and disinfestation effect of gamma radiation on the microflora of dates and artificially infested packed dates was studied. Treatment with 0.75 kGy dose of gamma radiation leads to complete and satisfactory insect disinfestation of dates during a storage period of 9, 20 and 35 days. This study shows that the microbiological quality of Mazafaty dates can be significantly improved when they received a gamma radiation dose of 2.5 kGy. The sugar content of irradiated and unirradiated samples have been compared. In this study, we also used gamma radiation treatment for the control of microbial spoilage of pistachio nuts caused by the toxogenic Aspergillus flavus. The freshly harvested pistachio nuts were inoculated with A. flavus spores and exposed to radiation treatment, then samples were retained in an environmental chamber, set at a temperature of 15-20 C at 75-80% relative humidity and stored for six months. In the second batch during the storage period the changes in protein, lipid content of pistachio nuts were analysed. (author)

  12. Slow pyrolysis of pistachio shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apaydin-Varol, Esin; Putun, Ersan; Putun, Ayse E [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-08-15

    In this study, pistachio shell is taken as the biomass sample to investigate the effects of pyrolysis temperature on the product yields and composition when slow pyrolysis is applied in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure to the temperatures of 300, 400, 500, 550, 700{sup o}C. The maximum liquid yield was attained at about 500-550{sup o}C with a yield of 20.5%. The liquid product obtained under this optimum temperature and solid products obtained at all temperatures were characterized. As well as proximate and elemental analysis for the products were the basic steps for characterization, column chromatography, FT-IR, GC/MS and SEM were used for further characterization. The results showed that liquid and solid products from pistachio shells show similarities with high value conventional fuels. 31 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Ion exchange-based treatment of "6"0Co contaminated well-water for storing γ irradiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Meng; Miao Shilin; Zhang Xiaolu; Zhang Youjiu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To select an efficient ion exchange resin to purify the "6"0Co contaminated well-water for storing radioactive source and to ensure the radioactivity of "6"0Co in treated well-water below 10 Bq/L. Methods: The radioactivity of "6"0Co in the water samples was measured by using the potassium cobaltinitrite coprecipitation-β counting method. The treatment efficiencies of two different ion exchange resins for the simulated "6"0Co-bearing waste water were compared to select a better one to dispose of the "6"0Co contaminated well-water. Results: The treatment efficiency of MBD-15-SC mixed ion exchange resin was about 5.8 times higher than ZGCNR50 strong-acid cation exchange resin. The radioactivity of "6"0Co in the contaminated well-water could be reduced from 4.16 × 10"5 Bq/L to 1.16 Bq/L by two-stage sorption of MBD-15-SC mixed ion exchange resin. Conclusions: Using several times of two-stage MBD-15-SC mixed ion exchange resin could effectively purify the "6"0Co contaminated well-water. The quality of the treated well-water could meet the sewage discharge standards. (authors)

  14. Development of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerardekani, Ahmad; Karim, Roselina; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd; Chin, Nyuk Ling

    2013-03-01

    Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most delicious and nutritious nuts in the world. Pistachio spreads were developed using pistachio paste as the main component, icing sugar, soy protein isolate (SPI), and red palm oil (RPO), at different ratios. The highest mean scores of all the sensory attributes were depicted by spreads that were made without addition of SPI. It was found that the work of shear was 0 to 11.0 kg s for an acceptable spread. Sensory spreadability, overall texture, spreadability, and overall acceptability were negatively correlated (R > 0.83) with the work of shear of spreads. The findings indicated that the presence of RPO had a direct effect on the viscoelastic behavior of the pistachio spreads. The a values, which are related to the green color of the pistachio product ranged from 1.7 to 3.9 for spread without addition of RPO, and 4.0 to 5.3 in the presence of RPO. The development of pistachio spread would potentially increase the food uses of pistachio and introduce consumers with a healthier snack food. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Fungi detoxification study from pistachio by non-ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafourian, H.; Sadighzadeh, A; Dabbagh, R.

    1998-01-01

    4,6 and 10 minutes of microwaves exposure provides and effective and relatively rapid sterilization for different purposes in medicine and food industries for example sterilization of materials which have been contaminated with Aspergillus flavus (Pcc-5004) and Aspergillus parasiticus (Pcc-5018) which are producer of Aflatoxin especially on pistachios and other dried fruits. Microwaves exposure induces a morphological modification of the cells and germicidal effects of ultrasonic waves has been attributed to gaseous cavitation. There was a significant reduction in fungal growth compared with those under the control which decreased growth with increased microwave and ultrasound exposure time

  16. Criticality safety study of Pu contaminated carbon waste stored in 100 L steel drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, J.; Simonneau, M.

    1995-01-01

    The notion of the minimum critical areal density (D minca ) used to ensure the Criticality-Safety of poor solid waste is recalled with its deficiencies. D minca is assumed constant, independent of the fissile material concentration. This assumption is only true for unreflected mediums. Corrective factors are established. Furthermore, the usual norm of the Pu-H 2 O, which is 0.20 g/cm 2 , (concrete reflected) is greater than that for other mediums, such as Pu contaminated graphite waste (Pu-C), which is 0.036 g/cm 2 . D minca calculated on infinite slabs is confirmed by calculations on infinite planar multilayers arrays of 100 l cubical waste drums. Moreover, d minca increases linearly with the steel thickness of the drums' walls and goes up to 0.17 g/cm 2 for 0.105 cm of steel. The safety analysis on a real storage case takes into account the limited amount of Pu (100 g) and C (100 kg), the minimum thickness of 0.07 cm of drums' steel, their geometrical arrangement, the heterogeneity and size of contamination and the occurrence of neutronic poison (N and Cl) in the waste. Because of these parameters, the Keff are very less than 0.95 and the taken norm of 0.1 g/cm 2 for the Pu-C waste is fulfilled. Finally, it is demonstrated that the mixing of Pu-C waste drums and Pu-H 2 O wastes drums is allowed. (authors). 14 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Healthy Zero Energy Buildings (HZEB) Program - Cross-Sectional Study of Contaminant Levels, Source, Strengths, and Ventilation Rates in Retail Stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Sidheswaran, Meera; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William

    2014-02-01

    This field study measured ventilation rates and indoor air quality parameters in 21 visits to retail stores in California. The data was collected to guide the development of new, science-based commercial building ventilation rate standards that balance the dual objectives of increasing energy efficiency and maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. Data collection occurred between September 2011 and March 2013. Three types of stores participated in this study: grocery stores, furniture/hardware stores, and apparel stores. Ventilation rates and indoor air contaminant concentrations were measured on a weekday, typically between 9 am and 6 pm. Ventilation rates measured using a tracer gas decay method exceeded the minimum requirement of California’s Title 24 Standard in all but one store. Even though there was adequate ventilation according to Title 24, concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein exceeded the most stringent chronic health guidelines. Other indoor air contaminants measured included carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O{sub 3}), and particulate matter (PM). Concentrations of CO{sub 2} were kept low by adequate ventilation, and were assumed low also because the sampling occurred on a weekday when retail stores were less busy. CO concentrations were also low. The indoor-outdoor ratios of O{sub 3} showed that the first-order loss rate may vary by store trade types and also by ventilation mode (mechanical versus natural). Analysis of fine and ultrafine PM measurements showed that a substantial portion of the particle mass in grocery stores with cooking-related emissions was in particles less than 0.3 μm. Stores without cooking as an indoor source had PM size distributions that were more similar indoors and outdoors. The whole-building emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PM were estimated from the measured ventilation rates and indoor and outdoor contaminant concentrations. Mass balance models were

  18. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Musundire

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS and coupled gas chromatography (GC-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1 at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food.

  19. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musundire, Robert; Osuga, Isaac M; Cheseto, Xavier; Irungu, Janet; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS) and coupled gas chromatography (GC)-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1) at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food.

  20. Association of Supply Type with Fecal Contamination of Source Water and Household Stored Drinking Water in Developing Countries: A Bivariate Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Katherine F; Bain, Robert E S; Cronk, Ryan; Wright, Jim A; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-12-01

    Access to safe drinking water is essential for health. Monitoring access to drinking water focuses on water supply type at the source, but there is limited evidence on whether quality differences at the source persist in water stored in the household. We assessed the extent of fecal contamination at the source and in household stored water (HSW) and explored the relationship between contamination at each sampling point and water supply type. We performed a bivariate random-effects meta-analysis of 45 studies, identified through a systematic review, that reported either the proportion of samples free of fecal indicator bacteria and/or individual sample bacteria counts for source and HSW, disaggregated by supply type. Water quality deteriorated substantially between source and stored water. The mean percentage of contaminated samples (noncompliance) at the source was 46% (95% CI: 33, 60%), whereas mean noncompliance in HSW was 75% (95% CI: 64, 84%). Water supply type was significantly associated with noncompliance at the source (p water (OR = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.5) and HSW (OR = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) from piped supplies had significantly lower odds of contamination compared with non-piped water, potentially due to residual chlorine. Piped water is less likely to be contaminated compared with other water supply types at both the source and in HSW. A focus on upgrading water services to piped supplies may help improve safety, including for those drinking stored water.

  1. Pistachio nut allergy: An updated overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana; Silva, Isa; Vicente, António A; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2017-09-19

    Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera) is highly appreciated for its organoleptic characteristics and potential health benefits. However, this tree nut is also responsible for triggering moderate to severe IgE-mediated reactions in allergic individuals. Currently, pistachio nut allergy has gained some special attention, mainly due to its intrinsic relation with cashew nut allergy. Like for other nuts, the prevalence of pistachio nut allergy seems to be increasing at a global scale. Until now, there are five allergenic proteins officially listed for pistachio nut (Pis v 1, Pis v 2, Pis v 3, Pis v 4 and Pis v 5). Relevant data on their biochemical classification has become available, enabling establishing a correlation with the respective clinical symptoms. The establishment of an effective allergen risk assessment is a key issue for the food industry, policy makers and regulatory agencies. Thus, the availability of fast, specific and sensitive methods to detect trace amounts of allergens in processed foods is crucial. In the specific case of pistachio nut, there are some protein- and DNA-based methods for its detection/quantification in foods, which can aid to verify label information. Accordingly, all relevant research advances on this topic were summarised, updated and critically discussed in this review.

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation on the biochemical properties of walnut and pistachio nut in Syria, first phase: just after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karajoli, M.; Moussa, A.; Al-Kaed, A.; Othman, I.

    1997-05-01

    The report describes a preliminary study that led to explore the possibility of preserving and extending the storage life of walnut and pistachio nut by gamma radiation. Syrian walnut and pistachio nut were irradiated in a Gamma cell (dose rate 0.08 kGy/min). Radiation doses used were 0.50 and 1.00 kGy and the samples were stored at room temperature (25 to 30 Centigrade) after packaging in polyethylene pouches. Fungi infestation was determined before and after gamma radiation treatment. A radiation dose of 1.00 kGy completely inhibited fungi infestation. The present study has, therefore, been conducted to investigate the effects of gamma radiation on the Biochemical properties of walnut and pistachio nut just after irradiation (first phase). Chemical analyses have shown the phosphorus and total proteins value decrease at 0.50 and 1.00 kGy and some significant changes were observed in carbohydrates. A slight decrease in the amount of converted sugars was also observed. Fats in walnut are less vulnerable to gamma radiation than pistachio nut due certainly to the high amount in unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids. In conclusion the effect of gamma radiation on walnut and pantheistic appears nutritionally significant in pistachio nut and less in walnut. More investigations are necessary after a long time of storage to prove their intact nutritional quality and eventually their good digestibility. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs., 22 tabs

  3. effects of gamma irradiation on the biochemical properties of walnut and pistachio nut in Syria, first phase: just after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Karajoli, M.; Moussa, A.; Al-Kaed, A.

    1998-01-01

    The report describes a preliminary study that led to explore the possibility of preserving and extending the storage life of walnut and pistachio nut by gamma radiation. Syrian walnut and pistachio nut were irradiated in a Gamma cell (dose rate 0.08 kGy/min). Radiation doses used were 0.50 and 1.00 kGy and the samples were stored at room temperature (25 to 30 Centigrade) after packaging in polyethylene pouches. Fungi infestation was determined before and after gamma radiation treatment. A radiation dose of 1.00 kGy completely inhibited fungi infestation. The present study has, therefore, been conducted to investigate the effects of gamma radiation on the Biochemical properties of walnut and pistachio nut just after irradiation (first phase). Chemical analyses have shown the phosphorus and total proteins value decrease at 0.50 and 1.00 kGy and some significant changes were observed in carbohydrates. A slight decrease in the amount of converted sugars was also observed. Fats in walnut are less vulnerable to gamma radiation than pistachio nut due certainly to the high amount in unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids. In conclusion the effect of gamma radiation on walnut and pantheistic appears nutritionally significant in pistachio nut and less in walnut. More investigations are necessary after a long time of storage to prove their intact nutritional quality and eventually their good digestibility. (author). 6 refs

  4. Effects of gamma irradiation on the biochemical properties of walnut and pistachio nut in Syria, first phase: just after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karajoli, M; Moussa, A; Al-Kaed, A; Othman, I [Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Unit, Irradiation Plant, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1997-05-01

    The report describes a preliminary study that led to explore the possibility of preserving and extending the storage life of walnut and pistachio nut by gamma radiation. Syrian walnut and pistachio nut were irradiated in a Gamma cell (dose rate 0.08 kGy/min). Radiation doses used were 0.50 and 1.00 kGy and the samples were stored at room temperature (25 to 30 Centigrade) after packaging in polyethylene pouches. Fungi infestation was determined before and after gamma radiation treatment. A radiation dose of 1.00 kGy completely inhibited fungi infestation. The present study has, therefore, been conducted to investigate the effects of gamma radiation on the Biochemical properties of walnut and pistachio nut just after irradiation (first phase). Chemical analyses have shown the phosphorus and total proteins value decrease at 0.50 and 1.00 kGy and some significant changes were observed in carbohydrates. A slight decrease in the amount of converted sugars was also observed. Fats in walnut are less vulnerable to gamma radiation than pistachio nut due certainly to the high amount in unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids. In conclusion the effect of gamma radiation on walnut and pantheistic appears nutritionally significant in pistachio nut and less in walnut. More investigations are necessary after a long time of storage to prove their intact nutritional quality and eventually their good digestibility. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs., 22 tabs.

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation on the biochemical properties of walnut and pistachio nut in Syria, first phase: just after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, I; Karajoli, M; Moussa, A; Al-Kaed, A [Atomic Energy commission, Radiation Technology Unit, Damascus, (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1998-03-01

    The report describes a preliminary study that led to explore the possibility of preserving and extending the storage life of walnut and pistachio nut by gamma radiation. Syrian walnut and pistachio nut were irradiated in a Gamma cell (dose rate 0.08 kGy/min). Radiation doses used were 0.50 and 1.00 kGy and the samples were stored at room temperature (25 to 30 Centigrade) after packaging in polyethylene pouches. Fungi infestation was determined before and after gamma radiation treatment. A radiation dose of 1.00 kGy completely inhibited fungi infestation. The present study has, therefore, been conducted to investigate the effects of gamma radiation on the Biochemical properties of walnut and pistachio nut just after irradiation (first phase). Chemical analyses have shown the phosphorus and total proteins value decrease at 0.50 and 1.00 kGy and some significant changes were observed in carbohydrates. A slight decrease in the amount of converted sugars was also observed. Fats in walnut are less vulnerable to gamma radiation than pistachio nut due certainly to the high amount in unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids. In conclusion the effect of gamma radiation on walnut and pantheistic appears nutritionally significant in pistachio nut and less in walnut. More investigations are necessary after a long time of storage to prove their intact nutritional quality and eventually their good digestibility. (author). 6 refs.

  6. Detection of Pistachio Aflatoxin Using Raman Spectroscopy and Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mohammadigol

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio contamination to aflatoxin has been known as a serious problem for pistachio exportation. With regards to the increasing demand for Raman spectroscopy to detect and classify different materials and also the current experimental and technical problems for measuring toxin (such as being expensive and time-consuming, the main objective of this study was to detect aflatoxin contamination in pistachio by using Raman spectroscopy technique and artificial neural networks. Three sets of samples were prepared: non-contaminated (healthy and contaminated samples with 20 and 100 ppb of the total aflatoxins (B1+B2+G1+G2. After spectral acquisition, considering to the results, spectral data were normalized and then principal components (PCs were extracted to reduce the data dimensions. For classification of the samples spectra, an artificial neural network was used with a feed forward back propagation algorithm for 4 inputs and 3 neurons in hidden layer. Mean overall accuracy was achieved to be 98 percent; therefore, non-liner Raman spectra data modeling by ANN for samples classification was successful.

  7. Immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a potential aflatoxin decontaminating agent in pistachio nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rahaie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the binding ability of Saccharomayces cerevisiae to aflatoxin in pistachio nuts. The obtained results indicate that S. cerevisiae has an aflatoxin surface binding ability of 40% and 70% (with initial aflatoxin concentrations of 10 and 20 ppb in the exponential phase. Acid treatments increase this ability to approximately 60% and 73% for the two concentrations of aflatoxin, respectively. Heat treatments also enhance surface binding to 55% and 75%, respectively. Binding appears to be a physical phenomenon that saturates within the first 2-3 hours of the process. The obtained results indicate that yeast immobilization for toxin reduction on aflatoxin-contaminated pistachios had no effect on qualitative characteristics, such as color, texture, and peroxide value. Yeast cells, viable or nonviable, are effective for aflatoxin binding, and this property could lead to a promising solution to aflatoxin contamination in high-risk foods.

  8. A method for the measurement of in line pistachio aflatoxin concentration based on the laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paghaleh, Soodeh Jamali; Askari, Hassan Ranjbar; Marashi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Rahimi, Mojtaba; Bahrampour, Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of pistachio nuts with aflatoxin is one of the most significant issues related to pistachio health and expert. A fast pistachio aflatoxin concentration measurement method based on the laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) is proposed. The proposed method from theoretical and experimental points of view is analyzed. In our experiments XeCl Excimer laser is employed as an Ultra Violet (UV) source (λ=308 nm) and a UV–visible (UV–vis) spectrometer is used for fluorescent emission detection. Our setup is employed to measure the concentration of different type of Aflatoxins in pistachio nuts. Measurements results obtained by the LIFS method are compared with those are measured by the standard HPLC method. Aflatoxins concentrations are in good agreement with those are obtained by the HPLC method. The proposed laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy can be used as an in line aflatoxins concentrations measurement instrument for industrial applications. - Highlights: • XeCl Excimer laser is employed as an UV source for measurement of AFs in pistachio nuts. • Results are compared with those are measured by the standard HPLC method. • LIFS is an online AFs concentration measurement method for industrial applications

  9. Efficacy of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in the control of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxins production on pistachio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahmoshteh, Fatemeh; Siciliano, Ilenia; Banani, Houda; Hamidi-Esfahani, Zohreh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Spadaro, Davide

    2017-08-02

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is an important nut for its economic, nutritional and health aspects but it can be contaminated by aflatoxigenic fungi in the field and during storage. Biological control could be considered as an alternative to chemical treatment. In this study, we evaluated the antifungal and anti-mycotoxigenic capability of two Bacillus spp. both in vitro and on pistachio kernels. In in vitro conditions, both strains were able to reduce the mycelial growth and they were able to degrade the four aflatoxins during the first three days after inoculation. AFG 1 and AFG 2 were rapidly degraded within two days of incubation with the bacterial strains. No aflatoxin was found in the bacterial cell walls, permitting exclusion of mycotoxin adsorption and hypothesis of an in vitro biodegradation as a mode of action. The cultivar of pistachio most susceptible to fungal colonization was 'Ahmad-Aghaei', selected among four main Iranian cultivars. A. parasiticus was able to grow and produce aflatoxins on pistachios, but at longer inoculation periods, a natural decrease of aflatoxins was registered. Both strains were able to reduce the fungal incidence and number of spores on pistachio with a stronger effect during the first 5dpi. The effect on aflatoxin content in vivo was less pronounced than in vitro, with a maximum effect at 8dpi. At longer times, there was a contrasting effect due to the lower activity of Bacillus spp. in stationary phase and higher growth of Aspergillus species. This consideration could explain the lack of aflatoxin reduction at 12dpi. Both bacterial strains showed good antifungal activity and aflatoxin reduction in in vitro conditions and on pistachio kernels. Altogether, these results indicate that Bacillus species could be considered as potential biocontrol agents to combat toxigenic fungal growth and subsequent aflatoxin contamination of nuts and agricultural crops in practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Seasonal carbohydrate storage and mobilization in bearing and non-bearing pistachio (Pistacia vera) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Timothy M; Beede, Robert H; Dejong, Theodore M

    2008-02-01

    We analyzed annual carbohydrate storage and mobilization of bearing ("on") and non-bearing ("off") 'Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees growing on three different rootstocks. On all rootstocks, carbohydrate storage in shoots and branches of "on" and "off" trees was lowest following the spring growth flush. In "off" trees, stored carbohydrates increased and remained high after the initial growth flush. In "on" trees, stem carbohydrates increased temporarily in early summer, but were mobilized in mid-season during kernel fill, and then increased again after nut harvest. During the dormant season, the only substantial differences in carbohydrate storage between previously "on" and "off" trees were found in the roots of the weakest rootstock. The annual carbohydrate storage and mobilization pattern in canopy branches of heavily cropped pistachio trees appeared to be driven by carbohydrate demands related to nut development and untempered by tree vigor. Mobilization of carbohydrates from current-season and 1- and 2-year-old stem wood of "on" trees during the primary period of kernel fill corresponded with the period of inflorescence bud abscission. Thus, the alternate bearing pattern associated with inflorescence bud abscission in 'Kerman' pistachio may be a function of mid-season mobilization of stored carbohydrates in current-season stems resulting in stimulation of inflorescence bud abscission.

  11. Phenotypic and genotypic variation in Iranian Pistachios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Tayefeh Aliakbarkhani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As Iran is one of the richest pistachio germplasms a few studies have been conducted on different sexes of pistachio trees, in areas where this crop emerged. To this end, 40 male and female Iranian pistachio genotypes from Feizabad region, Khorasan, Iran; were evaluated using morphological characters and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. For morphological assessments, 54 variables were considered to investigate similarities between and among the studied genotypes. Morphological data indicated relative superiority in some female genotypes (such as Sefid 1, Sefid Sabuni 2, Garmesiah, and Ghermezdorosht Z regarding characters such as halfcrackedness, the percentages of protein and fat content. 115 polymorphic bands were recorded with 92.83% average polymorphism among all primers. The total resolving power (Rp of the primers was 74.54. The range of genetic similarity varied from about 0.31 to about 0.70. Genotypes were segregated into eight groups at the similarity limit of 0.41. Results of present investigation could be helpful for strategic decisions for maintaining Iranian pistachio genotypes.

  12. Quantification and bioaccessibility of California pistachio bioactives

    Science.gov (United States)

    The content of carotenoids, chlorophylls, phenolics, and tocols in pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) has not been methodically quantified. The objective of this study was to first optimize extraction protocols for lipophilic nutrients and then quantify the content of two phenolic acids, nine flavonoids,...

  13. Opinion of Spanish Consumers on Hydrosustainable Pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Lipan, Leontina; Vázquez-Araújo, L; Barber, Xavi; Pérez-López, David; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2016-10-01

    Fruits and vegetables cultivated under controlled deficit irrigation (CDI) are called hydrosustainable (hydroSOS) products and have its own personality and are environmentally-friendly. Focus groups helped in classifying key farming, sensory, and health concepts associated with CDI-grown pistachios. Besides, focus groups also helped in stating that a logo was needed for these special foods, and that a hydroSOS index is also essential to certify that the products have been controlled by a control board. Conjoint analysis was used to check which attributes could be helpful in promoting CDI-grown pistachios among Spanish consumers in a 1st step toward the European Union (EU) market. It was clearly proved that the main silo of properties driving the attention of Spanish consumers was that related to health. The most important attributes for pistachios were "product of Spain," "rich in antioxidant," and "crunchy"; this finding was clearly related to the popularity of regional foods, the preoccupation of European consumers for their health, and the joy related to the crunchiness of toasted nuts, respectively. The use of these 3 concepts, together with the use of the hydroSOS logo, will be essential to promote hydroSOS pistachios among Spanish and EU consumers. Finally, it is important to highlight that in general Spanish consumers were willing to pay an extra amount of 1.0 euros per kg of hydroSOS pistachios. These earnings will be essential to convince Spanish farmers to implement CDI strategies and have a sustainable and environmental-friendly use of the irrigation water. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Mycoflora and Mycotoxigenic Moulds of Pistachio Nuts for Human Consumption in the Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Elshafie

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycoflora of 75 cans of different batches and brands of pistachio nuts purchased in the Sultanate of Oman was studied. A number of fungi were isolated, with percentages of contaminated nuts [average between brands ] as follows: Aspergillus niger 14.8%, Penicillium spp. 13.6%, A flavus 9.7%, A nidulans 1.6%, and < l % for Cladosporium cladosporoides, Alternaria alternata , A ochraceeus and Ulocadium consortiale. Significant differences were found among the batches and brands contaminated by A flavus. A flatoxin B, was found only in one sample out of 1.5 assayed at a level of 2 ug/kg.

  15. Interaction of phosphorus and pistachio green hull on some growth characteristics and nutrients in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    M. Fekri; L. Gheranjik

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of phosphorus (P) and pistachio waste (raw and dry) on growth and chemical composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L. cv. Badami Zarand) seedlings, a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with four replications was conducted. Treatments were three levels of P (0, 50 and 100 mg P/kg soil) and three levels of pistachio green hull (0, 3 and 6% w/w). The results showed that at the first level of P application, the 3% pistachio waste treatment increased ...

  16. New microfungi records on pistachio ( Pistacia vera L.) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pistacia L. belongs to the family of Anacardiaceae. It contains nine species and five subspecies. P. vera L. (cultivated pistachio) is the economically most important species in the genus. It has edible seeds and considerable commercial importance. Iran, the United States, Turkey and Syria are the main pistachio producers in ...

  17. Irrigation of pistachios : strategies to confront water scarcity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-López, David; Memmi, Houssem; Gijón-López, Maria del Carmen; Moreno, Marta Maria; Couceiro, José Francisco; Centeno, Ana; Martín-Palomo, Maria J.; Corell, Mireia; Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Galindo Egea, Alejandro; Torrecillas, Arturo; Moriana, Alfonso; Tejero, Ivan Francisco Garcia; Zuazo, Victor Hugo Duran

    2017-01-01

    Pistachio trees are capable to be profitable under rain-fed conditions. They also have a good response to low amounts of irrigation water, so are a great candidate to be considered for water-scarcity scenarios. The pistachio tree has a singular way of alternate bearing, losing a percentage of its

  18. Novel species of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with shoot blight of pistachio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, ShuaiFei; Li, GuoQing; Liu, FeiFei; Michailides, Themis J

    2015-01-01

    Various species of phytopathogenic Botryosphaeriaceae were identified previously from pistachio trees worldwide. Disease symptoms caused by pathogens in Botryosphaeriaceae on pistachio include panicle and shoot blight, leaf defoliation, fruit discoloration and decay. In this study species of Botryosphaeriaceae were collected from blighted pistachio shoots in Arizona, USA, and Greece. The aims of this study were to identify these Botryosphaeriaceae isolates and to test their pathogenicity to pistachio. The fungi were identified based on comparisons of DNA sequence data of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), a partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (TEF1), a partial β-tubulin gene (TUB2) and morphological characteristics. Results indicated that some isolates collected from pistachio represent two previously undescribed species, which we described here as Lasiodiplodia americana sp. nov. from the United States and Neofusicoccum hellenicum sp. nov. from Greece. Field inoculations of L. americana and N. hellenicum on branches of four pistachio cultivars showed that both L. americana and N. hellenicum are pathogenic on pistachio. The four pistachio cultivars differed in their susceptibility to the Botryosphaeriaceae species. Results of this study suggested that the two new species of Botryosphaeriaceae need to be monitored carefully to determine the distribution of these pathogens and the possible spread to other areas. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  19. In vitro antimicrobial activity of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisignano, Carlo; Filocamo, Angela; Faulks, Richard M; Mandalari, Giuseppina

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial properties of polyphenol-rich fractions derived from raw shelled and roasted salted pistachios. American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), food and clinical isolates, of Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas mirabilis), Gram-positive bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus), the yeasts Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis and the fungus Aspergillus niger were used. Pistachio extracts were active against Gram-positive bacteria with a bactericidal effect observed against L. monocytogenes (ATCC strains and food isolates), S. aureus and MRSA clinical isolates. Extracts from raw shelled pistachios were more active than those from roasted salted pistachios. The bactericidal activity of pistachio extracts could be used to help control the growth of some microorganisms in foods to improve safety and may find application as a topical treatment for S. aureus. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO2 Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Garcia-Cela

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEN contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (aw; 0.95–0.90 and temperature (10–25 °C in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a respiration rate; (b dry matter losses (DML; (c ZEN production and (d relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO2 production. There was an increase in temporal CO2 production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 aw treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO2 in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 aw/20–25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 aw. The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95–0.93 aw and 20 °C/0.95 aw. ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca. <1.0% DML, there was a low risk of ZEN contamination exceeding EU legislative limits, while at >1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins.

  1. Risk assessment of exposure to aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A through consumption of different Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cultivars collected from four geographical regions of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Seyedeh Faezeh; Rezaee, Ramin; Davarynejad, Gholamhossein; Asili, Javad; Nemati, Seyed Hossein; Goumenou, Marina; Tsakiris, Ioannis; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Shirani, Kobra; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2018-07-01

    Iran is one of the main suppliers of pistachio for the European market accounting for over 90% of its demands; hence, efficient analytical methods are required for detection of mycotoxins contamination in pistachio kernels before exporting them. In this study, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) levels in five pistachio cultivars collected from four sites of Iran, were measured by HPLC. Based on the results, risk assessment for AFB1 and OTA residues was done. The highest mean concentrations of AFB1 and OTA were found in Ahmad-aghaei (4.33 and 2.19 ng/g, respectively) and Akbari (4.08 and 1.943 ng/g, respectively) cultivars from Rafsanjan, Iran. Even the highest concentrations of AFB1 and OTA in analyzed samples were lower than the corresponding maximum limits set by EU authorities. The hazard index (HI) value for consumers of Iranian pistachio is below one. It could be concluded that consumption of pistachio cultivated in these regions poses no health risk of mycotoxins exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of gamma radiation as a method of storing brown flaxseed after 6 months of storage, inhibiting contamination by aflatoxigenic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Laury Francis; Silva, Edvane Borges da Silva, E-mail: lauryfrancis@gmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Oliveira, Idjane Santana, E-mail: idjaneoliveira@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (CAV/UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria

    2013-07-01

    Flaxseed is an oilseed rich in proteins, lipids and dietary fiber. The brown flaxseed is grown in warm climates and humid, like Brazil, and has shelled tougher than the golden linseed. As the tropical climate is ideal environment for the growth of toxigenic fungi, flaxseed may be exposed to contamination. Four different samples of brown flaxseed were collected in sealed packages obtained from health food stores. Aliquots of grains were separated, packed with PVC film, identified according to the company (E1, E2, E3, E4) and subjected to the process of gamma irradiation doses: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 kGy, beyond the control sample that was not exposed. This material was stored in a cool dry place in the laboratory for six months. After that time, the grains were sown in DRBC, to check the growth of total fungi, and in AFPA, to check the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi. After sowing grains, the Petri dishes were randomly distributed on the bench, at room temperature. There was no growth of aflatoxigenic fungi in irradiated samples after incubation, demonstrating that radiation could inhibit fungal contamination during the storage time. Germinated grains were observed in both culture media, in all doses and in the control samples. The germination of flaxseed was inversely proportional to the dose applied to the grains, to both culture media. Irradiation showed to be an effective method for brown flaxseed conservation and maintaining the germination. (author)

  3. Effect of gamma radiation as a method of storing brown flaxseed after 6 months of storage, inhibiting contamination by aflatoxigenic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Laury Francis; Silva, Edvane Borges da Silva; Oliveira, Idjane Santana

    2013-01-01

    Flaxseed is an oilseed rich in proteins, lipids and dietary fiber. The brown flaxseed is grown in warm climates and humid, like Brazil, and has shelled tougher than the golden linseed. As the tropical climate is ideal environment for the growth of toxigenic fungi, flaxseed may be exposed to contamination. Four different samples of brown flaxseed were collected in sealed packages obtained from health food stores. Aliquots of grains were separated, packed with PVC film, identified according to the company (E1, E2, E3, E4) and subjected to the process of gamma irradiation doses: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 kGy, beyond the control sample that was not exposed. This material was stored in a cool dry place in the laboratory for six months. After that time, the grains were sown in DRBC, to check the growth of total fungi, and in AFPA, to check the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi. After sowing grains, the Petri dishes were randomly distributed on the bench, at room temperature. There was no growth of aflatoxigenic fungi in irradiated samples after incubation, demonstrating that radiation could inhibit fungal contamination during the storage time. Germinated grains were observed in both culture media, in all doses and in the control samples. The germination of flaxseed was inversely proportional to the dose applied to the grains, to both culture media. Irradiation showed to be an effective method for brown flaxseed conservation and maintaining the germination. (author)

  4. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO2 Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaitsi, Elsa; Magan, Naresh

    2018-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (aw; 0.95–0.90) and temperature (10–25 °C) in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a) respiration rate; (b) dry matter losses (DML); (c) ZEN production and (d) relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO2 production. There was an increase in temporal CO2 production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 aw treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO2 in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 aw/20–25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 aw. The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95–0.93 aw and 20 °C/0.95 aw. ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca. 1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins. PMID:29462982

  5. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO₂ Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cela, Esther; Kiaitsi, Elsa; Sulyok, Michael; Medina, Angel; Magan, Naresh

    2018-02-17

    Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (a w ; 0.95-0.90) and temperature (10-25 °C) in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a) respiration rate; (b) dry matter losses (DML); (c) ZEN production and (d) relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO₂ production. There was an increase in temporal CO₂ production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 a w treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO₂ in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 a w /20-25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 a w . The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95-0.93 a w and 20 °C/0.95 a w . ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca 1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins.

  6. Radio sensibility of listeria monocytogenes in pure culture and frozen contaminated shrimps and stored them at -18 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio M V, T.; Espinoza, J.; L Sanchez, M.V.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Listeria monocytogenes has been recognized for a number of years as a food pathogen bacteria. Ionizing radiation is a new technology and an excellent method to eliminate this microorganism form frozen food. The sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes serotype 01 and 04 to irradiation, in pure culture and frozen shrimps was investigated. The D 10 values were of 0,26-0,37 kGy in pure culture and frozen shrimps, respectively. The D 10 founded were similar to those reported by the literature under similar conditions. Doses of 6 kGy were enough to eliminate a contamination of 10 6 -10 7 ufc/ml of L. Monocytogenes in frozen shrimps and storage them during 200 days at 18 deg C

  7. Investigation of Antioxidant Capacity and Some Bioactive Compounds of Iranian Pistachio (Pistachio vera L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein DAVARYNEJAD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Edible nuts have an increasing role in human diet. Pistachio is a popular but less known kind of edible nut nevertheless it is rich in health benefiting nutrients, minerals, antioxidants and vitamins. Therefore, this study attempts to determine the antioxidants capacity, total phenolics and amount of some major elements (nitrogen, potassium, calcium and phosphorus, present in the most important Iranian pistachio nut, to enhance the health benefits, and use in breeding programs. For this reason eleven pistachio cultivars (‘Akbary’, ‘Ahmad Aghaii’, ‘Daneshmandi’, ‘Kalle Ghoochi 1’, ‘Kalle Ghoochi 2’, ‘Garmeh’, ‘Ohadi 1’, ‘Ohadi 2’, ‘Sefid’, ‘Momtaz’, and chance seedling tree ("None-grafted" as control which are grown in commercial orchards of Fayzabad (Khorasan-e-Razavi were analyzed for determination of some major elements, antioxidants capacity and total phenolics contents. The results showed that the amounts of the nutrients in 100 g kernel were within the following ranges: N 2.5-4.1 g, P 355.9-546.6 mg, K 573.6-994.9 mg and Ca 61.5-134.5 mg. Total phenolics content varied from 5.3-9.9 mg gallic acid equivalents in g fresh weight. The results also showed that the capacity of antioxidant ranged from 1.6-3.7 (mg ascorbic acid equivalents in g fresh weight. Weak correlation was observed between total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity (r2=0.3824. The result demonstrates that there is adequate variation in major elements, antioxidants capacity and total phenolics contents within pistachio cultivars and hence there is potential for improvement towards enhancing these health-promoting photochemical in this nuts.

  8. Combination of gamma radiation and essential oils from medicinal plants in managing Tribolium castaneum contamination of stored products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Mehrdad; Abd-alla, Adly Mohamed M.; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Effectiveness of management of insect infestation of stored products with essential oils as viable alternatives to synthetic insecticides can be enhanced with gamma radiation. We studied effects of sublethal doses of essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) and Perovskia atriplicifolia (Benth) (safe natural insecticides) in combination with gamma radiation on mortality of adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). The insects were subjected to two radiation doses and two concentrations of the essential oils in the air. This combined treatment increased the mortality, which was also 3–6 times higher than could be expected from the sum of the effects of each of the treatments. The synergistic effect was more pronounced in the case of R. officinalis (L.) than in the case of P. atriplicifolia (Benth). The experiments have shown that the known insecticidal effectiveness of the essential oils can be enhanced by preliminary irradiation. Possible approaches to implementation of the combined treatment are discussed. - Highlights: • The mortality of T. castaneum increased with an increase of the radiation dose. • R. officinalis was more toxic to T. castaneum than P. atriplicifolia. • Gamma radiation and essential oils could be used as combined methods in IPM. • Combination of radiation with essential oils made a synergistic effect. • The synergistic effect of the R–G was much more appropriate from P–G

  9. A preliminary parametric performance assessment for the disposal of alpha-contaminated mixed low-level waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.H.; Anderson, G.L.; Myers, J.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary parametric performance assessment (PA) has been performed of potential waste disposal systems for alpha-contaminated mixed low-level waste (ALLW) currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The radionuclide-confinement performance of treated ALLW in various final waste forms, in various disposal locations, and under various assumptions was evaluated. Compliance with performance objectives was assessed for the undisturbed waste scenario and for intrusion scenarios. Some combinations of final waste form, disposal site, and environmental transport assumptions lead to calculated does that comply with the performance objectives, while others do not. The results will help determine the optimum degree of ALLW immobilization to satisfy the performance objectives while minimizing cost

  10. House dust and storage mite contamination of dry dog food stored in open bags and sealed boxes in 10 domestic households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Christina; McEwan, Neil; McGarry, John; Nuttall, Tim

    2011-04-01

    Dry pet food is a potential source of exposure to house dust and storage mite allergens in canine atopic dermatitis. This study evaluated contamination of house dust and dry dog food stored in paper bags, sealable plastic bags and sealable plastic boxes in 10 households for 90 days using Acarex(®) tests for guanine, a Der p 1 ELISA and mite flotation. Acarex(®) tests were negative in all the food samples but positive in all the house dust samples. The Der p 1 levels and mite numbers significantly increased in food from paper bags (P = 0.0073 and P = 0.02, respectively), but not plastic bags or boxes. Mite numbers and Der p 1 levels were 10-1000 times higher in house dust than the corresponding food samples (P bags (P = 0.003), and mite numbers in house dust and food from the paper bags (P = 0.0007). Bedding and carpets were significantly associated with Der p 1 levels in house dust (P = 0.015 and P = 0.01, respectively), and food from the paper (both P = 0.02) and plastic bags (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively). Mites were identified in six of 10 paper bag, three of 10 plastic bag, one of 10 plastic box and nine of 10 house dust samples. These comprised Dermatophagoides (54%), Tyrophagus (10%; all from food) and unidentified mites (36%). Storage of food in sealable plastic boxes largely prevented contamination for 3 months. Exposure to mites and mite proteins in all the stored food, however, appeared to be trivial compared with house dust. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 ESVD and ACVD.

  11. Pistachio Allergy-Prevalence and In vitro Cross-Reactivity with Other Nuts

    OpenAIRE

    Reihaneh Noorbakhsh; Seyed Ali Mortazavi; Mojtaba Sankian; Fakhri Shahidi; Mohsen Tehrani; Farahzad Jabbari Azad; Fatemeh Behmanesh; AbdolReza Varasteh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tree nut allergy is characterized by a high frequency of life-threatening reactions and is typically lifelong persistent. Some people with a pistachio nut allergy, which is common in the pistachio rich area of Iran, develop a hypersensitivity to other tree nuts as well. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of pistachio nut allergy in Iran, the major pistachio cultivation region in the world. The study also addressed the presence of allergenic cross-reactivity be...

  12. Pistachio allergy-prevalence and in vitro cross-reactivity with other nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbakhsh, Reihaneh; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Sankian, Mojtaba; Shahidi, Fakhri; Tehrani, Mohsen; Azad, Farahzad Jabbari; Behmanesh, Fatemeh; Varasteh, AbdolReza

    2011-12-01

    Tree nut allergy is characterized by a high frequency of life-threatening reactions and is typically lifelong persistent. Some people with a pistachio nut allergy, which is common in the pistachio rich area of Iran, develop a hypersensitivity to other tree nuts as well. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of pistachio nut allergy in Iran, the major pistachio cultivation region in the world. The study also addressed the presence of allergenic cross-reactivity between pistachio and other nuts, including almond, peanut, and cashew in pistachio allergic patients. A survey was conducted to determine whether the prevalence of pistachio allergy is affected by exposure to this nut in pistachio cultivation regions, as well as possible cross-reactivity between pistachio and other nuts including cashew, almond, and peanut. Inhibition Western blot and inhibition ELISA studies were conducted to assess the presence of allergenic cross-reactivity between pistachio and the other tree nuts. Our results revealed that the prevalence of pistachio allergy is twice as much in pistachio cultivation regions than other areas. Western blotting and inhibition ELISA presented high percentages of inhibition with pistachio and cashew, followed by almond and, to some degree, peanut which indicates different levels of allergenic cross-reactivity. The results indicate that exposure of people to pistachio significantly affects the prevalence of its allergic reactions. In addition, it was observed that, among pistachio allergic subjects, such exposure may affect the co-sensitivities with other nuts, including cashew and almond. The plant taxonomic classification of pistachio and other tree nuts does appear to predict allergenic cross-reactivity.

  13. An Investigation on In-Vessel Composting of Pistachio Residuals with Different Additions

    OpenAIRE

    M Jalili; M Mokhtari; AA Ebrahimi; F Boghri

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: About 1.35×105 tons of pistachio waste are produced in annually Iran that can result in environmental problems if managed improperly. . The purpose of this study was to investigate in-vessel composting of pistachio residuals with addition of cow manure and dewatered sludge as a recycling alternative. Materials and Methods: Pistachios wastes were combined with weight ratio of 5.5:10 (dewatered sludge: pistachio waste) and weight ratio of 1:10 (Cow manure: pi...

  14. Influence of cultivar and processing on the allergenicity of pistachio nut assessed in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is a tree nut that has been reported to cause IgE-mediated allergic reactions. This study was undertaken to investigate the distinction between different cultivars of pistachio nut, and the influence of different processing on the IgE-binding capacity of whole pistachio pro...

  15. 77 FR 21841 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... FIR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY... the assessment rate established for the Administrative Committee for Pistachios (Committee) for the 2011-12 and subsequent production years from $0.0007 to $0.0005 per pound of assessed weight pistachios...

  16. 76 FR 34181 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Proposed Amendments to Marketing Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ...; FV11-983-1 PR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Proposed Amendments to... amendments to Marketing Agreement and Order No. 983, which regulates the handling of pistachios grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico, were proposed by the Administrative Committee for Pistachios (Committee...

  17. Pistachio Allergy-Prevalence and In vitro Cross-Reactivity with Other Nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Noorbakhsh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The results indicate that exposure of people to pistachio significantly affects the prevalence of its allergic reactions. In addition, it was observed that, among pistachio allergic subjects, such exposure may affect the co-sensitivities with other nuts, including cashew and almond. The plant taxonomic classification of pistachio and other tree nuts does appear to predict allergenic cross-reactivity.

  18. 76 FR 60361 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ...; FV-983-2 IR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate...: This rule decreases the assessment rate established for the Administrative Committee for Pistachios... weight pistachios. The Committee locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling of...

  19. 75 FR 68681 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Modification of the Aflatoxin Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... FIR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Modification of the Aflatoxin..., Arizona, and New Mexico pistachio marketing order (order). The interim rule streamlined the aflatoxin sampling and testing procedures under the order's rules and regulations for pistachios to be shipped for...

  20. 75 FR 64681 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 983 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0077; FV10-983-3 CR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona..., Arizona, and New Mexico pistachio producers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of pistachios grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico. DATES: The...

  1. Effect of using different levels of pistachio by-products silage on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of using different levels of pistachio by-products silage on composition and blood parameters of Holstein dairy cows. ... The goal of this research was to study about the effect of using pistachio hulls silage in cow's nutrition. The initial ... Key words: Dairy cattle's, milk production, pistachio by-product, silage, tannin.

  2. Adsorption of violet B by agricultural waste of soft pistachio shells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, inexpensive agricultural waste pistachio sells was used for adsorption of violet B. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the pistachio shells. The morphology of pistachio shell was studied by SEM and it showed the porous structure of ...

  3. Application of Statistics to Evaluate Iranian Analytical Laboratories Proficiency: Case of Aflatoxins in Pistachio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Fotouhi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a proficiency testing program among limited number of local laboratories as an alternative to the IUPAC/CITAC guide on proficiency testing with a limited number of participants, specially where international schemes are not accessible. As a sample scheme we planned to determine aflatoxins (B1, G1, B2, G2, total in Iranian pistachio matrix. A part of naturally contaminated pistachio sample was tested for sufficient homogeneity by a competent laboratory and then homogenized sub-samples were distributed among participants all across the country. The median of participants’ results was selected as assigned value. Student t-test was applied to show there is no significant difference between assigned and mean values of homogeneity test results obtained by the competent laboratory. Calculated z-scores showed that 6 out of 8 results in aflatoxin B1, 7 out of 8 results in aflatoxin B2, 5 out of 8 results in aflatoxin G1, 7 out of 8 results in aflatoxin G2 and 6 out of 9 results in aflatoxin total were in satisfactory range. Together our studies indicate that the approach described here is highly cost efficient and applicable for quality assurance of test results when there is no access to international proficiency testing providers.

  4. Antioxidant activity and phenolic profile of pistachio (Pistacia vera L., variety Bronte) seeds and skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaino, Antonio; Martorana, Maria; Arcoraci, Teresita; Monteleone, Domenico; Giovinazzo, Corrado; Saija, Antonella

    2010-09-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.; Anacardiaceae) is native of aride zones of Central and West Asia and distributed throughout the Mediterranean basin. In Italy, a pistachio cultivar of high quality is typical of Bronte (Sicily), an area around the Etna volcano, where the lava land and climate allow the production of a nut with intense green colour and aromatic taste, very appreciated in international markets. Pistachio nuts are a rich source of phenolic compounds, and have recently been ranked among the first 50 food products highest in antioxidant potential. Pistachio nuts are often used after removing the skin, which thus represents a significant by-product of pistachio industrial processing. The present study was carried out to better characterize the phenolic composition and the antioxidant activity of Bronte pistachios, with the particular aim to evaluate the differences between pistachio seeds and skins. The total content of phenolic compounds in pistachios was shown to be significantly higher in skins than in seeds. By HPLC analysis, gallic acid, catechin, eriodictyol-7-O-glucoside, naringenin-7-O-neohesperidoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and eriodictyol were found both in pistachio seeds than in skins; furthermore, genistein-7-O-glucoside, genistein, daidzein and apigenin appeared to be present only in pistachio seeds, while epicatechin, quercetin, naringenin, luteolin, kaempferol, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside are contained only in pistachio skins. The antioxidant activity of pistachio seeds and skins were determined by means of four different assays (DPPH assay, Folin-Ciocalteau colorimetric method and TEAC assay, SOD-mimetic assay). As expected on the basis of the chemical analyses, pistachio skins have shown to possess a better activity with respect to seeds in all tests. The excellent antioxidant activity of pistachio skins can be explained by its higher content of antioxidant phenolic compounds. By HPLC-TLC analysis, gallic acid

  5. Modeling of microwave-convective drying of pistachios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchakzadeh, Ahmad; Shafeei, Sahameh

    2010-01-01

    The microwave-convective drying of two varieties of Iranian pistachios (Khany and Abasaliy) was performed in a laboratory scale microwave dryer, which was developed for this purpose. The drying rate curves show that first rapidly decreased and then very little reduction in moisture ratio observed with increase of drying time. A non-linear regression page model represents good agreement with experimental data with coefficient of determination and mean square of deviation as 0.9612 and 2.25 x 10 -5 for Khany and 0.9997 and 4.28 x 10 -5 for Abasaliy pistachios respectively.

  6. Microbial contamination of stored hydrocarbon fuels and its control Contaminação microbiana de combustíveis hidrocarbonados e o seu controle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine C. Gaylarde

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The major microbial problem in the petroleum refining industry is contamination of stored products, which can lead to loss of product quality, formation of sludge and deterioration of pipework and storage tanks, both in the refinery and at the end-user. Three major classes of fuel are discussed in this article - gasoline, aviation kerosene and diesel, corresponding to increasingly heavy petroleum fractions. The fuel that presents the most serious microbiological problems is diesel. The many microorganisms that have been isolated from hydrocarbon fuel systems are listed. The conditions required for microbial growth and the methods used to monitor and to control this activity are discussed. The effects of various fuel additives, including biocides, are considered.O problema microbiano maior na indústria de refino de petróleo é a contaminação de produtos armazenados, que pode levar à perda da qualidade, à formação de borra e à deterioração de tubulações e tanques de estocagem, na refinaria e no usuário. São abordadas, neste artigo, três classes de combustível, gasolina, querosene de aviação e óleo diesel, correspondente à ordem crescente de peso no fracionamento de petróleo. O óleo diesel apresenta os problemas microbiológicos mais sérios. São relatados os diversos microrganismos isolados de sistemas de combustíveis hidrocarbonados. São apresentadas as condições necessárias para crescimento microbiano e os métodos utilizados para o monitoramento e controle desse crescimento. Os efeitos de diversos aditivos, inclusive biocidas, são discutidos

  7. Design, Construction and Evaluation of Wild Pistachio Sheller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Karimi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The wild pistachio (Pistacia Atlantica Mutika exists in 2.4 million hectares of Iranian forest. In spite of high nutritional and medical value of this fruit, its use and processing are still performed manually. The objectives of this research are to design, to construct and to evaluate the performance of a pistachio hulling machine. The pistachio of Kerman province was chosen as the case of study. The mechanism of shelling was chosen based on the applied pressure force of two cylinders, driving and driven. The effects of input variables including revolution of driving cylinder (three levels, the gap between two cylinders (four levels and moisture content (four levels on the performance of machine (shelling efficiency, percentage of intact kernel, percentage of imperfective broken nut, percentage of dust, and percentage of unshelled nut were analyzed. The results showed that the shelling efficiency decreases with increasing the gap of two cylinders and moisture content of wild pistachio. The maximum intact kernel was obtained at moisture content of 6.61 wb %. The best performance was observed with the following conditions: the cylinders’ gap of 0.48 mm, rotational speed of the driving cylinder of 25.84 rpm and moisture content of 4.31% w.b.

  8. Characterization of toxigenic and atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates from pistachio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty eight Aspergillus flavus isolates collected from a pistachio orchard in California were analyzed for production of aflatoxin (AF), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and mating types. All toxigenic isolates produced both AFB1 and CPA. Twenty-one percent of the i...

