WorldWideScience

Sample records for contaminated mining sites

  1. Financing Renewable Energy Projects on Contaminated Lands, Landfills, and Mine Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information concerning financing tools and structures, as well as federal financial incentives that may be available for redeveloping potentially contaminated sites, landfills, or mine sites for renewable energy for site owners.

  2. Decision support methods for the environmental assessment of contamination at mining sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Gyozo; Abdaal, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    Polluting mine accidents and widespread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe and elsewhere has triggered the improvement of related environmental legislation and of the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Mining has some unique features such as natural background pollution associated with natural mineral deposits, industrial activities and contamination located in the three-dimensional sub-surface space, the problem of long-term remediation after mine closure, problem of secondary contaminated areas around mine sites and abandoned mines in historic regions like Europe. These mining-specific problems require special tools to address the complexity of the environmental problems of mining-related contamination. The objective of this paper is to review and evaluate some of the decision support methods that have been developed and applied to mining contamination. In this paper, only those methods that are both efficient decision support tools and provide a 'holistic' approach to the complex problem as well are considered. These tools are (1) landscape ecology, (2) industrial ecology, (3) landscape geochemistry, (4) geo-environmental models, (5) environmental impact assessment, (6) environmental risk assessment, (7) material flow analysis and (8) life cycle assessment. This unique inter-disciplinary study should enable both the researcher and the practitioner to obtain broad view on the state-of-the-art of decision support methods for the environmental assessment of contamination at mine sites. Documented examples and abundant references are also provided.

  3. Legacy soil contamination at abandoned mine sites: making a case for guidance on soil protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostarelos, Konstantinos; Gavriel, Ifigenia; Stylianou, Marinos; Zissimos, Andreas M; Morisseau, Eleni; Dermatas, Dimitris

    2015-03-01

    Within the European Union, guidance in the form of a uniform Soil Directive does not exist and member states are left to enact their own legislation governing historic soil contamination. Several historic or "legacy" sites exist in Cyprus - an EU member state with a long history of mining and a significant number of abandoned mining sites. The gold-silver enrichment plant of Mitsero village was abandoned 70 years ago, yet soil samples inside and outside the plant were extremely low in pH, exhibited high leachability of heavy metals and high cyanide levels. Water samples collected from an ephemeral stream located down-gradient of the site contained high levels of heavy metals. Two abandoned open-pit mines (Kokkinopezoula and Mathiatis) were investigated, where elevated metal content in soil samples from the surrounding streams and spoil heaps, and extremely low pH and high metal content in water samples from the mine crater were measured.

  4. Modeling the emission, transport and deposition of contaminated dust from a mine tailing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovern, Michael; Betterton, Eric A; Sáez, A Eduardo; Villar, Omar Ignacio Felix; Rine, Kyle P; Russell, Mackenzie R; King, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Mining operations are potential sources of airborne particulate metal and metalloid contaminants through both direct smelter emissions and wind erosion of mine tailings. The warmer, drier conditions predicted for the Southwestern US by climate models may make contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosols increasingly important, due to potential deleterious effects on human health and ecology. Dust emissions and dispersion of contaminants from the Iron King Mine tailings in Dewey-Humboldt, Arizona, a Superfund site, are currently being investigated through in situ field measurements and computational fluid dynamics modeling. These tailings are significantly contaminated with lead and arsenic with an average soil concentration of 1616 and 1420 ppm, respectively. Similar levels of these contaminants have also been measured in soil samples taken from the area surrounding the mine tailings. Using a computational fluid dynamics model, we have been able to model dust transport from the mine tailings to the surrounding region. The model includes a distributed Eulerian model to simulate fine aerosol transport and a Lagrangian approach to model fate and transport of larger particles. In order to improve the accuracy of the dust transport simulations both regional topographical features and local weather patterns have been incorporated into the model simulations.

  5. Contaminants in surface water and sediments near the Tynagh silver mine site, County Galway, Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, A. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Phillips, D.H., E-mail: d.phillips@qub.ac.uk [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Bowen, J. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Sen Gupta, B. [School of the Built Environment, Hariot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    A former silver mine in Tynagh, Co. Galway, Ireland is one of the most contaminated mine sites in Europe with maximum concentrations of Zn, As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Cd far exceeding guideline values for water and sediment. The aims of this research were to 1) further assess the contamination, particularly metals, in surface water and sediment around the site, and 2) determine if the contamination has increased 10 years after the Environmental Protection Agency Ireland (EPAI) identified off-site contamination. Site pH is alkaline to neutral because CaCO{sub 3}-rich sediment and rock material buffer the exposed acid generating sulphide-rich ore. When this study was compared to the previous EPAI study conducted 10 years earlier, it appeared that further weathering of exposed surface sediment had increased concentrations of As and other potentially toxic elements. Water samples from the tailings ponds and adjacent Barnacullia Stream had concentrations of Al, Cd, Mn, Zn and Pb above guideline values. Lead and Zn concentrations from the tailings pond sediment were 16 and 5 times higher, respectively, than concentrations reported 10 years earlier. Pb and Zn levels in most sediment samples exceeded the Expert Group (EGS) guidelines of 1000 and 5000 mg/kg, respectively. Arsenic concentrations were as high as 6238 mg/kg in the tailings ponds sediment, which is 62 and 862 times greater than the EGS and Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines (CSQG), respectively. Cadmium, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations in water and sediment were above guideline values downstream of the site. Additionally, Fe, Mn and organic matter (OM) were strongly correlated and correlated to Zn, Pb, As, Cd, Cu and Ni in stream sediment. Therefore, the nearby Barnacullia Stream is also a significant pathway for contaminant transport to downstream areas. Further rehabilitation of the site may decrease the contamination around the area. - Highlights: • Tynagh silver mine in Co. Galway, Ireland is a source of

  6. Soil biological attributes in arsenic-contaminated gold mining sites after revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Jessé Valentim; de Melo Rangel, Wesley; Azarias Guimarães, Amanda; Duque Jaramillo, Paula Marcela; Rufini, Márcia; Marra, Leandro Marciano; Varón López, Maryeimy; Pereira da Silva, Michele Aparecida; Fonsêca Sousa Soares, Cláudio Roberto; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2013-12-01

    Recovery of arsenic contaminated areas is a challenge society faces throughout the world. Revegetation associated with microbial activity can play an essential role in this process. This work investigated biological attributes in a gold mining area with different arsenic contents at different sites under two types of extant revegetation associated with cover layers of the soil: BS, Brachiaria sp. and Stizolobium sp., and LEGS, Acacia crassicarpa, A. holosericea, A. mangium, Sesbania virgata, Albizia lebbeck and Pseudosamanea guachapele. References were also evaluated, comprising the following three sites: B1, weathered sulfide substrate without revegetation; BM, barren material after gold extraction and PRNH (private reserve of natural heritage), an uncontaminated forest site near the mining area. The organic and microbial biomass carbon contents and substrate-induced respiration rates for these sites from highest to lowest were: PRNH > LEGS > BS > B1 and BM. These attributes were negatively correlated with soluble and total arsenic concentration in the soil. The sites that have undergone revegetation (LEGS and BS) had higher densities of bacteria, fungi, phosphate solubilizers and ammonium oxidizers than the sites without vegetation. Principal component analysis showed that the LEGS site grouped with PRNH, indicating that the use of leguminous species associated with an uncontaminated soil cover layer contributed to the improvement of the biological attributes. With the exception of acid phosphatase, all the biological attributes were indicators of soil recovery, particularly the following: microbial carbon, substrate-induced respiration, density of culturable bacteria, fungi and actinobacteria, phosphate solubilizers and metabolic quotient.

  7. Screening of native plant species for phytoremediation potential at a Hg-contaminated mining site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Marrugo-Madrid, Siday; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Durango-Hernández, José; Díez, Sergi

    2016-01-15

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the largest sector of demand for mercury (Hg), and therefore, one of the major sources of Hg pollution in the environment. This study was conducted in the Alacrán gold-mining site, one of the most important ASGM sites in Colombia, to identify native plant species growing in Hg-contaminated soils used for agricultural purposes, and to assess their potential as phytoremediation systems. Twenty-four native plant species were identified and analysed for total Hg (THg) in different tissues (roots, stems, and leaves) and in underlying soils. Accumulation factors (AF) in the shoots, translocation (TF) from roots to shoots, and bioconcentration (BCF) from soil-to-roots were determined. Different tissues from all plant species were classified in the order of decreasing accumulation of Hg as follows: roots > leaves > stems. THg concentrations in soil ranged from 230 to 6320 ng g(-1). TF values varied from 0.33 to 1.73, with high values in the lower Hg-contaminated soils. No correlation was found between soils with low concentrations of Hg and plant leaves, indicating that TF is not a very accurate indicator, since most of the Hg input to leaves at ASGM sites comes from the atmosphere. On the other hand, the BCF ranged from 0.28 to 0.99, with Jatropha curcas showing the highest value. Despite their low biomass production, several herbs and sub-shrubs are suitable for phytoremediation application in the field, due to their fast growth and high AF values in large and easily harvestable plant parts. Among these species, herbs such as Piper marginathum and Stecherus bifidus, and the sub-shrubs J. curcas and Capsicum annuum are promising native plants with the potential to be used in the phytoremediation of soils in tropical areas that are impacted by mining.

  8. The influence of the scale of mining activity and mine site remediation on the contamination legacy of historical metal mining activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Graham

    2016-12-01

    Globally, thousands of kilometres of rivers are degraded due to the presence of elevated concentrations of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) sourced from historical metal mining activity. In many countries, the presence of contaminated water and river sediment creates a legal requirement to address such problems. Remediation of mining-associated point sources has often been focused upon improving river water quality; however, this study evaluates the contaminant legacy present within river sediments and attempts to assess the influence of the scale of mining activity and post-mining remediation upon the magnitude of PHE contamination found within contemporary river sediments. Data collected from four exemplar catchments indicates a strong relationship between the scale of historical mining, as measured by ore output, and maximum PHE enrichment factors, calculated versus environmental quality guidelines. The use of channel slope as a proxy measure for the degree of channel-floodplain coupling indicates that enrichment factors for PHEs in contemporary river sediments may also be the highest where channel-floodplain coupling is the greatest. Calculation of a metric score for mine remediation activity indicates no clear influence of the scale of remediation activity and PHE enrichment factors for river sediments. It is suggested that whilst exemplars of significant successes at improving post-remediation river water quality can be identified; river sediment quality is a much more long-lasting environmental problem. In addition, it is suggested that improvements to river sediment quality do not occur quickly or easily as a result of remediation actions focused a specific mining point sources. Data indicate that PHEs continue to be episodically dispersed through river catchments hundreds of years after the cessation of mining activity, especially during flood flows. The high PHE loads of flood sediments in mining-affected river catchments and the predicted changes to

  9. Metal contamination in environmental media in residential areas around Romanian mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard-rock mining for metals, such as gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron and others, is recognized to have a significant impact on the environmental media, soil and water, in particular. Toxic contaminants released from mine waste to surface water and groundwater is the primary co...

  10. Agricultural land contamination by heavy metals around the former mining site of Bechateur (northern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daldoul, G.; Soussi, R.; Soussi, F.; Boularbah, A.

    2012-04-01

    The activity of the former Pb-Zn mine of Jebel Ghozlen (Béchateur. extreme northern Tunisia) generated during the last century large quantities of tailings (extraction, flotation, gravimetry) deposited as three heap between the mine site and the shoreline located 700 m away. Areas surrounding the mine site are agricultural and are crossed by two rivers, one of which crosses the main heap. The minerals that make up these wastes are calcite, dolomite, quartz, gypsum, pyrite, barite, smithsonite, cerussite and galena. The amounts of Zn, Cd and Pb in the wastes vary between 1.3 and 9.3%, 1.1% and 5.7 and 185 and 410 mg kg-1, respectively. Soils in the study area are carbonated and are characterized by a silt-sand texture. The clay fraction is dominated by kaolinite. The chemical analysis of thirty samples collected over an area of 3 km2 shows that the amounts of total organic carbon (TOC) and total sulfur vary from 0.7 % to 2.5 % and 0.08 % to 0.96 %, respectively, while those of Zn, Pb and Cd range from 300 to 22 000 mg kg-1, 85 to 3000 mg kg-1 and 2 to 47 mg kg-1, respectively. The highest concentrations of metals were found in flood plains at 500 m downstream of the mine site. Extraction tests using deionized water and a 0.1 M CaCl2 solution were performed to assess the mobility of Zn, Pb and Cd in contaminated and reference soil samples collected within the study area. The results of extraction with deionized water showed that the leached amounts of Zn and Cd range between 0.2 and 4 mg kg-1 and 0.02 and 0.2 mg kg-1, respectively; while that of Pb is quite near the detection limit. During the extraction with CaCl2 the leached amounts of Zn, Pb and Cd range from 0.3 to 86 mg kg-1, 2 to 6 mg kg-1 and 0.05 to 0.9 mg kg-1, respectively. Thus, the mobility of Cd, Zn and Pb in CaCl2 solution (0.8 %, 0.4 % and 0.3 %, respectively) is higher compared with the extraction with deionized water (0.2%, 0.1% and 0.02 %, respectively). Toxicity tests were conducted on these soils

  11. Are plants growing at abandoned mine sites suitable for phytoremediation of contaminated soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Buffa, Gabriella; Fontana, Silvia; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest in the perspective to remediate contaminated soils by phytoremediation, a low cost and environmental friendly technique which uses metal-accumulator plants to clean up moderately contaminated areas. The choice of plants is a crucial aspect for the practical use of this technique, given the ability to accumulate metals in their tissues, being genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. Up today, more than 400 native plants that hyperaccumulate metals are reported, Brassicaceae being the family with the largest number of hyperaccumulator species. For example, Alyssum bertoloni is well known as Ni accumulator, as well as Thlaspi caerulescens for Zn and Brassica napus for Pb. However, metal hyperaccumulation is not a common phenomenon in terrestrial higher plants, and many of the European hyperaccumulator plants are of small biomass, and have a slow growth rate. Therefore, there is an urgent need for surveying and screening of plants with ability to accumulate metals in their tissues and a relatively high biomass. In recent years, a survey of soils and plants growing on contaminated areas at several abandoned sulphide mines in Italy was carried out by working groups of the Universities of Florence, Siena, Cagliari, Bologna, Udine and Venice, in order to evaluate the ability of these plants to colonize mine waste and to accumulate metals, in the perspective of an ecological restoration of contaminated sites. We investigated the heavy metal concentration of the waste material, and the soils developed from, in order to determine the extent of heavy metal dispersion, and the uptake by plants, and deserved attention to wild plants growing at that sites, to find out new metal-tolerant species to utilize in soil remediation. Current results of these investigations, with particular emphasis on the Tuscan areas, are reported here. All the studied profiles are strongly enriched in metals; their

  12. Groundwater isotopic variations in a uranium mining site: subsidies for contamination studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, V. P. de [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisao de Engenharia Nuclear; Sobrinho, G.A.N.; Freitas, L.D.; Franklin, M.R., E-mail: mariza@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-09-01

    The Caetite Experimental Basin (CEB), located in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil, faces not only the challenges associated with water scarcity but also the potential contamination processes due to mining activity. The only active uranium production center in Brazil (URA) is located in this watershed and the sustainability of mining and milling operations, as well as the survival of the local community, is highly dependent on the availability of groundwater resources. This paper analyzes the stable isotopes variation of Deuterium ({sup 2}H) and Oxygen-18 ({sup 18}O) in CEB's groundwater to investigate its dynamics and mixing of water sources as part of initial efforts to characterize the hydrogeology of this area for future contamination and recharge studies. Measurements of δ{sup 2}H, δ{sup 18}O, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) were carried out in water samples from 27 wells. A total of 98 groundwater samples were analyzed during the dry and wet seasons from 2012 to 2014. All the groundwater samples plotted below the local meteoric line toward more enriched δ{sup 18}O values, an indicative of evaporation process. {sup 2}H and {sup 18}O data suggests that the main source of groundwater recharge is local precipitation and there is no mixing of infiltrating rainwater with older groundwater. These results provide evidence that the aquifer system in the CEB has a relatively fast turnover time, which contribute to the vulnerability of the aquifer to contamination. These findings are corroborated by the low TDS and EC values indicative of short time in water-rock interaction. (author)

  13. Assessment of Water Quality Index and Heavy Metal Contamination in Active and Abandoned Iron Ore Mining Sites in Pahang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madzin Zafira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of heavy metals in water and surface soils of iron ore mining sites were investigated to evaluate on the potential occurrence of heavy metal contamination. Physico-chemical characteristics of the waters were also investigated to determine the current status of water quality index (WQI of the sites. Samples of water and surface soils of active mine (Kuala Lipis and abandoned mine (Bukit Ibam in Pahang were collected at four locations, respectively. The physico-chemical parameters measured for WQI were pH, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, suspended solids (SS, and ammoniacal nitrogen (AN. The water quality parameters were classified according to the Department of Environment (DOE water quality classification. The study revealed that most of the sites in Bukit Ibam and Kuala Lipis were categorized as clean to slightly polluted. On the other hand, heavy metal analysis in water showed that aluminium and manganese level in both sites have exceeded the allowable limits for raw and treated water standards by the Ministry of Health. For heavy metal compositions in soils showed most of the heavy metal concentrations were below the recommended guideline values except for lead, arsenic, zinc and copper.

  14. Radionuclide and metal contamination in pit lakes in former U mining sites in Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skipperud, L.; Rosseland, B.O.; Heier, L.S.; Salbu, B. [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU (Norway); Stegnar, P. [Josef Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Yunusov, M. [IA Vostokredmet (Tajikistan); Burkitbaev, L.M. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The uranium mining industry in the USSR was established in the late 1940's - early 1950's in the former Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan as part of the nuclear weapon program. In most countries, uranium mining is considered a hazardous step of nuclear materials production, both in terms of radiation doses and in the number of people affected. Key problems have been associated with the transport of uranium and its daughters in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, where radionuclides are transferred from air, water, and soils into plants, fish/animals and finally to man. In this paper, special attention is paid to the assessment of radionuclides and metals in Central Asian Pit Lakes. Field works to Kurday, Kasakhstan, and Taboshar, Tajikistan, Pit Lakes have been performed. In addition to sampling of water, fish, sediments, and vegetation, in situ fractionation of water were achieved. The concentrations of U and associated trace metals were enriched in the Kurday Pit Lake and in the artesian water at the Kurday site (U exceeding the WHO guideline value for drinking water), and decreased downstream from the mining area. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were predominantly present as mobile low molecular mass species in waters, while a significant proportion of Cr, Mn and Fe were associated with colloids and particles. Due to oxidation of divalent iron in the artesian ground water upon contact with air, Fe served as scavenger for other elements, and peak concentrations of U, Ra-isotopes, As and Mn were seen. The U concentrations in water from Taboshar Pit Lake (2.0 mg U/L) were higher than waters collected in other areas in Tajikistan. The Pit Lake and the stream water from the tailing mountain were also characterized by elevated concentrations of As, Mo, Mn and Fe, exceeding the WHO recommended values for drinking water. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were present as low molecular mass species in the waters, and are therefore considered

  15. Evaluation of Environmental Risk of Metal Contaminated Soils and Sediments Near Mining Sites in Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kerry Nigel; Ramos Gómez, Magdalena Samanta; Guerrero Barrera, Alma Lilian; Yamamoto Flores, Laura; Flores de la Torre, Juan Armando; Avelar González, Francisco Javier

    2016-08-01

    A total of sixteen composite soil and sediment samples were collected during the rainy and dry season in Asientos, Aguascalientes, Mexico, an area recently affected by increased mining operations. Physicochemical characterization showed that substrates were moderately to strongly calcareous with predominantly neutral to slightly alkaline pH, moderate to high cation-exchange capacity and high organic matter content. Due to these conditions, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were not water leachable despite high concentrations; up to 105.3, 7052.8, 414.7 and 12,263.2 mg kg(-1) respectively. However, Cd and Pb were considered to be easily mobilizable as they were found predominantly associated with exchangeable and carbonate fractions, whereas Cu and Zn were found associated with Fe/Mn oxide and organic matter fractions. The results highlighted the influence of physicochemical substrate properties on the mobility of metals and its importance during the evaluation of the potential current and future risk metal contamination presents in affected areas.

  16. Radioactive and chemical contamination of the water resources in the former uranium mining and milling sites of Mailuu Suu (Kyrgyzstan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcho Alvarado, J A; Balsiger, B; Röllin, S; Jakob, A; Burger, M

    2014-12-01

    An assessment of the radioactive and chemical contamination of the water resources at the former uranium mines and processing sites of Mailuu-Suu, in Kyrgyzstan, was carried out. A large number of water samples were collected from the drinking water distribution system (DWDS), rivers, shallow aquifers and drainage water from the mine tailings. Radionuclides and trace metal contents in water from the DWDS were low in general, but were extremely high for Fe, Al and Mn. These elements were associated with the particle fractions in the water and strongly correlated with high turbidity levels. Overall, these results suggest that water from the DWDS does not represent a serious radiological hazard to the Mailuu Suu population. However, due to the high turbidities and contents of some elements, this water is not good quality drinking water. Water from artesian and dug wells were characterized by elevated levels of U (up to 10 μg/L) and some trace elements (e.g. As, Se, Cr, V and F) and anions (e.g. Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-)). In two artesian wells, the WHO guideline value of 10 μg/L for As in water was exceeded. As the artesian wells are used as a source of drinking water by a large number of households, special care should be taken in order to stay within the WHO recommended guidelines. Drainage water from the mine tailings was as expected highly contaminated with many chemicals (e.g. As) and radioactive contaminants (e.g. U). The concentrations of U were more than 200 times the WHO guideline value of 30 μg/L for U in drinking water. A large variation in (234)U/(238)U isotopic ratios in water was observed, with values near equilibrium at the mine tailings and far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching ratios of 2.3 in the artesian well). This result highlights the potential use of this ratio as an indicator of the origin of U contamination in Mailuu Suu. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of different forms of acidities on soil microbiological properties and enzyme activities at an acid mine drainage contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Tripathy, Subhasish; Equeenuddin, Sk Md; Panigrahi, M K

    2010-07-15

    Assessment of microbial parameters, viz. microbial biomass, fluorescence diacetate, microbial respiration, acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase and urease with respect to acidity helps in evaluating the quality of soils. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different forms of acidities on soil microbial parameters in an acid mine drainage contaminated site around coal deposits in Jainta Hills of India. Total potential and exchangeable acidity, extractable and exchangeable aluminium were significantly higher in contaminated soil compared to the baseline (p<0.01). Different forms of acidity were significantly and positively correlated with each other (p<0.05). Further, all microbial properties were positively and significantly correlated with organic carbon and clay (p<0.05). The ratios of microbial parameters with organic carbon were negatively correlated with different forms of acidity. Principal component analysis and cluster analyses showed that the microbial activities are not directly influenced by the total potential acidity and extractable aluminium. Though acid mine drainage affected soils had higher microbial biomass and activities due to higher organic matter content than those of the baseline soils, the ratios of microbial parameters/organic carbon indicated suppression of microbial growth and activities due to acidity stress. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimising the remediation of sites contaminated by the Wismut uranium mining operations using performance and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelz, F.; Jakubick, A.Th.; Kahnt, R. [Wismut GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The cost and risk assessment at Wismut GmbH is performed for optimising the remediation of sites contaminated by uranium mining and milling. An iterative either probabilistic or deterministic 'top-down' model of the remediation project as an integrated system is used. Initially all relevant processes are captured in a rather abstract and simplistic way. In the course of the model development those variables and processes to which results have been shown to be sensitive are described in more detail. This approach is useful for identifying any gaps in the knowledge base that have to be filled in the course of the multi-attributive decision making. The requirement for optimisation, also with respect to socio-economic impacts, is met by including other variables in addition to costs and health risks. (authors)

  19. Coal mine site reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Coal mine sites can have significant effects on local environments. In addition to the physical disruption of land forms and ecosystems, mining can also leave behind a legacy of secondary detrimental effects due to leaching of acid and trace elements from discarded materials. This report looks at the remediation of both deep mine and opencast mine sites, covering reclamation methods, back-filling issues, drainage and restoration. Examples of national variations in the applicable legislation and in the definition of rehabilitation are compared. Ultimately, mine site rehabilitation should return sites to conditions where land forms, soils, hydrology, and flora and fauna are self-sustaining and compatible with surrounding land uses. Case studies are given to show what can be achieved and how some landscapes can actually be improved as a result of mining activity.

  20. Assisted phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil from a mined site with Typha latifolia and Chrysopogon zizanioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anning, Alexander Kofi; Akoto, Ruth

    2017-10-12

    Chemically assisted phytoremediation is fast gaining attention as a biotechnology to accelerate heavy metal removal from contaminated substrates, but how different chemical amendments affect the process remains an important research question. Here, bioaccumulation factor (BAF), translocation factor (TF), removal efficiency (RE) and uptake of Hg, As, Pb, Cu and Zn by cattail (Typha latifolia) and vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) were quantified in a potted experiment to determine the effects of amendments on the phytoremediation success. Baseline concentrations of heavy metals within the studied mined site were determined. The experiment involved three soil treatments (each comprising 16 samples amended with 0.05mol/L ethylene di-aminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 3g of aluminum sulfate [Al2(SO4)3], and unamended control) transplanted with equal numbers of vetiver and cattail. Growth performance (height) of plant species was monitored every two weeks. Sixteen weeks after transplanting, heavy metal levels in plant and soil samples were quantified following standard protocols, and the biomass and root length measured for each plant species. Results indicated strong negative impact of mining activities on heavy metal levels of soil in the study area. Soil amendment considerably enhanced the BAF, TF, RE and uptake but the effect varied with plant species and heavy metal in question. The amendment also stimulated strong positive correlation between RE and BAF, TF and metal uptake, and generally did not show any negative effects on plant growth performance. In general, soil amendment aided the accumulation and translocation of heavy metals in the plant species studied, and could be explored for cleaning up contaminated sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of potentially toxic metal contamination in the soils of a legacy mine site in Central Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Joji; Dowling, Kim; Florentine, Singarayer

    2018-02-01

    The environmental impact of toxic metal contamination from legacy mining activities, many of which had operated and were closed prior to the enforcement of robust environmental legislation, is of growing concern to modern society. We have carried out analysis of As and potentially toxic metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the surface soil of a legacy gold mining site in Maldon, Victoria, Australia, to reveal the status of the current metal concentration. The results revealed the median concentrations of metals from highest to lowest, in the order: Mn > Zn > As > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > Co > Hg > Cd. The status of site was assessed directly by comparing the metal concentrations in the study area with known Australian and Victorian average top soil levels and the health investigation levels set by the National Environmental Protection Measures (NEPM) and the Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) of the State of Western Australia. Although, median concentrations of As, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn exceeded the average Australian and Victorian top soil concentrations, only As and Hg exceeded the ecological investigation levels (EIL) set by DEC and thus these metals are considered as risk to the human and aquatic ecosystems health due to their increase in concentration and toxicity. In an environment of climate fluctuation with increased storm events and forest fires may mobilize these toxic metals contaminants, pose a real threat to the environment and the community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Contaminated Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Sites contaminated by hazardous materials or wastes. These sites are those administered by the Contaminated Sites Section of Iowa DNR. Many are sites which are...

  3. Radiological criteria and methods for remediation of contaminated former mining sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biesold, H.; Thielen, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Cologne (Germany); Weiss, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Mining and ore processing have a long history in the New States of Germany, Saxony, Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt. The ores were often mineralized with uranium and therefore the residues are a radiological hazard to man and environment. Immediately after World War II the Soviet Union started to develop its nuclear capability by mining uranium ores in the occupied zone of East Germany. At the beginning the exploitation was concentrated on former underground mines of silver and other non ferrous ores. Afterwards, new uranium deposits were explored in Saxony and eastern Thuringia. Numerous waste rock piles and tailings ponds of considerable size resulted from these mining activities. Uranium production reached some 220,000 t between 1946 and 1990. After the reunification in 1990, production was finished for economic and other reasons. The German Federal Government was faced with one of the largest ecological, social and economic challenges. In this report an overview is given on kind and amount of the mining residues, the radiation protection criteria, models and data bases used for risk assessment and dose calculation are explained and remediation methods are described. (authors)

  4. Response of spontaneous plants from an ex-mining site of Elba island (Tuscany, Italy) to metal(loid) contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistelli, Laura; D'Angiolillo, Francesca; Morelli, Elisabetta; Basso, Barbara; Rosellini, Irene; Posarelli, Mauro; Barbafieri, Meri

    2017-03-01

    The release of large amounts of toxic metals in the neighboring sites of abandoned mine areas represents an important environmental risk for the ecosystem, because it adversely affects soil, water, and plant growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the metal(loid) (As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) contents of native Mediterranean plants grown on the ex-mining area of Elba island (Italy), with the prospective of its recovery by further phytoremediation technology. Soil samples were collected and characterized for metal(loid) content in total and potentially available (EDTA-extractable) fractions. Arsenic was particularly high, being 338 and 2.1 mg kg-1 as total and available fractions, respectively. Predominant native species, namely Dittrichia viscosa L. Greuter, Cistus salviifolius L., Lavandula stoechas L., and Bituminaria bituminosa L., were analyzed for metal content in the different plant organs. D. viscosa exhibited the highest metal(loid) content in the leaves and the singular behavior of translocating arsenic to the leaves (transfer factor about 2.06 and mean bioconcentration factor about 12.48). To assess the healthy status of D. viscosa plants, the leaves were investigated further. The activities of the main antioxidant enzymes and the levels of secondary metabolites linked to oxidative stress in plants from the ex-mining area were not significantly different from those of control plants, except for a lower content of carotenoids, indicating that native plants were adapted to grow in these polluted soils. These results indicate that D. viscosa can be suitable for the revegetation of highly metal-contaminated areas.

  5. Impacts on effluent contaminants from mine sites: risk assessment, fate, and distribution of pollution at basin scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Cristina; Pérez-Foguet, Agustí; Valderrama, César; Miralles, Nuria

    2014-05-01

    The environmental implications of mining activities are of worldwide concern. An environmental evaluation at the basin level was conducted because of widespread mining in Cajamarca in Northern Peru. A sediment monitoring program was developed at the Jequetepeque basin, located in Cajamarca. A total of 16 sites were monitored at three different times between June 2009 and July 2010, and a total of 42 samples were collected. All samples were analyzed by microwave digestion and by a sequential extraction scheme following the three-stage European Community Bureau of Reference (three-stage BCR) protocol. Trace element mobilization from the sediments to the water column was assessed by the risk assessment code (RAC). Spatial and temporal distribution of trace elements was evaluated by principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Cd, Zn, As, and Pb showed the highest concentrations independent of season. Notably, Cu concentration and mobility increased during the wet season for all samples. Additionally, Hg concentration and mobility increased during the wet season near the mine sites. According to the enrichment factor, the highest enrichments of Cd, Zn, Pb, and As were related to mine runoff. The effect of trace elements near the mine sites at the Jequetepeque basin was considered a significant threat to the environment due to Cd, Zn, Pb, and As, and the concentrations of Cu and Hg were also considered a concern. This work establishes a baseline for the environmental quality status of the Jequetepeque basin that may support water quality management in Peru.

  6. A field study on phytoremediation of a lead-contaminated soil by Eucalyptus globulus in an abandoned mine site - Alagoa, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardo, R.; Kikuchi, R.

    2009-04-01

    Current engineering-based technologies used to clean up soils are very costly and need lots of work. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to remove pollutants (i.e. heavy metals) from the environment or render them harmless. In the phytoremediation process several plant species can be used to reduce the concentrations of heavy metals in contaminated soils to environmentally acceptable levels. The idea of using rare plants which hyperaccumulate metals to selectively remove and recycle excessive soil metals has increasingly been examined as a potential practical and more cost effective technology than soil replacement, solidification, or washing strategies presently used. However, most hyperaccumulator species are not suitable for phytoremediation application in the field due to their small biomass and slow growth. Cultivation of woody plants in contaminated soils has showed potential for use in phytoremediation but also it provides aesthetic improvement in the field. In this study we studied the possibility of using the approach of phytoremediation of lead by Eucalyptus globulus in a lead-contaminated soil from an abandoned mine. Although Eucalytpus globulus prefer good ecological conditions in humid temperate climates, there are few studies that have showed their great potential in contaminated areas and important biomonitors of environmental quality. A test field was set up in an abandoned mine site (Alagoa, Portugal) in order to investigate the feasibility of phytoremediation of lead by Eucalyptus globulus. The field soil was characterized as follows: humus - 2.56-7.08%, pH in the soil water - 4.50-5.10, silte - 18-15% and total Pb - 67-239 mg/kg. The soils in some areas exceed the critical value (150 mg/kg) according with Portuguese law. Eucalytus globulus growing on the abandoned mine, contaminated with lead was studied. The results of shoots sample analysis (n = 15) show the total Pb levels of 0.170-0.093 mg/kg in the stem and 2.94-5.14 mg/kg in the leaves

  7. A Rapid, Accurate, and Efficient Method to Map Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils of Abandoned Mine Sites Using Converted Portable XRF Data and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Jangwon; Lee, Hyeongyu; Choi, Yosoon

    2016-12-01

    The use of portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) increases the rapidity and accuracy of soil contamination mapping, respectively. In practice, it is often necessary to repeat the soil contamination assessment and mapping procedure several times during soil management within a limited budget. In this study, we have developed a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate soil contamination mapping method using a PXRF data and geostatistical spatial interpolation. To obtain a large quantity of high quality data for interpolation, in situ PXRF data analyzed at 40 points were transformed to converted PXRF data using the correlation between PXRF and ICP-AES data. The method was applied to an abandoned mine site in Korea to generate a soil contamination map for copper and was validated for investigation speed and prediction accuracy. As a result, regions that required soil remediation were identified. Our method significantly shortened the time required for mapping compared to the conventional mapping method and provided copper concentration estimates with high accuracy similar to those measured by ICP-AES. Therefore, our method is an effective way of mapping soil contamination if we consistently construct a database based on the correlation between PXRF and ICP-AES data.

  8. Evaluation of the environmental contamination at an abandoned mining site using multivariate statistical techniques--the Rodalquilar (Southern Spain) mining district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagur, M G; Morales, S; López-Chicano, M

    2009-11-15

    Unsupervised and supervised pattern recognition techniques such as hierarchical cluster analysis, principal component analysis, factor analysis and linear discriminant analysis have been applied to water samples recollected in Rodalquilar mining district (Southern Spain) in order to identify different sources of environmental pollution caused by the abandoned mining industry. The effect of the mining activity on waters was monitored determining the concentration of eleven elements (Mn, Ba, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Hg, Au and Pb) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The Box-Cox transformation has been used to transform the data set in normal form in order to minimize the non-normal distribution of the geochemical data. The environmental impact is affected mainly by the mining activity developed in the zone, the acid drainage and finally by the chemical treatment used for the benefit of gold.

  9. Water contamination with heavy metals and trace elements from Kilembe copper mine and tailing sites in Western Uganda; implications for domestic water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Mwesigye R; Susan, Tumwebaze B

    2017-02-01

    The mining and processing of copper in Kilembe, Western Uganda, from 1956 to 1982 left over 15 Mt of cupriferous and cobaltiferous pyrite dumped within a mountain river valley, in addition to mine water which is pumped to the land surface. This study was conducted to assess the sources and concentrations of heavy metals and trace elements in Kilembe mine catchment water. Multi-element analysis of trace elements from point sources and sinks was conducted which included mine tailings, mine water, mine leachate, Nyamwamba River water, public water sources and domestic water samples using ICP-MS. The study found that mean concentrations (mg kg-1) of Co (112), Cu (3320), Ni (131), As (8.6) in mine tailings were significantly higher than world average crust and were being eroded and discharged into water bodies within the catchment. Underground mine water and leachate contained higher mean concentrations (μg L-1) of Cu (9470), Co (3430) and Ni (590) compared with background concentrations (μg L-1) in un contaminated water of 1.9, 0.21 and 0.67 for Cu, Co and Ni respectively. Over 25% of household water samples exceeded UK drinking water thresholds for Al of 200 μg L-1, Co exceeded Winsconsin (USA drinking) water thresholds of 40 μg L-1 in 40% of samples while Fe in 42% of samples exceeded UK thresholds of 200 μg L-1. The study however found that besides mining activities, natural processes of geological weathering also contributed to Al, Fe, and Mn water contamination in a number of public water sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Phase I Contaminant Transport Parameters for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John McCord

    2007-09-01

    This report documents transport data and data analyses for Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU 97. The purpose of the data compilation and related analyses is to provide the primary reference to support parameterization of the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU transport model. Specific task objectives were as follows: • Identify and compile currently available transport parameter data and supporting information that may be relevant to the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU. • Assess the level of quality of the data and associated documentation. • Analyze the data to derive expected values and estimates of the associated uncertainty and variability. The scope of this document includes the compilation and assessment of data and information relevant to transport parameters for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU subsurface within the context of unclassified source-term contamination. Data types of interest include mineralogy, aqueous chemistry, matrix and effective porosity, dispersivity, matrix diffusion, matrix and fracture sorption, and colloid-facilitated transport parameters.

  11. Monitoring Metal Pollution Levels in Mine Wastes around a Coal Mine Site Using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanliyuksel Yucel, D.; Yucel, M. A.; Ileri, B.

    2017-11-01

    In this case study, metal pollution levels in mine wastes at a coal mine site in Etili coal mine (Can coal basin, NW Turkey) are evaluated using geographical information system (GIS) tools. Etili coal mine was operated since the 1980s as an open pit. Acid mine drainage is the main environmental problem around the coal mine. The main environmental contamination source is mine wastes stored around the mine site. Mine wastes were dumped over an extensive area along the riverbeds, and are now abandoned. Mine waste samples were homogenously taken at 10 locations within the sampling area of 102.33 ha. The paste pH and electrical conductivity values of mine wastes ranged from 2.87 to 4.17 and 432 to 2430 μS/cm, respectively. Maximum Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and Ni concentrations of wastes were measured as 109300, 70600, 309.86, 115.2, 38 and 5.3 mg/kg, respectively. The Al, Fe and Pb concentrations of mine wastes are higher than world surface rock average values. The geochemical analysis results from the study area were presented in the form of maps. The GIS based environmental database will serve as a reference study for our future work.

  12. Remediation strategies for historical mining and smelting sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybowska, Agnieszka; Farago, Margaret; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Thornton, Iain

    2006-01-01

    The environmental, social and economic problems associated with abandoned mine sites are serious and global. Environmental damage arising from polluted waters and dispersal of contaminated waste is a feature characteristic of many old mines in North America, Australia, Europe and elsewhere. Today, because of the efficiency of mining operations and legal requirements in many countries for prevention of environmental damage from mining operations, the release of metals to the environment from modern mining is low. However, many mineralized areas that were extensively worked in the 18th and 19th centuries and left abandoned after mining had ceased, have left a legacy of metal contaminated land. Unlike organic chemicals and plastics, metals cannot be degraded chemically or biologically into non-toxic and environmentally neutral constituents. Thus sites contaminated with toxic metals present a particular challenge for remediation. Soil remediation has been the subject of a significant amount of research work in the past decade; this has resulted in a number of remediation options currently available or being developed. Remediation strategies for metal/metalloid contaminated historical mining sites are reviewed and summarized in this article. It focuses on the current applications of in situ remediation with the use of soil amendments (adsorption and precipitation based methods are discussed) and phytoremediation (in situ plant based technology for environmental clean up and restoration). These are promising alternative technologies to traditional options of excavation and ex situ treatment, offering an advantage of being non-invasive and low cost. In particular, they have been shown to be effective in remediation of mining and smelting contaminated sites, although the long-term durability of these treatments cannot be predicted.

  13. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - MDC_ContaminatedSite

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A point feature class of open DERM Contaminated sites - see phase code for status of site. Contaminated sites identifies properties where environmental contamination...

  14. Soils from sites of historical metal mining in western Małopolska (S Poland are strongly contaminated with Zn, Pb and Cd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanowicz A. M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in soils developed at 63 sites of historical metal mining in western Małopolska (S Poland were estimated. Heavy metal concentrations were measured with an atomic absorption spectrometer after wet digestion in hot HClO4 (total forms, extraction in 0.1 M BaCl2 (exchangeable forms or in water (water-soluble forms. Basic soil properties such as texture, C, N, Ca contents and pH were also measured. Total concentrations of Cd in soil varied from 4.4 to 392, Pb from 72.8 to 16931 and Zn from 322 to 41860 mg kg−1. Exchangeable Cd, Pb and Zn extended from 0 to 19.3 %, from 0 to 0.2 % and from 0 to 3.5 % of the total metal forms, respectively, indicating that Cd is the most mobile and potentially bioavailable metal. In turn, water-soluble metal forms did not exceed 1 % of the total. Our study showed that soils developed at sites of historical metal mining are severely polluted with heavy metals. Old heaps threaten not only the environment, but also local inhabitants, as they are often located in a close proximity to houses or agricultural fields.

  15. Mercury accumulation in soils and plants in the Almadén mining district, Spain: one of the most contaminated sites on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, José Antonio; Oyarzun, Roberto; Esbrí, José María; Higueras, Pablo

    2006-10-01

    Although mercury (Hg) mining in the Almadén district ceased in May 2002, the consequences of 2000 years of mining in the district has resulted in the dissemination of Hg into the surrounding environment where it poses an evident risk to biota and human health. This risk needs to be properly evaluated. The uptake of Hg has been found to be plant-specific. To establish the different manners in which plants absorb Hg, we carried out a survey of Hg levels in the soils and plants in the most representative habitats of this Mediterranean area and found that the Hg concentrations varied greatly and were dependent on the sample being tested (0.13-2,695 microg g(-1) Hg). For example, the root samples had concentrations ranging from 0.06 (Oenanthe crocata, Rumex induratus) to 1095 (Polypogon monspeliensis) microg g(-1) Hg, while in the leaf samples, the range was from 0.16 (Cyperus longus) to 1278 (Polypogon monspeliensis) microg g(-1) Hg. There are four well-differentiated patterns of Hg uptake: (1) the rate of uptake is constant, independent of Hg concentration in the soil (e.g., Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus rotundifolia); (2) after an initial linear relationship between uptake and soil concentration, no further increase in Hg(plant) is observed (e.g., Asparagus acutifolius, Cistus ladanifer); (3) no increase in uptake is recorded until a threshold is surpassed, and thereafter a linear relationship between Hg(plant) and Hg(soil) is established (e.g., Rumex bucephalophorus, Cistus crispus); (4) there is no relationship between Hg(plant) and Hg(soil )(e.g., Oenanthe crocata and Cistus monspeliensis). Overall, the Hg concentrations found in plants from the Almadén district clearly reflect the importance of contamination processes throughout the study region.

  16. Designing biochars for in situ remediation of metal contaminated mine spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar in conjunction with other soil amendments can be used for in situ remediation of metal-contaminated mine spoils for improved site phytostabilization. For successful phytostabilization to occur, biochar must improve mine spoil health with respect to plant rooting plus upt...

  17. [Children exposure to lead in contaminated sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ramírez, Rogelio; Rico-Escobar, Edna; Núñez-Monreal, Jorge E; García-Nieto, Edelmira; Carrizales, Leticia; Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    To assess the exposure to lead in children living in various types of contaminated sites. The study was conducted from June 2008 to December 2009 at four sites in Mexico: Avalos metallurgical, Chihuahua; Morales metallurgical, San Luis Potosí (SLP); Trinidad pottery area, Tlaxcala and Cedral mine site, SLP. These sites contain different sources of lead. The metal levels were quantified in outdoor dust and in peripheral blood of children. Lead dust concentrations exceed the National Guidelines for residential soils (400 mg/kg) in a range of values for the four sites from 62 to 5 187 mg/kg. Regarding biological monitoring, the studied children showed maximum lead blood levels of 22 µg/dL in Cedral, 31 µg/dL in Morales, 32 µg/dL in Avalos, and 52 µg/dL in Trinidad. It is important to mention that in all the studied sites, a significative positive correlation was found between blood lead levels and the lead concentrations in dust. These sites are an example of the health risks related to lead exposure in Mexico; therefore, there is an urgent need for a national public health program aimed at reducing lead exposure in vulnerable populations.

  18. Mercury content in electrum from artisanal mining site of Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murao, Satoshi; Naito, Kazuki; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Sie, Soey H.