  9. Sensitivities of baseline isolates and boscalid-resistant mutants of Alternaria alternata from pistachio to fluopyram, penthiopyrad, and fluxapyroxad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avenot, H.F.; Biggelaar, van den H.; Morgan, D.P.; Moral, J.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.; Michailides, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Resistance of Alternaria alternata to boscalid, the first succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicide labeled on pistachio, has become a common occurrence in California pistachio orchards and affects the performance of this fungicide. In this study, we established the baseline sensitivities

  10. Image processing for x-ray inspection of pistachio nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David P.

    2001-03-01

    A review is provided of image processing techniques that have been applied to the inspection of pistachio nuts using X-ray images. X-ray sensors provide non-destructive internal product detail not available from other sensors. The primary concern in this data is detecting the presence of worm infestations in nuts, since they have been linked to the presence of aflatoxin. We describe new techniques for segmentation, feature selection, selection of product categories (clusters), classifier design, etc. Specific novel results include: a new segmentation algorithm to produce images of isolated product items; preferable classifier operation (the classifier with the best probability of correct recognition Pc is not best); higher-order discrimination information is present in standard features (thus, high-order features appear useful); classifiers that use new cluster categories of samples achieve improved performance. Results are presented for X-ray images of pistachio nuts; however, all techniques have use in other product inspection applications.

  11. Energy and exergy analyses of solar drying process of pistachio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midilli, A.; Kucuk, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the energy and exergy analyses of the drying process of shelled and unshelled pistachios using a solar drying cabinet. Using the first law of thermodynamics, energy analysis was carried to estimate the amounts of energy gained from solar air collectors and the ratios of energy utilization. However, exergy analysis was accomplished to determine the location, type, and magnitude of exergy losses during the solar drying process by applying the second law of thermodynamics. It was deduced that the exergy losses took place mostly in the 15th shelf where the available energy was less utilized. Moreover, the shelled and unshelled pistachios are sufficiently dried in the ranges between 40 and 60 deg. C and 37 and 62% of relative humidity at 1.23 m s -1 of drying air velocity in 6 h despite the exergy losses of 0.15-3.08 kJ kg -1

  12. Energy and exergy analyses of solar drying process of pistachio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midilli, A [University of Nigde (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Kucuk, H [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the energy and exergy analyses of the drying process of shelled and unshelled pistachios using a solar drying cabinet. Using the first law of thermodynamics, energy analysis was carried to estimate the amounts of energy gained from solar air collectors and the ratios of energy utilization. However, exergy analysis was accomplished to determine the location, type, and magnitude of exergy losses during the solar drying process by applying the second law of thermodynamics. It was deduced that the exergy losses took place mostly in the 15th shelf where the available energy was less utilized. Moreover, the shelled and unshelled pistachios are sufficiently dried in the ranges between 40 and 60{sup o}C and 37 and 62% of relative humidity at 1.23 m s{sup -1} of drying air velocity in 6 h despite the exergy losses of 0.15-3.08 kJ kg{sup -1}. (Author)

  13. 76 FR 57001 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Proposed Amendment of Marketing Order No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 983 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0099; FV11-983-1 PR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona... pistachios grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico, and provides growers with the opportunity to vote in... Administrative Committee for Pistachios (Committee), which is responsible for local administration of the order...

  14. 77 FR 36119 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 983

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ...; FV11-983-1 FR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Order Amending Marketing Order... amends Marketing Agreement and Order No. 983 (order), which regulates the handling of pistachios grown in... Committee for Pistachios (Committee), which is responsible for local administration of the order. The...

  15. Gamma radiation effects on phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio (Pistachia vera) hull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behgar, M.; Ghasemi, S.; Naserian, A.; Borzoie, A.; Fatollahi, H.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r 2 (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content (P<0.01) and activity of antioxidants (P<0.05) of pistachio hull extracts but increased the total phenolic content (P<0.05). There was no effect of gamma irradiation on the in vitro digestion of the pistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull. - Highlights: → we investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on pistachio hull. → We examine changes in phenolics, antioxidant and digestion of pistachio hull. → Computerized radial diffusion method gives precise regression for standard curve. → Gamma irradiation will decrease tannin and antioxidants of pistachio hull extracts.

  16. First report of Eurytoma plotnikovi Nik. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, a seed parasite of pistachio, in Sicily (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Longo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The pistachio seed wasp, Eurytoma plotnikovi Nik.(Hymenoptera, E urytomidae, is a new pest recently arrived in pistachio orchards in central-western Sicily (Italy. Information on the damaging effects of this seed wasp in the affected areas is provided.

  17. Septoria-like pathogens causing leaf and fruit spot of pistachio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Sarpkaya, K.; Can, C.; Erkiliç, A.

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Septoria are associated with leaf and fruit spot of pistachio (Pistacia vera), though their identity has always been confused, making identification problematic. The present study elucidates the taxonomy of the Septoria spp. associated with pistachio, and distinguishes four

  18. First report of root rot caused by Phytopythium helicoides on pistachio rootstock in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined pathogenicity of Phytopythium helicoides on UCB-1 rootstock to investigate its role in root disease and collapse observed on potted pistachio plants. Approximately 25 potted 2-year-old pistachio rootstock trees in a Kern County, CA, research plot maintained outdoors and irrigated to cont...

  19. Determination of pistachio drying behaviour and conditions in a solar drying system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midilli, Adnan [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Trabzon (Turkey)

    2001-07-01

    The main object of this study is to determine the drying behaviour and conditions of shelled and unshelled pistachio samples using both solar assisted and open sun drying. For each drying experiment, 100 g each of unshelled and shelled pistachio were used. The least-squares method was applied to find the drying curve equation of pistachio. During the experiments, shelf temperatures, weight loss of pistachio, moisture content of air, and distribution of solar radiation were measured; and presented depending on the drying time. Also, the mass shrinkage ratios of shelled and unshelled pistachio samples were determined, and the experimental uncertainty ratio was calculated as 15-16.5 per cent based on the experimental results. It was deduced that the shelled and unshelled pistachio samples in the solar assisted forced convection dryer were perfectly dried at temperatures of 50{+-}10degC in the time period of 6 h. Whereas, the samples in the open sun drying were not sufficiently dried at temperatures of 28{+-}4degC in the same time period. Hence, it is suggested that the pistachio samples with approximately 29.0 per cent of moisture are dried in the solar assisted convection dryer at 50{+-}10degC of temperature in the time period of approximately 6 h in order to protect from the negative climatic and environmental effects. However, it is not desirable to dry the pistachio samples in the open sun because of greater drying time, dirt, dust and harmful insects. (Author)

  20. Gamma radiation effects on phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio (Pistachia vera) hull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behgar, M [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, P.O. Box 31485498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, S; Naserian, A [Faculty of Agriculture, Excellence Center in Animal Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 917751163, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Borzoie, A; Fatollahi, H [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, P.O. Box 31485498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r{sup 2} (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content (P<0.01) and activity of antioxidants (P<0.05) of pistachio hull extracts but increased the total phenolic content (P<0.05). There was no effect of gamma irradiation on the in vitro digestion of the pistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull. - Highlights: > we investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on pistachio hull. > We examine changes in phenolics, antioxidant and digestion of pistachio hull. > Computerized radial diffusion method gives precise regression for standard curve. > Gamma irradiation will decrease tannin and antioxidants of pistachio hull extracts.

  1. 76 FR 65411 - Specialty Crops; Import Regulations; Proposed Pistachio Import Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ..., or E-mail: [email protected] or [email protected] . Small businesses may request... the proposed regulations, ``pistachio'' would mean the nut of the pistachio tree, Pistachia vera.... Pages 326-359. \\5\\ Eaton, David L.; Jennifer E. Hobden; and Bruce J. Kelman. 2002. Aflatoxin in...

  2. 77 FR 51686 - Specialty Crops; Import Regulations; New Pistachio Import Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... the new regulation, ``pistachio'' means the nut of the pistachio tree, Pistachia vera, whether inshell... Order No. 983. 2002. Pages 326-359. \\5\\ Eaton, David L.; Jennifer E. Hobden; and Bruce J. Kelman. 2002..., and New Mexico. AMS is committed to complying with the E-Government Act, to promote the use of the...

  3. An input-output energy analysis in pistachio nut production: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research examined the energy use pattern and energy input/output analysis of pistachio nut widely grown in the South-eastern Anatolia, Turkey. For this purpose, data from pistachio nut production were collected in 61 farms from ten villages by a questionnaire which was selected according to their regional properties.

  4. Economic injury level of the psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae, on Pistachio, Pistacia vera cv. Ohadi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza Hassani, Mohammad; Nouri-Ganbalani, Gadir; Izadi, Hamzeh; Shojai, Mahmoud; Basirat, Mehdi

    2009-01-01

    The pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a major pest of pistachio trees, Pistacia vera L. (Sapindalis: Anacardiaceae) throughout pistachio-producing regions in Iran. Different density levels of A. pistaciae nymphs were maintained on pistachio trees by different insecticide dosages to evaluate the relationship between nymph density and yield loss (weight of 1000 nuts). Psylla nymph densities were monitored weekly by counting nymphs on pistachio terminal leaflets. There was a significant reduction in weight of 1000 nuts as seasonal averages of nymphs increased. Regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between nymph density and weight of 1000 nuts. The economic injury levels varied as a function of market values, management costs, insecticide efficiency and yield loss rate and ranged from 7.7 to 30.7 nymphal days per terminal leaflet, based on weight of 1000 nuts.

  5. Influence of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenic reactivity of processed cashew and pistachio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Carmen; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Sanchiz, Africa; Ballesteros, Isabel; Easson, Michael; Grimm, Casey C; Dieguez, M Carmen; Linacero, Rosario; Burbano, Carmen; Maleki, Soheila J

    2018-02-15

    Cashew and pistachio allergies are considered a serious health problem. Previous studies have shown that thermal processing, pressurization and enzymatic hydrolysis may reduce the allergenic properties of food by changing the protein structure. This study assesses the allergenic properties of cashew and pistachio after thermal treatment (boiling and autoclaving), with or without pressure (autoclaving), and multiple enzymatic treatments under sonication, by SDS-PAGE, western blot and ELISA, with serum IgE of allergic individuals, and mass spectroscopy. Autoclaving and enzymatic hydrolysis under sonication separately induced a measurable reduction in the IgE binding properties of pastes made from treated cashew and pistachio nuts. These treatments were more effective with pistachio allergens. However, heat combined with enzymatic digestion was necessary to markedly lower IgE binding to cashew allergens. The findings identify highly effective simultaneous processing conditions to reduce or even abolish the allergenic potency of cashew and pistachio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of salicylic acid on Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin B₁ accumulation in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahirad, Sima; Zaare-Nahandi, Fariborz; Mohammadi, Nilufar; Alizadeh-Salteh, Saeedeh; Safaie, Naser

    2014-07-01

    One of the most important saprophytic infections in fresh pistachio fruits after harvesting is Aspergillus flavus colonization, which significantly reduces fruit quality. Salicylic acid plays a crucial role in plant tissues and has a suppression effect on some fungi. The inhibitory effect of salicylic acid on the growth of A. flavus was assessed in vitro and in vivo. For this purpose, seven concentrations (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 mmol L(-1)) of salicylic acid were used in both experiments. Also, aflatoxin B1 contents of the samples were analysed using immunoaffinity chromatography. The results obtained from in vitro experiments showed that salicylic acid significantly reduced Aspergillus growth at all concentrations, and at 9 mmol L(-1) growth was completely suppressed. In vivo evaluation showed relatively high levels of inhibition, though the intact treated fruits as compared with the injured treated fruits demonstrated higher inhibitory effects. Regarding the inhibitory effects of salicylic acid on the control of A. flavus contamination, its application on pistachio fruits after harvesting could be a promising approach to control the fungus infection and reduce aflatoxin production in treated fruits. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Evaluation of monitoring traps with novel bait for navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in California almond and pistachio orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, Justin E; Peterson, Elonce M; Boyd, Elizabeth A

    2012-08-01

    Experiments conducted in three almond, Prunus dulcis (Rosales: Rosaceae), orchards and three pistachio, Pistacia vera (Sapindales: Anicardiaceae), orchards in 2009 and 2010, and determined that sticky bottom wing traps baited with ground pistachio mummies, or a combination of ground pistachio plus ground almond mummies, trapped more adult female navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), than did traps baited with ground almond mummies alone. During both years of this study, 2.9 and 1.8 more moths were caught in traps baited with pistachio mummies compared with traps baited with almond mummies in almond orchards and pistachio orchards, respectively. Also, traps located in pistachio orchards caught 5.9 and 8.3 times more navel orangeworm than were trapped from almond orchards in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Implications for use of this novel baited trap in almond and pistachio orchard integrated pest management programs are discussed.

  8. Occurrence of Coliform and Escherichia coli Contamination and Absence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Romaine Lettuce from Retail Stores in the Upper Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Josephine D; Zietlow, Mark S; Miller, Kevin M; Ellingson, Jay L E

    2015-09-01

    A total of 720 whole, romaine lettuce heads were purchased from retail locations in the Upper Midwest and assessed for coliform and Escherichia coli contamination and for the presence of E. coli O157:H7. During a 16-month period (August 2010 through December 2011), coliform and E. coli counts were enumerated on Petrifilm, and the presence of E. coli O157:H7 and the virulence gene eae was evaluated by real-time PCR (qPCR). Over half (400 of 720) of the lettuce samples were processed with an immunomagnetic separation step before the qPCR assay. All retail lettuce samples were negative for E. coli O157:H7 when tested with the R.A.P.I.D. LT qPCR targeting a region of the O-antigen, and only two (0.28%) were positive for the eae gene when tested with LightCycler qPCR. On Petrifilm, coliform counts of most lettuce samples (96.4%) were between lettuce samples (98.2%) were lettuce heads. These results contribute to the limited recorded data and understanding of microbial contamination of whole romaine lettuce heads purchased from retail locations, specifically revealing the absence of E. coli O157:H7 and low levels of contamination with coliforms and other E. coli strains.

  9. Aflatoxin B1 and total fumonisin contamination and their producing fungi in fresh and stored sorghum grain in East Hararghe, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Wondimeneh; Ayalew, Amare; Chala, Alemayehu; Dejene, Mashilla

    2016-12-01

    Natural contamination of sorghum grains by aflatoxin B 1 and total fumonisin and their producing toxigenic fungi has been studied. A total of 90 sorghum grain samples were collected from small-scale farmers' threshing floors and 5-6 months later from underground pits during 2013 harvest from three districts of East Hararghe, Ethiopia. Mycotoxin analysis was done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The limits of detection were in the range 0.01-0.03 μg kg -1 . The results revealed that all sorghum grain samples were contaminated with both Aspergillus and Fusarium species. Aflatoxin B 1 was detected at levels ranging from fumonisin levels varied between 907 and 2041 µg kg -1 grain across the samples. Lowest total fumonisin was recorded in freshly harvested sorghum grain samples. Sorghum is a main staple cereal in the studied districts and its consumption per day per person is high. Daily intake of low doses of mycotoxin-contaminated food stuff over a period of time could lead to chronic mycotoxicosis.

  10. Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is a new natural host of Hop stunt viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuch, Amine; Hamdi, Imen; Ellouze, Olfa; Ghrab, Mohamed; Fkahfakh, Hatem; Drira, Noureddine

    2013-10-01

    Besides hop, Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd) infects many woody species including grapevine, citrus, peach, plum, apricot, almond, pomegranate, mulberry and jujube. Here, we report the first detection of HpSVd in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Samples corresponding to 16 pistachio cultivars were obtained from a nearby almond collection. From these samples, low molecular weight RNAs were extracted for double polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, northern-blot analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. HpSVd was detected in 4 of the 16 pistachio cultivars in the first year and in 6 in the second, being also detected in the almond collection. Examination of the nucleotide sequences of pistachio and almond isolates revealed 13 new sequence variants. Sequences from pistachio shared 92-96 % similarity with the first reported HpSVd sequence (GenBank X00009), and multiple alignment and phylogenetic analyses showed that one pistachio isolate (HpSVdPis67Jabari) clustered with the plum group, whereas all the others clustered with the hop, and the recombinants plum-citrus and plum-Hop/cit3 groups. By identifying pistachio as a new natural host, we confirm that HpSVd is an ubiquitous and genetically variable viroid that infects many different fruit trees cultivated worldwide.

  11. Influence of processing on the allergenic properties of pistachio nut assessed in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbakhsh, Reihaneh; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Sankian, Mojtaba; Shahidi, Fakhri; Maleki, Soheila J; Nasiraii, Leila Roozbeh; Falak, Reza; Sima, Hamid Reza; Varasteh, AbdolReza

    2010-09-22

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is a tree nut that has been reported to cause IgE-mediated allergic reactions. This study was undertaken to investigate the distinctions between different cultivars of pistachio nut and the influence of different processing on the IgE-binding capacity of whole pistachio protein extracts. The influence of different processes on allergenicity was investigated using competitive inhibition ELISA and Western blotting assays. The Western blotting results of extracts from pistachio cultivars showed no marked difference among them. The IgE-binding capacity was significantly lower for the protein extract prepared from steam-roasted than from raw and dry-roasted pistachio nuts. The results of sensory evaluation analysis and hedonic rating proved no significant differences in color, taste, flavor, and overall quality of raw, roasted, and steam-roasted pistachio nut treatments. The most significant finding of the present study was the successful reduction of IgE-binding by pistachio extracts using steam-roast processing without any significant changes in sensory quality of product.

  12. Bioaccessibility of pistachio polyphenols, xanthophylls, and tocopherols during simulated human digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalari, Giuseppina; Bisignano, Carlo; Filocamo, Angela; Chessa, Simona; Sarò, Mariagiovanna; Torre, Germana; Faulks, Richard M; Dugo, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The bioaccessibility of bioactives from pistachios has not been previously evaluated. In the present study we quantified the release of polyphenols, xanthophylls (lutein), and tocopherols from pistachios (raw pistachios, roasted salted pistachios, and muffins made with raw pistachios) during simulated human digestion. A dynamic gastric model of digestion that provides a realistic and predictive simulation of the physical and chemical processing and accurately mimics the residence time and the luminal environment within the human stomach was used for the digestion studies. More than 90% of the polyphenols were released in the gastric compartment, with virtually total release in the duodenal phase. No significant differences were observed between raw shelled and roasted salted pistachio. The presence of a food matrix (muffin) decreased the bioaccessibility of protocatechuic acid (78%) and luteolin (36%). Almost 100% bioaccessibility of lutein and tocopherols was found after duodenal digestion, with no difference among the three samples. The rapid release of the assayed bioactives in the stomach maximizes the potential for absorption in the duodenum and contributes to the beneficial relation between pistachio consumption and health-related outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Wastewater of Pistachio Processing Terminals (Case Study: Kerman city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Khademi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Wastewaters resulting from seasonal processing such as pistachio processing industry are one of the most important factors of environmental pollution. High concentration of pollutants are the qualitative characteristics of wastewaters that due high consumption of water and energy resources as well as high levels production of waste have a good potential to realization of projects to reduce the environmental impacts and optimizing the consumption of energy resources.The aim of this study was to determine the wastewater̛ s quality and quantity of pistachio processing terminals. Methods: this study is cross-sectional study that has been implemented from mid –September until late October (pistachio harvest season in each of the years 2012-2013-2014 in Kerman.Firstely according to field study, the characteristics and location of 20 pistachio processing terminals were determined by a GPS device. Then 8 pistachio processing terminals were selected in around of wastewater collection system. Composite sampling method with total of 72 samples was done in each year during pistachio operation. Samples were conducted from pistachio processing wastewater screen filter outlet. In each of samples BOD5, COD, TSS, pH and Total phenolic were determined. Sampling and tests were done according to water and wastewater standard methods book (20th edition. Concentration of Phenolic compounds was measured by folin ciocaltive method. The Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results: the average of total produced wastewater in pistachio processing terminals in this study was 85.9m3/d. The average BOD5, COD, TSS, Total phenolic and PH were 6106, 21570, 682, 4154 (mg/L and 5.5 respectively. Conclusion: The obtained results from raw wastewater of pistachio processing terminals showed they have high BOD and COD. This is caused by presentation of priority pollutants (phenolic compounds which have high potential in pollution and toxicity for discharging any

  14. Apparatus for storing protective suits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englemann, H.J.; Koller, J.; Schrader, H.R.; Schade, G.; Pedrerol, J.

    1975-01-01

    Arrangements are described for storing one or more protective suits when contaminated on the outside. In order to permit a person wearing a contaminated suit to leave a contaminated area safely, and without contaminating the environment, it has hitherto been the practice for the suit to be passed through a 'lock' and cleansed under decontaminating showers whilst still being worn. This procedure is time wasting and not always completely effective, and it may be necessary to provide a second suit for use whilst the first suit is being decontaminated. Repeated decontamination may also result in undue wear and tear. The arrangements described provide a 'lock' chamber in which a contaminated suit may be stowed away without its interior becoming contaminated, thus allowing repeated use by persons donning and shedding it. (U.K.)

  15. Time-Series Analysis of U.S. Pistachio Export Demand in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Zijuan; Saghaian, Sayed H.

    2011-01-01

    This study identifys the main factors influencing U.S. pistachio export demand in North America-i.e., to Canada and Mexico. A double-log econometric model is estimated using data for 1989-2009. The main findings indicate that Canadian GDP, U.S. walnut export prices, and food safety concerns explain the majorityof the pistachio import demand variation in Canada, wheras Iranian pistachio export prices, the real exchange rate between the Mexican peso and the U.S. dollar, and U.S. pecan export pr...

  16. Comparative life cycle assessment of pistachio, almond and apple production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bartzas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative life cycle assessment (LCA, with the use of GaBi 6 software and specific related databases, of three water intensive tree cultivation systems was conducted in order to evaluate environmental impacts and energy consumption. The tree crops are traditionally cultivated in two representative areas in Greece, namely Aegina island, Attica region, for pistachios and Agia, East Thessaly region, central Greece, for apples and almonds. The impact categories considered include global warming potential (GWP, eutrophication potential (EP, acidification potential (AP and cumulative energy demand (CED. Based upon the results obtained, it is deduced that pistachios and almonds show minor differences for all impact categories considered, while apples exhibit the best environmental profile. The phases of fertilizers production, irrigation system and field management were identified as the main “hot-spots” for all crops, exhibiting the highest environmental impacts and energy consumption. A sensitivity analysis was performed to explore actions that can be considered at farm scale, such as water desalination for irrigation purposes, transition to organic production and use of renewable energy, in order to reduce water requirements and promote energy conservation, especially in semi-arid and arid Mediterranean regions which suffer from water shortage and are prone to salinization. Finally, the results of this study were compared with the results derived from other relevant LCA studies.

  17. Early construction and operation of the highly contaminated water treatment system in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (4). Assessment of hydrogen behavior in stored Cs adsorption vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masahiro; Arai, Takahiro; Nishi, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen diffusion behavior in a cesium adsorption vessel is assessed. The vessel is used to remove radioactive substance from contaminated water, which is proceeded from Fukushima accident. Experiment and numerical calculation are conducted to clarify the characteristics of natural circulation in the vessel. The natural circulation arising from the temperature difference between inside and outside the vessel is confirmed. We develop an evaluation model to predict the natural circulation and its prediction agrees well with the results obtained by the experiment and the calculation. Using the model, we predict steady and transient behavior of hydrogen concentration. Results indicate that hydrogen concentration is kept lower than the flammability limit when the short vent pipe is open. (author)

  18. Expanded image database of pistachio x-ray images and classification by conventional methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keagy, Pamela M.; Schatzki, Thomas F.; Le, Lan Chau; Casasent, David P.; Weber, David

    1996-12-01

    In order to develop sorting methods for insect damaged pistachio nuts, a large data set of pistachio x-ray images (6,759 nuts) was created. Both film and linescan sensor images were acquired, nuts dissected and internal conditions coded using the U.S. Grade standards and definitions for pistachios. A subset of 1199 good and 686 insect damaged nuts was used to calculate and test discriminant functions. Statistical parameters of image histograms were evaluated for inclusion by forward stepwise discrimination. Using three variables in the discriminant function, 89% of test set nuts were correctly identified. Comparable data for 6 human subjects ranged from 67 to 92%. If the loss of good nuts is held to 1% by requiring a high probability to discard a nut as insect damaged, approximately half of the insect damage present in clean pistachio nuts may be detected and removed by x-ray inspection.

  19. Photoprotection by pistachio bioactives in a 3-dimensional human skin equivalent tissue model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-Y Oliver; Smith, Avi; Liu, Yuntao; Du, Peng; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Garlick, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during ultraviolet (UV) light exposure can induce skin damage and aging. Antioxidants can provide protection against oxidative injury to skin via "quenching" ROS. Using a validated 3-dimensional (3D) human skin equivalent (HSE) tissue model that closely mimics human skin, we examined whether pistachio antioxidants could protect HSE against UVA-induced damage. Lutein and γ-tocopherol are the predominant lipophilic antioxidants in pistachios; treatment with these compounds prior to UVA exposure protected against morphological changes to the epithelial and connective tissue compartments of HSE. Pistachio antioxidants preserved overall skin thickness and organization, as well as fibroblast morphology, in HSE exposed to UVA irradiation. However, this protection was not substantiated by the analysis of the proliferation of keratinocytes and apoptosis of fibroblasts. Additional studies are warranted to elucidate the basis of these discordant results and extend research into the potential role of pistachio bioactives promoting skin health.

  20. Probabilistic Identification of Spin Systems and their Assignments including Coil-Helix Inference as Output (PISTACHIO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eghbalnia, Hamid R.; Bahrami, Arash; Wang, Liya; Assadi, Amir; Markley, John L.

    2005-01-01

    We present a novel automated strategy (PISTACHIO) for the probabilistic assignment of backbone and sidechain chemical shifts in proteins. The algorithm uses peak lists derived from various NMR experiments as input and provides as output ranked lists of assignments for all signals recognized in the input data as constituting spin systems. PISTACHIO was evaluated by comparing its performance with raw peak-picked data from 15 proteins ranging from 54 to 300 residues; the results were compared with those achieved by experts analyzing the same datasets by hand. As scored against the best available independent assignments for these proteins, the first-ranked PISTACHIO assignments were 80-100% correct for backbone signals and 75-95% correct for sidechain signals. The independent assignments benefited, in a number of cases, from structural data (e.g. from NOESY spectra) that were unavailable to PISTACHIO. Any number of datasets in any combination can serve as input. Thus PISTACHIO can be used as datasets are collected to ascertain the current extent of secure assignments, to identify residues with low assignment probability, and to suggest the types of additional data needed to remove ambiguities. The current implementation of PISTACHIO, which is available from a server on the Internet, supports input data from 15 standard double- and triple-resonance experiments. The software can readily accommodate additional types of experiments, including data from selectively labeled samples. The assignment probabilities can be carried forward and refined in subsequent steps leading to a structure. The performance of PISTACHIO showed no direct dependence on protein size, but correlated instead with data quality (completeness and signal-to-noise). PISTACHIO represents one component of a comprehensive probabilistic approach we are developing for the collection and analysis of protein NMR data

  1. Probabilistic Identification of Spin Systems and their Assignments including Coil-Helix Inference as Output (PISTACHIO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eghbalnia, Hamid R., E-mail: eghbalni@nmrfam.wisc.edu; Bahrami, Arash; Wang, Liya [National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison, Biochemistry Department (United States); Assadi, Amir [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Mathematics Department (United States); Markley, John L [National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison, Biochemistry Department (United States)

    2005-07-15

    We present a novel automated strategy (PISTACHIO) for the probabilistic assignment of backbone and sidechain chemical shifts in proteins. The algorithm uses peak lists derived from various NMR experiments as input and provides as output ranked lists of assignments for all signals recognized in the input data as constituting spin systems. PISTACHIO was evaluated by comparing its performance with raw peak-picked data from 15 proteins ranging from 54 to 300 residues; the results were compared with those achieved by experts analyzing the same datasets by hand. As scored against the best available independent assignments for these proteins, the first-ranked PISTACHIO assignments were 80-100% correct for backbone signals and 75-95% correct for sidechain signals. The independent assignments benefited, in a number of cases, from structural data (e.g. from NOESY spectra) that were unavailable to PISTACHIO. Any number of datasets in any combination can serve as input. Thus PISTACHIO can be used as datasets are collected to ascertain the current extent of secure assignments, to identify residues with low assignment probability, and to suggest the types of additional data needed to remove ambiguities. The current implementation of PISTACHIO, which is available from a server on the Internet, supports input data from 15 standard double- and triple-resonance experiments. The software can readily accommodate additional types of experiments, including data from selectively labeled samples. The assignment probabilities can be carried forward and refined in subsequent steps leading to a structure. The performance of PISTACHIO showed no direct dependence on protein size, but correlated instead with data quality (completeness and signal-to-noise). PISTACHIO represents one component of a comprehensive probabilistic approach we are developing for the collection and analysis of protein NMR data.

  2. The effect of pistachio shells as a visual cue in reducing caloric consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Hagan, K; Painter, J E; Honselman, C; Halvorson, A; Rhodes, K; Skwir, K

    2011-10-01

    It was hypothesized that pistachio shells left in sight as visual cues of consumption will cause individuals to consume less. A convenience sample of faculty and staff at a mid-western university (n=118) were recruited as subjects for the study. The subjects were told they were going to evaluate a variety of brands of pistachios and were surveyed at the end of each day to determine their fullness and satisfaction. The subjects were offered pistachios on their desks for an 8-h period on two separate days and were able to consume the pistachios at their leisure during that time. Subjects began each day with a sixteen ounce bowl filled with four ounces of pistachios in the shell. They were also provided with a second sixteen ounce bowl, in which they were instructed to place the empty shells from the pistachios they consumed. Every 2 h throughout the day pistachios were added in two ounce increments. In condition one, the shells remained in the bowls until the end of the day, whereas in condition two, the shell bowls were emptied every 2 h throughout the day. In condition one, subjects consumed an average of 216 calories. In condition two, subjects consumed an average of 264 calories, a difference of 48 calories. Subjects in condition one consumed significantly (p≤.05) fewer calories, yet fullness and satisfaction ratings were not significantly (p≥.05) different between conditions. Leaving pistachio shells as a visual cue to consumption may help consumers consume fewer calories. Individuals will be aware of the impact of visual cues of dietary intake on total food consumption. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effect of electrostatic field on dynamic friction coefficient of pistachio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H Aghkhani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Separation and grading of agricultural products from the production to supply, has notable importance. The separation can be done based on physical, electrical, magnetic, optical properties and etc. It is necessary for any development of new systems to study enough on the properties and behavior of agricultural products. Some characteristics for separation are size (length, width and thickness, hardness, shape, density, surface roughness, color, speed limit, aerodynamic properties, electrical conductivity, elasticity and coefficient of static friction point. So far, the friction properties of agricultural products used in the separating process, but the effect of electrostatic charging on static and dynamic coefficients of friction for separation had little attention. The aim of this study was to find out the interactions between electrostatic and friction properties to find a way to separate products that separation is not possible with conventional methods or not sufficiently accurate. In this paper, the separation of close and smiley pistachios by electrostatic charging was investigated. Materials and Methods: Kallehghoochi pistachio cultivar has the top rank in production in Iran. Therefore, it was used as a sample. The experimental design that used in this study, had moisture content at three levels (24.2, 14.5 and 8.1 percent, electric field intensity at three levels (zero, 4000 and 7000 V, speed of movement on the surface at three levels (1300, 2500 and 3300 mm per minute, friction surface (galvanized sheet iron, aluminum and flat rubber and pistachio type at two levels (filled splits and closed that was measured and analyzed in completely randomized factorial design. A friction measuring device (built in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad used to measure the friction force. It has a removable table that can move in two directions with adjustable speed. The test sample put into the vessel with internal dimensions of 300 × 150

  4. Assessment of Feeding Acceptance and Injury of Kerman Pistachios, Pistacia vera, by Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lara, Jesús R; Kamiyama, Matthew T; Hernandez, Gabriel; Nay, Justin; Hoddle, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, California (CA) is the primary commercial producer of pistachio nuts, Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae). The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an invasive and polyphagous insect pest from Asia, has established in urban areas in several pistachio-growing counties in CA. Breeding BMSB populations have not been detected in commercial pistachio acreage. However, the detection of BMSB in Kern and Fresno counties, ma...

  5. Economic Investigation of Poverty and Income Distribution in Pistachio Cultivating Areas of Kerman Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sedaghat

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of poverty and income in equality are the most important subjects of social/ economic research in agriculture sector. The present study focuses on poverty and income inequality among pistachio growers in Kerman province. Absolute poverty line, relative poverty line, poverty gap and intensity were calculated. Also income distribution was investigated using Ginny coefficient, Lorenz curve and income distribution index. The statistical community was all pistachio producers in Kerman province. Data collected through personally interviewing of 200 producer, using multi-stage cluster random sampling, during 2012-2015 cropping years. The results showed that absolute poverty line for pistachio growers in Kerman province was 24000000 (10 Rials while, relative poverty line was 64922675(10 Rials, annually. Results also indicated that 30 percent of farmers were suffering from absolute poverty while, 57 percent from relative poverty. Income gap for poor pistachio growers under absolute poverty was 0.48, but for poor pistachio growers under relative poverty was 0.60. According to Lorenz curve, Ginny coefficient of 0.66 and income distribution index, it can be concluded that there is an un-fair income distribution among pistachio growers in study area. Finally supporting capital availability specially for small scale poor farmers through low interest credit, production subsidies and national development funds is suggested.

  6. Proposal of Xanthomonas translucens pv. pistaciae pv. nov., pathogenic to pistachio (Pistacia vera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblot-Ducray, Danièle; Marefat, Alireza; Gillings, Michael R; Parkinson, Neil M; Bowman, John P; Ophel-Keller, Kathy; Taylor, Cathy; Facelli, Evelina; Scott, Eileen S

    2009-12-01

    Strains of Xanthomonas translucens have caused dieback in the Australian pistachio industry for the last 15 years. Such pathogenicity to a dicotyledonous woody host contrasts with that of other pathovars of X. translucens, which are characterized by their pathogenicity to monocotyledonous plant families. Further investigations, using DNA-DNA hybridization, gyrB gene sequencing and integron screening, were conducted to confirm the taxonomic status of the X. translucens pathogenic to pistachio. DNA-DNA hybridization provided a clear classification, at the species level, of the pistachio pathogen as a X. translucens. In the gyrB-based phylogeny, strains of the pistachio pathogen clustered among the X. translucens pathovars as two distinct lineages. Integron screening revealed that the cassette arrays of strains of the pistachio pathogen were different from those of other Xanthomonas species, and again distinguished two groups. Together with previously reported pathogenicity data, these results confirm that the pistachio pathogen is a new pathovar of X. translucens and allow hypotheses about its origin. The proposed name is Xanthomonas translucens pv. pistaciae pv. nov.

  7. New approach to the calculation of pistachio powder hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolipour, Hamid; Mokhtarian, Mohsen

    2016-04-01

    Moisture sorption isotherms for pistachio powder were determined by gravimetric method at temperatures of 15, 25, 35 and 40°C. A selected mathematical models were tested to determine the best suitable model to predict isotherm curve. The results show that Caurie model had the most satisfactory goodness of fit. Also, another purpose of this research was to introduce a new methodology to determine the amount of hysteresis at different temperatures by using best predictive model of isotherm curve based on definite integration method. The results demonstrated that maximum hysteresis is related to the multi-layer water (in the range of water activity 0.2-0.6) which corresponds to the capillary condensation region and this phenomenon decreases with increasing temperature.

  8. Evaluation of Freezing Damage in some Pistachio Seedling Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Afrousheh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the freezing damage in some pistachio rootstocks by ion leakage and pH changes of leaked solution. A factorial experiment was carried out in randomized block designs (RBD with three factors: Temperature (A including 4 ̊C, 0 ̊C, -2 ̊C, -4 ̊C, -6 ̊C, Time (B including 3, 12, 24h , and Rootstock (C including P. vera cv 'Badami Zarand' (V13 and 'Sarakhs' (S5, P. mutica (M1and P. atlantica (A7. For this, one-year-old seedlings were kept at these five temperatures in incubator for 2 hours. Then in the first 24 hours in three hour intervals and during four days, EC and pH in leaked solution were measured daily. After four days the seedling samples were autoclaved at temperatures 105°C for 4 minutes to destroy all cell membrane. EC and pH of remaining solution were measured again and the percentage of ionic leakage was calculated. The results showed that the best time to evaluate the pH and ionic leakage was 24 hours after incubation of samples. Based on the results, ionic leakage dramatically increased with decreasing temperatures from 0°C to -6°C, while pH of leaked solution had no significant difference in 0°C and 4°C temperature treatments. When temperature reduced from 0°C to -6°C, like ionic leakage, pH greatly reduced. So the pH of the leaked solution could be an appropriate tool to study the freezing damage of pistachio rootstocks. Based on the results of pH and ionic leakage, P. mutica and P. atlantica were the most frost tolerant and sensitive rootstocks of this experiment, respectively.

  9. Efficiency of Elite Fungicide for Control of Pistachio Gummosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moradi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Phytophthora cause crown and root rot diseases of herbaceous and woody plants. Crown and root rot of pistachio trees cause significant damages in infected orchards. The effect of foliar application with Elite (fosetyl-Al in 2 and 2.5 g/l was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. The frequency of mortality, fresh and dry weight of roots and shoots, height, intensity of crown root colonization using CAMA-PARP medium was determined. Under greenhouse experiments, foliar application with Elite increased height, fresh and dry weight of shoots and root either in inoculation with and without Phytophthora drechsleri. The effects of Elite were more pronounced in roots, which increased the fresh and dry weight of root 1.3 and 2.5 times compared to those not sprayed with Elite, respectively. On the other hand, the application of Elite before or on the day of inoculation significantly reduced the frequency of mortality, which ranged from 35 to 90% (P ≤ 0.01. Crown and root colonization of pistachio seedling was affected by both the concentration of Elite and reduced the frequency of crown and root colonization of seedling. When fungicide and pathogen were applied at the same time, the frequency of colonization reduced to 18% and 36% for 2 and 2.5 g/l, respectively, and 43% and 60% when seedlings were treated with fungicide before P. drechsleri inoculations. The highest effect was seen in foliar application of Elite seven days before inoculation in 2.5 g/l. Further investigations have been conducted to understand the effect of Elite in infected trees as well as modeling of Elite application via soil drench, foliar application or trunk injection.

  10. Determine the optimum spectral reflectance of juniper and pistachio in arid and semi-arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, Hadi; Suzuki, Rikie

    2012-11-01

    Arid and semi-arid areas of northeast Iran cover about 3.4 million ha are populated by two main tree species, the broadleaf Pistacia vera. L (pistachio) and the conifer Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos (Persian juniper). Natural stands of pistachio in Iran are not only environmentally important but genetically essential as seed sources for pistachio production in orchards. In this study, we estimated the optimum spectral reflectance of juniper forests and natural pistachio stands using remote sensing to help in the sustainable management and production of pistachio in Iran. In this research spectral reflectance are able to specify of multispectral from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) that provided by JAXA. These data included PRISM is a panchromatic radiometer with a 2.5 m spatial resolution at nadir, has one band with a wavelength of 0.52-0.77 μm and AVNIR-2 is a visible and near infrared radiometer for observing land and coastal zones with a 10 m spatial resolution at nadir, has four multispectral bands: blue (0.42-0.50 μm), green (0.52-0.60 μm), red (0.61-0.69 μm), and near infrared (0.76-0.89 μm). Total ratio vegetation index (TRVI) of optimum spectral reflectance of juniper and pistachio have been evaluated. The result of TRVI for Pistachio and juniper were (R2= 0.71 and 0.55). I hope this research can provide decision of managers to helping sustainable management for arid and semi-arid regions in Iran.

  11. Assessment of Feeding Acceptance and Injury of Kerman Pistachios, Pistacia vera, by Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, Matthew T; Hernandez, Gabriel; Nay, Justin; Hoddle, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, California (CA) is the primary commercial producer of pistachio nuts, Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae). The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an invasive and polyphagous insect pest from Asia, has established in urban areas in several pistachio-growing counties in CA. Breeding BMSB populations have not been detected in commercial pistachio acreage. However, the detection of BMSB in Kern and Fresno counties, major Kerman pistachio producing areas in CA, underscored key knowledge gaps on BMSB ecology in CA and motivated investigations on the susceptibility of pistachio nuts to BMSB feeding. Laboratory feeding trials conducted in quarantine under permit indicated that adult BMSB stylets can penetrate developing pistachio shells and associated feeding was correlated with kernel necrosis for nuts collected mid to late season (June to August 2016). Feeding damage estimates indicated that higher levels of kernel injury were associated with female BMSB when compared to feeding by male BMSB. These results suggest that there is probable risk of feeding damage to field grown pistachios from BMSB. The implications of this study for BMSB pest management in the CA pistachio system and future research directions are discussed. PMID:29117381

  12. Low percentage of clinically relevant pistachio nut and mango co-sensitisation in cashew nut sensitised children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.M. van der Valk; Bouche, R.E. (R. el); R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); H. de Groot (Hans); H.J. Wichers; A.E.J. Dubois; N.W. de Jong (Nicolette)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Cashew nut, pistachio nut and mango belong to the Anacardiaceae family and are botanically related. Therefore, cashew nut sensitised children are frequently advised to eliminate cashew nuts and pistachio nuts from their diet. The ‘Improvement of Diagnostic mEthods for ALlergy

  13. Assessment of Feeding Acceptance and Injury of Kerman Pistachios, Pistacia vera, by Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Jesús R; Kamiyama, Matthew T; Hernandez, Gabriel; Nay, Justin; Hoddle, Mark S; Gao, Yulin

    2017-09-01

    In the United States, California (CA) is the primary commercial producer of pistachio nuts, Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae). The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an invasive and polyphagous insect pest from Asia, has established in urban areas in several pistachio-growing counties in CA. Breeding BMSB populations have not been detected in commercial pistachio acreage. However, the detection of BMSB in Kern and Fresno counties, major Kerman pistachio producing areas in CA, underscored key knowledge gaps on BMSB ecology in CA and motivated investigations on the susceptibility of pistachio nuts to BMSB feeding. Laboratory feeding trials conducted in quarantine under permit indicated that adult BMSB stylets can penetrate developing pistachio shells and associated feeding was correlated with kernel necrosis for nuts collected mid to late season (June to August 2016). Feeding damage estimates indicated that higher levels of kernel injury were associated with female BMSB when compared to feeding by male BMSB. These results suggest that there is probable risk of feeding damage to field grown pistachios from BMSB. The implications of this study for BMSB pest management in the CA pistachio system and future research directions are discussed. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  14. Low percentage of clinically relevant pistachio nut and mango co-sensitisation in cashew nut sensitised children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der J.P.M.; Bouche, el R.; Gerth van Wijk, R.; Groot, de H.; Wichers, H.J.; Dubois, A.E.J.; Jong, de N.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cashew nut, pistachio nut and mango belong to the Anacardiaceae family and are botanically related. Therefore, cashew nut sensitised children are frequently advised to eliminate cashew nuts and pistachio nuts from their diet. The ‘Improvement of Diagnostic mEthods for ALlergy

  15. Low percentage of clinically relevant pistachio nut and mango co-sensitisation in cashew nut sensitised children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, J. P. M.; el Bouche, R.; van Wijk, R. Gerth; de Groot, H.; Wichers, H. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.; de Jong, N. W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cashew nut, pistachio nut and mango belong to the Anacardiaceae family and are botanically related. Therefore, cashew nut sensitised children are frequently advised to eliminate cashew nuts and pistachio nuts from their diet. The 'Improvement of Diagnostic mEthods for ALlergy assessment

  16. Fungal trunk pathogens associated with wood decay of pistachio trees in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, H.; Sarcheshmehpour, M.; Mafi, E.

    2015-07-01

    Over the growing seasons of 2011–2013, various pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cv. Fandoghi, and wild pistachio (P. atlantica Desf. subsp. mutica) trees were inspected in Iran to determine the aetiology of trunk diseases with specific reference to species of Phaeoacremonium and Botryosphaeriaceae spp. Samples were collected from branches of trees exhibiting yellowing, defoliation, canker and dieback, as well as wood discoloration in cross sections. Fungal trunk pathogens were identified using morphological and cultural characteristics as well as comparisons of DNA sequence data of the ITS and TEF-1α (for Botryosphaeriaceae species) and β-tubulin gene (for Phaeoacremonium species) regions. Phaeoacremonium parasiticum was the dominant species followed by Phaeoacremonium aleophilum, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Neofusicoccum parvum, Phaeoacremonium cinereum, Phaeoacremonium viticola and Dothiorella viticola. Pathogenicity tests were undertaken to determine the role of these species on pistachio under field conditions. Neofusicoccum parvum and Pm. aleophilum caused the longest and smallest lesions respectively. This study represents the first report on the occurrence and pathogenicity of Phaeoacremonium species on P. vera cv. Fandoghi. This also represents the first report of Pleurostomophora sp. on pistachio and Pm. parasiticum and D. viticola on wild pistachio. (Author)

  17. Influence of genotype and crop year in the chemometrics of almond and pistachio oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabadán, Adrián; Álvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Gómez, Ricardo; de Miguel, Concepción; Pardo, José E

    2018-04-01

    Almond and pistachio oils can be considered as interesting products to produce and commercialize owing to their health-promoting properties. However, these properties are not consistent because of the differences that appear in oils as a result of the genotype and the crop year. The analysis of these variations and their origin is decisive in ensuring the commercial future prospects of these nut oils. Although significant variability has been reported in almond and pistachio oils as a result of the crop year and the interaction between crop year and genotype, the genotype itself remains the main factor determining oil chemometrics. Oil fatty acid profile has been mainly determined by the genotype, with the exception of palmitic fatty acid in pistachio oil. However, the crop year affects the concentration of some minor components of crucial nutritional interest as total polyphenols and phytosterols. Regarding reported differences in oil, some almond and pistachio genotypes should be prioritized for oil extraction. Breeding programmes focused on the improvement of specific characteristics of almond and pistachio oils should focus on chemical parameters mainly determined by the genotype. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. The effect of acoustic and solar energy on drying process of pistachios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchakzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this research, accelerated drying of pistachios under open sun by applying power ultrasound was investigated. ► No constant falling rate period of drying was observed. ► By applying the 20 kHz ultrasound about 17 W/kg, the drying period could be reduced to 4 h. - Abstract: A new approach of ultrasound-assisted sun drying was tested in this study using a flat bed as product support and two extensional piezoelectric Bolt-clamped 20 kHz transducer elements. The mono layer of moist unshelled pistachios was dried under open sun by applying 500 and 1000 W power ultrasound. The results showed that the Page model was found to be the most suitable for describing drying curve of pistachios. But, the Logarithmic model was described to satisfactorily drying curve of pistachios for open sun method when the ultrasound power was turned off. By applying the ultrasound about 17 W/kg moist pistachios in thin layer, the drying period could be reduced to 4 h

  19. Studies on the physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from gamma irradiated pistachio (Pistacia vera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz

    2015-01-15

    The present study evaluated the quality of pistachio oil, as a function of irradiation, to determine the dose level causing undesirable changes to pistachio oil. Physicochemical fatty acid composition, acidity value, peroxide value, iodine value specification number, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value and colour of pistachio oil extracted from samples treated with 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy doses of gamma irradiation were determined. Gamma irradiation caused the alteration of fatty acids of pistachio oil which showed a decrease in oleic acid (C18:1) and an increase in linoleic acid (C18:2). All other fatty acids remained unaffected after irradiation. The higher used doses (2 and 3 kGy) decreased acidity value, peroxide value and iodine value, and increased specification number, with no effect on TBA value. Irradiation had a significant effect on colour values of pistachio oil. Parameters L, a and b increased at doses of 1 and 2 kGy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors affecting cadmium absorbed by pistachio kernel in calcareous soils, southeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, H; Hosseinifard, S J; Hashemipour, H

    2018-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) which does not have a biological role is one of the most toxic heavy metals for organisms. This metal enters environment through industrial processes and fertilizers. The main objective of this study was to determine the relationships between absorbed Cd by pistachio kernel and some of soil physical and chemical characteristics using modeling by stepwise regression and Artificial Neural Network (ANN), in calcareous soils in Rafsanjan region, southeast of Iran. For these purposes, 220 pistachio orchards were selected, and soil samples were taken from two depths of 0-40 and 40-80cm. Besides, fruit and leaf samples from branches with and without fruit were taken in each sampling point. The results showed that affecting factors on absorbed Cd by pistachio kernel which were obtained by regression method (pH and clay percent) were not interpretable, and considering unsuitable vales of determinant coefficient (R 2 ) and Root Mean Squares Error (RMSE), the model did not have sufficient validity. However, ANN modeling was highly accurate and reliable. Based on its results, soil available P and Zn and soil salinity were the most important factors affecting the concentration of Cd in pistachio kernel in pistachio growing areas of Rafsanjan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Total mesophilic counts underestimate in many cases the contamination levels of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in chilled-stored food products at the end of their shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothakos, Vasileios; Samapundo, Simbarashe; Devlieghere, Frank

    2012-12-01

    The major objective of this study was to determine the role of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in spoilage-associated phenomena at the end of the shelf-life of 86 various packaged (air, vacuum, modified-atmosphere) chilled-stored retail food products. The current microbiological standards, which are largely based on the total viable mesophilic counts lack discriminatory capacity to detect psychrotrophic LAB. A comparison between the total viable counts on plates incubated at 30 °C (representing the mesophiles) and at 22 °C (indicating the psychrotrophs) for 86 food samples covering a wide range - ready-to-eat vegetable salads, fresh raw meat, cooked meat products and composite food - showed that a consistent underestimation of the microbial load occurs when the total aerobic mesophilic counts are used as a shelf-life parameter. In 38% of the samples, the psychrotrophic counts had significantly higher values (+0.5-3 log CFU/g) than the corresponding total aerobic mesophilic counts. A total of 154 lactic acid bacteria, which were unable to proliferate at 30 °C were isolated. In addition, a further 43 with a poor recovery at this temperature were also isolated. This study highlights the potential fallacy of the total aerobic mesophilic count as a reference shelf-life parameter for chilled food products as it can often underestimate the contamination levels at the end of the shelf-life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. TO STORES USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL Division

    2001-01-01

    Stores users are informed that the Stores (Central, Emergency window, Raw materials, Chemical products and Prévessin Self service stores) will be closed on Friday, 7 December owing to migration of the Stores computers to Windows 2000. Thank you for your understanding.

  3. New practical method for evaluation of a conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchakzadeh, Ahmad; Tavakoli, Teymur

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Evaluation of a conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer with a new feasible method. → Using thermophysical properties of air and matter. → This manner could be utilized in similar dryer for other agricultural products. → Method shows the heat loss and power separately. -- Abstract: Testing a dryer is necessary to evaluate its absolute and comparative performance with other dryers. A conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer was tested by a new practical method of mass and energy equilibrium. Results showed that the average power consumption and heat loss in three tests are 62.13 and 18.99 kW, respectively. The ratio of heat loss on power consumption showed that the efficiency of practical pistachios flat plate dryer is about 69.4%.

  4. Evaluation and Comparison of Three Types of Pistachio Hullers Used in Kerman Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Afzali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate different pistachio hullers and determine the proper harvest time of pistachio nuts for hulling. Three pistachio hulling machines (Helical drum, Helical- blade drum, Rubber drum at three harvest times and 15 days interval were evaluated. The hulling efficiency, percentage of damaged nuts, faulty hulled nuts and unhulled nuts were measured at each time interval. A factorial experiment was carried out using a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Data were compared using analyses of variance and employing Duncan's multiple range test. The results showed that the interaction effect of hulling machine type and harvesting time on the hulling efficiency and nut damage in the outlet of hull and nut was significant at the five percent level (p

  5. Gamma radiation effects on phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio ( Pistachia vera) hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behgar, M.; Ghasemi, S.; Naserian, A.; Borzoie, A.; Fatollahi, H.

    2011-09-01

    The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r2 (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content ( Ppistachio hull extracts but increased the total phenolic content ( Ppistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull.

  6. New practical method for evaluation of a conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouchakzadeh, Ahmad [Agri Machinery Engineering, Ilam University, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tavakoli, Teymur [Agri Machinery Engineering, Tarbyat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} Evaluation of a conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer with a new feasible method. {yields} Using thermophysical properties of air and matter. {yields} This manner could be utilized in similar dryer for other agricultural products. {yields} Method shows the heat loss and power separately. -- Abstract: Testing a dryer is necessary to evaluate its absolute and comparative performance with other dryers. A conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer was tested by a new practical method of mass and energy equilibrium. Results showed that the average power consumption and heat loss in three tests are 62.13 and 18.99 kW, respectively. The ratio of heat loss on power consumption showed that the efficiency of practical pistachios flat plate dryer is about 69.4%.