    2006-08-01

    In Mongolia, artisanal gold mining, modern gold rush, in which people use mercury to extract gold, is being proliferated rapidly and the mercury contamination of mining site is becoming a serious social issue. For the risk assessment of mercury, it is necessary to understand how much mercury is introduced to the environment from what kind of materials during mining activity. It is already known that major contribution of the contamination comes from mercury that was bought at shops and brought to mining sites by miners. However, no information is available on how much mercury is removed from electrum (natural gold grain) to the environment. Since gold deposit is always accompanied by mercury anomaly, it is anticipated that electrum grains contain some amount of mercury of natural origin, and this mercury (primary mercury) contributes to some extent to the contamination. In order to clarify how much mercury is incorporated in electrum grains, micro-PIXE at CSIRO was used for grain-by-grain analysis. The result showed that electrum from study area contains mercury up to 8260 ppm. It is concluded that for the risk management of mercury contamination, release of natural mercury from electrum grains during smelting must not be ignored.

  19. Phase I Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John McCord

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) initiated the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project to assess and evaluate the effects of the underground nuclear weapons tests on groundwater beneath the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity. The framework for this evaluation is provided in Appendix VI, Revision No. 1 (December 7, 2000) of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). Section 3.0 of Appendix VI ''Corrective Action Strategy'' of the FFACO describes the process that will be used to complete corrective actions specifically for the UGTA Project. The objective of the UGTA corrective action strategy is to define contaminant boundaries for each UGTA corrective action unit (CAU) where groundwater may have become contaminated from the underground nuclear weapons tests. The contaminant boundaries are determined based on modeling of groundwater flow and contaminant transport. A summary of the FFACO corrective action process and the UGTA corrective action strategy is provided in Section 1.5. The FFACO (1996) corrective action process for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU 97 was initiated with the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (DOE/NV, 2000a). The CAIP included a review of existing data on the CAU and proposed a set of data collection activities to collect additional characterization data. These recommendations were based on a value of information analysis (VOIA) (IT, 1999), which evaluated the value of different possible data collection activities, with respect to reduction in uncertainty of the contaminant boundary, through simplified transport modeling. The Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAIP identifies a three-step model development process to evaluate the impact of underground nuclear testing on groundwater to determine a contaminant boundary (DOE/NV, 2000a). The three steps are as follows: (1) Data compilation and analysis that provides the necessary modeling

  20. Community Solar: An Opportunity to Enhance Sustainable Development on Landfills and Other Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This discussion paper describes the linkage between the need for solar access for some sites, the mechanism of community solar and the opportunities for using formerly contaminated lands, landfills and mine sites for renewable energy.

  1. Biodegradation of thiocyanate in mining-contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurr, L. P.; Watts, M. P.; Moreau, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    In-situ SCN- biodegradation as a strategy for remediating contaminated groundwater remains largely unproven. This study aimed to culture and characterise a community of SCN--degrading microbes from mining-contaminated groundwater, and to optimize the efficiency of this process under varied geochemical conditions. A gold ore processing plant in Victoria, Australia, has generated high amounts of thiocyanate (SCN-)-contaminated waste effluent. This effluent collects in a tailings storage facility (TSF) on site and seepage has contaminated local groundwater. This SCN- plume recently escaped the mine lease in a plume flowing partly through a confined aquifer and partly along buried paleochannel gravels. Groundwater samples were collected using a low-flow pump from two bores near the TSF. The pH of the SCN- contaminated groundwater typically varies between 4 and 6, and dissolved O2 varies between 1 and 40 ppm. SCN- concentrations in off-lease groundwater have increased from 10 ppm in 2010 to over 150 ppm in 2015. Cultures were inoculated directly from the groundwater, and filtered groundwater was used with amendments as the basal growth medium Cultures were subjected to geochemical amendments including changes in dissolved O2, pH, SCN- concentration and additions of organic carbon, phosphate or both. The enriched microbial consortia could not degrade thiocyanate under anoxic conditions, but some could completely degrade high concentrations of SCN- (>800mg L-1) under oxic conditions. Biodegradation accelerated with the addition of phosphate, while the addition of organic carbon actually limited the rate. SCN- degrading cultures are undergoing DNA sequencing for species identification and comparison to SCN--degrading cultures inoculated from surface waters in the TSF.

  2. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the VAG Mine Site in Eden and Lowell, Vermont. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Vermont Asbestos Group (VAG) Mine site in Eden, Vermont, and Lowell, Vermont, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  3. Land contamination and soil evolution in abandoned mine areas (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation are nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, leaving on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including landscape, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Italy, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the '60s of the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on 50 soil profiles (mostly Entisols and Inceptisols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show metal concentrations overcoming legislation limits on average (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. Metal concentrations in native vegetation of the examined areas are moderately to highly elevated. Significant amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn in roots of Plantago major and Silene dioica, in leaves of Taraxacum officinale, and Salix spp, have been recorded. Essential elements, in particular, present Translocation Coefficients (TC) >1, with Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe. Toxic elements (Cd, Cr, Pb), instead, present TC<1, suggesting a synergic/antagonist effect to occur among metals and plants, according to their role in mineral nutrition. The results obtained suggest the abandoned mine sites to represent actual natural aboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, the examined plants are genetically adapted to naturally metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in

  4. Interaction of mining activities and aquatic environment: A review from Greek mine sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, Eleni; Kallioras, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In Greece a significant amount of mineral and ore deposits have been recorded accompanied by large industrial interest and a long mining history. Today many active and/or abandoned mine sites are scattered within the country; while mining activities take place in different sites for exploiting various deposits (clay, limestone, slate, gypsum, kaolin, mixed sulphide ores (lead, zinc, olivine, pozzolan, quartz lignite, nickel, magnesite, aluminum, bauxite, gold, marbles etc). The most prominent recent ones are: (i) the lignite exploitation that is extended in the area of Ptolemais (Western Macedonia) and Megalopolis (Central Peloponnese); and (ii) the major bauxite deposits located in central Greece within the Parnassos-Ghiona geotectonic zone and on Euboea Island. In the latter area, significant ores of magnesite were exploited and mixed sulphide ores. Centuries of intensive mining exploitation and metallurgical treatment of lead-silver deposits in Greece, have also resulted in significant abandoned sites, such as the one in Lavrion. Mining activities in Lavrio, were initiated in ancient times and continued until the 1980s, resulting in the production of significant waste stockpiles deposited in the area, crucial for the local water resources. Ιn many mining sites, environmental pressures are also recorded after the mine closure to the aquatic environment, as the surface waters flow through waste dump areas and contaminated soils. This paper aims to the geospatial visualization of the mining activities in Greece, in connection to their negative (surface- and/or ground-water pollution; overpumping due to extensive dewatering practices) or positive (enhanced groundwater recharge; pit lakes, improvement of water budget in the catchment scale) impacts on local water resources.

  5. Forming artificial soils from waste materials for mine site rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellishetty, Mohan; Wong, Vanessa; Taylor, Michael; Li, Johnson

    2014-05-01

    Surface mining activities often produce large volumes of solid wastes which invariably requires the removal of significant quantities of waste rock (overburden). As mines expand, larger volumes of waste rock need to be moved which also require extensive areas for their safe disposal and containment. The erosion of these dumps may result in landform instability, which in turn may result in exposure of contaminants such as trace metals, elevated sediment delivery in adjacent waterways, and the subsequent degradation of downstream water quality. The management of solid waste materials from industrial operations is also a key component for a sustainable economy. For example, in addition to overburden, coal mines produce large amounts of waste in the form of fly ash while sewage treatment plants require disposal of large amounts of compost. Similarly, paper mills produce large volumes of alkaline rejected wood chip waste which is usually disposed of in landfill. These materials, therefore, presents a challenge in their use, and re-use in the rehabilitation of mine sites and provides a number of opportunities for innovative waste disposal. The combination of solid wastes sourced from mines, which are frequently nutrient poor and acidic, with nutrient-rich composted material produced from sewage treatment and alkaline wood chip waste has the potential to lead to a soil suitable for mine rehabilitation and successful seed germination and plant growth. This paper presents findings from two pilot projects which investigated the potential of artificial soils to support plant growth for mine site rehabilitation. We found that pH increased in all the artificial soil mixtures and were able to support plant establishment. Plant growth was greatest in those soils with the greatest proportion of compost due to the higher nutrient content. These pot trials suggest that the use of different waste streams to form an artificial soil can potentially be used in mine site rehabilitation

  6. Arsenite oxidizing Thiomonas strains isolated from different mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia-Brunet, F.; Duquesne, K.; Dictor, M. C.; Garrido, F.; Bonnefoy, V.; Baranger, P.; Morin, D.

    2003-04-01

    Arsenic is commonly found in sulfide rocks and ores. This toxic metalloid is transferred to the water phase through acidophilic bio-oxidation of sulfides in mining galleries and waste dumps. Inorganic arsenic As(III) and As(V) are both soluble anions, however As(III) is more mobile and toxic than As(V). Bacteria can participate to the biogeochemical arsenic cycling through As(III) oxidation or As(V) reduction. Mineral selective media, containing As(III) as sole energy source, were used to isolate As(III)-oxidizing bacteria from two disused mining sites. Cheni site (Haute Vienne) was a gold mine, and Carnoules (Gard) was lead-zinc mine. Both sites are highly contaminated with arsenic. Samples of sediments and water from Cheni (pH 6) and Carnoules (pH 3) were used to inoculate mineral selective media whose pH were adjusted to those of the sampling environments. In both cases, organisms belonging to the genus Thiomonas were selected, then isolated. These bacteria oxidize arsenite during their exponential growth phase. The Both bacteria are able to grow, as a pure strains, in autotrophic conditions. The As(III)-oxidase activity of the Carnoules strain was exclusively found in cells cultivated with arsenite, and was associated to the membrane. If they can use As(III) as energetic substrate, Thiomonas-related organisms may play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic within mining ecosystems.

  7. Kensington Mine Area Baseline Contaminants Study, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Hardrock mining for gold and other metals is proposed for the Kensington Mine, located on Lynn Canal in Southeast Alaska, approximately 45 miles north of Juneau. The...

  8. Mercury-Contaminated Hydraulic Mining Debris in San Francisco Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Bouse, Robin M; Fuller, Christopher C.; Luoma, Sam; Hornberger, Michelle I; Jaffe, Bruce E; Smith, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    The hydraulic gold-mining process used during the California Gold Rush and in many developing countries today contributes enormous amounts of sediment to rivers and streams. Commonly, accompanying this sediment are contaminants such as elemental mercury and cyanide used in the gold extraction process. We show that some of the mercury-contaminated sediment created by hydraulic gold mining in the Sierra Nevada, between 1852 and 1884, ended up over 250 kilometers (km) away in San Franci...

  9. Trace Metal Contamination in Water from Abandoned Mining and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Trace Metal Contamination in Water from Abandoned Mining and Non-Mining areas in the Northern Parts of the Ashanti. Gold Belt, Ghana. C. Tay1* and F. W. Y. Momade2. 1 CSIR-Water Research ...... within the Ashanti gold belt is gold recovery using mercury amalgamation as practiced by small- scale miners. Evidence of ...

  10. Arsenic contamination levels in drinking water sources in mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water is a public health problem all over the World especially in mining areas. The study herein reported assessed the concentration levels of arsenic in some drinking water sources in the mining areas in the Lake Victoria Basin and investigated the potential for its removal by adsorption ...

  11. Feasibility Study of Biopower in East Helena, Montana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former American Smelting and Refining Company (Asarco) smelter in East Helena, Montana, was selected for a feasibility study under the initiative. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on the wood products industry in the area. Biopower was selected as the technology based on Montana's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requiring utilities to purchase renewable power.

  12. The Traversella mining site as Piedmont geosite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Emanuele; Benna, Piera; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Rossetti, Piergiorgio

    2017-04-01

    The multidisciplinary research project PROGEOPiemonte, started in 2012, selected nine strategic geothematic areas that have been and are still investigated as representative of the geodiversity of Piedmont region. The dissemination of the knowledge connected to geological history, climate and environmental changes, natural hazards, soil processes, and georesources, not only of the geosites but also of the museum collections, has been and will be spread, evidencing the mining and quarrying activities, and by means of science exhibits and Nature trails. Among the nine selected geosites, there is the Traversella mining area, object of the present research. Traversella mine is located nearly 50 km north of Torino, and it was (together with the neighbor site of Brosso) one of the most important mining location for iron exploitation. The Traversella orebody was exploited from late medieval age up to the middle XX century. It is a representative contact-metasomatic deposit at the border between granodiorite and preexisting host rocks (micaschists, gneisses and marbles of the Sesia-Lanzo Zone), and the mining district represents the only exploited skarn-type mineralization in the Alps. The iron mineral, exploited from different veins and mass (pertaining to the contact aureola) was primarily magnetite, an iron oxide easy to treat in cast iron even employing the technology locally available before 1900. After the beginning of XX century the extraction involved also pyrite and chalcopyrite (iron and copper-iron sulfide), used mainly for the production of sulfuric acid. The mine, after some interruptions and re-openings, was officially closed in the second half of the XX century, due to the high exploitation costs and the competition of the foreign mine deposits interested by iron extraction. The area still presents several signs of mining and dressing activities (underground pits, explorable under severe restrictions, traces of dressing plant, offices, and miners changing

  13. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) - Contaminants at CERCLIS (Superfund) Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Contaminants at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Sites - The CERCLIS Public Access Database...

  14. Environmental hazard assessment of a marine mine tailings deposit site and potential implications for deep-sea mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Nélia C; Rocha, Thiago L; Canals, Miquel; Cardoso, Cátia; Danovaro, Roberto; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Gambi, Cristina; Regoli, Francesco; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Bebianno, Maria João

    2017-09-01

    Portmán Bay is a heavily contaminated area resulting from decades of metal mine tailings disposal, and is considered a suitable shallow-water analogue to investigate the potential ecotoxicological impact of deep-sea mining. Resuspension plumes were artificially created by removing the top layer of the mine tailings deposit by bottom trawling. Mussels were deployed at three sites: i) off the mine tailings deposit area; ii) on the mine tailings deposit beyond the influence from the resuspension plumes; iii) under the influence of the artificially generated resuspension plumes. Surface sediment samples were collected at the same sites for metal analysis and ecotoxicity assessment. Metal concentrations and a battery of biomarkers (oxidative stress, metal exposure, biotransformation and oxidative damage) were measured in different mussel tissues. The environmental hazard posed by the resuspension plumes was investigated by a quantitative weight of evidence (WOE) model that integrated all the data. The resuspension of sediments loaded with metal mine tails demonstrated that chemical contaminants were released by trawling subsequently inducing ecotoxicological impact in mussels' health. Considering as sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) those indicated in Spanish action level B for the disposal of dredged material at sea, the WOE model indicates that the hazard is slight off the mine tailings deposit, moderate on the mine tailings deposit without the influence from the resuspension plumes, and major under the influence of the resuspension plumes. Portmán Bay mine tailings deposit is a by-product of sulphide mining, and despite differences in environmental setting, it can reflect the potential ecotoxic effects to marine fauna from the impact of resuspension of plumes created by deep-sea mining of polymetallic sulphides. A similar approach as in this study could be applied in other areas affected by sediment resuspension and for testing future deep-sea mining sites in

  15. Impact of coal mine dump contaminated soils on elemental uptake by Spinacia oleracea (spinach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunilall, Viren; Kindness, Andrew; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2006-01-01

    The elemental uptake and the growth response of Spinacia oleracea (spinach) to the soil contaminated with the South African bituminous coal mine dump soil, viz. 0%, 5%, 15%, and 25% w/w, was investigated. The contaminated soils were analyzed for pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic matter (SOM), and concentrations of selected heavy metals. The pH, SOM, and CEC decreased with an increase in contamination indicating the acidic nature of coal mine soil and the raise in the soil binding sites. The distribution of Fe, Mn, Ni, Cd, and Pb in the in roots and leaves of the plants was determined in two stages of plant growth. Spinach showed high accumulation of Fe and increased levels of Ni and Cd with an increase in contamination. No plant growth was recorded with 25% contamination.

  16. Impact of coal mine dump contaminated soils on elemental uptake by Spinacia oleracea (spinach)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunilall, V.; Kindness, A.; Jonnalagadda, S.B. [University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban (South Africa)

    2006-07-01

    The elemental uptake and the growth response of Spinacia oleracea (spinach) to the soil contaminated with the South African bituminous coal mine dump soil, viz. 0%, 5%, 15%, and 25% w/w, was investigated. The contaminated soils were analyzed for pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic matter (SOM), and concentrations of selected heavy metals. The pH, SOM, and CEC decreased with an increase in contamination indicating the acidic nature of coal mine soil and the raise in the soil binding sites. The distribution of Fe, Mn, Ni, Cd, and Pb in the roots and leaves of the plants was determined in two stages of plant growth. Spinach showed high accumulation of Fe and increased levels of Ni and Cd with an increase in contamination. No plant growth was recorded with 25% contamination.

  17. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, E.; Jordan, G.; Fugedi, U.; Bartha, A.; Kuti, L.; Heltai, G.; Kalmar, J.; Waldmann, I.; Napradean, I.; Damian, G.

    2009-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD) from ore and coal mining is the outstanding and most important source of mining-induced environmental pollution. Younger et al. (2002) estimates that watercourses polluted by coal mine drainage could be in the order of 2,000 to 3,000 km, and 1,000 to 1,500 km polluted by metal mine discharges for the EU 15 Member States (Younger et al. 2002). Significance of contamination risk posed by mining is also highlighted by mine accidents such as those in Baia Mare, Romania in 2002 and in Aznalcollar, Spain in 1999 (Jordan and D'Alessandro 2004). The new EU Mine Waste Directive (Directive 2006/21/EC) requires the risk-based inventory of abandoned mines in the EU. The cost-effective implementation of the inventory is especially demanding in countries with extensive historic mining and great number of abandoned mine sites, like Romania. The problem is further complicated in areas with trans-boundary effects. The objective of this investigation to carry out the risk-based contamination assessment of a mine site with possible trans-boundary effects in Romania. Assessment follows the source-pathway-receptor chain with a special attention to heavy metal leaching from waste dumps as sources and to transport modelling along surface water pathways. STUDY AREA In this paper the Baiut mine catchment located in the Gutai Mts., Romania, close to the Hungarian border is studied. The polymetallic deposites in the Tertiary Inner-Carpathian Volcanic Arc are exposed by a series of abandoned Zn and Pb mines first operated in the 14th century. Elevation in the high relief catchment ranges from 449m to 1044m. Geology is characterised by andesites hosting the ore deposits and paleogene sediments dominating at the

  18. Inventory of aquatic contaminant flux arising from historical metal mining in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, W M; Potter, H A B; Jarvis, A P

    2010-08-01

    The impact of discharges from abandoned metal and ironstone mines has been a much studied form of aquatic pollution in recent decades. Few attempts however, have been made to accurately determine the overall contaminant mass flux arising from abandoned mine sites at scales above catchment level. Such assessments are critical to determine the significance of former mining to national, regional and ultimately global trace metal flux. This paper presents the most comprehensive national survey to date across England and Wales of the total pollution burden discharged at source from abandoned non-coal mine sites. 338 discharges have been identified (from 4923 known abandoned metal mines) and while concurrent flow and contaminant concentration records are only available for around 30% of these, significant quantities of metals (and As) have been quantified to be discharged. A minimum of 193 tonnes of Zn, 18.5 tonnes of Pb, 0.64 tonnes Cd, 19.1 tonnes of Cu, 551 tonnes Fe, 72 tonnes Mn and 5.1 tonnes As are released in water discharges from abandoned non-coal mines to the surface water environment of England and Wales each year. Precautionary extrapolation of mass fluxes based on the frequency distribution of measured concentration and flow data, for discharges with absent data, suggests that the actual total mass flux for these contaminants could be up to 41% higher. The mass flux of Pb released from mines exceeds that of all currently permitted discharges (e.g. active industrial sites and wastewater treatment works) to surface waters across England and Wales, while those of As, Cd and Zn are of a similar magnitude. These data put into context the enduring legacy of historic mining on the water environment, highlighting its significance relative to more highly regulated polluting sites. Comparison of the figures with estimates of global trace metal flux suggests that the national total identified here is significant on a global scale. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  19. Environmental analysis of contaminated sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sunahara, G.I; Renoux, A; Thellen, C; Gaudet, C.L; Pilon, A

    2002-01-01

    .... Topics addressed include: the integration of terrestrial ecotoxicity testing with respect to a chemical's behaviour in soil, developments in contaminated soil risk assessment, and the use of advanced scientific data...

  20. Complexity of Groundwater Contaminants at DOE Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, T.C.; Faybishenko, B.; Jordan, P.

    2010-12-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the remediation and long-term stewardship of one of the world's largest groundwater contamination portfolios, with a significant number of plumes containing various contaminants, and considerable total mass and activity. As of 1999, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management was responsible for remediation, waste management, or nuclear materials and facility stabilization at 144 sites in 31 states and one U.S. territory, out of which 109 sites were expected to require long-term stewardship. Currently, 19 DOE sites are on the National Priority List. The total number of contaminated plumes on DOE lands is estimated to be 10,000. However, a significant number of DOE sites have not yet been fully characterized. The most prevalent contaminated media are groundwater and soil, although contaminated sediment, sludge, and surface water also are present. Groundwater, soil, and sediment contamination are present at 72% of all DOE sites. A proper characterization of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites is critical for accomplishing one of the primary DOE missions -- planning basic research to understand the complex physical, chemical, and biological properties of contaminated sites. Note that the definitions of the terms 'site' and 'facility' may differ from one publication to another. In this report, the terms 'site,' 'facility' or 'installation' are used to identify a contiguous land area within the borders of a property, which may contain more than one plume. The term 'plume' is used here to indicate an individual area of contamination, which can be small or large. Even though several publications and databases contain information on groundwater contamination and remediation technologies, no statistical analyses of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites has been prepared since the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara. The DOE Groundwater Data Base

  1. Remediation and rehabilitation of abandoned mining sites in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsen, S.; Rommens, T.; De Ridder, A.; Panayiotou, C.; Colpaert, J.

    2009-04-01

    Due to a particular geological setting, Cyprus is rich in ore deposits, many of them subject to extensive mining. Most of the mines have a long history, sometimes dating back to prehistorical times. These abandoned mines cause severe off-site environmental problems and health risks for the local population. Groundwater supplies are affected by the leaching of pollutants, surface water is contaminated because of water erosion, and harmful dust containing heavy metals or asbestos is spread due to wind erosion. In addition to the environmental risks associated with the abandoned mines, many of these sites are aestethically unattractive, and remain an economic burden to stakeholders and the public in general, due to the downgrading of surrounding areas, non-development and hence loss of revenue. These factors are important in Cyprus where tourism is a significant source of income for local communities. An EUREKA-project addresses the issue of abandoned mine clean-up and restoration. The main objectives of this study are : (1) To develop phytostabilization and -remediation techniques to stabilize and clean up sites characterized by high nickel and copper concentrations in the soil, using endemic plants (Alyssum spp. and mycorrhizal Pinus brutia). In some old mines, efforts were already made to stabilize slopes in an attempt to minimize soil erosion and spreading of pollutants. These restoration efforts, however, remained largely unsuccessful because vegetation that was planted could not cope with the harsh hydrogeochemical soil characteristics. Regeneration of the vegetation cover therefore failed ; (2) to demonstrate the risks associated to the environmental hazard of metal polluted mine spoils and outline a method by which to accomplish this type of risk assessment ; (3) to analyse costs and benefits of phytostabilization- and phytoremediation-based solution for the problem. Results of the first experiments are still preliminary and incomplete. However, it is expected

  2. Air cleaning issues with contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellamy, R.R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, King of Prussia, PA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a list of contaminated sites that warrant special USNRC attention because they pose unique or complex decommissioning issues. This list of radiologically contaminated sites is termed the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP), and was first issued in 1990. A site is placed on the SDMP list if it has; (1) Problems with the viability of the responsible organization (e.g., the licensee for the site is unable or unwilling to pay for the decommissioning); (2) Large amounts of soil contamination or unused settling ponds or burial grounds that may make the waste difficult to dispose of; (3) The long-term presence of contaminated, unused buildings; (4) A previously terminated license; or (5) Contaminated or potential contamination of the ground water from on-site wastes. In deciding whether to add a site to the SDMP list, the NRC also considers the projected length of time for decommissioning and the willingness of the responsible organization to complete the decommissioning in a timely manner. Since the list was established, 9 sites have been removed from the list, and the current SDMP list contains 47 sites in 11 states. The USNRC annually publishes NUREG-1444, {open_quotes}Site Decommissioning Management Plan{close_quotes}, which updates the status of each site. This paper will discuss the philosophical goals of the SDMP, then will concentrate on the regulatory requirements associated with air cleaning issues at the SDMP sites during characterization and remediation. Both effluent and worker protection issues will be discussed. For effluents, the source terms at sites will be characterized, and measurement techniques will be presented. Off-site dose impacts will be included. For worker protection issues, air sampling analyses will be presented in order to show how the workers are adequately protected and their doses measured to satisfy regulatory criteria during decontamination operations. 1 tab.

  3. Retention of contaminants in northern natural peatlands treating mine waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Katharina; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Klöve, Björn

    2014-05-01

    The mining industry in Finland is growing, leading to an increasing number of working and proposed mine sites. As a consequence, the amount of mine waste waters created is likewise increasing. This poses a great challenge for water management and purification, as these mine waste waters can lead to severe environmental and health consequences when released to receiving water bodies untreated. In the past years, the use of natural peatlands for cost-effective passive waste water treatment has been increasing. In this study, the fate of mine water contaminants in a treatment peatland receiving process waters from the Kittilä gold mine was investigated. Special attention was paid to the fate of potentially harmful substances such as arsenic, antimony or nickel. During the 4 years of operation, the peatland removed contaminants from process waters at varying efficiencies. While arsenic, antimony and nickel were retained at high efficiencies (>80% retention), other contaminants such as zinc, sulfate or iron were not retained or even leaching from the peatland. Soil samples taken in 2013 showed a linear increase of arsenic, antimony and nickel concentration in the peatland as compared to earlier sampling times, in agreement with the good retention efficiencies for those contaminants. Measured concentrations exceeded guideline values for contaminated soils, indicating that the prolonged use of treatment peatlands leads to high soil contamination and restrict further uses of the peatlands without remediation measures. Soil and pore water samples were taken along a transect with varying distance from the process water distribution ditch and analyzed for total and more easily mobile concentrations of contaminants (peat soil) as well as total and dissolved contaminants (water samples). Concentrations of contaminants such as arsenic, manganese or antimony in peat and pore water samples were highest near the distribution ditch and decreased with increasing distance from the

  4. Mercury-contaminated hydraulic mining debris in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouse, Robin M.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Smith, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    The hydraulic gold-mining process used during the California Gold Rush and in many developing countries today contributes enormous amounts of sediment to rivers and streams. Commonly, accompanying this sediment are contaminants such as elemental mercury and cyanide used in the gold extraction process. We show that some of the mercurycontaminated sediment created by hydraulic gold mining in the Sierra Nevada, between 1852 and 1884, ended up over 250 kilometers (km) away in San Francisco Bay; an example of the far-reaching extent of contamination from such activities.

  5. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Mine Grid Scoring Record #837

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teefy, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Mine Grid. This Scoring Record was coordinated by Dennis Teefy and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  6. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Chino Mine in Silver City, New Mexico. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Chino Mine site in Silver City, New Mexico, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  7. Low Cost Remediation of Mining Sites with Biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Walter; Evanylo, Gregory; Stuczynski, Tomasz

    2010-05-01

    This paper will present collective results of 25 years of research by the authors into the use of municipal biosolids (sewage sludge) and other residuals to reclaim sites disturbed by a range of mining and construction activities. Loading rate experiments and demonstrations have been conducted on areas drastically disturbed by coal mining, sand mining, heavy mineral mining, urbanization, airport construction and heavy metal processing. At all sites, the post-mining soils were devoid of organic matter, very low in nutrients and frequently quite acidic. At all sites, addition of biosolids at higher than agronomic rates resulted in complete stabilization of the resultant mine soils and vigorous stable vegetation that persisted for > 5 years and has allowed enhanced invasion of native herbaceous species. Application of higher rates is not compatible with establishment of certain native tree species (e.g. Pinus sp.), however, due to adverse effects of soluble salts, nutrient enrichment and enhanced competition by grasses. An underlying goal of this program has been to develop approaches that use higher than agronomic rates of biosolids while simultaneously minimizing losses of N and P to local ground- and surface-waters. In the early 1980's, working on USA coal mining spoils, we determined that that approximately 100 Mg/ha of secondary cake biosolids was optimal for revegetation with herbaceous species, but water quality monitoring was not a concern at that time. This finding raised concerns, however, that the large amounts of total N applied (> 2500 kg/ha) would lead to nitrate-N contamination of local waters. Subsequent work in the early 1990's indicated that similar rates of biosolids could be mixed with woodchips (high palatable C source) and land-applied to large (> 100 ha) coal mining sites with no losses of nitrate-N to surface or ground-water due to microbial immobilization of the applied N. Follow-up work at three sand mining (sand & gravel and mineral sands

  8. Stream water chemistry in the arsenic-contaminated Baccu Locci mine watershed (Sardinia, Italy) after remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardau, Carla; Podda, Francesca; Da Pelo, Stefania; Frau, Franco

    2013-11-01

    The abandoned Pb-As Baccu Locci mine represents the first and only case of mine site remediation in Sardinia, Italy. Arsenic is the most relevant environmental concern in the Baccu Locci stream watershed, with concentrations in surface waters up to and sometimes over 1 mg/L. The main remediation action consisted in creation of a "storage site", for the collection of contaminated materials from different waste-rock dumps and most of tailings piles occurring along the Baccu Locci stream. This paper reports preliminary results on the level of contamination in the Baccu Locci stream after the completion of remediation measures. Post-remediation stream water chemistry has not substantially changed compared to the pre-remediation situation. In particular, dissolved As maintains an increasing trend along the Baccu Locci stream, with a concentration of about 400 μg/L measured at a distance of 7 km from the storage site. Future monitoring will provide fundamental information on the effectiveness of remediation actions conducted and their applicability to other mine sites in Sardinia. At the stage of mine site characterisation of future remediation plans, it is recommended to pay more attention to the understanding of mineralogical and geochemical processes responsible for pollution. Moreover, mixing of materials with different composition and reactivity in a storage site should require careful consideration and long-term leaching tests.

  9. Naval Station Newport Wind Resource Assessment. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites, and The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.; Fields, J.; Roberts, J. O.

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy (RE) on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate RE options at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Newport in Newport, Rhode Island where multiple contaminated areas pose a threat to human health and the environment. Designated a superfund site on the National Priorities List in 1989, the base is committed to working toward reducing the its dependency on fossil fuels, decreasing its carbon footprint, and implementing RE projects where feasible. The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) partnered with NREL in February 2009 to investigate the potential for wind energy generation at a number of Naval and Marine bases on the East Coast. NAVSTA Newport was one of several bases chosen for a detailed, site-specific wind resource investigation. NAVSTA Newport, in conjunction with NREL and NFESC, has been actively engaged in assessing the wind resource through several ongoing efforts. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and a survey of potential wind turbine options based upon the site-specific wind resource.

  10. Trace elements contamination of soils around gold mine tailings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the issue of tailings dams as a potential source of trace elements contamination in soils at the Obuasi gold mine in Ghana. Soil samples taken from depths of up to 12 cm and within a radius of 400 m from the tailings dams (active and recommissioned), were analysed for As, Cu, Pb and. Zn using ...

  11. Metal contamination of agricultural soils in the copper mining areas ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    62

    Contamination factors (CF), Pollution load index (PLI), Nemerow index and ... ores and disposal of tailings, along with mine and mill waste water, provide. 9 ...... Closs L G and Nichol I 1975 The role of factor and regression analysis in the .... Hilton J, Davison W, Ochsenbein U 1985 A mathematical model for analysis of ...

  12. Metal(loid) levels in biological matrices from human populations exposed to mining contamination--Panasqueira Mine (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Patrícia; Costa, Solange; Silva, Susana; Walter, Alan; Ranville, James; Sousa, Ana C A; Costa, Carla; Coelho, Marta; García-Lestón, Julia; Pastorinho, M Ramiro; Laffon, Blanca; Pásaro, Eduardo; Harrington, Chris; Taylor, Andrew; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Mining activities may affect the health of miners and communities living near mining sites, and these health effects may persist even when the mine is abandoned. During mining processes various toxic wastes are produced and released into the surrounding environment, resulting in contamination of air, drinking water, rivers, plants, and soils. In a geochemical sampling campaign undertaken in the Panasqueira Mine area of central Portugal, an anomalous distribution of several metals and arsenic (As) was identified in various environmental media. Several potentially harmful elements, including As, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se), were quantified in blood, urine, hair, and nails (toe and finger) from a group of individuals living near the Panasqueira Mine who were environmentally and occupationally exposed. A group with similar demographic characteristics without known exposure to mining activities was also compared. Genotoxicity was evaluated by means of T-cell receptor (TCR) mutation assay, and percentages of different lymphocyte subsets were selected as immunotoxicity biomarkers. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) analysis showed elevated levels of As, Cd, Cr, Mn, and Pb in all biological samples taken from populations living close to the mine compared to controls. Genotoxic and immunotoxic differences were also observed. The results provide evidence of an elevated potential risk to the health of populations, with environmental and occupational exposures resulting from mining activities. Further, the results emphasize the need to implement preventive measures, remediation, and rehabilitation plans for the region.

  13. Mining waste contaminated lands: an uphill battle for improving crop productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B M Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mining drastically alters the physico-chemical and biological environment of the landscape. Low organic matter content, unfavourable pH, low water holding capacity, salinity, coarse texture, compaction, siltation of water bodies due to wash off of mineral overburden dumps, inadequate supply of plant nutrients, accelerated erosion, acid generating materials, and mobilization of contaminated sediments into the aquatic environment are the principal constraints experienced in mining contaminated sites. A variety of approaches have been considered for reclaiming mine wastes including direct revegetation of amended waste materials, top soiling, and the use of capillary barriers. The simplest technology to improve crop productivity is the addition of organic amendments. Biosolids and animal manure can support revegetation, but its rapid decomposition especially in the wet tropics, necessitates repeated applications. Recalcitrant materials such as “biochars”, which improve soil properties on a long term basis as well as promote soil carbon sequestration, hold enormous promise. An eco-friendly and cost-effective Microbe Assisted Phytoremediation system has been proposed to increase biological productivity and fertility of mine spoil dumps. Agroforestry practices may enhance the nutrient status of degraded mine spoil lands (facilitation. N-fixing trees are important in this respect. Metal tolerant ecotypes of grasses and calcium-loving plants help restore lead, zinc, and copper mine tailings and gypsum mine spoils, respectively. Overall, an integrated strategy of introduction of metal tolerant plants, genetic engineering for enhanced synthesis and exudation of natural chelators into the rhizosphere, improvement of rhizosphere, and integrated management including agroforestry will be appropriate for reclaiming mining contaminated lands.

  14. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, E.; Jordan, G.; Fugedi, U.; Bartha, A.; Kuti, L.; Heltai, G.; Kalmar, J.; Waldmann, I.; Napradean, I.; Damian, G.

    2009-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD) from ore and coal mining is the outstanding and most important source of mining-induced environmental pollution. Younger et al. (2002) estimates that watercourses polluted by coal mine drainage could be in the order of 2,000 to 3,000 km, and 1,000 to 1,500 km polluted by metal mine discharges for the EU 15 Member States (Younger et al. 2002). Significance of contamination risk posed by mining is also highlighted by mine accidents such as those in Baia Mare, Romania in 2002 and in Aznalcollar, Spain in 1999 (Jordan and D'Alessandro 2004). The new EU Mine Waste Directive (Directive 2006/21/EC) requires the risk-based inventory of abandoned mines in the EU. The cost-effective implementation of the inventory is especially demanding in countries with extensive historic mining and great number of abandoned mine sites, like Romania. The problem is further complicated in areas with trans-boundary effects. The objective of this investigation to carry out the risk-based contamination assessment of a mine site with possible trans-boundary effects in Romania. Assessment follows the source-pathway-receptor chain with a special attention to heavy metal leaching from waste dumps as sources and to transport modelling along surface water pathways. STUDY AREA In this paper the Baiut mine catchment located in the Gutai Mts., Romania, close to the Hungarian border is studied. The polymetallic deposites in the Tertiary Inner-Carpathian Volcanic Arc are exposed by a series of abandoned Zn and Pb mines first operated in the 14th century. Elevation in the high relief catchment ranges from 449m to 1044m. Geology is characterised by andesites hosting the ore deposits and paleogene sediments dominating at the

  15. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N.

    2013-01-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

  16. The significance of groundwater-stream interactions and fluctuating stream chemistry on waterborne uranium contamination of streams—a case study from a gold mining site in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winde, Frank; Jacobus van der Walt, Izak

    2004-02-01

    Through seepage, dissolved uranium and other heavy metals migrate from tailings deposits of gold mines via groundwater into adjacent fluvial systems. The extent of associated stream contamination is determined, inter alia, by the retardation of dissolved contaminants along the pathway and the rate in which polluted groundwater enters the stream channel. Comparing several sediment-water systems of the aqueous pathway significantly higher immobilisation of U was found in (fast-flowing) surface water systems such as the stream than in (slow moving) alluvial groundwater of the floodplain. Mainly triggered by redox-initiated co-precipitation bottom sediments in streams act as geochemical barrier and long-term sink for U and other heavy metals from polluted groundwater. Real-time in situ measurements of hydraulic interactions between contaminated groundwater and streamwater suggest a highly dynamic water exchange between both water bodies, including daily inversions of the direction of flow in certain times of the year. This results in distinct diurnal differences of the associated stream contamination. The extent of subsequent downstream transport of U within the fluvial system is largely determined by pronounced diurnal oscillations of pH and redox potential in the stream, affecting U-speciation as well as adsorption and precipitation rates. In addition event-triggered fluctuations of both parameter impact on the fluvial transport of U.

  17. Long-term effects of aided phytostabilisation on microbial communities of metal-contaminated mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaiyurrebaso, Olatz; Garbisu, Carlos; Blanco, Fernando; Lanzén, Anders; Martín, Iker; Epelde, Lur; Becerril, José M; Jechalke, Sven; Smalla, Kornelia; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Alkorta, Itziar

    2017-03-01

    Aided phytostabilisation uses metal-tolerant plants, together with organic or inorganic amendments, to reduce metal bioavailability in soil while improving soil quality. The long-term effects of the following organic amendments were examined as part of an aided phytostabilisation field study in an abandoned Pb/Zn mining area: cow slurry, sheep manure and paper mill sludge mixed with poultry manure. In the mining area, two heavily contaminated vegetated sites, showing different levels of soil metal contamination (LESS and MORE contaminated site), were selected for this study. Five years after amendment application, metal bioavailability (CaCl2 extractability) along with a variety of indicators of soil microbial activity, biomass and diversity were analysed. Paper mill sludge mixed with poultry manure treatment resulted in the highest reduction of Cd, Pb and Zn bioavailability, as well as in stimulation of soil microbial activity and diversity, especially at the LESS contaminated site. In contrast, cow slurry was the least successful treatment. Our results emphasise the importance of the (i) long-term monitoring of soil quality at sites subjected to aided phytostabilisation and (ii) selection of the most efficient amendments and plants in terms of both reduction of metal bioavailability and improvement of soil quality. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Biochars ability to sequester metals in contaminated mine spoils: A greenhouse study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Jeff; Johnson, Mark G.; Ippolito, Jim; Spokas, Kurt; Trippe, Kristin; Ducey, Tom; Sigua, Gilbert

    2017-04-01

    Biochars are under consideration as an amendment to remediate contaminated mine spoils and improving plant growth cover. Scientists from the USDA-ARS, US EPA, and Colorado State University have conducted a greenhouse experiment using Miscanthous (Miscanthus giganteus) biochar produced at 700⁰C to reclaim mine spoils obtained from the Formosa mine site (near Riddle, Oregon, USA). Spoil at this site is acidic and has elevated total and plant available copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations. Blue Wildrye (Elymus glaucus) was planted in mine spoil that was treated with Miscanthus biochar at 0, 1, 2.5 and 5% (w/w), lime, and N-P-K fertilizer. Mine spoil treated with biochar alone (no lime) along with samples (no lime or biochar) were also included. After almost 60 days of incubation, above ground and below ground wildrye samples were collected. Remaining spoils were then extracted with Mehlich 3 reagent and plant available Cu and Zn concentrations measured. Mehlich 3 extractable Cu and Zn concentrations decreased significantly only in the lime treated samples—their concentrations were not influenced by biochar. Our preliminary findings are that lime is an important amendment to reduce metal concentrations in mine spoils and that choice of biochar type must be carefully considered beforehand.

  19. Remediation of Cd-contaminated soil around metal sulfide mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinzhe; Hu, Xuefeng; Kang, Zhanjun; Luo, Fan

    2017-04-01

    The mines of metal sulfides are widely distributed in the southwestern part of Zhejiang Province, Southeast China. The activities of mining, however, often lead to the severe pollution of heavy metals in soils, especially Cd contamination. According to our field investigations, the spatial distribution of Cd-contaminated soils is highly consistent with the presence of metal sulfide mines in the areas, further proving that the mining activities are responsible for Cd accumulation in the soils. To study the remediation of Cd-contaminated soils, a paddy field nearby large sulfide mines, with soil pH 6 and Cd more than 1.56 mg kg-1, five times higher than the national recommended threshold, was selected. Plastic boards were deeply inserted into soil to separate the field and make experimental plots, with each plot being 4 m×4 m. Six treatments, TK01˜TK06, were designed to study the effects of different experimental materials on remediating Cd-contaminated soils. The treatment of TK01 was the addition of 100 kg zeolites to the plot; TK02, 100 kg apatites; TK03, 100 kg humid manure; TK04, 50 kg zeolites + 50 kg apatites; TK05, 50 kg zeolites + 50 kg humid manure; TK06 was blank control (CK). One month after the treatments, soil samples at the plots were collected to study the possible change of chemical forms of Cd in the soils. The results indicated that these treatments reduced the content of available Cd in the soils effectively, by a decreasing sequence of TK04 (33%) > TK02 (25%) > TK01 (23%) > TK05 (22%) > TK03 (15%), on the basis of CK. Correspondingly, the treatments also reduced the content of Cd in rice grains significantly, by a similar decreasing sequence of TK04 (83%) > TK02 (77%) > TK05 (63%) > TK01 (47%) > TK03 (27%). The content of Cd in the rice grains was 0.071 mg kg-1, 0.094 mg kg-1, 0.159 mg kg-1, 0.22 mg kg-1 and 0.306 mg kg-1, respectively, compared with CK, 0.418 mg kg-1. This experiment suggested that the reduction of available Cd in the soils is

  20. National Policies for cleaning up contaminated sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenman, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Policies for the remediation of contaminated sites emerged relatively late as a subfield of environmental protection. The policy area is adjacent to other policies, such as waste policy, which often includes provisions on how to deal with waste dumps, as well as soil and groundwater protection

  1. Recognizing critical mine spoil health characteristics to design biochars for site improvement to promote stabilizing plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar can be used as an amendment to remediate metal-contaminated mine spoils for improved site phytostabilization. For successful phytostabilization to occur, biochar amendments must improve mine spoil health with respect to plant rooting plus uptake of water and nutrients. ...

  2. Selecting Suitable Sites for Mine Waste Dumps Using GIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2017-06-01

    Jun 1, 2017 ... A step- wise model has been developed using ModelBuilder for selecting an economic but effective site for dumping mine waste using suitable constraints and criteria. This has facilitated the production of suitability maps generated from the various datasets being used for mine waste dump site selection.

  3. Magnesium Contamination in Soil at a Magnesite Mining Region of Liaoning Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Tai, Peidong; Jia, Chunyun; Li, Xiaojun; Li, Peijun; Xiong, Xianzhe

    2015-07-01

    Magnesite is the world's most important source material for magnesia refractory production, and Haicheng City in Liaoning Province, China has been called "the magnesium capital of the world." However, magnesite mining in these areas has caused serious environmental problems. Field investigations have shown that the soil profile of many sites in the mining region are contaminated by magnesium, and the magnesium-enriched crusts that have formed on the soil surface have affected ecologically important soil functions, particularly reduced water penetration rate. Laboratory experiment revealed that anionic polyacrylamide and calcium dihydrogen phosphate can be used to improve soil condition, and have positive effects on soil function. The findings of this study are of significance in the magnetite mining areas, providing clear options for the remediation of soils that should be carried out immediately.

  4. Cancer incidence in Italian contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Comba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of cancer among residents in sites contaminated by pollutants with a possible health impact is not adequately studied. In Italy, SENTIERI Project (Epidemiological study of residents in National Priority Contaminated Sites, NPCSs was implemented to study major health outcomes for residents in 44 NPCSs. METHODS. The Italian Association of Cancer Registries (AIRTUM records cancer incidence in 23 NPCSs. For each NPCSs, the incidence of all malignant cancers combined and 35 cancer sites (coded according to ICD-10, was analysed (1996-2005. The observed cases were compared to the expected based on age (5-year period,18 classes, gender, calendar period (1996-2000; 2001-2005, geographical area (North-Centre and Centre-South and cancer sites specific rates. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR with 90% Confidence Intervals were computed. RESULTS. In both genders an excess was observed for overall cancer incidence (9% in men and 7% in women as well as for specific cancer sites (colon and rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, lung, skin melanoma, bladder and Non Hodgkin lymphoma. Deficits were observed for gastric cancer in both genders, chronic lymphoid leukemia (men, malignant thyroid neoplasms, corpus uteri and connective and soft-tissue tumours and sarcomas (women. DISCUSSION. This report is, to our knowledge, the first one on cancer risk of residents in NPCSs. The study, although not aiming to estimate the cancer burden attributable to the environment as compared to occupation or life-style, supports the credibility of an etiologic role of environmental exposures in contaminated sites. Ongoing analyses focus on the interpretation of risk factors for excesses of specific cancer types overall and in specific NPCSs in relation to the presence of carcinogenic pollutants.

  5. Impact of climate change on acid mine drainage generation and contaminant transport in water ecosystems of semi-arid and arid mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawar, Hossain Md.

    Disposal of untreated and treated mining wastes and tailings exerts a significant threat and hazard for environmental contamination including groundwater, surface water, wetlands, land, food chain and animals. In order to facilitate remediation techniques, it is important to understand the oxidation of sulfidic minerals, and the hydrolysis of the oxidation products that result in production of acid mine drainage (AMD), toxic metals, low pH, SO42- and Fe. This review has summarized the impacts of climate change on geochemical reactions, AMD generation, and water quality in semi-arid/arid mining environments. Besides this, the study included the effects of hydrological, seasonal and climate change on composition of AMD, contaminant transport in watersheds and restoration of mining sites. Different models have different types of limitations and benefits that control their adaptability and suitability of application in various mining environments. This review has made a comparative discussion of a few most potential and widely used reactive transport models that can be applied to simulate the effect of climate change on sulfide oxidation and AMD production from mining waste, and contaminant transport in surface and groundwater systems.

  6. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  7. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining-the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes during a period of

  8. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Locke

    Full Text Available Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining-the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes

  9. Adaptation of soil microbial community structure and function to chronic metal contamination at an abandoned Pb-Zn mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelde, Lur; Lanzén, Anders; Blanco, Fernando; Urich, Tim; Garbisu, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity of metals released from mine tailings may cause severe damage to ecosystems. A diversity of microorganisms, however, have successfully adapted to such sites. In this study, our objective was to advance the understanding of the indigenous microbial communities of mining-impacted soils. To this end, a metatranscriptomic approach was used to study a heavily metal-contaminated site along a metal concentration gradient (up to 3220 000 and 97 000 mg kg(-1) of Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively) resulting from previous mining. Metal concentration, soil pH and amount of clay were the most important factors determining the structure of soil microbial communities. Interestingly, evenness of the microbial communities, but not its richness, increased with contamination level. Taxa with high metabolic plasticity like Ktedonobacteria and Chloroflexi were found with higher relative abundance in more contaminated samples. However, several taxa belonging to the phyla Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria followed opposite trends in relation to metal pollution. Besides, functional transcripts related to transposition or transfer of genetic material and membrane transport, potentially involved in metal resistance mechanisms, had a higher expression in more contaminated samples. Our results provide an insight into microbial communities in long-term metal-contaminated environments and how they contrast to nearby sites with lower contamination. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Cola soft drinks for evaluating the bioaccessibility of uranium in contaminated mine soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottermoser, Bernd G; Schnug, Ewald; Haneklaus, Silvia

    2011-08-15

    There is a rising need for scientifically sound and quantitative as well as simple, rapid, cheap and readily available soil testing procedures. The purpose of this study was to explore selected soft drinks (Coca-Cola Classic®, Diet Coke®, Coke Zero®) as indicators of bioaccessible uranium and other trace elements (As, Ce, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Th, Y, Zn) in contaminated soils of the Mary Kathleen uranium mine site, Australia. Data of single extraction tests using Coca-Cola Classic®, Diet Coke® and Coke Zero® demonstrate that extractable arsenic, copper, lanthanum, manganese, nickel, yttrium and zinc concentrations correlate significantly with DTPA- and CaCl₂-extractable metals. Moreover, the correlation between DTPA-extractable uranium and that extracted using Coca-Cola Classic® is close to unity (+0.98), with reduced correlations for Diet Coke® (+0.66) and Coke Zero® (+0.55). Also, Coca-Cola Classic® extracts uranium concentrations near identical to DTPA, whereas distinctly higher uranium fractions were extracted using Diet Coke® and Coke Zero®. Results of this study demonstrate that the use of Coca-Cola Classic® in single extraction tests provided an excellent indication of bioaccessible uranium in the analysed soils and of uranium uptake into leaves and stems of the Sodom apple (Calotropis procera). Moreover, the unconventional reagent is superior in terms of availability, costs, preparation and disposal compared to traditional chemicals. Contaminated site assessments and rehabilitation of uranium mine sites require a solid understanding of the chemical speciation of environmentally significant elements for estimating their translocation in soils and plant uptake. Therefore, Cola soft drinks have potential applications in single extraction tests of uranium contaminated soils and may be used for environmental impact assessments of uranium mine sites, nuclear fuel processing plants and waste storage and disposal facilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  11. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Inventory Sites 201601

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  12. Ecological restoration of Central European mining sites: a summary of a multi-site analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prach, K.; Rehounkova, K.; Rehounek, J.; Konvalinkova, P. [University of South Bohemia, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-01

    Sites disturbed by mining were surveyed in the Czech Republic, central Europe. The sites included spoil heaps from coal mining, sand and gravel pits, extracted peatlands and stone quarries. The following main conclusions emerged: I) potential for spontaneous succession to be used in restoration projects is between 95 and 100% of the total area disturbed; ii) mining sites, if mining is properly designed and then the sites are left to spontaneous succession, often act as refugia for endangered and retreating organisms, and may contribute substantially to local biodiversity.

  13. India's manganese nodule mine site in the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.

    This commentary highlights the activities of massive exploration programme for manganese nodule deposits in the Central Indian Basin located 5 km below the ocean surface and India's claim for mine site development and registration with UNCLOS...

  14. Concept Development of Optimal Mine Site Energy Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Carvalho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on early work and concept development for Optimal Mine Site Energy Supply, where the specific energy supply requirements and constraints for mineral production operations are considered against methodologies that have been applied for other sectors and in other energy policy regimes. The primary motivation for this research is to help ensure that Canadian mineral producers will achieve reduced production costs through improvements in the efficiency with which they consume energy resources. Heat has not yet been considered for the mining sector in an integrated manner, which makes polygeneration of great interest. The methodology that optimizes configuration of polygeneration systems for mine sites has not been reported before. The variety of mining circumstances, temporal variations in energy prices, institutional inertia, and conservatism in design for mines are some of the reasons for this. This paper reviews some aspects of precedent energy management practice in mineral operations, which highlights energy challenges characteristic of the sector and sets out the initial formulation of optimal mine site energy supply. The review indicates the additional benefits of energy supply systems for mine sites that concurrently meet all utilities.

  15. Remediation of contaminated soil using heap leach mining technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, D.A.; Aamodt, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is evaluating the systems technology for heap treatment of excavated soils to remove and treat hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes. This new technology would be an extrapolation of current heap leach mining technology. The candidate wastes for treatment are those organic or inorganic (including radioactive) compounds that will chemically, physically, or biologically react with selected reagents. The project would start with bench-scale testing, followed by pilot-scale testing, and eventually by field-scale testing. Various reagents would be tried in various combinations and sequences to obtain and optimize the desired treatment results. The field-scale testing would be preceded by site characterization, process design, and equipment selection. The final step in this project is to transfer the systems technology to the private sector, probably to the mining industry. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Chemical and microbial properties in contaminated soils around a magnesite mine in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    D Yang; D-H Zeng; J Zhang; L-J Li; R. Mao

    2012-01-01

    We measured soil chemical and microbial properties at a depth of 0–20 cm among mine tailings, abandoned mined land, contaminated cropland, and uncontaminated cropland around a magnesite mine near Haicheng City, Liaoning Province, China. The objective was to clarify the impact of Mg on the soils. We found that soluble Mg2+ concentration and pH...

  17. Radioactive contamination, what actions for the polluted sites; Contamination radioactive, quelles actions pour les sites pollues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The nuclear safety authority and the direction of prevention of pollutions and risks have organised the first edition of the national colloquium: radioactive contamination: what actions for polluted sites. Four axes can be taken to follow this colloquium: prevention, outstanding tools to evaluate risks and rehabilitation, a better responsibility of operators and memory keeping. (N.C.)

  18. Technical Support for Contaminated Sites | Science Inventory ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1987, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD), Office of Land and Emergency Management, and EPA Regional waste management offices established the Technical Support Project. The creation of the Technical Support Project enabled ORD to provide effective technical assistance by ensuring ORD scientists and engineers were accessible to the Agency’s Office and Regional decision makers, including Remedial Project Managers, On-Scene Coordinators, and corrective action staff. Five ORD Technical Support Centers (TSCs) were created to facilitate this technical assistance. Three of the five TSCs are supported by the Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program, and are summarized in the poster being presented:• Engineering Technical Support Center (ETSC) in Cincinnati, Ohio• Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) in Ada, Oklahoma• Site Characterization and Monitoring Technical Support Center (SCMTSC) in Atlanta, GeorgiaOver the past 29 years, the Technical Support Centers have provided numerous influential products to its internal Agency clients and to those at the State level (through the EPA Regions). These products include, but are not limited to the following: Annual TSC reports from the three Centers, a hard-rock mining conference every other year, PRO-UCL software development for site characterization statistics, groundwater modeling using state-of-the-art modeling software, numerical mo

  19. Post-mining safety implementations and environmental aspects of abandoned mine sites in Limousin. 2006 status (and perspectives 2007); Mises en securite en apres-mine et aspects environnementaux des anciens sites miniers en Limousin. Bilan 2006 (et perspectives 2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document summarizes the actions carried out in 2006 at some French abandoned mine sites: 1 - safety implementations and risks abatement in the framework of post-mining actions: coal mines of Ahun (23) and Argentat (19), antimony mines of Biard (87); 2 - remedial actions at the tin/tungsten mine of Puy-les-Vignes (87) and at the gold mine of Chatelet (23); 3 - 2007 post-mining perspectives; 4 - environmental aspects of abandoned mine sites: gold mines of Chatelet (23), Cheni and Bourneix (87), uranium mines of Haute-Vienne (expertise, control of effluents, financial warranties about tailings storage sites maintenance). (J.S.)

  20. Heavy metals contamination and human health risk assessment around Obuasi gold mine in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bempah, Crentsil Kofi; Ewusi, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    Gold mining has increased the prevalence and occurrence of heavy metals contamination at the Earth's surface and is causing major concern due to the potential risk involved. This study investigated the impact of gold mine on heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn) pollution and evaluated the potential health risks to local residents via consumption of polluted groundwater, agricultural soils, and vegetable crops grown at three community farms surrounding the mine at Obuasi municipality of Ghana. The results showed levels of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Fe, and Mn higher than the allowable drinking water standards. The vegetable samples analyzed showed high accumulation of As and Ni above the normal value. Bioaccumulation factors of heavy metals were significantly higher for vegetables grown in the Sanso soils. Estimated average daily intake and hazard quotient for As in drinking water as well as As, Pb, and Hg in vegetable samples exceeded permissible limit. Unacceptable non-cancer health risk levels were found in vegetable samples analyzed for As, Pb, and Hg. An unacceptable cancer risk was found via drinking of groundwater, in consumption of vegetables, and in soil. The hazard index for vegetables was higher than 1, indicating very high health risk to heavy metals contamination through consumption of vegetables grown around the sampling sites. The results recommend the need for regular monitoring of groundwater and food crops to protect consumers' health.

  1. Cola soft drinks for evaluating the bioaccessibility of uranium in contaminated mine soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottermoser, Bernd G., E-mail: Bernd.Lottermoser@utas.edu.au [School of Earth Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 79, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Schnug, Ewald; Haneklaus, Silvia [Institute for Crop and Soil Science, Federal Institute for Cultivated Plants, Julius Kuehn-Institute (JKI), Bundesallee 50, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    There is a rising need for scientifically sound and quantitative as well as simple, rapid, cheap and readily available soil testing procedures. The purpose of this study was to explore selected soft drinks (Coca-Cola Classic (registered) , Diet Coke (registered) , Coke Zero (registered) ) as indicators of bioaccessible uranium and other trace elements (As, Ce, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Th, Y, Zn) in contaminated soils of the Mary Kathleen uranium mine site, Australia. Data of single extraction tests using Coca-Cola Classic (registered) , Diet Coke (registered) and Coke Zero (registered) demonstrate that extractable arsenic, copper, lanthanum, manganese, nickel, yttrium and zinc concentrations correlate significantly with DTPA- and CaCl{sub 2}-extractable metals. Moreover, the correlation between DTPA-extractable uranium and that extracted using Coca-Cola Classic (registered) is close to unity (+ 0.98), with reduced correlations for Diet Coke (registered) (+ 0.66) and Coke Zero (registered) (+ 0.55). Also, Coca-Cola Classic (registered) extracts uranium concentrations near identical to DTPA, whereas distinctly higher uranium fractions were extracted using Diet Coke (registered) and Coke Zero (registered) . Results of this study demonstrate that the use of Coca-Cola Classic (registered) in single extraction tests provided an excellent indication of bioaccessible uranium in the analysed soils and of uranium uptake into leaves and stems of the Sodom apple (Calotropis procera). Moreover, the unconventional reagent is superior in terms of availability, costs, preparation and disposal compared to traditional chemicals. Contaminated site assessments and rehabilitation of uranium mine sites require a solid understanding of the chemical speciation of environmentally significant elements for estimating their translocation in soils and plant uptake. Therefore, Cola soft drinks have potential applications in single extraction tests of uranium contaminated soils and may be used for

  2. Distribution and mobility of arsenic and antimony at mine sites in FYR Macedonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Alderton, David H.M; Serafimovski, Todor; Burns, Liz; Tasev, Goran

    2014-01-01

    Soils, river sediments and waters from former As-Sb mining sites in FYR Macedonia have been chemically analysed to assess their impact on the local environment. Soils and river sediments contain very high concentrations of As and Sb (medians 117 and 37 mg kg-1), but values are heterogeneously distributed. These values are far in excess of various statutory thresholds and at the largest deposit, Lojane, the area is grossly contaminated. Sequential extraction has demonstrated that a large propo...

  3. Determination of premining geochemical background and delineation of extent of sediment contamination in Blue Creek downstream from Midnite Mine, Stevens County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Stan E.; Kirschner, Frederick E.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Budahn, James R.; Brown, Zoe Ann

    2008-01-01

    Geochemical and radionuclide studies of sediment recovered from eight core sites in the Blue Creek flood plain and Blue Creek delta downstream in Lake Roosevelt provided a stratigraphic geochemical record of the contamination from uranium mining at the Midnite Mine. Sediment recovered from cores in a wetland immediately downstream from the mine site as well as from sediment catchments in Blue Creek and from cores in the delta in Blue Creek cove provided sufficient data to determine the premining geochemical background for the Midnite Mine tributary drainage. These data provide a geochemical background that includes material eroded from the Midnite Mine site prior to mine development. Premining geochemical background for the Blue Creek basin has also been determined using stream-sediment samples from parts of the Blue Creek, Oyachen Creek, and Sand Creek drainage basins not immediately impacted by mining. Sediment geochemistry showed that premining uranium concentrations in the Midnite Mine tributary immediately downstream of the mine site were strongly elevated relative to the crustal abundance of uranium (2.3 ppm). Cesium-137 (137Cs) data and public records of production at the Midnite Mine site provided age control to document timelines in the sediment from the core immediately downstream from the mine site. Mining at the Midnite Mine site on the Spokane Indian Reservation between 1956 and 1981 resulted in production of more than 10 million pounds of U3O8. Contamination of the sediment by uranium during the mining period is documented from the Midnite Mine along a small tributary to the confluence of Blue Creek, in Blue Creek, and into the Blue Creek delta. During the period of active mining (1956?1981), enrichment of base metals in the sediment of Blue Creek delta was elevated by as much as 4 times the concentration of those same metals prior to mining. Cadmium concentrations were elevated by a factor of 10 and uranium by factors of 16 to 55 times premining

  4. Text mining improves prediction of protein functional sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin M Verspoor

    Full Text Available We present an approach that integrates protein structure analysis and text mining for protein functional site prediction, called LEAP-FS (Literature Enhanced Automated Prediction of Functional Sites. The structure analysis was carried out using Dynamics Perturbation Analysis (DPA, which predicts functional sites at control points where interactions greatly perturb protein vibrations. The text mining extracts mentions of residues in the literature, and predicts that residues mentioned are functionally important. We assessed the significance of each of these methods by analyzing their performance in finding known functional sites (specifically, small-molecule binding sites and catalytic sites in about 100,000 publicly available protein structures. The DPA predictions recapitulated many of the functional site annotations and preferentially recovered binding sites annotated as biologically relevant vs. those annotated as potentially spurious. The text-based predictions were also substantially supported by the functional site annotations: compared to other residues, residues mentioned in text were roughly six times more likely to be found in a functional site. The overlap of predictions with annotations improved when the text-based and structure-based methods agreed. Our analysis also yielded new high-quality predictions of many functional site residues that were not catalogued in the curated data sources we inspected. We conclude that both DPA and text mining independently provide valuable high-throughput protein functional site predictions, and that integrating the two methods using LEAP-FS further improves the quality of these predictions.

  5. Text Mining Improves Prediction of Protein Functional Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Judith D.; Ravikumar, Komandur E.

    2012-01-01

    We present an approach that integrates protein structure analysis and text mining for protein functional site prediction, called LEAP-FS (Literature Enhanced Automated Prediction of Functional Sites). The structure analysis was carried out using Dynamics Perturbation Analysis (DPA), which predicts functional sites at control points where interactions greatly perturb protein vibrations. The text mining extracts mentions of residues in the literature, and predicts that residues mentioned are functionally important. We assessed the significance of each of these methods by analyzing their performance in finding known functional sites (specifically, small-molecule binding sites and catalytic sites) in about 100,000 publicly available protein structures. The DPA predictions recapitulated many of the functional site annotations and preferentially recovered binding sites annotated as biologically relevant vs. those annotated as potentially spurious. The text-based predictions were also substantially supported by the functional site annotations: compared to other residues, residues mentioned in text were roughly six times more likely to be found in a functional site. The overlap of predictions with annotations improved when the text-based and structure-based methods agreed. Our analysis also yielded new high-quality predictions of many functional site residues that were not catalogued in the curated data sources we inspected. We conclude that both DPA and text mining independently provide valuable high-throughput protein functional site predictions, and that integrating the two methods using LEAP-FS further improves the quality of these predictions. PMID:22393388

  6. Assessment of groundwater quality and contamination problems ascribed to an abandoned uranium mine (Cunha Baixa region, Central Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, O.; Matias, M. J.

    2008-02-01

    The assessment of groundwater quality and its environmental implications in the region of the abandoned Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Central Portugal) was carried out from 1995 to 2004. Shallow groundwater is the major water supply source for irrigation in the neighbourhood of Cunha Baixa village. Water samples from the mine site as well as from private wells were collected in order to identify the mining impact on water composition, the extent of contamination and the seasonal and temporal groundwater quality variations. Some of the sampled private wells contain waters having low pH (contamination suffered a small decrease from 1999 to 2004. The bioaccumulation of toxic metals such as Al, Mn, and U within the food chain may cause a serious health hazard to the Cunha Baixa village inhabitants.

  7. Mining RNA-seq data for infections and contaminations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bonfert

    Full Text Available RNA sequencing (RNA-seq provides novel opportunities for transcriptomic studies at nucleotide resolution, including transcriptomics of viruses or microbes infecting a cell. However, standard approaches for mapping the resulting sequencing reads generally ignore alternative sources of expression other than the host cell and are little equipped to address the problems arising from redundancies and gaps among sequenced microbe and virus genomes. We show that screening of sequencing reads for contaminations and infections can be performed easily using ContextMap, our recently developed mapping software. Based on mapping-derived statistics, mapping confidence, similarities and misidentifications (e.g. due to missing genome sequences of species/strains can be assessed. Performance of our approach is evaluated on three real-life sequencing data sets and compared to state-of-the-art metagenomics tools. In particular, ContextMap vastly outperformed GASiC and GRAMMy in terms of runtime. In contrast to MEGAN4, it was capable of providing individual read mappings to species and resolving non-unique mappings, thus allowing the identification of misalignments caused by sequence similarities between genomes and missing genome sequences. Our study illustrates the importance and potentials of routinely mining RNA-seq experiments for infections or contaminations by microbes and viruses. By using ContextMap, gene expression of infecting agents can be analyzed and novel insights in infection processes and tumorigenesis can be obtained.

  8. Current issues (and problems) in uranium mine and mill site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quarch, H. [DSR GmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany); Kuhlmann, J.; Zettwoog, P. [CERTAC, Auffargis (France)

    1994-12-31

    The environmental impact of the mining and milling of uranium ores is similar to that of traditional metal mining with the added factor of the characteristic radioactivity in uranium ores. Residues of these ores therefore generate specific potential hazards requiring special precautions on a site specific basis, as well as special regulatory procedures and controls to ensure protection of public health and safety in the long term. There are strong indications that on a global scale U-mining tailings management and remediation-activities are steadily becoming governed by the ultimate goal of sustainable stabilization and re-establishment of a healthy environment, rather than by immediate or short term needs. In Central Europe rehabilitation of uranium mining and milling districts has only started. Some problems are listed as follows: (1) Limitation, long term control and prediction of aquatic and atmospheric dispersal of contaminants from tailings impoundments, waste rock dumps and abandoned underground mines, (2) Dewatering of tailings (large volumes), (3) Design of cover systems and inhibition of microbian process, (4) Controlled flooding of extensive underground mine workings and related prognosis and control of containment dispersion, (5) Reduction of Rn-exhalation during the flooding process and after mine abandonment, in particular in areas close to densely populated regions, (6) Determination of long term radiological impacts on residents near sources of contamination and identification of natural background levels, (7) Identification of critical containment pathways that remain active, (8) Conception and implementation of a comprehensive monitoring system for all pathways which would operate on a long term basis, (9) Limitation of mine water drainage to be treated and decontaminated and of resulting sludges (in considerable quantities) to be disposed of and which would have to be classified as hazardous waste in the future due to their radionuclide content.

  9. Evaluation of soil contamination indices in a mining area of Jiangxi, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wu

    Full Text Available There is currently a wide variety of methods used to evaluate soil contamination. We present a discussion of the advantages and limitations of different soil contamination assessment methods. In this study, we analyzed seven trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn that are indicators of soil contamination in Dexing, a city in China that is famous for its vast nonferrous mineral resources in China, using enrichment factor (EF, geoaccumulation index (Igeo, pollution index (PI, and principal component analysis (PCA. The three contamination indices and PCA were then mapped to understand the status and trends of soil contamination in this region. The entire study area is strongly enriched in Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, especially in areas near mine sites. As and Hg were also present in high concentrations in urban areas. Results indicated that Cr in this area originated from both anthropogenic and natural sources. PCA combined with Geographic Information System (GIS was successfully used to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic trace metals.

  10. Impact of heavy metal contamination on oxidative stress of Eisenia andrei and bacterial community structure in Tunisian mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughattas, Iteb; Hattab, Sabrine; Boussetta, Hamadi; Banni, Mohamed; Navarro, Elisabeth

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this work were firstly to study the effect of heavy metal-polluted soils from Tunisian mine on earthworm biochemical biomarkers and on bacterial communities and therefore to analyze the interaction between earth worms and bacterial communities in these contaminated soils. For this purpose, we had introduced earthworm Eisenia andrei in six soils: one from mine spoils and five from agricultural soils, establishing a gradient of contamination. The response of worms to the presence of heavy metal was analyzed at the biochemical and transcriptional levels. In a second time, the impact of worm on bacterial community structure was investigated using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting. An impact of heavy metal-contaminated soils on the oxidative status of E. andrei was observed, but this effect was dependent of the level of heavy metal contamination. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the introduction of earthworms E. andrei has an impact on bacterial community; however, the major change was observed in the less contaminated site. Furthermore, a significant correlation between earthworm oxidative status biomarkers and bacterial community structure was observed, mainly in the mine spoils. Therefore, we contribute to a better understanding of the relationships between epigenic earthworms and bacterial communities in heavy metal-contaminated soils.

  11. Glomeromycota communities survive extreme levels of metal toxicity in an orphan mining site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Castro, I; Gianinazzi-Pearson, V; Cleyet-Marel, J C; Baudoin, E; van Tuinen, D

    2017-11-15

    Abandoned tailing basins and waste heaps of orphan mining sites are of great concern since extreme metal contamination makes soil improper for any human activity and is a permanent threat for nearby surroundings. Although spontaneous revegetation can occur, the process is slow or unsuccessful and rhizostabilisation strategies to reduce dispersal of contaminated dust represent an option to rehabilitate such sites. This requires selection of plants tolerant to such conditions, and optimization of their fitness and growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can enhance metal tolerance in moderately polluted soils, but their ability to survive extreme levels of metal contamination has not been reported. This question was addressed in the tailing basin and nearby waste heaps of an orphan mining site in southern France, reaching in the tailing basin exceptionally high contents of zinc (ppm: 97,333 total) and lead (ppm: 31,333 total). In order to contribute to a better understanding of AMF ecology under severe abiotic stress and to identify AMF associated with plants growing under such conditions, that may be considered in future revegetation and rhizostabilisation of highly polluted areas, nine plant species were sampled at different growing seasons and AMF root colonization was determined. Glomeromycota diversity was monitored in mycorrhizal roots by sequencing of the ribosomal LSU. This first survey of AMF in such highly contaminated soils revealed the presence of several AMF ribotypes, belonging mainly to the Glomerales, with some examples from the Paraglomerales and Diversisporales. AMF diversity and root colonization in the tailing basin were lower than in the less-contaminated waste heaps. A Paraglomus species previously identified in a polish mining site was common in roots of different plants. Presence of active AMF in such an environment is an outstanding finding, which should be clearly considered for the design of efficient rhizostabilisation processes

  12. Fungal Community Structure and As-Resistant Fungi in a Decommissioned Gold Mine Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crognale, Silvia; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Pesciaroli, Lorena; Stazi, Silvia R; Petruccioli, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Although large quantities of heavy metal laden wastes are released in an uncontrolled manner by gold mining activities with ensuing contamination of the surrounding areas, there is scant information on the mycobiota of gold-mine sites. Thus, the present study was aimed to describe the fungal community structure in three differently As- and Hg-polluted soils collected from the Pestarena decommissioned site by using Illumina® metabarcoding. Fungal richness was found to increase as the contamination level increased while biodiversity was not related to the concentrations of inorganic toxicants. Within the phylum Zygomigota which, irrespective of the contamination level, was predominant in all the soils under study, the most abundant genera were Mucor and Mortierella. The relative abundances of Basidiomycota, instead, tended to raise as the contamination increased; within this phylum the most abundant genera were Cryptococcus and Pseudotomentella. The abundance of Ascomycota, ranging from about 8 to 21%, was not related to the contamination level. The relative abundances of those genera (i.e., Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Chaetomium), the cultivable isolates of which exhibited significant As-resistance, were lower than the set threshold (0.5%). Mass balances obtained from As-exposure experiments with these isolates showed that the main mechanisms involved in counteracting the toxicant were accumulation and, above all, volatilization, the respective extents of which ranged from 0.6 to 5.9% and from 6.4 to 31.2% in dependence of the isolate.

  13. Fungal Community Structure and As-Resistant Fungi in a Decommissioned Gold Mine Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Crognale

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although large quantities of heavy metal laden wastes are released in an uncontrolled manner by gold mining activities with ensuing contamination of the surrounding areas, there is scant information on the mycobiota of gold-mine sites. Thus, the present study was aimed to describe the fungal community structure in three differently As- and Hg-polluted soils collected from the Pestarena decommissioned site by using Illumina® metabarcoding. Fungal richness was found to increase as the contamination level increased while biodiversity was not related to the concentrations of inorganic toxicants. Within the phylum Zygomigota which, irrespective of the contamination level, was predominant in all the soils under study, the most abundant genera were Mucor and Mortierella. The relative abundances of Basidiomycota, instead, tended to raise as the contamination increased; within this phylum the most abundant genera were Cryptococcus and Pseudotomentella. The abundance of Ascomycota, ranging from about 8 to 21%, was not related to the contamination level. The relative abundances of those genera (i.e., Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Chaetomium, the cultivable isolates of which exhibited significant As-resistance, were lower than the set threshold (0.5%. Mass balances obtained from As-exposure experiments with these isolates showed that the main mechanisms involved in counteracting the toxicant were accumulation and, above all, volatilization, the respective extents of which ranged from 0.6 to 5.9% and from 6.4 to 31.2% in dependence of the isolate.

  14. Aquatic Ecosystem Enhancement at Mountaintop Mining Sites Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D. Courtney; Lawson, Peter; Morgan, John; Maggard, Randy; Schor, Horst; Powell, Rocky; Kirk, Ed. J.

    2000-01-12

    Welcome to this symposium which is part of the ongoing effort to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) regarding mountaintop mining and valley fills. The EIS is being prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Office of Surface Mining, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, in cooperation with the State of West Virginia. Aquatic Ecosystem Enhancement (AEE) at mountaintop mining sites is one of fourteen technical areas identified for study by the EIS Interagency Steering Committee. Three goals were identified in the AEE Work Plan: 1. Assess mining and reclamation practices to show how mining operations might be carried out in a way that minimizes adverse impacts to streams and other environmental resources and to local communities. Clarify economic and technical constraints and benefits. 2. Help citizens clarify choices by showing whether there are affordable ways to enhance existing mining, reclamation, mitigation processes and/or procedures. 3. Ide identify data needed to improve environmental evaluation and design of mining projects to protect the environment. Today’s symposium was proposed in the AEE Team Work Plans but coordinated planning for the event began September 15, 1999 when representatives from coal industry, environmental groups and government regulators met in Morgantown. The meeting participants worked with a facilitator from the Canaan Valley Institute to outline plans for the symposium. Several teams were formed to carry out the plans we outlined in the meeting.

  15. Pre-Feasibility Analysis of Pellet Manufacturing on the Former Loring Air Force Base Site. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsberger, R.; Mosey, G.

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Lands initiative, engaged the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct feasibility studies to assess the viability of developing renewable energy generating facilities on contaminated sites. This site, in Limestone, Maine -- formerly the location of the Loring Air Force Base but now owned by the Aroostook Band of Micmac -- was selected for the potential to produce heating pellets from woody feedstock. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource to evaluate based on abundant woody-biomass resources available in the area. NREL also evaluates potential savings from converting existing Micmac property from oil-fired heating to pellet heating.

  16. Overview of Land Contamination Management and Site Remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Sani S. Malami || Muhammad Abubakar || Rintong Isaac Babatunde

    2016-01-01

    Land contamination has caused health problems to land owners, occupiers and a threat to the ecosystem. This contamination may be on the increase as a result of the acceleration of urbanization and rapid development of economy. This paper has discussed the causes of land contamination and it effects on the environment and site remediation which covers soil remediation and environmental water remediation.

  17. Geochemical assessment of Hg pollution in gold mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Filho, S.; Villas Bôas, R. C.

    2003-05-01

    The increasing societal demand for actions and strategies towards sustainability of small-scale gold mining in developing countries has led experts to face the challenge of managing the harzards associated with mercury pollution from active and abandoned mine sites. Mercury pollution in drainage systems and its health effects are the most frequent subjects on environmental researchs dealing with small-scale gold mining worldwide. Also, filling of river beds with mineral matter originated from runoff of abandoned mining waste piles and tailings generally causes both silting of waterways and elevation of Hg concentrations in the environment. This paper summarizes the main results concerning the assessment of Hg pollution in Amazon drainage systems accomplished by the authors in the last decade in Brazil.

  18. Heavy Metal Behavior in Lichen-Mine Waste Interactions at an Abandoned Mine Site in Southwest Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Sueoka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The lichen, Stereocaulon exutum Nylander, occurring in a contaminated abandoned mine site was investigated to clarify (1 the behavior of heavy metals and As during the slag weathering processes mediated by the lichen; and (2 the distribution of these elements in the lichen thallus on slag. The heavy metals and As in the slag are dissolved from their original phases during the weathering process by lichen substances (organic acids and hypha penetration, in addition to non-biological weathering. The dissolved elements are absorbed into the lichen thallus. Some of these dissolved elements are distributed in the cells of the hyphae. The others are distributed on the surface of the hyphae as formless particles and show lateral distribution inside the cortex of the thallus. The Cu and Zn concentrations in the thalli are positively correlated with the concentrations in the corresponding substrata and a positive intercept in the regression curve obtained using a linear function. These chemical characteristics make this lichen a good biomarker for Cu and Zn contamination of the substrata of the lichen. Therefore, the present study supposes that Stereocaulon exutum has a possible practical application in biomonitoring or risk assessment of heavy metal pollution at abandoned mine sites.

  19. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csuhanics, Balazs; Jordan, G.; Foldessy, J.; Szakall, S.

    2010-05-01

    The accurate survey of the home mineral raw material resources in Hungary has been an emphasised research achievement since the early 1950's. In the early 1960's, the ore deposit explorations have begun in the Mátra Mountains which area had a long history of ore mining and the scientific attendance focused on this area such as the polimetallic veins of Parádsasvár. During the field works and in situ surveys , explorers used trenches and exploration adits to heading through the supposed ore veins. The problem is that the exploration areas' land reclamation has not befallen yet. This plight can characterize as mining-related environmental contamination which is a global problem. The associated mining waste is known to be among the largest waste streams in, for example, the European Union, where it is estimated to be 400 Mt, which amounts to about 29% of total waste generated in the European Union (EU) (Jordan, 2004a). Mine site (including exploration areas, as well) remediation have become the major activities of the mining industry according to EU standards by improving environmental and waste legislation (Charbonnier, 2001; Jordan, 2004; Jordan and D'Alessandro, 2004), which gave actuality of this thesis. The disarrayed metallic tailings were deposed onsite without proper pretreatment. These tailings mean not only the anthropogenic effect on natural environment to this day but also a particular environmental danger because they are characterized by a lack of control and a lack of data and information. The objective of this thesis is to define the heavy metal anomalies of the exploration area (Tulk and Tucker, 1998), characterize the connection between the background geochemical values with the tailings' values, evaluate the correlations and give solution to mitigate the undesirable effects. By the recent explorations it can be noticeable that the tailings from the last century's surveys have direct toxic affects on the ecosystems adding to naturally high

  20. Ecological and human health risks associated with abandoned gold mine tailings contaminated soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Mpode Ngole-Jeme

    Full Text Available Gold mining is a major source of metal and metalloid emissions into the environment. Studies were carried out in Krugersdorp, South Africa, to evaluate the ecological and human health risks associated with exposure to metals and metalloids in mine tailings contaminated soils. Concentrations of arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, cobalt (Co, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, manganese (Mn, nickel (Ni, and zinc (Zn in soil samples from the area varied with the highest contamination factors (expressed as ratio of metal or metalloid concentration in the tailings contaminated soil to that of the control site observed for As (3.5x102, Co (2.8x102 and Ni (1.1x102. Potential ecological risk index values for metals and metalloids determined from soil metal and metalloid concentrations and their respective risk factors were correspondingly highest for As (3.5x103 and Co (1.4x103, whereas Mn (0.6 presented the lowest ecological risk. Human health risk was assessed using Hazard Quotient (HQ, Chronic Hazard Index (CHI and carcinogenic risk levels, where values of HQ > 1, CHI > 1 and carcinogenic risk values > 1×10-4 represent elevated risks. Values for HQ indicated high exposure-related risk for As (53.7, Cr (14.8, Ni (2.2, Zn (2.64 and Mn (1.67. Children were more at risk from heavy metal and metalloid exposure than adults. Cancer-related risks associated with metal and metalloid exposure among children were also higher than in adults with cancer risk values of 3×10-2 and 4×10-2 for As and Ni respectively among children, and 5×10-3 and 4×10-3 for As and Ni respectively among adults. There is significant potential ecological and human health risk associated with metal and metalloid exposure from contaminated soils around gold mine tailings dumps. This could be a potential contributing factor to a setback in the health of residents in informal settlements dominating this mining area as the immune systems of some of these residents are already compromised by high

  1. Ecological and human health risks associated with abandoned gold mine tailings contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngole-Jeme, Veronica Mpode; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Gold mining is a major source of metal and metalloid emissions into the environment. Studies were carried out in Krugersdorp, South Africa, to evaluate the ecological and human health risks associated with exposure to metals and metalloids in mine tailings contaminated soils. Concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in soil samples from the area varied with the highest contamination factors (expressed as ratio of metal or metalloid concentration in the tailings contaminated soil to that of the control site) observed for As (3.5x102), Co (2.8x102) and Ni (1.1x102). Potential ecological risk index values for metals and metalloids determined from soil metal and metalloid concentrations and their respective risk factors were correspondingly highest for As (3.5x103) and Co (1.4x103), whereas Mn (0.6) presented the lowest ecological risk. Human health risk was assessed using Hazard Quotient (HQ), Chronic Hazard Index (CHI) and carcinogenic risk levels, where values of HQ > 1, CHI > 1 and carcinogenic risk values > 1×10−4 represent elevated risks. Values for HQ indicated high exposure-related risk for As (53.7), Cr (14.8), Ni (2.2), Zn (2.64) and Mn (1.67). Children were more at risk from heavy metal and metalloid exposure than adults. Cancer-related risks associated with metal and metalloid exposure among children were also higher than in adults with cancer risk values of 3×10−2 and 4×10−2 for As and Ni respectively among children, and 5×10−3 and 4×10−3 for As and Ni respectively among adults. There is significant potential ecological and human health risk associated with metal and metalloid exposure from contaminated soils around gold mine tailings dumps. This could be a potential contributing factor to a setback in the health of residents in informal settlements dominating this mining area as the immune systems of some of these residents are already

  2. Ecological and human health risks associated with abandoned gold mine tailings contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngole-Jeme, Veronica Mpode; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Gold mining is a major source of metal and metalloid emissions into the environment. Studies were carried out in Krugersdorp, South Africa, to evaluate the ecological and human health risks associated with exposure to metals and metalloids in mine tailings contaminated soils. Concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in soil samples from the area varied with the highest contamination factors (expressed as ratio of metal or metalloid concentration in the tailings contaminated soil to that of the control site) observed for As (3.5x102), Co (2.8x102) and Ni (1.1x102). Potential ecological risk index values for metals and metalloids determined from soil metal and metalloid concentrations and their respective risk factors were correspondingly highest for As (3.5x103) and Co (1.4x103), whereas Mn (0.6) presented the lowest ecological risk. Human health risk was assessed using Hazard Quotient (HQ), Chronic Hazard Index (CHI) and carcinogenic risk levels, where values of HQ > 1, CHI > 1 and carcinogenic risk values > 1×10-4 represent elevated risks. Values for HQ indicated high exposure-related risk for As (53.7), Cr (14.8), Ni (2.2), Zn (2.64) and Mn (1.67). Children were more at risk from heavy metal and metalloid exposure than adults. Cancer-related risks associated with metal and metalloid exposure among children were also higher than in adults with cancer risk values of 3×10-2 and 4×10-2 for As and Ni respectively among children, and 5×10-3 and 4×10-3 for As and Ni respectively among adults. There is significant potential ecological and human health risk associated with metal and metalloid exposure from contaminated soils around gold mine tailings dumps. This could be a potential contributing factor to a setback in the health of residents in informal settlements dominating this mining area as the immune systems of some of these residents are already compromised by

  3. Plant species potentially useful in the phytostabilization process for the abandoned CMC mining site in northern Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Gulay; Sozen, Nur

    2011-08-01

    The Cupper Mining Company (CMC)'s site located in Lefke-Gemikonagi, Northern Cyprus has been a continuous source of highly dangerous contamination for the surrounding environment, the Lefke region, and the neighboring ecosystems and settlements. Rehabilitation and reuse possibilities of the CMC site due to its vital importance have kept its place in the agenda of Northern Cyprus. Phytostabilization appears to be a convenient and less expensive method that can immediately be used for reducing the negative impacts of the mining site on the region. The main purpose of this study is to identify potential candidate plant species, adapted to grow on polluted sites, for revegetation in the CMC site. Within this context, the method of the study can be summarized as follows: literature review for examining potential candidate plant species for pyhtostabilization in arid and semiarid regions, especially the ones suitable both for the existing ecological and present conditions of Cyprus; identification of native and/or cultural plant species survived in the heavily polluted mining site, and definition of a number of candidate plant species for the study site. The result of sampling revealed that 23 plant species thrive well in the contaminated site. As a result of the literature review and considering drought, metal, salt tolerant features of semiarid environment in the region, 5 tree, 4 shrub, and 23 herbaceous plant species were proposed for starting revegetation with the purpose of phytostabilization on the CMC mining site.

  4. Heavy metals contamination and their risk assessment around the abandoned base metals and Au-Ag mines in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Hyo-Taek

    2017-04-01

    Heavy metals contamination in the areas of abandoned Au-Ag and base metal mines in Korea was investigated in order to assess the level of metal pollution, and to draw general summaries about the fate of toxic heavy metals in different environments. Efforts have been made to compare the level of heavy metals, chemical forms, and plant uptake of heavy metals in each mine site. In the base-metals mine areas, significant levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were found in mine dump soils developed over mine waste materials and tailings. Leafy vegetables tend to accumulate heavy metals(in particular, Cd and Zn) higher than other crop plants, and high metal concentrations in rice crops may affect the local residents' health. In the Au-Ag mining areas, arsenic would be the most characteristic contaminant in the nearby environment. Arsenic and heavy metals were found to be mainly associated with sulfide gangue minerals, and the mobility of these metals would be enhanced by the effect of continuing weathering and oxidation. According to the sequential extraction of metals in soils, most heavy metals were identified as non-residual chemical forms, and those are very susceptible to the change of ambient conditions of a nearby environment. The concept of pollution index(PI) of soils gives important information on the extent and degree of multi-element contamination, and can be applied to the evaluation of mine soils before their agricultural use and remediation. The risk assessment process comprising exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization was discussed, and the results of non-cancer risk of As, Cd, and Zn, and those of cancer risk of As were suggested.

  5. Geostatistical conditional simulation for the assessment of contaminated land by abandoned heavy metal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Adem; Yunsel, Tayfun Yusuf; Atici, Umit

    2008-02-01

    Abandoned mine workings can undoubtedly cause varying degrees of contamination of soil with heavy metals such as lead and zinc has occurred on a global scale. Exposure to these elements may cause to harm human health and environment. In the study, a total of 269 soil samples were collected at 1, 5, and 10 m regular grid intervals of 100 x 100 m area of Carsington Pasture in the UK. Cell declustering technique was applied to the data set due to no statistical representativity. Directional experimental semivariograms of the elements for the transformed data showed that both geometric and zonal anisotropy exists in the data. The most evident spatial dependence structure of the continuity for the directional experimental semivariogram, characterized by spherical and exponential models of Pb and Zn were obtained. This study reports the spatial distribution and uncertainty of Pb and Zn concentrations in soil at the study site using a probabilistic approach. The approach was based on geostatistical sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), which is used to yield a series of conditional images characterized by equally probable spatial distributions of the heavy elements concentrations across the area. Postprocessing of many simulations allowed the mapping of contaminated and uncontaminated areas, and provided a model for the uncertainty in the spatial distribution of element concentrations. Maps of the simulated Pb and Zn concentrations revealed the extent and severity of contamination. SGS was validated by statistics, histogram, variogram reproduction, and simulation errors. The maps of the elements might be used in the remediation studies, help decision-makers and others involved in the abandoned heavy metal mining site in the world.