  7. Neural net classification of x-ray pistachio nut data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David P.; Sipe, Michael A.; Schatzki, Thomas F.; Keagy, Pamela M.; Le, Lan Chau

    1996-12-01

    Classification results for agricultural products are presented using a new neural network. This neural network inherently produces higher-order decision surfaces. It achieves this with fewer hidden layer neurons than other classifiers require. This gives better generalization. It uses new techniques to select the number of hidden layer neurons and adaptive algorithms that avoid other such ad hoc parameter selection problems; it allows selection of the best classifier parameters without the need to analyze the test set results. The agriculture case study considered is the inspection and classification of pistachio nuts using x- ray imagery. Present inspection techniques cannot provide good rejection of worm damaged nuts without rejecting too many good nuts. X-ray imagery has the potential to provide 100% inspection of such agricultural products in real time. Only preliminary results are presented, but these indicate the potential to reduce major defects to 2% of the crop with 1% of good nuts rejected. Future image processing techniques that should provide better features to improve performance and allow inspection of a larger variety of nuts are noted. These techniques and variations of them have uses in a number of other agricultural product inspection problems.

  8. Residue Levels and Risk Assessment of Pesticides in Pistachio Nuts in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Emami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pistachio is one of the main nutrients, not only as a strategic crop but also as a main type of nut, in Iranians’ food cycle. The aim of this study was to measure the relative safety of Iranian pistachio based on the standard pesticide’s residue limits, which should be monitored and assessed in the cultivation of pistachio in order to confirm its public health. Methods: Fifty samples of pistachios of different brands were collected from Tehran markets in 2015. QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe sampling method was used in order to determine the pesticide’s residue in the pistachio nuts by Gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry (GC/MS.The method was validated with related parameters. Recovery took place at five concentration rates (n=3 ranging from 81.40% to 93.08% with the majority of RelativeStandard Deviation being lower than 20%. Limits of detection and quantification for all the pesticides were 2µg/kg and10µg/kg, respectively. The validated method seemed to be appropriate for the analysis of pesticide’s residue in pistachio nuts. Results: Identified pesticides included Fenitrothion, Carbaryl and Diazinon. Detectable pesticide’s residue existed in 10% (5 samples of the samples. Conclusion: All the results were compared with the Iran’s National Standards and the European Maximum Residue Limits. As compared to the acceptable daily intake, the calculated daily intake of each pesticide was much lower than the standard level, which could not cause any public health problem.

  9. In Vivo and in Vitro Micrografting of Pistachio, Pistacia vera L. cv. "Siirt"

    OpenAIRE

    ONAY, Ahmet; PİRİNÇ, Vedat; ADIYAMAN, Filiz; IŞIKALAN, Çiğdem; TİLKAT, Engin; BAŞARAN, Davut

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the success of in vivo and in vitro micrografts of pistachio (Pistacia vera L. cv. "Siirt") materials are presented. The only variable tested was age (1, 5, 10, and 30-year-old trees). Ten- to 12-day-old axenic seedlings germinated in vitro or seedlings (3 to 5 months-old) grown in pots in vivo were used as rootstocks. Shoot tips collected from the four age classes of mature trees of pistachio were the source of scions. Firm contact between the scion and roots...

  10. Sorting of pistachio nuts using image processing techniques and an adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Abdollahnejad Barough

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pistachio nut is one of the most important agricultural products of Iran and it is priced due to the quality and type. One of the significant factors of pistachio cost is its type in terms of shell. Filled split pistachio nut has the most quality and is utilized as nuts, while the closed shell type has lower cost, at the same time is economically efficient in food industry such as confectionery. Now, pistachio sorting is performed usually by human and sometimes using electromechanical apparatuses. Classification of pistachio by human is time consuming and is done with an unacceptable accuracy, on the other hand, electromechanical and electro optical apparatuses damages pistachio because the mechanism used in them while separating. So, the need to develop automated systems that could be implemented by intelligent ways is evident to increase the speed and accuracy of classification. Materials and Methods: In this study, 300 samples of pistachios contains 100 Filled split, 100 Filled non-split and 100 split blank nuts ones are used. The training set consisted of 60 samples of each type of opened nuts, closed and empty opened shell nuts a total of 180 samples and the evaluation set consisted of 40 samples of each type of opened shell, closed shell and empty opened shell nuts a total of 120 samples. The principle of this study is implemented in two steps: 1 sample imaging and image processing to extract features 2 fuzzy network design based on the characteristics of data and training. To select useful features from the hypothesis, C4.5 decision tree is used. C4.5 algorithm makes a greedy top to bottom search on the hypothesis, and is made by the question what feature must be at the root of the tree. By the help of statistical methods, extracted features from the images were prioritized and the most appropriate features for classification of training set were selected. The algorithm chooses the best features as their number is minimum

  11. Sobrevivência de Salmonella enteritidis em Ovos Contaminados Artificialmente, Após Desinfecção e Armazenados em Diferentes Temperaturas Survival of Salmonella enteritidis in Eggs Artificially Contaminated, After Disinfection and Stored at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Barros

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a contaminação da casca e do conteúdo interno de ovos inoculados com Salmonella enterica sorovar enteritidis fagotipo 4, lavados com água de torneira (AT ou solução de amônia quaternária (AQ e armazenados a 8ºC e 25ºC. Duzentos e cinqüenta e dois ovos foram divididos em três grupos. Os tratamentos de cada grupo consistiram de imersão em AT, AQ a 25ºC e a 43ºC. Após a secagem natural, todos os grupos foram contaminados com solução de S. enteritidis. Seguindo-se a contaminação, cada grupo tratado foi estocado a 8ºC ou 25ºC, e a presença de S. enteritidis na casca e no conteúdo interno foi avaliada após zero, 24, 96 e 168 horas. A sanitização com AQ mostrou-se eficiente na redução de S. enteritidis nas cascas dos ovos. O armazenamento dos ovos a 8ºC demonstrou ser preponderante na redução e na ausência de S. enteritidis na casca. Nos ovos lavados com AT, o armazenamento a 25ºC permitiu a permanência da bactéria nas cascas até 168 horas. Não se detectou S. enteritidis no conteúdo interno dos ovos em nenhum dos grupos.The contamination of eggshell and internal content of eggs that were inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis phagetype 4, washed with tap water (TW or quaternary ammonium compound (QA and stored at 8ºC and 25ºC was evaluated. Two hundred and fifty two eggs were distributed in three groups. Each treatment of the different groups was constituted by the immersion in TW, QA at 25ºC and at 43ºC. After natural dry, all groups were infected by a S. enteritidis solution. Following the challenge, each group was stored at 8ºC or at 25ºC, and the presence of S. enteritidis in the eggshell and internal content was evaluated after zero, 24, 96 and 168 hours. The use of QA demonstrated efficiency in S. enteritidis reduction of eggshell. The eggs stored at 8ºC revealed preponderancy in the reduction and the absence of S. enteritidis at the eggshell. In the TW washed eggs, the

  12. Fungi detoxification study from pistachio by non-ionizing irradiation; Barrasi-ye estefadeh az parto'ha-ye gheyr-e yonsaz dar gharchzoda-i-ye pesteh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghafourian, H; Sadighzadeh, A; Dabbagh, R

    1998-07-01

    4,6 and 10 minutes of microwaves exposure provides and effective and relatively rapid sterilization for different purposes in medicine and food industries for example sterilization of materials which have been contaminated with Aspergillus flavus (Pcc-5004) and Aspergillus parasiticus (Pcc-5018) which are producer of Aflatoxin especially on pistachios and other dried fruits. Microwaves exposure induces a morphological modification of the cells and germicidal effects of ultrasonic waves has been attributed to gaseous cavitation. There was a significant reduction in fungal growth compared with those under the control which decreased growth with increased microwave and ultrasound exposure time.

  13. Harvesting contaminants from liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott R.

    2016-05-31

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus allowing the contaminants to be harvested.

  14. Food Safety Concerns and other Factors Affecting Iran’s Pistachio Exports to EU, Australia, and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ashktorab, Niloofar; Saghaian, Sayed Hossein; Shahnoushi, Naser

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of food safety concerns on Iran’s pistachio export demand was investigated. Panel data and panel cointegration analyses were used to estimate the export demand function of Iran’s pistachio nuts to the European Union (EU), Japan, and Australia for the period of 1997 to 2006 so that the relationship between factors affecting Iran’s pistachio exports can be examined. The results show the existence of long-run relationships among the variables that have a significant imp...

  15. NACS Store Planning Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Store Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Topics discussed by the NACS Store Planning/Renovation Committees in this updated version of the college store renovation manual include: short- and long-range planning, financial considerations, professional planning assistance, the store's image and business character, location considerations, building requirements, space requirements, fixtures,…

  16. Assessment of Microbial Contamination of Traditional Sweets in Yazd, Iran, in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamidreza nasehinia

    2017-03-01

    samples were tested in terms of such microorganisms as Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, yeasts, and molds, using the microbiological tests, which were based on the Iranian national standards.Results: According to the results, the prevalence rate of microbial contaminations was 33.8% (n=322. Furthermore, the “Pistachio Luz” and “Hajji Badam” had the highest (88.8% and lowest (0% prevalence rates of  microbial contamination, respectively. Additionally, the prevalence rate of contamination to Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Molds, and Yeasts were 13.2%, 5%, 21.7%, and 11.4%, respectively. Conclusion: Given the high rate of microbial contamination in the traditional sweets, especially “Pistachio Luz”, offered in Yazd, more regulatory and monitoring measures should be taken in the production and distribution of these sweets. 

  17. Effect of pistachio diet on lipid parameters, endothelial function, inflammation, and oxidative status: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Ibrahim; Baltaci, Yasemin; Bagci, Cahit; Davutoglu, Vedat; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Ozer, Orhan; Aksoy, Nur; Aksoy, Mehmet

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that nuts have favorable effects beyond lipid lowering. We aimed to investigate effect of the Antep pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) on blood glucose, lipid parameters, endothelial function, inflammation, and oxidation in healthy young men living in a controlled environment. A Mediterranean diet was administered to normolipidemic 32 healthy young men (mean age 22 y, range 21-24) for 4 wk. After 4 wk, participants continued to receive the Mediterranean diet but pistachio was added for 4 wk by replacing the monounsaturated fat content constituting approximately 20% of daily caloric intake. Fasting blood samples and brachial endothelial function measurements were performed at baseline and after each diet. Compared with the Mediterranean diet, the pistachio diet decreased glucose (Ppistachio diet significantly improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation (P=0.002, 30% relative increase), decreased serum interleukin-6, total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide, and malondialdehyde and increased superoxide dismutase (Ppistachio diet improved blood glucose level, endothelial function, and some indices of inflammation and oxidative status in healthy young men. These findings are in accordance with the idea that nuts, in particular pistachio nuts, have favorable effects beyond lipid lowering that deserve to be evaluated with prospective follow-up studies. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Bleaching augments lipid peroxidation products in pistachio oil and its cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistachio consumption is associated with reductions in serum cholesterol and oxidative stress due to their constituents of unsaturated fats, phytosterols, fiber, and antioxidants. Bleaching has been applied to whiten nut shells for antifungal and cosmetic purposes. However, the impact of bleaching o...

  19. Sustainability of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.) in Zagros forests, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morteza Pourreza; John D. Shaw; Hoshang Zangeneh

    2008-01-01

    Wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.) is the most economically important tree species in many rural areas in the west of Iran. The species produces resin used for a wide variety of traditional uses. Because the resin can be harvested non-destructively, the trees are maintained until mortality occurs from natural causes. The result is that natural...

  20. Composition and properties of virgin pistachio oils and their by-products from different cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-Amador, Rosa M; Fregapane, Giuseppe; Salvador, María Desamparados

    2018-02-01

    Pistachios (Pistacia vera) exhibit an interesting nutritional value, due to the high content of oleic acid and minor components with antioxidant and bioactive properties. This work aimed to characterize pistachio virgin oils and their partially defatted residual cakes, obtained from eight cultivars (Aegina, Avdat, Kastel, Kerman, Larnaka, Mateur, Napoletana, and Sirora). Interesting results on phenolics, tocopherols and antioxidant activity were observed, which were greatly affected by variety. Pistachio virgin oils are rich in healthy oleic acid (55-74%), phytosterols (3200-7600mg/kg) and γ-tocopherol (550-720mg/kg). A high content of phenolic compounds (8600-15000mg/kg gallic acid equivalents) and the corresponding antioxidant activities (12-46 and 155-496mmol/kg for DPPH and ORAC) of the residual cakes demonstrate their potential applications as functional ingredients and as rich sources of bioactive compounds. Moreover, virgin pistachio oils possess peculiar and pleasant sensory characteristics, contributing greater added value to the consumers compared to refined vegetable oils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of supplementing crop substrate with defatted pistachio meal on Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Giménez, Arturo; Catalán, Luis; Carrasco, Jaime; Álvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Zied, Diego; Pardo, José

    2016-08-01

    This work assesses the agronomic performance of defatted pistachio meal, after oil extraction, as a nutritional substrate supplement when growing the mushroom species Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. Materials were applied at different doses at spawning. Along with non-supplemented substrates, commercial nutritional supplements were used as controls. Proximate analysis of mushrooms is also considered. For the cultivation of champignon, defatted pistachio meal has provided larger mushrooms (unitary weight and cap diameter) with firmer texture and greater content in dry weight and protein, without significant alterations in quantitative parameters. For Pleurotus ostreatus, the supplement led to significant yield increase, even providing up to 34.4% of increment compared to non-supplementation with meal, reaching a biological efficiency of 129.9 kg dt(-1) , when applied to the 15 g kg(-1) compost dose. Supplementation has also been conducted to increase dry weight, protein and fibre within carpophores and to decrease the energy value. Defatted pistachio meal has similar or better results compared to the commercial supplements used as reference. Compost supplementation with defatted pistachio meal in A. bisporus concerns mainly the quantitative parameters (size, texture, dry weight and protein). Based on the results obtained, this technique has greater potential of development for P. ostreatus commercial crops, basically due to expected increases in production, with a direct impact on benefits and crop profitability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Survey the Effect of Pistachio Waste Composting Process with Different Treatments on Concentration of Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jalili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Composting is one of the pistachio wastes management methods. In the appropriate compost production nutrients and heavy metals are determinant. The aim of this study is survey the effect of pistachio wastes composting process with different treatments on the concentration of heavy metals. Methods: In this study, during the 60-day pistachio wastes composting process with two treatments of dewatered sewage sludge and cow manure, pH, EC, carbon to nitrogen ratio, Heavy metals and nutrients indicators were studied. The results were compared with WHO and Iranian National standard. Drawing the diagrams by Excel software (Version 2007 and Statistical analysis was performed by Spss Software (version 20 at a significance level of 0.005.  Results: During the 60-day composting pH initially had downward trend and then increased. The Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and C/N ratio had downward trend and the EC, Na, K had increasing trend. Eventually, Iron, zinc, copper and manganese were less than the standard, Sodium was in Standard range and potassium was more than specified standards in the produced compost from pistachios waste with both treatments.  Conclusion: The results showed that the concentration of heavy metals and nutrients in the produced compost with both treatments were in the acceptable range. Eventually quality of produced compost with cow manure treatment due to better decomposition and greater stability was better than processed compost with dewatered sewage sludge treatment.

  3. Overwintering biology and limits of cold tolerance in larvae of pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollaei, M; Izadi, H; Šimek, P; Koštál, V

    2016-08-01

    Pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella is an important pest of pistachio trees. It has an univoltine life-cycle and its larvae tunnel and feed inside pistachio twigs for almost 10 months each year. The last larval instars overwinter inside the twigs. Survival/mortality associated with low temperatures during overwintering stage is currently unknown. We found that overwintering larvae of the Rafsanjan (Iran) population of K. pistaciella rely on maintaining a stably high supercooling capacity throughout the cold season. Their supercooling points (SCPs) ranged between -19.4 and -22.7°C from October to February. Larvae were able to survive 24 h exposures to -15°C anytime during the cold season. During December and January, larvae were undergoing quiescence type of dormancy caused probably by low ambient temperatures and/or changes in host tree physiology (tree dormancy). Larvae attain highest cold tolerance (high survival at -20°C) during dormancy, which offers them sufficient protection against geographically and ecologically relevant cold spells. High cold tolerance during dormancy was not associated with accumulation of any low-molecular mass cryoprotective substances. The SCP sets the limit of cold tolerance in pistachio twig borer, meaning that high mortality of overwintering populations can be expected only in the regions or years where or when the temperatures fall below the average larval SCP (i.e., below -20°C). Partial mortality can be expected also when temperatures repeatedly drop close to the SCP on a diurnal basis.

  4. Discovery of viruses and virus-like pathogens in pistachio using high-throughput sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees from the National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) and orchards in California were surveyed for viruses and virus-like agents by high-throughput sequencing (HTS). Analyses of 60 trees including clonal UCB-1 hybrid rootstock (P. atlantica × P. integerrima) identif...

  5. Detection of Variation in Long-Term Micropropagated Mature Pistachio via DNA-Based Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Hülya; Suzerer, Veysel; Tilkat, Engin; Onay, Ahmet; Çiftçi, Yelda Ozden

    2016-12-01

    Determination of genetic stability of in vitro-grown plantlets is needed for safe and large-scale production of mature trees. In this study, genetic variation of long-term micropropagated mature pistachio developed through direct shoot bud regeneration using apical buds (protocol A) and in vitro-derived leaves (protocol B) was assessed via DNA-based molecular markers. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) were employed, and the obtained PIC values from RAPD (0.226), ISSR (0.220), and AFLP (0.241) showed that micropropagation of pistachio for different periods of time resulted in "reasonable polymorphism" among donor plant and its 18 clones. Mantel's test showed a consistence polymorphism level between marker systems based on similarity matrices. In conclusion, this is the first study on occurrence of genetic variability in long-term micropropagated mature pistachio plantlets. The obtained results clearly indicated that different marker approaches used in this study are reliable for assessing tissue culture-induced variations in long-term cultured pistachio plantlets.

  6. Exposure to pistachio pesticides and stillbirth: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Saeid; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Dehkordi, Fatemeh Ghani; Manshoori, Azita; Goujani, Reza; Vazirinejad, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Stillbirth is an undesirable outcome of pregnancy. In light of the increasing use of pesticides and growing concerns about the possible health effects of agricultural pesticides, we investigated the effect of exposure to pistachio pesticides on stillbirth in pregnant mothers. This case-control study was conducted in Rafsanjan, Iran from 2011 to 2012. A total of 125 females who had a recent stillbirth were included as the case group, and 250 controls were selected from females who had a recent live birth. For each case, two controls with the nearest propensity score to the case were selected. Data were collected using a protocol developed by the researcher that involved interviewing respondents and reviewing their medical records. Conditional multivariate and univariate logistic regression analysis were performed and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The ORs of stillbirth in mothers living in pistachio gardens and those who were exposed to sprayed pesticides, in comparison to the controls, were 14.1 (95% CI, 3.3 to 63.4) and 5.0 (95% CI, 1.2 to 28.6), respectively. No significant differences were found in stillbirth rates according to the distance between the mother's residence and a pistachio garden or involvement in agricultural activities. The results of our study showed that exposure to pistachio pesticides during pregnancy may increase the likelihood of stillbirth in mothers.

  7. Removal of Nickel from Aqueous Solution by Hard-Shell Pistachios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayan Shamohammadi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is one of the heavy metals which commonly can be found in industrial wastewater. Many studies have been done on agricultural waste for the removal of nickel from aqueous solutions. The purpose of this study is to identify hard-shell pistachios as a local attraction for removal of nickel from aqueous solution. Nickel adsorption isotherm models are studied using shell pistachios. Pistachio shell was chosen which its particle size is between 800-600 microns. The stock solution of nickel ions was prepared mixing nickel nitrate with distilled water. The results showed that the maximum absorption efficiency occurs (73.3% at pH=8. Also, it was shown that with increasing adsorbent dose, equilibrium time decreased within constant concentration. Examination of uptake isotherm models showed that models of Freundlich, BET, Radke-Praunitz, Redlich-Peterson and Sips describe data in 97% level of confidence well,  however Freundlich and Sips isotherm models has the lowest error factor 0.10597 and 0/10598 respectively and the highest correlation coefficient (0.9785. Comparison of adsorbent capacity within removal of nickel from aqueous solution shows that Pistachio shell with special absorbent surface of 1.7 m2/g and uptake capacity of 0.3984 mg/g is proper than adsorbents of Kaolinite, Bagasse, sludge-ash.

  8. Exposure to pistachio pesticides and stillbirth: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Razi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Stillbirth is an undesirable outcome of pregnancy. In light of the increasing use of pesticides and growing concerns about the possible health effects of agricultural pesticides, we investigated the effect of exposure to pistachio pesticides on stillbirth in pregnant mothers. METHODS This case-control study was conducted in Rafsanjan, Iran from 2011 to 2012. A total of 125 females who had a recent stillbirth were included as the case group, and 250 controls were selected from females who had a recent live birth. For each case, two controls with the nearest propensity score to the case were selected. Data were collected using a protocol developed by the researcher that involved interviewing respondents and reviewing their medical records. Conditional multivariate and univariate logistic regression analysis were performed and odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. RESULTS The ORs of stillbirth in mothers living in pistachio gardens and those who were exposed to sprayed pesticides, in comparison to the controls, were 14.1 (95% CI, 3.3 to 63.4 and 5.0 (95% CI, 1.2 to 28.6, respectively. No significant differences were found in stillbirth rates according to the distance between the mother’s residence and a pistachio garden or involvement in agricultural activities. CONCLUSIONS The results of our study showed that exposure to pistachio pesticides during pregnancy may increase the likelihood of stillbirth in mothers.

  9. Investigation of Fluoride Removal Efficiency from Aqueous Solution by Pistachio and Almonds Crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khodadadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluoride and its compounds are widely used in industries and then through effluent are released into the environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Efficiency of low cost adsorbents (pistachios coal in the removal of fluoride from aqueous solutions.  Methods: For the preparation of adsorbent, crust of pistachios deride, then washed with distilled water, then powder in the furnace for burning for 2 hours at temperatures of 500, 600, and 700 °C. The effect of changing pH, burning temperature of adsorbent, stirring speed, initial concentration of fluoride, retention time and adsorbent dose was studied. Concentration of fluoride measured according to standard method using spectrophotometer the data were analyzed using Excel software. Results: The results of these experiments showed that the burning adsorbent, temperature 500 ° C, PH of solution in the neutral range (pH = 7, adsorbent dose of 2 g/L for absorbing almonds and adsorbent dose of 3 g pistachio, contact time of 40 minutes for both adsorbent, initial fluoride concentration (5ppm for both absorbent without mixing, the optimal conditions for the efficiency of the absorber is as much as 90-80 percent. Discussion: According to the results, pistachio coal can be used with high efficiency for fluoride removal. 

  10. Effect of pistachio consumption on plasma lipoprotein subclasses in pre-diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, P; Salas-Salvadó, J; Baldrich-Mora, M; Mallol, R; Correig, X; Bulló, M

    2015-04-01

    Nuts have been demonstrated to improve several cardiovascular risk factors and the lipid profile in diabetic and pre-diabetic subjects. However, analysis of conventional serum lipid profiles does not completely explain the atherogenic risk associated with pre-diabetes. We therefore investigated whether chronic consumption of pistachio modifies the lipoprotein subclasses to a healthier profile in pre-diabetic subjects. Randomized cross-over clinical trial in 54 subjects with pre-diabetes. Subjects consumed a pistachio-supplemented diet (PD, 50% carbohydrates, 33% fat, including 57 g/d of pistachios daily) and a control diet (CD, 55% carbohydrates, 30% fat) for 4 months each, separated by a 2-week wash-out. Diets were isocaloric and matched for protein, fiber and saturated fatty acids. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was performed to determine changes in plasma lipoprotein subclasses. Small low-density lipoprotein particles (sLDL-P) significantly decreased after pistachio consumption compared to the nut-free diet (P = 0.023). The non-high-density lipoprotein particles (non-HDL-P i.e. VLDL-P plus LDL-P) significantly decreased under the PD compared to CD (P = 0.041). The percentage of sHDL-P increased by 2.23% after the PD compared with a reduction of 0.08% after the CD (P = 0.014). Consequently, the overall size of HDL-P significantly decreased in the PD (P = 0.007). Chronic pistachio consumption could modify the lipoprotein particle size and subclass concentrations independently of changes in total plasma lipid profile, which may help to explain the decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality associated with those individuals who frequently consumed nuts. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01441921. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. More pistachio nuts for improving the blood lipid profile. Systematic review of epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2016-05-06

    Recent evidence suggests that regular intake of nuts may be associated with reduction of all-cause mortality, especially cardiovascular deaths. Among all types of nuts, pistachio displays the most favorable dietary composition. Therefore, we searched Medline and ISI Web of Science to identify interventional studies which evaluated changes of conventional blood lipids after replacing part of normal caloric intake with pistachio nuts in humans. Overall, 9 studies were finally included in our systematical literature review (4 randomized crossover, 3 randomized controlled and 3 prospective). In 6/9 (67%) interventional studies total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased. In all studies total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (7/7; 100%) and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (6/6; 100%) decreased after replacing caloric intake with pistachio nuts for not less than 3 weeks. A significant reduction of triglycerides could only be observed in 2 out of 8 studies (25%). Even more importantly, in no interventional study the intake of pistachio nuts was associated with unfavorable changes of the lipid profile. The results of our literature search provide solid evidence that intake of pistachio nuts may exerts favorable effects on the traditional blood profile, provided that their consumption does not increase the habitual or recommended daily caloric intake. It seems also reasonable to suggest that further studies aimed to investigate the favorable effects of nuts on human diseases should distinguish between one type and the others, since the different nuts exhibit unique dietary composition and may hence produce distinctive biological effects in humans.

  12. Experimental study of pistachio drying behavior in a mixed-mode PV operated forced convection solar dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangiabadi, B [Univ. of Stavanger, Stavanger (Norway); Ameri, M; Mahmoudabadi, M M [Shahid Bahonar Univ., Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    According to FAO statistics, Iran is the largest exporter of pistachios. Kerman province -south east of Iran- has approximately 200000 hectares of pistachio orchards, which provides practically 80% of whole country production of pistachios. After harvesting the pistachio, nuts must be washed to prevent staining. Therefore the nuts have almost 40% moisture content and it must be decreased to storage moisture of 6% or below. Simply decreasing in the moisture content of the products is called drying. In some areas where the environment conditions meet the minimum standard, solar drying can be an alternative approach for drying agricultural products. This work deals with the design, construction and testing a mixed-mode forced convection PV operated solar dryer. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of pal activity, phenolic and flavonoid contents in three pistachio ( Pistacia vera L. ) cultivars grafted onto three different rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Nadernejad, N.; Ahmadimoghadam, A.; Hossyinifard, J.; Poorseyedi, S.

    2013-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is a biochemical marker of the environmental stress and plays a pivotal role in phenolic synthesis. The lower ROS level and oxidative damage was observed in grafted plants and the rootstocks have a profound influence on the biochemical composition, especially phenolic compounds. Regarding the importance of the effect rootstocks have on scion in pistachio trees, this study was carried out to assess and compare three pistachio cultivars ("Ahmadaghaii", "Ohadi" ...

  14. Information for Stores Users

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2004-01-01

    As the FARNELL Catalogue CAPACITORS, RESISTORS and POTENTIOMETERS have now been integrated into the CERN Stores Catalogue (SCEM Groups 10 and 11) they can now be obtained via an EDH 'Material Request' like any other Stores item. N.B. The Farnell 'Order code' is one of the key-words that make it easier to find items in the Stores Catalogue. Logistics Group FI Department

  15. Genome survey of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) by next generation sequencing: Development of novel SSR markers and genetic diversity in Pistacia species

    OpenAIRE

    Ziya Motalebipour, Elmira; Kafkas, Salih; Khodaeiaminjan, Mortaza; ?oban, Nergiz; G?zel, Hatice

    2016-01-01

    Background Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most important nut crops in the world. There are about 11 wild species in the genus Pistacia, and they have importance as rootstock seed sources for cultivated P. vera and forest trees. Published information on the pistachio genome is limited. Therefore, a genome survey is necessary to obtain knowledge on the genome structure of pistachio by next generation sequencing. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are useful tools for germplasm cha...

  16. Population Fluctuations of Insect Predators Species Found on Almond and WildAlmond Tree Adjacent to Pistachio Orchard in Şanlıurfa

    OpenAIRE

    YANIK, Ertan

    2013-01-01

    Almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch) and wild almond (Amygdalus orientalis) trees are the most abundant species adjacent to pistachio orchards of Sanliurfa province. This study focused on trees that located in the vicinity of the pistachio orchards, to determine whether these alternative habitats are a source of pistachio psilla’s (Agonoscena pistaciae Burck. and Laut.) insect predators species. For this purpose surveys were conducted to population fluctuations of insect predatory species of pist...

  17. Distributed energy store railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that when the limiting case of a distributed energy store railgun is analyzed, i.e., the case where the space between adjacent energy stores become indefinitely small, three important results are obtained. First, the shape of the current pulse delivered by each store is sinusoidal and an exponential tail. Second, the rail-to-rail voltage behind the rear-most active store approaches zero. Third, it is not possible to choose parameters in such a way that capacitor crowbars can be eliminated

  18. The Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Potential of Pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterniti, Irene; Impellizzeri, Daniela; Cordaro, Marika; Siracusa, Rosalba; Bisignano, Carlo; Gugliandolo, Enrico; Carughi, Arianna; Esposito, Emanuela; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2017-08-22

    Several reports have demonstrated the effectiveness of pistachio against oxidative stress and inflammation. In this study, we investigate if polyphenols extracts from natural raw shelled pistachios (NP) or roasted salted pistachio (RP) kernels have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties at lower doses than reported previously, in both in vitro and in vivo models. The monocyte/macrophage cell line J774 was used to assess the extent of protection by NP and RP pistachios against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Moreover, antioxidant activity of NP and RP was assessed in an in vivo model of paw edema in rats induced by carrageenan (CAR) injection in the paw. Results from the in vitro study demonstrated that pre-treatment with NP (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/mL) and RP (0.01 and 0.1 mg/mL) exerted a significant protection against LPS induced inflammation. Western blot analysis showed NP reduced the degradation of IκB-α, although not significantly, whereas both NP and RP decreased the TNF-α and IL-1β production in a dose-dependent way. A significant reduction of CAR-induced histological paw damage, neutrophil infiltration and nitrotyrosine formation was observed in the rats treated with NP. These data demonstrated that, at lower doses, polyphenols present in pistachios possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This may contribute toward a better understanding of the beneficial health effects associated with consumption of pistachios.

  19. Beneficial effect of pistachio consumption on glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, inflammation, and related metabolic risk markers: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Baldrich-Mora, Mònica; Juanola-Falgarona, Martí; Bulló, Mònica

    2014-11-01

    To examine whether a pistachio-rich diet reduces the prediabetes stage and improves its metabolic risk profile. Prediabetic subjects were recruited to participate in this Spanish randomized clinical trial between 20 September 2011 and 4 February 2013. In a crossover manner, 54 subjects consumed two diets, each for 4 months: a pistachio-supplemented diet (PD) and a control diet (CD). A 2-week washout period separated study periods. Diets were isocaloric and matched for protein, fiber, and saturated fatty acids. A total of 55% of the CD calories came from carbohydrates and 30% from fat, whereas for the PD, these percentages were 50 and 35%, respectively (including 57 g/day of pistachios). Fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA of insulin resistance decreased significantly after the PD compared with the CD. Other cardiometabolic risk markers such as fibrinogen, oxidized LDL, and platelet factor 4 significantly decreased under the PD compared with the CD (P pistachio intervention (P pistachio consumption is emerging as a useful nutritional strategy for the prediabetic state. Data suggest that pistachios have a glucose- and insulin-lowering effect, promote a healthier metabolic profile, and reverse certain metabolic deleterious consequences of prediabetes. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  20. Suitable Methods in Spatial Pattern Analysis of Heterogeneous Wild Pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf. Woodlands in Zagros, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Erfanifard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial pattern of trees in forests reveals how trees interact with each other and their environment. Spatial structure of trees in forest ecosystems is affected by environmental heterogeneity that leads to their heterogeneous distribution. This study was aimed to investigate the appropriate methods to analyze spatial pattern of heterogeneous wild pistachio woodlands in Zagros, Iran. A 40-ha pure stand of wild pistachio trees (Pistacia atlantica Desf. was selected in Wild Pistachio Research Forest in Fars Province for this purpose. The Kolmogrov-Smirnov test of goodness-of-fit of inhomogeneous Poisson point process showed that the distribution of wild pistachio trees was significantly heterogeneous (α=0.05. Inhomogeneous Ripley's K-, L-, and G-functions were applied beside their homogeneous forms. Inhomogeneous Ripley's K- and L-functions showed that wild pistachio trees were primarily clumped and dispersedly distributed thereafter, while g(r not only showed these results but also well expressed the detailed changes in spatial scale. The results of inappropriate homogeneous functions in the study area showed that all three functions expressed the primary clumping of the trees more than it was and their dispersed pattern as clumped. In general, it was concluded that inhomogeneous functions should be applied to analyze the spatial pattern of heterogeneous wild pistachio trees in the study area and it is recommended to develop g(r applications due to its more detailed information

  1. Effect of pistachio nut consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, Ravi R; Bansal, Manish; Mehrotra, Rahul; Yeptho, Kajal Pandya; Trehan, Naresh

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of regular consumption of pistachio nuts on glycemic, lipid, and oxidative stress parameters. The aim of this study was to determine its effect on vascular health, which has not been adequately studied so far. In this open label, randomized parallel-group study, 60 adults with mild dyslipidemia were randomized to lifestyle modification (LSM) alone or LSM with consumption of 80 g (in-shell) pistachios (equivalent to 40 g or 1.5 oz shelled pistachios) daily for 3 mo. Biochemical parameters, brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (BAFMD), and carotid-femoral and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (cfPWV and baPWV, respectively) were measured before and after the intervention. At 3 mo, there was no change in any of the clinical or biochemical parameters in the LSM group. However, the patients in the pistachio group had a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; 35.7 ± 8.8 mg/dL versus 37.8 ± 10.1 mg/dL; P = 0.04) and a reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (137.2 ± 32.6 mg/dL versus 127.6 ± 34.0 mg/dL; P = 0.02), total cholesterol (TC)-to-HDL-C ratio (5.8 ± 1.3 mg/dL versus 5.3 ± 1.1 mg/dL; P = 0.001), and fasting blood sugar (88.8 ± 7.1 mg/dL versus 86.6 ± 6.3 mg/dL; P = 0.05). Additionally, whereas LSM alone was associated with no improvement in BAFMD or PWV, individuals in the pistachio group had significant reduction in left baPWV (1261.7 ± 187.5 cm/sec versus 1192.4 ± 152.5 cm/sec; P = 0.02) and statistically nonsignificant improvement in most other parameters, including BAFMD. As a result, at 3 mo the patients in the pistachio group had lower cfPWV (770.9 ± 96.5 cm/sec versus 846.4 ± 162.0 cm/sec; P = 0.08), lower left baPWV (1192.4 ± 152.5 cm/sec versus 1326.3 ± 253.7 cm/sec; P = 0.05), and lower average baPWV (1208.2 ± 118.4 cm/sec versus 1295.8 ± 194.1 cm/sec; P = 0.08) compared

  2. Predicting Commissary Store Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    stores or if it is possible to predict that success. Multiple studies of private commercial grocery consumer preferences , habits and demographics have...appropriate number of competitors due to the nature of international cultures and consumer preferences . 2. Missing Data Four of the remaining stores

  3. Storing up trouble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsley, M.

    1992-01-01

    Scottish Nuclear have applied for permission to build a temporary ground-level dry store for spent fuel at Torness. However, Nirex's failure to find a suitable site for a long-term repository could mean that the Torness store will be less temporary than planned. (author)

  4. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group - FI Department

    2005-01-01

    The Farnell catalogue can now be accessed from the Material Request form on EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue. Users can order Farnell equipment as well as standard Stores equipment at the same time using a single document, the EDH Materials Request form. The Materials Request form offers users items from both the internal 'Stores' catalogue and the external 'Farnell' catalogue, all of which may be ordered on the same form. The system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment to the CERN Stores and those for Farnell equipment to Farnell. The delivery time is 48 hours in both cases. Requests for materials are routed for approval in accordance with the standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  5. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration.

  6. Gamma irradiation affects the total phenol, anthocyanin and antioxidant properties in three different persian pistachio nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohammad; Farajpour, Mostafa; Aalifar, Mostafa; Sadat Hosseini, Mohammad

    2018-02-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation (GR) on total phenol, anthocyanin and antioxidant activity were investigated in three different Persian pistachio nuts at doses of 0, 1, 2 and 4 kGy. The antioxidant activity, as determined by FRAP and DPPH methods, revealed a significant increase in the 1-2 kGy dose range. Total phenol content (TPC) revealed a similar pattern or increase in this range. However, when radiation was increased to 4 kGy, TPC in all genotypes decreased. A radiation dose of 1 kGy had no significant effect on anthocyanin content of Kale-Ghouchi (K) and Akbari (A) genotypes, while it significantly increased the anthocyanin content in the Ghazvini (G) genotype. In addition, increasing the radiation to 4 kGy significantly increased the anthocyanin content of K and G genotypes. To conclude, irradiation could increase the phenolic content, anthocyanin and antioxidant activity of pistachio nuts.

  7. Monitoring of pistachio (Pistacia Vera) ripening by high field nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciubba, Fabio; Avanzato, Damiano; Vaccaro, Angela; Capuani, Giorgio; Spagnoli, Mariangela; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Tzareva, Irina Nikolova; Delfini, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    The metabolic profiling of pistachio (Pistacia vera) aqueous extracts from two different cultivars, namely 'Bianca' and 'Gloria', was monitored over the months from May to September employing high field NMR spectroscopy. A large number of water-soluble metabolites were assigned by means of 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The change in the metabolic profiles monitored over time allowed the pistachio development to be investigated. Specific temporal trends of amino acids, sugars, organic acids and other metabolites were observed and analysed by multivariate Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis. Statistical analysis showed that while in the period from May to September there were few differences between the two cultivars, the ripening rate was different.

  8. Effects of pistachios on body weight in Chinese subjects with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that pistachios can improve blood lipid profiles in subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia which could reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, there is also a widely perceived view that eating nuts can lead to body weight gain due to their high fat content. Purpose To investigate the impact of different dosages of pistachios on body weight, blood pressure, blood lipids, blood glucose and insulin in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Methods Ninety subjects with metabolic syndrome (consistent with 2005 International Diabetes Federation metabolic syndrome standard without diabetes were enrolled in three endocrinology outpatient clinics in Beijing. All subjects received dietary counseling according to the guidelines of the American Heart Association Step I diet. After a 4 week run-in, subjects were randomized to consume either the recommended daily serving of 42 g pistachios (RSG, a higher daily serving of 70 g pistachio (HSG or no pistachios (DCG for 12 weeks. Results Subjects in all three groups were matched at baseline for BMI: DCG 28.03 ± 4.3; RSG 28.12 ± 3.22; and HSG 28.01 ± 4.51 kg/m2. There were no significant changes in body weight or BMI in any groups during the study nor any change from baseline at any time point in any group. During the entire study, there were no significant differences in waist-to-hip ratio among the groups or any change from baseline in any group (DCG -0.00 ± 0.03, RSG -0.01 ± 0.02 and HSG 0.01 ± 0.04. There were no significant differences detected among groups in triglycerides, fasting glucose and 2 hour postprandial glucose following a 75 gram glucose challenge. Exploratory analyses demonstrated that glucose values 2 h after a 75 gm glucose challenge were significantly lower at week 12 compared with baseline values in the HSG group (-1.13 ± 2.58 mmol/L, p = 0.02, and a similar trend was noted in the RSG group (-0.77 ± 2.07 mmol/L, p = 0.06, while no

  9. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    From next week, the SFS UNIMARKET (tooling) catalogue will be accessible using the Material Request form on EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue and those of existing suppliers. Users will now be able to place orders from the SFS catalogue using the Material Request form on EDH. Note: The system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment and those for SFS equipment, placed using the same Material Request form, to the CERN Stores and SFS respectively. In both cases, the maximum delivery time will be 48 hours. Requests for equipment will be routed for approval in accordance with standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  10. INFORMATION FOR STORES USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    From next week, the SFS UNIMARKET (tooling) catalogue will be accessible using the Material Request form on EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue and those of existing suppliers. Users will now be able to place orders from the SFS catalogue using the Material Request form on EDH. Note: The system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment and those for SFS equipment, placed using the same Material Request form, to the CERN Stores and SFS respectively. In both cases, the maximum delivery time will be 48 hours. Requests for equipment will be routed for approval in accordance with standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  11. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Radiospares Catalogue is now accessible from the Material Request page on EDH in the same way as the CERN Stores Catalogue. This means that users can order Radiospares equipment by completing an EDH Materials Request form. N.B.: The system will automatically forward orders for standard Stores equipment to the CERN Stores and those for Radiospares equipment to Radiospares. In both cases the delivery time will be a maximum of 48 hours. Requests for materials will be routed for approval in accordance with the standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  12. INFORMATION FOR STORES USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL Division

    1999-01-01

    You can now make Material Request from CERN Stores over the WEB :CERN Home/Administrative Tools/EDH/Material Requestor https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAGVia the Stores Catalogue : CERN Home/Administrative Tools/Stores Catalogueor http://edhcat.cern.ch/In both cases, you need to enter your EDH login and password.For more details, you can consult the Quick Reference Guide on :http://edh.cern.ch/doc/quickrefguides.htmlor obtain a printed version from AIS Support at tel: 79933or e-mail to: ais.support@cern.chSPL DivisionLogistics Group

  13. Chemical composition of oils from wild almond (Prunus scoparia and wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Mohammadi, S. A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acids, sterols and triacylglycerol compositions as well as the amount of tocopherols, total phenols and pigments wild almond and cold pressed wild pistachio oils. Triacylglycerols, tocopherols and pigments were analyzed with HPLC, fatty acids and sterols with gas chromatography, and total phenols photometrically. The main fatty acids in both samples were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. The most predominant TAG species are SLL + PLO (21.83% in wild pistachio oil and OOO (47.27% in wild almond oil. Pheophytin a was the major pigment in wild pistachio oil. There were no pigments detected in wild almond oil. Total phenols were 57.6 mg kg-1 oil for wild pistachio and 45.3 mg kg-1 oil for wild almond oil.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la composición en ácidos grasos, esteroles, triglicéridos, así como tocoferoles, fenoles totales y pigmentos de aceites de almendras y pistachos silvestres prensados en frío. Triglicéridos (TAG, tocoferoles y pigmentos se analizaron mediante HPLC, los ácidos grasos y esteroles mediante cromatografía de gases, y los fenoles totales espectrofotométricamente. Los principales ácidos grasos de ambas especies fueron los ácidos oleico, linoleico y palmítico. Las especies de TAG predominantes son SLL + OLP (21,83% en el pistacho silvestre y OOO (47,27% en almendras silvestre. Feofitina a es un pigmento importante en los aceites de pistacho silvestre. No se detectó pigmentos en los aceites de almendras silvestres. Los fenoles totales fueron 57,6 mg kg-1 y 45,3 mg kg-1 en los aceites de pistacho silvestre y de almendra silvestre respectivamente.

  14. Biocontrol potential of Trichoderma harzianum in controlling wilt disease of pistachio caused by Verticillium dahliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotoohiyan Zeinab

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae, is one of the most devastating diseases in pistachio orchards in the world including Iran. In search for an effective non-chemical strategy for the management of this disease, we evaluated the biocontrol potential of Trichoderma harzianum isolates obtained from the rhizosphere of healthy pistachio trees in different locations of the Kerman province of Iran against V. dahliae under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Dual culture tests in the laboratory were conducted in a completely randomized design using 72 T. harzianum isolates. Twenty isolates showed the highest in vitro antagonistic activity. The results indicated that all 20 isolates were capable of inhibiting the mycelial growth of V. dahliae significantly. Among them, isolates Tr8 and Tr19 were the most effective by 88.89% and 85.12% inhibition, respectively. Extracted cell free metabolites of all effective isolates also inhibited the growth of V. dahliae in the culture medium significantly. According to the results, isolates Tr4 and Tr6 inhibited fungal pathogen growth by 94.94% and 88.15% respectively, through production of non-volatile metabolites. In the evaluation of volatile metabolites, isolates Tr5 and Tr4 were the most effective by 26.27% and 24.49% growth inhibition, respectively. Based on the results of the in vitro experiments, the five most effective isolates were selected for evaluation under greenhouse conditions for their biocontrol potential in controlling Verticillium wilt of pistachio. Results of the greenhouse, (in vivo experiments were positive and indicated that the occurrence of wilt disease in plants treated with the antagonists alone or in combination with pathogenic fungus was lower than in plants inoculated with pathogen alone. The overall results of this study suggest that Trichoderma fungal antagonist may be an effective biocontrol agent for the control of Verticillium wilt of pistachio.

  15. EFFECTS OF HETEROGENIETY ON SPATIAL PATTERN ANALYSIS OF WILD PISTACHIO TREES IN ZAGROS WOODLANDS, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Erfanifard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation heterogeneity biases second-order summary statistics, e.g., Ripley's K-function, applied for spatial pattern analysis in ecology. Second-order investigation based on Ripley's K-function and related statistics (i.e., L- and pair correlation function g is widely used in ecology to develop hypothesis on underlying processes by characterizing spatial patterns of vegetation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate effects of underlying heterogeneity of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf. trees on the second-order summary statistics of point pattern analysis in a part of Zagros woodlands, Iran. The spatial distribution of 431 wild pistachio trees was accurately mapped in a 40 ha stand in the Wild Pistachio & Almond Research Site, Fars province, Iran. Three commonly used second-order summary statistics (i.e., K-, L-, and g-functions were applied to analyse their spatial pattern. The two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test showed that the observed pattern significantly followed an inhomogeneous Poisson process null model in the study region. The results also showed that heterogeneous pattern of wild pistachio trees biased the homogeneous form of K-, L-, and g-functions, demonstrating a stronger aggregation of the trees at the scales of 0–50 m than actually existed and an aggregation at scales of 150–200 m, while regularly distributed. Consequently, we showed that heterogeneity of point patterns may bias the results of homogeneous second-order summary statistics and we also suggested applying inhomogeneous summary statistics with related null models for spatial pattern analysis of heterogeneous vegetations.

  16. Effects of Heterogeniety on Spatial Pattern Analysis of Wild Pistachio Trees in Zagros Woodlands, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanifard, Y.; Rezayan, F.

    2014-10-01

    Vegetation heterogeneity biases second-order summary statistics, e.g., Ripley's K-function, applied for spatial pattern analysis in ecology. Second-order investigation based on Ripley's K-function and related statistics (i.e., L- and pair correlation function g) is widely used in ecology to develop hypothesis on underlying processes by characterizing spatial patterns of vegetation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate effects of underlying heterogeneity of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.) trees on the second-order summary statistics of point pattern analysis in a part of Zagros woodlands, Iran. The spatial distribution of 431 wild pistachio trees was accurately mapped in a 40 ha stand in the Wild Pistachio & Almond Research Site, Fars province, Iran. Three commonly used second-order summary statistics (i.e., K-, L-, and g-functions) were applied to analyse their spatial pattern. The two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test showed that the observed pattern significantly followed an inhomogeneous Poisson process null model in the study region. The results also showed that heterogeneous pattern of wild pistachio trees biased the homogeneous form of K-, L-, and g-functions, demonstrating a stronger aggregation of the trees at the scales of 0-50 m than actually existed and an aggregation at scales of 150-200 m, while regularly distributed. Consequently, we showed that heterogeneity of point patterns may bias the results of homogeneous second-order summary statistics and we also suggested applying inhomogeneous summary statistics with related null models for spatial pattern analysis of heterogeneous vegetations.

  17. Rootstock effects on pistachio trees grown in Verticillium dahliae-infested soil

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Lynn; Beede, R; Kaur, S; Ferguson, L

    2004-01-01

    In a field trial in soil infested with Verticillium dahliae, we compared the yield, growth, incidence of symptoms of Verticillium wilt, and mortality of two interspecific hybrid pistachio tree rootstocks (UCBI and PGII) with the standard rootstocks: the V dahliae-resistant and susceptible Pistacia integerrima and P. atlantica, respectively. After 10 years, the trees were destructively sampled for V dahliae in the xylem at the graft union. The results indicate that trees on the (P. atlantica '...

  18. Interactions between leaf macro, micronutrients and soil properties in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Koukoulakis, Prodromos; Chatzissavvidis, Christos; Papadopoulos, Aristotelis; Pontikis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between: (i) leaf dry matter macronutrients, micronutrients and soil chemical properties, (ii) leaf macro- and micronutrients, (iii) soil macro- and micronutrients and (iv) soil chemical properties, and soil micro- and macronutrients in 50 pistachio orchards were investigated in leaves and soils by means of regression analysis. Most of the soils were deficient in plant-available P, Zn, Mn, Fe, and B, while they were excessively supplied with Cu. Leaf analysis showed that most...

  19. Cloning, Expression, Characterization, and Computational Approach for Cross-Reactivity Prediction of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Allergen from Pistachio Nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Noorbakhsh

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Background: Tree nut allergy is one of the common potentially life-threatening food allergies in children and adults. Recombinant food allergens offer new perspectives to solve problems of clinical and molecular allergology in diagnosis, research, and therapy of food allergies. So far, superoxide dismutase (s has been identified as a panallergen and studied in different allergenic sources. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (MnSOD has also been reported in pistachio that may cause allergic reactions in atopic subjects. The aim of this study was to describe the cloning, expression, and purification of MnSOD from pistachio nut. Methods: The pistachio MnSOD was cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3 using a vector pET-32b (+. A recombinant protein was purified by metal precipitation. The protein immunoreactivity was evaluated using patients' IgE binding by means of ELISA and immunoblotting assays. Results: The MnSOD gene from pistachio was successfully cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purified pistachio MnSOD was recognized by IgE in 10 (40% out of the 25 sera tested. Our results also showed that this protein might trigger some cross-reactions toward IgE antibodies and thus could be considered as a panallergen. Conclusions: For the first time recombinant manganese superoxide dismutase from nut source was expressed as a possible allergen. This pistachio allergen could be a possible basis for cross-reactivity with MnSOD from other sources. KEY WORDS: cloning, cross-reaction, Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (MnSOD, pistachio (Pistacia vera, recombinant allergen

  20. The Temporal Variation of Leaf Water Potential in Pistachio under Irrigated and Non-Irrigated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf AYDIN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the experimental field of Pistachio Research Institute on pistachio trees which has uzun variety that was 30 years old. The aim of this research was to determine the Leaf Water Potential (LWP of Pistacia vera L. under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. In the study, the leaf water potential of pistachio was investigated under fully irrigated and non irrigated conditions. The leaf water potential values were measured one day before and after irrigation by using pressure chamber technique at the beginning, mid and end of irrigation season. According to the results obtained from measurements, the LWP value at the beginning of the irrigation season was -3.7 MPa at noon time due to relatively high temperature for both treatments. At the time of pre-dawn and sunset, this value increased and reached to - 1.6 MPa due to relatively low temperature. In general, the LWP values during the mid of irrigation season, in the irrigated treatments, reached to almost -2.5 MPa in the non-irrigated treatment and the value was measured as -3.68 MPa.

  1. Genetic and geochemical signatures to prevent frauds and counterfeit of high-quality asparagus and pistachio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannella, Carmela; Carucci, Francesca; Aversano, Riccardo; Prohaska, Thomas; Vingiani, Simona; Carputo, Domenico; Adamo, Paola

    2017-12-15

    A fingerprinting strategy based on genetic (simple sequence repeat) and geochemical (multielement and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio) analysis was tested to prove the geographical origin of high-quality Italian products "White Asparagus from Bassano del Grappa" and "Green Pistachio from Bronte". Genetic analysis generated many polymorphic alleles and different specific amplified fragments in both agriproducts. In addition, a core set of markers was defined. According to variability within production soils and products, potential candidate elements linking asparagus (Zn, P, Cr, Mg, B, K) and pistachio (Mn, P, Cr, Mg, Ti, B, K, Sc, S) to the production areas were identified. The Sr isotopic signature was an excellent marker when Italian asparagus was compared with literature data for Hungarian and Peruvian asparagus. This work reinforces the use of Sr isotope composition in the soil bioavailable fraction, as assessed by 1mol/L NH 4 NO 3 , to distinguish white asparagus and pistachio originating from different geographical areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of pollen grain viability and germination levels for pistachio and terebinth in Aydin /Turkey ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunver-Dalkilic, G.; Dayi-Dogru, O.