  6. The genetic differentiation of Colocasia esculenta growing in gold mining areas with arsenic contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonmee, Sirilak; Neeratanaphan, Lamyai; Tanee, Tawatchai; Khamon, Prodpran

    2015-05-01

    Arsenic is a heavy metal found in contaminated gold mining areas and which can affect plant and animal species. This study aims to determine the concentration of As in the aquatic plant Colocasia esculenta as well as this plant's genetic variability. Sediment and C. esculenta samples were collected from three studied sites at the edge of a stream around a gold mine. The arsenic concentrations in sediment and C. esculenta samples were analyzed using induction coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Genetic differentiations were studied by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) with dendrogram construction and analysis of genetic similarity (S). The results showed that the arsenic concentrations in sediment and C. esculenta samples ranged from 4.547 ± 0.318 to 229.964 ± 0.978 and 0.108 ± 0.046 to 0.406 ± 0.174 mg kg(-1), respectively. To compare the samples studied to the reference site, RAPD fingerprints from 26 primers successfully produced 2301 total bands used for dendrogram construction and S value analysis. The dendrogram construction separates C. esculenta into four clusters corresponding to their sampling sites. The S values of the studied sample sites compared to the reference site are 0.676-0.779, 0.739-0.791, and 0.743-0.783 for sites 1, 2, and 3, respectively, whereas the values of the individuals within each site are as high as 0.980. These results suggest that As accumulation in aquatic plant species should be of concern because of the potential effects of As on aquatic plants as well as humans.

  7. Fractional and sequential recovery of inorganic contaminants from acid mine drainage using cryptocrystalline magnesite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the fractional and sequential recovery of inorganic contaminants from acid mine drainage (AMD) using cryptocrystalline magnesite. Batch experimental approach was used to fulfil the goals of this study. The obtained results...

  8. Selecting Suitable Sites for Mine Waste Dumps Using GIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research used the ModelBuilder tool and several GIS spatial analyst tools to select suitable sites for mine waste dump. The weighted overlay technique was adopted by first determining the necessary criteria and constraints and subsequently developing attributes for each criterion. The criteria used were grouped into a ...

  9. Examples from the Greenland-Project - Gentle Remediation Optiones (GROs) on Pb/zn Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Kidd, Petra; Siebielec, Grzegorz

    2017-04-01

    The GREENLAND-project brought together "best practice" examples of several field applied gentle remediation techniques (EUFP7-project "Gentle remediation of trace element-contaminated land - GREENLAND; www.greenland-project.eu) with 17 partners from 11 countries. Gentle remediation options (GRO) comprise environmentally friendly technologies that have little or no negative impact on the soil. The main technologies are • phytoextraction • in situ immobilization and • assisted phytostabilization. Mining and processing activities affecting many sites worldwide negatively. The huge amounts of moved and treated materials have led to considerable flows of wastes and emissions. Alongside the many advantages of processed ores to our society, adverse effects in nature and risks for the environment and human health are observed. Three stages of impact of Pb/Zn-ore-treatment on the environment are discussed here: (1) On sites where the ores are mined impacts are the result of crushing, grinding, concentrating activities, and where additionally parts of the installations remain after abandoning the mine, as well as by the massive amounts of remaining deposits or wastes (mine tailings). (2) On sites where smelting and processing takes place, depending on the process (Welz, Doerschel) different waste materials are deposited. The Welz process waste generally contains less Cd and Pb than the Doerschel process waste which additionally shows higher water- extractable metals. (3) On sites close to the emitting source metal contamination can be found in areas for housing, gardening, and agricultural use. Emissions consist mainly from oxides and sulfides (Zn, Cd), sulfates (Zn, Pb, and Cd), chlorides (Pb) and carbonates (Cd). All these wastes and emissions pose potential risks of dispersion of pollutants into the food chain due to erosion (wind, water), leaching and the transfer into feeding stuff and food crops. In-situ treatments have the potential for improving the situation

  10. Heavy Metal Contamination Assessment and Partition for Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yang; Shao, Chaofeng; Ju, Meiting

    2014-01-01

    Industrial and mining activities have been recognized as the major sources of soil heavy metal contamination. This study introduced an improved Nemerow index method based on the Nemerow and geo-accumulation index. Taking a typical industrial and mining gathering area in Tianjin (China) as example, this study then analyzed the contamination sources as well as the ecological and integrated risks. The spatial distribution of the contamination level and ecological risk were determined using Geographic Information Systems. The results are as follows: (1) Zinc showed the highest contaminant level in the study area; the contamination levels of the other seven heavy metals assessed were relatively lower. (2) The combustion of fossil fuels and emissions from industrial and mining activities were the main sources of contamination in the study area. (3) The overall contamination level of heavy metals in the study area ranged from heavily contaminated to extremely contaminated and showed an uneven distribution. (4) The potential ecological risk showed an uneven distribution, and the overall ecological risk level ranged from low to moderate. This study also emphasized the importance of partition in industrial and mining areas, the extensive application of spatial analysis methods, and the consideration of human health risks in future studies. PMID:25032743

  11. Heavy Metal Contamination Assessment and Partition for Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and mining activities have been recognized as the major sources of soil heavy metal contamination. This study introduced an improved Nemerow index method based on the Nemerow and geo-accumulation index. Taking a typical industrial and mining gathering area in Tianjin (China as example, this study then analyzed the contamination sources as well as the ecological and integrated risks. The spatial distribution of the contamination level and ecological risk were determined using Geographic Information Systems. The results are as follows: (1 Zinc showed the highest contaminant level in the study area; the contamination levels of the other seven heavy metals assessed were relatively lower. (2 The combustion of fossil fuels and emissions from industrial and mining activities were the main sources of contamination in the study area. (3 The overall contamination level of heavy metals in the study area ranged from heavily contaminated to extremely contaminated and showed an uneven distribution. (4 The potential ecological risk showed an uneven distribution, and the overall ecological risk level ranged from low to moderate. This study also emphasized the importance of partition in industrial and mining areas, the extensive application of spatial analysis methods, and the consideration of human health risks in future studies.

  12. Geological characterization of contaminated sites in urban areas (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Nissen, Randi Warncke; Poulsen, Søren Erbs

    In Denmark, contaminations from industry and farming represent a significant threat to groundwater resources. Hence there is a focus on identifying and locating these contaminated places. Once located, contaminations are mapped and monitored and remediation efforts are undertaken. Remediation is ......, can minimize the uncertainties on predictions of the fate of the contaminant. Based on the work, we were able to pinpoint the best strategies and solutions for future remediation efforts at the two sites....... in the projections on the fate of the contaminant. From two contaminated sites located around the city of Horsens, Denmark we carry out a geological characterization. The two sites are situated in urban areas. Existing data from the two field sites includes only lithological profiles from boreholes. In order...... geological models of the two sites were constructed. The 3D geological models will serve as a basis for simulating groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the field sites. The study demonstrates how detailed information about the geological setting in conjunction with contaminant transport modelling...

  13. FY08 Environmental Contaminants Program Off-Refuge Investigation : Final report : Assessment of trace-metal exposures to aquatic biota from historical mine sites in the Western Great Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this investigation is to identify and characterize the nature and extent of sediment and food chain contamination, and to determine the potential for...

  14. Quantifying uranium transport rates and storage of fluvially eroded mine tailings from a historic mine site in the Grand Canyon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, K.; Benthem, A. J.; Walton-Day, K. E.; Jolly, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Grand Canyon region contains a large number of breccia pipes with economically viable uranium, copper, and silver concentrations. Mining in this region has occurred since the late 19th century and has produced ore and waste rock having elevated levels of uranium and other contaminants. Fluvial transport of these contaminants from mine sites is a possibility, as this arid region is susceptible to violent storms and flash flooding which might erode and mobilize ore or waste rock. In order to assess and manage the risks associated with uranium mining, it is important to understand the transport and storage rates of sediment and uranium within the ephemeral streams of this region. We are developing a 1-dimensional sediment transportation model to examine uranium transport and storage through a typical canyon system in this region. Our study site is Hack Canyon Mine, a uranium and copper mine site, which operated in the 1980's and is currently experiencing fluvial erosion of its waste rock repository. The mine is located approximately 40km upstream from the Colorado River and is in a deep, narrow canyon with a small watershed. The stream is ephemeral for the upper half of its length and sediment is primarily mobilized during flash flood events. We collected sediment samples at 110 locations longitudinally through the river system to examine the distribution of uranium in the stream. Samples were sieved to the sand size and below fraction (<2mm) and uranium was measured by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Sediment storage zones were also examined in the upper 8km of the system to determine where uranium is preferentially stored in canyon systems. This information will quantify the downstream transport of constituents associated with the Hack Canyon waste rock and contribute to understanding the risks associated with fluvial mobilization of uranium mine waste.

  15. Arsenic and lead contamination in soil and in feathers of three resident passerine species in a semi-arid mining region of the Mexican plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzalvo-Santos, Karina; Alfaro-De la Torre, Ma Catalina; Chapa-Vargas, Leonardo; Castro-Larragoitia, Javier; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo

    2016-08-23

    The current study aimed at quantifying arsenic and lead in feathers from three passerine species that are residents from areas exposed to mining activities (Toxostoma curvirostre, Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus, and Melozone fusca). Lead and As contents in bird feathers and in superficial soil samples were measured with AAS. Levels of these metals were compared between sites exposed and unexposed to mining. Possible correlations of As and Pb between superficial soil and bird feathers were also investigated. Soil metal concentrations were significantly higher near mining sites, and metal concentrations in bird feathers showed a behavior similar to those recorded for soil samples. Individual birds from polluted sites had higher mean feather metal concentrations in comparison with non-polluted sites; no differences in metal concentrations were recorded among bird species. This work constitutes a basis for monitoring contaminants, and for future toxicological studies attempting to understand the impact that some mining activities may have on bird populations.

  16. Solution of underground mine gas emissions on surface of abandoned mining sites where steep deposited coal seams have been exploited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takla, G.; Froml, K. [OKD, DPB, Paskov (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-01

    The solution of uncontrolled gas emissions from abandoned underground coal mine sites in Ostrava-Karvina coal-field to surface ground in connection with old mine shafts and drifts and with old mining workings in horizontal and inclined coal seams has many forms. It varies according to geological and mining conditions and the disposition of the site surface. Since four years the gas emission risk has appeared in the area of former exploited vertical coal seams within the historical centre of Orlova town, which is protected by State Monument Protection office. A project based on such special nature of mining-geological and urban conditions was elaborated and already implemented. (authors)

  17. Use of native plants for the remediation of abandoned mine sites in Mediterranean semiarid environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, G; Cappai, G; Carucci, A; Tamburini, E

    2015-03-01

    Abandoned tailing dumps from mining industry represent important sources of metal contamination in the surrounding environments. This study evaluates the potential of two Mediterranean native plants, Pistacia lentiscus and Phragmites australis, for phytoremediation of two Sardinian contaminated mine sites. A 6 months study has been conducted at greenhouse-controlled conditions with the aim of investigating the plant capability to tolerate high metal concentrations and to extract or immobilize them within the roots. The possibility to mitigate stress on the plants and improve treatment efficiency by adding compost as amendment was also evaluated. Both species were able to restrict accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn to the root tissues exhibiting a metal concentration ratio of plant roots to soil bioavailable fraction higher than two (four in the case of Zn). However, the two species showed different adaptation responses, being the survival of P. australis after 6 months in contaminated soil lower (25 %-58 %) than that observed for P. lentiscus (77 %-100 %). Compost addition resulted in a lower metal uptake in tissues of both plants and a higher survival of P. australis, whilst almost no effect was observed as regard the growth of both species. The two tested species appear to be promising candidates for phytostabilization, P. lentiscus exhibiting a greater adaptability to heavy metal contaminated matrices than P. australis.

  18. Application of risk management techniques for the remediation of an old mining site in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, I; Karayannis, A; Adam, K; Aravossis, K

    2009-05-01

    This article summarizes the project and risk management of a remediation/reclamation project in Lavrion, Greece. In Thoricos the disposal of mining and metallurgical wastes in the past resulted in the contamination with heavy metals and acid mine drainage. The objective of this reclamation project was to transform this coastal zone from a contaminated site to an area suitable for recreation purposes. A separate risk assessment study was performed to provide the basis of determining the relevant environmental contamination and to rate the alternative remedial schemes involved. The study used both existing data available from comprehensive studies, as well as newly collected field data. For considering environmental risk, the isolation and minimization of risk option was selected, and a reclamation scheme, based on environmental criteria, was applied which was comprised of in situ neutralization, stabilization and cover of the potentially acid generating wastes and contaminated soils with a low permeability geochemical barrier. Additional measures were specifically applied in the areas where highly sulphidic wastes existed constituting active acid generation sources, which included the encapsulation of wastes in HDPE liners installed on clay layers.

  19. Remarks to the risk assessment for abandoned mine sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Maas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors give some remarks to the term risk regarding its use for the assessment of abandoned mine sites. These remarks are based on the recommendation Geotechnical Investigation and Evaluation of Abandoned Mine Sites developed by the working committee Abandoned Mining of the German Society for Geotechnical Engineering (DGGT and the German Society for Mine Surveying (DMV, published in 2004.By this recommendation, the risk is defined as a product of the occurrence probability and the extent of damage of an unwanted event. The occurrence probability for each unwanted event is described by the linguistic terms in all probability, probable, less probable or practically impossible. The extent of damage for each unwanted event is described by the linguistic terms insignificant, small, high or very high. A matrix out of these terms is used to define schematically an explicit limiting risk for each unwanted event.The authors point out that a schematic determination of limiting risk should be supported by an unique and comprehensible evaluation of all significant risk factors and parameters influencing the extent of damage. Fuzzy sets can be used instead of a discreet classification leading to more plausible results. The processing of linguistic terms by a fuzzy logic system is demonstrated.

  20. Ecological and human health risks associated with abandoned gold mine tailings contaminated soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngole-Jeme, Veronica Mpode; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Gold mining is a major source of metal and metalloid emissions into the environment. Studies were carried out in Krugersdorp, South Africa, to evaluate the ecological and human health risks associated with exposure to metals and metalloids in mine tailings contaminated soils. Concentrations...... of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in soil samples from the area varied with the highest contamination factors (expressed as ratio of metal or metalloid concentration in the tailings contaminated soil......×10−2 for As and Ni respectively among children, and 5×10−3 and 4×10−3 for As and Ni respectively among adults. There is significant potential ecological and human health risk associated with metal and metalloid exposure from contaminated soils around gold mine tailings dumps. This could be a potential contributing...

  1. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of a Hydroelectric Installation at the Jeddo Mine Drainage Tunnel. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Jeddo Tunnel discharge site for a feasibility study of renewable energy potential. The purpose of this report is to assess technical and economic viability of the site for hydroelectric and geothermal energy production. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system.

  2. Measurement techniques for radiological characterization of contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, M.

    1996-09-18

    Once the decision is taken to characterize a contaminated site, appropriate measurement techniques must be selected. The choice will depend on the available information, on the nature and extent of the contamination, as well as on available resources (staff and budget). Some techniques are described on the basis of examples of characterization projects (e.g. Olen area in Belgium).

  3. Helium mining on the Moon: Site selection and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Eugene N.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of recovering helium (He) from the Moon as a source of fusion energy on Earth is currently being studied at the University of Wisconsin. Part of this study is selection and evaluation of potential sites for lunar He mining. Selection and evaluation of potential mining sites are based on four salient findings by various investigators of lunar samples: (1) Regoliths from areas underlain by highland materials contain less than 20 wppm He; (2) Certain maria regoliths contain less than 20 wppm He, but other contain 25 to 49 wppm; (3) The He content of a mare regolith is a function of its composition; regoliths rich in Ti are relatively rich in He; and (4) He is concentrated in the less than 100-micron size fractions of regoliths. The first three findings suggest that maria are the most promising mining sites, specifically, those that have high-Ti regoliths. Information on the regional distribution and extent of high-Ti regoliths comes mainly from two sources: direct sampling by various Apollo and Luna missions, and remote sensing by gamma-ray spectroscopy and Earth-based measurements of lunar spectral reflectance. Sampling provides essential control on calibration and interpretation of data from remote sensing. These data indicate that Mare Tranquillitatis is the principal area of high-Ti regolith of the eastern nearside, but large areas of high-Ti regolith are indicated in the Imbrium and Procellarum regions. Recovery of significant amounts of He-3 will require mining billions of tonnes of regolith. Large individual areas suitable for mining must therefore be delineated. The concentration of He in the finer size fractions and considerations of ease of mining mean that mining areas must be as free as possible of sizable craters and blocks of rock. Pending additional lunar missions, information regarding these features must be obtained from lunar photographs, photogeologic maps, and radar surveys. The present study is decidedly preliminary; available

  4. Overcoming delivery difficulties to remote Malaysian mine site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Merit Pila coalfield in Sarawak, Malaysia is one of the largest in southeast Asia, but is very remote. It is being worked opencast with new equipment from Liebherr-Singapore and Euclid This machinery caused considerable delivery problems. The first stage of the journey was on a barge from Singapore, taking precautions to avoid pirates. The barge was then towed up river so far as Kapit, the nearest town to the mine. The equipment then began a 54 km walk up the dirt logging road to the minesite. The bridges were inadequate to take the load, and traffic from the mine and logging sites meant that travel had to take place at night. Days were spent preparing ford or dam crossings by the Liebherr PR751 dozer and R964 excavator, which were then quickly crossed by the equipment before riverbank restoration by the two machines. The trek took six days. The machines will in future be serviced on site. 4 figs.

  5. Radioactively Contaminated Sites | RadTown USA | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-12

    If radioactive materials are used or disposed of improperly, they can contaminate buildings and the environment. Every site requiring cleanup is different depending on the type of facility, the radioactive elements involved and the concentration of the radioactive elements.

  6. Bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balba, T. [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    One of the most prevalent contaminants in subsurface soil and groundwater are petroleum hydrocarbons. This paper presented bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons as one of the most promising treatment technologies. Petroleum hydrocarbons are categorized into four simple fractions: saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes. Bioremediation refers to the treatment process whereby contaminants are metabolized into less toxic or nontoxic compounds by naturally occurring organisms. The various strategies include: use of constitutive enzymes, enzyme induction, co-metabolism, transfer of plasmids coding for certain metabolic pathways, and production of biosurfactants to enhance bioavailability of hydrophobic compounds. Three case studies were presented: (1) bioremediation of heavy oils in soil at a locomotive maintenance yard in California, involving a multi-step laboratory treatability study followed by a field demonstration achieving up to 94 per cent removal of TPH in less than 16 weeks, (2) bioremediation of light oils in soil at an oil refinery in Germany where a dual process was applied (excavation and in-situ treatment), achieving an 84 per cent reduction within 24 weeks, and (3) bioremediation of oil-contaminated desert soil in Kuwait which involved landfarming, composting piles, and bioventing soil piles, achieving an 80 per cent reduction within 12 months. 7 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  7. Disposal and improvement of contaminated by waste extraction of copper mining in chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo Lamilla, Pedro; Blanco Fernández, David; Díaz González, Marcos; Robles Castillo, Marcelo; Decinti Weiss, Alejandra; Tapia Alvarez, Carolina; Pardo Fabregat, Francisco; Vidal, Manuel Miguel Jordan; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria

    2016-04-01

    This project originated from the need of a mining company, which mines and processes copper ore. High purity copper is produced with an annual production of 1,113,928 tons of concentrate to a law of 32%. This mining company has generated several illegal landfills and has been forced by the government to make a management center Industrial Solid Waste (ISW). The forecast volume of waste generated is 20,000 tons / year. Chemical analysis established that the studied soil has a high copper content, caused by nature or from the spread of contaminants from mining activities. Moreover, in some sectors, soil contamination by mercury, hydrocarbons and oils and fats were detected, likely associated with the accumulation of waste. The waters are also impacted by mining industrial tasks, specifically copper ores, molybdenum, manganese, sulfates and have an acidic pH. The ISW management center dispels the pollution of soil and water and concentrating all activities in a technically suitable place. In this center the necessary guidelines for the treatment and disposal of soil contamination caused by uncontrolled landfills are given, also generating a leachate collection system and a network of fluid monitoring physicochemical water quality and soil environment. Keywords: Industrial solid waste, soil contamination, Mining waste

  8. Stabilization of the As-contaminated soil from the metal mining areas in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Myoung-Soo; Kim, Ju-Yong; Bang, Sunbeak; Lee, Jin-Soo; Ko, Ju-In; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2012-01-01

    The stabilization efficiencies of arsenic (As) in contaminated soil were evaluated using various additives such as limestone, steel mill slag, granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), and mine sludge collected from an acid mine drainage treatment system. The soil samples were collected from the Chungyang area, where abandoned Au-Ag mines are located. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure, sequential extraction analysis, aqua regia digestion, cation exchange capacity, loss on ignition, and particle size distribution were conducted to assess the physical and chemical characteristics of highly arsenic-contaminated soils. The total concentrations of arsenic in the Chungyang area soil ranged up to 145 mg/kg. After the stabilization tests, the removal percentages of dissolved As(III) and As(V) were found to differ from the additives employed. Approximately 80 and 40% of the As(V) and As(III), respectively, were removed with the use of steel mill slag. The addition of limestone had a lesser effect on the removal of arsenic from solution. However, more than 99% of arsenic was removed from solution within 24 h when using GFH and mine sludge, with similar results observed when the contaminated soils were stabilized using GFH and mine sludge. These results suggested that GFH and mine sludge may play a significant role on the arsenic stabilization. Moreover, this result showed that mine sludge can be used as a suitable additive for the stabilization of arsenic.

  9. Accumulation and potential health risks of cadmium, lead and arsenic in vegetables grown near mining sites in Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Anh T K; Nguyen, Ha T H; Nguyen, Minh N; Tran, Tuyet-Hanh T; Vu, Toan V; Nguyen, Chuyen H; Reynolds, Heather L

    2016-09-01

    The effect of environmental pollution on the safety of vegetable crops is a serious global public health issue. This study was conducted to assess heavy metal concentrations in soil, irrigation water, and 21 local vegetable species collected from four sites near mining activities and one control site in Northern Vietnam. Soils from vegetable fields in the mining areas were contaminated with cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As), while irrigation water was contaminated with Pb. Average concentrations of Pb and As in fresh vegetable samples collected at the four mining sites exceeded maximum levels (MLs) set by international food standards for Pb (70.6 % of vegetable samples) and As (44.1 % of vegetable samples), while average Cd concentrations in vegetables at all sites were below the MLs of 0.2. The average total target hazard quotient (TTHQ) across all vegetable species sampled was higher than the safety threshold of 1.0, indicating a health risk. Based on the weight of evidence, we find that cultivation of vegetables in the studied mining sites is an important risk contributor for local residents' health.

  10. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Mine Grid Scoring Record No. 838

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina; Burch, William; McDonnell, Patrick; Teefy, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Mine Grid. This Scoring Record was coordinated by Dennis Teefy and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  11. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Mine Grid Scoring Record No. 835

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teefy, Dennis; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina

    2007-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Mine Grid. This Scoring Record was coordinated by Dennis Teefy and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  12. An innovative approach to bioremediation of mercury contaminated soils from industrial mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Damien; Edwards, Grant C; Gustin, Mae S; Care, Andrew; Miller, Matthieu B; Sunna, Anwar

    2017-10-01

    Soils contaminated with mercury (Hg) have proved expensive and logistically difficult to remediate. Research continues into finding suitable environmentally-friendly and efficient ways of achieving this end. Bioremediation is an option, which employs the strategies microorganisms have evolved to deal with Hg. One microbial strategy involves uptake and intracellular volatilisation of mercuric ions, which passively diffuse from the cell and back into the atmosphere. In this work, Pseudomonas veronii cells grown to stationary phase were immobilised in a xanthan gum-based biopolymer via encapsulation. The P. veronii-biopolymer mix was then coated onto natural zeolite granules. Zeolite immobilised cells remained viable for at least 16 weeks stored under ambient room temperature. Furthermore, the immobilised cells were shown to retain both viability and Hg volatilisation functionality after transportation from Australia to the USA, where they were applied to Hg contaminated soil. Maximum flux rates exceeded 10 μg Hg m 2  h -1 from mine tailings (≈7 mg kg -1  Hg with 50% v/v water). This was 4 orders of magnitude above background flux levels. It is envisioned that emitted gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) can be readily captured, and transformed back into metallic Hg, which can then be stored appropriately or recycled. This breaks the Hg cycle, as GEM is no longer translocated back to the atmospheric compartment. The immobilising excipients used in this research overcome many logistical issues with delivery of suitable microbial loads to locations of mercury contamination and presents a facile and inexpensive method of augmenting contaminated sites with selected microbial consortia for bioremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term ongoing impact of arsenic contamination on the environmental compartments of a former mining-metallurgy area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, B; Rodríguez-Valdés, E; Boente, C; Menéndez-Casares, E; Fernández-Braña, A; Gallego, J R

    2018-01-01

    Arsenic and mercury are potentially toxic elements of concern for soil, surficial and ground waters, and sediments. In this work various geochemical and hydrogeological tools were used to study a paradigmatic case of the combined effects of the abandonment of Hg- and As-rich waste on these environmental compartments. Continuous weathering of over 40years has promoted As and Hg soil pollution (thousands of ppm) in the surroundings of a former Hg mining-metallurgy site and affected the water quality of a nearby river and shallow groundwater. In particular, the high availability of As both in soils and waste was identified as one of the main determinants of contaminant distribution, whereas the impact of Hg was found to be minor, which is explained by lower mobility. Furthermore, potential additional sources of pollution (coal mining, high natural backgrounds, etc.) discharging into the study river were revealed less significant than the contaminants generated in the Hg-mining area. The transport and deposition of pollutants within the water cycle has also affected several kilometres downstream of the release areas and the chemistry of stream sediments. Overall, the environmental compartments studies held considerable concentrations of Hg and As, as remarkably revealed by the average contaminant load released in the river (several tons of As per year) and the accumulation of toxic elements in sediments (enrichment factors of As and Hg above 35). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Infiltration and soil erosion modelling on Lausatian post mine sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunth, Franziska; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Land management of reclaimed lignite mine sites requires long-term and safe structuring of recultivation areas. Erosion by water leads to explicit soil losses, especially on heavily endangered water repellent and non-vegetated soil surfaces. Beyond that, weathering of pyrite-containing lignite burden dumps causes sulfuric acid-formation, and hence the acidification of groundwater, seepage water and surface waters. Pyrite containing sediment is detached by precipitation and transported into worked-out open cuts by draining runoff. In addition to ground water influence, erosion processes are therefore involved in acidification of surface waters. A model-based approach for the conservation of man-made slopes of post mining sites is the objective of this ongoing study. The study shall be completed by modeling of the effectiveness of different mine site recultivation scenarios. Erosion risks on man-made slopes in recultivation areas should be determined by applying the physical, raster- and event based computer model EROSION 2D/3D (Schmidt, 1991, 1992; v. Werner, 1995). The widely used erosion model is able to predict runoff as well as detachment, transport and deposition of sediments. Lignite burden dumps contain hydrophobic substances that cover soil particles. Consequently, these soils show strong water repellency, which influences the processes of infiltration and soil erosion on non-vegetated, coal containing dump soils. The influence of water repellency had to be implemented into EROSION 2D/3D. Required input data for soil erosion modelling (e.g. physical soil parameters, infiltration rates, calibration factors, etc.) were gained by soil sampling and rainfall experiments on non-vegetated as well as recultivated reclaimed mine sites in the Lusatia lignite mining region (southeast of Berlin, Germany). The measured infiltration rates on the non-vegetated water repellent sites were extremely low. Therefore, a newly developed water repellency-factor was applied to

  15. Feasibility Study of Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste in St. Bernard, Louisiana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to re-use contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former Kaiser Aluminum Landfill in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Preliminary work focused on selecting a biomass feedstock. Discussions with area experts, universities, and the project team identified food wastes as the feedstock and anaerobic digestion (AD) as the technology.

  16. Cleaning Up Contaminated Wood-Treating Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Peter

    1995-01-01

    n 1994 the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) was asked to evaluate technical alternatives to incineration for cleaning up the Texarkana Wood Preserving Company Superfund site, in Texarkana, Texas...

  17. High contamination in the areas surrounding abandoned mines and mining activities: An impact assessment of the Dilala, Luilu and Mpingiri Rivers, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atibu, Emmanuel K; Lacroix, Pierre; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Ray, Nicolas; Giuliani, Gregory; Mulaji, Crispin K; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Mpiana, Pius T; Slaveykova, Vera I; Poté, John

    2018-01-01

    Abandoned mines and mining activities constitute important sources of toxic metals and Rare Earth Elements (REEs) affecting surrounding environmental compartments and biota. This study investigates the contamination degree and distribution of toxic metals and REEs in contrasting sediment, soil and plant samples surrounding rivers in the African copperbelt area characterized by the presence of numerous abandoned mines, artisanal and industrial mining activities. ICP-MS results highlighted the highest concentration of Cu, Co and Pb in sediments reaching values of 146,801, 18,434 and 899 mg kg-1, respectively. In soil, the values of 175,859, 21,134 and 1164 mg kg-1 were found for Cu, Co and Pb, respectively. These values are much higher than the sediment guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and international soil clean-up standards. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index results indicated important contribution of mining activities to the study sites pollution in addition to natural background. Highest metal accumulation in leaves of Phalaris arundinacea L., was observed, reaching values of 34,061, 5050 and 230 mg kg-1 for Cu, Co, and Pb, respectively. The ∑REE concentration reached values of 2306, 733, 2796 mg kg-1 in sediment, soil and plant samples, respectively. The above results were combined with geographical information including satellite imagery, hydrography and mining concessions. Maps were produced to present the results in a comprehensive and compelling visual format. The results will be disseminated through an innovative mapping online platform to simplify access to data and to facilitate dialogue between stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Baseline risk assessment for exposure to contaminants at the St. Louis Site, St. Louis, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The St. Louis Site comprises three noncontiguous areas in and near St. Louis, Missouri: the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS), the St. Louis Airport Storage Site (SLAPS), and the Latty Avenue Properties. The main site of the Latty Avenue Properties includes the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) and the Futura Coatings property, which are located at 9200 Latty Avenue. Contamination at the St. Louis Site is the result of uranium processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through the 1970s. Uranium processing took place at the SLDS from 1942 through 1957. From the 1940s through the 1960s, SLAPS was used as a storage area for residues from the manufacturing operations at SLDS. The materials stored at SLAPS were bought by Continental Mining and Milling Company of Chicago, Illinois, in 1966, and moved to the HISS/Futura Coatings property at 9200 Latty Avenue. Vicinity properties became contaminated as a result of transport and movement of the contaminated material among SLDS, SLAPS, and the 9200 Latty Avenue property. This contamination led to the SLAPS, HISS, and Futura Coatings properties being placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the St. Louis Site under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The primary goal of FUSRAP is the elimination of potential hazards to human health and the environment at former Manhattan Engineer District/Atomic Energy Commission (MED/AEC) sites so that, to the extent possible, these properties can be released for use without restrictions. To determine and establish cleanup goals for the St. Louis Site, DOE is currently preparing a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement (RI/FS-EIS). This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is a component of the process; it addresses potential risk to human health and the environment associated wi

  19. Comparison of microbial contamination at various sites along the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at investigating and comparing the microbial contamination levels at various sites in the Plankenburg and Diep Rivers in the Western Cape, South Africa. Sampling of sites along the Plankenburg River started in June 2004 and continued for a period of 1 year until June 2005. Sampling of the Diep ...

  20. METAL CONTAMINATION AT DUMP SITES IN MAKURDI, NIGERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 7-31ppm for lead and 0.5-3.5ppm for cadmium. The significant difference between result obtained for refuse dump sites and the forest soil indicates that refuse dump sites most probably represent point sources of metal contamination to nearby environment. This study also examined metal mobility with 0.1M HCI solution.

  1. Data Mining and Privacy of Social Network Sites' Users: Implications of the Data Mining Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Islam, Md Zahidul

    2015-08-01

    This paper explores the potential of data mining as a technique that could be used by malicious data miners to threaten the privacy of social network sites (SNS) users. It applies a data mining algorithm to a real dataset to provide empirically-based evidence of the ease with which characteristics about the SNS users can be discovered and used in a way that could invade their privacy. One major contribution of this article is the use of the decision forest data mining algorithm (SysFor) to the context of SNS, which does not only build a decision tree but rather a forest allowing the exploration of more logic rules from a dataset. One logic rule that SysFor built in this study, for example, revealed that anyone having a profile picture showing just the face or a picture showing a family is less likely to be lonely. Another contribution of this article is the discussion of the implications of the data mining problem for governments, businesses, developers and the SNS users themselves.

  2. Chemical properties and toxicity of soils contaminated by mining activity

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka, Baran; Tomasz, Czech; Jerzy, Wieczorek

    2014-01-01

    This research is aimed at assessing the total content and soluble forms of metals (zinc, lead and cadmium) and toxicity of soils subjected to strong human pressure associated with mining of zinc and lead ores. The research area lay in the neighbourhood of the Bolesław Mine and Metallurgical Plant in Bukowno (Poland). The study obtained total cadmium concentration between 0.29 and 51.91 mg, zinc between 7.90 and 3,614 mg, and that of lead between 28.4 and 6844 mg kg−1 of soil d.m. The solubili...

  3. Field Evaluation of the Restorative Capacity of the Aquifer Downgradient of a Uranium In-Situ Recovery Mining Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-22

    A two-part field study was conducted in Smith Ranch-Highland in-situ recovery (ISR) near Douglas, Wyoming, to evaluate the restorative capacity of the aquifer downgradient (i.e., hydrologically downstream) of a Uranium ISR mining site with respect to the transport of uranium and other potential contaminants in groundwater after mining has ceased. The study was partially conducted by checking the Uranium content and the alkalinity of separate wells, some wells had been restored and others had not. A map and in-depth procedures of the study are included.

  4. Monitored Natural Recovery at Contaminated Sediment Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Kitimat Arm, British Columbia, were not toxic to amphipods or sea urchin larvae in laboratory tests, despite total PAH concentrations as high as 10,000...Temporal trends of PCB concentrations in Great Lakes open water predatory fish document historical natural recovery (Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant 2005...transport calculations and sediment transport characterizations. Site-specific investigations:  Measure bathymetry to establish the morphology of

  5. A geomorphological approach to the management of rivers contaminated by metal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, M. G.; Brewer, P. A.; Hudson-Edwards, K. A.; Bird, G.; Coulthard, T. J.; Dennis, I. A.; Lechler, P. J.; Miller, J. R.; Turner, J. N.

    2006-09-01

    As the result of current and historical metal mining, river channels and floodplains in many parts of the world have become contaminated by metal-rich waste in concentrations that may pose a hazard to human livelihoods and sustainable development. Environmental and human health impacts commonly arise because of the prolonged residence time of heavy metals in river sediments and alluvial soils and their bioaccumulatory nature in plants and animals. This paper considers how an understanding of the processes of sediment-associated metal dispersion in rivers, and the space and timescales over which they operate, can be used in a practical way to help river basin managers more effectively control and remediate catchments affected by current and historical metal mining. A geomorphological approach to the management of rivers contaminated by metals is outlined and four emerging research themes are highlighted and critically reviewed. These are: (1) response and recovery of river systems following the failures of major tailings dams; (2) effects of flooding on river contamination and the sustainable use of floodplains; (3) new developments in isotopic fingerprinting, remote sensing and numerical modelling for identifying the sources of contaminant metals and for mapping the spatial distribution of contaminants in river channels and floodplains; and (4) current approaches to the remediation of river basins affected by mining, appraised in light of the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). Future opportunities for geomorphologically-based assessments of mining-affected catchments are also identified.

  6. Trace elements contamination of soils around gold mine tailings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    Improved tailings management strategies, among other factors, might have influenced the reduced level of trace elements .... Levels of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in soils around active and decommissioned gold mine tailings dams at Obuasi, Ghana (mg/kg). Trace element ..... USEPA, Office of Solid Waste, Special. Waste Branch ...

  7. CASE STUDY: Ecuador — Mining, contamination, and health in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-06

    Jan 6, 2011 ... In 1984, poverty-stricken miners invaded the old Sadco pits and small-scale and artisanal mining has been going on in the area ever since. There are .... Toward this end, a new municipal environmental group has been formed — a joint effort between the communities of Zaruma and Portovelo. Given the ...

  8. Optimal selection of biochars for remediating metals contaminated mine soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 500,000 abandoned mines across the U.S. pose a considerable, pervasive risk to human health and the environment due to possible exposure to the residuals of heavy metal extraction. Historically, a variety of chemical and biological methods have been used to reduce ...

  9. Directed Selection of Biochars for Amending Metal Contaminated Mine Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 500,000 abandoned mines across the U.S. pose a considerable, pervasive risk to human health and the environment. World-wide the problem is even larger. Lime, organic matter, biosolids and other amendments have been used to decrease metal bioavailability in contami...

  10. Mercury emission and dispersion models from soils contaminated by cinnabar mining and metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Willians; Kocman, David; Higueras, Pablo; Horvat, Milena

    2011-12-01

    The laboratory flux measurement system (LFMS) and dispersion models were used to investigate the kinetics of mercury emission flux (MEF) from contaminated soils. Representative soil samples with respect to total Hg concentration (26-9770 μg g(-1)) surrounding a decommissioned mercury-mining area (Las Cuevas Mine), and a former mercury smelter (Cerco Metalúrgico de Almadenejos), in the Almadén mercury mining district (South Central Spain), were collected. Altogether, 14 samples were analyzed to determine the variation in mercury emission flux (MEF) versus distance from the sources, regulating two major environmental parameters comprising soil temperature and solar radiation. In addition, the fraction of the water-soluble mercury in these samples was determined in order to assess how MEF from soil is related to the mercury in the aqueous soil phase. Measured MEFs ranged from less than 140 to over 10,000 ng m(-2) h(-1), with the highest emissions from contaminated soils adjacent to point sources. A significant decrease of MEF was then observed with increasing distance from these sites. Strong positive effects of both temperature and solar radiation on MEF was observed. Moreover, MEF was found to occur more easily in soils with higher proportions of soluble mercury compared to soils where cinnabar prevails. Based on the calculated Hg emission rates and with the support of geographical information system (GIS) tools and ISC AERMOD software, dispersion models for atmospheric mercury were implemented. In this way, the gaseous mercury plume generated by the soil-originated emissions at different seasons was modeled. Modeling efforts revealed that much higher emissions and larger mercury plumes are generated in dry and warm periods (summer), while the plume is smaller and associated with lower concentrations of atmospheric mercury during colder periods with higher wind activity (fall). Based on the calculated emissions and the model implementation, yearly emissions from

  11. Sustainable geoengineering projects for the remediation of mine site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Martinez-Lopez, Salvadora; Gonzalez, Eva; Perez-Espinosa, Victor; Molina-Ruiz, Jose; Belen Martinez, Lucia; Hernandez, Carmen; Bech, Jaime; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    A large number of soils are contaminated by heavy metals due to mining activities, generating adverse effects on human health and the environment. In response to these negative effects, a variety of technologies have been developed. In situ immobilization by means of soil amendment is a non-intrusive and cost effective alternative that transforms the highly mobile toxic heavy metals to physico-chemically stable forms. Limestone filler is a good selection for such a purpose, because of its characteristics. In addition, the use of this amendment could revalorize the residues, reducing the costs of the process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of an immobilization technique in sediments contaminated by heavy metals. Two experimental areas, approximately 1 Ha each one, were selected, and technosols were developed as follows: original sediments, sediments mixed with limestone filler in a 1:1 proportion, gravel to avoid capillary and natural soil to allow plant growth. After the remediation technique was applied, monitoring was done in 18 points collecting samples (sediment and water) during a 4 years period at two month intervals. The pH and electrical conductivity as well as the heavy metal (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and As) contents were measured. Microtox bioassay was also applied. Sediments before the remediation technique showed acidic pH, high EC values and high trace elements content. The results obtained after the immobilization showed that sediment samples had neutral pH (average value of 8.3) low electrical conductivity (1.32 dS m-1) and low trace elements concentration. It can be concluded that the use of limestone filler is an excellent option in sediments polluted because of the risk for human health or ecosystem disappears or is decreased in a large extent. In addition, the designed experience allows stabilizer proportion to be optimized and may suppose a big cost-saving in the project in areas affected by mining activities.

  12. A Bayesian belief network approach for assessing uncertainty in conceptual site models at contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nanna Isbak; Binning, Philip John; McKnight, Ursula S.

    2016-01-01

    to be a major source of model error and it should therefore be accounted for when evaluating uncertainties in risk assessments. We present a Bayesian belief network (BBN) approach for constructing CSMs and assessing their uncertainty at contaminated sites. BBNs are graphical probabilistic models...... with chlorinated ethenes. Four different CSMs are developed by combining two contaminant source zone interpretations (presence or absence of a separate phase contamination) and two geological interpretations (fractured or unfractured clay till). The beliefs in each of the CSMs are assessed sequentially based......A key component in risk assessment of contaminated sites is in the formulation of a conceptual site model (CSM). A CSM is a simplified representation of reality and forms the basis for the mathematical modeling of contaminant fate and transport at the site. The CSM should therefore identify...

  13. Consideration of natural attenuation. In remedation contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-15

    Upon the proposal submitted by ist Standing committee 5 (Contaminated Sites Committee - ALA) the Federal / State Working Group on Soil protection employed an ad hoc subcommittee dealing with considering natural attenuation in remediating contaminated sites and preparing an inter-State position paper. In the present position paper the way how to consider natural attenuation in practical remediation of contaminated sites is described. The systematic approach outlined allows an understandable decision-finding. A way is shown how the competent soil protection authorities may exercise discretion and in the framework of checking the appropriateness of measures may decide on the implementation of MNA based on a MNA concept (MNA = monitored natural attenuation). It is, however, also explained that when carrying out MNA a decision always made in an individual case is concerned which should be made in a close agreement between the obligated party and the authority.

  14. Monitoring the Extent of Contamination from Acid Mine Drainage in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain Using Hyperspectral Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuncion Riaza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring mine waste from sulfide deposits by hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to predict surface water quality by quantitatively estimating acid drainage and metal contamination on a yearly basis. In addition, analysis of the mineralogy of surface crusts rich in soluble salts can provide a record of annual humidity and temperature. In fact, temporal monitoring of salt efflorescence from mine wastes at a mine site in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (Huelva, Spain has been achieved using hyperspectral airborne Hymap data. Furthermore, climate variability estimates are possible based on oxidation stages derived from well-known sequences of minerals, by tracing sulfide oxidation intensity using archive spectral libraries. Thus, airborne and spaceborne hyperspectral remote sensing data can be used to provide a short-term record of climate change, and represent a useful set of tools for assessing environmental geoindicators in semi-arid areas. Spectral and geomorphological indicators can be monitored on a regular basis through image processing, supported by field and laboratory spectral data. In fact, hyperspectral image analysis is one of the methods selected by the Joint Research Centre of the European Community (Ispra, Italy to study abandoned mine sites, in order to assess the enforcement of the European Mine Waste Directive (2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council 15 March 2006 on the management of waste from extractive industries (Official Journal of the European Union, 11 April 2006. The pyrite belt in Andalucia has been selected as one of the core mission test sites for the PECOMINES II program (Cracow, November 2005, using imaging spectroscopy; and this technique is expected to be implemented as a monitoring tool by the Environmental Net of Andalucía (REDIAM, Junta de Andalucía, Spain.

  15. Transforming ecosystems: When, where, and how to restore contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Jason R.; Farag, Aïda M.; Cadotte, Marc W.; Clements, William H.; Smith, James R.; Ulrich, Cheryl P.; Woods, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Chemical contamination has impaired ecosystems, reducing biodiversity and the provisioning of functions and services. This has spurred a movement to restore contaminated ecosystems and develop and implement national and international regulations that require it. Nevertheless, ecological restoration remains a young and rapidly growing discipline and its intersection with toxicology is even more nascent and underdeveloped. Consequently, we provide guidance to scientists and practitioners on when, where, and how to restore contaminated ecosystems. Although restoration has many benefits, it also can be expensive, and in many cases systems can recover without human intervention. Hence, the first question we address is: “When should we restore contaminated ecosystems?” Second, we provide suggestions on what to restore—biodiversity, functions, services, all 3, or something else—and where to restore given expected changes to habitats driven by global climate change. Finally, we provide guidance on how to restore contaminated ecosystems. To do this, we analyze critical aspects of the literature dealing with the ecology of restoring contaminated ecosystems. Additionally, we review approaches for translating the science of restoration to on-the-ground actions, which includes discussions of market incentives and the finances of restoration, stakeholder outreach and governance models for ecosystem restoration, and working with contractors to implement restoration plans. By explicitly considering the mechanisms and strategies that maximize the success of the restoration of contaminated sites, we hope that our synthesis serves to increase and improve collaborations between restoration ecologists and ecotoxicologists and set a roadmap for the restoration of contaminated ecosystems.

  16. Heavy metal contamination of soils in a mining area in South Africa and its impact on some biotic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gzik, A.; Schneider, I. [Univ. of Potsdam, Inst. for Biochemistry and Biology, Potsdam (Germany); Kuehling, M.; Tschochner, B. [Univ. of Potsdam, Inst. for Geoecology, Potsdam (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    In soils, animals and plants from selected sites in the Rustenburg mining area, a part of the South African ore belt, the heavy metal burden was examined. These sites belong to different soil types and are characterized by different land-use (agriculture, grassland). The heavy metal contamination of the soil samples is relatively high and is dominated by chromium and nickel, metals, which are extracted in the mine near the sampling sites. These high heavy metal concentrations had no clear inhibitory influence on micro-organisms or the enzyme activity of soils. It appears that the high clay content of the soils may counteract the influence of heavy metals. On the other hand, tolerant microbial populations may have been established. In addition, the investigated culture plants there was no correlation between the heavy metal content of the soils and the concentrations in roots and shoots. The dangerous, potential contamination of organs in humans seems to be modest, with the exception of tobacco leaves. The heavy metal content of tissues in the examined animals reflect the environmental habitat in situ with no obvious influence on the health of the animals. (orig.)

  17. The potential of eleocharis acicularis for phytoremediation: case study at an abandoned mine site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakakibara, Masayuki; Sano, Sakae; Hori, Rie S. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Ehime (Japan); Sera, Koichiro [Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, Iwate (Japan); Hoang Ha, Nguyen Thi

    2009-03-15

    Phytoremediation, a plant-based and cost-effective technology for the cleanup of contaminated soil and water, is receiving increasing attention. In this study, the aquatic macrophyte Eleocharis acicularis was examined for its ability to take up multiple heavy metals and its potential application for phytoremediation at an abandoned mining area in Hokkaido, Japan. Elemental concentrations were measured in samples of E. acicularis, water, and soil collected from areas of mine tailing and drainage. The results reveal that Pb,Fe,Cr,Cu,Ni, and Mn accumulation in the plants increased over the course of the experiment, exceeding their initial concentrations by factors of 930, 430, 60, 25, 10, and 6, respectively. The highest concentrations of Fe, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cr, Cu, and Ni within the plants were 59500, 1120, 964, 388, 265, 235, and 47.4 mg/kg dry wt., respectively, for plants growing in mine drainage after 11 months of the experiment. These results indicate that E. acicularis is a hyperaccumulator of Pb. We also found high Si concentrations in E. acicularis (2.08%). It is likely that heavy metals exist in opal-A within cells of the plant. The bioconcentration factors (BCF: ratio of metal concentration in the plant shoots to that in the soil) obtained for Cr,Cu,Zn,Ni,Mn, and Pb were 3.27,1.65,1.29,1.26,1.11, and 0.82, respectively. The existence of heavy metals as sulphides is thought to have restricted the metal-uptake efficiency of E. acicularis at the mine site. The results of this study indicate that E. acicularis shows great potential in the phytoremediation of mine tailing and drainage rich in heavy metals. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Multi-trophic level response to extreme metal contamination from gold mining in a subarctic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienpont, Joshua R; Korosi, Jennifer B; Hargan, Kathryn E; Williams, Trisha; Eickmeyer, David C; Kimpe, Linda E; Palmer, Michael J; Smol, John P; Blais, Jules M

    2016-08-17

    Giant Mine, located in the city of Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada), is a dramatic example of subarctic legacy contamination from mining activities, with remediation costs projected to exceed $1 billion. Operational between 1948 and 2004, gold extraction at Giant Mine released large quantities of arsenic and metals from the roasting of arsenopyrite ore. We examined the long-term ecological effects of roaster emissions on Pocket Lake, a small lake at the edge of the Giant Mine lease boundary, using a spectrum of palaeoenvironmental approaches. A dated sedimentary profile tracked striking increases (approx. 1700%) in arsenic concentrations coeval with the initiation of Giant Mine operations. Large increases in mercury, antimony and lead also occurred. Synchronous changes in biological indicator assemblages from multiple aquatic trophic levels, in both benthic and pelagic habitats, indicate dramatic ecological responses to extreme metal(loid) contamination. At the peak of contamination, all Cladocera, a keystone group of primary consumers, as well as all planktonic diatoms, were functionally lost from the sediment record. No biological recovery has been inferred, despite the fact that the bulk of metal(loid) emissions occurred more than 50 years ago, and the cessation of all ore-roasting activities in Yellowknife in 1999. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Douglas fir (pseudotsuga menziesii) plantlets responses to as, PB, and sb-contaminated soils from former mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, Amandine; Pascaud, Grégoire; Faugeron, Céline; Soubrand, Marilyne; Joussein, Emmanuel; Gloaguen, Vincent; Saladin, Gaëlle

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation of metalloids by conifers is not widely studied although they may be relevant for several contaminated sites, especially those located in cold areas and sometimes under dry climates. Here, seeds of Douglas fir were sown in greenhouse on three soils collected in two French former mines: a gold mine (soils L1 and L2) and a lead and silver mine (soil P). These soils are highly contaminated by Pb, As, and Sb at different concentrations. Plants were harvested after ten weeks. Growth parameters, primary metabolite content, and shoot and root ionomes were determined. Douglas firs grown on the soils L1 and P had a lower biomass than controls and a higher oxidation status whereas those grown on the soil L2 exhibited a more developed root system and only slight modifications of carbon and nitrogen nutrition. Based on trace element (TE) concentrations in shoots and roots and their translocation factor (TF), Douglas fir could be a relevant candidate for As phytoextraction (0.8 g. kg(-1) dry weight in shoots and a TF of 1.1) and may be used to phytostabilize Pb and Sb (8.8 g and 127 mg. kg(-1) in roots for Pb and Sb, respectively, and TF lower than 0.1).

  20. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Price Landfill Site in Pleasantville, New Jersey. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Price Landfill site in Pleasantville, New Jersey, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  1. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul Rail Yard Company Site in Perry, Iowa. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Rail Yard Company site in Perry, Iowa, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  2. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Tower Road Site in Aurora, Colorado. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Geet, O.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Tower Road site in Aurora, Colorado, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  3. Contamination of arctic Fjord sediments by Pb-Zn mining at Maarmorilik in central West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, Kerstin; Leipe, Thomas; Dellwig, O

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on heavy metal contamination of arctic sediments from a small Fjord system adjacent to the Pb-Zn "Black Angel" mine (West Greenland) to investigate the temporal and spatial development of contamination and to provide baseline levels before the mines re-opening in January 2009....... For this purpose we collected multi-cores along a transect from Affarlikassaa Fjord, which received high amounts of tailings from 1973 to 1990, to the mouth of Qaumarujuk Fjord. Along with radiochemical dating by Pb-210 and Cs-137, geochemical analyses of heavy metals (e.g. As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Zn) were carried out....... Maximum contents were found at 12 cm depth in Affarlikassaa. After 17 years the mine last closed, specific local hydrographic conditions continue to disperse heavy metal enriched material derived from the Affarlikassaa into Qaumarujuk. Total Hg profiles from multi-cores along the transect clearly...

  4. Abandoned coal mining sites: using ecotoxicological tests to support an industrial organic sludge amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiochetta, Claudete G; Radetski, Marilice R; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Tischer, Vinícius; Tiepo, Erasmo N; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2013-11-01

    The different stages involved in coal mining-related activities result in a degraded landscape and sites associated with large amounts of dumped waste material. Remediation of these contaminated soils can be carried out by application of industrial organic sludge if the concerns regarding the potential negative environmental impacts of this experimental practice are properly addressed. In this context, the objective of this study was to use ecotoxicological tests to determine the quantity of organic industrial sludge that is required as a soil amendment to restore soil production while avoiding environmental impact. Chemical analysis of the solids (industrial sludge and soil) and their leachates was carried out as well as a battery of ecotoxicity tests on enzymes (hydrolytic activity), bacteria, algae, daphnids, earthworms, and higher plants, according to standardized methodologies. Solid and leachate samples of coal-contaminated soil were more toxic than those of industrial sludge towards enzyme activity, bacteria, algae, daphnids, and earthworms. In the case of the higher plants (lettuce, corn, wild cabbage, and Surinam cherry) the industrial sludge was more toxic than the coal-contaminated soil, and a soil/sludge mixture (66:34% dry weight basis) had a stimulatory effect on the Surinam cherry biomass. The ecotoxicological assessment of the coal-contaminated soil remediation using sludge as an amendment is very important to determine application rates that could promote a stimulatory effect on agronomic species without negatively affecting the environment.

  5. Unravelling a 'miner's myth' that environmental contamination in mining towns is naturally occurring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Louise Jane; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Australia has a long history of metal mining and smelting. Extraction and processing have resulted in elevated levels of toxic metals surrounding mining operations, which have adverse health effects, particularly to children. Resource companies, government agencies and employees often construct 'myths' to down play potential exposure risks and responsibility arising from operating emissions. Typical statements include: contaminants are naturally occurring, the wind blows emissions away from residential areas, contaminants are not bioavailable, or the problem is a legacy issue and not related to current operations. Evidence from mining and smelting towns shows that such 'myths' are exactly that. In mining towns, the default and primary defence against contamination is that elevated metals in adjacent urban environments are from the erosion and weathering of the ore bodies over millennia-hence 'naturally occurring'. Not only is this a difficult argument to unravel from an evidence-based perspective, but also it causes confusion and delays remediation work, hindering efforts to reduce harmful exposures to children. An example of this situation is from Broken Hill, New South Wales, home to one of the world's largest lead-zinc-silver ore body, which has been mined continuously for over 130 years. Environmental metal concentration and lead isotopic data from soil samples collected from across Broken Hill are used to establish the nature and timing of lead contamination. We use multiple lines of evidence to unravel a 'miner's myth' by evaluating current soil metal concentrations and lead isotopic compositions, geological data, historical environmental assessments and old photographic evidence to assess the impacts from early smelting along with mining to the surface soils in the city.

  6. Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. (duckweed) in tailing waters of two abandoned uranium mining sites in Saxony, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mkandawire, Martin; Dudel, E. Gert

    2005-01-05

    Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. was investigated in tailing waters of abandoned uranium mine sites, following the hypothesis that arsenic poses contamination risks in post uranium mining in Saxony, Germany. Consequently, macrophytes growing in mine tailing waters accumulate high amounts of arsenic, which might be advantageous for biomonitoring arsenic transfer to higher trophic levels, and for phytoremediation. Water and L. gibba sample collected from pond on tailing dumps of abandoned mine sites at Lengenfeld and Neuensalz-Mechelgruen were analysed for arsenic. Laboratory cultures in nutrient solutions modified with six arsenic and three PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} concentrations were conducted to gain insight into the arsenic-L. gibba interaction. Arsenic accumulation coefficients in L. gibba were 10 times as much as the background concentrations in both tailing waters and nutrient solutions. Arsenic accumulations in L. gibba increased with arsenic concentration in the milieu but they decreased with phosphorus concentration. Significant reductions in arsenic accumulation in L. gibba were observed with the addition of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} at all six arsenic test concentrations in laboratory experiments. Plant samples from laboratory trials had on average twofold higher bioaccumulation coefficients than tailing water at similar arsenic concentrations. This would be attributed to strong interaction among chemical components, and competition among ions in natural aquatic environment. The results of the study indicate that L. gibba can be a preliminary bioindicator for arsenic transfer from substrate to plants and might be used to monitor the transfer of arsenic from lower to higher trophic levels in the abandoned mine sites. There is also the potential of using L. gibba L. for arsenic phytoremediation of mine tailing waters because of its high accumulation capacity as demonstrated in this study. Transfer of arsenic contamination transported by accumulations in L. gibba

  7. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olis, D.; Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  8. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the TechCity East Campus Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Site in Kingston, New York. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Geiger, Jesse W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Healey, Victoria [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the TechCity East Campus site in Kingston, New York, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  9. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware Superfund Site in Delaware City, Delaware. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Standard Chlorine of Delaware site in Delaware City, Delaware, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  10. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Geothermal Power Generation at the Lakeview Uranium Mill Site in Lakeview, Oregon. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillesheim, M.; Mosey, G.

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Lakeview Uranium Mill site in Lakeview, Oregon, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The EPA contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to provide technical assistance for the project. The purpose of this report is to describe an assessment of the site for possible development of a geothermal power generation facility and to estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts for the facility. In addition, the report recommends development pathways that could assist in the implementation of a geothermal power system at the site.

  11. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Fort Ord Army Base Site in Marina, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Fort Ord Army Base (FOAB) site in Marina, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  12. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Sky Park Landfill Site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Sky Park Landfill site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  13. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Bethlehem Steel Plant Brownfield Site in Lackawanna, New York. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Bethlehem Steel Plant site in Lackawanna, New York, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  14. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Kerr McGee Site in Columbus, Mississippi. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Kerr McGee site in Columbus, Mississippi, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  15. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Brisbane Baylands Brownfield Site in Brisbane, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Brisbane Baylands site in Brisbane, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  16. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Crazy Horse Landfill Site in Salinas, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Crazy Horse Landfill site in Salinas, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, operation and maintenance requirements, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  17. Metal contamination of agricultural soils in the copper mining areas ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Principal component analysis resulted in extraction of three factors explaining 82.6% of the data variability and indicated anthropogenic contribution of Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Mn and Pb. The EF and Igeo values indicated very high contamination with respect to Cu followed by As and Zn in the agricultural soils. The values of PLI, ...

  18. Robust decision analysis for environmental management of groundwater contamination sites

    CERN Document Server

    Vesselinov, Velimir V; Katzman, Danny

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to many other engineering fields, the uncertainties in subsurface processes (e.g., fluid flow and contaminant transport in aquifers) and their parameters are notoriously difficult to observe, measure, and characterize. This causes severe uncertainties that need to be addressed in any decision analysis related to optimal management and remediation of groundwater contamination sites. Furthermore, decision analyses typically rely heavily on complex data analyses and/or model predictions, which are often poorly constrained as well. Recently, we have developed a model-driven decision-support framework (called MADS; http://mads.lanl.gov) for the management and remediation of subsurface contamination sites in which severe uncertainties and complex physics-based models are coupled to perform scientifically defensible decision analyses. The decision analyses are based on Information Gap Decision Theory (IGDT). We demonstrate the MADS capabilities by solving a decision problem related to optimal monitoring ...

  19. Pioneer plant species contributing to phytoestabilization of contaminated soils in mine areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    João Batista, Maria; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Oscar; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Carvalho, Luisa; Queralt, Ignasi

    2013-04-01

    Young and mature leaves from several plant species of the genus Cistus L. (C. crispus, C. ladanifer, C. monspeliensis, C. salviifolius), Erica australis L., and Lavandula sampaioana (Rozeira) Rivas Mart., T.E. Díaz& Fern. Gonz., as well as soils where plants grew, were sampled in various areas of São Domingos abandoned mine. The São Domingos mine, dating from pre-Roman times, is 60 km SE of Beja, Southeast Portugal. This mine belongs to the world class metallogenetic province of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Sampling occurred throughout spring and winter to better understand plant behaviour and natural attenuation of contaminated soils. Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) was used to synthesize the information and group characteristics that could justify different chemical concentrations. Soils are extremely acid (pH between 3.4 and 5.2) and present a wide range of Corganic concentrations (10.2-109 g/kg). Total nitrogen and extractable phosphorus concentrations are low to very low, but extractable potassium show medium to high concentrations. Chemical elements concentrations, analysed for total fraction, were great in soils, especially arsenic and lead that can attain 7.6 g/kg and 17.2 g/kg, respectively. However, only a small percentage (in general < 1%) of the total concentration of the chemical elements were water soluble (extracted by DIN 38414-S4 method) or extracted with the DTPA or ammonium acetate aqueous solutions. Cistus plants showed different behaviour on the trace-elements uptake and translocation. Winter and spring variations in most chemical elements concentrations in the plants leaves are not significantly different, except for arsenic, probably because plants were not exposed to important dry conditions during the sampling seasons. Nevertheless, MCA of the individuals makes a clear distinction between winter and spring leaves. Generally, mature leaves have higher concentrations of arsenic, copper, iron, lead, manganese and zinc than younger ones

  20. Chemical properties and toxicity of soils contaminated by mining activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnieszka, Baran; Tomasz, Czech; Jerzy, Wieczorek

    2014-09-01

    This research is aimed at assessing the total content and soluble forms of metals (zinc, lead and cadmium) and toxicity of soils subjected to strong human pressure associated with mining of zinc and lead ores. The research area lay in the neighbourhood of the Bolesław Mine and Metallurgical Plant in Bukowno (Poland). The study obtained total cadmium concentration between 0.29 and 51.91 mg, zinc between 7.90 and 3,614 mg, and that of lead between 28.4 and 6844 mg kg(-1) of soil d.m. The solubility of the heavy metals in 1 mol dm(-3) NH4NO3 was 1-49% for zinc, 5-45% for cadmium, and S. alba = V. fischeri > L. sativum. Significant positive correlations (p ≤ 0.05) of the total and soluble contents of the metals with luminescence inhibition in V. fischeri and root growth inhibition in S. saccharatum were found. The general trend observed was an increase in metal toxicity measured by the biotest with increasing available metal contents in soils. All the soil samples were classified into toxicity class III, which means that they are toxic and present severe danger. Biotest are a good complement to chemical analyses in the assessment of quality of soils as well as in properly managing them.

  1. Metal sources and exposures in the homes of young children living near a mining-impacted Superfund site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zota, Ami R; Schaider, Laurel A; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Wright, Robert O; Shine, James P; Spengler, John D

    2011-01-01

    Children living near hazardous waste sites may be exposed to environmental contaminants, yet few studies have conducted multi-media exposure assessments, including residential environments where children spend most of their time. We sampled yard soil, house dust, and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 in 59 homes of young children near an abandoned mining area and analyzed samples for lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and manganese (Mn). In over half of the homes, dust concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cd, and As were higher than those in soil. Proximity to mine waste (chat) piles and the presence of chat in the driveway significantly predicted dust metals levels. Homes with both chat sources had Pb, Zn, Cd, and As dust levels two to three times higher than homes with no known chat sources after controlling for other sources. In contrast, Mn concentrations in dust were consistently lower than in soil and were not associated with chat sources. Mn dust concentrations were predicted by soil concentrations and occupant density. These findings suggest that nearby outdoor sources of metal contaminants from mine waste may migrate indoors. Populations farther away from the mining site may also be exposed if secondary uses of chat are in close proximity to the home.

  2. Pyrolusite Process® to remove acid mine drainage contaminants from Kimble Creek in Ohio: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiv Hiremath; Kirsten Lehtoma; Mike Nicklow; Gary. Willison

    2013-01-01

    The Kimble Creek abandoned coal mine site, located on Wayne National Forest in southeastern Ohio, is among several abandoned coal mine sites that have been responsible for the acid mine drainage (AMD) polluting ground and surface water. Materials released by AMD include iron, aluminum, manganese, other hazardous substances, and acidity that are harmful to aquatic life...

  3. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biomass Power Generation at the Former Farmland Industries Site in Lawrence, Kansas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomberlin, G.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support a feasibility study of biomass renewable energy generation at the former Farmland Industries site in Lawrence, Kansas. Feasibility assessment team members conducted a site assessment to gather information integral to this feasibility study. Information such as biomass resources, transmission availability, on-site uses for heat and power, community acceptance, and ground conditions were considered.

  4. Best Practices for Siting Solar Photovoltaics on Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Mosey, G.; Jones-Johnson, S.; Dufficy, C.; Bourg, J.; Conroy, A.; Keenan, M.; Michaud, W.; Brown, K.

    2013-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed this best practices document to address common technical challenges for siting solar photovoltaics (PV) on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The purpose of this document is to promote the use of MSW landfills for solar energy systems. Closed landfills and portions of active landfills with closed cells represent thousands of acres of property that may be suitable for siting solar photovoltaics (PV). These closed landfills may be suitable for near-term construction, making these sites strong candidate to take advantage of the 30% Federal Business Energy Investment Tax Credit. It was prepared in response to the increasing interest in siting renewable energy on landfills from solar developers; landfill owners; and federal, state, and local governments. It contains examples of solar PV projects on landfills and technical considerations and best practices that were gathered from examining the implementation of several of these projects.

  5. Identification and Tracing Groundwater Contamination by Livestock Burial Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, K.; Ha, K.; Park, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, K.

    2011-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) or hoof-and-mouth disease is a severe plague for animal farming that affects cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Since it is highly infectious and can be easily proliferated by infected animals, contaminated equipments, vehicles, clothing, people, and predators. It is widely known that the virus responsible for FMD is a picornavirus, the prototypic member of the genus Aphthovirus. A serious outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease, leading to the stamping out of 3.53 millions of pigs and cattle and the construction of 4,538 burial sites until 15th March, 2011. The build-up of carcass burial should inevitably produce leachate by the decomposition of buried livestock affecting the surround environment such as air, soil, groundwater, and surface water. The most important issues which are currently raised by scientists are groundwater contamination by leachate from the livestock burial sites. This study examined the current status of FMD outbreak occurred in 2010-2011 and the issues of groundwater contamination by leachate from livestock burial sites. The hydrogeochemical, geophysical, and hydrogeological studies were executed to identify and trace groundwater contamination by leachate from livestock burial sites. Generally livestock mortality leachate contains high concentrations of NH3-N, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, K+, Na+, P along with relative lesser amounts of iron, calcium, and magnesium. The groundwater chemical data around four burial sites showed high NH3-N, HCO3-, and K+ suggesting the leachate leakage from burial sites. This is also proved by resistivity monitoring survey and tracer tests. The simulation results of leachate dispersion showed the persistent detrimental impacts for groundwater environment for a long time (~50 years). It is need to remove the leachate of burial sites to prevent the dispersion of leachate from livestock burial to groundwater and to monitor the groundwater quality. The most important

  6. Soil heavy metal contamination and health risks associated with artisanal gold mining in Tongguan, Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ran; Wang, Shuang; Li, Ronghua; Wang, Jim J; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2017-07-01

    Soil contamination with heavy metals due to mining activities poses risks to ecological safety and human well-being. Limited studies have investigated heavy metal pollution due to artisanal mining. The present study focused on soil contamination and the health risk in villages in China with historical artisanal mining activities. Heavy metal levels in soils, tailings, cereal and vegetable crops were analyzed and health risk assessed. Additionally, a botany investigation was conducted to identify potential plants for further phytoremediation. The results showed that soils were highly contaminated by residual tailings and previous mining activities. Hg and Cd were the main pollutants in soils. The Hg and Pb concentrations in grains and some vegetables exceeded tolerance limits. Moreover, heavy metal contents in wheat grains were higher than those in maize grains, and leafy vegetables had high concentrations of metals. Ingestion of local grain-based food was the main sources of Hg, Cd, and Pb intake. Local residents had high chronic risks due to the intake of Hg and Pb, while their carcinogenic risk associated with Cd through inhalation was low. Three plants (Erigeron canadensis L., Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koel., and Solanum nigrum L.) were identified as suitable species for phytoremediation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Mitigating soil contamination at abandoned Moroccan mine sites ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-02-09

    Feb 9, 2018 ... The research team is testing the development of lightweight ceramics by mixing the coal tailings with local clay to compete with commercial products. Researchers have manufactured mortar, concrete, artificial stones, and bricks with recovered residual coal and fly ash, which meet the international ...

  8. Electrolyte conditioning-enhanced electrokinetic remediation of arsenic-contaminated mine tailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kitae; Kim, Do-Hyung; Park, Sung-Woo; Ryu, Byung-Gon; Bajargal, Tserennyam; Yang, Jung-Seok

    2009-01-15

    Feasibility of electrolyte conditioning with strong acidic or alkaline solution on electrokinetic remediation of arsenic-contaminated mine tailing was investigated in the laboratory. The mine tailing contained calcium oxide of more than 50%. At alkaline condition, arsenic was precipitated with calcium, and formed calcium arsenate which is very stable solid. Catholyte conditioning with strong acidic solution and anolyte conditioning with strong alkaline solution showed similar efficiency to remove arsenic. At 4mAcm(-2) of current density, the removal efficiency of arsenic was 62% after 28 days operation with catholyte conditioning with 0.1M nitric acid.

  9. Native rhizobia from Zn mining soil promote the growth of Leucaena leucocephala on contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Wesley M; Thijs, Sofie; Janssen, Jolien; Oliveira Longatti, Silvia M; Bonaldi, Daiane S; Ribeiro, Paula R A; Jambon, Inge; Eevers, Nele; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Moreira, Fatima M S

    2017-02-01

    Plants on contaminated mining soils often show a reduced growth due to nutrient depletion as well as trace elements (TEs) toxicity. Since those conditions threat plant's survival, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), such as rhizobia, might be of crucial importance for plant colonization on TE-contaminated soils. Native rhizobia from mining soils are promising candidates for bioaugmented phytoremediation of those soils as they are adapted to the specific conditions. In this work, rhizobia from Zn- and Cd-contaminated mining soils were in vitro screened for their PGP features [organic acids, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and siderophore (SID) production; 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity; and Ca3(PO4)2 solubilization] and Zn and Cd tolerance. In addition, some type and reference rhizobia strains were included in the study as well. The in vitro screening indicated that rhizobia and other native genera have great potential for phytoremediation purposes, by exerting, besides biological N2 fixation, other plant growth-promoting traits. Leucaena leucocephala-Mesorhizobium sp. (UFLA 01-765) showed multielement tolerance and an efficient symbiosis on contaminated soil, decreasing the activities of antioxidative enzymes in shoots. This symbiosis is a promising combination for phytostabilization.

  10. Flow behavior and mobility of contaminated waste rock materials in the abandoned Imgi mine in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S. W.; Wu, Y.-H.; Cho, Y. C.; Ji, S. W.

    2018-01-01

    Incomplete mine reclamation can cause ecological and environmental impacts. This paper focuses on the geotechnical and rheological characteristics of waste rock materials, which are mainly composed of sand-size particles, potentially resulting in mass movement (e.g., slide or flow) and extensive acid mine drainage. To examine the potential for contaminant mobilization resulting from physicochemical processes in abandoned mines, a series of scenario-based debris flow simulations was conducted using Debris-2D to identify different hazard scenarios and volumes. The flow behavior of waste rock materials was examined using a ball-measuring rheometric apparatus, which can be adapted for large particle samples, such as debris flow. Bingham yield stresses determined in controlled shear rate mode were used as an input parameter in the debris flow modeling. The yield stresses ranged from 100 to 1000 Pa for shear rates ranging from 10- 5 to 102 s- 1. The results demonstrated that the lowest yield stress could result in high mobility of debris flow (e.g., runout distance > 700 m from the source area for 60 s); consequently, the material contaminants may easily reach the confluence of the Suyoung River through a mountain stream. When a fast slide or debris flow occurs at or near an abandoned mine area, it may result in extremely dynamic and destructive geomorphological changes. Even for the highest yield stress of debris flow simulation (i.e., τy = 2000 Pa), the released debris could flow into the mountain stream; therefore, people living near abandoned mines may become exposed to water pollution throughout the day. To maintain safety at and near abandoned mines, the physicochemical properties of waste materials should be monitored, and proper mitigation measures post-mining should be considered in terms of both their physical damage and chemical pollution potential.

  11. Hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned mining sites in Serbia and their impact on surface water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanacković, Nebojša; Dragišić, Veselin; Stojković, Jana; Papić, Petar; Zivanović, Vladimir

    2013-11-01

    Upon completion of exploration and extraction of mineral resources, many mining sites have been abandoned without previously putting environmental protection measures in place. As a consequence, mine waters originating from such sites are discharged freely into surface water. Regional scale analyses were conducted to determine the hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned sites featuring metal (Cu, Pb-Zn, Au, Fe, Sb, Mo, Bi, Hg) deposits, non-metallic minerals (coal, Mg, F, B) and uranium. The study included 80 mine water samples from 59 abandoned mining sites. Their cation composition was dominated by Ca2+, while the most common anions were found to be SO4(2-) and HCO3-. Strong correlations were established between the pH level and metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) concentrations in the mine waters. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to parameters generally indicative of pollution, such as pH, TDS, SO4(2-), Fe total, and As total. Following this approach, mine water samples were grouped into three main clusters and six subclusters, depending on their potential environmental impact. Principal component analysis was used to group together variables that share the same variance. The extracted principal components indicated that sulfide oxidation and weathering of silicate and carbonate rocks were the primary processes, while pH buffering, adsorption and ion exchange were secondary drivers of the chemical composition of the analyzed mine waters. Surface waters, which received the mine waters, were examined. Analysis showed increases of sulfate and metal concentrations and general degradation of surface water quality.

  12. EVALUATION OF A METHOD USING COLLOIDAL GAS APHRONS TO REMEDIATE METALS-CONTAMINATED MINE DRAINAGE WATERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Williams Grimes

    2002-06-01

    Experiments were conducted in which three selected metals-contaminated mine drainage water samples were treated by chemical precipitation followed by flotation using colloidal gas aphrons (CGAs) to concentrate the precipitates. Drainage water samples used in the experiments were collected from an abandoned turn-of-the-century copper mine in south-central Wyoming, an inactive gold mine in Colorado's historic Clear Creek mining district, and a relatively modern gold mine near Rapid City, South Dakota. The copper mine drainage sample was nearly neutral (pH 6.5) while the two gold mine samples were quite acidic (pH {approx}2.5). Metals concentrations ranged from a few mg/L for the copper mine drainage to several thousand mg/L for the sample from South Dakota. CGAs are emulsions of micrometer-sized soap bubbles generated in a surfactant solution. In flotation processes the CGA microbubbles provide a huge interfacial surface area and cause minimal turbulence as they rise through the liquid. CGA flotation can provide an inexpensive alternative to dissolved air flotation (DAF). The CGA bubbles are similar in size to the bubbles typical of DAF. However, CGAs are generated at ambient pressure, eliminating the need for compressors and thus reducing energy, capital, and maintenance costs associated with DAF systems. The experiments involved precipitation of dissolved metals as either hydroxides or sulfides followed by flotation. The CGAs were prepared using a number of different surfactants. Chemical precipitation followed by CGA flotation reduced contaminant metals concentrations by more than 90% for the copper mine drainage and the Colorado gold mine drainage. Contaminant metals were concentrated into a filterable sludge, representing less than 10% of the original volume. CGA flotation of the highly contaminated drainage sample from South Dakota was ineffective. All of the various surfactants used in this study generated a large sludge volume and none provided a

  13. Aquatic assessment of the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site, Vershire, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Robert R.; Kiah, Richard G.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Besser, John M.; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Argue, Denise M.; Levitan, Denise M.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    The Ely Mine, which operated from 1821 to 1905, and its area of downstream impact constitute the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site. The site was placed on the National Priorities List in 2001. The mine comprises underground workings, foundations from historical structures, several waste-rock piles, roast beds associated with the smelting operation, and slag piles resulting from the smelting. The mine site is drained by Ely Brook, which includes several tributaries, one of which drains a series of six ponds. Ely Brook empties into Schoolhouse Brook, which flows 3.3 kilometers and joins the Ompompanoosuc River.

  14. Spatial variability of metal bioaccumulation in estuarine killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) at the Callahan mine superfund site, Brooksville, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Hannah J; Buckman, Kate L; Bugge, Deenie M; Chen, Celia Y

    2013-11-01

    The former Callahan Mine Site in Brooksville, ME, is an open-pit, hardrock mine site in an intertidal system, thus providing a unique opportunity to evaluate how metal-enriched sediments and overlying water impact estuarine food webs. Copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead concentrations in sediment, whole water, and Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) were evaluated at sites in Goose Pond (GP; Callahan Mine Site) and at reference sites. The metal concentrations of sediment, water, and fish were spatially distinct and significantly greater at the mine site than in the reference estuary. Sediment concentrations were particularly elevated and were above probable effects levels for all four metals adjacent to the tailings pile. Even in this well-mixed system, water metal concentrations were significantly elevated adjacent to the tailings pile, and concentrations of Cu and Zn were above ambient water-quality criteria for chronic marine exposure. Neither organic matter in the sediment nor salinity or pH of the water explained the metal concentrations. Adjacent to the tailings pile, killifish metal body burdens were elevated and were significantly related to both sediment and aqueous concentrations. In conclusion, (1) the contaminated sediment and seepage from the tailings impoundment and waste rock pile no. 3 create a continual flux of metals into the water column, (2) the metals are bioavailable and bioconcentrating as evident in the killifish tissue concentrations, and (3) Callahan Mine is directly affecting metal bioaccumulation in fauna residing in the GP estuary and, potentially, in Penobscot Bay by the way of “trophic nekton relay.”

  15. Ecotoxicity literature review of selected Hanford Site contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-03-01

    Available information on the toxicity, food chain transport, and bioconcentration of several Hanford Site contaminants were reviewed. The contaminants included cesium-137, cobalt-60, europium, nitrate, plutonium, strontium-90, technetium, tritium, uranium, and chromium (III and VI). Toxicity and mobility in both aquatic and terrestrial systems were considered. For aquatic systems, considerable information was available on the chemical and/or radiological toxicity of most of the contaminants in invertebrate animals and fish. Little information was available on aquatic macrophyte response to the contaminants. Terrestrial animals such as waterfowl and amphibians that have high exposure potential in aquatic systems were also largely unrepresented in the toxicity literature. The preponderance of toxicity data for terrestrial biota was for laboratory mammals. Bioconcentration factors and transfer coefficients were obtained for primary producers and consumers in representative aquatic and terrestrial systems; however, little data were available for upper trophic level transfer, particularly for terrestrial predators. Food chain transport and toxicity information for the contaminants were generally lacking for desert or sage brush-steppe organisms, particularly plants and reptiles

  16. Ethical aspects of epidemiological research in contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskolne, Colin L

    2016-01-01

    This paper brings understanding to the ethical dimensions of human health research conducted in the context of contaminated sites. Principle-based ethical analysis, complemented with virtuous traits of character, aid in bringing clarity to recommendations for actions following research. Epidemiology is the discipline for conducting health research not only because of its methodological foundations, but also because of its social justice focus. Because contaminated sites include communities that have been exposed to excessive concentrations of hazardous substances, extra care is needed when using epidemiology. For instance, vigilance over potential influence and engagement with affected communities are needed. Community engagement not only aids in understanding the contextual framework, but also demonstrates respect for both community and individual autonomy. Ethical analysis makes transparent the rationale for decisions against which researchers can be held accountable and provides a basis for evaluating observed outcomes as a function of the rationale provided for past actions.

  17. Returning biodiversity of rehabilitated forest on a coal mined site at Tanjung Enim, South Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERY SUHARTOYO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Suhartoyo H, Munawar A, Wiryono. 2012. Returning biodiversity of rehabilitated forest on a coal mined site at Tanjung Enim, South Sumatra. Biodiversitas 13: 13-17. Restoring disturbed mined land is challenging since the outcomes of various rehabilitation procedures on mined sites in terms of vegetation structure, composition and ecological function are not presently understood, especially in the developing countries. This study examined the mechanism of biodiversity recruitment, especially on structural attributes of an undisturbed forest community and rehabilitated forests of different ages on sites disturbed by coal-mining operations at Tanjung Enim, South Sumatra. Un-mined forest was characterised by complex structural features including a dense stand of trees in a range of size classes, an almost closed canopy, and a shrubby understorey. In contrast, young mined sites were characterised by a low density of woody stems, a relatively open canopy and herbaceous ground cover. Soil characteristics of rehabilitated site were progressing towards the reference site. The marked differences in structural complexity between unmined and mined sites suggest that it will will take very long time for the mined sites to recover into their original conditions. So, more restoration intervention will be needed to speed the recovery processes.

  18. Profiling microbial community in a watershed heavily contaminated by an active antimony (Sb) mine in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weimin; Xiao, Enzong; Dong, Yiran; Tang, Song; Krumins, Valdis; Ning, Zengping; Sun, Min; Zhao, Yanlong; Wu, Shiliang; Xiao, Tangfu

    2016-04-15

    Located in Southwest China, the Chahe watershed has been severely contaminated by upstream active antimony (Sb) mines. The extremely high concentrations of Sb make the Chahe watershed an excellent model to elucidate the response of indigenous microbial activities within a severe Sb-contaminated environment. In this study, water and surface sediments from six locations in the Chahe watershed with different levels of Sb contamination were analyzed. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons revealed more than 40 phyla from the domain Bacteria and 2 phyla from the domain Archaea. Sequences assigned to the genera Flavobacterium, Sulfuricurvum, Halomonas, Shewanella, Lactobacillus, Acinetobacter, and Geobacter demonstrated high relative abundances in all sequencing libraries. Spearman's rank correlations indicated that a number of microbial phylotypes were positively correlated with different speciation of Sb, suggesting potential roles of these phylotypes in microbial Sb cycling. Canonical correspondence analysis further demonstrated that geochemical parameters, including water temperature, pH, total Fe, sulfate, aqueous Sb, and Eh, significantly structured the overall microbial community in Chahe watershed samples. Our findings offer a direct and reliable reference to the diversity of microbial communities in the presence of extremely high Sb concentrations, and may have potential implications for in situ bioremediation strategies of Sb contaminated sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A 120-yr record of widespread contamination from mining of the Iberian pyrite belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geen, A.; Adkins, J. F.; Boyle, E. A.; Nelson, C. H.; Palanques, A.

    1997-04-01

    A metal-enriched seawater plume entering the western Mediterranean Sea through the Strait of Gibraltar originates 300 km to the west in the Rio Tinto estuary of southwestern Spain. Mining of Rio Tinto ore, one of the largest metal-rich sulfide deposits in the world, started well before Roman times. Contemporary Rio Tinto waters draining the region are highly acidic (pH 2.5) with dissolved cadmium, zinc, and copper concentrations 105-106 times higher than in uncontaminated surface water of the Gulf of Cadiz. Two dated sediment cores from the Spanish continental shelf show that metal inputs to the region increased with the onset of intensive mining activities during the second half of the 19th century. Although the impact of mining may have decreased over the past few decades, the Tinto river and estuary remain highly contaminated.

  20. A120 yr record of widespread contamination from mining of the Iberian pyrite belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanGeen, A.; Adkins, J.F.; Boyle, E.A.; Nelson, C.H.; Palanques, A.

    1997-01-01

    A metal-enriched seawater plume entering the western Mediterranean Sea through the Strait of Gibraltar originates 300 km to the west in the Rio Tinto estuary of southwestern Spain. Mining of Rio Tinto ore, one of the largest metal-rich sulfide deposits in the world, started well before Roman times. Contemporary Rio Tinto waters draining the region are highly acidic (pH 2.5) with dissolved cadmium, zinc, and copper concentrations 105-106 times higher than in uncontaminated surface water of the Gulf of Cadiz. Two dated sediment cores from the Spanish continental shelf show that metal inputs to the region increased with the onset of intensive mining activities during the second half of the 19th century. Although the impact of mining may have decreased over the past few decades, the Tinto river and estuary remain highly contaminated.

  1. Toxicity of sediments potentially contaminated by coal mining and natural gas extraction to unionid mussels and commonly tested benthic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kane, Cindy M.; Evans, R. Brian; Alexander, Steven; Walker, Craig; Bakaletz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Sediment toxicity tests were conducted to assess potential effects of contaminants associated with coal mining or natural gas extraction activities in the upper Tennessee River basin and eastern Cumberland River basin in the United States. Test species included two unionid mussels (rainbow mussel, Villosa iris, and wavy-rayed lampmussel, Lampsilis fasciola, 28-d exposures), and the commonly tested amphipod, Hyalella azteca (28-d exposure) and midge, Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposure). Sediments were collected from seven test sites with mussel communities classified as impacted and in proximity to coal mining or gas extraction activities, and from five reference sites with mussel communities classified as not impacted and no or limited coal mining or gas extraction activities. Additional samples were collected from six test sites potentially with high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and from a test site contaminated by a coal ash spill. Mean survival, length, or biomass of one or more test species was reduced in 10 of 14 test samples (71%) from impacted areas relative to the response of organisms in the five reference samples. A higher proportion of samples was classified as toxic to mussels (63% for rainbow mussels, 50% for wavy-rayed lampmussels) compared with amphipods (38%) or midge (38%). Concentrations of total recoverable metals and total PAHs in sediments did not exceed effects-based probable effect concentrations (PECs). However, the survival, length, or biomasses of the mussels were reduced significantly with increasing PEC quotients for metals and for total PAHs, or with increasing sum equilibrium-partitioning sediment benchmark toxic units for PAHs. The growth of the rainbow mussel also significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of a major anion (chloride) and major cations (calcium and magnesium) in sediment pore water. Results of the present study indicated that (1) the findings from laboratory tests were generally

  2. Coal Mines, Reclamation Sites - Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Recycling Project Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Reclamation Locations are clean-up projects that are working to eliminate some form of abandoned mine. The following sub-facility types...

  3. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Priority and Tronox Mine Sites, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent mines with Tronox enforcement actions as of March 2016 that are also classified as priority mines. USEPA...

  4. Characterizing toxicity of metal-contaminated sediments from mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews methods for testing the toxicity of metals associated with freshwater sediments, linking toxic effects with metal exposure and bioavailability, and developing sediment quality guidelines. The most broadly applicable approach for characterizing metal toxicity is whole-sediment toxicity testing, which attempts to simulate natural exposure conditions in the laboratory. Standard methods for whole-sediment testing can be adapted to test a wide variety of taxa. Chronic sediment tests that characterize effects on multiple endpoints (e.g., survival, growth, and reproduction) can be highly sensitive indicators of adverse effects on resident invertebrate taxa. Methods for testing of aqueous phases (pore water, overlying water, or elutriates) are used less frequently. Analysis of sediment toxicity data focuses on statistical comparisons between responses in sediments from the study area and responses in one or more uncontaminated reference sediments. For large or complex study areas, a greater number of reference sediments is recommended to reliably define the normal range of responses in uncontaminated sediments – the ‘reference envelope’. Data on metal concentrations and effects on test organisms across a gradient of contamination may allow development of concentration-response models, which estimate metal concentrations associated with specified levels of toxic effects (e.g. 20% effect concentration or EC20). Comparisons of toxic effects in laboratory tests with measures of impacts on resident benthic invertebrate communities can help document causal relationships between metal contamination and biological effects. Total or total-recoverable metal concentrations in sediments are the most common measure of metal contamination in sediments, but metal concentrations in labile sediment fractions (e.g., determined as part of selective sediment extraction protocols) may better represent metal bioavailability. Metals released by the weak-acid extraction

  5. Antimony in the soil-water-plant system at the Su Suergiu abandoned mine (Sardinia, Italy): strategies to mitigate contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidu, Rosa; Biddau, Riccardo; Dore, Elisabetta; Vacca, Andrea; Marini, Luigi

    2014-11-01

    This study was aimed to implement the understanding of the Sb behavior in near-surface environments, as a contribution to address appropriate mitigation actions at contaminated sites. For this purpose, geochemical data of soil (8 sites), water (29 sites), and plant (12 sites) samples were collected. The study area is located at Su Suergiu and surroundings in Sardinia (Italy), an abandoned mine area heavily contaminated with Sb, with relevant impact on water bodies that supply water for agriculture and domestic uses. Antimony in the soil horizons ranged from 19 to 4400 mg kg(-1), with highest concentrations in soils located close to the mining-related wastes, and concentrations in the topsoil much higher than in the bedrock. The Sb readily available fraction was about 2% of the total Sb in the soil. Antimony in the pore water ranged from 23 to 1700 μg L(-1), with highest values in the Sb-rich soils. The waters showed neutral to slightly alkaline pH, redox potential values indicating oxidizing conditions, electrical conductivity in the range of 0.2 to 3.7 mS cm(-1), and dissolved organic carbon ≤2 mg L(-1). The waters collected upstream of the mine have Ca-bicarbonate dominant composition, and median concentration of Sb(tot) of 1.7 μg L(-1) (that is total antimony determined in waters filtered through 0.45 μm), a value relatively high as compared with the background value (≤0.5 μg L(-1) Sb) estimated for Sardinian waters, but below the limits established by the European Union and the World Health Organization for drinking water (5 μg L(-1) Sb and 20 μg L(-1) Sb, respectively). The waters flowing in the mine area are characterized by Ca-sulfate dominant composition, and median concentrations of 7000 μg L(-1) Sb(tot). Extreme concentrations, up to 30,000 μg L(-1) Sb(tot), were observed in waters flowing out of the slag materials derived from the processing of Sb-ore. The Sb(III) was in the range of 0.8 to 760 μg L(-1) and represented up to 6% of Sb

  6. Landfill mining from a deposit of the chlorine/organochlorine industry as source of dioxin contamination of animal feed and assessment of the responsible processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, João Paulo Machado; Leite, Claudio; Krauss, Thomas; Weber, Roland

    2013-04-01

    In 1997, the Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxin (PCDD)/Polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations in dairy products in Germany and other European countries increased. The PCDD/PCDF source was contaminated lime used in Brazilian citrus pulp pellets. The contaminated lime was mined from an industrial dump site. However, the detailed origin of the PCDD/PCDFs in the lime was not revealed. This paper investigates the contamination origin and describes the link between lime milk from the dumpsite of a chlorine/organochlorine industry and the contaminated lime. The contaminated lime stem from mining at the corporate landfill of Solvay Indupa in Sao Paulo. The landfill was used for 40 years for deposition of production residues and closed in 1996. The factory operated/operates at least two processes with potentially high PCDD/PCDFs releases namely the oxychlorination process for production of ethylene dichloride (EDC) and the chlor-alkali process. The main landfilled waste was lime milk (1.4 million tons) from the vinyl chloride monomer production (via the acetylene process) along with residues from other processes. The PCDD/PCDF fingerprint revealed that most samples from the chemical landfill showed an EDC PCDD/PCDF pattern with a characteristic octachlorodibenzofuran dominance. The PCDD/PCDF pattern of a Rio Grande sediment samples downstream the facility showed a chlor-alkali pattern with a minor impact of the EDC pattern. The case highlights that PCDD/PCDF- and persistent organic pollutants-contaminated sites need to be identified in a comprehensive manner as required by the Stockholm Convention (article 6) and controlled for their impact on the environment and human health. Landfill mining and reuse of materials from contaminated deposits should be prohibited.