    2011-01-01

    With this research, the viability levels, production potentials, and storage periods of pollen of naturally grown four male terebinth types (Pistacia terebinthus L.) and four male pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) grafted on terebinth trees were determined in Uzunlar Village, Aydin Province. For the aim of determining the pollen viability levels, TTC, IKI, and safranine solutions were used. The viability ratio ranged between 88.24% (safranine test) and 70.18% (TTC test) in pistachio trees, between 85.36% (IKI test) and 63.73% (safranine test) in terebinth types. The average amount of pollen within a flower resolved by hemacytometric method was changed between 135 000 and 176 250 depend on species and types. While the germination percentage of pollen of pistachio trees and terebinth types was 71% and 26%, respectively in the beginning of storage, that of pollen in the room conditions after fourth day, in the refrigerator from tenth day and in the deep freezer from second month was decreased to zero. (author)

  3. Foliar Application of Arginine Improves Vegetative and Reproductive Characteristics of Bearing Pistachio Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tajabadipour

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio is one of the most important horticultural crops in Iran.  There is a unique role for amino acids in the plant response to stressful conditions, and special physiological role for Arginine (Arg compared to other amino acids.  The effects of this compound were investigated on vegetative and reproductive characters of bearing pistachio trees of ‘Ahmad-Aghaei’. The experiments were done as a factorial based on RCBD with four concentrations of Arg (0, 100, 200 and 300 µM and three spraying stages (post harvest, flower buds swollen and flowering. Based on the results, Arg improved the vegetative and reproductive characters. Arg increased length and diameter of shoot, leaf area, the number of floweringbuds, the number of nuts in cluster, fresh weight of cluster, nut splitting (% and ounce, and decreased flower buds abscission percent and blankness. Arg also significantly increased photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and total chlorophyll in bearing pistachio trees. The best concentration of Arg was 200 µM applied of the flowering stage, but the strongest effect on the number of nut in cluster, fresh weight of cluster and blankness were observed when spraying at the flower bud swollen stage.

  4. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from pistachio nut shells via microwave-induced chemical activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, pistachio nut shell, a biomass residue abundantly available from the pistachio nut processing industries, was utilized as a feedstock for the preparation of activated carbon (PSAC) via microwave assisted KOH activation. The activation step was performed at the microwave input power of 600 W and irradiation time of 7 min. The porosity, functional and surface chemistry were featured by means of low temperature nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Result showed that the BET surface area, Langmuir surface area, and total pore volume of PSAC were 700.53 m 2 g -1 , 1038.78 m 2 g -1 and 0.375 m 3 g -1 , respectively. The adsorptive property of PSAC was tested using methylene blue dye as the targeted adsorbate. Equilibrium data was best fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model, showing a monolayer adsorption capacity of 296.57 mg g -1 . The study revealed the potentiality of microwave-induced activation as a viable activation method. -- Highlights: → Pistachio nut shell activated carbon (PSAC) was prepared via microwave assisted KOH activation. → The activation step was performed at the microwave input power of 600 W and irradiation time of 7 min. → BET surface area of PSAC was 700.53 m 2 /g. → Monolayer adsorption capacity of PSAC for MB was 296.57 mg/g.

  5. Determination of pollen grain viability and germination levels for pistachio and terebinth in Aydin /Turkey ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunver-Dalkilic, G; Dayi-Dogru, O

    2011-04-15

    With this research, the viability levels, production potentials, and storage periods of pollen of naturally grown four male terebinth types (Pistacia terebinthus L.) and four male pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) grafted on terebinth trees were determined in Uzunlar Village, Aydin Province. For the aim of determining the pollen viability levels, TTC, IKI, and safranine solutions were used. The viability ratio ranged between 88.24% (safranine test) and 70.18% (TTC test) in pistachio trees, between 85.36% (IKI test) and 63.73% (safranine test) in terebinth types. The average amount of pollen within a flower resolved by hemacytometric method was changed between 135 000 and 176 250 depend on species and types. While the germination percentage of pollen of pistachio trees and terebinth types was 71% and 26%, respectively in the beginning of storage, that of pollen in the room conditions after fourth day, in the refrigerator from tenth day and in the deep freezer from second month was decreased to zero. (author)

  6. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from pistachio nut shells via microwave-induced chemical activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, K. Y. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Hameed, B.H., E-mail: chbassim@eng.usm.my [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2011-07-15

    In this work, pistachio nut shell, a biomass residue abundantly available from the pistachio nut processing industries, was utilized as a feedstock for the preparation of activated carbon (PSAC) via microwave assisted KOH activation. The activation step was performed at the microwave input power of 600 W and irradiation time of 7 min. The porosity, functional and surface chemistry were featured by means of low temperature nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Result showed that the BET surface area, Langmuir surface area, and total pore volume of PSAC were 700.53 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, 1038.78 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 0.375 m{sup 3} g{sup -1}, respectively. The adsorptive property of PSAC was tested using methylene blue dye as the targeted adsorbate. Equilibrium data was best fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model, showing a monolayer adsorption capacity of 296.57 mg g{sup -1}. The study revealed the potentiality of microwave-induced activation as a viable activation method. -- Highlights: {yields} Pistachio nut shell activated carbon (PSAC) was prepared via microwave assisted KOH activation. {yields} The activation step was performed at the microwave input power of 600 W and irradiation time of 7 min. {yields} BET surface area of PSAC was 700.53 m{sup 2}/g. {yields} Monolayer adsorption capacity of PSAC for MB was 296.57 mg/g.

  7. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Bossard catalogue is now accessible alongside the CERN Stores catalogue from the Material Request form on EDH. Users will thus be able to order Bossard equipment using the EDH Materials Request form. As a reminder, the system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment to the CERN Stores and those for Bossard equipment to Bossard. In both cases the delivery time will be a maximum of 48 hours. Requests for materials will be routed for approval in accordance with the standard EDH routing procedures. Some items will remain available from the emergency desk in the event of urgent requests. These items will be visible in the Stores catalogue even if they cannot be purchased via the EDH material request form. Logistics Group FI Department

  8. Provenance Store Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, Patrick R.; Gibson, Tara D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.

    2008-03-01

    Requirements for the provenance store and access API are developed. Existing RDF stores and APIs are evaluated against the requirements and performance benchmarks. The team’s conclusion is to use MySQL as a database backend, with a possible move to Oracle in the near-term future. Both Jena and Sesame’s APIs will be supported, but new code will use the Jena API

  9. Comparison of the volatile emission profiles of ground almond and pistachio mummies: part 1 – addressing a gap in knowledge of current attractants of navel orangeworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the years various tissues of almond and pistachios have been evaluated for their ability to attract the navel orangeworm moth, a major insect pest to almond and pistachio orchards in California. Almond meal, which typically consists of ground almond kernels, is the current monitoring tool for n...

  10. Comparison of the volatile emission profiles of ground almond and pistachio mummies: part 2 - critical changes in emission profiles as a result of increasing the water activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent field trapping studies ground pistachio and almond mummies were reported to attract adult navel orangeworm moths, which showed a slight preference for the dry pistachio mummy matrix depending on the year evaluated. Recent work in these laboratories has demonstrated that the water activity ...

  11. The Nord interim store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leushacke, D.F.; Rittscher, D.

    1996-01-01

    In line with the decision taken in 1990 to shut down and decommission the Greifswald and Rheinsberg Nuclear Power Stations, the waste management concept of the Energiewerke Nord is based on direct and complete decommissioning of the six shut down reactor units within the next fifteen years. One key element of this concept is the construction and use of the Zwischenlager Nord (Nord Interim Store, ZLN) for holding the existing nuclear fuels and for interim and decay storage of the radioactive materials arising in decommissioning and demolition. The owner and operator of the store is Energiewerke Nord GmbH. The interim store has the functions of a processing and Energiewerke Nord GmbH. The interim store has the functions of a processing and treatment station and buffer store for the flows of residues arising. As a radioactive waste management station, it accommodates nuclear fuels, radioactive waste or residues which are not treated any further. It is used as a buffer store to allow the materials accumulating in disassembly to be stored temporarily before or after treatment in order to ensure continuous loading of the treatment plants. When operated as a processing station, the ZLN is able to handle nearly all types of radioactive waste and residues arising, except for nuclear fuels. These installations allow the treatment of radioactive residues to be separated from the demolition work both physically and in time. The possibilities of interium storage and buffer storage of untreated waste and waste packages make for high flexibility in logistics and waste management strategy. (orig.) [de

  12. Evaluation of PAL activity, Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents in Three Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. Cultivars Grafted onto Three Different Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nadernejad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL is a biochemical marker of the environmental stress and plays a pivotal role in phenolic synthesis. The lower ROS level and oxidative damage was observed in grafted plants and the rootstocks have a profound influence on the biochemical composition, especially phenolic compounds. Regarding the importance of the effect rootstocks have on scion in pistachio trees, this study was carried out to assess and compare three pistachio cultivars ("Ahmadaghaii", "Ohadi" and "Kallehghuchi" on three rootstocks (Mutica, Ahli, Sarakhs. PAL activity, phenolic compounds, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents in leaves, flowers and fruits were measured toward the selection of the most suitable and compatible rootstock/scion resistant to environmental stresses. The results showed that PAL activity was different among the cultivars and organs. A positive correlation was observed between PAL activity and phenolic compounds in the leaves and flowers of Mutica- Ahmadaghaii, suggesting that it is more resistant than the others to environmental stresses. PAL activity and total phenolics in fruits of pistachio suffered a decrease when the maturation processes began. The hulls of the pistachio fruits contained high levels of phenolic compounds especially in Mutica-Ahmadaghaii suggesting its function as a protective layer and a defense chemical against ultraviolet radiation and pathogen. Our results indicated the presence of a number of bioactive compounds in kernels with the highest amount belonging to Mutica- Ahmadaghaii, and therefore it is concluded that pistachio rootstocks may affect the antioxidant compounds in kernels.

  13. Assessing Various Aspects of Sustainability in Wheat and Pistachio Agro-ecosystems of Kerman Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Naghizadeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Agricultural sustainability is the ability of an agro-ecosystem to either maintain or to implement the productive characteristics and taking into consideration both the ecological-environmental and socio-economic aspects. Sustainable agriculture implies long term maintenance of natural systems, optimal production with minimum input, adequate income per farming unit, fulfillment of basic food needs, and provision for the demands and necessities of rural families and communities. All definitions of sustainable agriculture promote environmental, economic and social harmony in an effort to attain the meaning of sustainability. The purpose of this study was to develop a sustainability index for quantifying the different aspects of sustainability as economical, social, agronomical and management for wheat and pistachio production systems which are dominant systems in Kerman province. Materials and Methods In the present study all aspects of agricultural sustainability including ecological, social and economic was selected..Accordingly, the sustainability index, a set of 82 indicators for wheat and pistachio crops were designed, to collect data through questionnaires and then analyze it. Sustainability indices include socio-economic indices, fertilizer and chemicals, crops and livestock production, crop residue management, irrigation water, diversity of agricultural systems, mechanization, tillage and weed management in the main cultivation area in 2014 and 2015 were analyzed. Sustainability index was calculated using the weighting sum. Therefore the rate of contribution for each specific indicator in the final index and rating of all indicators were done from zero to its maximum rated indicators with regard to the most unfavorable situation to the most favorable indicators. After scoring each measure, the total scores of indicators is accumulated and was introduced as the final score. After designing the indicators, 295 and 234

  14. Growth and Chemical Composition of Pistachio Seedlings under Different Levels of Manganese in Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Poorbafrani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pistachio is one of the most important crops in many regions of Iran with respect of production and export. There are more than 470000 ha of nonbearing and bearing pistachio trees mainly in Kerman province. Despite the economic importance of this crop, very little information is available on its nutritional requirements. Pistachio trees like other crops need to macro and micro nutrients. one of these elements is manganese (Mn. Manganese is an essential mineral nutrient, playing a key role in several physiological processes, particularly photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen assimilation. This element is normally supplied to the plants by soil. Therefore, soil conditions affect its availability to plants. Soils with high pH, calcareous soils, especially those with poor drainage and high organic matter, are among the soils which produce Mn-deficient plants. Calcium carbonate is the major inactivation factor of Mn in calcareous soils. The soils of Iran are predominantly calcareous in which micronutrients deficiency, including Mn, is observed due to the high pH and nutrient fixation. The objective of this research was to examine the effect of manganese application on growth and chemical composition of pistachio seedlings in some calcareous soils with different chemical and physical properties. Materials and Methods: For this purpose a greenhouse experiment was carried out as factorial (two factors including soil type and Mn levels experiment in completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments were consisted of three levels of Mn (0, 10 and 20 mg Mn Kg-1 soil as Manganese sulfate and 12 different soils from Rafsanjan region in Southern Iran. Soil samples were air dried and crushed to pass through a 2-mm sieve, and some physical and chemical properties of soils such as texture, electrical conductivity, pH, organic matter content, calcium carbonate equivalent, cation exchange capacity and iron, manganese, copper and

  15. Characterization of the Aroma-Active, Phenolic, and Lipid Profiles of the Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Nut as Affected by the Single and Double Roasting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Kelebek, Hasim; Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luis Miguel; Fontecha, Javier; Selli, Serkan

    2015-09-09

    The pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nut is one of the most widely consumed edible nuts in the world. However, it is the roasting process that makes the pistachio commercially viable and valuable as it serves as the key step to improving the nut's hallmark sensory characteristics including flavor, color, and texture. Consequently, the present study explores the effects of the single-roasting and double-roasting process on the pistachio's chemical composition, specifically aroma-active compounds, polyphenols, and lipids. Results showed the total polyphenol content of increased with the roasting treatment; however, not all phenolic compounds demonstrated this behavior. With regard to the aroma and aroma-active compounds, the results indicated that roasting process results in the development of characteristics and pleasant aroma of pistachio samples due to the Maillard reaction. With regard to lipids, the pistachio roasting treatment reduced the concentration of CN38 diacylglycerides while increasing the amount of elaidic acid.

  16. Inflammable materials stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandagopan, V.

    2017-01-01

    A new Inflammable Materials Stores has been constructed by A and SED, BARC near Gamma Field for storage of inflammable materials falling into Petroleum Class ‘A’ ‘B’ and “C” mainly comprising of oils and lubricants, Chemicals like Acetone, Petroleum Ether etc. which are regularly procured by Central Stores Unit (CSU) for issue to the various divisions of BARC. The design of the shed done by A and SED, BARC was duly got approved from Petroleum and Explosive Safety Organization (PESO) which is a mandatory requirement before commencement of the construction. The design had taken into account various safety factors which is ideally required for an inflammable materials stores

  17. Information for Stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    The DISTRELEC catalogue (IT) is now available in EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue and the catalogues of existing suppliers. Using an EDH materials request form, users can now order DISTRELEC equipment from amongst the following product groups: peripherals, multimedia, PC components, data media, communication and data cables and adapters. Non-authorised materials will be clearly indicated. As a reminder, the system automatically manages the distribution of standard Stores equipment and punch out equipment ordered on the same request form. In both cases, delivery will take a maximum of 48 hours. The approval of the EDH document will follow the usual EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  18. Shaktismen - hinduismens store gudindetradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne Wernicke

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen giver en introduktion til shaktismen - hinduismens store gudindetradition. Den ser på de vigtigste gudinder, begreber, traditioner og forestillinger, ligesom den giver et vue over forskningssituationen. Shaktismens opståen i sin klassiske form, dens hovedretninger, virkelighedsforståelse...

  19. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    From the beginning of March onwards, the LYRECO (stationery) catalogue will be accessible from the Material Request form on EDH in the same way as the CERN Stores catalogue and the existing individual supplier catalogues. Items will be delivered within a maximum of 48 hours. Logistics Group FI Department

  20. Store Security: Reducing Shoplifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsel, Robert; Garman, Jerry

    The major purpose of the course outline presented in the document is the reduction of stealing in retail stores. The teaching outline is formatted by juxtaposing the content outline of each substantive area next to relevant activities and methods. Some of the topics covered are psychology of shoplifting, tools used by shoplifters, Ohio's law on…

  1. Effects of salinity and Cu on total uptake of micronutrient in shoot and root of pistachio cultivars (Pistacia vera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    S. Eskandari; V. Mozaffari

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of soil Cu and salinity levels on uptake of micronutrients by shoots and roots of pistachio seedlings, a factorial experiment was carried out as completely randomized design with three replications in greenhouse of College of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran, in May 2008. Treatments consisted of five salinity levels (0, 800, 1600, 2400 and 3200 mg NaCl per kg soil), four Cu levels (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg Cu per kg soil) and two pistachio cultivars (Bada...

  2. Evaluation of Two Biochemical Markers for Salt Stress in Three Pistachio Rootstocks Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae)

    OpenAIRE

    Shamshiri M.H.; Fattahi. M.

    2014-01-01

    The possible involvement of the methylglyoxal and proline accumulation in leaves and roots of three pistachio rootstocks, cv. Sarakha, Abareqi and Bane baghi, pre-inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus ( Glomus mosseae ) in response to salt stress was studied during a greenhouse experiment in 2013. Six months old pistachio seedlings were exposed to four salinity levels of irrigation water (EC of 0.5 as control, 5, 10 and 15 dS m -1) for 70 days. Methylglyoxal and proline of the roots a...

  3. STORE IN STORE FRANCHISING STRATEGY: THE TREND IN FRANCHISING NEGOTIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado-Serrano, Alexander; Universidad de Puerto Rico

    2016-01-01

    The literature on franchising has traditionally focused on the effects and transformation it has promoted in the service sector, retailing, restaurants, hotels and other service-related industries. Store within a store research has been focused on the perspective of the manufacturer entering department stores. To date, little research has been carried out for the store in store strategy from the franchising perspective. This paper explores why big box retailers such as Walmart are adopting th...

  4. In vitro lipolytic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of roasted pistachio kernel and skin constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Mary H; Esposito, Debora; Timmers, Michael A; Xiong, Jia; Yousef, Gad; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Lila, Mary Ann

    2016-10-12

    A comprehensive phytochemical analysis was conducted on pistachios to identify the differential contributions of skin and kernel phytochemicals to in vitro bioactivity. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of skin and kernel non-polar extracts (SNP and KNP, respectively) indicated that the major components are fatty acids (696.36 and 879.70 mg g -1 ), phytosterols (16.08 and 4.28 mg g -1 ), and γ-tocopherol (304.17 and 397.10 μg g -1 ). Analysis of the skin and kernel polar extracts (SP and KP, respectively) showed that skin accumulated higher levels of phenolic compounds, especially flavan-3-ols, compared to the kernel. An (epi)catechin hexoside was the major component in SP and KP (9.8 mg g -1 and 3.3 mg g -1 , respectively). Flavan-3-ols with different degrees of polymerization were detected in SP, but only the monomers were identified in the KP. Quercetin glycosides were the major flavonols present in both SP and KP. Bioassays with 3T3L1 mouse adipocytes demonstrated that all extracts decreased lipid accumulation, with SNP demonstrating the highest activity (17% inhibition). Bioassay guided fractionation of SNP indicated that the lipolytic activity was highest in the fraction consisting of linoleic acid (20%), linolenic acid (10%), and β-sitosterol (50%). Radical scavenging assays indicated that all pistachio extracts significantly inhibited ROS, while SP was the most inhibiting to NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Gene expression profiles associated with inflammation (IL6, iNOS, and COX2) were characterized in the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages after treatment with pistachio extracts. SP and KP were the most potent to inhibit the expression of COX2. The SNP had the strongest effect in decreasing non-mitochondrial oxidative burst associated with inflammatory response in macrophages.

  5. Crop Loss Relationships and Economic Injury Levels for Ferrisia gilli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Infesting Pistachio in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, David R; Beede, Robert H; Daane, Kent M

    2015-12-01

    Ferrisia gilli Gullan (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a new pest in California pistachios, Pistacea vera L. We conducted a 3-yr field study to determine the type and amount of damage caused by F. gilli. Using pesticides, we established gradients of F. gilli densities in a commercial pistachio orchard near Tipton, CA, from 2005 to 2007. Each year, mealybug densities on pistachio clusters were recorded from May through September and cumulative mealybug-days were determined. At harvest time, nut yield per tree (5% dried weight) was determined, and subsamples of nuts were evaluated for market quality. Linear regression analysis of cumulative mealybug-days against fruit yield and nut quality measurements showed no relationships in 2005 and 2006, when mealybug densities were moderate. However, in 2007, when mealybug densities were very high, there was a negative correlation with yield (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there was a decrease in total dry weight per tree of 0.105 kg) and percentage of split unstained nuts (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there was a decrease in the percentage of split unstained of 0.560%), and a positive correlation between the percentage of closed kernel and closed blank nuts (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there is an increase in the percentage of closed kernel and closed blank of 0.176 and 0.283%, respectively). The data were used to determine economic injury levels, showing that for each mealybug per cluster in May there was a 4.73% reduction in crop value associated with quality and a 0.866 kg reduction in yield per tree (4.75%). © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Antioxidant activity of Sicilian pistachio (Pistacia vera L. var. Bronte) nut extract and its bioactive components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Carla; Tesoriere, Luisa; Butera, Daniela; Fazzari, Marco; Monastero, Massimo; Allegra, Mario; Livrea, Maria A

    2007-02-07

    Pistacia vera L. is the only species of Pistacia genus producing edible nuts. This paper investigates the antioxidant potential of a Sicilian variety of pistachio nut by chemical as well as biological assays and measured antioxidant vitamins and a number of antioxidant polyphenols in either the hydrophilic and/or the lipophilic nut extract. In accordance with the majority of foods, the total antioxidant activity, measured as a TAA test, was much higher (50-fold) in the hydrophilic than in the lipophilic extract. Substantial amounts of total phenols were measured. The hydrophilic extract inhibited dose-dependently both the metal-dependent and -independent lipid oxidation of bovine liver microsomes, and the Cu+2-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Peroxyl radical-scavenging as well as chelating activity of nut components may be suggested to explain the observed inhibition patterns. Among tocopherols, gamma-tocopherol was the only vitamin E isomer found in the lipophilic extract that did not contain any carotenoid. Vitamin C was found only in a modest amount. The hydrophilic extract was a source of polyphenol compounds among which trans-resveratrol, proanthocyanidins, and a remarkable amount of the isoflavones daidzein and genistein, 3.68 and 3.40 mg per 100 g of edible nut, respectively, were evaluated. With the exception of isoflavones that appeared unmodified, the amounts of other bioactive molecules were remarkably reduced in the pistachio nut after roasting, and the total antioxidant activity decreased by about 60%. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that the Sicilian pistachio nut may be considered for its bioactive components and can effectively contribute to a healthy status.

  7. Variation of nutrients and antioxidant activity in seed and exocarp layer of some Persian pistachio genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Tayefeh Aliakbarkhani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio nuts are rich sources of nutrients which are essential for human wellbeing. In the present study we investigate the variation of oil, protein, total phenol, mineral contents, and antioxidant activity of twenty rare Persian pistachio nuts and exocarp layer. Among the 20 pistachio genotypes, in seeds Mn concentration was varied from 5.73 to 17.33 mg/kg; Fe ranged from 17 to 62.4 mg/kg; Zn varied from 6.76 to 30.3 mg/kg; Na ranged from 0.06 to 0.126%; K varied from 0.68 to 1.35%; P varied from 0.42 to 0.73%; N ranged from 2.6 to 4.29%; Mg varied from 0.11 to 0.17%, Ca varied from 0.23 to 0.47%, oil ranged from 47.94 to 57.29% and protein ranged from 16.26 to 25.5%. The G3 genotype had the highest total phenol content (35.64 mg GAEs/g and antioxidant activity (90.55% in exocarp layer and oil content in seeds (57.29%. The highest phosphorus (0.73% in exocarp layer and phenol (4.2 mg GAEs/g contents in seeds were observed in G19. According to the correlation analysis, there were a correlation between total phenol (in exocarp layer and oil contents gain with some values; these two values had a significant correlation with PC1. Cluster analysis separated the genotypes into three groups considering all measured Values.

  8. Textural and chemical properties of zinc chloride activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ting; Lua, Aik Chong

    2006-01-01

    The effects of activation temperature on the textural and chemical properties of the activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells using zinc chloride activation under both inert nitrogen gas atmosphere and vacuum condition were studied. Relatively low temperature of 400 deg. C was beneficial for the development of pore structures. Too high an activation temperature would lead to sintering of volatiles and shrinkage of the carbon structure. The microstructures and microcrystallinity of the activated carbons prepared were examined by scanning electron microscope and powder X-ray diffraction techniques, respectively, while Fourier transform infrared spectra determined the changes in the surface functional groups at the various stages of preparation

  9. VALUE ENGINEERING ANALYSIS APPRAISAL FOR FARM MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF PISTACHIO FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mostafaeipour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Value engineering (VE has been effectively applied in many different areas. The results have been very encouraging, and many companies accept VE not only as a tool to reduce costs, but also to improve the quality of their produce and streamline their systems. This paper attempts to highlight the application of VE in agriculture, as in pistachio tree farms in Iran. It is found that by implementing VE, unnecessary cultivation costs are lowered. Many of the other factors that lead to the inefficient use of resources could be resolved. In this study, the province of Yazd Iran was studied. Unfortunately there are cases of mismanagement and problems in agriculture management; and the problems must be resolved to make the system of pistachio growing more efficient. The prime objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of value engineering and highlight its application in pistachio farms. The results suggest that it is essential to use Indian Neem pesticide, because it is economically feasible and environmentally friendly to pistachio trees.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Waarde-Ingenieurswese (WI word reeds doeltreffend toegepas op verskeie gebiede. Die resultate is sodanig bemoedigend dat maatskappye WI aanvaar as ‘n hulpmiddel vir kosteverlaging sowel as vir die verbetering van kwaliteit van opbrengs en stroombelyning van prosesse. Die artikel poog om die toepassing van WI op die landbou van Iran na vore te bring. Dit toon dat onnodige verbouingskoste verlaag word met die implementering van WI. Talle ander faktore wat ook bydra tot ondoeltreffende gebruik van hulpbronne word ook deur WI aangespreek. Die Yazd-provinsie van Iran word in die artikel bestudeer. Ten einde die verbouingsproses van pistasieneute meer doeltreffend te maak moet wanbestuur en probleme van landboubestuur aangespreek word. Die hoofdoelwit van die artikel is om die konsep van WI bekend te stel en die toepassing daarvan op pistasieboerderye uit te lig

  10. Textural and chemical properties of zinc chloride activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Yang [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Lua, Aik Chong [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2006-12-10

    The effects of activation temperature on the textural and chemical properties of the activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells using zinc chloride activation under both inert nitrogen gas atmosphere and vacuum condition were studied. Relatively low temperature of 400 deg. C was beneficial for the development of pore structures. Too high an activation temperature would lead to sintering of volatiles and shrinkage of the carbon structure. The microstructures and microcrystallinity of the activated carbons prepared were examined by scanning electron microscope and powder X-ray diffraction techniques, respectively, while Fourier transform infrared spectra determined the changes in the surface functional groups at the various stages of preparation.

  11. An attempt to model the probability of growth and aflatoxin B1 production of Aspergillus flavus under non-isothermal conditions in pistachio nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldars-García, Laila; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, Vicente; Marín, Sonia

    2015-10-01

    Human exposure to aflatoxins in foods is of great concern. The aim of this work was to use predictive mycology as a strategy to mitigate the aflatoxin burden in pistachio nuts postharvest. The probability of growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus, isolated from pistachio nuts, under static and non-isothermal conditions was studied. Four theoretical temperature scenarios, including temperature levels observed in pistachio nuts during shipping and storage, were used. Two types of inoculum were included: a cocktail of 25 A. flavus isolates and a single isolate inoculum. Initial water activity was adjusted to 0.87. Logistic models, with temperature and time as explanatory variables, were fitted to the probability of growth and AFB1 production under a constant temperature. Subsequently, they were used to predict probabilities under non-isothermal scenarios, with levels of concordance from 90 to 100% in most of the cases. Furthermore, the presence of AFB1 in pistachio nuts could be correctly predicted in 70-81 % of the cases from a growth model developed in pistachio nuts, and in 67-81% of the cases from an AFB1 model developed in pistachio agar. The information obtained in the present work could be used by producers and processors to predict the time for AFB1 production by A. flavus on pistachio nuts during transport and storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fuel element store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, R.

    1987-01-01

    The spherical fuel elements are stored dry in cans. The cans themselves are stacked in parallel storage shafts, which are combined into a rectangular storage space. The storage space is made earthquake-proof by surrounding it with concrete. It consists of a ceiling assembled from several steel parts, which is connected to the floor by support elements. A cooling air ventilation station supplies the individual storage shaft and therefore the cans with cooling air via incoming and outgoing pipes. (DG) [de

  13. Air corrosion in storing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazaudier, F.; Feron, D.; Baklouti, M.; Midoux, N.

    2001-01-01

    The air corrosiveness of a radioactive waste package has been estimated in a store inside which the environmental conditions are supposed to be rather close to the outside ones. It is expressed according to the ISO 9223 standard, from the humidification value and the amounts of sulfur dioxide and chlorine ions. A computer code has been perfected too; the thermal behaviour of the package can then been determined. (O.M.)

  14. Store and forward teledermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthraj Garehatty

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Store and forward and real time or videoconferences are the two types of teledermatology services practiced. Dermatology and radio-diagnosis are visual specialties suited for store-and-forward teledermatology (SAFT. Advances in information technology, electronic instruments and biotechnology have revolutionized and brought changes in SAFT. Cellular phone, digital camera, personal digital assistants, Wi-Fi, Wi-Max and computer- aided-design software are incorporated to deliver the quality health care to remote geographic regions. Complete SAFT care equivalent to face-to-face consultation (Gold standard is essential. Health care providers in rural areas are the ′eyes′ for the consultants. Consultants to guide them should have a rapid periodic audit of visual parameters and dimensions of lesions. Given this background, this article reviews advances in 1 capture, store and transfer of images. 2 Computer Aided measurements of generalized and localized lesions and 3 the integration model to meet all the above two requirements in a centralized location. This process enables diagnosis, management, periodic assessment and complete follow-up care to achieve patient and physician satisfaction. Preservation of privacy and confidentiality of digital images is important. Uniform rules and regulations are required. Indian space research organization (ISRO, Government of India has demonstrated telemedicine pilot projects utilizing the satellite communication and mobile telemedicine units to be useful in meeting the health care needs of remote and rural India. we have to join hands with them to meet dermatology problems in rural areas.

  15. Generation of the volatile spiroketals conophthorin and chalcogran by fungal spores on polyunsaturated fatty acids common to almonds and pistachios

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spiroketal (E)-conophthorin has recently been reported as a semiochemical of the navel orangeworm moth, a major insect pest of California pistachios and almonds. Conophthorin and the isomeric spiroketal chalcogran are most commonly known as semiochemicals of several scolytid beetles. Conophthori...

  16. Quality attributes of pistachio nuts as affected by rootstock and deficit irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Memmi, Houssem; Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Gijón-López, María del Carmen; Ciapa, Rafał; Pérez-López, David

    2015-11-01

    In this work, the influence of two regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) treatments and three different rootstocks on the quality of pistachios was evaluated by analyzing different parameters: morphological analysis, physicochemical analysis and sensory analysis. The results obtained in terms of the choice of rootstock revealed that Pistacia atlantica had increased production yields, nut weight, mineral content, higher intensities of characteristic sensory attributes and a higher degree of consumer satisfaction, than the other rootstocks studied. Moreover, the results established that the application of RDI on pistachio cultivation had no significant influence on production yield, weight, size, colour, water activity or mineral composition. Furthermore, T1 treatment (stem water potential < -1.3 MPa) resulted in higher intensities of characteristic sensory attributes and a greater level of satisfaction among international consumers. These results confirm that the application of deficit irrigation (T1) contributes to an increase in overall product quality. Furthermore, Pistacia atlantica rootstock provided better yield and quality than the other rootstocks studied. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Strategies to reduce the apical necrosis in vitro multiplication and rooting of Pistachio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Cid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The pistachio (Pistacia sp. is one of the least exploited fruit among the main causes is the high cost of plant material by the difficulties of propagation of the species. The propagation in vitro offers great potential for the industry of this species by multiplication scale of selected clones. The aim of this study was to control the apical necrosis of outbreaks in the in vitro propagation Pistachio. From young shoots of plants of this species kept in growing houses, proceeded to disinfection with sodium hypochlorite 1% for different times. The apical and axillary buds were established in the culture medium Murashige and Skoog (1962 modified and supplemented with 1 mg/L Metatopolina. Different types of bottles, number and type of explants and culture media formulations for two subcultures multiplication and rooting were evaluated. Glass flask of 200 ml capacity, and line proliferates DKW medium achieved the lowest values apical necrosis. In the multiplication phase values were low in all treatments tested no statistical difference between them compared to rooting where apical necrosis reached higher values. The average DKW and prolific lines obtained lower values. MS medium modified crop, favored the number of segments rooted and DKW (Driver and Kuniyuki, 1984 the number of segments that sprouted, the latter having lower incidence of apical necrosis.

  18. Subcritical water extraction of phenolic and antioxidant constituents from pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erşan, Sevcan; Güçlü Üstündağ, Özlem; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2018-07-01

    Pistachio hulls, important by-products of pistachio processing, were extracted using an environmentally friendly process with subcritical water (SCW) at a pressure of 6.9 MPa in the range of 110 and 190 °C, and a flow rate of 4 ml/min. Detailed HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS n analyses allowed the identification of 49 phenolic compounds in the SCW extracts. Total gallotannin yields up to 33 g/kg were reached at 150-170 °C, where gallic acid (22.2 g/kg) and penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (9.77 g/kg) levels were 13.2- and 10.6-fold higher than those in the aqueous methanol extracts. Flavonols were also effectively extracted at 110-150 °C (4.37-5.65 g/kg), while anacardic acid recovery was poor (1.13-2.77 g/kg). Accordingly, high amounts of anacardic acids (up to 50.7 g/kg) were retained in the extraction residue, revealing that SCW extraction allowed selective extraction of gallotannins and flavonols. Antioxidant capacities ranged from 0.68 to 1.20 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g for SCW extracts increasing with temperature up 190 °C. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microbiological, sensorial and chemical quality of gamma irradiated pistachio nut (Pistacia vera l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz AL-BACHIR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of gamma irradiation and storage period on quality retention of raw pistachio nut. Var. Halebi. Kernel of the pistachio nuts were exposed to 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation. Irradiated and unirradiated nuts were kept at room temperature for 12 months. Used doses of irradiation significantly reduced the total bacterial plate counts (TBPCs and total fungal counts up to undetectable level (less than 10 CFU g-1. Irradiation doses of 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation seem to be suitable for post-harvest sanitation and decontamination treatment, without significant changes in the sensorial properties (texture, odor, color and taste, chemical quality (free fatty acids and pH value or in contents of moisture, proteins, sugars, lipid, and ash, with respect to the control samples. The highest used dose (3kGy slightly decreased the fatty acid content and pH value, and treatment with higher doses (2 and 3 kGy significantly increased the total volatile nitrogen TVN.

  20. Extraction of cellulose from pistachio shell and physical and mechanical characterisation of cellulose-based nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movva, Mounika; Kommineni, Ravindra

    2017-04-01

    Cellulose is an important nanoentity that have been used for the preparation of composites. The present work focuses on the extraction of cellulose from pistachio shell and preparing a partially degradable nanocomposite with extracted cellulose. Physical and microstructural characteristics of nanocellulose extracted from pistachio shell powder (PSP) through various stages of chemical treatment are identified from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Later, characterized nanocellulose is reinforced in a polyester matrix to fabricate nanocellulose-based composites according to the ASTM standard. The resulting nanocellulose composite performance is evaluated in the mechanical perspective through tensile and flexural loading. SEM, FTIR, and XRD showed that the process for extraction is efficient in obtaining 95% crystalline cellulose. Cellulose also showed good thermal stability with a peak thermal degradation temperature of 361 °C. Such cellulose when reinforced in a matrix material showed a noteworthy rise in tensile and flexural strengths of 43 MPa and 127 MPa, at a definite weight percent of 5%.

  1. Rootstock Effects on Pistachio Trees Grown in Verticillium dahliae-Infested Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, L; Beede, R; Kaur, S; Ferguson, L

    2004-04-01

    ABSTRACT In a field trial in soil infested with Verticillium dahliae, we compared the yield, growth, incidence of symptoms of Verticillium wilt, and mortality of two interspecific hybrid pistachio tree rootstocks (UCBI and PGII) with the standard rootstocks: the V. dahliae-resistant and susceptible Pistacia integerrima and P. atlantica, respectively. After 10 years, the trees were destructively sampled for V. dahliae in the xylem at the graft union. The results indicate that trees on the (P. atlantica 'KAC' x P. integerrima) hybrid UCBI rootstock grew and yielded as well as those on P. integerrima. Trees on the hybrid PGII yielded the least. Analysis of variance and log-linear models indicate that in soil infested with V. dahliae, three associations significantly affect pistachio nut yield. Rootstock affects scion vigor and extent of infection. Third, the extent of infection and scion vigor are inversely associated. Although trees on the P. integerrima rootstock had the highest ratings in a visual assessment of vigor, 65% were infected with V. dahliae in the trunk in the graft region compared with 73% in P. atlantica and 25% in UCBI. Thus, P. integerrima and UCBI have at least one different mechanism for resistance to V. dahliae.

  2. Mathematical modeling of thin layer drying of pistachio by using solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midilli, A [University of Nigde (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Kucuk, H [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents a mathematical modeling of thin layer forced and natural solar drying of shelled and unshelled pistachio samples. In order to estimate and select the suitable form of solar drying curves, eight different mathematical models, which are semi-theoretical and/or empirical, were applied to the experimental data and compared according to their coefficients of determination (r,{chi}{sup 2}), which were predicted by non-linear regression analysis using the Statistical Computer Program. It was deduced that the logarithmic model could sufficiently describe thin layer forced solar drying of shelled and unshelled pistachio, while the two term model could define thin layer natural solar drying of these products in evaluation by considering the coefficients of determination, r{sub sfsd}=0.9983, {chi}{sup 2}{sub sfsd}=2.697x10{sup -5}; r{sub ufsd}=0.9990, {chi}{sup 2}{sub ufsd}=1.639x10{sup -5} for thin layer forced solar drying and r{sub snsd}=0.9990, {chi}{sup 2}{sub snsd}=3.212x10{sup -6}; r{sub unsd}=0.9970, {chi}{sup 2}{sub unsd}=4.590x10{sup -5} for thin layer natural solar drying. (Author)

  3. Effects of pistachio nut supplementation on blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Mahmoud; Heidari, Saeide; Khorramirad, Ashraf; Hozoori, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh, Fatemeh; Bakhtyari, Lida; Vafaeimanesh, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic, potentially debilitating, and often fatal disease. Dietary strategies to reduce postprandial glycemia are important in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Nuts are rich in mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which may reduce hyperglycemia and improve metabolism. To evaluate the effectiveness of pistachio nut supplementation on glycemic and inflammatory measures in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, 48 diabetic patients were equally assigned to groups A and B. Patients in group A received a snack of 25 g pistachio nuts twice a day for 12 weeks and group B received a control meal without nuts. After 12 weeks of intervention, the patients had an 8-week washout. Then the groups were displaced, and group B received the same amount of pistachios for 12 weeks. With respect to the total change in variables over both phases, there was a marked decrease in HbA1c (-0.4%) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentrations (-16 mg/dl) in the pistachio group compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.001 for both). There was no overall significant change in BMI, blood pressure, HOMA-IR, and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. Analysis of the two phases separately showed a decrease in FBG by 14 mg/dl and in HbA1c by 0.45% in the treatment group (A) after 12 weeks, while no significant differences were seen in group B (control group). In the second phase, FBG decreased from 151.36 ± 39.22 to 137.28 ± 28.65 mg/dl (-14 mg/dl) and HbA1c decreased from 7.42 ± 0.97 to 7.15 ± 0.68 mg/dl (-0.28%, p = 0.013 and p = 0.033, respectively) in the pistachio group (B). Pistachio consumption reduced systolic blood pressure (p = 0.007), BMI (p = 0.011), and CRP (p = 0.002) in patients from the treatment groups, but not insulin resistance. Dietary consumption of pistachio nuts as a snack has beneficial effects on glycemic control, blood pressure, obesity, and inflammation markers in diabetic

  4. Storing of free neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinks, U.

    1978-12-01

    The applied method makes use of the interaction between the magnetic moment μ vector of the neutron and a magnetic field B vector. By means of superconducting magnets there can easily be achieved potential walls of μ B approximately 2 x 10 -7 eV. The principle of magnetic storing was first used for the storage ring NESTOR and showed immediate success: the stored neutrons decreased exponentially with a time constant tau = (907 +- 70) sec corresponding to the natural lifetime of the neutrons within the statistical errors. This means that there occurred no measurable additional losses (e.g. by resonance excitation) Neutrons therefore could be observed in the storage ring during about 5 half-lives (in principle of course longer, too). The orbit dynamics for neutrons in the storage ring is smilar to that in circular accelerators for charged particles. It is so well understood that the problem of the storage ring for uncharged particles (with magnetic moment) may be considered to e solved. (orig./HSI) [de

  5. Updates on Water Use of Pistachio Orchards Grown in the San Joaquin Valley of California on Saline Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaria, Daniele; Marino, Giulia; Whiting, Michael; Sanden, Blake; Ferguson, Louise; Lampinen, Bruce; Kent, Eric; Snyder, Richard; Grattan, Stephen; Little, Cayle

    2017-04-01

    Pistachio acreage is rapidly expanding in California thanks to its economic profitability and capacity to grow and produce in salt-affected soils. Our team at University of California is updating information on actual water use (ET) of mature pistachio orchards grown on saline soils under micro-irrigation methods. Actual Evapotranspiration (ETa) and Crop Coefficients (Ka) were determined for the 2015 and 2016 crop seasons on four pistachio orchards grown in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) on grounds with increasing levels of soil-water salinity, using the residual of energy balance method with a combination of eddy covariance and surface renewal equipment. Tree canopy cover, light interception, and plant water status across the orchards were also measured and evaluated. Our preliminary results show that salinity strongly affects the tree water use, resulting in 10-30% less ET for medium to high salt-affected soils. Salinity also showed a strong effect on tree water status and light interception, as suggested by values of the Midday Stem Water Potential (ΨSWP) around 10 to 15-bar lower in salt-affected than in the control orchard, and by the intercepted Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) decreasing from 75% in the control orchard to 25% in the severely salt affected grounds. The crop coefficient values we observed in this study are lower than those commonly used for irrigation scheduling in the SJV, suggesting that pistachio growers could better tailor irrigation management to the actual site-specific orchard conditions (e.g. canopy features and soil-water salinity) if they are provided updated information. Improved irrigation practices could likely lead to significant water savings and thus improve the resource-efficiency and competitiveness of pistachio production in the SJV. Keywords: Pistacia vera L., salinity, stem water potential, surface renewal, canopy cover.

  6. Store manager performance and satisfaction: effects on store employee performance and satisfaction, store customer satisfaction, and store customer spending growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netemeyer, Richard G; Maxham, James G; Lichtenstein, Donald R

    2010-05-01

    Based on emotional contagion theory and the value-profit chain literatures, the present study posits a number of hypotheses that show how managers in the small store, small number of employees retail context may affect store employees, customers, and potentially store performance. With data from 306 store managers, 1,615 store customer-contact employees, and 57,656 customers of a single retail chain, the authors examined relationships among store manager job satisfaction and job performance, store customer-contact employee job satisfaction and job performance, customer satisfaction with the retailer, and a customer-spending-based store performance metric (customer spending growth over a 2-year period). Via path analysis, several hypothesized direct and interaction relations among these constructs are supported. The results suggest implications for academic researchers and retail managers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Superconducting energy store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsel, W.

    1986-01-01

    The advantages obtained by the energy store device according to the invention with a superconducting solenoid system consist of the fact that only relatively short superconducting forward and return leads are required, which are collected into cables as far as possible. This limits the coolant losses of the cables. Only one relatively expensive connecting part with a transition of its conductors from room temperature to a low temperature is required, which, like the normal conducting current switch, is easily accessible. As the continuation has to be cooled independently of the upper part solenoid, cooling of this continuation part can prevent the introduction of large quantities of heat into the connected part solenoid. Due to the cooling of the forward and return conductors of the connecting cable with the coolant of the lower part solenoid, there are relatively few separations between the coolant spaces of the part solenoids. (orig./MM) [de

  8. Shopping in discount stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    quarters of intentions to shop in discount stores. Value perception has the strongest total effect, which is partly mediated by enjoyment, shame and guilt. Attributions influence the shopping intention indirectly via value perception and emotions. The inferior quality attribution has the strongest total......This paper analyzes the impact of price-related attributions, emotions and value perception on the intention to shop at grocery discounters in an integrated framework. Moderating effects of price consciousness are also analyzed. The results show that the proposed model explains almost three...... effect, followed by the efficiency of the business model attribution. The unfairness to stakeholders and the tricks in price communication attribution mostly influence the shopping intention for less price-conscious customers....

  9. Evaluation of aqueous and alcohol-based quaternary ammonium sanitizers for inactivating Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes on peanut and pistachio shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEgan, Rachel; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of aqueous (aQUAT) and isopropyl alcohol-based quaternary ammonium (ipQUAT) sanitizers for reducing Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, or Listeria monocytogenes populations on peanut and pistachio shell pieces. Inoculated nutshells were mixed with QUAT sanitizers, water, or 70% ethanol and enumerated immediately or after incubation at 30 °C for 48 h. None of the treatments had any immediate effect on Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 populations on the peanut or pistachio shells. L. monocytogenes populations declined immediately on the peanut and pistachio shells treated with aQUAT or ipQUAT. After incubation, Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 populations increased significantly on the water- or aQUAT-treated peanut and pistachio shells. L. monocytogenes populations also increased significantly on the water- or aQUAT-treated peanut shells, but levels did not change on the water-treated pistachio shells and levels were just above the limit of detection on the aQUAT-treated pistachio shells. After treatment with ipQUAT and 48-h incubation, Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 populations decreased to or below the limit of detection on both shell types; L. monocytogenes populations remained at or below the limit of detection on both shell types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigating the factors that affect pistachio growers’ intention regarding prevention of aflatoxin based on the health belief model in the Sirjan rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Yazdanpanah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio is a valuable export product, but its export is faced with serious challenges due to aflatoxin. Given the importance of growers’ role in the prevention of aflatoxin in pistachio, the aim of this article is investigating pistachio growers’ intention regarding prevention of aflatoxin through the health belief model. The research population consists of 330 of pistachio growers in the Sirjan city in the Kerman province. Amongst the 330 samples, 120 of them were selected through simple random sampling. A questionnaire was the research tool and its validity of the questionnaire was approved by a panel of experts. Its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach alpha reliability coefficients (0.7 to 0.9. Also, the results of regression analysis revealed that the variables showing guide to action were the main predictor of growers’ intention. In addition to self-efficacy and perceived barriers, this variable can predict nearly 36% of the variance of pistachio growers’ intention regarding the prevention of aflatoxin. The results could be used for policy making and planning in relation to strategies to prevent the production of aflatoxin in pistachios.

  11. Health risk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of five pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cultivars collected from different geographical sites of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Seyedeh Faezeh; Davarynejad, Gholamhossein; Asili, Javad; Nemati, Seyed Hossein; Rezaee, Ramin; Goumenou, Marina; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2017-09-01

    Pistachio is an important horticultural product and Iran is considered as a main pistachio producing country. Assessment of heavy metals in this export fruit is crucial for protecting public health against toxic heavy metals. The concentration of selected heavy metals in soil, water and five pistachio cultivars from four geographical regions of Iran were measured. Although none of the elements were detected in water irrigation, infield metal content in the soil had good correlation with that of pistachio. The highest amounts of Al, As, Co, Ni and Se were reported in samples collected from Sarakhs, Iran. Considering both cultivar and region effects on selected heavy metals concentration, Kaleghoochi cultivar from Sarakhs site showed the highest amount of Al, As, Ni and Se. The maximum concentration of Hg was found in Akbari cultivar collected from Damghan. In the Akbari and the Ahmad aghaei cultivars collected from Sarakhs and Damghan cultivation zones, respectively, the highest amount of Co were observed. Based on our results, the HI value for the consumers of Iranian pistachio was 0.066. It seems that the levels of heavy metals in these pistachio samples pose no risk to consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of superheated steam for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 30, and Listeria monocytogenes on almonds and pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ga-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-03-02

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of superheated steam (SHS) on the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 and Listeria monocytogenes on almonds and in-shell pistachios and to determine the effect of superheated steam heating on quality by measuring color and texture changes. Almonds and in-shell pistachios inoculated with four foodborne pathogens were treated with saturated steam (SS) at 100 °C and SHS at 125, 150, 175, and 200 °C for various times. Exposure of almonds and pistachios to SHS for 15 or 30s at 200 °C achieved >5l og reductions among all tested pathogens without causing significant changes in color values or texture parameters (P>0.05). For both almonds and pistachios, acid and peroxide values (PV) following SS and SHS treatment for up to 15s and 30s, respectively, were within the acceptable range (PV<1.0 meq/kg). These results show that thermal application of 200 °C SHS treatment for 15s and 30s did not affect the quality of almonds and pistachios, respectively. Therefore, SHS treatment is a very promising alternative technology for the tree nuts industry by improving inactivation of foodborne pathogens on almonds and pistachios while simultaneously reducing processing time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Design, manufacture and modeling of a mixed mode dryer for pistachio in Kerman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameri, Mehran; Zangiabadi, Bijan; Mahmoudabadi, Mehdi

    2006-01-01

    Production of high quality nuts that have toxics less than 2-2.5 ppm requires a great attention during growing and post harvest processing. Gravitational or Wagon driver using fossil fuel has been traditionally performed to dry pistachio nuts. However, using of fossil fuel is subject to the noxious effects on nuts such as burning, discoloured and various toxic fumes as well as the biological pollution. In Kerman province in south of Iran, where 60% of pistachio nuts export to all over the world, due to long period of sunshine during harvesting season, solar drying are know to be an excellence alternative to the fossil fuel. A specimen mixed-mode solar-dryer is manufactured to study the feasibility of test and to investigate optimization of the drying process in several conditions. Furthermore this designed dryer for pistachio nuts can be simply used for drying of the various agriculture products like fruits and vegetables. With this proposed multi application solar dryer, one can easily reach to acceptable moisture (7%) in a short period of time. For this system a mathematical model of dryer is also suggested here. the proposed solar dryer includes three main parts as collector, chamber and photocell. Chamber has a glassy cover that permits nut expose beam radiation directly. Collector has ability to circulate air by buoyancy forces or convey air by suction fans due to different operation conditions. Photocells prepare electromotive force for fans.National capacity of the dryer is 50Kg. The maximum temperature inside collector at the end of harvest season is 60 degree centigrade during 8-16 local time. In the mathematical modeling after fitting the drawing curves with the remaining moisture amount in the nuts and temperature per drying time, it was found that the major drop in the moisture content of the nuts occurs during the first 9 hours and then decreases gradually. The final moisture amount of the nuts was about 6% in 42 hours. The accuracy of proposed method

  14. Design, manufacture and modeling of a mixed mode dryer for pistachio in Kerman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameri, Mehran; Zangiabadi, Bijan; Mahmoudabadi, Mehdi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-01-15

    Production of high quality nuts that have toxics less than 2-2.5 ppm requires a great attention during growing and post harvest processing. Gravitational or Wagon driver using fossil fuel has been traditionally performed to dry pistachio nuts. However, using of fossil fuel is subject to the noxious effects on nuts such as burning, discoloured and various toxic fumes as well as the biological pollution. In Kerman province in south of Iran, where 60% of pistachio nuts export to all over the world, due to long period of sunshine during harvesting season, solar drying are know to be an excellence alternative to the fossil fuel. A specimen mixed-mode solar-dryer is manufactured to study the feasibility of test and to investigate optimization of the drying process in several conditions. Furthermore this designed dryer for pistachio nuts can be simply used for drying of the various agriculture products like fruits and vegetables. With this proposed multi application solar dryer, one can easily reach to acceptable moisture (7%) in a short period of time. For this system a mathematical model of dryer is also suggested here. the proposed solar dryer includes three main parts as collector, chamber and photocell. Chamber has a glassy cover that permits nut expose beam radiation directly. Collector has ability to circulate air by buoyancy forces or convey air by suction fans due to different operation conditions. Photocells prepare electromotive force for fans.National capacity of the dryer is 50Kg. The maximum temperature inside collector at the end of harvest season is 60 degree centigrade during 8-16 local time. In the mathematical modeling after fitting the drawing curves with the remaining moisture amount in the nuts and temperature per drying time, it was found that the major drop in the moisture content of the nuts occurs during the first 9 hours and then decreases gradually. The final moisture amount of the nuts was about 6% in 42 hours. The accuracy of proposed method

  15. Evaluation of three neonicotinoid insecticides against the common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae, and its natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirzade, Najmeh; Izadi, Hamzeh; Jalali, Mohammad Amin; Zohdi, Hadi

    2014-03-06

    The common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a key pest in pistachio orchards in Iran. Chemical control is a common method to manage this pest. Compatibility between natural enemies and pesticides is a primary concern in programs of integrated pest management of the psyllid pest. In this research, susceptibility of fifth instar nymphs of Ag. pistaciae and fourth instar larvae of the two most common predators of this pest, Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Coccinella undecimpunctata aegyptiaca Reiche, to acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid was investigated. Probit analysis of concentration-mortality data was conducted to estimate the LC50 value. The results showed that thiamethoxam with an LC50 value of 56.35 mg a.i./L was more toxic to fifth instar nymphs of Ag. pistaciae in comparison to acetamiprid (60.75 mg a.i/L) and imidacloprid (138.21 mg a.i/L) . Imidacloprid with an LC50 value of 218.89 mg a.i/L compared to acetamiprid (222.65 mg a.i/L) and thiamethoxam (232.37 mg a.i/L) had more lethal effects on fourth instar larvae of Ad. bipunctata. However, on the fourth instar larvae of C. undecimpunctata aegyptica, acetamiprid with an LC50 value of 263.44 mg a.i/L was more toxic than thiamethoxam (296.62 mg a.i/L) and imidacloprid (447.82 mg a.i/L). The laboratory findings showed that the three tested insecticides were more toxic to the common pistachio psylla than to its natural predators. Thiamethoxam was the most toxic against Ag. pistaciae. However, its toxicity to the predators was lower than imidacloprid and acetamiprid. This result suggests that thiamethoxam is the best insecticide for control of Ag. pistaciae in combination with predatory lady beetles. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  16. The importance of store windows in creating store identity and store attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renko Sanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While choosing the store, customer first notices the store window and it plays an important role in retailing strategy. Store's window is what customers see first in meeting with the store. Store window design can lead customer to enter the store, and can give a lot of information about store brands and products. Besides the analysis of the way how specific elements of the window design affect customers and their perception, the explanation of their attraction and rejection to customers is given. If we consider the importance of the topics, we can point out the lack of literature about store windows as the communication tool which allow store to communicate with its customers and to create its retailing strategy as well. There is the scientific contribution of this paper. The paper gives theoretical comprehensions completed with the results of the study about the importance of store windows for retailers as well as for customers. Therefore, for the purpose of this paper, a two-phase research study, including a qualitative and a quantitative approach, was used: 1 the qualitative study among retailers which indicated the most important elements of store windows, the level of financial sources invested in the window design, the basis for the decisions about store window design, etc.; 2 the quantitative study on the sample of consumers conducted with on-line questionnaire. Findings suggest that store window attractiveness is the main motif for store visits. The results of the research confirm that by means of store window and its elements (with special emphasis on price and pricing actions retail store sends messages to its consumers.

  17. Determination of fatty acid composition of γ-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gecgel, Umit; Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet

    2011-01-01

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  18. [Effects of salt stress on germination and in vitro growth of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmahioul, Benamar; Daguin, Florence; Kaid-Harche, Meriem

    2009-08-01

    In order to study the salinity tolerance of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.), embryos developed from mature seeds were isolated and cultured in vitro and subjected to different NaCl concentrations (0, 42.8, 85.5, 171.1 and 256.6 mM) for 30 days. The results showed that in vitro germination of embryonic axes was not affected by the salt concentration. However, the germinated embryo survival rates decreased from 100% for the control to 62.9% for the highest salt concentration (256.6 mM). In addition, the plantlet growth (length of aerial and root parts, number of leaf produced per embryo, as well as the production of total fresh and dry matter for both aerial parts and roots) showed significant differences according the various salt concentrations.

  19. Determination of fatty acid composition of γ-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecgel, Umit; Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet

    2011-04-01

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  20. Determination of fatty acid composition of {gamma}-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gecgel, Umit [Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey); Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet [Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  1. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1910192

  2. Genome survey of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) by next generation sequencing: Development of novel SSR markers and genetic diversity in Pistacia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziya Motalebipour, Elmira; Kafkas, Salih; Khodaeiaminjan, Mortaza; Çoban, Nergiz; Gözel, Hatice

    2016-12-07

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most important nut crops in the world. There are about 11 wild species in the genus Pistacia, and they have importance as rootstock seed sources for cultivated P. vera and forest trees. Published information on the pistachio genome is limited. Therefore, a genome survey is necessary to obtain knowledge on the genome structure of pistachio by next generation sequencing. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are useful tools for germplasm characterization, genetic diversity analysis, and genetic linkage mapping, and may help to elucidate genetic relationships among pistachio cultivars and species. To explore the genome structure of pistachio, a genome survey was performed using the Illumina platform at approximately 40× coverage depth in the P. vera cv. Siirt. The K-mer analysis indicated that pistachio has a genome that is about 600 Mb in size and is highly heterozygous. The assembly of 26.77 Gb Illumina data produced 27,069 scaffolds at N50 = 3.4 kb with a total of 513.5 Mb. A total of 59,280 SSR motifs were detected with a frequency of 8.67 kb. A total of 206 SSRs were used to characterize 24 P. vera cultivars and 20 wild Pistacia genotypes (four genotypes from each five wild Pistacia species) belonging to P. atlantica, P. integerrima, P. chinenesis, P. terebinthus, and P. lentiscus genotypes. Overall 135 SSR loci amplified in all 44 cultivars and genotypes, 41 were polymorphic in six Pistacia species. The novel SSR loci developed from cultivated pistachio were highly transferable to wild Pistacia species. The results from a genome survey of pistachio suggest that the genome size of pistachio is about 600 Mb with a high heterozygosity rate. This information will help to design whole genome sequencing strategies for pistachio. The newly developed novel polymorphic SSRs in this study may help germplasm characterization, genetic diversity, and genetic linkage mapping studies in the genus Pistacia.

  3. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were sur...

  4. Removal of Dye (Blue 56 From Aqueous Solution via Adsorption onto Pistachio Shell: kinetic and isotherm study of removal process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ravanpaykar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, shells of pistachio are used as adsorbents and they have been successfully used for the removal of Blue 56, from water samples. The effect of various parameters such as: pH, amounts of adsorbents, size of adsorbent particles and contact time on removal processing were investigated. Inthisstudy Freundlichabsorptionisotherms and Langmuir were investigated. The experimental data were correlated reasonably well by the Freundlich adsorption isotherm and isotherm parameters were calculated. In order to investigate the efficiency of Blue 56 adsorption on the pistachio shell, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models were studied. Themodel that hadgoodcorrelationtoattractFreundlichwas chosenasthemodel. Its kineticsfollowsthepseudosecond order reaction.

  5. Investigating the effects of laser beams (532 and 660 nm) in annihilation of pistachio mould fungus using spectrophotometry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghafi, S.; Penjweini, R.; Becker, K.; Kratky, K. W.; Dodt, H.-U.

    2010-09-01

    When moulds are illuminated by visible electromagnetic-EM radiations, several effects on nucleus materials and nucleotides can be detected. These effects have a significant influence on mould generation or destruction. This paper presents the effects and implications of a red diode laser beam (660 nm), a second-harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser emitting green beam (532 nm), or the combination of both, on the eradication of Pistachio mould fungus. Incident doses (ID) of both beams are kept identical throughout the experiment. The absorption spectrums of irradiated mouldy samples and the bright-greenish-yellow-fluorescence (BGYF) of fungus occurring in mould texture due to electronic excitation are investigated. We found that a combination of a green and a red laser beam with an ID of 0.5 J/cm2 provides the optimal effects on Pistachio mould fungus eradication.

  6. Effects of almond and pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition in a randomised cross-over human feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhanova, Maria; Wang, Xiaoyu; Baer, David J; Novotny, Janet A; Fredborg, Marlene; Mai, Volker

    2014-06-28

    The modification of microbiota composition to a 'beneficial' one is a promising approach for improving intestinal as well as overall health. Natural fibres and phytochemicals that reach the proximal colon, such as those present in various nuts, provide substrates for the maintenance of healthy and diverse microbiota. The effects of increased consumption of specific nuts, which are rich in fibre as well as various phytonutrients, on human gut microbiota composition have not been investigated to date. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of almond and pistachio consumption on human gut microbiota composition. We characterised microbiota in faecal samples collected from volunteers in two separate randomised, controlled, cross-over feeding studies (n 18 for the almond feeding study and n 16 for the pistachio feeding study) with 0, 1·5 or 3 servings/d of the respective nuts for 18 d. Gut microbiota composition was analysed using a 16S rRNA-based approach for bacteria and an internal transcribed spacer region sequencing approach for fungi. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 528 028 sequence reads, retained after removing low-quality and short-length reads, revealed various operational taxonomic units that appeared to be affected by nut consumption. The effect of pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition was much stronger than that of almond consumption and included an increase in the number of potentially beneficial butyrate-producing bacteria. Although the numbers of bifidobacteria were not affected by the consumption of either nut, pistachio consumption appeared to decrease the number of lactic acid bacteria (Ppistachios appears to be an effective means of modifying gut microbiota composition.

  7. Investigation of the Potential Market and Estimation of WTP for Insurance of Pistachio Tree Trunk (Case Study Rafsanjan-Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Baniasadi, Mostafa; Yazdani, Saeed; Salami, Habib Allah

    2013-01-01

    Capacity of garden productions in Iran is such that is accounted as a country that produces thirteen garden products in the world but despite excellent condition in Iran for producing garden products, natural disasters damage production of fruits in the country therefore farmers incur a loss. Pistachio tree has been in danger of destruction and dryness. Thus, in order to reduce loss incurred on trees, it is necessary to insure the tree. This study is aimed to investigate ...

  8. Effect of pistachio consumption on the modulation of urinary gut microbiota-related metabolites in prediabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Cañueto, Daniel; Giardina, Simona; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Cañellas, Nicolau; Correig, Xavier; Bulló, Mònica

    2017-07-01

    The specific nutritional composition of nuts could affect different metabolic pathways involved in a broad range of metabolic diseases. We therefore investigated whether chronic consumption of pistachio nuts modifies the urine metabolome in prediabetic subjects. We designed a randomized crossover clinical trial in 39 prediabetic subjects. They consumed a pistachio-supplemented diet (PD, 50% carbohydrates, 33% fat, including 57 g/d of pistachios daily) and a control diet (CD, 55% carbohydrates, 30% fat) for 4 months each, separated by a 2-week wash-out. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NRM) was performed to determine changes in 24-h urine metabolites. Significant changes in urine metabolites according to the different intervention periods were found in uni- and multivariate analysis. Score plot of the first two components of the multilevel partial least squares discriminant analysis (ML-PLS-DA) showed a clear separation of the intervention periods. Three metabolites related with gut microbiota metabolism (i.e., hippurate, p-cresol sulfate and dimethylamine) were found decreased in PD compared with CD (Ppistachio consumption may modulate some urinary metabolites related to gut microbiota metabolism and the TCA cycle; all associated with metabolic derangements associated with insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular and morphological identification of  pistachio armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseininaveh, Fatemeh; Nozari, Jamasb; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Hosseininaveh, Vahid

    2016-12-01

    Members of the family Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) can be devastating pests that suck parenchyma cell contents from crops and cause severe damage to pistachio trees (Pistacia vera L.). The current research collected and characterized diaspidid species from pistachio orchards in Kerman province, Iran, according to their morphological and molecular features. Lepidosaphes pistaciae Archangelskaya, Suturaspis davatchi (Balachowsky & Kaussari) and Melanaspis inopinata (Leonardi) are redescribed and a new species, Melanaspis pistaciae Hosseininaveh & Kaydan sp. n., is described. Phylogenetic trees based on molecular analysis of COI and 28S rDNA fragments placed all the species in separated clades and confirmed M. pistaciae as a new taxon which is concluded by morphological differences. Molecular analysis suggests non-monophyly of the populations of each species. Melanaspis pistaciae sp. n. has spread to most cultivated pistachio areas in Iran and has probably been misidentified as M. inopinata in the past. Further investigation of the biology of this species may lead to development of more effective approaches for controlling this pest.

  10. In vitro antioxidant and in vivo photoprotective effect of pistachio (Pistacia vera L., variety Bronte) seed and skin extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorana, Maria; Arcoraci, Teresita; Rizza, Luisa; Cristani, Mariateresa; Bonina, Francesco Paolo; Saija, Antonina; Trombetta, Domenico; Tomaino, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nuts are a rich source of phenolic compounds, known for their high antioxidant activity, and contained not only in the seeds but also in the skin. A pistachio cultivar of high quality is typical of Bronte, Sicily, Italy. The purpose of our study was to investigate the chemical composition and antioxidant properties of two polyphenol-rich extracts from skins (TP) and decorticated seeds (SP) of Bronte pistachios, and to verify the potential use of these extracts for topical photoprotective products. Chemical analysis showed that the TP and SP extracts contain high levels of phenolic compounds, but the TP extract is about ten times richer in phenols than the SP extract, being anthocyanins the most abundant compounds found in the TP extract. Both these extracts, and especially the TP extract, possess good radical scavenger/antioxidant properties, as shown in a series of in vitro assays carried out using homogenous and non-homogenous chemical environment. Furthermore both the TP extract and, although at a lower degree, the SP extract reduce, when topically applied, UV-B-induced skin erythema in human volunteers. These findings suggest that extracts from Bronte TP and SP could be successfully employed as photoprotective ingredients in topical cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the nutraceutical, antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of ripe pistachio (Pistacia vera L., variety Bronte) hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreca, Davide; Laganà, Giuseppina; Leuzzi, Ugo; Smeriglio, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico; Bellocco, Ersilia

    2016-04-01

    Every year tons of pistachio hulls are separated and eliminated, as waste products, from pistachio seeds. In this study the hulls of ripe pistachios were extracted with two organic solvents (ethanol and methanol) and characterized for phenolic composition, antioxidant power and cytoprotective activity. RP-HPLC-DAD-FLU separation enabled us to identify 20 derivatives, including and by far the most abundant gallic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, naringin, eriodictyol-7-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin-7-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside and catechin. Methanol extraction gave the highest yields for all classes of compounds and presented a higher scavenging activity in all the antioxidant assays performed. The same was found for cytoprotective activity on lymphocytes, lipid peroxidation and protein degradation. These findings highlight the strong antioxidant and cytoprotective activity of the extract components, and illustrate how a waste product can be used as a source of nutraceuticals to employ in manufacturing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inventory of Tank Farm equipment stored or abandoned aboveground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, S.C.; Lakes, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides an inventory of Tank Farm equipment stored or abandoned aboveground and potentially subject to regulation. This inventory was conducted in part to ensure that Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) does not violate dangerous waste laws concerning storage of potentially contaminated equipment/debris that has been in contact with dangerous waste. The report identifies areas inventoried and provides photographs of equipment

  13. Dorte Nors "Den store tomat"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Jimmi

    2017-01-01

    Tekstgennemgang og undervisningsforløb til Dorte Nors "Den store tomat". Undervisningsforløbet er henvendt til elever i folkeskolens udskoling......Tekstgennemgang og undervisningsforløb til Dorte Nors "Den store tomat". Undervisningsforløbet er henvendt til elever i folkeskolens udskoling...

  14. Consumers’ preferences regarding department stores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laarhoven, W.; Borgers, A.W.J.; van den Berg, P.E.W.

    2017-01-01

    The main reason for this research was the bankruptcy of one the Dutch oldest and largest chain of department stores at the end of 2015. The main goal of this research is to find what, from a consumers’ perspective, a department store should look like. A four storey (1500 m2 each) building was

  15. Forhastet regulering af de store

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Christiansborg gennemfører sandsynligvis en markant skærpet regulering af de store finansielle virksomheder. Det vil virke kontraktivt og medvirke til erhvervslivets kredittørke.......Christiansborg gennemfører sandsynligvis en markant skærpet regulering af de store finansielle virksomheder. Det vil virke kontraktivt og medvirke til erhvervslivets kredittørke....

  16. The effects of a pressure extraction system on quality the parameters of different virgin pistachio (Pistacia vera L. var. Larnaka oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardo, J. E.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pistachios are a good source for oil extraction as they are rich in unsaturated fatty acids and other bioactive components like polyphenols and phenolic compounds. The yield and quality parameters of the oil extracted from four batches of pistachios with different sizes were analyzed. Two different pressure systems (screw press and hydraulic press were used for oil extraction. The yield was higher when the screw press was used, especially when the highest quality pistachios (larger pistachios were used to extract the oil (40 ± 2.12%. With the hydraulic press, the yield was around 30% for all pistachio types. The color of the oils extracted with the screw press was darker than the oil extracted with the hydraulic press in all types of pistachios used. No significant differences were found in the acidity, K270, and K232 values when high quality pistachios were used. When lower quality pistachios (smaller pistachios were used, the values of these three parameters increased in comparison with larger pistachios. On the other hand, oil samples from lower quality pistachios obtained by the screw press showed the highest values. The oxidative stability was higher in the samples of oil from high quality pistachios, with no differences in regard to the extraction system. When lower quality pistachios were used, the oxidative stability was significantly lower.El pistacho es una magnífica fuente de aceite, puesto que a su alto contenido en materia grasa se añaden una elevada proporción de ácidos grasos insaturados y otros compuestos bioactivos como los polifenoles o los compuestos fenólicos. Se ha analizado el rendimiento y los parámetros de calidad del aceite extraído de cuatro tipos de pistacho de diferente calidad, usando dos tipos de prensas (hidráulica y de tornillo. El rendimiento de la extracción fue mayor cuando se empleó la prensa de tornillo, especialmente cuando los pistachos de mayor calidad (pistachos más grandes se emplearon para

  17. Reducing maize-based aflatoxin contamination and exposure

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    super bags' in which to store their grain. The control households will continue using traditional storage techniques. Researchers will assess the extent of aflatoxin contamination in grain stored by both groups and levels of exposure in mothers ...

  18. Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Detection and Quantification Using a Murine Monoclonal Antibody-Based Direct Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changqi; Chhabra, Guneet S; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2015-10-21

    A commercially available direct sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (BioFront Technologies, Tallahassee, FL, USA) using murine anti-pistachio monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as capture and detection antibodies was evaluated. The assay was sensitive (limit of detection = 0.09 ± 0.02 ppm full fat pistachio, linear detection range = 0.5-36 ppm, 50% maximum signal concentration = 7.9 ± 0.7 ppm), reproducible (intra- and inter-assay variability pistachio seeds subjected to autoclaving (121 °C, 15 psi, 15, 30 min), blanching (100 °C, 5, 10 min), frying (191 °C, 1 min), microwaving (500, 1000 W, 3 min), and dry roasting (140 °C, 30 min; 168 °C, 12 min). No cross-reactivity was observed in 156 food matrices, each tested at 100,000 ppm, suggesting the ELISA to be pistachio specific. The pistachio recovery ranges for spiked (10 ppm) and incurred (10-50000 ppm) food matrices were 93.1-125.6% and 35.7-112.2%, respectively. The assay did not register any false-positive or -negative results among the tested commercial and laboratory prepared samples.

  19. Toward the definition of a carbon budget model: seasonal variation and temperature effect on respiration rate of vegetative and reproductive organs of pistachio trees (Pistacia vera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Francesco P; Barone, Ettore; La Mantia, Michele; Caruso, Tiziano

    2009-09-01

    This study, as a preliminary step toward the definition of a carbon budget model for pistachio trees (Pistacia vera L.), aimed at estimating and evaluating the dynamics of respiration of vegetative and reproductive organs of pistachio tree. Trials were performed in 2005 in a commercial orchard located in Sicily (370 m a.s.l.) on five bearing 20-year-old pistachio trees of cv. Bianca grafted onto Pistachio terebinthus L. Growth analyses and respiration measurements were done on vegetative (leaf) and reproductive (infructescence) organs during the entire growing season (April-September) at biweekly intervals. Results suggested that the respiration rates of pistachio reproductive and vegetative organs were related to their developmental stage. Both for leaf and for infructescence, the highest values were observed during the earlier stages of growth corresponding to the phases of most intense organ growth. The sensitivity of respiration activity to temperature changes, measured by Q(10), showed an increase throughout the transition from immature to mature leaves, as well as during fruit development. The data collected were also used to estimate the seasonal carbon loss by respiration activity for a single leaf and a single infructescence. The amount of carbon lost by respiration was affected by short-term temperature patterns, organ developmental stage and tissue function.

  20. New definition of Regulated Deficit Irrigation phases in pistachio: more sustainable, more efficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, David; Moreno, Marta M.; Memmi, Houssem; Guerrero, Julián; Galindo, Alejandro; Centeno, Ana; Corell, Mireilla; Giron, Ignacio; José Martín-Palomo, María; Gijón, Mª Carmen; Moreno, Carmen; Torrecillas, Arturo; Moriana, Alfonso

    2017-04-01

    Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI) is an irrigation methodology in which a water stress is imposed by irrigation withholding in function of fruit growth phases. The objective of this method is to found phases where water stress has no effect on yield or only a slight effect. RDI in pistachio has been demonstrated as an efficient tool to save water without negative effect on yield, or even the contrary, a slight water stress has produced pistachios more appreciated by consumers opposite to well irrigated. Phases of fruit growth are widely defined as: Phase I, from leaf out to full shell expansion; Phase II, from full shell expansion to the onset of rapid kernel growth; Phase III, from rapid growth to harvest. Water stress applied in Phase II does not affect yield. Traditionally Phase II had been considered interchangeable with shell hardening; however, recent studies have showed that shell hardening extends for two weeks from the beginning of the kernel growth. In this assay, conducted in Ciudad Real (Spain) in 2015 and 2016, different irrigation treatments were applied on a pistachio crop in order to check if shell hardening can be considered as phase II instead the previous definition. The T1 treatment consisted of water stress during the shell hardening, always trying to maintain a stem water potential (SWP) of -1.5 MPa during this phase. The T2 treatment was severely water stressed, in this case trying to maintain -2 MPa during the phase II, as previous definition. In the rest of the season, both treatments were irrigated in order to have no water stress. Additionally, a control treatment (T0), irrigated following FAO methodology, was stablished to evaluate the loss of yield. Water irrigation applied in T0 was 596 and 505 mm in 2015 and 2016, respectively. In T1, 317 and 245 mm were applied, respectively, which means an average water save about 270 mm year-1. In T2, water irrigation was 396 and 272 mm, respectively, higher amounts than in T1, which an average

  1. The Effect of Temperature and Air Velocity on Drying Kinetics of Pistachio Nuts during Roasting by using Hot Air Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pistachio nut is one of the most delicious and nutritious nuts in the world and it is being used as a saltedand roasted product or as an ingredient in snacks, ice cream, desserts, etc. The purpose of roasting is to promote flavour and texture changes in nuts that ultimately increase the overall palatability of the product.Roasting involves a number of physico-chemical changes, including heat exchange, chemical reactions and drying. Knowledge of desorption kinetics is essential to predict the behavior of the material during roasting process and to design roaster equipment.The main aim of this research was to evaluate suitable models for predicting moisture ratio, the effect of air temperature and velocity on the drying kinetics of pistachio nuts and obtain the effective diffusivity coefficient and activation energy in the drying process during the roasting of pistachio nuts. Materials and Methods Dried Ahmadaghaei pistachio nuts were supplied from Kashefan Kavir company (Doraj co. in Rafsanjan. Pistachio nuts were soaked in 17% salt solution for 8 minute and roasting was investigated at air temperatures of 120,130, 145, 160 and 170 °C and air velocities of 0.6, 0.88, 1.3, 1.72 and 2 ms-1. Five semi-theoretical and two empirical kinetic models were fitted to drying experimental data using nonlinear regression analysis techniques in the Curve Expert 2.2 computer program. Results and Discussion Tow-way ANOVA indicated that temperature and hot air velocity significantly affected the drying process during roasting of shelled pistachio nuts. The higher roasting temperatures and air velocities resulted in the higher drying rates. During first 10 min of roasting at constant air velocity of 1.3 ms-1, 64.5%, 70.3%, 77.1%, 83.5%, 89.7% of the moisture were removed at roasting air temperatures of 120 °C, 130 °C, 145 °C, 160 °C, 170 °C, respectively. The high regression coefficients (R2>0.996 and low reduced chi-square (χ2, mean relative

  2. Bacterial contamination of stored table eggs from commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %, 0.5% and 0%, respectively. At 53 week-old, sixty eggs/group were kept at room temperature (26-27.5oC), from which 8 eggs/group were selected on the day of lay and weekly for 4 weeks. One ml of vortex mixed albumin and yolk pooled from ...

  3. Pistachio (Pistacia vera seed oil composition: geographic situation and variety effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chahed, T.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at characterizing four Tunisian pistachio cultivations (Pistacia vera from the Mateur (North, Nabeul (North-East, Kairouan (Middle and Sfax (Middle- East regions and two varieties, Mateur and Ohadi, considering fatty acid composition and main lipid class contents (polar lipids, diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols and free fatty acids in ripe seeds. Lipid classes were separated using thin layer chromatography, and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs were analyzed by gas chromatography. Oleic acid (C18:1 Δ9 was the major fatty acid for all samples; those of the Mateur region (the northern region differed significantly with the lowest content in C18:1 (54.2 % of total fatty acids and the highest in C18:2 (24.1 %. The total amount of fatty acids (TFA in the seeds of Ohadi variety was significantly lower than that of the Mateur variety from the Sfax region. Triacylglycerols were most abundant in pistachio seeds from Nabeul (98.5% of total glycerolipids.Este estudio tiene como objetivo caracterizar cuatro cultivos de pistacho (Pistacia vera de Túnez, de las regiones de Mateur (Norte, Nabeul (Nordeste, Kairouan (Centro y Sfax (Centro-Este y dos variedades, Mateur and Ohadi, considerando la composición en ácidos grasos y de lípidos mayoritarios (lípidos polares, diglicéridos, triglicéridos y ácidos grasos libres de semillas maduras. Los lípidos se separaron mediante cromatografía en capa fina, y los ésteres metílicos de los ácidos grasos (FAMEs se analizaron por cromatografía de gases. El ácido oleico (C18:1 Δ9 fue el mayoritario en todas las muestras; las de la región de Mateur (Norte fueron significativamente distintas, presentando el contenido más bajo de C18:1 (54.2 % del total de ácidos grasos y más alto de C18:2 (24.1 %. La cantidad total de ácidos grasos (TFA en las semillas de la variedad Ohadi fue significativamente más bajo que el de la variedad Mateur de la región de Sfax. Los triglicéridos fueron

  4. Allegheny County Supermarkets & Convenience Stores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Location information for all Supermarkets and Convenience Stores in Allegheny County was produced using the Allegheny County Fee and Permit Data for 2016.

  5. Information from the central stores

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    All items sold in the CERN shop (Bldg. 33) are now available in the central stores (Bldg. 73) and can be purchased on-line via EDH “Material Request” or at the “Emergency Desk” of the stores on the ground floor of Bldg. 73. These items are visible in the CERN catalogue under the “SCEM” codes beginning with 92. Department of General Infrastructure Services (GS) GS-SEM Group

  6. Hemoglobin Function in Stored Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-01

    States during 1973. Several advantages over ACA) are important. Blood stored in CPD maintains higher ./ levels of 2,3-DPG (2,3- diphosphoglycerate ) and a...survival and ATP levels in stored blood is explained by the several functions of ATP which are necessary for cell viability. However, ATP levels do...not correlate with oxygen affinity during storage. Levels of 2,3-DPG determine oxygen affinity and thus hemoglobin function. (12,13) When normal levels

  7. CORPORATE REBRANDING OF GRAMEDIA STORE (CORPORATE REBRANDING DI GRAMEDIA STORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Helena Kairupan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The purposes of this research are to determine the stages of analysis, planning, and evaluation of corporate rebranding process of Gramedia Book Store to be Gramedia Store to rise stakeholder’s awareness. The method used is descriptive qualitative with positivism paradigm. The technique of collecting data through in-depth interview, observation, and literature study. The result of this research showed the analysis stage by analyzing the market through insights and foresights, brand audit through SWOT analysis, and identifying opportunities. The planning stage is by determine the purpose of the planning process and then determine the target audience, consist of external and internal customer. The planning of external customer by renaming and change of corporate identity, and marketing planning using communication channel (above the line and below the line. The planning of internal customer by Brand Induction, training, inspiration briefing at store, and innovation competition. The evaluation of rebranding process of Gramedia Store is having a focus group discussion with customer, media monitoring, and presentation to BOD. Keywords : Process, Corporate Rebranding, Stakeholder Awareness, Corporate Identity, Gramedia Store Abstrak.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui bagaimana tahapan analisis, perencanaan, dan evaluasi proses corporate rebranding Gramedia Book Store menjadi Gramedia Store untuk meningkatkan stakeholder awareness. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah kualitatif dengan paradigma positivisme dan jenis studi deksriptif. Teknik pengumpulan data yang dilakukan melalui wawancara mendalam, observasi, dan studi pustaka. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, tahapan analisis dilakukan dengan menganalisis pasar melalui insights dan foresights, audit merek dengan analisis SWOT, dan mengidentifikasi peluang. Dalam tahapan perencanaan dengan menentukan tujuan kemudian menentukan target audiens, yaitu eksternal dan internal. Perencanaan

  8. Tolerance of Mycorrhiza infected pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) seedling to drought stress under glasshouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, H; Saeidi-Sar, S; Afshari, H; Abdel-Wahhab, M A

    2012-05-01

    The influence of Glomus etunicatum colonization on plant growth and drought tolerance of 3-month-old Pistacia vera seedlings in potted culture was studied in two different water treatments. The arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) inoculation and plant growth (including plant shoot and root weight, leaf area, and total chlorophyll) were higher for well-watered than for water-stressed plants. The growth of AM-treated seedlings was higher than non-AM-treatment regardless of water status. P, K, Zn and Cu contents in AM-treated shoots were greater than those in non-AM shoots under well-watered conditions and drought stress. N and Ca content were higher under drought stress, while AM symbiosis did not affect the Mg content. The contents of soluble sugars, proteins, flavonoid and proline were higher in mycorrhizal than non-mycorrhizal-treated plants under the whole water regime. AM colonization increased the activities of peroxidase enzyme in treatments, but did not affect the catalase activity in shoots and roots under well-watered conditions and drought stress. We conclude that AM colonization improved the drought tolerance of P. vera seedlings by increasing the accumulation of osmotic adjustment compounds, nutritional and antioxidant enzyme activity. It appears that AM formation enhanced the drought tolerance of pistachio plants, which increased host biomass and plant growth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) gum: a potent inhibitor of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehitoglu, M Hilal; Han, Hatice; Kalin, Pınar; Gülçin, İlhami; Ozkan, Ali; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, in order to evaluate antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of Pistachio gum (P-Gum), different bioanalytical methods such as DPPH(•) scavenging activity, DMPD(•+) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, reducing ability Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) transformation, Cuprac and FRAP assays, O2(•-) scavenging by riboflavin-methionine-illuminate system and ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activities by 2,2'-bipyridyl reagent were performed separately. P-Gum inhibited 54.2% linoleic acid peroxidation at 10 µg/ml concentration. On the other hand, BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and trolox, pure antioxidant compounds, indicated inhibition of 80.3%, 73.5%, 36.2% and 72.0% on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, all of sample had an effective DPPH(•), DMPD(•+) and O2(•-) scavenging, Fe(3+) reducing power by Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) transformation and FRAP assay, Cu(2+) reducing ability by Cuprac method and Fe(2+) chelating activities.

  10. Modeling of convective drying kinetics of Pistachio kernels in a fixed bed drying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbay Asım

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drying kinetics of Pistachio kernels (PKs with initial moisture content of 32.4% (w.b was investigated as a function of drying conditions in a fixed bed drying system. The drying experiments were carried out at different temperatures of drying air (40, 60 and 80°C and air velocities (0.05, 0.075 and 0.1 m/s. Several experiments were performed in terms of mass of PKs (15g and 30g using a constant air velocity of 0.075 m/s. The fit quality of models was evaluated using the determination coefficient (R2, sum square error (SSE and root mean square error (RMSE. Among the selected models, the Midilli et al model was found to be the best models for describing the drying behavior of PKs. The activation energies were calculated as 29.2 kJ/mol and effective diffusivity values were calculated between 1.38 and 4.94x10-10 m2/s depending on air temperatures.

  11. Preparing two-dimensional microporous carbon from Pistachio nutshell with high areal capacitance as supercapacitor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiandong; Gao, Qiuming; Zhang, Yunlu; Tan, Yanli; Tian, Weiqian; Zhu, Lihua; Jiang, Lei

    2014-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) porous carbon AC-SPN-3 possessing of amazing high micropore volume ratio of 83% and large surface area of about 1069 m2 g-1 is high-yield obtained by pyrolysis of natural waste Pistachio nutshells with KOH activation. The AC-SPN-3 has a curved 2D lamellar morphology with the thickness of each slice about 200 nm. The porous carbon is consists of highly interconnected uniform pores with the median pore diameter of about 0.76 nm, which could potentially improve the performance by maximizing the electrode surface area accessible to the typical electrolyte ions (such as TEA+, diameter = ~0.68 nm). Electrochemical analyses show that AC-SPN-3 has significantly large areal capacitance of 29.3/20.1 μF cm-2 and high energy density of 10/39 Wh kg-1 at power of 52/286 kW kg-1 in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte and 1 M TEABF4 in EC-DEC (1:1) organic electrolyte system, respectively.

  12. Pistachio hull water-soluble polysaccharides as a novel prebiotic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari-Alavijeh, Safoura; Soleimanian-Zad, Sabihe; Sheikh-Zeinoddin, Mahmoud; Hashmi, Sarwar

    2018-02-01

    We isolated and characterized pistachio hull polysaccharides (PHP). The PHP was a heteropolysaccharide mainly contained 75.50% (w/w) total sugar and 9.51% (w/w) uronic acid. As determined by GPC analysis, the polysaccharide with a molecular weight of 3.71×10 6 D (83.2%) was the most dominant fraction. Moreover, HPLC analysis indicated that PHP was predominantly composed of xylose, glucose, arabinose, and fructose with a molar ratio of 1.00:2.50:19.67:28.81. FT-IR and NMR analysis also confirmed the results obtained by HPLC and characterized preliminary structure features of the PHP. Functional properties of the PHP including water holding capacity (WHC: 2.44±0.05g water/g DM), and oil holding capacity (OHC: 11.53±0.04g oil/g DM) were significant compared to inulin used as reference prebiotic (pPHP remained 94.37% undigested in the simulated digestion process and stimulated the growth of L. plantarum PTCC 1896 and L. rhamnosus GG and increased the acetate, propionate and butyrate production over inulin in vitro. Totally, the PHP showed a considerable prebiotic capability and high WHC, OHC suggesting that the PHP is a potent pharmaceutical with good technological properties which can be used in food and drug industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Stability and dynamic rheological characterization of spread developed based on pistachio oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousazadeh, Morad; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; HadiNezhad, Mehri; Rahmati, Naghmeh

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the influence of formulation variables (pistachio oil (PO, 7.5 and 15%, w/w), Cocoa butter (CB, 7.5 and 15%, w/w), xanthan gum (XG, 0 and 0.3%, w/w), and distillated monoglyceride (DMG, 0.5 and 1%, w/w)) on the rheological properties and emulsion stability of spreads. Power law and Herschel-Bulkley models were used for modeling shear-thinning behavior of samples. The power law model was found to describe the flow behavior of spreads better than Herschel-Bulkley model. All the rheological properties were increased by adding XG to the spreads whereas increasing PO content caused to decrease them. The DMG had positive effect on apparent viscosity and elastic behavior but had negative effect on viscose behavior. Apparent viscosity was increased by adding CB while rheological modules were not significantly (p DMG improved stability of emulsion. The best spread formulation with optimum rheological properties was 15% PO, 7.5% CB, 0.3% XG and 1% DMG. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Gene disruption technologies have the potential to transform stored product insect pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stored product insects feed on grains and processed commodities manufactured from grain post-harvest, reducing the nutritional value and contaminating food. Currently, the main defense against stored product insect pests is the pesticide fumigant phosphine. Phosphine is highly toxic to all animals, ...

  15. Atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, Juerg

    1997-01-01

    It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination

  16. TruStore: Implementing a Trusted Store for Android

    OpenAIRE

    Yury, Zhauniarovich; Olga, Gadyatskaya; Bruno, Crispo

    2013-01-01

    In the Android ecosystem, the process of verifying the integrity of downloaded apps is left to the user. Different from other systems, e.g., Apple, App Store, Google does not provide any certified vetting process for the Android apps. This choice has a lot of advantages but it is also the open door to possible attacks as the recent one shown by Bluebox. To address this issue, we present how to enable the deployment of application certification service, we called TruStores, for the Android pla...

  17. Method of storing solidification products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Yutaro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to efficiently and satisfactorily cool and store solidification products of liquid wastes generated from the reactor spent fuel reprocessing process by a simple facility. Method: Liquid wastes generated from the reactor spent fuel reprocessing process are caused to flow from the upper opening to the inside of a spherical canistor. The opening of the spherical canistor is welded with a lid by a remote control and the liquid wastes are tightly sealed within the spherical canistor as glass solidification products. Spherical canistors having the solidification products tightly sealed therein are sent into and stored in a hopper by the remote control. Further, a blower is driven upon storing to suck cooling air from the cooling air intake port to the inside of the hopper to absorb the decay heat of radioactive materials in the solidification products and the air is discharged from the duct and through the stack to the atmosphere. (Kawakami, Y.)

  18. Method of storing fissile mateiral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoshita, Toshio; Ishitobi, Masuhiro

    1989-01-01

    Upon storing nuclear fissile materials in a storing building, vessels packed with fissile materials are inserted into a containing chamber divided with partition walls comprising neutron absorbers and neutron moderators. Thus, released neutrons permeating the vessel are moderated by the neutron moderators and then absorbed by the neutron absorbers. Accordingly, the neutron absorbing effect by the neutron absorbers is improved, and irradiation of neutrons released from one of vessels to the other of vessels can be suppressed. Accordingly, it is possible to shorten the distance between the vessels in a contained state as much as possible, while securing the critical safety, to improve the containing density during storage. (T.M.)

  19. Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast ... may have. How do I store my breast milk? You can freeze and/or refrigerate your pumped ( ...

  20. Leak testing fuel stored in the ICPP fuel storage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.L.; Rhodes, D.W.

    1977-06-01

    Irradiated fuel to be processed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant is stored under water at the CPP-603 Fuel Storage Facility. Leakage of radionuclides through breaks in the cladding of some of the stored fuels contaminates the water with radionuclides resulting in radiation exposure to personnel during fuel handling operations and contamination of the shipping casks. A leak test vessel was fabricated to test individual fuel assemblies which were suspected to be leaking. The test equipment and procedures are described. Test results demonstrated that a leaking fuel element could be identified by this method; of the eleven fuel assemblies tested, six were estimated to be releasing greater than 0.5 Ci total radionuclides/day to the basin water

  1. Store operations to maintain cache coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin

    2017-08-01

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.

  2. Store operations to maintain cache coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin

    2017-09-12

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.

  3. Stores, Weight and Inertial System Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides stores weight, center of gravity, and inertia measurements in support of weapon/aircraft compatibility testing. System provides store weight...

  4. Storing XML Documents in Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Schmidt; S. Manegold (Stefan); M.L. Kersten (Martin); L.C. Rivero; J.H. Doorn; V.E. Ferraggine

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe authors introduce concepts for loading large amounts of XML documents into databases where the documents are stored and maintained. The goal is to make XML databases as unobtrusive in multi-tier systems as possible and at the same time provide as many services defined by the XML

  5. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  6. Storing biomass in round bales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summer, H.R.; Hellwig, R.E.; Monroe, G.E.

    1984-09-01

    Biomass fuels, in the form of crop residues, were stored outside in large round bales. The influence of rainfall on bale mass and the change in apparent average moisture content (A.A.M.C) was studied. Covering the bales with large sheets of polyethylene was found to be the most effective way of reducing moisture penetration.

  7. s larvae to stored cocoa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olufunke oyedokun

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... theobromine levels decrease, which in turn affects the colour, flavor (aroma) of the beans (Lagunes et al., 2007;. Rodriguez-Campos et al., 2011) and the organoleptic properties of the dried cocoa beans in store (Camu et al.,. 2008). Freshly harvested cocoa beans require fermentation for 5 - 7 days before ...

  8. Investigating and modeling the pyrolysis kinetic of leaves and stems of pistachio trees for biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ostad Hoseini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The lignocelluloses materials have high potential for producing various types of biofuels. These materials include various parts of plants, especially leaves and stems that are left without a specific usage after annual pruning. These residues can be used through slow or fast pyrolysis process for production of liquid and gaseous biofuels. The slow pyrolysis is taking place at temperatures below 500°C while fast pyrolysis process takes place at a temperature above 700°C. Various studies on production of biofuels from plant residues have shown that the temperature, heating rate and the resident time of pyrolysis process are the main factors that affect the final product quality. At present time, in Iran, there are more than 360 thousands hectares of pistachio growing fields which annually produce over 215 thousands metric tons residues which are mainly leaves and stems. The main objective of this study was to measure the heating properties of the powders prepared from the leaves and the stem of pistachio trees. These properties include higher heating value (HHV, lower heating value (LHV and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA of the powders. Then the powders were separately pyrolysed and the kinetic of the pyrolysis process for producing charcoal from them was investigated. Materials and Methods In this research, leaves and stems of pistachio trees were initially analyzed to determine their chemical constituents including moisture content, volatile compounds, carbon (C, hydrogen (H, nitrogen (N, sulfur (S and oxygen (O content. Using these constituents the height heating value and low heating value for the leaves and the stems were determined. The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA of the powders was made to select a proper heating temperature for pyrolysis of the powders. In each experiment about 10 g of powder powders were pyrolyzed to produce char. Based on TGA results, the pyrolysis experiments were performed at 350, 400, 450 and

  9. Effects of pistachio nuts on body composition, metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome: a 24-wk, randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Saluja, Shelza

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pistachio nuts as an adjunct to diet and exercise on body composition, metabolic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters in Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome. In this 24-wk randomized control trial, 60 individuals with the metabolic syndrome were randomized to either pistachio (intervention group) or control group (diet as per weight and physical activity profile, modulated according to dietary guidelines for Asian Indians) after 3 wk of a diet and exercise run in. In the first group, unsalted pistachios (20% energy) were given daily. A standard diet and exercise protocol was followed for both groups. Body weight, waist circumference (WC), magnetic resonance imaging estimation of intraabdominal adipose tissue and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting serum insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin, free fatty acids (FFAs), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, leptin, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were assessed before and after the intervention. Statistically significant improvement in mean values for various parameters in the intervention group compared with control group were as follows: WC (P pistachios leads to beneficial effects on the cardiometabolic profile of Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Semiochemicals to monitor insect pests – future opportunities for an effective host plant volatile blend to attract navel orangeworm in pistachio orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) has been a major insect pest of California tree nut orchards for the past five decades. In particular, almond and pistachio orchards suffer major annual economic damage due to both physical and associated fungal damage caused by navel orangeworm larvae. Un...

  11. Phenotypic variation among trees in a population of a Pistacia atlantica X P. integerrima cross sold as UCB-1 rootstock for grafting P. vera (pistachio) cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    UCB-1 is widely used in California as a pistachio rootstock because of its Verticillium resistance, salt and cold tolerance, and vigor. It can grow in most locations in California. However, significant variation exists in the phenotypic performance of trees grafted to seedling UCB-1 rootstocks. In J...

  12. Phenolic and triterpenoid composition and inhibition of α-amylase of pistachio kernels (Pistacia vera L.) as affected by rootstock and irrigation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Pérez-López, David; Burgos-Hernández, Armando; Wojdyło, Aneta; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2018-09-30

    The current water scarcity forces farmers to adopt new irrigation strategies to save water without jeopardizing the fruit yield and quality. In this study, the influence of 3 regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) treatments and 3 rootstocks on the functional quality of pistachios were studied. The functional parameters studied included, polyphenols, triterpenoids, and inhibition of α-amylase. The results showed that P. terebinthus and P. atlantica rootstocks led to pistachio kernels with higher contents of polyphenols and triterpenoids (mainly betulinic acid with 111 and 102 µg g -1 , respectively) than pistachios obtained using P. integerrima rootstock (81 µg g -1 ). On the other hand, the use of moderate RDI (T1 treatment) increased the total content of polyphenols (∼10%), quercetin-O-galloyl-hexoside (∼15%), keampferol-3-O-glucoside (∼19%), and polymeric procyanidins (∼20%), as compared to the control trees, resulting in pistachios with a better functional profile, lower economic cost and with a lesser environmental impact. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sensory and instrumental texture assessment of roasted pistachio nut/kernel by partial least square (PLS) regression analysis: effect of roasting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Moghaddam, Toktam; Razavi, Seyed M A; Taghizadeh, Masoud; Sazgarnia, Ameneh

    2016-01-01

    Roasting is an important step in the processing of pistachio nuts. The effect of hot air roasting temperature (90, 120 and 150 °C), time (20, 35 and 50 min) and air velocity (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 m/s) on textural and sensory characteristics of pistachio nuts and kernels were investigated. The results showed that increasing the roasting temperature decreased the fracture force (82-25.54 N), instrumental hardness (82.76-37.59 N), apparent modulus of elasticity (47-21.22 N/s), compressive energy (280.73-101.18 N.s) and increased amount of bitterness (1-2.5) and the hardness score (6-8.40) of pistachio kernels. Higher roasting time improved the flavor of samples. The results of the consumer test showed that the roasted pistachio kernels have good acceptability for flavor (score 5.83-8.40), color (score 7.20-8.40) and hardness (score 6-8.40) acceptance. Moreover, Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis of instrumental and sensory data provided important information for the correlation of objective and subjective properties. The univariate analysis showed that over 93.87 % of the variation in sensory hardness and almost 87 % of the variation in sensory acceptability could be explained by instrumental texture properties.

  14. Isolation and Identification of Endophytic Bacteria with Plant Growth Promoting Activity and Biocontrol Potential from Wild Pistachio Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etminani, Faegheh; Harighi, Behrouz

    2018-06-01

    In this study, samples were collected from the leaves and stems of healthy wild Pistachio trees ( Pistacia atlantica L.) from various locations of Baneh and Marivan regions, Iran. In total, 61 endophytic bacteria were isolated and grouped according to phenotypic properties. Ten selected isolates from each group were further identified by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Based on the results, isolates were identified as bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas , Stenotrophomonas , Bacillus , Pantoea and Serratia genus. The ability of these isolates was evaluated to phytohormone production such as auxin and gibberellin, siderophore production, phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, protease and hydrogen cyanide production. All strains were able to produce the plant growth hormone auxin and gibberellin in different amounts. The majority of strains were able to solubilize phosphate. The results of atmospheric nitrogen fixation ability, protease and siderophore production were varied among strains. Only Ba66 could produce a low amount of hydrogen cyanide. The results of biocontrol assay showed that Pb78 and Sp15 strains had the highest and lowest inhibition effects on bacterial plant pathogens, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae Pss20 and Pseudomonas tolaasii Pt18 under in vitro condition. Pb3, Pb24 and Pb71 strains significantly promote root formation on carrot slices. To our knowledge this is the first report of the isolation of endophytic bacterial strains belonging to Pantoea , Bacillus , Pseudomonas , Serratia and Stenotrophomonas genus from wild pistachio trees with plant growth promoting potential and biocontrol activity.

  15. Determination of roasted pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) key odorants by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceña, Laura; Vera, Luciano; Guasch, Josep; Busto, Olga; Mestres, Montserrat

    2011-03-23

    Key odorants in roasted pistachio nuts have been determined for the first time. Two different pistachio varieties (Fandooghi and Kerman) have been analyzed by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO). The aroma extract dilution analyses (AEDA) applied have revealed 46 and 41 odor-active regions with a flavor dilution (FD) factor≥64 for the Fandooghi and the Kerman varieties, respectively, and 39 of them were related to precisely identified compounds. These included esters, pyrazines, aldehydes, acids, furans, and phenols. The results show that the Fandooghi variety presents, not only more odor-active regions but also higher FD factors than the Kerman variety that can lead to the conclusion that the first variety has a richer aromatic profile than the second one. The descriptive sensory analysis (DSA) showed that the roasted, chocolate/coffee, and nutty attributes were rated significantly higher in the Fandooghi variety, whereas the green attribute was significantly higher in the Kerman one.

  16. Evaluation of special, functional and structural diversity of weeds community in pistachios (Pistacia vera L. orchards of Bardaskan County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Elahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To study weed species diversity and community structure in pistachio (Pistacia vera L. orchards in 33 orchards of 12 villages an investigation was conducted in Bardaskan County, Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran during 2008-2009. Weed population sampling was conducted in a w shape method using 1m² quadrate. The results showed that the weeds of pistachio orchards were belonging to 15 families and 44 species. dicotyledons (31 species were more than monocotyledons (13 species. Such as in this community, weed species of C3, C4, annual and perennial were 26, 18, 28 and 13, respectively. The majority of weed species were belonging to the plant families of chenopodiceae (9 species and poaceae (12 species amongst dicotyledons and monocotyledons, respectively. the most important species of monocotyledon annual weeds were including Echinochloa crus-gali, Digitaria sanguinlis, Setaria viridis and perennial weeds were including Cyperus routundus, Cynodon dactylon and convolvulus arvensis. Weed species were grouped in seven clusters for density average, frequency and uniformity (similarity 75 percent whereas in eight clusters for relative density average, relative frequency and relative uniformity (similarity 75 percent. Amplitude changes of Shannon-winter diversity index were between 2.3 and 0.16 and of Simpson dominant index were between 0.97 and 0.17. The difference among indices of biodiversity and dominant clusters were relative to scale and type of management practices.

  17. Analysis of genetic diversity of Tunisian pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenni, K; Aouadi, M; Chatti, K; Salhi-Hannachi, A

    2016-10-17

    Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers preferentially amplify open reading frames and were used to study the genetic diversity of Tunisian pistachio. In the present study, 43 Pistacia vera accessions were screened using seven SRAP primer pairs. A total of 78 markers was revealed (95.12%) with an average polymorphic information content of 0.850. The results suggest that there is strong genetic differentiation, which characterizes the local resources (G ST = 0.307). High gene flow (N m = 1.127) among groups was explained by the exchange of plant material among regions. Analysis of molecular variance revealed significant differences within groups and showed that 73.88% of the total genetic diversity occurred within groups, whereas the remaining 26.12% occurred among groups. Bayesian clustering and principal component analysis identified three pools, El Guettar, Pollenizers, and the rest of the pistachios belonging to the Gabès, Kasserine, and Sfax localities. Bayesian analysis revealed that El Guettar and male genotypes were assigned with more than 80% probability. The BayeScan method proposed that locus 59 (F13-R9) could be used in the development of sex-linked SCAR markers from SRAP since it is a commonly detected locus in comparisons involving the Pollenizers group. This is the first application of SRAP markers for the assessment of genetic diversity in Tunisian germplasm of P. vera. Such information will be useful to define conservation strategies and improvement programs for this species.