  7. Mining-Related Selenium Contamination in Alaska, and the State of Current Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aibyek Khamkhash

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Selenium pollution has been a topic of extensive research dating back further than the last decade and has attracted significant attention from several environmental and regulatory agencies in order to monitor and control its discharge from myriad industrial sources. The mining industry is a prime contributor of hazardous selenium release in the aquatic systems and is responsible for both acute and chronic impacts on living organisms. Herein we provide an overview of selenium contamination issues, with a specific focus on selenium release from mining industries, including a discussion of various technologies commonly employed to treat selenium-impacted waters from mining discharge. Different cases pertaining to selenium release from Alaskan mines (during years 2000–2015 are also presented, along with measures taken to mitigate high concentration releases. For continued resource exploration and economic development activities, as well as environmental preservation, it is important to fundamentally understand such emerging and pressing issues as selenium contamination and investigate efficient technological approaches to counter these challenges.

  8. Identification of Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria from a low-pH contaminated former uranium mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akob, Denise M.; Bohu, Tsing; Beyer, Andrea; Schäffner, Franziska; Händel, Matthias; Johnson, Carol A.; Merten, Dirk; Büchel, Georg; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Küsel, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Biological Mn oxidation is responsible for producing highly reactive and abundant Mn oxide phases in the environment that can mitigate metal contamination. However, little is known about Mn oxidation in low-pH environments, where metal contamination often is a problem as the result of mining activities. We isolated two Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) at pH 5.5 (Duganella isolate AB_14 and Albidiferax isolate TB-2) and nine strains at pH 7 from a former uranium mining site. Isolate TB-2 may contribute to Mn oxidation in the acidic Mn-rich subsoil, as a closely related clone represented 16% of the total community. All isolates oxidized Mn over a small pH range, and isolates from low-pH samples only oxidized Mn below pH 6. Two strains with different pH optima differed in their Fe requirements for Mn oxidation, suggesting that Mn oxidation by the strain found at neutral pH was linked to Fe oxidation. Isolates tolerated Ni, Cu, and Cd and produced Mn oxides with similarities to todorokite and birnessite, with the latter being present in subsurface layers where metal enrichment was associated with Mn oxides. This demonstrates that MOB can be involved in the formation of biogenic Mn oxides in both moderately acidic and neutral pH environments.

  9. Contamination and health risks of heavy metals in street dust from a coal-mining city in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Chai, Miao; Cheng, Jiali; Jin, Jing; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Huang, Qifei; Li, Yanhua

    2017-04-01

    We collected street dust from Huainan, a typical coal-mining city in China, to investigate the contamination features and health risks of heavy metals. Concentrations of Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, As, and Sb were generally low to moderate, while pollution levels of Cd and Hg were moderate to high. Concentrations of Cd and Hg were associated with considerable health risks at 64.3% and 58.6% of sites, respectively. In particular, about a fifth of samples had associated high risks as a result of Hg contamination levels. Relative to other urban areas, the street dust from the mining area had no more severe metal pollution, which might be partly attributed to the deposition of coal dust onto street dusts. A source assessment indicated that metals in dust form Huainan were mainly derived from vehicular-related activities, industrial emissions, weathering of coal dust and natural soils, and coal combustion. Although the health risk levels from exposure to individual metals in dusts were low, the non-carcinogenic risks from multiple metals to local children exceeded the acceptable level (1.0), suggesting that the overall risk from exposure to multiple metals in dust is concerning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fate of inorganic contaminants post treatment of acid mine drainage by cryptocrystalline magnesite: Complimenting experimental results with a geochemical model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, V

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the fate of inorganic contaminants post treatment of acid mine drainage by cryptocrystalline magnesite. To accomplish that, neutralization and metal attenuation were evaluated and complemented with simulations using geochemical...

  11. In-situ bioremediation of contaminated soils from Rodna mining areas from Bistrița-Năsăud county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Negrusier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil ecosystems contaminated with heavy metals can cause significant damages to the environment and human health due to the mobility and solubility capacity of the contaminants. This research was carried out to set up a suitable bioremediation scheme for cleaning up the soil from the mining sites of Anieș and Glod Valley from Bistrița-Năsăud county. Based on the investigations that have been made (soil colour, pH, organic content of the soil, plant inventory phytoremediation seemed to be the most effective and environmentally-friendly method that could be used to neutralize or remove heavy metals from the soil.

  12. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Équateur (les mines) : Mines, contamination et ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    6 janv. 2011 ... Grâce à l'appui du CRDI, des chercheurs de la FUNSAD ont étudié la pollution causée par les métaux lourds et les cyanures provenant des procédés d'affinage de l'or, examiné l'incidence de ces contaminants sur la santé humaine et fait des rapprochements entre les conditions socio-économiques et ...

  13. Cadmium Contamination and Health Assessment in Frog Microhyla fissipes Living Downstream of Zinc Mining Area in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirarach Kitana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand, concerns have been raised over cadmium contamination, potentially due to zinc mining activities. Although there is no report of acute toxicity on animals in this area, the impact of long-term environmental exposure to cadmium on their health are of attention. Water and sediment samples collected from two field sites (low-Cd and high-Cd sites in Mae Sot during 2008 were analyzed by GFAAS. Year round cadmium contamination in water ranged from 0.0015-0.002 mg/L in low-Cd site to 0.0019-0.0023 mg/L in high-Cd site, while higher levels were found in sediment ranged from 0.1013-0.2206 mg/kg in low-Cd site to 2.9260-3.2888 mg/kg in high-Cd site. Microhyla fissipes was collected from each habitat in 2-month interval during wet season. Detectable level of cadmium residue was found only in the frog collected from high-Cd habitat. Gravimetric analysis showed that hepatosomatic indices were significantly higher in high-Cd habitat. Histopathology showed several similar alterations in the liver, however higher number of melanomacrophage center was found in high-Cd habitat. Renosomatic indices and kidney tissue alterations were not significantly different between two sites. Reproductive health in term of gonadosomatic indices (GSI was not significantly different between male frogs from both habitats. But in the females living in high-Cd habitat, significantly lower GSI were observed. The results indicate that exposure to environmentally relevant dose of cadmium may interfere with the frog health. Using the frog as a sentinel species in this study suggests an important implication for overall health of animals/human in this area.

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  15. Effects of Mine Waste Contamination on Fish and Wildlife Habitat at Multiple Levels of Biological Organization in the Methow River, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peplow, Dan; Edmonds, Robert.

    2002-06-01

    A three-year multidisciplinary study was conducted on the relationship between mine waste contamination and the effects on aquatic and terrestrial habitats in the Methow River below abandoned mines near Twisp in Okanogan County, Washington (U.S.A.). Ore deposits in the area were mined for gold, silver, copper and zinc until the early 1950's. An above-and-below-mine approach was used to study potentially impacted sites. Although the dissolved metal content of water in the Methow River was below the limits of detection, eleven chemicals of potential environmental concern were identified in the tailings, mine effluents, groundwater, streamwater and sediments (Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se and Zn). The potential for ecosystem level impacts was reflected in the risk of contamination in the mine waste to communities and populations that are valued for their functional properties related to energy storage and nutrient cycling. Dissolved and sediment metal contamination changed the benthic insect community structure in a tributary of the Methow River below Alder Mine, and at the population level, caddisfly larval development in the Methow River was delayed. Arsenic accumulation in bear hair and Cd in fish liver suggest top predators are effected. In situ exposure of juvenile triploid trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to conditions at the downstream site resulted in reduced growth and increased mortality among exposed individuals. Histopathological studies of their tissues revealed extensive glycogen inclusions suggesting food is being converted into glycogen and stored in the liver but the glycogen is not being converted back normally into glucose for distribution to other tissues in the body. Subcellular observations revealed mitochondrial changes including a decrease in the number and increase in the size of electron-dense metrical granules, the presence of glycogen bodies in the cytoplasm, and glycogen nuclei in exposed trout hepatocytes, which are signs that

  16. Reduction of spatial distribution of risk factors for transportation of contaminants released by coal mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Shivesh Kishore; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan

    2016-09-15

    It is reported that water-energy nexus composes two of the biggest development and human health challenges. In the present study we presented a Risk Potential Index (RPI) model which encapsulates Source, Vector (Transport), and Target risks for forecasting surface water contamination. The main aim of the model is to identify critical surface water risk zones for an open cast mining environment, taking Jharia Coalfield, India as the study area. The model also helps in feasible sampling design. Based on spatial analysis various risk zones were successfully delineated. Monthly RPI distribution revealed that the risk of surface water contamination was highest during the monsoon months. Surface water samples were analysed to validate the model. A GIS based alternative management option was proposed to reduce surface water contamination risk and observed 96% and 86% decrease in the spatial distribution of very high risk areas for the months June and July respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental Risk of Metal Mining Contaminated River Bank Sediment at Redox-Transitional Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F. L. Lynch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse metal pollution from mining impacted sediment is widely recognised as a potential source of contamination to river systems and may significantly hinder the achievement of European Union Water Framework Directive objectives. Redox-transitional zones that form along metal contaminated river banks as a result of flood and drought cycles could cause biogeochemical changes that alter the behaviour of polyvalent metals iron and manganese and anions such as sulphur. Trace metals are often partitioned with iron, manganese and sulphur minerals in mining-contaminated sediment, therefore the dissolution and precipitation of these minerals may influence the mobility of potentially toxic trace metals. Research indicates that freshly precipitated metal oxides and sulphides may be more “reactive” (more adsorbent and prone to dissolution when conditions change than older crystalline forms. Fluctuations at the oxic-anoxic interface brought about through changes in the frequency and duration of flood and drought episodes may therefore influence the reactivity of secondary minerals that form in the sediment and the flux of dissolved trace metal release. UK climate change models predict longer dry periods for some regions, interspersed with higher magnitude flood events. If we are to fully comprehend the future environmental risk these climate change events pose to mining impacted river systems it is recommended that research efforts focus on identifying the primary controls on trace metal release at the oxic-anoxic interface for flood and drought cycles of different duration and frequency. This paper critically reviews the literature regarding biogeochemical processes that occur at different temporal scales during oxic, reducing and dry periods and focuses on how iron and sulphur based minerals may alter in form and reactivity and influence the mobility of trace metal contaminants. It is clear that changes in redox potential can alter the composition

  18. Amending metal contaminated mine soil with biochars to sequester metals and improve plant growth cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are numerous mine spoil sites in the U.S. Pacific Northwest that contain highly acidic, heavy metal-laden soils, which limits establishment of a soil-stabilizing plant cover. Biochars may be a suitable soil amendment to reduce toxic metals, improve soil fertility, soil wa...

  19. The potential risk of environmental contamination by mercury contained in Polish coal mining waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Antoszczyszyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains reference literature analysis concerning mercury content in Polish bituminous coal and post-mining waste as well as the impact of mercury content on the environment. The aim of the paper was to determine the occurrence of the risk of contamination of the environment with mercury compounds found in demolition bituminous coal landfills. Mercury, due to its toxic properties has been classified among the most dangerous substances to human health. There are three groups of sources of mercury release into the environment: natural, anthropogenic and remission. Coal mining, its processing and use in the energy sector has the greatest relevance regarding the pollution of the environment with mercury compounds in Poland. A review of reference literature shows that the average content of mercury in Polish bituminous coal varies within a wide range of 41–399 ppb, which is conditional on the origin, age and type of coal. The production of coal has led to a number of facilities in the form of structurally and age-varied landfills, heaps and mining waste dumps. The content of mercury in post-mining waste is in the range from approximately 55 to 380 ppb. The problem of environmental contamination with mercury has attracted considerable interest due to the effects that its concentration have in the biosphere. On the basis of the existing data it has been found that the content of mercury in soils in areas degraded by mining and processing of coal is even 10–16 times higher, compared to the geochemical background. It is necessary to conduct research in this area due to the limited results of research on mercury content in deposited waste from the preparation and flotation of Polish bituminous coals and the potential harmful effect of mercury on the environment. The paper is dedicated to the mercury content in waste from the extraction and processing of bituminous coal.

  20. Human health risk assessment for radiological and chemical contaminants at site with historical contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garisto, N.C.; Cooper, F. [SENES Consultants Limited, Richmond Hill, Ontario (Canada); Peters, R. [Cameco Corp., Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    A Human Health Risk Assessment was carried out for a uranium conversion facility in Ontario, located on a site with a history of contamination. The HHRA assessed risk to workers and the public from exposure to radionuclides and non-radionuclides in soil and groundwater associated with the site. The results indicated that there is no undue risk from exposure to radionuclides. Small potential long-term risks were identified with exposure of hypothetical receptors to arsenic, but this exposure was below Canadian background levels. Recommendations are provided to address residual uncertainty. (author)

  1. Mercury Contamination and Bioaccumulation Associated with Historical Gold Mining in the Bear and Yuba River Watersheds, Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, C. N.; Hunerlach, M. P.; Hothem, R. L.; May, J. T.; Taylor, H. E.; DeWild, J. F.; Olson, M. L.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M.

    2001-12-01

    Extensive use of mercury in the mining and recovery of gold during the late 19th and early 20th centuries has led to widespread mercury contamination of water, sediment, and biota in the Sierra Nevada foothills of California. The watersheds of the Bear and Yuba Rivers were selected for study by the U.S. Geological Survey and other federal, state, and local agencies on the basis of (1) results of previous studies of bioaccumulation, (2) observations of visible elemental mercury at numerous mine sites and in river sediments, and (3) extensive historical mining on federal lands and adjacent private lands. Of 53 unfiltered water samples analyzed for total recoverable mercury (Hg-T), 17 samples (32 percent) had concentrations in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) aquatic-life criterion of 50 nanograms per liter (ng/L). Water flowing from two separate tunnels in one mining district had Hg-T concentrations greater than 100,000 ng/L, exceeding the EPA drinking-water standard of 2,000 ng/L. Monthly sampling of the Bear River near its mouth revealed monomethylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in unfiltered water samples greater than 0.4 ng/L during July-August 1999 and January 2000. Game fish were collected from 5 reservoirs and 14 stream sites during 1999 to assess the distribution of mercury in the food chain and to examine the potential risk for humans and wildlife. Of 141 fish fillet samples of black basses (Micropterus spp.), sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus and Lepomis cyanellus), black crappie (Poxomis nigromaculatus), channel catfish (Ictularus punctatus), brown trout (Salmo trutta), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) analyzed for Hg-T, 52 percent exceeded the EPA criterion of 0.3 parts per million (ppm), wet basis. Eighty-nine percent of the bass had Hg-T greater than 0.3 ppm total mercury. Based on these data, three counties issued a public health notification recommending limited consumption of game fish from the Bear and Yuba watersheds

  2. Contamination status of arsenic and other trace elements in drinking water and residents from Tarkwa, a historic mining township in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Agusa, Tetsuro; Subramanian, Annamalai; Ansa-Asare, Osmund D; Biney, Charles A; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the contamination status of 22 trace elements, especially As in water and residents in Tarkwa, a historic mining town in Ghana. Drinking water and human urine samples were collected from Tarkwa in addition to control samples taken from Accra, the capital of Ghana in March, 2004. Concentrations of As and Mn in some drinking water samples from Tarkwa were found above the WHO drinking water guidelines posing a potential health risk for the people. A potential health risk of As and Mn is a concern for the people consuming the contaminated water in this area. No significant difference of As concentrations in human urine between mining town (Tarkwa) and control site (Accra) was observed. Although As concentrations in drinking water in Tarkwa were low, urinary As levels were comparable to those reported in highly As-affected areas in the world. These results suggest the presence of other sources of As contamination in Ghana. This is the first study on multi-elemental contamination in drinking water and human from a mining town in Ghana.

  3. Probability of failure of waste disposals sites in Žirovski vrh uranium mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Beguš

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The only Uranium mine in Slovenia @irovski vrh was closed in 1990 due to economic reasons. After the closure extensive decommissioning works in the mine and in the surrounding began. In the very beginning after the closure great landslide has been occurred in the mill tailings site and recalculation of stability of existent and alternate sites were performed. In this calculations I used statistical scatter of input variables and calculated probability of failure of sites.

  4. Probability of failure of waste disposals sites in Žirovski vrh uranium mine

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaž Beguš

    2002-01-01

    The only Uranium mine in Slovenia @irovski vrh was closed in 1990 due to economic reasons. After the closure extensive decommissioning works in the mine and in the surrounding began. In the very beginning after the closure great landslide has been occurred in the mill tailings site and recalculation of stability of existent and alternate sites were performed. In this calculations I used statistical scatter of input variables and calculated probability of failure of sites.

  5. Metal-contaminated potato crops and potential human health risk in Bolivian mining highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Alan E; Strosnider, William H J; Wilson, Robin Taylor; Condori, Janette; Nairn, Robert W

    2017-06-01

    This study assessed metals in irrigation water, soil and potato crops impacted by mining discharges, as well as potential human health risk in the high desert near the historic mining center of Potosí, Bolivia. Metal concentrations were compared with international concentration limit guidelines. In addition, an ingested average daily dose and minimum risk level were used to determine the hazard quotient from potato consumption for adults and children. Irrigation water maximum concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in mining-impacted sites were elevated 20- to 1100-fold above international concentration limit guidelines. Agricultural soils contained total metal concentrations of As, Cd, Pb and Zn that exceeded concentration limits in agricultural soil guidelines by 22-, 9-, 3- and 12-fold, respectively. Potato tubers in mining-impacted sites had maximum concentrations of As, Cd, Pb and Zn that exceeded concentration limits in commercially sold vegetables by 9-, 10-, 16- and fourfold, respectively. Using conservative assumptions, hazard quotients (HQ) for potatoes alone were elevated for As, Cd and Pb among children (range 1.1-71.8), in nearly all of the mining-impacted areas; and for As and Cd among adults (range 1.2-34.2) in nearly all of the mining-impacted areas. Only one mining-impacted area had a Pb adult HQ for potatoes above 1 for adults. Toxic trace elements in a major regional dietary staple may be a greater concern than previously appreciated. Considering the multitude of other metal exposure routes in this region, it is likely that total HQ values for these metals may be substantially higher than our estimates.

  6. Response of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Web) to heavy metals from mine sites: micromorphology of leaves and roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Maleci, Laura; Buffa, Gabriella; Wahsha, Mohammad; Fontana, Silvia

    2013-04-01

    Response of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Web) to heavy metals from mine sites: micromorphology of leaves and roots. Maleci L.1 , Bini C.2, Buffa G. 2, Fontana S2., Wahsha M.3 1 - Dept of Biology, University of Florence, Italy. 2 - Dept of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics. Ca'Foscari University, Venice - Italy. 3 - Marine Science Centre - University of Jordan, Aqaba section, Jordan. Heavy metal accumulation is known to produce significant physiological and biochemical responses in vascular plants. Yet, metabolic and physiological responses of plants to heavy metal concentration can be viewed as potentially adaptive changes of the plants during stress. From this point of view, plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations, and can be utilized in soil restoration. Among wild plants, the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Web) has received attention as bioindicator plant, and has been also suggested in remediation projects. Wild specimens of Taraxacum officinale Web, with their soil clod, were gathered from three sites with different contamination levels by heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) in the abandoned Imperina Valley mine (Northeast Italy). A control plant was also gathered from a not contaminated site nearby. Plants were cultivated in pots for one year at HBF, and appeared macroscopically not affected by toxic signals (reduced growth, leaf necrosis) possibly induced by soil HM concentration. Leaves and roots taken at the same growing season were observed by LM and TEM. Light microscopy observations carried out on the leaf lamina show a clear difference in the cellular organization of not-contaminated and contaminated samples. The unpolluted samples present a well organized palisade tissue and spongy photosynthetic parenchyma. Samples from contaminated sites, instead, present a palisade parenchyma less organized, and a reduction of leaf thickness

  7. [Environmental characterization of the National Contaminated Sites in SENTIERI project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musmeci, L; Bellino, M; Falleni, F; Piccardi, A

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "polluted site" was firstly introduced in Italy with the definition of "environmental high risk areas" (Rule 349/86). Later, the decree 471/99 stated that a site is considered polluted if the concentration of even just one index pollutant in anyone of the matrices (soil or subsoil, surface or ground waters) exceeds the allowable threshold limit concentration. The boundaries of Italian polluted sites (IPS) were defined (Decree 152/06) on the basis of health, environmental and social criteria. SENTIERI Project includes 44 out of the 57 sites comprised in the "National environmental remediation program"; they correspond to the largest national industrial agglomerates. For each site, characterization data were collected, classified and arranged in tables. A great part of collected data came also from the environmental remediation programmes planned for the sites. These plans show that characterization and risk assessment activities were mainly undertaken for private industrial areas, as they were considered source of pollution. On the other hand, municipal and/or green and agricultural areas included in IPSs were poorly studied. Therefore, it is difficult to assess the exposure of the populations living inside and/or near the IPSs. The most probable population exposure come from the contamination of ground waters utilized for irrigation, or industrial emissions. For a description of SENTIERI, refer to the 2010 Supplement of Epidemiology & Prevention devoted to SENTIERI Project.

  8. Biofuel and other biomass based products from contaminated sites - Potentials and barriers from Swedish perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Enell, Anja; Rihm, Thomas; Haglund, Kristina; Wik, Ola (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja; Angelbratt, Alexandra (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Keuning, Sytze (Bioclear b.v., Groningen (Netherlands))

    2009-07-01

    In this report, results are presented based on interviews and literature surveys on the triggers and stoppers for non food crop on contaminated land in Sweden. The report also includes a first estimate of potential marginal land for biofuel production in Sweden. The report is a first step to explore the feasibility of a range of possible approaches to combine risk based land management (RBLM) with non-food crop land-uses and organic matter re-use as appropriate in a Swedish context. The focus of the report is on the treatment of contaminated land by phyto-remediation and on biofuel cultivation. In Sweden, like all other countries in Europe, areas of land have been degraded by past use. Such previously developed land includes areas affected by mining, fallout from industrial processes such as smelting, areas elevated with contaminated dredged sediments, former landfill sites and many other areas where the decline of industrial activity has left a legacy of degraded land and communities. The extent of contamination may not be sufficient to trigger remediation under current regulatory conditions, and there may be little economic incentive to regenerate the affected areas. An ideal solution would be a land management approach that is able to pay for itself. Biomass from coppice or other plantations has long been seen as a possible means of achieving this goal. Phyto remediation offers a low cost method for remediation of areas that are not candidates for conventional regeneration. The optimal conditions for phyto remediation are large land areas of low or mediate contamination. Phyto remediation is also suitable to prevent spreading of contaminants, for example in green areas such as in cities, as waste water buffer and small size remediation areas with diffuse spreading. Phyto remediation implies that plants, fungi or algae are used to remediate, control or increase the natural attenuation of contaminants. Depending on the contaminating species and the site conditions

  9. SSH gene expression profile of Eisenia andrei exposed in situ to a naturally contaminated soil from an abandoned uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Joana; Pereira, Ruth; Gonçalves, Fernando; Mendo, Sónia

    2013-02-01

    The effects of the exposure of earthworms (Eisenia andrei) to contaminated soil from an abandoned uranium mine, were assessed through gene expression profile evaluation by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH). Organisms were exposed in situ for 56 days, in containers placed both in a contaminated and in a non-contaminated site (reference). Organisms were sampled after 14 and 56 days of exposure. Results showed that the main physiological functions affected by the exposure to metals and radionuclides were: metabolism, oxireductase activity, redox homeostasis and response to chemical stimulus and stress. The relative expression of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and elongation factor 1 alpha was also affected, since the genes encoding these enzymes were significantly up and down-regulated, after 14 and 56 days of exposure, respectively. Also, an EST with homology for SET oncogene was found to be up-regulated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that this gene was identified in earthworms and thus, further studies are required, to clarify its involvement in the toxicity of metals and radionuclides. Considering the results herein presented, gene expression profiling proved to be a very useful tool to detect earthworms underlying responses to metals and radionuclides exposure, pointing out for the detection and development of potential new biomarkers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Trace element contamination in the Guadalquivir River Estuary ten years after the Aznalcóllar mine spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero, Victoria; Arias, Alberto M; Blasco, Julián

    2014-09-15

    Sediments, clams Scrobicularia plana and worms Hediste diversicolor from the Guadalquivir estuary were collected ten years after the Aznalcóllar mine spill and analyzed for metals. Significant seasonal and spatial effects were detected for most elements, so data from different sampling periods and locations were treated separately. Overall, the most polluted sites were found upstream, although Zn and Cu tended to accumulate at the estuary mouth. A significant decline of Zn in sediments and clams was observed compared to levels reported following the spill, so the estuarine ecosystem has recovered. However, the concentrations of some elements in S. plana were still higher than those of heavily contaminated regions. In this mollusk, Pb and As levels were higher in 2008 than in previous years, suggesting a new source entering into the estuary. Metals in sediments presented low bioavailability for biota, so other sources must account for the concentrations observed in these species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Geological characterization and solute transport model investigations of contaminated sites in urban areas (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Thomsen, Peter

    In Denmark, contaminations from industry and farming represent a significant threat to groundwater resources. On a national level, there is a focus on identifying and locating these contaminated sites. Once located, contaminations are mapped and monitored and remediation efforts are undertaken. R...... the uncertainties of projections on the fate of the contaminant. Based on the work, we were able to pinpoint the best strategies and solutions for future remediation efforts at the two sites.......In Denmark, contaminations from industry and farming represent a significant threat to groundwater resources. On a national level, there is a focus on identifying and locating these contaminated sites. Once located, contaminations are mapped and monitored and remediation efforts are undertaken...... efforts are often challenged by logistics. The general lack of knowledge about theses contaminations introduces significant uncertainties in the projections on the fate of the contaminant. We carry out a geological characterization of two contaminated sites situated in urban areas. The existing data from...

  12. Heavy metal accumulation and ecosystem engineering by two common mine site-nesting ant species: implications for pollution-level assessment and bioremediation of coal mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shbbir R; Singh, Satish K; Rastogi, Neelkamal

    2017-04-01

    The present study focuses on the abundance, heavy metal content, and the impact of ecosystem engineering activities of two coal mine site-inhabiting ant species, Cataglyphis longipedem and Camponotus compressus. The abundance of Ct. longipedem increased while that of C. compressus decreased, with increasing soil pollution. Correspondence analysis reveals a close association between soil heavy metal concentrations and Ct. longipedem abundance, but this association is lacking in the case of C. compressus. Cataglyphis ants which occupy stress-characterized niches appear to be pre-adapted to tolerate heavy metal pollution. Higher concentrations of Zn and Mn in Ct. longipedem may contribute to the strengthening of the cuticular structures, necessary for nest excavation in the hard, arid soil and for single load carrying. C. compressus ants appear to be pollution sensitive. Their higher Fe content may be related to metal uptake via plant-derived liquids and species-specific regulatory mechanisms. The metal pollution index and biota-to-soil accumulation factors, calculated by using the ant body metal content of the two species, indicate an overall decrease of soil heavy metal concentrations with increase of the site age, which reflects the degree of pollution related to the mine site age. The concentrations of total and available heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, and Cu) were significantly lower in the ant nest debris soil as compared to the reference soil. The results of the present study highlight the role of ants as bioindicators and in bioremediation of contaminated soil.

  13. Risk assessment of particle dispersion and trace element contamination from mine-waste dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Antonio; González, Isabel; Martín, José María; Vázquez, María Auxiliadora; Ortiz, Pilar

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a model to delimit risk zones influenced by atmospheric particle dispersion from mine-waste dumps is developed to assess their influence on the soil and the population according to the concentration of trace elements in the waste. The model is applied to the Riotinto Mine (in SW Spain), which has a long history of mining and heavy land contamination. The waste materials are separated into three clusters according to the mapping, mineralogy, and geochemical classification using cluster analysis. Two of the clusters are composed of slag, fresh pyrite, and roasted pyrite ashes, which may contain high concentrations of trace elements (e.g., >1 % As or >4 % Pb). The average pollution load index (PLI) calculated for As, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Tl, and Zn versus the baseline of the regional soil is 19. The other cluster is primarily composed of sterile rocks and ochreous tailings, and the average PLI is 3. The combination of particle dispersion calculated by a Gaussian model, the PLI, the surface area of each waste and the wind direction is used to develop a risk-assessment model with Geographic Information System GIS software. The zone of high risk can affect the agricultural soil and the population in the study area, particularly if mining activity is restarted in the near future. This model can be applied to spatial planning and environmental protection if the information is complemented with atmospheric particulate matter studies.

  14. Contamination of wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer by abandoned zinc and lead mines, Ottawa County, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Scott C.

    1995-01-01

    The Roubidoux aquifer in Ottawa County Oklahoma is used extensively as a source of water for public supplies, commerce, industry, and rural water districts. Water in the Roubidoux aquifer in eastern Ottawa County has relatively low dissolved-solids concentrations (less than 200 mg/L) with calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate as the major ions. The Boone Formation is stratigraphically above the Roubidoux aquifer and is the host rock for zinc and lead sulfide ores, with the richest deposits located in the vicinity of the City of Picher. Mining in what became known as the Picher mining district began in the early 1900's and continued until about 1970. The water in the abandoned zinc and lead mines contains high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, sulfate, fluoride, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc. Water from the abandoned mines is a potential source of contamination to the Roubidoux aquifer and to wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer. Water samples were collected from wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer in the Picher mining district and from wells outside the mining district to determine if 10 public supply wells in the mining district are contaminated. The chemical analyses indicate that at least 7 of the 10 public supply wells in the Picher mining district are contaminated by mine water. Application of the Mann-Whitney test indicated that the concentrations of some chemical constituents that are indicators of mine-water contamination are different in water samples from wells in the mining area as compared to wells outside the mining area. Application of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that the concentrations of some chemical constituents that are indicators of mine-water contamination were higher in current (1992-93) data than in historic (1981-83) data, except for pH, which was lower in current than in historic data. pH and sulfate, alkalinity, bicarbonate, magnesium, iron, and tritium concentrations consistently

  15. Geochemical Characterization of Mine Waste, Mine Drainage, and Stream Sediments at the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Adams, Monique; Anthony, Michael W.; Briggs, Paul H.; Jackson, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site in the Vermont copper belt consists of the abandoned Smith, Eureka, and Union mines, all of which exploited Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits. The site was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004 due to aquatic ecosystem impacts. This study was intended to be a precursor to a formal remedial investigation by the USEPA, and it focused on the characterization of mine waste, mine drainage, and stream sediments. A related study investigated the effects of the mine drainage on downstream surface waters. The potential for mine waste and drainage to have an adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems, on drinking- water supplies, and to human health was assessed on the basis of mineralogy, chemical concentrations, acid generation, and potential for metals to be leached from mine waste and soils. The results were compared to those from analyses of other Vermont copper belt Superfund sites, the Elizabeth Mine and Ely Copper Mine, to evaluate if the waste material at the Pike Hill Copper Mine was sufficiently similar to that of the other mine sites that USEPA can streamline the evaluation of remediation technologies. Mine-waste samples consisted of oxidized and unoxidized sulfidic ore and waste rock, and flotation-mill tailings. These samples contained as much as 16 weight percent sulfides that included chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite. During oxidation, sulfides weather and may release potentially toxic trace elements and may produce acid. In addition, soluble efflorescent sulfate salts were identified at the mines; during rain events, the dissolution of these salts contributes acid and metals to receiving waters. Mine waste contained concentrations of cadmium, copper, and iron that exceeded USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goals. The concentrations of selenium in mine waste were higher than the average composition of eastern United States soils. Most mine waste was

  16. Evaluating the role of vegetation on the transport of contaminants associated with a mine tailing using the Phyto-DSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano-Resendiz, Omar [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Noria Alta s/n, CP 36050 Guanajuato (Mexico); Rosa, Guadalupe de la, E-mail: delarosa@quijote.ugto.mx [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Noria Alta s/n, CP 36050 Guanajuato (Mexico); Cruz-Jimenez, Gustavo [Departamento de Farmacia, Universidad de Guanajuato, Noria Alta s/n, CP 36050 Guanajuato (Mexico); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L. [Chemistry Department and Environmental Science and Engineering, Ph.D. Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University Ave., 79968 El Paso, TX (United States); Robinson, Brett H. [Agriculture and Life Sciences, Lincoln University, P.O. Box 84 Lincoln, Canterbury 7646 (New Zealand)

    2011-05-15

    We identified contaminants associated with the Cata mine tailing depot located in the outskirts of the city of Guanajuato, Mexico. We also investigated strategies for their phytomanagement. Silver and antimony were present at 39 and 31 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively, some twofold higher than the Dutch Intervention Values. Total and extractable boron (B) occurred at concentrations of 301 and 6.3 mg L{sup -1}, respectively. Concentrations of B in soil solution above 1.9 mg L{sup -1} have been shown to be toxic to plants. Plant growth may also be inhibited by the low concentrations of extractable plant nutrients. Analysis of the aerial portions of Aloe vera (L. Burm.f.) revealed that this plant accumulates negligible concentrations of the identified contaminants. Calculations using a whole system model (Phyto-DSS) showed that establishing a crop of A. vera would have little effect on the drainage or leaching from the site. However, this plant would reduce wind and water erosion and potentially produce valuable cosmetic products. In contrast, crops of poplar, a species that is tolerant to high soil B concentrations, would mitigate leaching from this site. Alternate rows of trees could be periodically harvested and be used for timber or bioenergy.

  17. Extractability and mobility of mercury from agricultural soils surrounding industrial and mining contaminated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ana Teresa; Rodrigues, Sónia Morais; Davidson, Christine M; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C

    2010-12-01

    This study focussed on a comparison of the extractability of mercury in soils with two different contamination sources (a chlor-alkali plant and mining activities) and on the evaluation of the influence of specific soil properties on the behaviour of the contaminant. The method applied here did not target the identification of individual species, but instead provided information concerning the mobility of mercury species in soil. Mercury fractions were classified as mobile, semi-mobile and non-mobile. The fractionation study revealed that in all samples mercury was mainly present in the semi-mobile phase (between 63% and 97%). The highest mercury mobility (2.7 mg kg(-1)) was found in soils from the industrial area. Mining soils exhibited higher percentage of non-mobile mercury, up to 35%, due to their elevated sulfur content. Results of factor analysis indicate that the presence of mercury in the mobile phase could be related to manganese and aluminium soil contents. A positive relation between mercury in the semi-mobile fraction and the aluminium content was also observed. By contrary, organic matter and sulfur contents contributed to mercury retention in the soil matrix reducing the mobility of the metal. Despite known limitations of sequential extraction procedures, the methodology applied in this study for the fractionation of mercury in contaminated soil samples provided relevant information on mercury's relative mobility. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Metal contamination of agricultural soils in the copper mining areas of Singhbhum shear zone in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Soma; Singh, Abhay Kumar; Mahato, Mukesh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    The study was intended to investigate the heavy metal contamination in the agricultural soils of the copper mining areas in Singhbhum shear zone, India. The total concentrations of the metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICPMS). Pollution levels were assessed by calculating enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (I_geo), contamination factors (CF), pollution load index ( PLI), Nemerow index and ecological risk index (RI). The metal concentrations in the soil samples exceeded the average shale values for almost all the metals. Principal component analysis resulted in extraction of three factors explaining 82.6% of the data variability and indicated anthropogenic contribution of Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Mn and Pb. The EF and I_geo values indicated very high contamination with respect to Cu followed by As and Zn in the agricultural soils. The values of PLI, RI and Nemerow index, which considered the overall effect of all the studied metals on the soils, revealed that 50% of the locations were highly polluted with respect to metals. The pollution levels varied with the proximity to the copper mining and processing units. Consequently, the results advocate the necessity of periodic monitoring of the agricultural soils of the area and development of proper management strategies to reduce the metal pollution.

  19. Leaching characteristics of vanadium in mine tailings and soils near a vanadium titanomagnetite mining site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinyan; Tang, Ya; Yang, Kai; Rouff, Ashaki A; Elzinga, Evert J; Huang, Jen-How

    2014-01-15

    A series of column leaching experiments were performed to understand the leaching behaviour and the potential environmental risk of vanadium in a Panzhihua soil and vanadium titanomagnetite mine tailings. Results from sequential extraction experiments indicated that the mobility of vanadium in both the soil and the mine tailings was low, with vanadium readily mobilised. Column experiments revealed that only vanadium in the soil and mine tailing was leachable. The vanadium concentrations in the soil leachates did not vary considerably, but decreased with the leachate volume in the mine tailing leachates. This suggests that there was a smaller pool of leachable vanadium in the mine tailings compared to that in the soil. Drought and rewetting increased the vanadium concentrations in the soil and mine tailing leachates from 20μgL(-1) to 50-90μgL(-1), indicating the potential for high vanadium release following periods of drought. Experiments with soil columns overlain with 4, 8 and 20% volume mine tailings/volume soil exhibited very similar vanadium leaching behaviour. These results suggest that the transport of vanadium to the subsurface is controlled primarily by the leaching processes occurring in soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. How can we restore biodiversity and ecosystem services in mining and industrial sites?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prach, Karel; Tolvanen, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 14 (2016), s. 13587-13590 ISSN 0944-1344 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : restoration * mining sites * reclamation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.741, year: 2016

  1. U.S. EPA Proposes to Add California Mine Site to Superfunds National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is proposing to add eight hazardous waste sites to the Superfund program's National Priorities List (NPL), including California's Argonaut Mine. Superfund is the federal program that investiga

  2. 75 FR 8346 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Settlement; Anderson-Calhoun Mine and Mill Site, Leadpoint, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Settlement; Anderson-Calhoun Mine and Mill Site, Leadpoint, WA AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice; request for public comment. SUMMARY: In...

  3. Chromosome Aberrations of East Asian Bullfrog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus around a Gold Mine Area with Arsenic Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atidtaya Suttichaiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to investigate the chromosome aberrations of the East Asian Bullfrog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus in the gold mine area compared to an unaffected area. Three H. rugulosus were collected, and chromosome aberrations were studied using bone marrow. The level of arsenic was measured in water, sediment and H. rugulosus samples. The average concentrations of arsenic in the water and sediment samples from the gold mine and unaffected areas were 0.03 ± 0.003 mg/l and not detected in water as well as 351.59 ± 5.73 and 1.37 ± 1.07 mg/kg in sediment, respectively. The gold mine values were higher than the permissible limit of the water and soil quality standards, but the arsenic concentrations in the samples from the unaffected area were within prescribed limit. The average concentrations of arsenic in H. rugulosus samples from the gold mine and unaffected areas were 0.39 ± 0.30 and 0.07 ± 0.01 mg/kg, respectively, which were both lower than the standard of arsenic contamination in food. The diploid chromosome number of H. rugulosus in both areas was 2n=26, and the percentage of chromosome breakages of H. rugulosus in the gold mine area were higher than the unaffected area. There were eight types of chromosome aberrations, including a single chromatid gap, isochromatid gap, single chromatid break, isochromatid break, centric fragmentation, deletion, fragmentation and translocation. The most common chromosome aberration in the samples from the affected area was deletion. The difference in the percentage of chromosome breakages in H. rugulosus from both areas was statistically significant (p<0.05.

  4. Microbial Diversity Under Long-Term Forcing by Acid-Mine Drainage and Metals Contamination in an Urban Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, J. W.; Banfield, J. F.

    2005-12-01

    Few microbial diversity studies have been performed of natural wetlands under long-term forcing by acid mine drainage (AMD) and metals. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are ubiquitous in uncontaminated wetlands and can immobilize dissolved metals as metal-sulfides (e.g. Webb et al. 1998). Sulfide-oxidizing microbes, however, will promote the formation of sulfuric acid and the release of sorbed or precipitated metals to groundwater. Therefore, understanding the balance of sulfur-cycling and other microbes from source to sink along the contaminant gradient in a natural system under long-term contamination is of primary interest to bioremediation strategies involving the use of constructed wetlands. We previously reported on bacterial diversity in sediments of the contaminated Western Stege Marsh, at the Richmond Field Station along the eastern central San Francisco Bay. This marsh has been exposed to pH 2, metal-rich groundwaters from near-surface roasted pyrite-ore tailings for over a half-century prior to recent excavation and remediation. Sediment cores were collected using sterile sampling methods at sites with pH values from 2 to 8 along a horizontal contaminant gradient in a tidal slough. 16S rDNA clone libraries from each site reveal key differences in the structure of sulfur-cycling microbial communities between sediments sampled from a standing pond of acidic brackish waters (pH 2, 25 psu) to points along the tidal slough through which this acid communicated with SF Bay tides. New data show that the acid pond sulfur-oxidizing community, in addition to the dominant Bacterial species Thiomicrospira denitrificans, contains several Archaea most closely related to Thermoplasma and environmental clones from studies of coal-refuse contaminated wetlands. Sulfate-reducing bacteria remain dominant in the structure of slough sediment communities, and seem to be effective in reducing dissolved metals concentrations to below EPA maximum contaminant or action level

  5. A retrospective assessment of gold mining in the Reedy Creek sub-catchment, northeast Victoria, Australia: residual mercury contamination 100 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, R C; Meathrel, C E; Suter, P J

    2004-11-01

    The mining of gold can lead to toxic metals such as mercury (Hg) contaminating watercourses as by-products. The Reedy Creek sub-catchment, in northeast Victoria, Australia, was mined for gold in the 1850s. In 1998, samples were taken from six watercourses to measure any remaining toxic metal contamination in sediments and surface waters from two creeks with no previous gold mining (controls) and four that were mined. Although mean concentrations of Hg (measured using an ICP-OES) in sediments were below worldwide background levels, individual sites along Reedy Creek had slightly elevated Hg concentrations. In contrast, the Hg concentrations in the surface waters were above background levels. Temporal fluxes of very high Hg concentrations in the surface waters during periods of first flow and flood events revealed that Hg concentrations in the surface waters may, at certain times of the year, exceed all Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (National Water Quality Management Strategy. Australian Water Quality Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Waters, ANZECC, 2000) guidelines for water use and the protection of the aquatic ecosystem. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Distinguishing Indigenous from Contaminating Microorganisms in Rock Samples from a Deep Au Mine in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstott, T. C.; Moser, D. P.; Fredrickson, J. K.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Phelps, T. J.; White, D. C.; Peacock, A.; Balkwill, D.; Hoover, R. B.; Krumholz, L.; hide

    2002-01-01

    The concentration and distribution of microbial biomass within deep subsurface rock strata is not well known To date, most analyses are from water samples and a few cores. Hand samples, block samples and cores from an actively mined Carbon Leader ore zone at 3.2 kilometers depth were collected for microbial analyses. The Carbon Leader was comprised of quartz, S-bearing aromatic hydrocarbons, Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, sulfides, uraninite, Au and minor amounts of sulfate. The porosity of the ore was 1% and the maximum pore throat diameter was less than 0.1 microns; whereas, the porosity of the adjacent quartzite was .02 to .9% with a maximum pore throat diameter of 0.9 microns. Rhodamine dye, fluorescent microspheres, microbial enrichments, autoradiography, phospholipid fatty acid (PLEA) and 16S rDNA analyses were performed on these rock samples and the mining water. The date indicate that the levels of solute contamination less than 0.01% for pared rock samples. Despite this low level of contamination, PLEA, microbial enrichment, DNA and tracer analyses and calculations indicate that most of the viable microorganisms in the Carbon Leader represent gram negative aerobic heterotrophs and ammonia oxidizers that are phylogenetically identical or closely related to service water microorganisms. These microbial contaminants probably infiltrated the low permeability rock through mining-induced microfractures. Geochemical data also detected drilling water in a fault zone approx. 1 meter behind the rock face encountered during coring. The mining induced macrofractures that are common at these great depths act as pathways for the drilling water borne microorganisms into the lower temperature zone that extends several meters into rock strata from the rock face. Combined PLEA and T- RFLP analyses of the service water and Carbon Leader samples indicate that the concentration of indigenous microorganisms was less than 10(exp 2) cells/gram. Such a low concentrations result from the

  7. The landscape degradation in the mining sites with suspended activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca IONCE

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The extracting industry, through its extraction activities, of shipping the ores, of breaking the ores, of preparing the practical substances, of stowing the useless rock, of transporting the practical substances, etc. might modify the area’s relief and the quality of ground, of thesurface waters and of the air. Suceava County has an old tradition of mining, where the results of this activity are visible, especially the visual point of view, and where not taking certain measures of ecological remediation will emphasize the disappointing image of the landscape within the areas of mining activity performing.The predominant mountainous landscape, in which mining activities have been held, is being affected also by the abandoned industrial and administrative buildings, in an advanced degradation state.The hydrographic system, very rich in mining areas, has its water quality affected by the acid rock drainage- phenomenon which appeared in many mining waste deposits.

  8. A risk assessment tool for contaminated sites in low-permeability fractured media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In Denmark, many contaminated sites are located in areas with low permeability or fractured geologies such as glacial moraine clays. Fractures increase the risk of fast transport of contaminants to underlying groundwater systems. It is therefore important to consider fracture transport when...... evaluating the risk of contaminated sites to drinking water resources....

  9. Contamination of wild-grown edible mushrooms by heavy metals in a former mercury-mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Árvay, Július; Tomáš, Ján; Hauptvogl, Martin; Kopernická, Miriama; Kováčik, Anton; Bajčan, Daniel; Massányi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination of six edible wild species of mushrooms (Boletus pulverulentus, Cantharellus cibarius, Lactarius quietus, Macrolepiota procera, Russula xerampelina and Suillus grevillei) by heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Co, Mn and Fe). Mushroom samples were collected from sites contaminated by emissions from mining and processing of polymetallic ores in operation during the period 1969-1993 in Rudňany, southeast Slovakia. The four study sites spanned up to a 5-km distance from the emission source. The collected mushroom samples were analyzed using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry and/or Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry with graphite furnace. Mercury, Cd and, in some samples, also Pb present the highest risks in terms of contamination of the food chain following subsequent consumption. The content of two metals in the dry matter (dm) of the mushrooms exceeded the limits set by the European Union (EU; Cd: 0.5 mg/kg dm, Pb: 1.0 mg/kg dm). The highest mean contents of the eight metals recorded for S. grevillei were 52.2, 2.15, 107, 104, 2.27, 2.49, 81.6 and 434 mg/kg dm for Hg, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Mn and Fe, respectively. The highest content of Cd was recorded in M. procera (3.05 mg/kg dm) and that of Co in L. quietus (0.90 mg/kg dm). The calculated weekly intake for Hg, Pb and Cd shows that regular consumption of mushrooms from the studied area poses risks to human health.

  10. Impacts of detrital nano- and micro-scale particles (dNP) on contaminant dynamics in a coal mine AMD treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefticariu, Liliana; Sutton, Stephen R; Bender, Kelly S; Lefticariu, Mihai; Pentrak, Martin; Stucki, Joseph W

    2017-01-01

    Pollutants in acid mine drainage (AMD) are usually sequestered in neoformed nano- and micro-scale particles (nNP) through precipitation, co-precipitation, and sorption. Subsequent biogeochemical processes may control nNP stability and thus long-term contaminant immobilization. Mineralogical, chemical, and microbiological data collected from sediments accumulated over a six-year period in a coal-mine AMD treatment system were used to identify the pathways of contaminant dynamics. We present evidence that detrital nano- and micron-scale particles (dNP), composed mostly of clay minerals originating from the partial weathering of coal-mine waste, mediated biogeochemical processes that catalyzed AMD contaminant (1) immobilization by facilitating heterogeneous nucleation and growth of nNP in oxic zones, and (2) remobilization by promoting phase transformation and reductive dissolution of nNP in anoxic zones. We found that dNP were relatively stable under acidic conditions and estimated a dNP content of ~0.1g/L in the influent AMD. In the AMD sediments, the initial nNP precipitates were schwertmannite and poorly crystalline goethite, which transformed to well-crystallized goethite, the primary nNP repository. Subsequent reductive dissolution of nNP resulted in the remobilization of up to 98% of S and 95% of Fe accompanied by the formation of a compact dNP layer. Effective treatment of pollutants could be enhanced by better understanding the complex, dynamic role dNP play in mediating biogeochemical processes and contaminant dynamics at coal-mine impacted sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of approaches for assessing sustainable remediation of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2017-01-01

    from amongst a number of defined remedial scenarios. Results of the review show that most approaches use multi-criteria assessment methods (MCA) to structure a decision support process because it allows the combined assessment of criteria which may be either quantitatively or qualitatively assessed......, is conducted in various ways. Some approaches involve stakeholders directly in the evaluation or weighting of criteria, whereas other approaches only indirectly consider stakeholder preferences. This study has reviewed available methods for assessing and comparing the sustainability of contaminated site...... evaluation methods, and approaches to stakeholder involvement and uncertainty analysis. Further work is needed in order to test the assessment approaches for real case studies, since to date only few documented case applications have been published. The presentation will give specific examples of approaches...

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 573: Alpha Contaminated Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 573 is located in Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 573 is a grouping of sites where there has been a suspected release of contamination associated with non-nuclear experiments and nuclear testing. This document describes the planned investigation of CAU 573, which comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 05-23-02, GMX Alpha Contaminated Area • 05-45-01, Atmospheric Test Site - Hamilton These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives.

  13. Thiosulphate assisted phytoextraction of mercury contaminated soils at the Wanshan Mercury Mining District, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wanshan, known as the “Mercury Capital” of China, is located in the Southwest of China. Due to the extensive mining and smelting works in the Wanshan area, the local ecosystem has been serious contaminated with mercury. In the present study, a number of soil samples were taken from the Wanshan mercury mining area and the mercury fractionations in soils were analyzed using sequential extraction procedure technique. The obtained results showed that the dominate mercury fractions (represent 95% of total mercury were residual and organic bound mercury. A field trial was conducted in a mercury polluted farmland at the Wanshan mercury mine. Four plant species Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var. ASKYC (ASKYC, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.DPDH (DPDH, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.CHBD(CHBD, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.LDZY (LDZY were tested their ability to extract mercury from soil with thiosulphate amendment. The results indicated that the mercury concentration in the roots and shoots of the four plants were significantly increased with thiosulphate treatment. The mercury phytoextraction yield of ASKYC, DPDH, CHBD and LDZY were 92, 526, 294 and 129 g/ha, respectively.

  14. Thiosulphate assisted phytoextraction of mercury contaminated soils at the Wanshan Mercury Mining District, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wanshan, known as the “Mercury Capital” of China, is located in the Southwest of China. Due to the extensive mining and smelting works in the Wanshan area, the local ecosystem has been serious contaminated with mercury. In the present study, a number of soil samples were taken from the Wanshan mercury mining area and the mercury fractionations in soils were analyzed using sequential extraction procedure technique. The obtained results showed that the dominate mercury fractions (represent 95% of total mercury were residual and organic bound mercury. A field trial was conducted in a mercury polluted farmland at the Wanshan mercury mine. Four plant species Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var. ASKYC (ASKYC, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.DPDH (DPDH, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.CHBD(CHBD, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.LDZY (LDZY were tested their ability to extract mercury from soil with thiosulphate amendment. The results indicated that the mercury concentration in the roots and shoots of the four plants were significantly increased with thiosulphate treatment. The mercury phytoextraction yield of ASKYC, DPDH, CHBD and LDZY were 92, 526, 294 and 129 g/ha, respectively

  15. Radioactive contamination of food chain around coal mine and coal-fired power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorović Gordana S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the coal mine in Lazarevac, and the coal-fired power stations in Obrenovac, on the activity concentrations of radionuclides 40K, 238U, 232Th, and 137Cs in some parts of human food chain of people living in the surrounding area. The obtained results showed that natural environment around the examined coal mine and the coal-fired power stations are not significantly affected by the emission of primordial radionuclides. The activity concentrations of 238U in the soil around the open coal mine and the coal processing installations (66.4-76.0 Bq/kg and in the soil around the coal-fired power stations (55.5-61.2 Bq/kg were not significantly higher than the average values in Serbia. The significant increase in the activity concentrations of natural radioisotopes in the samples of soil, vegetation, and animal products, was not confirmed. Food of animal origin used in human consumption is safe, i. e. not contaminated by radiation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31003 i br. TR34013

  16. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Peru Mill Industrial Park in the City of Deming, New Mexico. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Peru Mill Industrial Park site in the City of Deming, New Mexico, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  17. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Kolthoff Landfill in Cleveland, Ohio. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 5, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Kolthoff Landfill site in Cleveland, Ohio, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  18. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Tronox Facility in Savannah, Georgia. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Tronox Facility site in Savannah, Georgia, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  19. Trace Element Concentration and Speciation in Selected Mining-Contaminated Soils and Water in Willow Creek Floodplain, Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Burt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term mining activities in the mountains around Creede, Colorado have resulted in significant contamination in soils and water in the Willow Creek floodplain. Total major and trace were determined for soils and water and sequential chemical extraction for soils. Objectives were to determine concentrations and potential reactivity of trace elements and investigate their relationship with other soil and water properties. Water trace elements showed significant variability among sites, ranging from 347 to 12108 μg/L. Relative trend showed (Zn > Sr > Ba > (Mn > W > Cd > (Sn > V ≈ Ni ≈ Cu > Co > (Ag. Soil trace elements showed significant short-range spatial variability, ranging from 2819 to 19274 mg/kg. Relative trend showed (Pb ≈ Zn > Mn > Ba > P > (As > Cu > Sr > V > Cd > Sb ≈ Ag > (Co ≈ Cr > Mo ≈ Sn ≈ Ni > (Be ≈ W > Se ≈ Hg. Predominant fractions were oxide, specifically-sorbed/carbonate bound, and residual. Water soluble and exchangeable fractions showed (Zn ≈ Cd > Pb and Cd > Zn > Pb, respectively. Mobility factors for highly contaminated soils showed Cd ≈ Zn > Pb > Cu > As.

  20. CORRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT/CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 527: HORN SILVER MINE, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADDKR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 527: Horn Silver Mine, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996). Corrective Action Unit 527 is located within Area 26 of the NTS and consists of CAS 26-20-01, Contaminated Waste Dump No.1. This CADDKR refers to the site as CAU 527 or the Horn Silver Mine (HSM). This CADDKR provides or references the specific information necessary to support the closure of this CAU. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from November 12,2003 through January 21,2004. Additional sampling of liquid obtained from HSM-3 was conducted on May 3,2004. Corrective action investigation activities were performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 527 (NNSAiNV, 2002a). Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities identified the explosive nitrobenzene as a contaminant of concern (COC) on the floor of the 500-foot drift (HSM No.2). No other COCs were identified in the rock samples collected during the investigation activities. The air samples collected from borings HSM-1, HSM-2, and HSM-3 showed volatile organic compounds (primarily gasoline-related contaminants) to be present above the acceptable residential exposure criteria in the boreholes. A conservative modeling effort demonstrated that these concentrations would not migrate to the surface at concentrations that will present an unacceptable risk to future land users. However, other COCs are assumed to exist based on historical documentation on the types of waste placed in the shaft; therefore, the mine including the 300- and 500-foot drifts is considered to be contaminated above action levels. Current results of the field investigation show there are no active transport mechanisms or exposure routes for the contaminants identified in the 500-foot drift. The analytical data did

  1. Mine Waste at The Kherzet Youcef Mine : Environmental Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaad, Mouloud; Boutaleb, Abdelhak; Kolli, Omar

    2017-04-01

    Mining activity in Algeria has existed since antiquity. But it was very important since the 20th century. This activity has virtually ceased since the beginning of the 1990s, leaving many mine sites abandoned (so-called orphan mines). The abandonment of mining today poses many environmental problems (soil pollution, contamination of surface water, mining collapses...). The mining wastes often occupy large volumes that can be hazardous to the environment and human health, often neglected in the past: Faulting geotechnical implementation, acid mine drainage (AMD), alkalinity, presence of pollutants and toxic substances (heavy metals, cyanide...). The study started already six years ago and it covers all mines located in NE Algeria, almost are stopped for more than thirty years. So the most important is to have an overview of all the study area. After the inventory job of the abandoned mines, the rock drainage prediction will help us to classify sites according to their acid generating potential.

  2. Biodegradation of thiocyanate by a novel strain of Burkholderia phytofirmans from soil contaminated by gold mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, H P; Mu, A; Moreau, J W

    2013-10-01

    A novel B. phytofirmans strain with the capacity to degrade thiocyanate was isolated from pH approximately 6·5 soil contaminated by effluent from gold mine tailings. This Burkholderia strain uses thiocyanate as its sole nitrogen source and can grow on acetate as a sole carbon source in a minimal medium. While biodegradation of thiocyanate has been reported to occur within alkaline environments (e.g. soda lakes and wastewater from coking plants), this work presents the first observation of thiocyanate degradation by Burkholderia at pH remediation strategies for thiocyanate contamination in nonalkaline soils and waters impacted by gold-mining activities. This work describes thiocyanate biodegradation by a novel Burkholderia phytofirmans strain isolated from circumneutral pH gold mining-contaminated soils. Previous reports of bacterial thiocyanate degradation have mainly focused on alkaline environments or culturing conditions (pH ≥ 9). Because cyanidation is used globally in gold mining, with thiocyanate as the major contaminant, our results will interest those working on biotechnological approaches to gold mine waste remediation. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Ex-situ bioremediation of U(VI from contaminated mine water using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eRomero-Gonzalez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ex-situ bioremoval of U(VI from contaminated water using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain 8455 and 13538 was studied under a range of pH and uranium concentrations. The effect of pH on the growth of bacteria was evaluated across the range 1.5 – 4.5 pH units. The respiration rate of At. ferrooxidans at different U(VI concentrations was quantified as a measure of the rate of metabolic activity over time using an oxygen electrode. The biosorption process was quantified using a uranyl nitrate solution, U-spiked growth media and U-contaminated mine water. The results showed that both strains of At. ferrooxidans are able to remove U(VI from solution at pH 2.5 – 4.5, exhibiting a buffering capacity at pH 3.5. The respiration rate of the micro-organism was affected at U(VI concentration of 30 mg L-1. The kinetics of the sorption fitted a pseudo-first order equation, and depended on the concentration of U(VI. The KD obtained from the biosorption experiments indicated that strain 8455 is more efficient for the removal of U(VI. A bioreactor designed to treat a solution of 100 mg U(VI L-1 removed at least 50% of the U(VI in water. The study demonstrated that At. ferrooxidans can be used for the ex-situ bioremediation of U(VI contaminated mine water.

  4. Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Novianti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Coal mine overburden (OB materials were nutrient-poor, loosely adhered particles of shale, stones, boulders, and cobbles, also contained elevated concentration of trace metals. This condition cause OB substrate did not support plants growth. However, there were certain species that able to grow on overburden dumping site. This investigation sought to identify plants species that presence on coal mine overburden. The research was conducted on opencast coal mine OB dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan. Vegetation sampling was carried out on six different ages of coal mine OB dumps (7, 10, 11, 42, 59 and 64 month using line transect. Species identification used information from local people, AMDAL report of PT Arutmin Indonesia-Satui mine project, and website. There were 123 plant species, consisted of 79 herbs (Cyperaceae, Poaceae and Asteraceae, 10 lianes, bryophyte, 9 ferns, 10 shrubs, and 14 trees. A number of Poaceae, i.e., Paspalumconjugatum, Paspalumdilatatum, and Echinochloacolona generally present among the stones, boulders, and cobbles. While Cyperaceae such as Fimbristylis miliaceae, Cyperus javanicus, Rhyncospora corymbosa and Scleria sumatrensis most often foundinand around thebasin/pond with its smooth and humid substrate characteristics. Certain species of shrubs and trees present on the 7 month OB dumping site. They wereChromolaena odorata, Clibadium surinamense, Melastoma malabathricum, Trema micrantha, and Solanum torvum (Shrubs, Ochroma pyramidale and Homalanthus populifolius (trees. This plant species could be used for accelerating primary succession purpose on coal mine overburden dumping site. Nevertheless, species selection was needed to avoid planting invasive species.

  5. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Ft. Hood Military Base Outside Killeen, Texas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, J.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative through the Region 6 contract, selected Ft. Hood Army Base in Killeen, Texas, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for possible photovoltaic (PV) system installations and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  6. Wild plants as tools for the remediation of abandoned mining sites with a high arsenic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lopez, Salvadora; Martínez-Sanchez, MJose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martínez, Lucia B.; Bech, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    species has been evaluated. The exposure pathway considered has been oral ingestion, calculating the contribution of the plant to the daily dose based on the arsenic concentration in the leaves of the plants analyzed. The Bioconcentration Factors are generally very low, the transfer Factors being somewhat higher although rarely exceed the unity. When dealing with phytoremediation of contaminated sites, the contribution of the As level in plants to the daily diet of animals should be used as an indicator for a suitable selection of the vegetal species to be used.

  7. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biopower at the Chanute Air Force Base in Rantoul, Illinois. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlata, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Chanute Air Force Base site in Rantoul, Illinois, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study was to assess the site for a possible biopower system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and impacts of different biopower options.

  8. Assessment of metals contamination and ecological risk in ait Ammar abandoned iron mine soil, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouri Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to assess the pollution intensity and corresponding ecological risk of phosphorus and metals including Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe using various indices like geo-accumulation index, enrichment factor, pollution and ecological risk index. In all, 20 surface soil samples were collected from the Ait Ammar iron mine of Oued Zem city, province of Khouribga, in central Morocco. The concentrations of heavy metals in soil samples were used to assess their potential ecological risks. According to the results of potential ecological risk index (RI, pollution index (PI, geo-accumulation index (Igeo, enrichment factor (EF, potential contamination index (Cp, contaminant factor (Cf and degree of contamination (Cd, based on the averages, considerable pollution of metals in soils of study area was observed. The consequence of the correlation matrix and principal component analysis (PCA indicated that Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr and P mainly originated from natural sources and Cd and Pb are mostly derived from anthropogenic sources. The results showed that these metals in soil were ranked by severity of ecological risk as Pb > Cd > Cu > Cr > Zn, based on their single-element indexes. In view of the potential ecological risk (RI, soils from all soil samples showed a potential ecological risk. These results will provide basic information for the improvement of soil environment management and heavy metal pollution prevention in Ait Ammar.

  9. Evaluation of the extent of contamination caused by historical mining in catchments of central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Stan E.; Fey, David L.; Wanty, Richard B.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Klein, T.L.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of stream water and sediment quality in central Colorado, an area of about 54,000 km2. The study area is focused on small tributary catchments in the Rocky Mountains. The Colorado Mineral belt, a northeast-trending mineralized zone that experienced base- and precious-metal mining at the beginning of the late 1800s and early 1900s, cuts diagonally across the geologic trend in the study area. The goal of this study was to compare water and sediment quality in background catchments with those which have been mined. Water and sediment data from 200 catchments, and data from macroinvertebrates from more than 100 catchments, provided ample data for evaluation of the effects of mining on water and sediment quality. Focused sampling was conducted during low-flow conditions in the summers of 2004-2007. Samples were collected from catchments that (1) were underlain largely by a single lithologic unit, (2) contained hydrothermally altered rock and had been prospected, and (3) contained historical mines. Geochemical data determined from catchments that did not contain hydrothermal alteration or historical mines met water-quality criteria and recommended sediment-quality guidelines and showed small variations in base-metal concentrations. Hydrothermal alteration and mineralization typically are associated with igneous rocks that have intruded older bedrock. Base-metal concentrations were elevated in sediment from catchments underlain by hydrothermally altered rock. Catchments affected by historical mining contained highly elevated base-metal concentrations. Classification of catchments on the basis of mineral deposit types proved to be an efficient and accurate method for discriminating catchments that had degraded water and sediment quality. Only about 4.5 percent of the study area has been affected by historical mining, whereas a larger portion of the study area is underlain by hydrothermally altered rock. Weathering of QSP

  10. LCA of contaminated site remediation - integration of site-specific impact assessment of local toxic impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia

    2011-01-01

    of bioremediation scenarios (86-98 % of the human toxicity impacts at Site 1). The inclusion of primary impacts in the environmental assessment of remediation alternatives gives a more complete basis for comparison of technologies with substantially different timeframes and efficiencies........ Although two different remediation methods reach the same remedial target with time, their timeframes can be substantially different and lead to a difference in the local toxic impacts over time. By including primary impacts in the LCA of remediation this quality difference is accounted for. Primary...... impacts have typically been assessed using site-generic characterization models representing a continental scale and excluding the groundwater compartment. Soil contaminants have therefore generally been assigned as emissions to surface soil or surface water compartments. However, such site...

  11. Human exposure and risk assessment associated with mercury contamination in artisanal gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, Zuleica; Rodrigues-Filho, Saulo; Cesar, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Villas-Bôas, Roberto; de Jesus, Iracina; Lima, Marcelo; Faial, Kleber; Miranda, Antônio; Brabo, Edilson; Beinhoff, Christian; Santos, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is an issue of concern in the Amazon region due to potential health effects associated with Hg exposure in artisanal gold mining areas. The study presents a human health risk assessment associated with Hg vapor inhalation and MeHg-contaminated fish ingestion, as well as Hg determination in urine, blood, and hair, of human populations (about 325 miners and 321 non-miners) from two gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon (São Chico and Creporizinho, Pará State). In São Chico and Creporizinho, 73 fish specimens of 13 freshwater species, and 161 specimens of 11 species, were collected for total Hg determination, respectively. The hazard quotient (HQ) is a risk indicator which defines the ratio of the exposure level and the toxicological reference dose and was applied to determine the threat of MeHg exposure. The mean Hg concentrations in fish from São Chico and Creporizinho were 0.83 ± 0.43 and 0.36 ± 0.33 μg/g, respectively. More than 60 and 22 % of fish collected in São Chico and Creporizinho, respectively, were above the Hg limit (0.5 μg/g) recommended by WHO for human consumption. For all sampling sites, HQ resulted from 1.5 to 28.5, except for the reference area. In Creporizinho, the values of HQ are close to 2 for most sites, whereas in São Chico, there is a hot spot of MeHg contamination in fish (A2-São Chico Reservoir) with the highest risk level (HQ = 28) associated with its human consumption. Mean Hg concentrations in urine, blood, and hair samples indicated that the miners group (in São Chico: urine = 17.37 μg/L; blood = 27.74 μg/L; hair = 4.50 μg/g and in Creporizinho: urine = 13.75 μg/L; blood = 25.23 μg/L; hair: 4.58 μg/g) was more exposed to mercury compared to non-miners (in São Chico: urine = 5.73 μg/L; blood = 16.50 μg/L; hair = 3.16 μg/g and in Creporizinho: urine = 3.91 μg/L; blood = 21.04 μg/L, hair = 1.88 μg/g). These high Hg levels (found

  12. [Urban industrial contaminated sites: a new issue in the field of environmental remediation in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiao-Yong; Chong, Zhong-Yi; Yan, Xiu-Lan; Zhao, Dan

    2011-03-01

    Contamination of urban industrial lands is a new environmental problem in China during the process of upgrade of industrial structure and adjustment of urban layout. It restricts the safe re-use of urban land resources, and threatens the health of surrounding inhabitants. In the paper, the market potential of contaminated-site remediation was known through analysis of spatial distribution of urban industrial sites in China. Remediation technologies in the Occident which were suitable for urban industrial contaminated sites were discussed and compared to evaluate their superiority and inferiority. And then, some advices of remediation technologies for urban industrial contaminated sites in China were proposed.

  13. Soil contamination in the impact zone of mining enterprises in the Bashkir Transural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opekunova, M. G.; Somov, V. V.; Papyan, E. E.

    2017-06-01

    The results of long-term studies of the contents of bulk forms of metals (Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Mn, Co, and Cd) and their mobile compounds in soils of background and human-disturbed areas within the Krasnoural'sk-Sibai-Gai copper-zinc and Baimak-Buribai mixed copper mineralization zones in the Bashkir Transural region are discussed. It is shown that soils of the region are characterized by abnormally high natural total contents of heavy metals (HMs) typomorphic for ore mineralization: Cu, Zn, and Fe for the Sibai province and Cu, Zn, and Ni for the Baimak province. In the case of a shallow depth of the ores, the concentrations of HMs in the soils are close to or higher than the tentative permissible concentration values. The concentrations of mobile HM compounds in soils of background areas and their percentage in the total HM content strongly vary from year to year in dependence on weather conditions, position in the soil catenas, species composition of vegetation, and distance from the source of technogenic contamination. The high natural variability in the content of mobile HM compounds in soils complicates the reliable determination of the regional geochemical background and necessitates annual estimation of background parameters for the purposes of the ecological monitoring of soils. The bulk content of Cu and Zn content in soils near mining enterprises exceeds the regional geochemical background values by 2-12 times and the tentative permissible concentrations of these metals by 2-4 times. Anthropogenic contamination results in a sharp rise in the content of mobile HM compounds in soils. Their highest concentrations exceed the maximum permissible concentrations by 26 times for Cu, 18 times for Zn, and 2 times for Pb. Soil contamination in the impact zone of mining enterprises is extremely dangerous or dangerous. However, because of the high temporal variability in the migration and accumulation of HMs in the soils, the recent decline in the ore mining

  14. Mine Surveying Support for the Investigation and Assessment of the Abandoned Mine-Site Friedrichshall (Southwestern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Fugmann

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1895 the salt mine Friedrichshall (Southwestern Germany was shut down after a catastrophic water inrush. The following leaching and relocating processes led to a considerable subsidence, whose influences are still significant. In the run-up to the preparation of the building land, the mining authority in 2004 demanded further investigations to assess remaining risks at the surface.A lot of problems - which had to be solved first - were caused by discrepancies between the existing mine maps, particularly with regard to the orientation marks. By the use of digital terrain models, based both on current airborne-laserscans and historical maps, it was possible to describe the course of subsidence.Comparing the former volume of the underground mine workings as well as the volume of the surface depression, a remaining potential of the subsidence could be estimated.Starting from these results a geomechanical modelling led to a differentiated risk assessment for the designated building sites and other areas of influence.

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 573: Alpha Contaminated Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 573: Alpha Contaminated Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. CAU 573 comprises the two corrective action sites (CASs): 05-23-02-GMX Alpha Contaminated Are-Closure in Place and 05-45-01-Atmospheric Test Site - Hamilton- Clean Closure. The purpose of this CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 573 based on the implementation of the corrective actions. Corrective action activities were performed at Hamilton from May 25 through June 30, 2016; and at GMX from May 25 to October 27, 2016, as set forth in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for Corrective Action Unit 573: Alpha Contaminated Sites; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices. Verification sample results were evaluated against data quality objective criteria developed by stakeholders that included representatives from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) during the corrective action alternative (CAA) meeting held on November 24, 2015. Radiological doses exceeding the final action level were assumed to be present within the high contamination areas associated with CAS 05-23-02, thus requiring corrective action. It was also assumed that radionuclides were present at levels that require corrective action within the soil/debris pile associated with CAS 05-45-01. During the CAU 573 CAA meeting, the CAA of closure in place with a use restriction (UR) was selected by the stakeholders as the preferred corrective action of the high contamination areas at CAS 05-23-02 (GMX), which contain high levels of removable contamination; and the CAA of clean closure was selected by the

  16. Combining microscopy with spectroscopic and chemical methods for tracing the origin of atmospheric fallouts from mining sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navel, Aline; Uzu, Gaëlle; Spadini, Lorenzo [University Grenoble Alpes — LTHE UMR 5564–CNRS-INSU/UGA/INPG/IRD, 1025 rue de la Piscine, DU BP53 - 38041 Grenoble CEDEX 9 (France); Sobanska, Sophie [LASIR, (UMR CNRS 8516), Université de Lille 1, Bât. C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq CEDEX (France); Martins, Jean M.F., E-mail: jean.martins@yujf-grenoble.fr [University Grenoble Alpes — LTHE UMR 5564–CNRS-INSU/UGA/INPG/IRD, 1025 rue de la Piscine, DU BP53 - 38041 Grenoble CEDEX 9 (France)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Numerous ancient mines are left over without specific care for contaminated wastes. • Sources similarity makes the tracing of the origin of metallic fallouts challenging. • Physico-chemical fingerprints of all metal-source sites and fallouts were established. • Combining physical/chemical methods allowed discriminating polluted fallouts origin. • A Hierarchical cluster analysis permitted to identify the dominant particles source. - Abstract: Populations living close to mining sites are often exposed to important heavy metal concentrations, especially through atmospheric fallouts. Identifying the main sources of metal-rich particles remains a challenge because of the similarity of the particle signatures from the polluted sites. This work provides an original combination of physical and chemical methods to determine the main sources of airborne particles impacting inhabited zones. Raman microspectrometry (RMS), X-ray diffraction (DRX), morphology analyses by microscopy and chemical composition were assessed. Geochemical analysis allowed the identification of target and source areas; XRD and RMS analysis identified the main mineral phases in association with their metal content and speciation. The characterization of the dominant minerals was combined with particle morphology analysis to identify fallout sources. The complete description of dust morphologies permitted the successful determination of a fingerprint of each source site. The analysis of these chemical and morphological fingerprints allowed identification of the mine area as the main contributor of metal-rich particles impacting the inhabited zone. In addition to the identification of the main sources of airborne particles, this study will also permit to better define the extent of polluted zones requiring remediation or protection from eolian erosion inducing metal-rich atmospheric fallouts.

  17. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Vincent Mullins Landfill in Tucson, Arizona. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, M.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Vincent Mullins Landfill in Tucson, Arizona, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the EPA provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the study. NREL provided technical assistance for this project but did not assess environmental conditions at the site beyond those related to the performance of a photovoltaic (PV) system. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible PV installation and estimate the cost and performance of different PV configurations, as well as to recommend financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system. In addition to the Vincent Mullins site, four similar landfills in Tucson are included as part of this study.

  18. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at Massachusetts Military Reservation. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stafford, B.; Robichaud, R.; Mosey, G.

    2011-07-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying photovoltaics (PV) systems on a superfund site located within the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR). The site was assessed for possible PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.17/kWh and incentives offered in the State of Massachusetts, such as the solar renewable energy credits. According to calculations, MMR can place 8 MW of ballast-weighted, ground-mounted PV systems on the crowns of the three landfill caps and the borrow pit with the PV modules tilted at 30 degrees.

  19. Structure, Variation, and Co-occurrence of Soil Microbial Communities in Abandoned Sites of a Rare Earth Elements Mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yuanqing; Liu, Wenshen; Chen, Yanmei; Chen, Wenhui; Zhao, Lihua; Ding, Qiaobei; Wang, Shizhong; Tang, Ye-Tao; Zhang, Tong; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2016-11-01

    Mining activity for rare earth elements (REEs) has caused serious environmental pollution, particularly for soil ecosystems. However, the effects of REEs on soil microbiota are still poorly understood. In this study, soils were collected from abandoned sites of a REEs mine, and the structure, diversity, and co-occurrence patterns of soil microbiota were evaluated by Illumina high-throughput sequencing targeting 16S rRNA genes. Although microbiota developed significantly along with the natural restoration, the microbial structure on the site abandoned for 10 years still significantly differed from that on the unmined site. Potential plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) were identified by comparing 16S sequences against a self-constructed PGPB database via BLAST, and it was found that siderophore-producing and phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria were more abundant in the studied soils than in reference soils. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that species richness of plant community was the prime factor affecting microbial structure, followed by limiting nutrients (total carbon and total nitrogen) and REEs content. Further co-occurring network analysis revealed nonrandom assembly patterns of microbiota in the studied soils. These results increase our understanding of microbial variation and assembly pattern during natural restoration in REE contaminated soils.

  20. As-resistance in laboratory-reared F1, F2 and F3 generation offspring of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus inhabiting an As-contaminated mine soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langdon, C.J., E-mail: clangdon1@btinternet.co [C/O The Open University in the North, Baltic Buiness Quarter, Abbots Hill, Gateshead NE8 3DF (United Kingdom); Morgan, A.J., E-mail: morganaj1@cardiff.ac.u [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, P.O. Box 913, Cardiff CF11 3TL, Wales (United Kingdom); Charnock, J.M., E-mail: john.charnock@manchester.ac.u [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Semple, K.T., E-mail: k.semple@lancaster.ac.u [Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Lowe, C.N., E-mail: cnlowe@uclan.ac.u [School of Built and Natural Environment, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    Previous studies provided no unequivocal evidence demonstrating that field populations of Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister (1843), exhibit genetically inherited resistance to As-toxicity. In this study F1, F2 and F3 generation offspring derived from adults inhabiting As-contaminated field soil were resistant when exposed to 2000 mg kg{sup -1} sodium arsenate. The offspring of uncontaminated adults were not As-resistant. Cocoon viability was 80% for F1 and 82% for F2 offspring from As-contaminated adults and 59% in the F1 control population. High energy synchrotron analysis was used to determine whether ligand complexation of As differed in samples of: resistant mine-site adults, the resistant F1 and F2 offspring of the mine-site earthworms exposed to the LC{sub 25} sodium arsenate (700 mg kg{sup -1}) of the F1 parental generation; and adult L. rubellus from an uncontaminated site exposed to LC{sub 25} concentrations of sodium arsenate (50 mg kg{sup -1}). XANES and EXAFS indicated that As was present as a sulfur-coordinated species. - As-resistance in F1, F2 and F3 offspring of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus.

  1. On-site and in situ remediation technologies applicable to petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites in the Antarctic and Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Camenzuli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites, associated with the contemporary and legacy effects of human activities, remain a serious environmental problem in the Antarctic and Arctic. The management of contaminated sites in these regions is often confounded by the logistical, environmental, legislative and financial challenges associated with operating in polar environments. In response to the need for efficient and safe methods for managing contaminated sites, several technologies have been adapted for on-site or in situ application in these regions. This article reviews six technologies which are currently being adapted or developed for the remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites in the Antarctic and Arctic. Bioremediation, landfarming, biopiles, phytoremediation, electrokinetic remediation and permeable reactive barriers are reviewed and discussed with respect to their advantages, limitations and potential for the long-term management of soil and groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons in the Antarctic and Arctic. Although these technologies demonstrate potential for application in the Antarctic and Arctic, their effectiveness is dependent on site-specific factors including terrain, soil moisture and temperature, freeze–thaw processes and the indigenous microbial population. The importance of detailed site assessment prior to on-site or in situ implementation is emphasized, and it is argued that coupling of technologies represents one strategy for effective, long-term management of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites in the Antarctic and Arctic.

  2. Riverland ERA maintenance pad site diesel contamination risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcich, P.J.

    1993-12-02

    The maintenance pad site consists of a concrete pad and underlying soils, approximately 15 by 46 m in area, and a drainage ditch with dimensions of 2.4 by 91 m. The ditch is located approximately 60 m from the concrete pad and is oriented parallel to the pads long axis. The facility was built in 1943, at which time the concrete pad was the floor of a maintenance shed for railroad activities. In 1955, use of the facility as a maintenance shed was discontinued. Between 1955 and 1957, the facility was used as a radioactivity decontamination area for railroad cars; acetone-soaked rags were used to remove surface contamination from the cars. The concrete pad was washed down with a mixture of water and diesel fuel, which was then flushed via clay pipe to the drainage ditch. In 1963, the maintenance shed was torn down and the concrete pad covered with approximately one-half meter of fill. The concrete pad was re-exposed in 1993. The site was sampled for Toxicity Characteristic Leachate Procedure (TCLP) metals, volatile, and semi-volatile compounds, as well as for extractable fuel hydrocarbons. A total of 17 samples were collected from surface concrete, soil beneath surface concrete, and ditch soil. One concrete sample and one ditch soil sample were split. The ditch soil sample was also duplicated. The relative percent difference (RPD) in extractable hydrocarbons of the two split samples, one from concrete and one from ditch soil are, respectively, 52% and 186%. The RPD for the duplicate sample, taken from the same ditch soil sample from which one of the splits was taken, is 39%.

  3. Arsenic and heavy metal contamination and their seasonal variation in the paddy field around the Daduk Au-Pb-Zn mine in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Churl-Gyu [Korea Petroleum Association, Seoul(Korea); Chon, Hyo-Taek [Seoul National University, Seoul(Korea); Jung, Myung Chae [Semyung University, Jecheon(Korea)

    2000-02-28

    Arsenic and heavy metal contamination, seasonal variation of the metal contents in soils and plants and their migration characteristics from soils into plants in the vicinity of the abandoned Daduk Au-Pb-Zn mine were studied. Soils collected downstream from the mine show high contents of As and heavy metals due to surface erosion and wind blowing in the tailings. However, their contamination was limited around the old dressing plant and paddy field nearby the polluted stream. Enriched concentrations of Cd and Zn were found in various agricultural crops grown in the paddy fields nearby the mine site, and Zn was accumulated specially in soybean leaves. Elevated level of As was also found in rice stalks and leaves. Biological absorption coefficients of the crop plants for heavy metals decreased in the order of soybean leaves, red peppers, rice stalks and leaves, and rice grain, and were higher for Cd and Cu than Pb and Zn. Seasonal variation of As and heavy metals in paddy fields showed that relatively higher concentrations and biological absorption coefficients were found in rice stalks and leaves grown under oxidizing conditions in September rather than under reducing conditions in August, especially for As, Cd, Pb and Zn. It is suggested that the amount of As and heavy metals absorbed by rice crops might be changed under the different condition of paddy fields throughout the period of growing. (author). 26 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs.

  4. Congenital Anomalies in Contaminated Sites: A Multisite Study in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Michele; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Pierini, Anna; Astolfi, Gianni; Bisceglia, Lucia; Carbone, Pietro; Conti, Susanna; Dardanoni, Gabriella; Iavarone, Ivano; Ricci, Paolo; Scarano, Gioacchino; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    The health impact on populations residing in industrially contaminated sites (CSs) is recognized as a public health concern especially in relation to more vulnerable population subgroups. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of congenital anomalies (CAs) in Italian CSs. Thirteen CSs covered by regional CA registries were investigated in an ecological study. The observed/expected ratios (O/E) with 90% confidence intervals (CI) for the total and specific subgroups of CAs were calculated using the regional areas as references. For the CSs with waste landfills, petrochemicals, and refineries, pooled estimates were calculated. The total number of observed cases of CAs was 7085 out of 288,184 births (prevalence 245.8 per 10,000). For some CSs, excesses for several CA subgroups were observed, in particular for genital and heart defects. The excess of genital CAs observed in Gela (O/E 2.36; 90% CI 1.73–3.15) is consistent with findings from other studies. For CSs including petrochemical and landfills, the pooled risk estimates were 1.10 (90% CI 1.01–1.19) and 1.07 (90% CI 1.02–1.13), respectively. The results are useful in identifying priority areas for analytical investigations and in supporting the promotion of policies for the primary prevention of CAs. The use of short-latency effect indicators is recommended for the health surveillance of the populations residing in CSs. PMID:28287452

  5. Late Holocene climate and chemical change at high latitudes: case studies from contaminated sites in subarctic and arctic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Jennifer M.; Cooney, Darryl; Crann, Carley; Falck, Hendrik; Howell, Dana; Jamieson, Heather; Macumber, Andrew; Nasser, Nawaf; Palmer, Michael; Patterson, R. Timothy; Parsons, Michael; Roe, Helen M.; Sanei, Hamed; Spence, Christopher; Stavinga, Drew; Swindles, Graeme T.

    2015-04-01

    Climate variability is occurring at unprecedented rates in northern regions of the Earth, yet little is known about the nature of this variability or its influence on chemical cycling in the environment, particularly in areas with a legacy of contamination from past resource development. We use a paleolimnological approach to reconstruct climate and chemical change over centuries and millennia at two sites in the mineral-rich Slave Geologic Province in Northern Canada heavily impacted by gold mining. Such an approach is necessary to define the cumulative effects of climate change on metal loading and can be used to define anthropogenic release of contaminants to support policy and regulation due to a paucity of long-term monitoring data. The Seabridge Gold Inc. Courageous Lake project is a gold exploration project 240 km north of Yellowknife in the central Northwest Territories, Arctic Canada. Mining operations took place within the claim area at the Tundra (1964-1968) and Salmita (1983-1987) mines. Giant Mine is located in the subarctic near the City of Yellowknife and mining at this site represents the longest continuous gold mining operation in Canada (1938 to 2002). Due to the refractory mineralogy of ore, gold was extracted from arsenopyrite by roasting, which resulted in release of substantial quantities of highly toxic arsenic trioxide to the environment. Arsenic (As) is also naturally elevated at these sites due its occurrence in Yellowknife Supergroup greenstone belts and surficial geologic deposits. To attempt to distinguish between geogenic and anthropogenic sources of As and characterize the role of climate change on metalloid mobility we used a freeze coring technology to capture lake sediments from the properties. Sediments were analyzed for sedimentary grain size and bulk geochemistry using ICP-MS to reconstruct climate and chemical change. Micropaleontological analyses are on-going. Interpretations of the physical, chemical, and biological archive

  6. Data mining of plasma peptide chromatograms for biomarkers of air contaminant exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Renaud

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interrogation of chromatographic data for biomarker discovery becomes a tedious task due to stochastic variability in retention times arising from solvent and column performance. The difficulty is further compounded when the effects of exposure (e.g. to environmental contaminants and biological variability result in varying numbers and intensities of peaks among chromatograms. Results We developed a software tool to correct the stochastic time shifts in chromatographic data through iterative selection of landmark peaks and isometric interpolation to improve alignment of all chromatographic peaks. To illustrate application of the tool, plasma peptides from Fischer rats exposed for 4 h to clean air or Ottawa urban particles (EHC-93 were separated by HPLC with autofluorescence detection, and the retention time shifts between chromatograms were corrected (dewarped. Both dewarped and non-dewarped datasets were then mined for models containing peptide peaks that best discriminate among the treatment groups using ClinproTools™. In general, models generated by dewarped datasets were able to better classify test sample chromatograms into either clean air or EHC-93 exposure groups, and 0 or 24 h post-recovery time groups. Peak areas of peptides in a model that produced the best discrimination of treatment groups were analyzed by two-way ANOVA with exposure (clean air, EHC-93 and recovery time (0 h, 24 h as factors. Statistically significant (p Conclusion Our software tool provides a simple and portable approach for alignment of chromatograms with complex, bi-directional retention time shifts prior to data mining. Reliable biomarker discovery can be achieved through chromatographic dewarping using our software followed by pattern recognition by commercial data mining applications.