  18. Preformation in vegetative buds of pistachio (Pistacia vera): relationship to shoot morphology, crown structure and rootstock vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Timothy M; Beede, Robert H; Dejong, Theodore M

    2007-08-01

    Effects of rootstock, shoot carbohydrate status, crop load and crown position on the number of preformed leaf primordia in the dormant terminal and lateral buds of mature and immature 'Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees were investigated to determine if rootstock vigor is associated with greater shoot preformation. There was no significant variation in preformation related to the factors studied, suggesting strong genetic control of preformation in 'Kerman' pistachio. The growth differences observed among trees on different rootstocks were associated with greater stimulation of neoformed growth in trees on the more vigorous rootstocks. However, most annual extension growth in mature tree crowns was preformed, contrasting with the relatively high rate of neoformation found in young tree crowns. Large amounts of neoformed growth in young trees may allow the trees to become established quickly and secure resources, whereas predominantly preformed growth in mature trees may allow for continued crown expansion without outgrowing available resources. We hypothesized that the stimulation of neoformed growth by the more vigorous rootstocks is associated with greater resource uptake or transport, or both. Understanding the source of variation in shoot extension growth on different rootstocks has important implications for orchard management practices.

  19. Isolation and Identification of Endophytic Bacteria with Plant Growth Promoting Activity and Biocontrol Potential from Wild Pistachio Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etminani, Faegheh; Harighi, Behrouz

    2018-01-01

    In this study, samples were collected from the leaves and stems of healthy wild Pistachio trees (Pistacia atlantica L.) from various locations of Baneh and Marivan regions, Iran. In total, 61 endophytic bacteria were isolated and grouped according to phenotypic properties. Ten selected isolates from each group were further identified by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Based on the results, isolates were identified as bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Pantoea and Serratia genus. The ability of these isolates was evaluated to phytohormone production such as auxin and gibberellin, siderophore production, phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, protease and hydrogen cyanide production. All strains were able to produce the plant growth hormone auxin and gibberellin in different amounts. The majority of strains were able to solubilize phosphate. The results of atmospheric nitrogen fixation ability, protease and siderophore production were varied among strains. Only Ba66 could produce a low amount of hydrogen cyanide. The results of biocontrol assay showed that Pb78 and Sp15 strains had the highest and lowest inhibition effects on bacterial plant pathogens, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae Pss20 and Pseudomonas tolaasii Pt18 under in vitro condition. Pb3, Pb24 and Pb71 strains significantly promote root formation on carrot slices. To our knowledge this is the first report of the isolation of endophytic bacterial strains belonging to Pantoea, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Serratia and Stenotrophomonas genus from wild pistachio trees with plant growth promoting potential and biocontrol activity. PMID:29887777

  20. Evaluation of Two Biochemical Markers for Salt Stress in Three Pistachio Rootstocks Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamshiri M.H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The possible involvement of the methylglyoxal and proline accumulation in leaves and roots of three pistachio rootstocks, cv. Sarakha, Abareqi and Bane baghi, pre-inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae in response to salt stress was studied during a greenhouse experiment in 2013. Six months old pistachio seedlings were exposed to four salinity levels of irrigation water (EC of 0.5 as control, 5, 10 and 15 dS m-1 for 70 days. Methylglyoxal and proline of the roots and leaves were increased by increasing salt stress. The highest concentrations of proline in leaves and roots were recorded in Abareqi rootstock while the lowest concentration was observed in Sarakhs. In general, a negative relationship was obtained between proline and methylglyoxal concentrations in both tissues especially at two highest levels of salinity. A very strong relationship between salinity and measured biochemical markers were found. The level of both biomarkers were reduced in both tissues and in all rootstocks as the effect of mycorrhizal symbiosis. Root colonization percentage was declined as the effect of salinity in Abareqi and Bane baghi and not in Sarakhs.

  1. Effect of treating alfalfa silage with pistachio by-products extract on Saanen dairy goats performance and microbial nitrogen synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarpour, A; Naserian, A A; Pourmollae, F; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-08-01

    A lactation experiment was conducted to determine the influence of addition of pistachio by-products extract (PBE) to alfalfa silage (AS) on performance, rumen fermentation, milk yield and composition, and microbial nitrogen synthesis. Eight multiparous dairy goats (1.8 ± 0.25 kg of milk yield) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to compare two types of AS (supplemented with or without PBE) with two levels of dietary crude protein (14% vs. 16% CP). Dietary treatments were (i) AS with 14% CP of DM diet without PBE (14%CP-PBE), (ii) AS with 14% CP of DM diet with PBE (14%CP + PBE), (iii) AS with 16% CP of DM diet without PBE (16%CP-PBE) and (iv) AS with 16% CP of DM diet with PBE (16%CP + PBE). PBE was sprayed on fresh alfalfa at a ratio of 500 ml/kg alfalfa DM to get the final concentration of 1% tannin as tannic acid equivalent on DM basis. Intake of CP was greater (p pistachio by-products tannins. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. The Effect of Nitrogen Application on Boron Toxicity Reduction in Pistachio (Pistacia vera cv. Badami-Zarand Saplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    babak motesharezadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Boron is one of the seven essential microelements for the natural growth of plants. The toxicity of this element occurs in arid and semi-arid regions, which is because of its high level in soils and the irrigation water of mentioned regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen application on boron toxicity tolerance in pistachio, Badami-Zarand variety. The effects of three nitrogen levels (0, 250, and 350 mg/kg of soil on the reduction of toxicity due to the three levels of boron (0, 15, and 30 mg/kg of soil were examined in Badami-Zarandi variety of pistachio under greenhouse conditions. After 7 months from sowing the seeds, pistachio seedlings were harvested and desired traits were measured. The results showed that by increasing boron application level, boron concentration in the shoot and root of seedlings increased whereas their dry weight decreased. Using of nitrogen reduced the negative effects of boron on the dry weight and led to increase dry weight and decrease boron concentration in the shoot and root of pistachio, Badami variety. Nitrogen application at the levels of 250 and 350 mg N per kg of soil reduced boron uptake in shoots by reinforcing plant vegetative system and increasing chlorophyll content by 13.5% and 30.2%, respectively and finally led to diluted boron concentration in the plant (dilution effect and reduced the effects of boron toxicity. Hence, optimized nitrogen application is suggested as one of the management methods in controlling Boron toxicity under these conditions. Materials and Methods: A factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications was carried out. Soil sampling was done in 0-30 cm depth in a zeekzack way from a pistachio garden that located in mahmoodiye area in Rafsanjan. The soil sample was air-dried and passed through a 2mm sieve. The soil chemical and physical properties were measured. In this study, badami-zarand cultivar seed

  3. The Effect of Moisture Content and Temperature on the Specific Heat Capacity of Nut and Kernel of Two Iranian Pistachio Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Salari Kia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio has a special ranking among Iranian agricultural products. Iran is known as the largest producer and exporter of pistachio in the world. Agricultural products are imposed under different thermal treatments during storage and processing. Designing all these processes requires thermal parameters of the products such as specific heat capacity. Regarding the importance of pistachio processing as an exportable product, in this study the specific heat capacity of nut and kernel of two varieties of Iranian pistachio (Kalle-Ghochi and Badami were investigated at four levels of moisture content (initial moisture content (5%, 15%, 25% and 40% w.b. and three levels of temperature (40, 50 and 60°C. In both varieties, the differences between the data were significant at the 1% of probability; however, the effect of moisture content was greater than that of temperature. The results indicated that the specific heat capacity of both nuts and kernels increase logarithmically with increase of moisture content and also increase linearly with increase of temperature. This parameter has altered for nut and kernel of Kalle-Ghochi and Badami varieties within the range of 1.039-2.936 kJ kg-1 K-1, 1.236-3.320 kJ kg-1 K-1, 0.887-2.773 kJ kg-1 K-1 and 0.811-2.914 kJ kg-1 K-1, respectively. Moreover, for any given level of temperature, the specific heat capacity of kernels was higher than that of nuts. Finally, regression models with high R2 values were developed to predict the specific heat capacity of pistachio varieties as a function of moisture content and temperature

  4. Model/School Store Management Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck.

    This teacher-coordinator manual assists in planning, organizing, directing, and evaluating student learning experiences associated with either a model store, school store, or combination. (A model store in a marketing laboratory simulates marketing functions; the school store markets merchandise to fellow students, faculty, and/or the public.)…

  5. Storing XML Documents in Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, A.R.; Manegold, Stefan; Kersten, Martin; Rivero, L.C.; Doorn, J.H.; Ferraggine, V.E.

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe authors introduce concepts for loading large amounts of XML documents into databases where the documents are stored and maintained. The goal is to make XML databases as unobtrusive in multi-tier systems as possible and at the same time provide as many services defined by the XML standards as possible. The ubiquity of XML has sparked great interest in deploying concepts known from Relational Database Management Systems such as declarative query languages, transactions, indexes ...

  6. Method of storing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Toshio; Hiratake, Susumu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the radiation doses externally irradiated from treated radioactive waste and also reduce the separation of radioactive nuclide due to external environmental factors such as air, water or the like. Method: Radioactive waste adhered with radioactive nuclide to solid material is molten to mix and submerge the radioactive nuclide adhered to the surface of the solid material into molten material. Then, the radioactive nuclide thus mixed is solidified to store the waste in solidified state. (Aizawa, K.)

  7. Specialty Store and Multi-Brand Store loyalty: An Indian consumer perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjot Singh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the competitive era of retailing, retailers need to understand the importance of store format preferences. The study aimed to understand consumer store loyalty; in-depth interview was conducted to examine consumer store loyalty antecedents for two retail formats: specialty stores and multi brand stores. The study conceptualizes store loyalty factors like program loyalty, trust and brand commitment. Trust and brand commitment act as mediating factors between store image and store loyalty formats, and also between brand image and store loyalty formats. The findings highlight how consumer store loyalty preference differ for these two formats.

  8. Understanding Retailers’ Acceptance of Virtual Stores

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Y.L. Chen

    2010-01-01

    The acceptance of e-commerce among consumers has stimulated the rise of virtual stores. Increasing traditional retailers or people who do not have sufficient capital for maintaining a brick-and-mortar store have considered using virtual stores to reach global market. In the e-commerce literature, there has been rich research evidence concerning consumers’ acceptance of virtual stores. However, rigorous academic research on retailers’ acceptance of virtual stores is relatively scarce today. Th...

  9. The Evaluation of the Effect of Multiwall Carbon Nano Tube (MWCNT) on In Vitro Proliferation and Shoot Tip Necrosis of Pistachio Rootstock UCB-1 (Pistacia integrima × P. atlantica)

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrzad Aghasi Kermani; Hossein Hokmabadi; Marzieh Ghanbari Jahromi

    2017-01-01

    UCB-1 (Pistacia atlantica × P. integrima) is a commercial rootstock for pistachio in some pistachio plantations across the world. This rootstock is very new in Iran and recently, it has been used commercially in some plantations due to its high growth. Propagation of this rootstock by tissue culture results in many limitations such as shoot tip necrosis (STN) and a low proliferation rate. Therefore, any process that leads to improve the proliferation rate and feature will be used in commercia...

  10. A Dual Function Energy Store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Tolmie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Heat can be collected from local energy sources and concentrated into a relatively small volume, and at a useful working temperature, by using a heat pump as the concentrator. That heat can be stored and utilized at a later date for applications like space heating. The process is doing two things at the same time: storing heat and shifting the power demand. The concentration step can be done at night when there is normally a surplus of power and its timing can be directly controlled by the power grid operator to ensure that the power consumption occurs only when adequate power is available. The sources of heat can be the summer air, the heat extracted from buildings by their cooling systems, natural heat from the ground or solar heat, all of which are free, abundant and readily accessible. Such systems can meet the thermal needs of buildings while at the same time stabilizing the grid power demand, thus reducing the need for using fossil-fuelled peaking power generators. The heat pump maintains the temperature of the periphery at the ambient ground temperature so very little energy is lost during storage.

  11. Method of storing radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, M; Kamiya, K; Sugimoto, Y

    1976-01-09

    A method is claimed to decrease the number of storage containers filled with radioactive wastes. A wire-netting containers having a capacity of 67 liters is filled with 60 kg of pellet-like radioactive solid material. The wire-netting container is held in the middle of a drum can, and asphalt is poured between the drum can and the wire-netting container and stored until radioactivity is attenuated. After storage, the stored body is heated to melt the asphalt and the wire-netting container is removed. Thereafter, the pellet-like radioactive solid material is taken out of the wire-netting container and combined with the other pellet-like radioactive solid material similarly taken out of the storage container, and the resultant material is filled into a wire-netting container having a capacity of 167 liters every 150 kg, and inserted again into the same drum can, into which recovered asphalt is poured for final storage.

  12. [Occupational risks in grocery stores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, Francesca; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Violante, Francesco S

    2014-01-01

    This work provides an overview of the spectrum of possible occupational risk factors in the retail grocery store/supermarket workplace. Literature on this theme, obtained consulting PubMed database and Google Scholar, was checked. We also exjlore results from the National bInstitute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). RESULTs: Contacts with objects, use of dangerous equipment (cutter, food slicer) and falls to the same level (slips, trips and falls) are the mainly described workplace hazards. Exposure to chemical (flour dust, components of detergents or disinfectants, volatile organic compounds and contact with nickel) and physical agents (cold exposure, nonionizing radiation and whole bpdy vibration) are reported by many authors. Relations between biomechanical and ergonomic risk factors and musculoskeletal disorders represent the main subjects of study. Few studies are found about biological agents (particularly among butchers). Data regarding psychosocial risks factors in this setting are still limited. Musculoskeletal disorders continue to be the most recurrent health problem between the grocery store workers (particularly low back pain and carpal tunnel syndrome among cashiers). Many technical documents and international Srecommendations are present to prevent these kinds of disorders. Psychosocial risk factors and risk of workplace violence should deserve further investigation.

  13. Sorption studies of Sn(II) and Zr(IV) on pistachio shell from different aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.A.; EI-Khouly, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    Sorption of Sn(lI) and Zr(IV) on pistachio shell as a solid sorbent material of particle sizes (0.5-1 mm) has been investigated from HNO 3 , H CI, HBr, NaNO 3 , Na CI, KBr and KI aqueous solutions. Before use, this substance was subjected to characterization tools including surface area, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-R diffraction. The effect of contact time, weight of the resin, acid and salt concentrations and equilibrium ph on K d values have been studied. Sorption of both elements was found to verify Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The effect of temperature on thc sorption processes have been investigated and the thermodynamic functions δG, δH and δS have been determined. Adsorption processes have been discussed in the light of the obtained results

  14. Chemical composition and the nutritive value of pistachio epicarp (in situ degradation and in vitro gas production techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Bakhshizadeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The nutritive value of pistachio epicarp (PE was evaluated by in situ and in vitro techniques. Chemical analysis indicated that PE was high in crude protein (11.30% and low in neutral detergent fiber (26.20%. Total phenols, total tannins, condensed tannins and hydrolysable tannins contents in PE were 8.29%, 4.48%, 0.49% and 3.79%, respectively. Ruminal dry matter and crude protein degradation after 48 hr incubation were 75.21% and 82.52%, respectively. The gas production volume at 48 hr for PE was 122.47 mL g-1DM. As a whole, adding polyethylene glycol (PEG to PE increased (p < 0.05 gas production volumes, organic matter digestibility and the metabolizable energy that illustrated inhibitory effect of phenolics on rumen microbial fermentation and the positive influence of PEG on digestion PE. The results showed that PE possessed potentials to being used as feed supplements.

  15. Flavonoid content in leaf extracts of the fig (Ficus carica L.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaya, Jacob; Mahmood, Saeed

    2006-01-01

    The total flavonoid content of leaf extracts (70% ethanol) from fig (Ficus carica L.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.) plants were determined by using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-and analyzed by UV/VIS array and electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) detectors. As a base for comparison, flavonoid type and level were also determined in extracts from soybeans and grape seeds. It was found that the major flavonoids in Ficus are quercetin and luteolin, with a total of 631 and 681 mg/kg extract, respectively. In Ceratonia leaves, nine different flavonoids were detected. The major one was myricetin (1486 mg/kg extract), with a similar level in Pistacia (1331 mg/kg extract, myricetin). The present study is the first to report the presence of the isoflavone genistein in the Pistacia leaf, which was discovered to consist of about a third of the genistein level detected in soybean.

  16. Sorption studies of Sn(II) and Zr(IV) on pistachio shell from different aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Fattah, A A [Nuclear Chemistry Dept., Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); EI-Khouly, S H [Radioisotopes and Generators Dept., Radioisotopes Prod. Division, Hot Lahoratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-07-01

    Sorption of Sn(lI) and Zr(IV) on pistachio shell as a solid sorbent material of particle sizes (0.5-1 mm) has been investigated from HNO{sub 3}, H CI, HBr, NaNO{sub 3}, Na CI, KBr and KI aqueous solutions. Before use, this substance was subjected to characterization tools including surface area, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-R diffraction. The effect of contact time, weight of the resin, acid and salt concentrations and equilibrium ph on K{sub d} values have been studied. Sorption of both elements was found to verify Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The effect of temperature on thc sorption processes have been investigated and the thermodynamic functions {delta}G, {delta}H and {delta}S have been determined. Adsorption processes have been discussed in the light of the obtained results.

  17. Chemical composition and the nutritive value of pistachio epicarp (in situ degradation and in vitro gas production techniques).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshizadeh, Somayeh; Taghizadeh, Akbar; Janmohammadi, Hossein; Alijani, Sadegh

    2014-01-01

    The nutritive value of pistachio epicarp (PE) was evaluated by in situ and in vitro techniques. Chemical analysis indicated that PE was high in crude protein (11.30%) and low in neutral detergent fiber (26.20%). Total phenols, total tannins, condensed tannins and hydrolysable tannins contents in PE were 8.29%, 4.48%, 0.49% and 3.79%, respectively. Ruminal dry matter and crude protein degradation after 48 hr incubation were 75.21% and 82.52%, respectively. The gas production volume at 48 hr for PE was 122.47 mL g(-1)DM. As a whole, adding polyethylene glycol (PEG) to PE increased (p gas production volumes, organic matter digestibility and the metabolizable energy that illustrated inhibitory effect of phenolics on rumen microbial fermentation and the positive influence of PEG on digestion PE. The results showed that PE possessed potentials to being used as feed supplements.

  18. Cytotoxic Effects and Anti-Angiogenesis Potential of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Hulls against MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifaddinipour, Maryam; Farghadani, Reyhaneh; Namvar, Farideh; Mohamad, Jamaludin; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2018-01-05

    Pistachio ( Pistacia vera L.) hulls (PVLH) represents a significant by-product of industrial pistachio processing that contains high amounta of phenolic and flavonoid compounds known to act as antioxidants. The current study was designed to evaluate the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic potentials of PVLH extracts. The cytotoxic effects of hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water PVLH extracts toward human colon cancer (HT-29 and HCT-116), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), lung adenocarcinoma (H23), liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), cervical cancer (Ca Ski), and normal fibroblast (BJ-5ta) cells were assessed using a MTT cell viability assay. Apoptosis induction was evaluated through the different nuclear staining assays and confirmed by flow cytometry analysis. Anti-angiogenic activities were also determined using chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. PVLH ethyl acetate extracts (PVLH-EAE) demonstrated a suppressive effect with an IC 50 value of 21.20 ± 1.35, 23.00 ± 1.2 and 25.15 ± 1.85 µg/mL against MCF-7, HT-29 and HCT-116, respectively, after 72 h of treatment. Morphological assessment and flow cytometry analysis showed the potential of PVLH-EAE to induce apoptosis. PVLH-EAE at the highest concentration demonstrated significant inhibition of angiogenesis as comparing with control group. Also the expression of Bax increased and the expression of Bcl-2 decreased in treated MCF-7 cells. Thus, the apoptosis induction and angiogenesis potential of PVLH-EAE make it to be the most suitable for further cancer research study to deal with selective antitumor active substances to human cancers especially breast cancer.

  19. Study of Tannin- degrading bacteria isolated from Pistachio soft hulls and feces of goat feeding on it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Tahmourespour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tannins (tannic acid are toxic, high molecular weight and water- soluble polyphenols that are present in many plants such as pistachio and its by- products. Wide ranges of microorganisms including bacteria tolerate tannin and degrade it. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize tannin- tolerant bacteria from pistachio soft hulls (P- SH and feces of goat before and after feeding on this by- product as tannin rich diet. Materials and methods: Tannin tolerant bacteria were isolated from enrichment cultures of samples in medium containing tannic acid as a sole source of carbon and energy. Tannin hydrolyzing ability of isolates was confirmed by observation of clear zones around the colonies. The increasing concentrations of tannin on minimal salt medium (MSM agar plates were used to test the maximum tolerable concentrations (MTCs. Furthermore, in the supplemented media tannin concentrations were measured by bovine serum albumin (BSA precipitation assay during time intervals. Results: Tannin- degrading bacterial population of P- SH was about only 10.3% of total population. More than 50 percent of tannin degrading strains were isolated from goat feces after grazing on tannin rich diet. Isolated bacteria were Gram- negative and positive rod species belonging to Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Escherichia and Enterobacter genera. Among the isolated bacteria 71.4% could tolerate the concentration of 64 g/l of tannin in their media while only 7.2% were able to tolerate the maximum tannin concentration of 16 g/l. Bacterial isolates of goat feces could degrade tannin more than 72% after 72 h of incubation. In the case of soft P- SH isolates, the biodegradation percentage was between 17- 75%. Discussion and conclusion: Feeding of tannin rich diet induced a shift in digestive system microbial profile with increased population of tannin tolerant bacteria. The ability of isolated strains provides novel insights for the role they can

  20. Effects of land conversion from native shrub to pistachio orchard on soil erodibility in an arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakupoglu, Tugrul; Gundogan, Recep; Dindaroglu, Turgay; Kara, Zekeriya

    2017-10-29

    Land-use change through degrading natural vegetation for agricultural production adversely affects many of soil properties particularly organic carbon content of soils. The native shrub land and grassland of Gaziantep-Adiyaman plateau that is an important pistachio growing eco-region have been cleared to convert into pistachio orchard for the last 50 to 60 years. In this study, the effects of conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural uses on soil erodibility have been investigated. Soil samples were collected from surface of agricultural fields and adjacent natural vegetation areas, and samples were analyzed for some soil erodibility indices such as dispersion ratio (DR), erosion ratio (ER), structural stability index (SSI), Henin's instability index (I s ), and aggregate size distribution after wet sieving (AggSD). According to the statistical evaluation, these two areas were found as different from each other in terms of erosion indices except for I s index (P < 0.001 for DR and ER or P < 0.01 for SSI). In addition, native shrub land and converted land to agriculture were found different in terms of AggSD in all aggregate size groups. As a contrary to expectations, correlation tests showed that there were no any interaction between soil organic carbon and measured erodibility indices in two areas. In addition, significant relationships were determined between measured variables and soil textural fractions as statistical. These obtaining findings were attributed to changing of textural component distribution and initial aggregate size distribution results from land-use change in the study area. Study results were explained about hierarchical aggregate formation mechanism.

  1. Assessment of phenolic profile and antioxidant power of five pistachio (Pistacia vera cultivars collected from four geographical regions of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Faezeh Taghizadeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, the levels and antioxidant activities of some secondary metabolites isolated from five pistachio (Pistacia veracultivars collected from four different geographical regions of Iran, were studied. Materials and Methods: Total phenolic compounds levels were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content was determined as AlCl3 complex and expressed as mg of quercetin equivalents (QE/g dry extract and total proantocyanidins content was expressed as mg of catechin equivalents (CA/g dry extract. In order to evaluated the antioxidant activity of the compounds, DPPH and FRAP assays were used. Results: The highest level of total phenols (156.42 mg GA/g DE, total flavonoids (130.94 mg QE/g DE and total proantocyanidins (152.816 mg CA/g DE were obtained in Akbari cultivar from Rafsanjan, followed by Badami-e-sefid and Ahmad aghaei. The lowest amount of total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC and total proanthocyanidin content (TPrAC were found in Badami-e-sefid from Feizabad (128.140 mg GA/g DE, 93.176 mg QE/g DE and 118.870 mg CA/g DE, respectively. Also, a positive correlation (r2=0.9834 was found between antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds. Conclusion: Pistachio increased their phytochemical compounds to contrast with abiotic stress. Our data could be useful for introducing special characteristics to the plants, and can be considered when planning a new breeding program or choosing a specific cultivar for a particular use.

  2. Effects of mating disruption treatments on navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) sexual communication and damage in almonds and pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbee, Bradley S; Burks, Charles S

    2008-10-01

    Two experiments in 2003 examined the effects of different ways of dispensing the principal sex pheromone component on sexual communication among and crop damage by the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Nonpareil almonds and pistachios. A third experiment in 2004 compared the effect on navel orangeworm damage to several almond varieties using one of these dispensing systems by itself or with phosmet, phosmet alone, and an untreated control. Additional data are presented estimating release rates from timed aerosol release devices (PuffersNOW, Suterra LLC, Bend, OR) and hand-applied membrane dispensers. In 2003, puffers placed peripherally around 16-ha blocks, evenly spaced Puffers, and hand-applied dispensers reduced males captured in virgin-baited traps by > or = 95% and mating in sentinel females by > or = 69%, with evenly placed Puffers showing greater reduction of males captured and females mated compared with the other dispensing systems. Mating disruption with gridded Puffers or hand-applied devices in almonds resulted in an approximately 37% reduction of navel orangeworm damage (not significant), whereas peripheral Puffers resulted in a 16% reduction of navel orangeworm damage to almonds. In pistachios neither peripheral nor gridded Puffers reduced navel orangeworm damage, whereas insecticide reduced damage by 56%. In 2004, Puffers alone, insecticide alone, and both in combination significantly reduced navel orangeworm damage in Nonpareil almonds. In other, later harvested varieties, the insecticide treatments reduced damage, whereas the mating disruption treatment alone did not. We discuss application of these findings to management of navel orangeworm in these two crops.

  3. Assessment of phenolic profile and antioxidant power of five pistachio (Pistacia vera) cultivars collected from four geographical regions of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Seyedeh Faezeh; Davarynejad, Gholamhossein; Asili, Javad; Nemati, Seyed Hossein; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the levels and antioxidant activities of some secondary metabolites isolated from five pistachio ( Pistacia vera ) cultivars collected from four different geographical regions of Iran, were studied. Total phenolic compounds levels were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content was determined as AlCl 3 complex and expressed as mg of quercetin equivalents (QE)/g dry extract and total proantocyanidins content was expressed as mg of catechin equivalents (CA)/g dry extract. In order to evaluated the antioxidant activity of the compounds, DPPH and FRAP assays were used. The highest level of total phenols (156.42 mg GA/g DE), total flavonoids (130.94 mg QE/g DE) and total proantocyanidins (152.816 mg CA/g DE) were obtained in Akbari cultivar from Rafsanjan, followed by Badami-e-sefid and Ahmad aghaei. The lowest amount of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and total proanthocyanidin content (TPrAC) were found in Badami-e-sefid from Feizabad (128.140 mg GA/g DE, 93.176 mg QE/g DE and 118.870 mg CA/g DE, respectively). Also, a positive correlation (r 2 =0.9834) was found between antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds. Pistachio increased their phytochemical compounds to contrast with abiotic stress. Our data could be useful for introducing special characteristics to the plants, and can be considered when planning a new breeding program or choosing a specific cultivar for a particular use.

  4. 16-channel analog store and multiplexer unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brossard, M; Kulka, Z [Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire

    1979-03-15

    A 16-channel analog store and multiplexer unit is described. The unit enables storing and selection of analog information which is then digitally encoded by single ADC. This solution becomes economically attractive particularly in multidetector pulse height analysis systems.

  5. Store Separations From a Supersonic Cone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simko, Richard J

    2006-01-01

    ... analyses of supersonic store separations. Also included in this research is a study of supersonic base pressure profiles, near-wake velocity profiles, wind tunnel shock interactions and force/moment studies on a conical store and parent vehicle...

  6. Effects of Gibberellic Acid and Nitrogen on Some Physiology Parameters and Micronutrients Concentration in Pistachio under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vahid mozafari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salinity is one of the main problems which limits crop production, especially in arid and semi-arid areas such as Iran. Iran is the most important producer of pistachio in the world. However, its performance is low in many areas. Most pistachio plantations are irrigated with saline water and with low quality (28. On the other hand, nitrogen is a dynamic element which is a constituent of amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids and Enzymes and it has a vital role in plant physiology, growth, chlorophyll formation and production of fruit and seeds (34. Gibberellic acid is known as phytohormon which varied physiological responses in plants under stress. acid gibberellic increases the photosynthesis and growth under stress and impact on the physiology and metabolism of plant (29. Based on previous studies, production and activity of plant hormones are affected by natural factors and plant nutrient requirements and the nitrogen has an important influence on production and transmission of acid gibberellic plant shoot. Therefore, in this study the effect of acid gibberellic and nitrogen on some characteristics of physiology parameters and micronutrient pistachio seedlings (Cv. Qazvini under saline conditions was studied. Materials and methods: Experiment under greenhouse condition and factorial in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in greenhouse agriculture college, Vali-E-Asr University of Rafsanjan. Treatments consisted of three levels of salinity (0, 1000 and 2000 mg of sodium chloride per kg of soil, three levels of nitrogen (0, 75 and 150 mg per kg of ammonium nitrate source and three acid gibberellic levels (0, 250 and 500 mg per liter. Adequate soil with little available salinity conditions was collected from the top 30-cm layer of a pistachio-culture region of Kerman province. After air drying and ground through passing a 2 mm sieve, some of the physical-chemical properties of this soil include pH (7

  7. In-Store Media and Channel Management

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Dukes; Yunchuan Liu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study the interesting and complicated effects of retailer in-store media on distribution channel relationships. With the help of advanced technology, retailers can open in-store media in their stores and allow manufacturers to advertise through the instore media. We show that opening in-store media is a strategic decision for a retailer, and a retailer may strategically subsidize manufacturers on their advertising through instore media to better coordinate the channel. Even ...

  8. Consumer behaviour in Apple's App Store

    OpenAIRE

    Ayalew, Romel

    2011-01-01

    Mobile applications stores such as Apple’s App Store and Google’s Android Market revolutionized the distribution of applications for mobile devices. However, with thousands of application submissions, limited testing resources and the lack of an effective filtering mechanism, application stores suffer from information overload and a risk of releasing poor quality applications that could create confusion to consumers and may seriously affect the App store markets. Thus concern has been raised ...

  9. Corner stores: the perspective of urban youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Sandra; Grode, Gabrielle; McCoy, Tara; Vander Veur, Stephanie S; Wojtanowski, Alexis; Sandoval, Brianna Almaguer; Foster, Gary D

    2015-02-01

    We examined the perspectives of low-income, urban youth about the corner store experience to inform the development of corner store interventions. Focus groups were conducted to understand youth perceptions regarding their early shopping experiences, the process of store selection, reasons for shopping in a corner store, parental guidance about corner stores, and what their ideal, or "dream corner store" would look like. Thematic analysis was employed to identify themes using ATLAS.ti (version 6.1, 2010, ATLAS.ti GmbH) and Excel (version 2010, Microsoft Corp). Focus groups were conducted in nine kindergarten-through-grade 8 (K-8) public schools in low-income neighborhoods with 40 fourth- to sixth-graders with a mean age of 10.9±0.8 years. Youth report going to corner stores with family members at an early age. By second and third grades, a growing number of youth reported shopping unaccompanied by an older sibling or adult. Youth reported that the products sold in stores were the key reason they choose a specific store. A small number of youth said their parents offered guidance on their corner store purchases. When youth were asked what their dream corner store would look like, they mentioned wanting a combination of healthy and less-healthy foods. These data suggest that, among low-income, urban youth, corner store shopping starts at a very young age and that product, price, and location are key factors that affect corner store selection. The data also suggest that few parents offer guidance about corner store purchases, and youth are receptive to having healthier items in corner stores. Corner store intervention efforts should target young children and their parents/caregivers and aim to increase the availability of affordable, healthier products. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Retail brand architecture and consumer store loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    is to investigate the relationship between consumers perceived retail brand architecture, their store satisfaction and loyalty. Furthermore we use perceived store image as a mediating factor in our framework. In total 772 Danish households participated in a telephone interview and returned questionnaires by mail....... The major contribution of this research is to conceptualise and empirically investigate the role of brand architecture for perceived store image, store satisfaction and loyalty....

  11. Alcoholic fermentation of stored sweet potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yutaka, Y; One, H

    1958-01-01

    Sweet potatoes were ground and stored in a ground hold. The stored sweet potatoes gave about 90% fermentation efficiency by the koji process. A lower fermentation efficiency by the amylo process was improved by adding 20 to 30 mg/100 ml of organic N. Inorganic N has no effect in improving the fermentation efficiency of the stored sweet potatoes by the amylo process.

  12. Mechanism of store-operated calcium entry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Activation of receptors coupled to the phospholipase C/IP3 signalling pathway results in a rapid release of calcium from its intracellular stores, eventually leading to depletion of these stores. Calcium store depletion triggers an influx of extracellular calcium across the plasma membrane, a mechanism known as the ...

  13. Rapid and slow pyrolysis of pistachio shell: effect of pyrolysis conditions on the product yields and characterization of the liquid product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putun, Ayse E [Department of Chemical Engineering, Anadolu University, Eskisehir 26470, (Turkey); Ozbay, Nurgul [Bozuyuk Vocational School, Anadolu University, Bozuyuk/Bilecik, (Turkey); Varol, Esin Apaydin; Uzun, Basak B; Ates, Fuda [Department of Chemical Engineering, Anadolu University, Eskisehir 26470, (Turkey)

    2006-10-30

    This study reports the experimental results for the pyrolysis of pistachio shell under different conditions in a tubular reactor under a nitrogen flow. For the different conditions of pyrolysis temperature, nitrogen flow rate and heating rate, pyrolysis temperature of 773 K gave the highest bio-oil yield with a value of 27.7% when the heating rate and carrier gas flow rate were chosen as 300 K min{sup -1} and 100 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1}, respectively. Column chromatography was applied to this bio-oil and its subfractions were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and 1H-NMR. Aliphatic subfraction was conducted to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy for further characterization. The results for the characterization show that using pistachio shell as a renewable source to produce valuable liquid products is applicable via pyrolysis. (Author)

  14. Physiology of Hibernating Larvae of the Pistachio Twig Borer, Kermania pistaciella Amsel (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), Collected from Akbari Cultivar of Pistacia vera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollaei, M; Izadi, H; Moharramipour, S; Behroozi Moghadam, E

    2017-02-01

    The pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella Amsel (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), a key pest of pistachio trees, is a monovoltine pest living inside the feeding tunnel of pistachio twigs for almost 10 months in a year and overwinters there as last instar larvae. In this study, we measured some physiological parameters of overwintering field collected larvae of the pest. There were no changes in trehalose, glucose, and myo-inositol contents, but there were differences in the levels of total simple sugar and glycogen during overwintering. Total sugar content at the beginning of overwintering (October) was at the lowest level (24.13 mg/g body weight) and reached to the highest level (55.22 mg/g fresh body weight) in November whereas glycogen content was at the highest level (44.05 mg/g fresh body weight) in October and decreased to 18.42 mg/g fresh body weight in November. Decrease in lipid content during the overwintering period was not significant. The highest and lowest levels of protein content were recorded in January and February, respectively. Supercooling points (SCP) of the overwintering larvae were stable and low (ranged between -17.80 and -25.10°C) throughout the cold season and no larva survived after SCP determination. The lowest cold hardiness (60 and 0.0% survival following exposure to -10 and -20°C/24 h, respectively) was observed for in November-collected larvae. Overwintering larvae of the pistachio twig borer rely mostly on maintaining the high supercooling capacity throughout the overwintering to avoid freezing of their body fluid.

  15. Cross-reactivity of antibodies with phenolic compounds in pistachios during quantification of ochratoxin A by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Meldrum, Alexander D; Rivera, Nicholas; Ryu, Dojin

    2014-10-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a nephrotoxic mycotoxin, naturally occurs in wide range of agricultural commodities. Typical screening of OTA involves various enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is a rich source of phenolic compounds that may result in a false positive due to structural similarities to OTA. The present study investigated the cross-reactivity profiles of phenolic compounds using two commercial ELISA test kits. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to confirm the concentration of OTA in the pistachio samples and compared with the results obtained from ELISA. When the degree of interaction and 50 % inhibitory concentration of phenolic compounds were determined, the cross-reactivity showed a pattern similar to that observed with the commercial ELSIA kits, although quantitatively different. In addition, the degree of interaction increased with the increasing concentration of phenolic compounds. The ELISA value had stronger correlations with the content of total phenolic compound, gallic acid, and catechin (R(2) = 0.757, 0.732, and 0.729, respectively) compared with epicatechin (R(2) = 0.590). These results suggest that phenolic compounds in pistachio skins may cross-react with the OTA antibody and lead to a false positive or to an overestimation of OTA concentration in ELISA-based tests.

  16. Identification of Phenolic Compounds in Red and Green Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Hulls (Exo- and Mesocarp) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-(HR)-MS(n).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erşan, Sevcan; Güçlü Üstündağ, Özlem; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2016-07-06

    Phenolic constituents of the nonlignified red and green pistachio hulls (exo- and mesocarp) were assessed by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) as well as by HR-MS. A total of 66 compounds was identified in the respective aqueous methanolic extracts. Among them, gallic acid, monogalloyl glucoside, monogalloyl quinic acid, penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose, hexagalloyl hexose, quercetin 3-O-galactoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-glucuronide, and (17:1)-, (13:0)-, and (13:1)-anacardic acids were detected at highest signal intensity. The main difference between red and green hulls was the presence of anthocyanins in the former ones. Differently galloylated hydrolyzable tannins, anthocyanins, and minor anacardic acids were identified for the first time. Pistachio hulls were thus shown to be a source of structurally diverse and potentially bioactive phenolic compounds. They therefore represent a valuable byproduct of pistachio processing having potential for further utilization as raw material for the recovery of pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and chemical products.

  17. Impacts of water stress, environment and rootstock on the diurnal behaviour of stem water potential and leaf conductance in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memmi, H.; Couceiro, J.F.; Gijón, C.; Pérez-López, D.

    2016-01-01

    Little information is available on the diurnal behaviour of water potential and leaf conductance on pistachio trees despite their relevance to fine tune irrigation strategies. Mature pistachio trees were subject to simultaneous measurements of stem water potential (Ψx) and leaf conductance (gl) during the day, at three important periods of the irrigation season. Trees were grown on three different rootstocks and water regimes. An initial baseline relating Ψx to air vapor pressure deficit (VPD) is presented for irrigation scheduling in pistachio. Ψx was closely correlated with VPD but with a different fit according to the degree of water stress. No evidence of the variation of Ψx in relation to the phenology of the tree was observed. Furthermore, midday Ψx showed more accuracy to indicate a situation of water stress than predawn water potential. Under well irrigated conditions, gl was positively correlated with VPD during stage II of growth reaching its peak when VPD reached its maximum value (around 4 kPa). This behaviour changed during stage III of fruit growth suggesting a reliance of stomatal behaviour to the phenological stage independently to the tree water status. The levels of water stress reached were translated in a slow recovery of tree water status and leaf conductance (more than 40 days). Regarding rootstocks, P. integerrima showed little adaptation to water shortage compared to the two other rootstocks under the studied conditions. (Author)

  18. The Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Suggests the Arrest of Recombination in the Largest Heteropycnotic Pair HC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola-Campoy, Pedro J; Robles, Francisca; Schwarzacher, Trude; Ruiz Rejón, Carmelo; de la Herrán, Roberto; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    This paper represents the first molecular cytogenetic characterization of the strictly dioecious pistachio tree (Pistacia vera L.). The karyotype was characterized by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes for 5S and 45S rDNAs, and the pistachio specific satellite DNAs PIVE-40, and PIVE-180, together with DAPI-staining. PIVE-180 has a monomeric unit of 176-178 bp and high sequence homology between family members; PIVE-40 has a 43 bp consensus monomeric unit, and is most likely arranged in higher order repeats (HORs) of two units. The P. vera genome is highly heterochromatic, and prominent DAPI positive blocks are detected in most chromosomes. Despite the difficulty in classifying chromosomes according to morphology, 10 out of 15 pairs (2n = 30) could be distinguished by their unique banding patterns using a combination of FISH probes. Significantly, the largest pair, designated HC1, is strongly heteropycnotic, shows differential condensation, and has massive enrichment in PIVE-40 repeats. There are two types of HC1 chromosomes (type-I and type-II) with differing PIVE-40 hybridization signal. Only type-I/II heterozygotes and type-I homozygotes individuals were found. We speculate that the differentiation between the two HC1 chromosomes is due to suppression of homologous recombination at meiosis, reinforced by the presence of PIVE-40 HORs and differences in PIVE-40 abundance. This would be compatible with a ZW sex-determination system in the pistachio tree.

  19. Impacts of water stress, environment and rootstock on the diurnal behaviour of stem water potential and leaf conductance in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssem Memmi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the diurnal behaviour of water potential and leaf conductance on pistachio trees despite their relevance to fine tune irrigation strategies. Mature pistachio trees were subject to simultaneous measurements of stem water potential (Ψx and leaf conductance (gl during the day, at three important periods of the irrigation season. Trees were grown on three different rootstocks and water regimes. An initial baseline relating Ψx to air vapor pressure deficit (VPD is presented for irrigation scheduling in pistachio. Ψx was closely correlated with VPD but with a different fit according to the degree of water stress. No evidence of the variation of Ψx in relation to the phenology of the tree was observed. Furthermore, midday Ψx showed more accuracy to indicate a situation of water stress than predawn water potential. Under well irrigated conditions, gl was positively correlated with VPD during stage II of growth reaching its peak when VPD reached its maximum value (around 4 kPa. This behaviour changed during stage III of fruit growth suggesting a reliance of stomatal behaviour to the phenological stage independently to the tree water status. The levels of water stress reached were translated in a slow recovery of tree water status and leaf conductance (more than 40 days. Regarding rootstocks, P. integerrima showed little adaptation to water shortage compared to the two other rootstocks under the studied conditions.

  20. Fast UPLC/PDA determination of squalene in Sicilian P.D.O. pistachio from Bronte: Optimization of oil extraction method and analytical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Andrea; La Torre, Giovanna Loredana; Di Stefano, Vita; Capocchiano, Valentina; Mangano, Valentina; Saija, Emanuele; Pellizzeri, Vito; Casale, Katia Erminia; Dugo, Giacomo

    2017-04-15

    A fast reversed-phase UPLC method was developed for squalene determination in Sicilian pistachio samples that entry in the European register of the products with P.D.O. In the present study the SPE procedure was optimized for the squalene extraction prior to the UPLC/PDA analysis. The precision of the full analytical procedure was satisfactory and the mean recoveries were 92.8±0.3% and 96.6±0.1% for 25 and 50mgL -1 level of addition, respectively. Selected chromatographic conditions allowed a very fast squalene determination; in fact it was well separated in ∼0.54min with good resolution. Squalene was detected in all the pistachio samples analyzed and the levels ranged from 55.45-226.34mgkg -1 . Comparing our results with those of other studies it emerges that squalene contents in P.D.O. Sicilian pistachio samples, generally, were higher than those measured for other samples of different geographic origins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. Suggests the Arrest of Recombination in the Largest Heteropycnotic Pair HC1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J Sola-Campoy

    Full Text Available This paper represents the first molecular cytogenetic characterization of the strictly dioecious pistachio tree (Pistacia vera L.. The karyotype was characterized by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH with probes for 5S and 45S rDNAs, and the pistachio specific satellite DNAs PIVE-40, and PIVE-180, together with DAPI-staining. PIVE-180 has a monomeric unit of 176-178 bp and high sequence homology between family members; PIVE-40 has a 43 bp consensus monomeric unit, and is most likely arranged in higher order repeats (HORs of two units. The P. vera genome is highly heterochromatic, and prominent DAPI positive blocks are detected in most chromosomes. Despite the difficulty in classifying chromosomes according to morphology, 10 out of 15 pairs (2n = 30 could be distinguished by their unique banding patterns using a combination of FISH probes. Significantly, the largest pair, designated HC1, is strongly heteropycnotic, shows differential condensation, and has massive enrichment in PIVE-40 repeats. There are two types of HC1 chromosomes (type-I and type-II with differing PIVE-40 hybridization signal. Only type-I/II heterozygotes and type-I homozygotes individuals were found. We speculate that the differentiation between the two HC1 chromosomes is due to suppression of homologous recombination at meiosis, reinforced by the presence of PIVE-40 HORs and differences in PIVE-40 abundance. This would be compatible with a ZW sex-determination system in the pistachio tree.

  2. A Comprehensive Study on the Effect of Roasting and Frying on Fatty Acids Profiles and Antioxidant Capacity of Almonds, Pine, Cashew, and Pistachio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeel Ali Ghazzawi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to evaluate the effects of frying and roasting on nuts. Frying and roasting were performed according to the local Jordanian home-made cuisine, and the nuts under experiment were raw almonds, pine, cashew, and pistachio. Nuts samples were roasted at 110°C for 16 minutes and fried at 175°C for 2.5 minutes. The results show that both roasting and frying of nuts did not affect the flavonoids content except for roasted pistachios where significant rise of flavonoids content was detected. Total phenolic content showed no significant differences except for pine nuts in which it increased significantly in both roasting and frying. Oxidative stability, presented by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH, was significantly different in all nuts except for pistachio nuts that have shown no differences. Fatty acids profile, presented by saturated fatty acids (SFA, oleic acid (OL, and essential fatty acids (EFA, was affected significantly by roasting and frying, especially for SFA in almonds and pine nuts and α-linoleic acid (ALA contents of pine. In conclusion, the effects of roasting and frying on the aforementioned nuts species were positive for fatty acids profile and antioxidants activity.

  3. Impacts of water stress, environment and rootstock on the diurnal behaviour of stem water potential and leaf conductance in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memmi, H.; Couceiro, J.F.; Gijón, C.; Pérez-López, D.

    2016-11-01

    Little information is available on the diurnal behaviour of water potential and leaf conductance on pistachio trees despite their relevance to fine tune irrigation strategies. Mature pistachio trees were subject to simultaneous measurements of stem water potential (Ψx) and leaf conductance (gl) during the day, at three important periods of the irrigation season. Trees were grown on three different rootstocks and water regimes. An initial baseline relating Ψx to air vapor pressure deficit (VPD) is presented for irrigation scheduling in pistachio. Ψx was closely correlated with VPD but with a different fit according to the degree of water stress. No evidence of the variation of Ψx in relation to the phenology of the tree was observed. Furthermore, midday Ψx showed more accuracy to indicate a situation of water stress than predawn water potential. Under well irrigated conditions, gl was positively correlated with VPD during stage II of growth reaching its peak when VPD reached its maximum value (around 4 kPa). This behaviour changed during stage III of fruit growth suggesting a reliance of stomatal behaviour to the phenological stage independently to the tree water status. The levels of water stress reached were translated in a slow recovery of tree water status and leaf conductance (more than 40 days). Regarding rootstocks, P. integerrima showed little adaptation to water shortage compared to the two other rootstocks under the studied conditions. (Author)

  4. Safety Case for Safe-store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woollam, Paul B.

    2002-01-01

    Magnox Electric plc (Magnox), a wholly owned subsidiary of BNFL, owns 26 gas-cooled, graphite-moderated units on 11 sites in the UK. Eight units have been permanently shutdown and the remainder will shut this decade in a currently declared closure programme. The first of these reactors went to power in 1952 and the fleet has generated typically 9% of the UK's electricity during the last five decades. In accordance with UK Government policy, BNFL aims for a systematic and progressive reduction in hazards on its decommissioning sites. The end-point of the decommissioning process is that the reactors will be dismantled and their sites de-licensed. This will be done through minimising both the risks to the public, workers and the environment and also the lifetime cost, consistent with world class safety. There will be passive safe storage during deferment periods and it is BNFL's clear intent that the reactors will not be Safe-stored indefinitely. The main hazard associated with any decommissioned nuclear site is the spent fuel. Hence the reactors will be de-fuelled as soon as practicable after shutdown. After this work is complete, Cs-137 contaminated plant (e.g. fuel pools, effluent plant, and drains) will be dismantled when it is no longer needed. All other plant and buildings will also be dismantled when they are no longer needed, except for the reactor buildings which will be put into passive safe storage. Co-60 contaminated plant, such as steam generators, will be dismantled with the reactors. The reactors will be dismantled in a sequenced programme, with a notional start time around 100 years from shutdown. Magnox Electric is ensuring that the reactors and primary circuits on all its sites are well characterised. We have carried out a detailed, peer reviewed hazard identification on the lead site from which we have generated a rolling 25-year basic safety case. We have then searched for cliff edge effects and possible long-term changes to generate the 100-year

  5. Slow, stopped and stored light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, G.; Scully, M.

    2005-01-01

    Light that can been slowed to walking pace could have applications in telecommunications, optical storage and quantum computing. Whether we use it to estimate how far away a thunderstorm is, or simply take it for granted that we can have a conversation with someone on the other side of the world, we all know that light travels extremely fast. Indeed, special relativity teaches us that nothing in the universe can ever move faster than the speed of light in a vacuum: 299 792 458 ms sup - sup 1. However, there is no such limitation on how slowly light can travel. For the last few years, researchers have been routinely slowing light to just a few metres per second, and have recently even stopped it dead in its tracks so that it can be stored for future use. Slow-light has considerable popular appeal, deriving perhaps from the importance of the speed of light in relativity and cosmology. If everyday objects such as cars or people can travel faster than 'slow' light, for example, then it might appear that relativistic effects could be observed at very low speeds. Although this is not the case, slow light nonetheless promises to play an important role in optical technology because it allows light to be delayed for any period of time desired. This could lead to all-optical routers that would increase the bandwidth of the Internet, and applications in optical data storage, quantum information and even radar. (U.K.)

  6. Gas storing and processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Takano, Yosoko.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the gas injection processing performance and obtain stable accumulation layers by increasing the thickness of the accumulation layers of amorphous alloy. Constitution: The gas storing processing device comprises a cylindrical vessel constituting an outer cathode for introducing gases to be processed, an inner cathode in which transition metal material and rare earth metal material as a sputtering target disposed in the vessel are combined by way of insulating material, an anode cover disposed to the upper portion of the vessel and an anode bottom disposed at the bottom thereof. It is adapted such that DC high voltage sources are connected respectively to the outer and the inner cathodes and sputtering voltage can be applied, removed and controlled independently to the transition metal and the rare earth metal of the inner cathode. This enables to control the composition ratio of the accumulation layers of amorphous alloy formed to the surface of the outer cathode, thereby enabling operation related with the gas injection ratio. (Sekiya, K.)

  7. Regression Association Analysis of Yield-Related Traits with RAPD Molecular Markers in Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Mirzaei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pistachio (Pistacia vera, a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East. The tree produces seeds that are widely consumed as food. Pistacia vera often is confused with other species in the genus Pistacia that are also known as pistachio. These other species can be distinguished by their geographic distributions and their seeds which are much smaller and have a soft shell. Continual advances in crop improvement through plant breeding are driven by the available genetic diversity. Therefore, the recognition and measurement of such diversity is crucial to breeding programs. In the past 20 years, the major effort in plant breeding has changed from quantitative to molecular genetics with emphasis on quantitative trait loci (QTL identification and marker assisted selection (MAS. The germplasm-regression-combined association studies not only allow mapping of genes/QTLs with higher level of confidence, but also allow detection of genes/QTLs, which will otherwise escape detection in linkage-based QTL studies based on the planned populations. The development of the marker-based technology offers a fast, reliable, and easy way to perform multiple regression analysis and comprise an alternative approach to breeding in diverse species of plants. The availability of many makers and morphological traits can help to regression analysis between these markers and morphological traits. Materials and Methods: In this study, 20 genotypes of Pistachio were studied and yield related traits were measured. Young well-expanded leaves were collected for DNA extraction and total genomic DNA was extracted. Genotyping was performed using 15 RAPD primers and PCR amplification products were visualized by gel electrophoresis. The reproducible RAPD fragments were scored on the basis of present (1 or absent (0 bands and a binary matrix constructed using each molecular marker. Association analysis between

  8. Nutrition environments in corner stores in Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Erica; Mallya, Giridhar; Brensinger, Colleen; Tierney, Ann; Glanz, Karen

    2013-02-01

    To examine the availability, quality, and price of key types of healthy and less-healthy foods found in corner stores in low-income urban neighborhoods and the associations between store characteristics and store food environments. A sample of 246 corner stores was selected from all corner stores participating in the Philadelphia Healthy Corner Store Initiative (HCSI). The Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Corner Stores (NEMS-CS) was used to assess the availability, quality, and price of foods and beverages in 11 common categories between February and May, 2011. NEMS-CS measures were completed in 233 stores, 94.7% of the 246 stores approached. The healthier options were significantly less available in all food categories and often more expensive. Baked goods, bread, chips and cereals were sold at nearly all stores, with significantly fewer offering low-fat baked goods (5.7%, pbread (56.2%, pfood environment and dietary choices among low-income urban populations. Availability of certain healthier foods could be improved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Light contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda Pena, William Enrique

    1998-01-01

    The article tries on the wrong use of the artificial light, of the main problems of the light contamination, dispersion of the light, noxious effects of the light contamination, ecological effects, effects on the man's biological rhythm, economic effects and effects about the civic and vial security, among other topics

  10. Pistachio oil (Pistacia vera L. cv. Uzun): Characterization of key odorants in a representative aromatic extract by GC-MS-olfactometry and phenolic profile by LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2018-02-01

    Volatile, aroma-active, and phenolic compounds of pistachio oil obtained from cv. Uzun were investigated in the current study. To obtain a representative aromatic extract, three of the most widely used extraction methods were compared using a representative test; the solvent-assisted flavour extraction (SAFE) aromatic extract from pistachio oil was found to be the most representative. A total of 50 aroma compounds were determined in pistachio oil and it was found that terpenes, aldehydes, and alcohols were the most abundant volatile compounds. Applying GC-MS-olfactometry and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) resulted in a total of 14 aroma-active areas being detected in the extract of pistachio oil. In the phenolic fraction obtained by the LC-ESI-MS/MS method, a total of 12 phenolic compounds was found in the pistachio oil, of which seven compounds were reported for the first time. Eriodictyol-7-O-glucoside and protocatechuic acid were the most dominant phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding Retailers’ Acceptance of Virtual Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Y.L. Chen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance of e-commerce among consumers has stimulated the rise of virtual stores. Increasing traditional retailers or people who do not have sufficient capital for maintaining a brick-and-mortar store have considered using virtual stores to reach global market. In the e-commerce literature, there has been rich research evidence concerning consumers’ acceptance of virtual stores. However, rigorous academic research on retailers’ acceptance of virtual stores is relatively scarce today. This study draws upon the theory of planned behavior and information richness theory to propose an integrated theoretical model. A field survey is used to collect data from e-tailers. The data are analyzed to examine the six relationships posited in the research model. Findings of this study provide a further research avenue for e-commerce, and implications for those who are managing or considering using virtual stores.

  12. Propagating separable equalities in an MDD store

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadzic, Tarik; Hooker, John N.; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We present a propagator that achieves MDD consistency for a separable equality over an MDD (multivalued decision diagram) store in pseudo-polynomial time. We integrate the propagator into a constraint solver based on an MDD store introduced in [1]. Our experiments show that the new propagator pro...... provides substantial computational advantage over propagation of two inequality constraints, and that the advantage increases when the maximum width of the MDD store increases....

  13. Signature-based store checking buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Vilas; Gurumurthi, Sudhanva

    2015-06-02

    A system and method for optimizing redundant output verification, are provided. A hardware-based store fingerprint buffer receives multiple instances of output from multiple instances of computation. The store fingerprint buffer generates a signature from the content included in the multiple instances of output. When a barrier is reached, the store fingerprint buffer uses the signature to verify the content is error-free.

  14. Customers' willingness to purchase new store brands

    OpenAIRE

    Zielke, Stephan; Dobbelstein, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify factors influencing customers’ willingness to purchase new store brands. Design/methodology/approach – The paper develops a 3 £ 3 design to investigate the impact of price and quality positioning on the willingness to purchase new store brands in five product groups. A total of 990 respondents completed a questionnaire about store brand perception, aspects of purchasing behavior and willingness to buy. Data are analyzed with analysis...

  15. Insect pests of stored grain products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of insects in stored products is a worldwide recognized problem. In this report chemical and physical methods to control insect infestations in stored products are discussed. Special attention is given to the use of ionizing radiation to control insect pests in stored grains. The radiosensitivity of the most common insect pests at their different developmental stages is presented and discussed. The conclusions of this review are compiled in an executive summary. 62 refs

  16. Organizational choices and financial performance: the case of company-owned stores, franchisee-owned stores and stores-within-a-store among French fashion retailers

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Amadieu; Karine Picot-Coupey; Jean-Laurent Viviani

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the governance and financial performance issues in the context of French Fashion retail companies. In this study, we analyze the influence of the organizational choices on the financial performance at the network level. We consider three forms used in isolation (company-owned stores, franchisee-owned stores and stores-within-a-store), three dually-organized forms (dual forms mixing two of the three forms) as well as a combined form associating the three ones. We study a ...

  17. Store Image: Scale implementation Part 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronel du Preez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the final in the three-part series regarding store image. The purposes of this article are to (1 implement the developed scale to assess whether it illustrates acceptable psychometric properties of reliability and validity, (2 assess the model fit of the developed scale and (3 formulate recommendations for future research. Results indicated that the Apparel Store Image Scale (ASIS show acceptable reliability and model fit. A refined definition of store image was proposed together with a Final Model of Apparel Store Image. Recommendations for future research are made.

  18. How the Measurement of Store Choice Behaviour Moderates the Relationship between Distance and Store Choice Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Cumberland, Flemming; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2013-01-01

    The influence of distance on consumer store choice behaviour has been considered in many studies. In that respect, frequency and budget share are frequently used methods of measurement to determine the consumer's store choice behavour. In this study, we propose that the significance of distance...... is influenced by the way in which store choice behaviour is conceptualized. A survey among 631 consuemrs was performed in order to examine the research proposition. Structural equation results suggest that the negative effect of distance on store choice behaviour is larger when store choice behaviour...... is measured as number of visits to a particular store than wehen store cjoice behaviour is measured as the percentage of budget spend at a particular store. Our results indicate that researchers should carefully consider the measurement of store choice behaviour when carrying out empirical research invlving...

  19. Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Training & Education Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Water Contamination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ...

  20. Combined effect of gamma radiation and an entomopathogenic nematode on some stored product pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Pests infesting stored foods are one of the most common economic problems. Stored product Pests can have a large economic impact on stored bulk grain and processed commodities (Hagstrum and Flinn, 1995). These insects can survive on small amounts of food that accumulate in inaccessible places, such as cracks and crevices, under perforated floors, and inside machinery, and may move from these refuges into packaged and bulk stored products (Campbell et al., 2004). The economic importance of stored product pests and health concerns are: 1-Stored product pests contaminate food far more than they consume. 2- They cause loss in the mass and quality of food. 3- They often cause serious damage to stored foods. 4- An entire stock may be lost if control measures are not employed. 5-Visible damage resulting from their feeding activity will cause food to be refused by consumers. In addition, seeds became invalid for planting. 6-The presence of large numbers of pests will cause food to be rejected by consumers. 7-The activity of stored product pests may lead to the growth of fungi which may be harmful to consumers. 8-Some insects produce benzo- quinones (odour chemicals) which may cause persistent disagreeable odour in commodities.

  1. Building Store Satisfaction Centred on Customer Retention in Clothing Retailing: Store Design and Ease of Shopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulden Turhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study’s research model suggests that store design and ease of shopping are associated with customer retention through a mediated pathway in which store design and ease of shopping influence perceived store satisfaction, which in turn, influences customer retention. This survey was administered to two separate clothing stores offered to either females or males (in total, 533 participants. Using structural equation modelling methodology, data was analysed to explain the interrelations among the variables in the model. The results of an empirical study of a sample of store shoppers revealed that store design and ease of shopping influence customer retention in an indirect way through customer perception of satisfaction with the store. In building store satisfaction that is centred on customer retention, store design and shopping ease differ in their relative influences. This difference is high for females, but for men as low as to be considered negligible in males. As a result, improving customers’ perceptions of store design and ease of shopping is a way to ensure store satisfaction support customer retention. The results of the study provide a new insight into the relationships by suggesting indirect effects of shopping ease and store design on consumer retention by their impacts on store satisfaction, rather than direct effects.

  2. Building Store Satisfaction Centred on Customer Retention in Clothing Retailing: Store Design and Ease of Shopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulden Turhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study’s research model suggests that store design and ease of shopping are associated with customer retention through a mediated pathway in which store design and ease of shopping influence perceived store satisfaction, which in turn, influences customer retention. This survey was administered to two separate clothing stores offered to either females or males (in total, 533 participants. Using structural equation modelling methodology, data was analysed to explain the interrelations among the variables in the model. The results of an empirical study of a sample of store shoppers revealed that store design and ease of shopping influence customer retention in an indirect way through customer perception of satisfaction with the store. In building store satisfaction that is centred on customer retention, store design and shopping ease differ in their relative influences. This difference is high for females, but for men as low as to be considered negligible in males. As a result, improving customers’ perceptions of store design and ease of shopping is a way to ensure store satisfaction support customer retention. The results of the study provide a new insight into the relationships by suggesting indirect effects of shopping ease and store design on consumer retention by their impacts on store satisfaction, rather than direct effects.

  3. (G6PD) in stored blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red blood cell viability in stored blood determines successful transfusion. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity has been shown to maintain red blood cell membrane integrity. This study was, therefore, aimed at estimating the G6PD activity in stored blood bags at the blood bank of the University of Nigeria ...

  4. Performance Determinants for Convenience Store Suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    Zainah Abdullah; Aznur Hajar Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) usage, internal relationship, supplier-retailer relationship, logistics services and inventory management on convenience store suppliers- performance. Data was collected from 275 convenience store managers in Malaysia using a set of questionnaire. The multiple linear regression results indicate that inventory management, supplier-retailer relationship, logistics services and internal relation...

  5. Apple iTunes music store

    OpenAIRE

    Lenzi, R.; Schmucker, M.; Spadoni, F.

    2003-01-01

    This technical report analyses the Apple iTunes Music Store and its success factors. Besides the technical aspects, user and customer aspects as well as content aspects are considered. Furthermore, iTunes Music Store's impact to online music distribution services is analysed and a short outlook to future music online distribution is given.

  6. Insect pest management in stored grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stored grain is vulnerable to attach by a variety of insect pests, that can generally be classified as external or internal feeders. Infestations primarily occur after grain is stored, though there is some evidence that infestations can occur in the field right before harvest. There are a variety of...

  7. Win-Win Strategies at Discount Stores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Deleersnyder (Barbara); M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); J-B.E.M. Steenkamp (Jan-Benedict); O. Koll (Oliver)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAn important development that contributes to store brands’ growing success in the grocery market is the increasing number of discount stores that sell predominantly own, private-label, brands. To fight private labels, manufacturers of national brands feel increasingly compelled to

  8. Nudging consumer behaviour in retail stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Abdulfatah

    2016-01-01

    -effectiveness of alternative interventions in retail store settings. In cooperation with a supermarket chain in Denmark, we manipulated food locations inside the store so that relatively low energy dense products were placed favorable shelf locations. The underlying theory for the experiment was the behavioral approach (so...

  9. Consumers' store choice behavior for fresh food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Consumers' preference for fresh food stores is analyzed. In particular the choice between supermarkets and specialized shops for purchasing fresh food is analyzed. Attention is given to the factors influencing this choice. For this purpose a number of research questions with respect to store choice

  10. Quantitative grading of store separation trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jamison, Kevin A

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available When a new store is integrated with an aircraft, it is necessary to verify that it separates safely for all possible release and emergency jettison scenarios. A large number of store separation analyses are required to comply with this requirement...

  11. Evaluation of Salt Tolerance in Commercial Cultivars Seedlings and Native Genotypes of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. under Controlled Conditions in Rafssanjan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Alipour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Iran, main pistachio cultivation areas are located in the edge of desert. The major problem of these areas is the salinity of soil and irrigation water, which affects the growth and performance of plants and reduce yield. Material and methods: In the present study, the effects of salinity on growth characteristics and mineral contents of seedlings of seven pistachio cultivars and three genotypes (Akbari, Ahmad-Aghaei, Kaleh-Ghoochi, Fandoghi, Badami, Ebrahimi, Seyfadini and G1, G2 and G3 genotypes were evaluated. The study was conducted in split plot based on randomized complete block design in three replications. The main plots were salinity levels of the irrigation water (0.6, 15 and 30 dS/m by adding sodium chloride to tap water, and the sub plots were the pistachio cultivars. After germination of seeds in the lab, the seedlings were transplanted into new vases in the greenhouse. At 3rd leaf stage, the salinity treatments were imposed for a period of four months. At the end of the experiment, all samples were collected for growth and cation contents of shoots and roots and data were analyzed by analysis of variance and correlation method, using SAS statistical software and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test was employed at probability level of 5%. Results and discussions: The results showed that increasing salinity levels reduced stem, root and leaf dry weight as well as stem height and diameter. Salinity also caused a reduction in leaf number and leaf area. At the salinity level of 30 dS/m, dry weights of root and leaf decreased by more than 70%. The length and diameter of seedlings were decreased by 17.2 % and 37.9 % under the mentioned condition. According to the measured growth characteristics, Akbari and Kaleh-Ghoochi, considered as fast growing cultivars, while G3 genotype and Seyfoddini cultivar were considered as slow growing cultivars. By increasing salinity, sodium and calcium concentrations in root, stem and leaf

  12. Vis-NIR hyperspectral imaging and multivariate analysis for prediction of the moisture content and hardness of Pistachio kernels roasted in different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Mohammadi Moghaddam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pistachio nut is one of the most delicious and nutritious nuts in the world and it is being used as a salted and roasted product or as an ingredient in snacks, ice cream, desserts, etc. (Maghsudi, 2010; Kashaninejad et al. 2006. Roasting is one of the most important food processes which provides useful attributes to the product. One of the objectives of nut roasting is to alter and significantly enhance the flavor, texture, color and appearance of the product (Ozdemir, 2001. In recent years, spectral imaging techniques (i.e. hyperspectral and multispectral imaging have emerged as powerful tools for safequality inspection of various agricultural commodities (Gowen et al., 2007. The objectives of this study were to apply reflectance hyperspectral imaging for non-destructive determination of moisture content and hardness of pistachio kernels roasted in different conditions. Materials and methods: Dried O’hadi pistachio nuts were supplied from a local market in Mashhad. Pistachio nuts were soaked in 5L of 20% salt solution for 20min (Goktas Seyhan, 2003. For roasting process, three temperatures (90, 120 and 150°C, three times (20, 35 and 50 min and three air velocities (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 m s-1 were applied. The moisture content of pistachio kernels was measured in triplicate using oven drying (3 gr samples at 105 °C for 12 hours. Uniaxial compression test by a 35mm diameter plastic cylinder, was made on the pistachio kernels, which were mounted on a platform. Samples were compressed at a depth of 2mm and speed of 30 mm min-1. A hyperspectral imaging system in the Vis-NIR range (400-1000 nm was employed. The spectral pre-processing techniques: first derivative and second derivative, median filter, Savitzkye-Golay, wavelet, multiplicative scatter correction (MSC and standard normal variate transformation (SNV were used. To make models at PLSR and ANN methods, ParLeS software and Matlab R2009a were used, respectively. The coefficient

  13. Store-operate-coherence-on-value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Ohmacht, Martin; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2014-11-18

    A system, method and computer program product for performing various store-operate instructions in a parallel computing environment that includes a plurality of processors and at least one cache memory device. A queue in the system receives, from a processor, a store-operate instruction that specifies under which condition a cache coherence operation is to be invoked. A hardware unit in the system runs the received store-operate instruction. The hardware unit evaluates whether a result of the running the received store-operate instruction satisfies the condition. The hardware unit invokes a cache coherence operation on a cache memory address associated with the received store-operate instruction if the result satisfies the condition. Otherwise, the hardware unit does not invoke the cache coherence operation on the cache memory device.

  14. Adsorption of U(VI) ions from aqueous solutions by activated carbon prepared from Antep pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donat, Ramazan; Erden, Kadriye Esen

    2017-01-01

    Antep pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) shells an abundant and low cost natural resource in Turkey was used to prepare activated carbon by physiochemical activation and carbon dioxide (CO_2) atmosphere as the activating agents at 700 C for 2 h. The adsorption equilibrium of U(VI) from aqueous solutions on such carbon has been studied using a batch system. The parameters that affect the U(VI) adsorption, such as particle size of adsorbent, contact time, of pH of the solution, and temperature, have been investigated and conditions have also been optimized. The equilibrium data for U(VI) ions' adsorption onto activated carbon well fitted to the Langmuir equation, with a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 8.68 mg/g, The Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms have been applied and the data correlated well with Freundlich model and that the adsorption is physical in nature (E_a=15.46 kJ/mol). Thermodynamic parameters [ΔH_s=11.33 kJ/mol, ΔS=0.084 kJ/molK, ΔG (293.15 K)=-13.29 kJ/mol] showed the endothermic heat of adsorption and the feasibility of the process.

  15. Column Chromatography Of Co(II), Zn(II) And Eu(III) Using Pistachio Shell And Different Mobile Phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Pistachio shell particles (0.5-1 mm) have been applied as the stationary phase for studying the column chromatography of Co(II), Zn(II) and Eu(III) at room temperature; 26 + - 1 oC. This solid sorbent has been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, infra-red spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Its surface area and percent of swelling have been also determined. Different eluting agents have been used for eluting the sorbed elements. The elution curves have been done from which the distribution coefficients (K d ), number of theoretical plates (N) and heights equivalent to theoretical plates (H) have been determined. Column performance studies have been conducted for a representative system under certain experimented conditions and Van Deemter equation has been applied. Thermodynamic studies have been applied and thermodynamic functions ( δG 0 ,δH 0 andδ S 0 ) have been calculated for this representative system by determining K d at three different room temperatures (18, 26 and 37 + - 1o C).

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on the extraction yield, antioxidant, and antityrosinase activities of pistachio green hull extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Ali; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitory of non-irradiated and irradiated pistachio green hull (PGH) extracts were investigated. After irradiation of PGH by different doses of gamma ray (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 kGy), their phenolic compounds were extracted by water. Antioxidant activities of extracts were examined by DPPH• and FRAP methods. The results showed that irradiation not only do not have negative effects on antioxidant activity but also it can increase the amount of total phenolic compounds of water extract in comparison with non-irradiated sample. Water extract of irradiated PGH at the dose of 30 kGy, showed the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH° test with EC50 equal to 289.0 ± 1.2 μg/ml. Irradiated (30 kGy) and non-irradiated water extracts had the highest antityrosinase activities with IC50 of 10.8 ± 1.1 and 11.9 ± 1.2 μg phenolic/ml, respectively. In addition, it was found that the water extract of irradiated PGH can prevent enzymatic browning in sliced raw potatoes. According to the antityrosinase potential of PGH extract, it may be suggested as an antibrowning agent in some foodstuffs or cosmetic products.

  17. Isolation of high quality RNA from pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) and other woody plants high in secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzam Jazi, Maryam; Rajaei, Saideh; Seyedi, Seyed Mahdi

    2015-10-01

    The quality and quantity of RNA are critical for successful downstream transcriptome-based studies such as microarrays and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). RNA isolation from woody plants, such as Pistacia vera, with very high amounts of polyphenols and polysaccharides is an enormous challenge. Here, we describe a highly efficient protocol that overcomes the limitations posed by poor quality and low yield of isolated RNA from pistachio and various recalcitrant woody plants. The key factors that resulted in a yield of 150 μg of high quality RNA per 200 mg of plant tissue include the elimination of phenol from the extraction buffer, raising the concentration of β-mercaptoethanol, long time incubation at 65 °C, and nucleic acid precipitation with optimized volume of NaCl and isopropyl alcohol. Also, the A260/A280 and A260/A230 of extracted RNA were about 1.9-2.1and 2.2-2.3, respectively, revealing the high purity. Since the isolated RNA passed highly stringent quality control standards for sensitive reactions, including RNA sequencing and real-time PCR, it can be considered as a reliable and cost-effective method for RNA extraction from woody plants.

  18. Field and Laboratory Investigation of USS3 Ultrasonic Sensors Capability for Non-contact Measurement of Pistachio Canopy Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Maghsoudi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electronic canopy characterization to determine structural properties is an important issue in tree crop management. Ultrasonic and optical sensors are the most used sensors for this purpose. The objective of this work was to assess the performance of an ultrasonic sensor under laboratory and field conditions in order to provide reliable estimations of distance measurements to apple tree canopies. To achieve this purpose, a methodology has been designed to analyze sensor performance in relation to foliage distance and to the effects of interference with adjacent sensors when working simultaneously. Results showed that the average error in distance measurement using the ultrasonic sensor in laboratory conditions was 0.64 cm. However, the increase of variability in field conditions reduced the accuracy of this kind of sensors when estimating distances to canopies. The average error in such situations was 3.19 cm. When analyzing interferences of adjacent sensors 30 cm apart, the average error was ±14.65 cm. When adjacent sensors were placed apart by 60 cm, the average error became 6.73 cm. The ultrasonic sensor tested has been proven to be suitable to estimate distances to the canopy in pistachio garden conditions when sensors are 60 cm apart or more and can, therefore, be used in a system to estimate structural canopy parameters in precision horticulture.

  19. A Software for soil quality conservation at organic waste disposal areas: The case of olive mill and pistachio wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doula, Maria; Sarris, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Hliaoutakis, Aggelos; Kydonakis, Aris; Argyriou, Lemonia; Theocharopoulos, Sid; Kolovos, Chronis

    2016-04-01

    For the sustainable reuse of organic wastes at agricultural areas, apart from extensive evaluation of waste properties and characteristics, it is of significant importance, in order to protect soil quality, to evaluate land suitability and estimate the correct application doses prior waste landspreading. In the light of this precondition, a software was developed that integrates GIS maps of land suitability for waste reuse (wastewater and solid waste) and an algorithm for waste doses estimation in relation to soil analysis, and in case of reuse for fertilization with soil analysis, irrigation water quality and plant needs. EU and legislation frameworks of European Member States are also considered for the assessment of waste suitability for landspreading and for the estimation of the correct doses that will not cause adverse effects on soil and also to underground water (e.g. Nitrate Directive). Two examples of software functionality are presented in this study using data collected during two LIFE projects, i.e. Prosodol for landspreading of olive mill wastes and AgroStrat for pistachio wastes.

  20. The Effect of Polyamine Applications on Root Enhancement of Pistachio Seedling Rootstocks of ‘Badamy-E- Riz’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sedaghat

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pistacia vera cv Badami-e-Riz is the most important and popular rootstock in Iran, which tolerate salinity soil and phytophthora fungi but its root is less affected. In addition this rootstock is susceptible to excessive B and water deficient. This rootstock has a taproot rooting system without any lateral root. So this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various concentrations and application methods of polyamines on root regeneration of transplanted bare-rooted ‘Badami-e-Riz’ pistachio rootstocks.The result showed that spermidine at concentration of 2 mM as foliar application method significantly enhanced root length and root diameter in ‘Badami-e-Riz’. Furthermore, the fresh weight of root was increased by 4 mM spermidine by foliar application and 2 mM spermidine by interaction of root tip cut and root dip method, significantly increased dry weight of root and root number in ‘Badami-e-Riz’. Besides, by the use of these chemicals, the survival percentage of seedlings was maintained in higher value. Results suggested that polyamine application was effective to increase lateral root formation and improved root regeneration. Therefore, it would be useful to help the survival of seedlings following transplanting.

  1. Column Chromatography Of Co(II), Zn(II) And Eu(III) Using Pistachio Shell And Different Mobile Phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Fattah, A A [Nuclear Chemistry Department, Radioisotopes Production Division, Hot Laboratories Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-07-01

    Pistachio shell particles (0.5-1 mm) have been applied as the stationary phase for studying the column chromatography of Co(II), Zn(II) and Eu(III) at room temperature; 26{sup +}-{sup 1}oC. This solid sorbent has been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, infra-red spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Its surface area and percent of swelling have been also determined. Different eluting agents have been used for eluting the sorbed elements. The elution curves have been done from which the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}), number of theoretical plates (N) and heights equivalent to theoretical plates (H) have been determined. Column performance studies have been conducted for a representative system under certain experimented conditions and Van Deemter equation has been applied. Thermodynamic studies have been applied and thermodynamic functions ( {delta}G{sup 0} ,{delta}H{sup 0} and{delta} S{sup 0}) have been calculated for this representative system by determining K{sub d} at three different room temperatures (18, 26 and 37{sup +}-{sup 1o}C)

  2. Adsorption of U(VI) ions from aqueous solutions by activated carbon prepared from Antep pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donat, Ramazan [Pamukkale Univ., Denizli (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry; Erden, Kadriye Esen [Pamukkale Univ., Kinikli-Denizli (Turkey). Denizli Vocational School of Technical Sciences

    2017-08-01

    Antep pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) shells an abundant and low cost natural resource in Turkey was used to prepare activated carbon by physiochemical activation and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) atmosphere as the activating agents at 700 C for 2 h. The adsorption equilibrium of U(VI) from aqueous solutions on such carbon has been studied using a batch system. The parameters that affect the U(VI) adsorption, such as particle size of adsorbent, contact time, of pH of the solution, and temperature, have been investigated and conditions have also been optimized. The equilibrium data for U(VI) ions' adsorption onto activated carbon well fitted to the Langmuir equation, with a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 8.68 mg/g, The Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms have been applied and the data correlated well with Freundlich model and that the adsorption is physical in nature (E{sub a}=15.46 kJ/mol). Thermodynamic parameters [ΔH{sub s}=11.33 kJ/mol, ΔS=0.084 kJ/molK, ΔG (293.15 K)=-13.29 kJ/mol] showed the endothermic heat of adsorption and the feasibility of the process.

  3. Consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G.; Barreira, Maria Madalena

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in the consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef. Partial Least Squares analysis is used for modelling the quality perception process. Results show that consumers perceived national branded...

  4. Beyond Promotion-Based Store Switching: Antecedents and Consequences of Systematic Multiple-Store Shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Gijsbrechts, E.; Campo, K.; Nisol, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that single-purpose multiple store shopping is not only driven by opportunistic, promotion-based motivations, but may also be part of a longer term shopping planning process based on stable store characteristics.Starting from a utility-maximizing shopping behavior model, we find that consumers systematically visit multiple stores to take advantage of two types of store complementarity.With 'fixed cost complementarity', consumers alternate visits to highly preferr...

  5. Using a Virtual Store As a Research Tool to Investigate Consumer In-store Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploydanai, Kunalai; van den Puttelaar, Jos; van Herpen, Erica; van Trijp, Hans

    2017-07-24

    People's responses to products and/or choice environments are crucial to understanding in-store consumer behaviors. Currently, there are various approaches (e.g., surveys or laboratory settings) to study in-store behaviors, but the external validity of these is limited by their poor capability to resemble realistic choice environments. In addition, building a real store to meet experimental conditions while controlling for undesirable effects is costly and highly difficult. A virtual store developed by virtual reality techniques potentially transcends these limitations by offering the simulation of a 3D virtual store environment in a realistic, flexible, and cost-efficient way. In particular, a virtual store interactively allows consumers (participants) to experience and interact with objects in a tightly controlled yet realistic setting. This paper presents the key elements of using a desktop virtual store to study in-store consumer behavior. Descriptions of the protocol steps to: 1) build the experimental store, 2) prepare the data management program, 3) run the virtual store experiment, and 4) organize and export data from the data management program are presented. The virtual store enables participants to navigate through the store, choose a product from alternatives, and select or return products. Moreover, consumer-related shopping behaviors (e.g., shopping time, walking speed, and number and type of products examined and bought) can also be collected. The protocol is illustrated with an example of a store layout experiment showing that shelf length and shelf orientation influence shopping- and movement-related behaviors. This demonstrates that the use of a virtual store facilitates the study of consumer responses. The virtual store can be especially helpful when examining factors that are costly or difficult to change in real life (e.g., overall store layout), products that are not presently available in the market, and routinized behaviors in familiar

  6. Stored Transuranic Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, T.L.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1970, INEL has provided interim storage capacity for transuranic (TRU)-contaminated wastes generated by activities supporting US national defense needs. About 60% of the nation's current inventory of TRU-contaminated waste is stored at INEL, awaiting opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the designated federal repository. A number of activities are currently underway for enhancing current management capabilities, conducting projects that support local and national TRU management activities, and preparing for production-level waste retrieval, characterization, examination, certification, and shipment of untreated TRU waste to WIPP in April 1998. Implementation of treatment capability is planned in 2003 to achieve disposal of all stored TRU-contaminated waste by a target date of December 31, 2015, but no later than December 31, 2018

  7. Buying in multiple stores : Shopping strategies beyond price promotions and their effects on Store Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbrechts, E.; Campo, K.; Nisol, P.

    2013-01-01

    Grocery-store switching has typically been viewed as evidence of cherry-picking behavior, with consumers switching stores to benefit from temporary promotional offers. However, research reveals that it may also result from a longer-term planning process based on stable store characteristics. Even in

  8. Distributed energy store railguns experiment and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Electromagnetic acceleration of projectiles holds the potential for achieving higher velocities than yet achieved by any other means. A railgun is the simplest form of electromagnetic macroparticle accelerator and can generate the highest sustained accelerating force. The practical length of conventional railguns is limited by the impedance of the rails because current must be carried along the entire length of the rails. A railgun and power supply system called the distributed energy store railgun was proposed as a solution to this limitation. The distributed energy store railgun used multiple current sources connected to the rails of a railgun at points distributed along the bore. These current sources (energy stores) are turned on in sequence as the projectile moves down the bore so that current is fed to the railgun from behind the armature. In this system the length of the rails that carry the full armature current is less than the total length of the railgun. If a sufficient number of energy stores is used, this removes the limitation on the length of a railgun. An additional feature of distributed energy store type railguns is that they can be designed to maintain a constant pressure on the projectile being accelerated. A distributed energy store railgun was constructed and successfully operated. In addition to this first demonstration of the distributed energy store railgun principle, a theoretical model of the system was also constructed

  9. NASA Armstrong's Approach to Store Separation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuff, Chris; Bui, Trong

    2015-01-01

    Presentation will an overview of NASA Armstrong's store separation capabilities and how they have been applied recently. Objective of the presentation is to brief Generation Orbit and other potential partners on NASA Armstrong's store separation capabilities. It will include discussions on the use of NAVSEP and Cart3D, as well as some Python scripting work to perform the analysis, and a short overview of this methodology applied to the Towed Glider Air Launch System. Collaboration with potential customers in this area could lead to funding for the further development of a store separation capability at NASA Armstrong, which would boost the portfolio of engineering expertise at the center.

  10. Polymeric proanthocyanidins from Sicilian pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nut extract inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, C; Allegra, M; Angileri, F; Pintaudi, A M; Livrea, M A; Tesoriere, L

    2012-04-01

    Positive effects of pistachio nut consumption on plasma inflammatory biomarkers have been described; however, little is known about molecular events associated with these effects. We studied the anti-inflammatory activity of a hydrophilic extract from Sicilian Pistacia L. (HPE) in a macrophage model and investigated bioactive components relevant to the observed effects. HPE oligomer/polymer proanthocyanidin fractions were isolated by adsorbance chromatography, and components quantified as anthocyanidins after acidic hydrolysis. Isoflavones were measured by gradient elution HPLC analysis. RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were pre-incubated with either HPE (1- to 20-mg fresh nut equivalents) or its isolated components for 1 h, then washed before stimulating with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 h. Cell viability and parameters associated with Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) activation were assayed according to established methods including ELISA, Western blot, or cytofluorimetric analysis. HPE suppressed nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production and inducible NO-synthase levels dose dependently, whereas inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release and decreased cyclo-oxygenase-2 content, the lower the HPE amount the higher the effect. Cytotoxic effects were not observed. HPE also caused a dose-dependent decrease in intracellular reactive oxygen species and interfered with the NF-κB activation. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, but not isoflavones, at a concentration comparable with their content in HPE, inhibited NO, PGE2, and TNF-α formation, as well as activation of IκB-α. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins showed only minor effects. Our results provide molecular evidence of anti-inflammatory activity of pistachio nut and indicate polymeric proanthocyanidins as the bioactive components. The mechanism may involve the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB. Potential effects associated with pistachio nut consumption are discussed in terms of the

  11. Molecular characterization of the rDNA-ITS sequence and a PCR diagnostic technique for Pileolaria terebinthi, the cause of pistachio rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein ALAEI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven samples of the most important pistachio rust (caused by Pileolaria terebinthi (DC. Cast.,, which causes disease on Beneh (Pistacia atlantica Desf. subsp. mutica (Fisch. & Mey. Rech. F and Kasoor (Pistacia khinjuk Stocks., were collected from herbarium specimens and pistachio fields at the Pistachio Research Institute in Rafsanjan, Iran. The complete sequences of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS2 (rDNA ITS from the samples were determined and analysed. In general, very little rDNA ITS sequence variation was observed between rDNA ITS sequences of P. terebinthi samples. The length of the PCR fragments was 621 bp (for ITS1F-ITS4 and 1177 bp (for ITS1F-rust1, and consisted of 67 bp at the 3 ́ end of 18S rDNA, 93 bp of ITS1 region, 154 bp of 5.8S rDNA, 246 bp of the ITS2 region, 57 bp (for ITS1F-ITS4 and 613 bp (for ITS1F-rust1 at the 5 ́ end of the 28S rDNA. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs of the rDNA-ITS region were used to identify Pileolaria terebinthi. Three strong bands of 105, 134 and 381 bp and five bands of 105, 134, 200, 301 and 437 bp are observed for the fragment of “ITS1F-ITS4” and “ITS1F-rust1”, respectively. A PCR-RFLP diagnostic technique provided effective identification of the species by a unique pattern with the specific restriction enzyme XapI (ApoI.

  12. A genome-wide transcriptome map of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) provides novel insights into salinity-related genes and marker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzzam Jazi, Maryam; Seyedi, Seyed Mahdi; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Ebrahimi, Mansour; De Moro, Gianluca; Botanga, Christopher

    2017-08-17

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most important commercial nut crops worldwide. It is a salt-tolerant and long-lived tree, with the largest cultivation area in Iran. Climate change and subsequent increased soil salt content have adversely affected the pistachio yield in recent years. However, the lack of genomic/global transcriptomic sequences on P. vera impedes comprehensive researches at the molecular level. Hence, whole transcriptome sequencing is required to gain insight into functional genes and pathways in response to salt stress. RNA sequencing of a pooled sample representing 24 different tissues of two pistachio cultivars with contrasting salinity tolerance under control and salt treatment by Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform resulted in 368,953,262 clean 100 bp paired-ends reads (90 Gb). Following creating several assemblies and assessing their quality from multiple perspectives, we found that using the annotation-based metrics together with the length-based parameters allows an improved assessment of the transcriptome assembly quality, compared to the solely use of the length-based parameters. The generated assembly by Trinity was adopted for functional annotation and subsequent analyses. In total, 29,119 contigs annotated against all of five public databases, including NR, UniProt, TAIR10, KOG and InterProScan. Among 279 KEGG pathways supported by our assembly, we further examined the pathways involved in the plant hormone biosynthesis and signaling as well as those to be contributed to secondary metabolite biosynthesis due to their importance under salinity stress. In total, 11,337 SSRs were also identified, which the most abundant being dinucleotide repeats. Besides, 13,097 transcripts as candidate stress-responsive genes were identified. Expression of some of these genes experimentally validated through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) that further confirmed the accuracy of the assembly. From this analysis, the contrasting expression pattern

  13. An Input–Output Energy and Economical Analysis of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. Production Systems in County of Zarand, Kerman Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R Amiri Deh Ahmadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. is one of the most important export crops of Iran which has an important role in non-petroleum exports and has over $800 million benefit per year. However, production of this crop faces many problems in main production centers, especially in energy efficiency and productivity. The pistachio is a native crop of Iran and Syria. The major producers of pistachio are Iran 55%, America 20%, Turkey 10%, Syria 9% and the other countries with 6%. Iran is the major producer of pistachio in the world with more than 60 % of global exports. Kerman Province with more than 270,000 ha under cultivation produces 77 percent of this crop. Moreover, Zarand county with more than 45,000 ha under cultivation plays a major role in the production of pistachio. Energy flow is one of the topics of agro-ecology in the world and energy output to input ratio is calculated in various agro-ecosystems. One of the indicators of agricultural development is energy flow. So, different studies in the world have been done to evaluate the energy efficiency in the agro-ecosystems. Studies on apricot (Armeniaca vulgris Lam. showed that energy efficiency can increase with appropriate management practices with minimum dependence on non-renewable energies. Energy consumption is divided into two parts in agriculture: direct and indirect energy. Direct energy is the fuel, machinery, electricity, energy required for cooling, heating, and lighting. Indirect energy includes the energy used in the production of fertilizers, seed production, machinery, and pesticides. Energy efficiency is an important factor in increasing productivity, especially in agricultural economy of developing countries. Although, many studies have been carried out on energy consumption in the agricultural systems, the analysis of the energy input required to produce pistachio is very low. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to determine the input and output energy

  14. Stored energy in irradiated silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, L.L.; Burchell, T.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This report presents a short review of the phenomenon of Wigner stored energy release from irradiated graphite and discusses it in relation to neutron irradiation of silicon carbide. A single published work in the area of stored energy release in SiC is reviewed and the results are discussed. It appears from this previous work that because the combination of the comparatively high specific heat of SiC and distribution in activation energies for recombining defects, the stored energy release of SiC should only be a problem at temperatures lower than those considered for fusion devices. The conclusion of this preliminary review is that the stored energy release in SiC will not be sufficient to cause catastrophic heating in fusion reactor components, though further study would be desirable.

  15. Boligmarkedet uden for de store byer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig; Andersen, Hans Thor; Haldrup, Karin

    landet som helhed, hvor den østjyske millionby og hovedstaden er migrationens mål. Dermed må der på steder langt fra de store byers infrastruktur og arbejdspladser forventes faldende eller meget begrænset efterspørgsel efter boliger. Det gælder især gamle, dårligt vedligeholdte boliger og boliger med...... og lokalpolitiske planer og indsatser. Tre casestudier belyser, hvordan man i lokalsamfund i tre kommuner uden for de store byer aktivt tager den udfordring op, som følger af en generel strukturændring med øget urbanisering og aldrende befolkning i områderne uden for de store byer. Med blandt andet...... nye samarbejdsformer mellem private, frivillige og kommunale aktører og aktivitets- og beboerhuse som base for foreningsaktivitet er det flere steder lykkedes at tiltrække tilflyttere til samfund langt uden for de store byer....

  16. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000806.htm Infant Formula - buying, preparing, storing, and feeding To use the sharing features on this page, ... brush to get at hard-to-reach places. Feeding Formula to Baby Here is a guide to ...

  17. Retailing: Careers in the Department Store Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gail M.

    1982-01-01

    The retailing industry is overviewed and executive training programs are detailed. Jobs in retailing are described: merchandising, department manager, assistant buyer, buyer, merchandise manager, and store manager. Also discussed are operations, financial control, and personnel management. (CT)

  18. Human Resources Operational Data Store Core Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database contains only a very small subset of the Human Resources Operational Data Store data. It supports the SSA Employee and Office Data Retrieval (SEODR)...

  19. Apparatus and method for monitoring stored material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, W.E.; Lewis, D.R.; Galloway, L.A.; Lowrey, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    Material, e.g. radioactive waste or other hazardous material, which is to be stored and monitored is placed within the innermost container of a series of nested containers and monitoring fluids are circulated in a closed loop of fluid flow through the spaces between the nested containers. Monitoring devices are used to analyse said monitoring fluids to detect leakage of the stored material from the innermost nested container and to detect the migration of external fluids into the series of nested containers. A computer based monitoring system continually checks the values of various parameters of the monitoring fluids to immediately detect and report the presence of stored material or external fluid in the monitoring fluids. The stored material may then be immediately retrieved from storage to repair leaks in the series of nested containers. (author)

  20. STRATEGI MARKET ENTRY CONVENIENCE STORE DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Respati Wulandari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa dan melihat strategi yang digunakan pada Convenience Store di Indonesia dengan mengambil 7-Eleven sebagai sumber field study dengan metode orientasi pasar. Pengaruh lifestyle menjadi indikator penunjang dalam perkembangan 7-Eleven ddengan menerapkan beberapa strategi yang mengena di market Indonesia, terutama bagi kalangan muda dimana diketahui memiliki indikasi terpenting dalam siklus lifestyle di Indonesia. Tujuan tercapai dengan mengetahui penerapan strategi yang digunakan sehingga dapat diterapkan dalam menjalankan strategi bisnis pada Convenience Store

  1. Torness delay is storing up trouble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavenagh, Andrew.

    1994-01-01

    A recent decision by the Scottish Office to delay planning permission for the construction of a 50 million dry store for spent nuclear fuel at Torness Power Station is proving frustrating and inexplicable to many in the nuclear industry. The possible reasons for this apparent about face in government policy on spent fuel management are debated and the economic ramifications of the decision for British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), if the store were to go ahead, are outlined. (UK)

  2. Contamination shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, W.; Pecornik, D.

    1982-01-01

    An acrylate resin is presented as contamination protection coating for components and instruments in nuclear facilities and for spent fuel transport containers. The resin is evaporated or sublimated at 130 0 C and can thus be removed easily from the protected component. The radioactive particles entrained during evaporation are retained by suitable filters. (TK) [de

  3. Cotton contamination

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Sluijs, MHJ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This review focusses on physical forms of contaminant including the presence, prevention and/or removal of foreign bodies, stickiness and seed-coat fragments rather than the type and quantity of chemical residues that might be present in cotton...

  4. Marketing practices of vapor store owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall; Gowin, Mary; Wann, Taylor Franklin

    2015-06-01

    We examined the marketing strategies for local vapor stores in a large metropolitan area in Oklahoma. Vapor store owners or managers (n = 33) participated in individual interviews regarding marketing practices in 2014. We asked owners about their marketing strategies and the groups they targeted. We transcribed the interviews and analyzed them for themes. Store owners used a variety of marketing strategies to bring new customers to their stores and keep current customers coming back. These marketing strategies showed many parallels to tobacco industry strategies. Most owners engaged in some form of traditional marketing practices (e.g., print media), but only a few used radio or television advertising because of budget constraints. Owners used social media and other forms of electronic communication, pricing discounts and specials, and loyalty programs. Owners also had booths at local events, sponsored community events, and hosted them in their stores. Owners attempted to target different groups of users, such as college students and long-term smokers. Local vapor store marketing practices closely resemble current and former tobacco industry marketing strategies. Surveillance of marketing practices should include local and Web-based strategies.

  5. Marketing Practices of Vapor Store Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Mary; Wann, Taylor Franklin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the marketing strategies for local vapor stores in a large metropolitan area in Oklahoma. Methods. Vapor store owners or managers (n = 33) participated in individual interviews regarding marketing practices in 2014. We asked owners about their marketing strategies and the groups they targeted. We transcribed the interviews and analyzed them for themes. Results. Store owners used a variety of marketing strategies to bring new customers to their stores and keep current customers coming back. These marketing strategies showed many parallels to tobacco industry strategies. Most owners engaged in some form of traditional marketing practices (e.g., print media), but only a few used radio or television advertising because of budget constraints. Owners used social media and other forms of electronic communication, pricing discounts and specials, and loyalty programs. Owners also had booths at local events, sponsored community events, and hosted them in their stores. Owners attempted to target different groups of users, such as college students and long-term smokers. Conclusions. Local vapor store marketing practices closely resemble current and former tobacco industry marketing strategies. Surveillance of marketing practices should include local and Web-based strategies. PMID:25880960

  6. The Key Points of Building an Online Store

    OpenAIRE

    Etuaro, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Online shopping is becoming more popular in Finland and online shopping sales levels have increased. There has been concern that brick and mortar stores are losing their customers to online stores and that Finnish stores are losing their customers to international online stores. One solution to this concern is that Finnish brick and mortar stores also start selling online. But how to build online stores? The aim of this thesis was to study about building an online store based on theory and...

  7. Association between store food environment and customer purchases in small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin E; Lenk, Kathleen; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Barnes, Timothy L; Harnack, Lisa; Erickson, Darin J; Laska, Melissa N

    2017-06-05

    Purchases at small/non-traditional food stores tend to have poor nutritional quality, and have been associated with poor health outcomes, including increased obesity risk The purpose of this study was to examine whether customers who shop at small/non-traditional food stores with more health promoting features make healthier purchases. In a cross-sectional design, data collectors assessed store features in a sample of 99 small and non-traditional food stores not participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN in 2014. Customer intercept interviews (n = 594) collected purchase data from a bag check and demographics from a survey. Store measures included fruit/vegetable and whole grain availability, an overall Healthy Food Supply Score (HFSS), healthy food advertisements and in-store placement, and shelf space of key items. Customer nutritional measures were analyzed using Nutrient Databases System for Research (NDSR), and included the purchase of ≥1 serving of fruits/vegetables; ≥1 serving of whole grains; and overall Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) score for foods/beverages purchased. Associations between store and customer measures were estimated in multilevel linear and logistic regression models, controlling for customer characteristics and store type. Few customers purchased fruits and vegetables (8%) or whole grains (8%). In fully adjusted models, purchase HEI-2010 scores were associated with fruit/vegetable shelf space (p = 0.002) and the ratio of shelf space devoted to healthy vs. less healthy items (p = 0.0002). Offering ≥14 varieties of fruit/vegetables was associated with produce purchases (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.2-12.3), as was having produce visible from the store entrance (OR 2.3 95% CI 1.0 to 5.8), but whole grain availability measures were not associated with whole grain purchases. Strategies addressing both customer demand and the availability of healthy food

  8. Product quality optimization in an integrated biorefinery: Conversion of pistachio nutshell biomass to biofuels and activated biochars via pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Işıtan, Seçil; Ceylan, Selim; Topcu, Yıldıray; Hintz, Chloe; Tefft, Juliann; Chellappa, Thiago; Guo, Jicheng; Goldfarb, Jillian L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis temperature key variable in manipulating biofuel quality. • Pyrolysis temperature does not impact activated biochar surface area. • Activation temperature key variable to optimize surface area of pistachio biochar. • Statistical model accurately predicts surface area of biochar, especially above 600 m"2/g. - Abstract: An economically viable transition to a renewable, sustainable energy future hinges on the ability to simultaneously produce multiple high value products from biomass precursors. Though there is considerable literature on the thermochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels and biochars, there are few holistic examinations that seek to understand trade-offs between biofuel quality and the associated pyrolysis conditions on activated carbons made from the resulting biochars. Using an Ordinary Least Squares regression analysis, this study probes the impact of pyrolysis and activation temperature on surface areas and pore volumes for 28 carbon dioxide-activated carbons. Activation temperature has the largest single impact of any other variable; increasing the temperature from 800 to 900 °C leads to an increase in surface area of more than 300 m"2/g. Contrary to some prior results, pyrolysis temperature has minimal effect on the resulting surface area and pore volume, suggesting that optimizing the temperature at which biofuels are extracted will have little impact on carbon dioxide-activated carbons. Increasing pyrolysis temperature increases methane formation but decreases gaseous hydrocarbons. Bio-oil obtained at lower pyrolysis temperatures shows fewer oxygenated compounds, indicating a greater stability, but higher pyrolysis temperatures maximize production of key biorefinery intermediaries such as furans. By analyzing data in such a holistic manner, it may be possible to optimize the production of biofuels and activated carbons from biomass by minimizing the amount of raw materials and energy necessary to maximize

  9. Store tobacco policies: a survey of store managers, California, 1996-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbaum, Z; Quinn, V; Rogers, T; Roeseler, A

    1999-01-01

    To identify store tobacco policies and retailer perception and beliefs that may have contributed to changes in compliance with youth access laws in California. In the winter of 1996-7, a cross sectional, follow up telephone survey was conducted of California store managers whose stores were anonymously surveyed for illegal tobacco sales in the summer of 1996 (that is, 1996 Youth Tobacco Purchase Survey, YTPS). A simple random sample of stores from a list of California stores likely to sell tobacco, used in the 1996 YTPS. 334 managers (77%) of the 434 stores surveyed in 1996 responded to the survey. After eliminating stores that stopped selling tobacco or were under new management or ownership, 320 responses of store managers were included in the analysis. The stores were analysed by type of ownership: chain, which included corporate managed (n = 61); franchise owned (n = 56); and independent (n = 203). Responses of store managers were linked with the 1996 YTPS outcomes. Manager responses were compared by chi2 tests. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify store factors associated with illegal tobacco sales. A lower likelihood of illegal sales rate was associated with the chain stores when compared with the independent stores (odds ratio (OR) = 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2 to 0.9). A lower likelihood of illegal tobacco sales was found in stores that implemented tobacco related activities in the previous year such as changing tobacco displays (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.9) or adding new warning signs (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.2). Store managers' beliefs that youth were sent to their stores to do compliance checks also resulted in a lower likelihood of illegal sales (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.1). Store tobacco youth access policies, and managers' beliefs about the extent of youth access enforcement in the community, are important in reducing illegal tobacco sales to minors.

  10. Senior's lifestyle and their store choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesakova Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To attract and retain customers, an understanding of their motives and reasons for selecting particular food and grocery store is needed. This is of particular importance in the growing segment of seniors. The size of the senior's market demands a better understanding of the older consumer. The aim of our study is to identify psychographic characteristics of the elderly consumer, and to indicate the lifestyle groups and the relationship between these groups and retail store attributes. Differences in the motives for patronizing specific food stores are analyzed for lifestyle groups. We use the lifestyle as a segmentation variable in the diverse population of seniors for the reason, that the lifestyle of the elderly provides more valuable information than chronological age alone. This information can be used by retailers to improve marketing strategies in order to appeal to a target group of senior shoppers. Empirical research is based on a self-administrated questionnaire aimed on the identification of the lifestyle characteristics and retail store attributes of the consumers in 65+ age, used for the choice of food purchasing retail stores. Lifestyles characteristics were measured by the respondents activities, interests and opinions (AIO. The results of the research indicate that there are differences among the lifestyle groups with significant differences in attitudes towards quality of products or internal store environment. Our research demonstrates the value of psychographic information over age alone regarding the patronage factors in store selection. Our study is a part of the research project VEGA 1/0612/12 'Determinants of the size, structure and tendences in the individual consumption of seniors'.

  11. Occupant Perceptions and a Health Outcome in Retail Stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Mingjie; Kim, Yang-Seon; Srebric, Jelena

    2015-11-02

    Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in commercial buildings, such as retail stores, can affect employee satisfaction, productivity, and health. This study administered an IEQ survey to retail employees and found correlations between measured IEQ parameters and the survey responses. The survey included 611 employees in 14 retail stores located in Pennsylvania (climate zone 5A) and Texas (climate zone 2A). The survey questionnaire featured ratings of different aspects of IEQ, including thermal comfort, lighting and noise level, indoor smells, overall cleanness, and environmental quality. Simultaneously with the survey, on-site physical measurements were taken to collect data of relative humidity levels, air exchange rates, dry bulb temperatures, and contaminant concentrations. This data was analyzed using multinomial logit regression with independent variables being the measured IEQ parameters, employees’ gender, and age. This study found that employee perception of stuffy smells is related to formaldehyde and PM10 concentrations. Furthermore, the survey also asked the employees to report an annual frequency of common colds as a health indicator. The regression analysis showed that the cold frequency statistically correlates with the measured air exchange rates, outdoor temperatures, and indoor PM concentrations. Overall, the air exchange rate is the most influential parameter on the employee perception of the overall environmental quality and self-reported health outcome.

  12. Determination of acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and spirotetramat and their relevant metabolites in pistachio using modified QuEChERS combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Mohammad; Noorbakhsh, Roya; Shafieyan, Hooshang; Ramezani, Mohammadkazem

    2018-02-01

    A QuEChERS based methodology was developed for the simultaneous identification and quantification of acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and spirotetramat and their relevant metabolites in pistachio by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. First, sample extraction was done with MeCN:citrate buffer:NaHCO 3 followed by phase separation with the addition of MgSO 4 :NaCl. The supernatant was then cleaned by a primary-secondary amine (PSA), GCB, and MgSO 4 . The proposed method provides a linearity in the range of 5-200µgL -1 , and the linear regression coefficients were higher than 0.99. LOD and LOQ were obtained to be 2 and 5µgkg -1 for the studied insecticides, respectively, with the exception of imidacloprid-olefin (5 and 10µgkg -1 ). Acceptable recoveries (91-110%) were obtained for all the analytes with good intra- and inter-precisions (0.4≥RSD ≤11.0). The method was then used for the pistachio samples collected from a field trial to estimate the maximum residue limits (MRLs) in next step. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Spatial Distribution of Trees on Density Estimation by Nearest Individual Sampling Method: Case Studies in Zagros Wild Pistachio Woodlands and Simulated Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Erfanifard

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Distance methods and their estimators of density may have biased measurements unless the studied stand of trees has a random spatial pattern. This study aimed at assessing the effect of spatial arrangement of wild pistachio trees on the results of density estimation by using the nearest individual sampling method in Zagros woodlands, Iran, and applying a correction factor based on the spatial pattern of trees. A 45 ha clumped stand of wild pistachio trees was selected in Zagros woodlands and two random and dispersed stands with similar density and area were simulated. Distances from the nearest individual and neighbour at 40 sample points in a 100 × 100 m grid were measured in the three stands. The results showed that the nearest individual method with Batcheler estimator could not calculate density correctly in all stands. However, applying the correction factor based on the spatial pattern of the trees, density was measured with no significant difference in terms of the real density of the stands. This study showed that considering the spatial arrangement of trees can improve the results of the nearest individual method with Batcheler estimator in density measurement.

  14. Physical and chemical properties of soils under some wild Pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf) canopies in a semi-arid ecosystem, southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owliaie, Hamidreza

    2010-05-01

    Pistacia atlantica Desf. is one of the most important wild species in Zagros forests which is of high economical and environmental value. Sustainability of these forests primarily depends on soil quality and water availability. Study the relationships between trees and soil is one of the basic factors in management and planning of forests. Hence, this study was undertaken with the objective of assessing the effect of tree species on soil physical and chemical properties in a semi-arid region (Kohgilouye Province) in the southwestern part of Iran. The experimental design was a factorial 4×2 (4 depths and 2 distances) in a randomized complete block design with six replications. Soil samples (0-20, 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm depth) were taken from beneath the tree crowns and adjacent open areas. Soil samples were analyzed for physical and chemical properties. The results showed that wild pistachio canopy increased mostly organic carbon, hydraulic conductivity, total N, SP, available K+, P (olsen), EC, EDTA extractable Fe2+ and Mn2+, while bulk density, CCE and DTPA extractable Cu2+ were decreased. Pistachio canopy had no significant effect on soil texture, Zn2+ and pH.

  15. Induction of apoptosis by pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) hull extract and its molecular mechanisms of action in human hepatoma cell line HepG2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathalizadeh, J; Bagheri, V; Khorramdelazad, H; Kazemi Arababadi, M; Jafarzadeh, A; Mirzaei, M R; Shamsizadeh, A; Hajizadeh, M R

    2015-11-30

    Several important Pistacia species such as P. vera have been traditionally used for treating a wide range of diseases (for instance, liver-related disorders). There is a relative lack of research into pharmacological aspects of pistachio hull. Hence, this study was aimed at investigating whether pistachio rosy hull (PRH) extract exerts apoptotic impacts on HepG2 liver cancer cell line. In order to evaluate cell viability and apoptosis in response to treatment with the extract, MTT assay and Annexin-V-fluorescein/propidium iodide (PI) double staining were performed, respectively. Moreover, molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by the extract was determined using human apoptosis PCR array. Our findings showed that PRH extract treatment reduced cell viability (IC50 ~ 0.3 mg/ml) in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the extract significantly induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. In addition, quantitative PCR array results demonstrated the regulation of a considerable number of apoptosis-related genes belonging to the TNF, BCL2, IAP, TRAF, and caspase families. We observed altered expression of both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes associated with the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathways. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of PRH possesses apoptotic activity through cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects on HepG2 cells.

  16. Investigating the Capability of IRS-P6-LISS IV Satellite Image for Pistachio Forests Density Mapping (case Study: Northeast of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, F.; Darvishsefat, A. A.; Zargham, N.

    2012-07-01

    In order to investigate the capability of satellite images for Pistachio forests density mapping, IRS-P6-LISS IV data were analyzed in an area of 500 ha in Iran. After geometric correction, suitable training areas were determined based on fieldwork. Suitable spectral transformations like NDVI, PVI and PCA were performed. A ground truth map included of 34 plots (each plot 1 ha) were prepared. Hard and soft supervised classifications were performed with 5 density classes (0-5%, 5-10%, 10-15%, 15-20% and > 20%). Because of low separability of classes, some classes were merged and classifications were repeated with 3 classes. Finally, the highest overall accuracy and kappa coefficient of 70% and 0.44, respectively, were obtained with three classes (0-5%, 5-20%, and > 20%) by fuzzy classifier. Considering the low kappa value obtained, it could be concluded that the result of the classification was not desirable. Therefore, this approach is not appropriate for operational mapping of these valuable Pistachio forests.

  17. The Synergist Effect of The Henna Plant, Lawsonia alba on Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki Against Third Larval Instar of Pistachio Leaf Borer, Ocneria terebinthina Strg. (Lep.: Lymanteriidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sheibani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocneria terebinthina Strg. (Lep.: Lymanteriidae is a leaf borer pest in pistachio orchard. The toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki alone and in combination with henna powder was investigated on third larval instar of O. terebinthina under laboratory conditions. Bioassay was carried out using spray technique on pistachio offshoot. Probit analysis of concentration-mortality data was conducted to estimate the LC50 value. The LC50 value of B. thuringiensis on third instar of larvae was estimated as 2817.30 ppm. The synergist effect of henna powder on efficacy of B. thuringiensis was also evaluated. Three concentrations of henna powder were combined with minimum lethal dose of B. thuringiensis against third larval instar. The results revealed that the henna powder had synergist effect on B. thuringiensis. The combination of B. thuringiensis and henna powder (6000 ppm caused 80.68% mortality, whereas B. thuringiensis alone caused 15.91% mortality. Our results suggested that henna powder can increase the efficacy of B. thuringiensis in controlling O. terebinthina in pest integrated management.

  18. Storing solid radioactive wastes at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, J.H.; Corey, J.C.

    1976-06-01

    The facilities and the operation of solid radioactive waste storage at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) are discussed in the report. The procedures used to segregate and the methods used to store radioactive waste materials are described, and the monitoring results obtained from studies of the movement of radionuclides from buried wastes at SRP are summarized. The solid radioactive waste storage site, centrally located on the 192,000-acre SRP reservation, was established in 1952 to 1953, before any radioactivity was generated onsite. The site is used for storage and burial of solid radioactive waste, for storage of contaminated equipment, and for miscellaneous other operations. The solid radioactive waste storage site is divided into sections for burying waste materials of specified types and radioactivity levels, such as transuranium (TRU) alpha waste, low-level waste (primarily beta-gamma), and high-level waste (primarily beta-gamma). Detailed records are kept of the burial location of each shipment of waste. With the attention currently given to monitoring and controlling migration, the solid wastes can remain safely in their present location for as long as is necessary for a national policy to be established for their eventual disposal. Migration of transuranium, activation product, and fission product nuclides from the buried wastes has been negligible. However, monitoring data indicate that tritium is migrating from the solid waste emplacements. Because of the low movement rate of ground water, the dose-to-man projection is less than 0.02 man-rem for the inventory of tritium in the burial trenches. Limits are placed on the amounts of beta-gamma waste that can be stored so that the site will require minimum surveillance and control. The major portion (approximately 98 percent) of the transuranium alpha radioactivity in the waste is stored in durable containers, which are amenable to recovery for processing and restorage should national policy so dictate

  19. Virtual store atmosphere in internet retailing: Measuring virtual retail store layout effects on consumer buying behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vrechopoulos, Adam P

    2001-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The research presented in this dissertation is concerned with the effects of the "virtual store atmosphere" on consumer buying behaviour within the context of Internet retailing. More specifically, the focus of this research is to investigate whether the virtual store layout, as a major virtual store atmosphere determinant, affects consumer buying behaviour during shopping activity w...

  20. Rethinking the grocery store: inclusive wayfinding system for visually impaired shoppers in grocery stores

    OpenAIRE

    Khattab, Doaa

    2015-01-01

    Many people with disabilities face considerable barriers while shopping in grocery stores.  One such barrier is that they cannot find their way around easily, especially when they visit the grocery store for the first time and have not yet built a cognitive map in their memory. They may also experience delays in finding the right product or waiting for assistance from store employees, thus leading them to rely on family, friends, relatives, or volunteers to help them with their shopping. Prob...

  1. Functional Store Image and Corporate Social Responsibility Image: A Congruity Analysis on Store Loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Jamaliah Mohd. Yusof; Rosidah Musa; Sofiah Abd. Rahman

    2011-01-01

    With previous studies that examined the importance of functional store image and CSR, this study is aimed at examining their effects in the self-congruity model in influencing store loyalty. In particular, this study developed and tested a structural model in the context of retailing industry on the self-congruity theory. Whilst much of the self-congruity studies have incorporated functional store image, there has been lack of studies that examined social responsibility i...

  2. Food and beverage purchases in corner stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin E; Lenk, Kathleen; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Barnes, Timothy L; Harnack, Lisa; Erickson, Darin J; Laska, Melissa N

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about customer purchases of foods and beverages from small and non-traditional food retailers (i.e. corner stores, gas-marts, dollar stores and pharmacies). The present study aimed to: (i) describe customer characteristics, shopping frequency and reasons for shopping at small and non-traditional food retailers; and (ii) describe food/beverage purchases and their nutritional quality, including differences across store type. Data were collected through customer intercept interviews. Nutritional quality of food/beverage purchases was analysed; a Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) score for purchases was created by aggregating participant purchases at each store. Small and non-traditional food stores that were not WIC-authorized in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN, USA. Customers (n 661) from 105 food retailers. Among participants, 29 % shopped at the store at least once daily; an additional 44 % shopped there at least once weekly. Most participants (74 %) cited convenient location as the primary draw to the store. Customers purchased a median of 2262 kJ (540 kcal), which varied by store type (P=0·04). The amount of added sugar far surpassed national dietary recommendations. At dollar stores, participants purchased a median of 5302 kJ (1266 kcal) for a median value of $US 2·89. Sugar-sweetened beverages were the most common purchase. The mean HEI-2010 score across all stores was 36·4. Small and non-traditional food stores contribute to the urban food environment. Given the poor nutritional quality of purchases, findings support the need for interventions that address customer decision making in these stores.

  3. Stored energy recovery of irradiated copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, R.T.; Chaplin, R.L.; Coltman, R.R. Jr.; Kerchner, H.R.; Klabunde, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    The stored energy released in Stage I recovery of reactor neutron irradiated copper was measured by differential thermal analysis calorimetry for three fluences up to a maximum of 3.5 x 10 18 n/cm 2 (E>0.1 MeV) after irradiation at temperatures of less than 10 K. The dependence of the stored energy upon fluence, and a tendency toward saturation, were observed. Theoretical reaction rate processes were compared directly with the experimental rates of stored energy release, and the parameters associated with the theory were compared with results from previous resistivity measurements. Good agreement was found for several parameters, but major differences with previous D + E substage results lead to the conclusion that the point defect model may not describe materials experiencing severe neutron damage. Computer studies of warmup rates were made for first and second order and for correlated recovery processes as a function of defect concentration and of external power input. First and second order processes show definite distortion in their recovery rate curves for high defect concentrations; the correlated recovery process shows a much less pronounced effect. This investigation of stored energy used several new approaches. The use of induced radioactivity within the sample as the heating source, and the use of computer generated theoretical stored energy release curves to analyze the data were unique. (author)

  4. Peranan Store Atmosphere Dalam Meningkatkan Keputusan Pembelian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rennyta Yusiana

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT Bandung is a destination for domestic and foreign tourists with culinary goals. There are many restaurants and cafes offering a variety of culinary tastes, ranging from culinary archipelago to abroad. Nowadays consumers are attracted to the restaurant and cafe with a different atmosphere. One of them is the Hummingbird Eatery which implementing store homey atmosphere, with the cozy interior and dominated by furniture made of wood. Atmosphere is an important factor for consumers in choosing where to dine and relax. Cozy atmosphere with unique decor and creative appeal to a restaurant that makes consumers visit. This study aims to determine consumer response regarding the role of Store Atmosphere in increasing consumer purchasing decisions. This type of research is descriptive and quantitative, using 100 samples. Data collection techniques used were questionnaires, observations, interviews, and literature studies. This study uses SPSS V.22 and simple linear regression. The results of this study indicate that the general interior becomes a major consideration as a benefit for consumers in making purchasing decisions apart from other sub variables store atmosphere. Managers can prioritize managing general interior more effectively, because consumers prefer it in the store atmosphere. Keywords: Store Atmosphere, Purchase Decision

  5. Storing data encoded DNA in living organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong,; Pak C. , Wong; Kwong K. , Foote; Harlan, P [Richland, WA

    2006-06-06

    Current technologies allow the generation of artificial DNA molecules and/or the ability to alter the DNA sequences of existing DNA molecules. With a careful coding scheme and arrangement, it is possible to encode important information as an artificial DNA strand and store it in a living host safely and permanently. This inventive technology can be used to identify origins and protect R&D investments. It can also be used in environmental research to track generations of organisms and observe the ecological impact of pollutants. Today, there are microorganisms that can survive under extreme conditions. As well, it is advantageous to consider multicellular organisms as hosts for stored information. These living organisms can provide as memory housing and protection for stored data or information. The present invention provides well for data storage in a living organism wherein at least one DNA sequence is encoded to represent data and incorporated into a living organism.

  6. Understanding Consumers' In-store Visual Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Jesper; Kristensen, Tore; Grønhaug, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the human brain has limited capacity for perceptual stimuli and consumers'' visual attention, when searching for a particular product or brand in a grocery store, should then be limited by the boundaries of their own perceptual capacity. In this exploratory study, we...... examine the relationship between abundant in-store stimuli and limited human perceptual capacity. Specifically, we test the influence of package design features on visual attention. Data was collected through two eye-tracking experiments, one in a grocery store using wireless eye-tracking equipment......, and another in a lab setting. Findings show that consumers have fragmented visual attention during grocery shopping, and that their visual attention is simultaneously influenced and disrupted by the shelf display. Physical design features such as shape and contrast dominate the initial phase of searching...

  7. Spin flipping a stored polarized proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caussyn, D.D.; Derbenev, Y.S.; Ellison, T.J.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Rinckel, T.; Schwandt, P.; Sperisen, F.; Stephenson, E.J.; von Przewoski, B.; Blinov, B.B.; Chu, C.M.; Courant, E.D.; Crandell, D.A.; Kaufman, W.A.; Krisch, A.D.; Nurushev, T.S.; Phelps, R.A.; Ratner, L.G.; Wong, V.K.; Ohmori, C.

    1994-01-01

    We recently studied the spin flipping of a vertically polarized, stored 139-MeV proton beam. To flip the spin, we induced an rf depolarizing resonance by sweeping our rf solenoid magnet's frequency through the resonance frequency. With multiple spin flips, we found a polarization loss of 0.0000±0.0005 per spin flip under the best conditions; this loss increased significantly for small changes in the conditions. Minimizing the depolarization during each spin flip is especially important because frequent spin flipping could significantly reduce the systematic errors in stored polarized-beam experiments

  8. System for handling and storing radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John K.; Lindemann, Paul E.

    1984-01-01

    A system and method for handling and storing spent reactor fuel and other solid radioactive waste, including canisters to contain the elements of solid waste, storage racks to hold a plurality of such canisters, storage bays to store these racks in isolation by means of shielded doors in the bays. This system also includes means for remotely positioning the racks in the bays and an access tunnel within which the remotely operated means is located to position a rack in a selected bay. The modular type of these bays will facilitate the construction of additional bays and access tunnel extension.

  9. Lightweight Tanks for Storing Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Single-walled, jacketed aluminum tanks have been conceived for storing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in LNG-fueled motor vehicles. Heretofore, doublewall steel tanks with vacuum between the inner and outer walls have been used for storing LNG. In comparison with the vacuum- insulated steel tanks, the jacketed aluminum tanks weigh less and can be manufactured at lower cost. Costs of using the jacketed aluminum tanks are further reduced in that there is no need for the vacuum pumps heretofore needed to maintain vacuum in the vacuum-insulated tanks.

  10. Store Location in Shopping Centers: Theory & Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry D. Vandell; Charles C. Carter

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops a formal theory of store location within shopping centers based on bid rent theory. The bid rent model is fully speci?ed and solved with the objective function of pro?t maximization in the presence of comparative, multipurpose and impulse shopping behavior. Several hypotheses result about the optimal relationships between store types, sizes, rents, sales, and distances from the mall center. The hypotheses are tested and con?rmed using data from a sample of 689 leases in ei...

  11. Method for storing radioactive combustible waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbee, H.W.; Lovelace, R.C.

    1973-10-01

    A method is described for preventing pressure buildup in sealed containers which contain radioactively contaminated combustible waste material by adding an oxide getter material to the container so as to chemically bind sorbed water and combustion product gases. (Official Gazette)

  12. Beyond Promotion-Based Store Switching : Antecedents and Consequences of Systematic Multiple-Store Shopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbrechts, E.; Campo, K.; Nisol, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that single-purpose multiple store shopping is not only driven by opportunistic, promotion-based motivations, but may also be part of a longer term shopping planning process based on stable store characteristics.Starting from a utility-maximizing shopping behavior

  13. The Journal of Stored-Products Research: The living history of stored product protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    This year, the Journal of Stored Products Research (JSPR) completes 52 years of history with publications of research papers. With approx. one hundred articles annually, the JSPR is an important scientific forum for stored product researchers throughout the globe. The aims and scope of JSPR are focu...

  14. Contamination Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the total organic carbon content in water is important in assessing contamination levels in high purity water for power generation, pharmaceutical production and electronics manufacture. Even trace levels of organic compounds can cause defects in manufactured products. The Sievers Model 800 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, based on technology developed for the Space Station, uses a strong chemical oxidizing agent and ultraviolet light to convert organic compounds in water to carbon dioxide. After ionizing the carbon dioxide, the amount of ions is determined by measuring the conductivity of the deionized water. The new technique is highly sensitive, does not require compressed gas, and maintenance is minimal.

  15. The influence of store image on customer satisfaction: a case study of a shoe store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarsis Souza Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of customers' image of a store is an essential factor in the management of retail outlets. This article presents a case study of the effect of the image customers have of a shoe store on their satisfaction, based on a descriptive and quantitative survey, with the application of a structured questionnaire. We then employed factor analysis to obtain seven store image factors: assortment, convenience, reputation, price, atmosphere, layout and service. The results show that the factor that most affects customer satisfaction in the store studied is service, and that atmosphere and layout have no effect in this respect. The results provide a better understanding of the role store image plays in customer satisfaction and loyalty.

  16. Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

    1980-04-23

    The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

  17. Convenience store sales forecasting - art before science?

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, SM; Browne, S

    2006-01-01

    The science of store location decision making and sales forecasting has received a huge degree of attention throughout retail management and retail geography research. This literature has focused on the conceptualisation of techniques for determining the optimal location and sales, primarily of the food supermarket.

  18. PERSONALITY INFLUENCES ON ONLINE STORES CUSTOMERS BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costinel DOBRE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Online customer behaviors include a wide range of processes and activities related to sensory reactions, perceptions, attitude formation, preferences, decisions, satisfaction evaluation, and loyalty formation. Online customer behaviors are influenced by exogenous and endogenous factors. Exogenous factors include attributes associated with the online retailer and the consumer’s environmental influences. Endogenous factors include characteristics attributed to consumers. Of these, personality has major influences on customer behavior in the online stores. In this paper we highlight the influences of personality on important decision making variables linked to the customer’s online visiting, buying and post purchase process. Thus, we intend to point out the influences of personality on the criteria used in evaluating stores, on expectations customers form towards stores, on the perception of store performance and the assessment of satisfaction. This will involve carrying out a survey, and its administration will be performed on the Internet. The sample under research will comprise respondents who own an account on the social network Facebook, assuming these respondents have time and are more likely to have purchased online at least once. The results of this study are useful both for academic researchers and practitioners engaged in online marketing, online communication and web design.

  19. Walmart Experimental Store Performance Stories: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Kozubal, E.; Norton, P.

    2010-08-01

    Walmart opened two experimental stores--one in Colorado and one in Texas--in 2005 to serve as test beds for several advanced building systems. Each embodied more than 50 experiments covering materials, water systems, energy systems, and renewable energy production. Walmart worked for three years with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the Colorado Store and Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Texas store to monitor, analyze, and report on their performance. HVAC experiments included waste oil boilers, a microturbine/absorption chiller combined heat and power system, evaporative cooling, and a transpired solar collector. The refrigeration systems integrated a medium-temperature secondary loop, evaporatively cooled condenser, doors on medium-temperature cases, and light-emitting diodes on cases. Experiments in the lighting systems included a redesigned roof for clerestory daylighting and T-5 fluorescent lamps. Three photovoltaic systems for a total of 135 kW and a 50-kW wind turbine are also included. The energy system performance was compared to the measured performance of a prototypical Walmart store and to other benchmarks.

  20. Charge and Energy Stored in a Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    Using a data-acquisition system, the charge and energy stored in a capacitor are measured and displayed during the charging/discharging process. The experiment is usable as a laboratory work and/or a lecture demonstration. (Contains 3 figures.)

  1. The Changing Face of the College Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Increased competition from Internet merchants, coupled with the swelling popularity of electronic books and skyrocketing textbook prices, is forcing the nation's college stores to get creative, find new ways to boost revenues, and drive sales of books and other merchandise to students and faculty. To make up for lost revenue as a result of…

  2. TO ALL USERS OF GAS FROM STORES

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL Division

    2002-01-01

    Users of gas from stores are requested to return empty gas containers (cylinders, etc.) as soon as possible after use. These containers belong to the supplier and are therefore subject to a hire charge. Gas users are invited to place the empty containers at the official delivery points, where they will be collected by the supplier. Thank you. SPL Division Logistics Group

  3. Energy stored in irradiated NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidiard, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    Recently reported measurements of the energy stored in heavily irradiated NaCl are reviewed in the light of recent understanding of radiation-damage processes in this material. It is shown that, in the ranges of temperatures and dose rates of these experiments, the F-centres produced by the irradiation are retained principally in the form of colloids: the stored energy is thus a direct measure of the number of F-centres retained in this form. Comparison of these results with the prediction of the recently proposed theory of colloid growth shows that the predictions of the dependence of colloid growth rates upon temperature and dose rate are qualitatively correct. The dependence of stored energy dose, however, appears to require the inclusion of a thermally activated back-reaction and possible modifications to the theory are briefly discussed. However, further experiments in this range of temperatures and dose rates are necessary for more quantitative tests of the theory. This reconsideration of the data does not alter the broad conclusion as to the relative insignificance of stored energy in a natural salt formation used as a radioactive waste repository, although more extensive measurements permitting a more exact test of theory would allow better predictions to be made for such applications. (author)

  4. Method for storing radioactive rare gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Atsushi; Nagao, Hiroyuki; Takiguchi, Yukio; Kanazawa, Toshio; Soya, Masataka.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To safely and securely store radioactive rare gases for a long period of time. Structure: The waste gases produced in nuclear power plant are cooled by a cooler and then introduced into a low temperature adsorbing device so that the gases are adsorbed by adsorbents, and then discharged into atmosphere through the purifying gas discharge line. When the radioactive rare gases reach a level of saturation in the amount of adsorption, they are heated and extracted by a suction pump and heated by a heater. The gases are then introduced into an oxygen-impurity removing device and the purified rare gases containing no oxygen and impurities are cooled by a cooler and fed into a gas holder. When the amount of radioactive rare gases stored within the gas holder reaches a given level, they are compressed and sealed by a compressure into a storing cylinder and residual gases in the piping are sucked and recovered into the gas holder, after which the cylinder is removed and stored in a fixed room. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Key Findings of AAP Store Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendes, Bob; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Results of the Association of American Publishers "College Bookstore Marketing Survey" in the fall of 1976 are summarized. The intent was to improve college textbook publisher services to college stores in the areas of order fulfillment, publication scheduling, print quantities, shipping, billing, and processing of returns. (LBH)

  6. Experimental verification of stored energy calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hann, C.R.; Christensen, J.A.; Lanning, D.D.; Marshall, R.K.; Williford, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A description is provided of irradiation tests designed to provide data needed to verify existing steady state fuel performance codes. The tests are being conducted in the Halden Reactor, and are designed to provide data pertinent to stored energy calculations over a range of linear heat ratings utilized in contemporary power reactors

  7. Column Stores as an IR Prototyping Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F. Mühleisen (Hannes); T. Samar (Thaer); J.J.P. Lin (Jimmy); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract. We make the suggestion that instead of implementing custom index structures and query evaluation algorithms, IR researchers should simply store document representations in a column-oriented relational database and write ranking models using SQL. For rapid prototyping, this is

  8. Safety analysis of ventilation and inspection operations on barrels in which spent fuel elements are stored

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, R.; Todorovic, D.; Plecas, I.

    2000-01-01

    Safety analysis of possible accident during performing ventilation and inspection operations on barrels in which spent fuel elements are stored has been proposed. Investigation is confined to a case when primary contamination is localized to the disposal room and controlled release of gaseous effluents to the atmosphere. 85 Kr is the most important radionuclide considered risk estimation due to release of gaseous fission products (author) [sr

  9. A Comparison of Customer Relationships between Large Chain Stores and Small Local Stores in the Fashion Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Krstevska, Biljana

    2017-01-01

    This research investigates customer relationships of two distinct store formats (small local stores and large chain stores) in the fashion industry. The aim is to find out if there are differences between the store formats regarding customer relationships. Relationship marketing theory was used to formulate hypotheses. Shoppers of small local stores and large chain stores in Würzburg, Germany, were surveyed to test the hypotheses. Results indicate that customer relationships significantly dif...

  10. The Strategic Management of Store Brand Perceived Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Defeng

    Store brand plays a vital role in the success of retailers. Perceived quality is one of important factors influencing consumers' store brand purchase intention. Store brand perceived quality is lower compared with objective quality or national brand. For this end, the purpose of this article is to examine how to manage store brand perceived quality in strategic level. This article firstly discusses how consumers evaluate product quality, and the theoretical background of the reason that store brand perceived quality is lower from the view of cue related theories. Then, consumers' store brand quality evaluation is explored. Finally, this article presents several strategic tactics to increase store brand perceived quality. These tactics include choosing store's name as store brand name, making large advertising investment, improving store brand product package, and strengthening the relationship with store brand product suppliers.

  11. Evaluating the use of in-store measures in retail food stores and restaurants in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Ana Clara; Lock, Karen; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess inter-rater reliability, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of retail food store, open-air food market, and restaurant observation tools adapted to the Brazilian urban context. METHODS This study is part of a cross-sectional observation survey conducted in 13 districts across the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil in 2010-2011. Food store and restaurant observational tools were developed based on previously available tools, and then tested it. They included measures on the availability, variety, quality, pricing, and promotion of fruits and vegetables and ultra-processed foods. We used Kappa statistics and intra-class correlation coefficients to assess inter-rater and test-retest reliabilities in samples of 142 restaurants, 97 retail food stores (including open-air food markets), and of 62 restaurants and 45 retail food stores (including open-air food markets), respectively. Construct validity as the tool’s abilities to discriminate based on store types and different income contexts were assessed in the entire sample: 305 retail food stores, 8 fruits and vegetable markets, and 472 restaurants. RESULTS Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were generally high, with most Kappa values greater than 0.70 (range 0.49-1.00). Both tools discriminated between store types and neighborhoods with different median income. Fruits and vegetables were more likely to be found in middle to higher-income neighborhoods, while soda, fruit-flavored drink mixes, cookies, and chips were cheaper and more likely to be found in lower-income neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS The measures were reliable and able to reveal significant differences across store types and different contexts. Although some items may require revision, results suggest that the tools may be used to reliably measure the food stores and restaurant food environment in urban settings of middle-income countries. Such studies can help .inform health promotion interventions and policies in these

  12. Transfer Factors for Contaminant Uptake by Fruit and Nut Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Minc, Leah D.

    2013-11-20

    Transfer of radionuclides from soils into plants is one of the key mechanisms for long-term contamination of the human food chain. Nearly all computer models that address soil-to-plant uptake of radionuclides use empirically-derived transfer factors to address this process. Essentially all available soil-to-plant transfer factors are based on measurements in annual crops. Because very few measurements are available for tree fruits, samples were taken of alfalfa and oats and the stems, leaves, and fruits and nuts of almond, apple, apricot, carob, fig, grape, nectarine, pecan, pistachio (natural and grafted), and pomegranate, along with local surface soil. The samples were dried, ground, weighed, and analyzed for trace constituents through a combination of induction-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis for a wide range of naturally-occurring elements. Analysis results are presented and converted to soil-to-plant transfer factors. These are compared to commonly used and internationally recommended values. Those determined for annual crops are very similar to commonly-used values; those determined for tree fruits show interesting differences. Most macro- and micronutrients are slightly reduced in fruits; non-essential elements are reduced further. These findings may be used in existing computer models and may allow development of tree-fruit-specific transfer models.

  13. Technology for reuse of contaminated concrete constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkhorst, I.P.; Cornelissen, H.A.W.

    1998-01-01

    During decommissioning activities of nuclear installations, large amounts of contaminated concrete will have to be processed. All this concrete has to be treated and stored as radioactive waste, which implies major economical and environmental consequences. It was shown that the contamination is mainly concentrated in the porous cement stone. By separating this cement stone from the clean dense aggregate particles, a considerable volume reduction can be reached. KEMA has developed, designed and constructed a pilot plant scale test installation for separation of aggregate from contaminated concrete. The separation is based on a thermal treatment followed by milling and sieving. The clean aggregate can be re-used in concrete, whereas the (slightly) contaminated cement stone could be upgraded to a binder for concrete used in the nuclear industry. (author)

  14. Contaminated metallic melt volume reduction testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichman, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory scale metallic melts (stainless steel) were accomplished in support of Decontamination and Decommissioning's (D and D) contaminated equipment volume reduction and Low-Level Lead Site Waste programs. Six laboratory scale melts made with contaminated stainless steel provided data that radionuclide distribution can be predicted when proper temperature rates and ranges are employed, and that major decontamination occurs with the use of designed slagging materials. Stainless steel bars were contaminated with plutonium, cobalt, cesium and europium. This study was limited to stainless steel, however, further study is desirable to establish data for other metals and alloys. This study represents a positive beginning in defining the feasibility of economical volume reduction or conversion from TRU waste forms to LLW forms for a large portion of approximately 50 thousand tons of contaminated metal waste now being stored at Hanford underground or in deactivated facilities

  15. Implementation plans for buried transuranic waste and stored special-case waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullock, M.G.; Rodriguez, R.R.

    1987-05-01

    This document presents the current implementation plans for buried transuranic waste and stored special-case waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information contained in this report was also included in several Department of Energy (DOE) planning documents for the Defense Transuranic Waste Program. This information can be found in the following DOE documents: Comprehensive Implementation Plan for the DOE Defense Buried TRU Waste Program; Defense Waste Management Plan for Buried Transuranic-Contaminated Waste, Transuranic-Contaminated Waste, Transuranic-Contaminated Soil, and Difficult-to-Certify Transuranic Waste; and Defense Special-Case Transuranic Waste Implementation Plan. 11 refs

  16. Pricing of Staple Foods at Supermarkets versus Small Food Stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin E; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Harnack, Lisa J; Erickson, Darin J; Lenk, Kathleen; Laska, Melissa N

    2017-08-15

    Prices affect food purchase decisions, particularly in lower-income communities, where access to a range of food retailers (including supermarkets) is limited. The aim of this study was to examine differences in staple food pricing between small urban food stores and the closest supermarkets, as well as whether pricing differentials varied based on proximity between small stores and larger retailers. In 2014, prices were measured for 15 staple foods during store visits in 140 smaller stores (corner stores, gas-marts, dollar stores, and pharmacies) in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN and their closest supermarket. Mixed models controlling for store type were used to estimate the average price differential between: (a) smaller stores and supermarkets; (b) isolated smaller stores (>1 mile to closest supermarket) and non-isolated smaller stores; and (c) isolated smaller stores inside versus outside USDA-identified food deserts. On average, all items except white bread were 10-54% more expensive in smaller stores than in supermarkets ( p Prices were generally not significantly different in isolated stores compared with non-isolated stores for most items. Among isolated stores, there were no price differences inside versus outside food deserts. We conclude that smaller food stores have higher prices for most staple foods compared to their closest supermarket, regardless of proximity. More research is needed to examine staple food prices in different retail spaces.

  17. Re-thinking the store image study approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2001-01-01

    Store image has traditionally been of interest in the Western markets. Studies of store image have also assessed the image of one or a few competing stores. This paper develops an approach to capture store images of an entire retail sector, an issue of importance when enter-ing the new emerging...

  18. Distributed energy store railguns experiment and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, L. D.

    1984-02-01

    Electromagnetic acceleration of projectiles holds the potential for achieving higher velocities than yet achieved by any other means. A railgun is the simplest form of electromagnetic macroparticle accelerator and can generate the highest sustained accelerating force. The practical length of conventional railguns is limited by the impedance of the rails because current must be carried along the entire length of the rails. A railgun and power supply system called the distributed energy store railgun was proposed as a solution to this limitation. A distributed energy storage railgun was constructed and successfully operated. In addition to this demonstration of the distributed energy store railgun principle, a theoretical model of the system was also constructed. A simple simulation of the railgun system based on this model, but ignoring frictional drag, was compared with the experimental results. During the process of comparing results from the simulation and the experiment, the effect of significant frictional drag of the projectile on the sidewalls of the bore was observed.

  19. Accelerating and storing polarized hadron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1990-10-01

    Polarization hadron experiments at high energies continue to generate surprises. Many questions remain unanswered or unanswerable within the frame work of QCD. These include such basic questions as to why at high energies the polarization analyzing power in pp elastic scattering remains high, why hyperons are produced with high polarizations etc. It is, therefore, interesting to investigate the possibilities of accelerating and storing polarized beams in high energy colliders. On the technical side the recent understanding and confirmation of the actions of partial and multiple Siberian snakes made it possible to contemplate accelerating and storing polarized hadron beams to multi-TeV energies. In this paper, we will examine the equipment, the operation and the procedure required to obtain colliding beams of polarized protons at TeV energies

  20. Storing Data Flow Monitoring in Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiou, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    The on-line data flow monitoring for the CMS data acquisition system produces a large amount of data. Only 5% of data is stored permanently in a relational database due to performance issues and the cost for using dedicated infrastructure (e.g. Oracle systems). In a commercial environment, companies and organizations need to find new innovative approaches to process such big volumes of data, known as “big data”. The Big Data approach is trying to address the problem of a large and complex collection of data sets that become difficult to handle using traditional data processing applications. Using these new technologies, it should be possible to store all the monitoring information for a time window of months or a year. This report contains an initial evaluation of Hadoop for storage of data flow monitoring and subsequent data mining.

  1. Salmonella Dublin kan give store tab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad

    2012-01-01

    Store besætninger lider størst økonomisk tab ved infektion med Salmonella Dublin. Selv i en veldrevet besætning kan tabet løbe op i mellem 1,3 og 3,3 millioner kr. over en tiårs periode. Ved uhensigtsmæssige hygiejne- og managementrutiner kan tabet nemt blive meget højere.......Store besætninger lider størst økonomisk tab ved infektion med Salmonella Dublin. Selv i en veldrevet besætning kan tabet løbe op i mellem 1,3 og 3,3 millioner kr. over en tiårs periode. Ved uhensigtsmæssige hygiejne- og managementrutiner kan tabet nemt blive meget højere....

  2. The Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, K.D.; Ward, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    A mobile robot system called Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI) is under development by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Robotics Group of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) to perform mandated inspections of waste drums stored in warehouse facilities. The system will reduce personnel exposure to potential hazards and create accurate, high-quality documentation to ensure regulatory compliance and enhance waste management operations. Development work is coordinated among several Department of Energy (DOE), academic, and commercial entities in accordance wit DOE's technology transfer initiative. The prototype system, SWAMI I, was demonstrated at Savannah River Site (SRS) in November, 1993. SWAMI II is now under development for field trails at the Fernald site

  3. Inefficiency of Data Storing in Physical Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaruddin Malik Mohamad; Sapiee Haji Jamel; Mustafa Mat Deris

    2009-01-01

    Memory forensic is important in digital investigation. The forensic is based on the data stored in physical memory that involve memory management and processing time. However, the current forensic tools do not consider the efficiency in terms of storage management and the processing time. This paper shows the high redundancy of data found in the physical memory that cause inefficiency in processing time and memory management. The experiment is done using Borland C compile...

  4. Swedish subseabed store - phase 1 nears completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daglish, James

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the storage of radioactive waste in the subseabed in Sweden. The wastes are low- and intermediate-level reactor wastes arising from the Swedish nuclear power programme. The repository is a cavern which has been excavated under the seabed in the Baltic Sea, about a kilometre out from shore. The specifications of the repository are given, along with the volume of the radioactive wastes to be stored in it. (UK)

  5. Apparatus for storing and processing fissionable substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubovsky, B.G.; Bogatyrev, V.K.; Vladykov, G.M.; Sviridenko, V.Y.

    1974-01-01

    An apparatus is described for storing and processing fissionable substances in which there is provided a protective shield in the form of a layer of neutron absorbing material located in direct proximity to a vessel with a fissionable substance contained therein. The layer of neutron retarding material according to the present invention has alternating projections and depressions facing the layer of neutron-absorbing material. (author)

  6. Device Stores and Discharges Metered Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, S. L.; Setzer, D.

    1983-01-01

    Hand-held container accepts measured amount of liquid from pressurized supply. Supply pressure drives spring-loaded piston that stores enough mechanical energy to discharge measured liquid into another container. Original application of container was to rehydrate sterilized pre-packaged food in zerogravity environment of space vehicles. Possible terrestrial applicatios include dispensing of toxic fluids or metering of fluids for household, commercial or laboratory uses.

  7. The effect of diets containing pistachio by products treated with electron irradiation, NaOH, and PEG on nutrients digestibility and performance of finishing Zandi lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Moradi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction It has been estimated that PBP production based on fresh weight in Iran is over 400,000 MT annually. Pistachio by-products consist of 53.50% external hull (epicarp with the remaining composed of leaves, mesocarp and kernel. The results of few studies showed feeding of low levels of PBP had no effects on sheep, dairy cow and goat performance. Ensiled of PBP with PEG, NaOH and urea then treated by electron irradiation could be caused to better nutrition value via deactivation of tannins. The aim of this study was to survey the effect of diets containing pistachio by products treated by electron irradiation, NaOH, and PEG on nutrients digestibility and performance of finishing Zandi lambs. Materials and methods Twenty male Zandi lambs with the initial average body weight of 21±1.52 kg were housed in individual pens and were allocated to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design for 70 days. The basal diet consisted of 220 g/kg DM PBP, 130 g/kg DM wheat straw and 650 g/kg DM barley based concentrate. The four dietary treatments included control diet (Treatment 1; basal diet containing 22% PB, ER-PBP (Treatment 2; containing 22% electron irradiated PBP, NaOH-PBP (Treatment 3; containing 22% NaOH treated PBP and PEG-PBP (Treatment 4; PEG added to basal diet as 15 g/kg of diets DM. Throughout the 70 d experiment, body weight was measured weekly. Feed intake and ort of lambs were recorded and sampled daily for determination of nutrient intake of DM, CP (N × 6.25, EE and NDF as describes before. Apparent total digestibility of nutrients was estimated by the marker ratio technique using acid insoluble ash (AIA as an internal marker. Blood samples (10 ml were taken from jugular vein of lambs before morning feeding on d 70 of experiment. The serum concentrations of total protein (TP, albumin, creatinine, glucose and urea were determined using commercial laboratory kits (Pars Azmun Laboratory, Tehran, Iran and an auto analyzer

  8. A new species of Megalommum Szépligeti (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae); a parasitoid of the pistachio longhorn beetle (Calchaenesthes pistacivora Holzschuh; Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Achterberg, C.; Mehrnejad, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Megalommum Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Braconinae), reared from the pistachio longhorn beetle (Calchaenesthes pistacivora Holzschuh; Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is described and illustrated. The genera Curreia Ashmead, 1900 and Endovipio Turner, 1922 are new synonyms of Megalommum Szépligeti, 1900. Notes on the biology of Megalommum pistacivorae sp. n. and a key to the West Palaearctic and Oriental species are added. The following new combinations are given: Megalommum xanthoceps (Fahringer, 1928), comb. n., Megalommum jacobsoni (Tobias, 1968), comb. n., Megalommum ayyari (Watanabe, 1950), comb. n., Megalommum philippinense (Baker, 1917), comb. n., Megalommum dodecanesi(Ferrière, 1922), comb. n., Megalommum ceresense (Turner, 1922), comb. n., Megalommum inareatum (Granger, 1949), comb. n., Megalommum antefurcale (Szépligeti, 1915) comb. n. and Megalommum tibiale (Ashmead, 1906), comb. n. PMID:21976987

  9. Efficacy and fumigation characteristics of ozone in stored maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kells, S A.; Mason, L J.; Maier, D E.; Woloshuk, C P.

    2001-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of ozone as a fumigant to disinfest stored maize. Treatment of 8.9tonnes (350bu) of maize with 50ppm ozone for 3d resulted in 92-100% mortality of adult red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), adult maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.), and larval Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) and reduced by 63% the contamination level of the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus Speare on the kernel surface. Ozone fumigation of maize had two distinct phases. Phase 1 was characterized by rapid degradation of the ozone and slow movement through the grain. In Phase 2, the ozone flowed freely through the grain with little degradation and occurred once the molecular sites responsible for ozone degradation became saturated. The rate of saturation depended on the velocity of the ozone/air stream. The optimum apparent velocity for deep penetration of ozone into the grain mass was 0.03m/s, a velocity that is achievable in typical storage structures with current fans and motors. At this velocity 85% of the ozone penetrated 2.7m into the column of grain in 0.8d during Phase 1 and within 5d a stable degradation rate of 1ppm/0.3m was achieved. Optimum velocity for Phase 2 was 0.02m/s. At this velocity, 90% of the ozone dose penetrated 2.7m in less than 0.5d. These data demonstrate the potential usefulness of using ozone in managing stored maize and possibly other grains.

  10. Treatment of plutonium contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    Three kinds of plutonium contaminations were considered: skin contamination; contaminated wounds; contamination by inhalation. The treatment of these contaminations was studied for insoluble (oxide and metal forms) and soluble plutonium (complexes). The use of DTPA and therapeutic problems encountered with stable plutonium complexes were analyzed. The new possibilities of internal decontamination using Puchel and LICAM were evaluated [fr

  11. Toxicological and biochemical characterizations of AChE in phosalone-susceptible and resistant populations of the common pistachio psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Ali; Talebi-Jahromi, Khalil; Hosseininaveh, Vahid; Ghadamyari, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The toxicological and biochemical characteristics of acetylcholinesterases (AChE) in nine populations of the common pistachio psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were investigated in Kerman Province, Iran. Nine A. pistaciae populations were collected from pistachio orchards, Pistacia vera L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), located in Rafsanjan, Anar, Bam, Kerman, Shahrbabak, Herat, Sirjan, Pariz, and Paghaleh regions of Kerman province. The previous bioassay results showed these populations were susceptible or resistant to phosalone, and the Rafsanjan population was most resistant, with a resistance ratio of 11.3. The specific activity of AChE in the Rafsanjan population was significantly higher than in the susceptible population (Bam). The affinity ( KM ) and hydrolyzing efficiency ( Vmax ) of AChE on acetylthiocholine iodide, butyrylthiocholine iodide, and propionylthiocholine odide as artificial substrates were clearly lower in the Bam population than that in the Rafsanjan population. These results indicated that the AChE of the Rafsanjan population had lower affinity to these substrates than that of the susceptible population. The higher Vmax value in the Rafsanjan population compared to the susceptible population suggests a possible over expression of AChE in the Rafsanjan population. The in vitro inhibitory effect of several organophosphates and carbamates on AChE of the Rafsanjan and Bam populations was determined. Based on I50, the results showed that the ratios of AChE insensitivity of the resistant to susceptible populations were 23 and 21.7-fold to monocrotophos and phosphamidon, respectively. Whereas, the insensitivity ratios for Rafsanjan population were 0.86, 0.8, 0.78, 0.46, and 0.43 for carbaryl, eserine, propoxur, m-tolyl methyl carbamate, and carbofuran, respectively, suggesting negatively correlated sensitivity to organophosphate-insensitive AChE. Therefore, AChE from the Rafsanjan population showed

  12. Design, development and evaluation of an online grading system for peeled pistachios equipped with machine vision technology and support vector machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Nouri-Ahmadabadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an intelligent system based on combined machine vision (MV and Support Vector Machine (SVM was developed for sorting of peeled pistachio kernels and shells. The system was composed of conveyor belt, lighting box, camera, processing unit and sorting unit. A color CCD camera was used to capture images. The images were digitalized by a capture card and transferred to a personal computer for further analysis. Initially, images were converted from RGB color space to HSV color ones. For segmentation of the acquired images, H-component in the HSV color space and Otsu thresholding method were applied. A feature vector containing 30 color features was extracted from the captured images. A feature selection method based on sensitivity analysis was carried out to select superior features. The selected features were presented to SVM classifier. Various SVM models having a different kernel function were developed and tested. The SVM model having cubic polynomial kernel function and 38 support vectors achieved the best accuracy (99.17% and then was selected to use in online decision-making unit of the system. By launching the online system, it was found that limiting factors of the system capacity were related to the hardware parts of the system (conveyor belt and pneumatic valves used in the sorting unit. The limiting factors led to a distance of 8 mm between the samples. The overall accuracy and capacity of the sorter were obtained 94.33% and 22.74 kg/h, respectively. Keywords: Pistachio kernel, Sorting, Machine vision, Sensitivity analysis, Support vector machine

  13. Gene Disruption Technologies Have the Potential to Transform Stored Product Insect Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkin, Lindsey C; Adrianos, Sherry L; Oppert, Brenda

    2016-09-19

    Stored product insects feed on grains and processed commodities manufactured from grain post-harvest, reducing the nutritional value and contaminating food. Currently, the main defense against stored product insect pests is the pesticide fumigant phosphine. Phosphine is highly toxic to all animals, but is the most effective and economical control method, and thus is used extensively worldwide. However, many insect populations have become resistant to phosphine, in some cases to very high levels. New, environmentally benign and more effective control strategies are needed for stored product pests. RNA interference (RNAi) may overcome pesticide resistance by targeting the expression of genes that contribute to resistance in insects. Most data on RNAi in stored product insects is from the coleopteran genetic model, Tribolium castaneum, since it has a strong RNAi response via injection of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) in any life stage. Additionally, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) technology has been suggested as a potential resource for new pest control strategies. In this review we discuss background information on both gene disruption technologies and summarize the advances made in terms of molecular pest management in stored product insects, mainly T. castaneum, as well as complications and future needs.

  14. Gene Disruption Technologies Have the Potential to Transform Stored Product Insect Pest Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey C. Perkin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stored product insects feed on grains and processed commodities manufactured from grain post-harvest, reducing the nutritional value and contaminating food. Currently, the main defense against stored product insect pests is the pesticide fumigant phosphine. Phosphine is highly toxic to all animals, but is the most effective and economical control method, and thus is used extensively worldwide. However, many insect populations have become resistant to phosphine, in some cases to very high levels. New, environmentally benign and more effective control strategies are needed for stored product pests. RNA interference (RNAi may overcome pesticide resistance by targeting the expression of genes that contribute to resistance in insects. Most data on RNAi in stored product insects is from the coleopteran genetic model, Tribolium castaneum, since it has a strong RNAi response via injection of double stranded RNA (dsRNA in any life stage. Additionally, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR technology has been suggested as a potential resource for new pest control strategies. In this review we discuss background information on both gene disruption technologies and summarize the advances made in terms of molecular pest management in stored product insects, mainly T. castaneum, as well as complications and future needs.

  15. RETHINKING THE GROCERY STORE: INCLUSIVE WAYFINDING SYSTEM FOR VISUALLY IMPAIRED SHOPPERS IN GROCERY STORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Khattab

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Many people with disabilities face considerable barriers while shopping in grocery stores.  One such barrier is that they cannot find their way around easily, especially when they visit the grocery store for the first time and have not yet built a cognitive map in their memory. They may also experience delays in finding the right product or waiting for assistance from store employees, thus leading them to rely on family, friends, relatives, or volunteers to help them with their shopping. Problems start when these people are not available, in which case the individual is forced to cancel their visit to the grocery store and reschedule the trip. Grocery stores include many different zones and services, the aisles area being one of the main barriers to access for people with different disabilities. This area features many different sections such as canned goods, dry packaged goods, spices, drinks and snacks, baking supplies, baby items, cereals, cleaning products, pet supplies, and health and beauty items. For visually impaired individuals, however, it can be hard to reach these various sections and find the relevant products. The objective of this research is to design an inclusive and innovative wayfinding system in grocery stores for visually impaired shoppers in order to help them find the center zone, orient between different aisles, decide where to go, move easily between different sections, and select products with ease. The research approach will be based on the literature review and the application of the Delphi method.

  16. Alternatives Generation Analysis Long Length Contaminated Equipment Removal System Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Major pieces of Characterization sampling equipment are currently stored outdoors. This includes the Long Length Contaminated Equipment receiver trailer and transportation trailer. A decision is required to determine the preferred alternative for facilities to store and maintain this equipment. The Long Length Contaminated Equipment Removal System (LLCERS) consists of many tools, mechanisms, and controllers currently stored in various locations. Much of this equipment should be protected from the elements while being stored. Some of the LLCERS equipment should be protected with some kind of roof cover. This decision analysis is to determine the best alternative for weather protection for the large equipment requiring a cover. Additional details are included in Sections 2.0 and 5.0. Key assumptions used in this analysis are detailed in Section 3.2

  17. Atypical Aspergillus parasiticus isolates from pistachio with aflR gene nucleotide insertion identical to Aspergillus sojae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are the most toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced primarily by the filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The toxins cause devastating economic losses because of strict regulations on distribution of contaminated products. Aspergillus sojae are...

  18. HOW IN-STORE MARKETING AFFECTS PURCHASE AND SALESMAN’S RECOMMENDATION RATE IN TELECOM RETAIL STORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melik Karabıyıkoglu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors study in-store marketing for telecom retail stores in GSM sector in Turkey which handset manufacturers practice special application in stores for increasing purchasing and improving suggestion rates of their products. They develop a theoretical model of dealers, and manufacturers behavior based on observations about key aspects of the mobile phone market. The analysis provides important insights about in-store marketing and their applications. For example, owner of the store and salesmen would like to support in-store marketing applications of manufacturers in spite of operators’s in-store rules. The authors find empirical support when they test the theoretical results.

  19. Contamination vs. Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... into the environment can cause air, water, surfaces, soil, plants, buildings, people, or animals to become contaminated. ... water to remove contamination. This process is called decontamination. Try to avoid spreading contamination to parts of ...

  20. Radiation contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tsutomu; Iba, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    To make sure of no contamination on people, used articles and working uniforms coming out of the radiation controlled area, nuclear power plants are equipped with radioactive contamination monitors. This paper outlines the basic specifications and advantages of our personnel surface contamination monitors to inspect whole-body surface contamination of people coming out, article surface contamination monitors to inspect the surface and inside contamination of used articles brought out, laundry monitors to inspect surface contamination of working uniforms used in the area before and after a wash, and whole-body counters to inspect and measure the internal contamination of a person out of the area. (author)