  7. Quantitative-spatial assessment of soil contamination in S. Francisco de Assis due to mining activity of the Panasqueira mine (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Freire Ávila, Paula; Salgueiro, Ana Rita; Candeias, Carla; Garcia Pereira, Henrique

    2013-11-01

    Through the years, mining and beneficiation processes produces large amounts of As-rich mine wastes laid up in huge tailings and open-air impoundments (Barroca Grande and Rio tailings) that are the main source of pollution in the surrounding area once they are exposed to the weathering conditions leading to the formation of AMD and consequently to the contamination of the surrounding environments, in particularly soils. In order to investigate the environmental contamination impact on S. Francisco de Assis (village located between the two major impoundments and tailings) agricultural soils, a geochemical survey was undertaken to assess toxic metals associations, related levels and their spatial distribution, and to identify the possible contamination sources. According to the calculated contamination factor, As and Zn have a very high contamination factor giving rise to 65.4% of samples with a moderate to high pollution degree; 34.6% have been classified as nil to very low pollution degree. The contamination factor spatial distribution put in evidence the fact that As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn soils contents, downstream Barroca Grande tailing, are increased when compared with the local Bk soils. The mechanical dispersion, due to erosion, is the main contamination source. The chemical extraction demonstrates that the trace metals distribution and accumulation in S. Francisco de Assis soils is related to sulfides, but also to amorphous or poorly crystalline iron oxide phases. The partitioning study allowed understanding the local chemical elements mobility and precipitation processes, giving rise to the contamination dispersion model of the study area. The wind and hydrological factors are responsible for the chemical elements transport mechanisms, the water being the main transporter medium and soils as one of the possible retention media.

  8. Antimony release from contaminated mine soils and its migration in four typical soils using lysimeter experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Yu-Xian; Zhao, Long; Qin, Yusheng; Hou, Hong; Zhang, Naiming

    2016-11-01

    Antimony (Sb) can pose great risks to the environment in mining and smelting areas. The migration of Sb in contaminated mine soil was studied using lysimeter experiments. The exchangeable concentration of soil Sb decreased with artificial leaching. The concentrations of Sb retained in the subsoil layers (5-25cm deep) were the highest for Isohumosol and Ferrosol and the lowest for Sandy soil. The Sb concentrations in soil solutions decreased with soil depth, and were adequately simulated using a logarithmic function. The Sb migration pattern in Sandy soil was markedly different from the patterns in the other soils which suggested that Sb may be transported in soil colloids. Environmental factors such as water content, soil temperature, and oxidation-reduction potential of the soil had different effects on Sb migration in Sandy soil and Primosol. The high Fe and Mn contents in Ferrosol and Isohumosol significantly decreased the mobility of Sb in these soils. The Na and Sb concentrations in soils used in the experiments positively correlated with each other (PPrimosol>Isohumosol>Ferrosol, and we concluded that the Sb mobility in the soils also decreased in that order. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Palumbo-Roe, Barbara [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg{sup -1} and 362 mgCu kg{sup -1}) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg{sup -1} and 908 mgZn kg{sup -1}) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. > Compost increased the mobility of As. > Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. > These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

  10. Bioremediation in oil-contaminated sites: bacteria and surfactant accelerated remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong-Gunderson, Janet M.; Guzman, Francisco

    1996-11-01

    In Mexico, there are several environmental issues which are being addressed under the current governmental legislation. One important issue is restoring sites belonging to Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). PEMEX is a large government owned oil company that regulates and manages the oil reserves. These sites are primarily contaminated with weathered hydrocarbons which are a consequence of extracting millions of barrels of oil. Within the southern regions of Mexico there are sites which were contaminated by activities and spills that have occurred during the past 30 years. PEMEX has taken the leadership in correcting environmental problems and is very concerned about cleaning up the contaminated sites as quickly as possible. The most significant contaminated sites are located to the north of Veracruz and south of Tabasco. These sites areas are close to refineries or locations of oil exploration. The primary category of contaminants are hydrocarbons, among them asphaltens, aromatic and other contaminants. The concentration of the contaminants varies depending on the location of the sites, but it can reach as high as 500,000 ppm. PEMEX has been searching for appropriate, and cost- effective technologies to clean up these sites. Biologically based remediation activities are of primary interest to PEMEX. However, other treatment technologies such as chemical-physical methods, encapsulation and incineration are also being considered. The present report summarizes preliminary experiments that measured the feasibility of bioremediation for a contaminated site in southern Mexico.

  11. Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a review of investigation and remediation regulations and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelbaum, Michel; Claudio, Jair R. [Bureau Veritas do Brasil Sociedade Classificadora e Certificadora Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    This paper discusses alternatives on remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites which include groundwater remediation techniques and soil remediation techniques. Finally, the work points out some trends of sites remediation in Brazil and abroad. 6 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  12. Analyzing Patterns of Community Interest at a Legacy Mining Waste Site to Assess and Inform Environmental Health Literacy Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Lothrop, Nathan; Wilkinson, Sarah T; Root, Robert A; Artiola, Janick F; Klimecki, Walter; Loh, Miranda

    2016-09-01

    Understanding a community's concerns and informational needs is crucial to conducting and improving environmental health research and literacy initiatives. We hypothesized that analysis of community inquiries over time at a legacy mining site would be an effective method for assessing environmental health literacy efforts and determining whether community concerns were thoroughly addressed. Through a qualitative analysis, we determined community concerns at the time of being listed as a Superfund site. We analyzed how community concerns changed from this starting point over the subsequent years, and whether: 1) communication materials produced by the USEPA and other media were aligned with community concerns; and 2) these changes demonstrated a progression of the community's understanding resulting from community involvement and engaged research efforts. We observed that when the Superfund site was first listed, community members were most concerned with USEPA management, remediation, site-specific issues, health effects, and environmental monitoring efforts related to air/dust and water. Over the next five years, community inquiries shifted significantly to include exposure assessment and reduction methods and issues unrelated to the site, particularly the local public water supply and home water treatment systems. Such documentation of community inquiries over time at contaminated sites is a novel method to assess environmental health literacy efforts and determine whether community concerns were thoroughly addressed.

  13. Source and Fate of Inorganic Soil Contamination Around the Abandoned Phillips Sulfide Mine Hudson Highlands New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Gilchrist; A Gates; E Elzinga; M Gorring; z Szabo

    2011-12-31

    The abandoned Phillips sulfide mine in the critical Highlands watershed in New York has been shown to produce strongly acidic mine drainage (AMD) with anomalous metal contaminants in first-order streams that exceeded local water standards by up to several orders of magnitude (Gilchrist et al., 2009). The metal-sulfide-rich tailings also produce contaminated soils with pH < 4, organic matter < 2.5% and trace metals sequestered in soil oxides. A geochemical transect to test worst-case soil contamination showed that Cr, Co and Ni correlated positively with Mn, (r = 0.72, r = 0.89, r = 0.80, respectively), suggesting Mn-oxide sequestration and that Cu and Pb correlated with Fe (r = 0.76, r = 0.83, respectively), suggesting sequestration in goethite. Ubiquitous, yellow coating on the mine wastes, including jarosite and goethite, is a carrier of the metals. Geochemical and {mu}-SXRF analyses determined Cu to be the major soil contaminant, {mu}-SXRF also demonstrated that the heterogeneous nature of the soil chemistry at the micro-meter scale is self-similar to those in the bulk soil samples. Generally metals decreased, with some fluctuations, rapidly downslope through suspension of fines and dissolution in AMD leaving the area of substantial contamination << 0.5 km from the source.

  14. Towards a Methodology for a Risk Assessment System for Contaminated Sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson-van der Poel MA; LBG

    1994-01-01

    This report describes a procedure to develop a risk assessment methodology for contaminated sites with respect to the risk of dispersal in groundwater. The methodology was originally intended for landfills, but is for example also usable for risk assessment of contaminated industrial sites and

  15. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Gunnison, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated monitor wells at the processing site. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium.

  16. Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zueng-Sang Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk-based assessment is a way to evaluate the potential hazards of contaminated sites and is based on considering linkages between pollution sources, pathways, and receptors. These linkages can be broken by source reduction, pathway management, and modifying exposure of the receptors. In Taiwan, the Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act (SGWPR Act uses one target regulation to evaluate the contamination status of soil and groundwater pollution. More than 600 sites contaminated with heavy metals (HMs have been remediated and the costs of this process are always high. Besides using soil remediation techniques to remove contaminants from these sites, the selection of possible remediation methods to obtain rapid risk reduction is permissible and of increasing interest. This paper discusses previous soil remediation techniques applied to different sites in Taiwan and also clarified the differences of risk assessment before and after soil remediation obtained by applying different risk assessment models. This paper also includes many case studies on: (1 food safety risk assessment for brown rice growing in a HMs-contaminated site; (2 a tiered approach to health risk assessment for a contaminated site; (3 risk assessment for phytoremediation techniques applied in HMs-contaminated sites; and (4 soil remediation cost analysis for contaminated sites in Taiwan.

  17. Investigating uranium distribution in surface sediments and waters: a case study of contamination from the Juniper Uranium Mine, Stanislaus National Forest, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayzar, Theresa M; Villa, Adam C; Lobaugh, Megan L; Gaffney, Amy M; Williams, Ross W

    2014-10-01

    The uranium concentrations and isotopic compositions of waters, sediment leachates and sediments from Red Rock Creek in the Stanislaus National Forest of California were measured to investigate the transport of uranium from a point source (the Juniper Uranium Mine) to a natural surface stream environment. The ((234)U)/((238)U) composition of Red Rock Creek is altered downstream of the Juniper Mine. As a result of mine-derived contamination, water ((234)U)/((238)U) ratios are 67% lower than in water upstream of the mine (1.114-1.127 ± 0.009 in the contaminated waters versus 1.676 in the clean branch of the stream), and sediment samples have activity ratios in equilibrium in the clean creek and out of equilibrium in the contaminated creek (1.041-1.102 ± 0.007). Uranium concentrations in water, sediment and sediment leachates are highest downstream of the mine, but decrease rapidly after mixing with the clean branch of the stream. Uranium content and compositions of the contaminated creek headwaters relative to the mine tailings of the Juniper Mine suggest that uranium has been weathered from the mine and deposited in the creek. The distribution of uranium between sediment surfaces (leachable fraction) and bulk sediment suggests that adsorption is a key element of transfer along the creek. In clean creek samples, uranium is concentrated in the sediment residues, whereas in the contaminated creek, uranium is concentrated on the sediment surfaces (∼70-80% of uranium in leachable fraction). Contamination only exceeds the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) for drinking water in the sample with the closest proximity to the mine. Isotopic characterization of the uranium in this system coupled with concentration measurements suggest that the current state of contamination in Red Rock Creek is best described by mixing between the clean creek and contaminated upper branch of Red Rock Creek rather than mixing directly with mine sediment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Noninvasive characterization of the Trecate (Italy) crude-oil contaminated site: links between contamination and geophysical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassiani, Giorgio; Binley, Andrew; Kemna, Andreas; Wehrer, Markus; Orozco, Adrian Flores; Deiana, Rita; Boaga, Jacopo; Rossi, Matteo; Dietrich, Peter; Werban, Ulrike; Zschornack, Ludwig; Godio, Alberto; JafarGandomi, Arash; Deidda, Gian Piero

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of contaminated sites can benefit from the supplementation of direct investigations with a set of less invasive and more extensive measurements. A combination of geophysical methods and direct push techniques for contaminated land characterization has been proposed within the EU FP7 project ModelPROBE and the affiliated project SoilCAM. In this paper, we present results of the investigations conducted at the Trecate field site (NW Italy), which was affected in 1994 by crude oil contamination. The less invasive investigations include ground-penetrating radar (GPR), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveys, together with direct push sampling and soil electrical conductivity (EC) logs. Many of the geophysical measurements were conducted in time-lapse mode in order to separate static and dynamic signals, the latter being linked to strong seasonal changes in water table elevations. The main challenge was to extract significant geophysical signals linked to contamination from the mix of geological and hydrological signals present at the site. The most significant aspects of this characterization are: (a) the geometrical link between the distribution of contamination and the site's heterogeneity, with particular regard to the presence of less permeable layers, as evidenced by the extensive surface geophysical measurements; and (b) the link between contamination and specific geophysical signals, particularly evident from cross-hole measurements. The extensive work conducted at the Trecate site shows how a combination of direct (e.g., chemical) and indirect (e.g., geophysical) investigations can lead to a comprehensive and solid understanding of a contaminated site's mechanisms.

  19. Flood-related contamination in catchments affected by historical metal mining: an unexpected and emerging hazard of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, S A; Brewer, P A; Macklin, M G; Haresign, W; Betson, R E; Rassner, S M E

    2014-04-01

    Floods in catchments affected by historical metal mining result in the remobilisation of large quantities of contaminated sediment from floodplain soils and old mine workings. This poses a significant threat to agricultural production and is preventing many European river catchments achieving a 'good chemical and ecological status', as demanded by the Water Framework Directive. Analysis of overbank sediment following widespread flooding in west Wales in June 2012 showed that flood sediments were contaminated above guideline pollution thresholds, in some samples by a factor of 82. Most significantly, silage produced from flood affected fields was found to contain up to 1900 mg kg(-1) of sediment associated Pb, which caused cattle poisoning and mortality. As a consequence of climate related increases in flooding this problem is likely to continue and intensify. Management of contaminated catchments requires a geomorphological approach to understand the spatial and temporal cycling of metals through the fluvial system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Arsenic, antimony, and other trace element contamination in a mine tailings affected area and uptake by tolerant plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawar, Hossain M; Freitas, M C; Canha, N; Santa Regina, I

    2011-08-01

    The study was conducted to characterize mineralogical and elemental composition of mine tailings in order to evaluate the environmental hazards, and identify the metal accumulation potential of native plant species from São Domingos mine, one of the long-term activity mines of the Iberian Pyrite Belt dating back to pre-Roman times. The mine tailings including soils and different plant species from São Domingos were analyzed for determination of tailings characteristics and chemical element contents in tailings and plants. The large amounts of mining wastes are causing significant adverse environment impacts due to acid mine drainage production and mobilization of potentially toxic metals and metalloids in residential areas, agricultural fields, downstreams, and rivers. The typical mineralogical composition is as follows: quartz, micas, K-feldspar, olivine-group minerals, magnetite, goethite, hematite, jarosite, and sulfides. The mine tailings were highly contaminated by As, Ag, Cr, Hg, Sn, Sb, Fe, and Zn; and among them, As and Sb, main contaminants, attained the highest concentrations except Fe. Arsenic has exhibited very good correlations with Au, Fe, Sb, Se, and W; and Sb with As, Au, Fe, Se, Sn, and W in tailings. Among the all plant species, the higher concentrations of all the metals were noted in Erica andevalensis, Erica australis, Echium plantagium, and Lavandula luisierra. Considering the tolerant behavior and abundant growth, the plant species Erica australis, Erica andevalensis, Lavandula luisierra, Daphne gnidium, Rumex induratus, Ulex eriocladus, Juncus, and Genista hirsutus are of major importance for the rehabilitation and recovery of degraded São Domingos mining area.

  1. Trace Metal Content of Sediments Close to Mine Sites in the Andean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Yacoub

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a preliminary examination of heavy metal pollution in sediments close to two mine sites in the upper part of the Jequetepeque River Basin, Peru. Sediment concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn were analyzed. A comparative study of the trace metal content of sediments shows that the highest concentrations are found at the closest points to the mine sites in both cases. The sediment quality analysis was performed using the threshold effect level of the Canadian guidelines (TEL. The sediment samples analyzed show that potential ecological risk is caused frequently at both sites by As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn. The long-term influence of sediment metals in the environment is also assessed by sequential extraction scheme analysis (SES. The availability of metals in sediments is assessed, and it is considered a significant threat to the environment for As, Cd, and Sb close to one mine site and Cr and Hg close to the other mine site. Statistical analysis of sediment samples provides a characterization of both subbasins, showing low concentrations of a specific set of metals and identifies the main characteristics of the different pollution sources. A tentative relationship between pollution sources and possible ecological risk is established.

  2. Trace metal content of sediments close to mine sites in the Andean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Cristina; Pérez-Foguet, Agustí; Miralles, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    This study is a preliminary examination of heavy metal pollution in sediments close to two mine sites in the upper part of the Jequetepeque River Basin, Peru. Sediment concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn were analyzed. A comparative study of the trace metal content of sediments shows that the highest concentrations are found at the closest points to the mine sites in both cases. The sediment quality analysis was performed using the threshold effect level of the Canadian guidelines (TEL). The sediment samples analyzed show that potential ecological risk is caused frequently at both sites by As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn. The long-term influence of sediment metals in the environment is also assessed by sequential extraction scheme analysis (SES). The availability of metals in sediments is assessed, and it is considered a significant threat to the environment for As, Cd, and Sb close to one mine site and Cr and Hg close to the other mine site. Statistical analysis of sediment samples provides a characterization of both subbasins, showing low concentrations of a specific set of metals and identifies the main characteristics of the different pollution sources. A tentative relationship between pollution sources and possible ecological risk is established.

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-07-17

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 547 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended). CAU 547 consists of the following three Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, and 9 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) CAS 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly; (2) CAS 03-99-19, Gas Sampling Assembly; AND (3) CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly Closure activities began in August 2011 and were completed in June 2012. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for CAU 547 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2011). The recommended corrective action for the three CASs in CAU 547 was closure in place with administrative controls. The following closure activities were performed: (1) Open holes were filled with concrete; (2) Steel casings were placed over vertical expansion joints and filled with cement; (3) Engineered soil covers were constructed over piping and exposed sections of the gas sampling system components; (4) Fencing, monuments, Jersey barriers, radiological postings, and use restriction (UR) warning signs were installed around the perimeters of the sites; (5) Housekeeping debris was picked up from around the sites and disposed; and (6) Radiological surveys were performed to confirm final radiological postings. UR documentation is included in Appendix D. The post-closure plan was presented in detail in the CADD/CAP for CAU 547 and is included as

  4. Methodological guide: management of industrial sites potentially contaminated by radioactive substances; Guide methodologique: gestion des sites industriels potentiellement contamines par des substances radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    At the request of the Ministries of Health and the Environment, IPSN is preparing and publishing the first version of the methodological guide devoted to managing industrial sites potentially contaminated by radioactive substances. This guide describes a procedure for defining and choosing strategies for rehabilitating such industrial sites. (author)

  5. Management of industrial sites and areas contaminated by radionuclides in France; Gestion des sites industriels et des territoires contamines par des radionucleides en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudiz, A.; Rousseau, D. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    2001-07-01

    The presentation involves two parts making mention on the one hand on the industrial sites management and on the other hand on contaminated areas management. In a third part, are considered the analogies and the differences susceptible of appearing in the management modes of industrial sites and areas. (N.C.)

  6. Buffering efficacy and interaction of minerals in clayey soil with contaminants from landfilling and mining activities: A bird-eye view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Agbenyeku

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The drastic growth in global population, energy resource use, industrial and infrastructure development have led to enormous problems in global conditions and contending environmental challenges. In recent years, South Africa has intensified research on industrialisation and associated environmental problems regarding waste generation, ecosystem matters, human and environmental health risk assessment, and waste management systems. The study has made it clear that geo-environments in and around landfills, and mines are severely contaminated by toxic substances not limited to heavy metals and organic compounds. The all-encompassing introductory presentation in this paper based on a bird-eye view-review approach, pinpoints the present state from site reconnaissance, and impact of landfilling and mining operations in areas with such activities. This study however, has paved way for subsequent technically intense investigations on assessing the buffering efficacy of natural soils from affected sites. This include examining the interaction of pollutants with the soil minerals in succeeding papers towards curtailing soil, surface, subsurface and ground water contamination which invariably affect human and environmental health.

  7. A fuzzy rule based remedial priority ranking system for contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Sener; Aksoy, Aysegul; Unlu, Kahraman

    2015-01-01

    Contaminated site remediation is generally difficult, time consuming, and expensive. As a result ranking may aid in efficient allocation of resources. In order to rank the priorities of contaminated sites, input parameters relevant to contaminant fate and transport, and exposure assessment should be as accurate as possible. Yet, in most cases these parameters are vague or not precise. Most of the current remediation priority ranking methodologies overlook the vagueness in parameter values or do not go beyond assigning a contaminated site to a risk class. The main objective of this study is to develop an alternative remedial priority ranking system (RPRS) for contaminated sites in which vagueness in parameter values is considered. RPRS aims to evaluate potential human health risks due to contamination using sufficiently comprehensive and readily available parameters in describing the fate and transport of contaminants in air, soil, and groundwater. Vagueness in parameter values is considered by means of fuzzy set theory. A fuzzy expert system is proposed for the evaluation of contaminated sites and a software (ConSiteRPRS) is developed in Microsoft Office Excel 2007 platform. Rankings are employed for hypothetical and real sites. Results show that RPRS is successful in distinguishing between the higher and lower risk cases. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This risk assessment evaluates the possibility of health and environmental risks from contaminated ground water at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. The former uranium processing site`s contaminated soil and material were removed and placed at a disposal site located in Body Canyon, Colorado, during 1986--1991 by the US Departments of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach similar to that used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The first step is to determine what site-related contaminants are found in ground water samples. The next step in the risk assessment is to determine how much of these contaminants people might ingest if they got their drinking water from a well on the site. In accordance with standard practice for this type of risk assessment, the highest contaminant concentrations from the most contaminated wells are used. The risk assessment then explains the possible health problems that could result from this amount of contamination.

  9. Arsenic speciation in arsenic-rich Brazilian soils from gold mining sites under anaerobic incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Jaime W V; Talbott, Jonathan L; Scott, John; Roy, William R; Stucki, Joseph W

    2007-09-01

    Arsenic speciation in environmental samples is essential for studying toxicity, mobility and bio-transformation of As in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Although the inorganic species As(III) and As(V) have been considered dominant in soils and sediments, organisms are able to metabolize inorganic forms of arsenic into organo-arsenic compounds. Arsenosugars and methylated As compounds can be found in terrestrial organisms, but they generally occur only as minor constituents. We investigated the dynamics of arsenic species under anaerobic conditions in soils surrounding gold mining areas from Minas Gerais State, Brazil to elucidate the arsenic biogeochemical cycle and water contamination mechanisms. Surface soil samples were collected at those sites, namely Paracatu Formation, Banded Iron Formation and Riacho dos Machados Sequence, and incubated in CaCl2 2.5 mmol L(-1) suspensions under anaerobic conditions for 1, 28, 56 and 112 days. After that, suspensions were centrifuged and supernatants analyzed for soluble As species by IC-ICPMS and HPLC-ICPMS. Easily exchangeable As was mainly arsenite, except when reducible manganese was present. Arsenate was mainly responsible for the increase in soluble arsenic due to the reductive dissolution of either iron or manganese in samples from the Paracatu Formation and Riacho dos Machados Sequence. On the other hand, organic species of As dominated in samples from the Banded Iron Formation during anaerobic incubation. Results are contrary to the expectation that, in anaerobic environments, As release due to the reductive dissolution of Fe is followed by As(V) reduction to As(III). The occurrence of organo-arsenic species was also found to be significant to the dynamics of soluble arsenic, mainly in soils from the Banded Iron Formation (BIF), under our experimental conditions. In general, As(V) and organic As were the dominant species in solution, which is surprising under anaerobic conditions in terrestrial environments

  10. Clay slurry and engineered soils as containment technologies for remediation of contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.R. [Reclamation Technology, Inc., Athens, GA (United States); Dudka, S.; Miller, W.P. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Johnson, D.O. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Clay Slurry and Engineered Soils are containment technologies for remediation of waste disposal sites where leaching, groundwater plumes and surface runoff of contaminants are serious ecological hazards to adjacent environments. This technology is a patent-pending process which involves the use of conditioned clay materials mixed with sand and water to form a readily pourable suspension, a clay slurry, which is either placed into a trench barrier system or allowed to de-water to create Engineered Soils. The Engineered Soil forms a layer impervious to water and air, therefore by inhibiting both water and oxygen from penetrating through the soil the material. This material can be installed in layers and as a vertical barrier to create a surface barrier containment system. The clay percentage in the clay slurry and Engineered Soils varies depending on site characteristics and desired performance standards. For example Engineered Soils with 1-2% of clay (dry wt.) had a hydraulic conductivity (K) of 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -1} cm/sec. Tests of tailing materials from a kyanite and pyrite mine showed that the clay slurry was effective not only in reducing the permeability of the treated tailings, but also in decreasing their acidity due to the inherent alkalinity of the clay. The untreated tailings had pH values in the range of 2.4 - 3.1; whereas, the effluent from clay and tailings mixtures had pH values in a slightly alkaline range (7.7-7.9). Pug-mills and high volume slurry pumps can be readily adapted for use in constructing and placing caps and creating Engineered Soils. Moreover, material on site or from a local sand supply can be used to create clay slurries and engineered soils. Clay materials used in cap construction are likewise readily available commercially. As a result, the clay slurry system is very cost effective compared to other capping systems, including the commonly used High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner systems.

  11. Heavy metal tolerance traits of filamentous fungi isolated from gold and gemstone mining sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladipo, Oluwatosin Gbemisola; Awotoye, Olusegun Olufemi; Olayinka, Akinyemi; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos; Maboeta, Mark Steve

    Increased environmental pollution has necessitated the need for eco-friendly clean-up strategies. Filamentous fungal species from gold and gemstone mine site soils were isolated, identified and assessed for their tolerance to varied heavy metal concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and iron (Fe). The identities of the fungal strains were determined based on the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS 1 and ITS 2) regions. Mycelia growth of the fungal strains were subjected to a range of (0-100 Cd), (0-1000 Cu), (0-400 Pb), (0-500 As) and (0-800 Fe) concentrations (mgkg-1) incorporated into malt extract agar (MEA) in triplicates. Fungal radial growths were recorded every three days over a 13-days' incubation period. Fungal strains were identified as Fomitopsis meliae, Trichoderma ghanense and Rhizopus microsporus. All test fungal exhibited tolerance to Cu, Pb, and Fe at all test concentrations (400-1000mgkg-1), not differing significantly (p>0.05) from the controls and with tolerance index >1. T. ghanense and R. microsporus demonstrated exceptional capacity for Cd and As concentrations, while showing no significant (p>0.05) difference compared to the controls and with a tolerance index >1 at 25mgkg-1 Cd and 125mgkg-1 As. Remarkably, these fungal strains showed tolerance to metal concentrations exceeding globally permissible limits for contaminated soils. It is envisaged that this metal tolerance trait exhibited by these fungal strains may indicate their potentials as effective agents for bioremediative clean-up of heavy metal polluted environments. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. The value of DCIP geophysical surveys for contaminated site investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balbarini, Nicola; Rønde, Vinni Kampman; Maurya, Pradip Kumar

    Geophysical methods are increasingly being used in contaminant hydrogeology to map lithology, hydraulic properties, and contaminant plumes with a high ionic strength. Advances in the Direct Current resistivity and Induced Polarization (DCIP) method allow the collection of high resolution three...... dimensional (3D) data sets. The DC resistivity can describe both soil properties and the water electrical conductivity, while the IP can describe the lithology and give information on hydrogeological properties. The aim of the study was to investigate a large contaminant plume discharging to a stream from...... water and below the streambed. Surface DCIP surveys supported the characterization of the spatial variability in geology, hydraulic conductivity and contaminant concentration. Though DCIP data interpretation required additional borehole data, the DCIP survey reduced the number of boreholes required...

  13. 75 FR 68788 - Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site; Jefferson, Ashe County, North Carolina; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... Doc No: 2010-28260] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [Docket EPA-RO4-SFUND-2010-0893, FRL-9223-8] Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site; Jefferson, Ashe County, North Carolina; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of settlement. SUMMARY: Under Section 122(h)(1) of the...

  14. Passive Treatment And Monitoring At The Standard Mine Superfund Site, Crested Butte, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    At the 2008 ASMR conference, data from the initial two months of operation of a U.S. EPA pilot biochemical reactor (BCR) was reported. The BCR was designed and constructed in August, 2007 to treat mining influenced water (MIW) emanating from an adit at a remote site in southern ...

  15. Passive Treatment And Monitoring At The Standard Mine Superfund Site, Crested Butte, CO (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    At the 2008 ASMR conference, data from the initial two months of operation of a U.S. EPA pilot biochemical reactor (BCR) was reported. The BCR was designed and constructed in August, 2007 to treat mining influenced water (MIW) emanating from an adit at a remote site in southern ...

  16. Report: Environmental Justice Concerns and Communication Problems Complicated Cleaning Up Ringwood Mines/Landfill Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2007-P-00016, April 2, 2007. We did not find evidence to indicate that the EPA's decision making to investigate environmental conditions at the Ringwood Mines/Landfill site were affected by the area’s racial, cultural, or socioeconomic status.

  17. Occurrence, distribution, and volume of metals-contaminated sediment of selected streams draining the Tri-State Mining District, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Kansas, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. Charlie

    2016-12-14

    Lead and zinc were mined in the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD) of southwest Missouri, northeast Oklahoma, and southeast Kansas for more than 100 years. The effects of mining on the landscape are still evident, nearly 50 years after the last mine ceased operation. The legacies of mining are the mine waste and discharge of groundwater from underground mines. The mine-waste piles and underground mines are continuous sources of trace metals (primarily lead, zinc, and cadmium) to the streams that drain the TSMD. Many previous studies characterized the horizontal extent of mine-waste contamination in streams but little information exists on the depth of mine-waste contamination in these streams. Characterizing the vertical extent of contamination is difficult because of the large amount of coarse-grained material, ranging from coarse gravel to boulders, within channel sediment. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Fish and Wildlife service, collected channel-sediment samples at depth for subsequent analyses that would allow attainment of the following goals: (1) determination of the relation between concentration and depth for lead, zinc and cadmium in channel sediments and flood-plain sediments, and (2) determination of the volume of gravel-bar sediment from the surface to the maximum depth with concentrations of these metals that exceeded sediment-quality guidelines. For the purpose of this report, volume of gravel-bar sediment is considered to be distributed in two forms, gravel bars and the wetted channel, and this study focused on gravel bars. Concentrations of lead, zinc, and cadmium in samples were compared to the consensus probable effects concentration (CPEC) and Tri-State Mining District specific probable effects concentration (TPEC) sediment-quality guidelines.During the study, more than 700 sediment samples were collected from borings at multiple sites, including gravel bars and flood plains, along Center Creek, Turkey Creek, Shoal Creek

  18. On-Site Radon Detection of Mining-induced Fractures from Overlying Strata to the Surface: A Case Study of the Baoshan Coal Mine in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale longwall mining of shallow coal seams may cause mining-induced fractures that can project completely through to the surface. This could lead to a series of mine safety and environmental issues, further deteriorating the already fragile ecological environment in the Western mining areas in China. Therefore, an accurate and effective understanding of the spatiotemporal evolution law of mining-induced fractures in overlying strata and its relationship to upper aquifers is critical. In this paper, the application of the geophysical-chemical properties of radon in mining engineering is explored as a potential solution to the shortcomings of existing surveying methods. A radioactive measurement method is proposed for the detection of the development of mining-induced fractures from overlying strata to the surface in the Baoshan Coal Mine (BCM. The on-site test indicated that the first weighting step is approximately 60 m, the average periodic weighting step is approximately 20 m, and the influence coverage of the advanced abutment pressure is approximately 30 m. The presented method could be used as an indirect technical support to increase the safety of coal mining by acting as a simple, fast, and reliable method of detecting mining-induced fractures in overlying strata.

  19. Environmental contamination in an Australian mining community and potential influences on early childhood health and behavioural outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chenyin; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Zahran, Sammy

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic, cadmium and lead in aerosols, dusts and surface soils from Australia's oldest continuous lead mining town of Broken Hill were compared to standardised national childhood developmental (year 1) and education performance measures (years 3,5,7,9). Contaminants close to mining operations were elevated with maximum lead levels in soil: 8900 mg/kg; dust wipe: 86,061 μg/m(2); dust deposition: 2950 μg/m(2)/day; aerosols: 0.707 μg/m(3). The proportion of children from Broken Hill central, the area with the highest environmental contamination, presented with vulnerabilities in two or more developmental areas at 2.6 times the national average. Compared with other school catchments of Broken Hill, children in years 3 and 5 from the most contaminated school catchment returned consistently the lowest educational scores. By contrast, children living and attending schools associated with lower environmental contamination levels recorded higher school scores and lower developmental vulnerabilities. Similar results were identified in Australia's two other major lead mining and smelting cities of Port Pirie and Mount Isa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous selenate reduction and denitrification by a consortium of enriched mine site bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Gaurav; Taylor, Jon; Hatam, Ido; Baldwin, Susan A

    2017-09-01

    Increasing selenium concentrations in aquatic environments downstream of mine sites is of great concern due to selenium's bioaccumulation propensity and teratogenic toxicity. Removal of selenium from mine influenced water is complicated by the presence of nitrate, which is also elevated in mine influenced water due to the use of explosives in mining. In many biological treatment processes, nitrate as a thermodynamically more preferable electron acceptor inhibits selenate reduction. Here we report on an enrichment of a bacterial assemblage from a mine impacted natural marsh sediment that was capable of simultaneous selenate reduction and denitrification. Selenate reduction followed first order kinetics with respect to the concentration of total dissolved selenium. The kinetic rate constant was independent of initial nitrate concentration over the range 3-143 mg L(-1)-NO3(-)-N. The initial concentration of selenate inhibited selenate reduction kinetics over the range 1-24 mg-Se L(-1). Dominant taxa that grew in selenate only medium were classified in the genera Pseudomonas, Lysinibacillus and Thauera. When nitrate was introduced in addition to selenate, previously rare taxa that became dominant were relatives of Exiguobacterium, Tissierella and Clostridium. Open reading frames (ORFs) associated with dissimilatory denitrification were identified for Pseudomonas, Thauera and Clostridium. In addition, ORFs were found that were homologous with known selenate reductase subunits (SerA and SerB). These findings suggest that native mine site bacteria can be used for removing selenate and nitrate from mine wastewater. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Comparative Approach for Ranking Contaminated Sites Based on the Risk Assessment Paradigm Using Fuzzy PROMETHEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kejiang; Kluck, Cheryl; Achari, Gopal

    2009-11-01

    A ranking system for contaminated sites based on comparative risk methodology using fuzzy Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE) was developed in this article. It combines the concepts of fuzzy sets to represent uncertain site information with the PROMETHEE, a subgroup of Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods. Criteria are identified based on a combination of the attributes (toxicity, exposure, and receptors) associated with the potential human health and ecological risks posed by contaminated sites, chemical properties, site geology and hydrogeology and contaminant transport phenomena. Original site data are directly used avoiding the subjective assignment of scores to site attributes. When the input data are numeric and crisp the PROMETHEE method can be used. The Fuzzy PROMETHEE method is preferred when substantial uncertainties and subjectivities exist in site information. The PROMETHEE and fuzzy PROMETHEE methods are both used in this research to compare the sites. The case study shows that this methodology provides reasonable results.

  2. Reclamation of a mine contaminated soil using biologically reactive organic matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Paula; Gonçalves, Ana Paula; Fernandes, Rosa Maria; de Varennes, Amarillas; Duarte, Elizabeth; Cunha-Queda, Ana Cristina; Vallini, Giovanni

    2009-03-01

    Organic residues such as sewage sludge, biowastes and composts are increasingly used in land rehabilitation because they can improve the physical, chemical and biochemical properties of soil, and reduce the need for inorganic fertilization. Furthermore, their use contributes to an integrated approach to waste management by promoting recycling of nutrients and minimizing final disposal, especially of organic residues that, due to their composition, can pose problems to agricultural soils. In the present study, three different types of organic residues were considered as amendments to be used in the reclamation of a metal-contaminated mine soil from the Aljustrel mining area (a pyrite mine located in the SW Portugal in the Iberian Pyrite Belt), with high Cu, Pb and Zn total contents: sewage sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (SS), compost from the organic fraction of unsorted municipal solid waste (MSWC), and garden waste compost (GWC), applied at 100 and 200 Mg ha(-1) . The soil and mixtures of soil and amendments were adjusted to 70% of the maximum water-holding capacity determined for each type of sample and incubated in a controlled-temperature room at 20 +/- 1 degrees C. Sub-samples were taken prior to wetting (time zero), and after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of incubation, and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter content, effectively bioavailable Cu, Zn and Pb (extracted with 0.01 mol L(- 1) calcium chloride) and potentially bioavailable metals (extracted with 0.5 mol L(-1) ammonium acetate, 0.5 mol L( -1) acetic acid and 0.01 mol L(- 1) EDTA, pH 4.7). In general, organic residues corrected soil acidity, and increased the total organic matter content of the soil. The SS and the MSWC amendments were roughly equivalent in their ability to correct soil acidity whereas the GWC had the smallest liming capacity and only with 200 Mg ha(-1) GWC did the soil pH reach acceptable values. As expected, all the tested organic residues, at both

  3. Post-mining water treatment. Nanofiltration of uranium-contaminated drainage. Experiments and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyer, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Nanofiltration of real uranium-contaminated mine drainage was successfully discussed in experiments and modeling. For the simulation a renowned model was adapted that is capable of describing multi-component solutions. Although the description of synthetic multi-component solutions with a limited number of components was performed before ([Garcia-Aleman2004], [Geraldes2006], [Bandini2003]) the results of this work show that the adapted model is capable of describing the very complex solution. The model developed here is based on: The Donnan-Steric Partitioning Pore Model incorporating Dielectric Exclusion - DSPM and DE ref. [Bowen1997], [Bandini2003], [Bowen2002], [Vezzani2002]. The steric, electric, and dielectric exclusion model - SEDE ref. [Szymczyk2005]. The developed modeling approach is capable of describing multi-component transport, and is based on the pore radius, membrane thickness, and volumetric membrane charge density as physically relevant membrane parameters instead of mere fitting parameters which allows conclusions concerning membrane modification or process design. The experiments involve typical commercially available membranes in combination with a water sample of industrial relevance in the mining sector. Furthermore, it has been shown experimentally that uranium speciation influences its retention. Hence, all experiments consider the speciation of uranium when assessing its charge and size. In the simulation 10 different ionic components have been taken into account. By freely fitting 4 parameters in parallel (pore radius, membrane thickness, membrane charge, relative permittivity of the oriented water layer at the pore wall) an excellent agreement between experiment and simulation was obtained. Moreover, the determined membrane thickness and pore radius is in close agreement with the values obtained by independent membrane characterization using pure water permeability and glucose retention. On the other hand, the fitted and the literature

  4. Trace metal contamination of mineral spring water in an historical mining area in regional Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rachael; Dowling, Kim

    2013-11-01

    Significant global consumption of spring and mineral water is fuelled by perceived therapeutic and medicinal qualities, cultural habits and taste. The Central Victorian Mineral Springs Region, Australia comprises approximately 100 naturally effervescent, cold, high CO2 content springs with distinctive tastes linked to a specific spring or pump. The area has a rich settlement history. It was first settled by miners in the 1840s closely followed by the first commercial operations of a health resort 1895. The landscape is clearly affected by gold mining with geographically proximal mine waste, mullock heaps or tailings. Repeated mineral springs sampling since 1985 has revealed elevated arsenic concentrations. In 1985 an arsenic concentration five times the current Australian Drinking Water Guideline was recorded at a popular tourist spring site. Recent sampling and analyses have confirmed elevated levels of heavy metals/metalloids, with higher concentrations occurring during periods of low rainfall. Despite the elevated levels, mineral water source points remain accessible to the public with some springs actively promoting the therapeutic benefits of the waters. In light of our analysis, the risk to consumers (some of whom are likely to be negatively health-affected or health-compromised) needs to be considered with a view to appropriate and verified analyses made available to the public.

  5. Determination of contaminant levels and remediation efficacy in groundwater at a former in situ recovery uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch, Thomas; Roche, Nicholas; Johnson, Thomas E

    2012-07-01

    There has been increasing interest in uranium mining in the United States via in situ recovery techniques. One of the main environmental concerns with in situ uranium mining is the potential for spreading groundwater contamination. There is a dearth of detailed analysis and information regarding the outcome of in situ uranium mine remediation to ascertain the environmental impacts. Regulatory measurements performed at a Wyoming in situ uranium mine were collected and analysed to ascertain the efficacy of remediation and potential long term environmental impact. Based on the measurements, groundwater sweeping followed by reverse osmosis (RO) treatment proved to be a highly efficient method of remediation. However, injection of a reductant in the form of H(2)S after groundwater sweeping and RO did not further reduce the aqueous concentration of U, Mn, or Fe. Low concentrations of target species at monitoring wells outside the mined area appear to indicate that in the long term, natural attenuation is likely to play a major role at reductively immobilizing residual (after remediation) concentrations of U(VI) thus preventing it from moving outside the mined area. Our analysis indicates the need for additional monitoring wells and sampling in conjunction with long term monitoring to better understand the impacts of the different remediation techniques.

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination from past activities at the former uranium processing site in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has placed contaminated material from this site in an on-site disposal cell. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. Currently, no domestic or drinking water well tap into contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the unconsolidated materials and the bedrock. Because there is no access, no current health or environmental risks are associated with the direct use of the contaminated ground water. However, humans and ecological organisms could be exposed to contaminated ground water if a domestic well were to be installed in the unconsolidated materials in that part of the site being considered for public use (Area C). The first step is evaluating ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. For the Canonsburg site, this evaluation showed the contaminants in ground water exceeding background in the unconsolidated materials in Area C are ammonia, boron, calcium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, strontium, and uranium.

  7. A hydrostratigraphical approach to support environmentally safe siting of a mining waste facility at Rautuvaara, Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howett, Peter J.; Salonen, Veli-Pekka; Hyttinen, Outi

    2015-01-01

    as a suitable area for the expansion of a tailings facility, associated with the nearby Hannu-kainen (Cu, Au, Fe) mine, Finnish Lapland. Three different glacial/interglacial cycles were identified from the sedimentary observations and, optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) datings showed them to be of Early......A hydrostratigraphical approach to support environmentally safe siting of a mining waste facility at Rautuvaara, Finland Based on the construction of a detailed sedimentological model, hydrostratigraphy and local groundwater/surface water flows, this paper analyses the Niesajoki river valley...

  8. Geological characterization of contaminated sites near the city of Horsens, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Thomsen, Peter

    Keywords: geological modelling, urban area, contaminant transport In Denmark, contaminations from industry, farming and households represent a significant threat to groundwater resources since water treatment in Denmark relies solely on two simple steps: 1) oxygenation of the source water and 2) ...... were able to pinpoint the best strategies and solutions for future remediation efforts at the three sites.......) filtration by means of water saturated, rapid biofilters. Consequently, there is a focus on identifying and locating contaminated sites on a national level. Insufficient knowledge about the geology and hydrology at the sites poses a significant challenge for remediation efforts. The lack of information about...... characterization of three contaminated sites situated in urban and semi-urban areas around the city of Horsens in corporation with authorities. The existing data from the three field sites include lithological profiles from boreholes. In order to increase the data density, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT...

  9. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Riverton, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This Risk Assessment evaluated potential impacts to public health or the environment caused by ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. In the first phase of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the tailing and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell near the Gas Hills Plant in 1990. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document to evaluate potential health and environmental risks for the Riverton site under the Ground Water Project; it will help determine whether remedial actions are needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

  10. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Uteseny, Karoline; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  11. Bioavailability and toxicity of metals from a contaminated sediment by acid mine drainage: linking exposure-response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea to contaminated sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Bonnail, Estefanía; Nieto, José Miguel; DelValls, Ángel

    2016-11-01

    Streams and rivers strongly affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) have legal vacuum in terms of assessing the water toxicity, since the use of conventional environmental quality biomarkers is not possible due to the absence of macroinvertebrate organisms. The Asian clam Corbicula fluminea has been widely used as a biomonitor of metal contamination by AMD in freshwater systems. However, these clams are considered an invasive species in Spain and the transplantation in the field study is not allowed by the Environmental Protection Agency. To evaluate the use of the freshwater bivalve C. fluminea as a potential biomonitor for sediments contaminated by AMD, the metal bioavailability and toxicity were investigated in laboratory by exposure of clams to polluted sediments for 14 days. The studied sediments were classified as slightly contaminated with As, Cr, and Ni; moderately contaminated with Co; considerably contaminated with Pb; and heavily contaminated with Cd, Zn, and specially Cu, being reported as very toxic to Microtox. On the fourth day of the exposure, the clams exhibited an increase in concentration of Ga, Ba, Sb, and Bi (more than 100 %), followed by Co, Ni, and Pb (more than 60 %). After the fourth day, a decrease in concentration was observed for almost all metals studied except Ni. An allometric function was used to determine the relationship between the increases in metal concentration in soft tissue and the increasing bioavailable metal concentrations in sediments.

  12. Characterizing toxic Cr(VI) contamination in chromite mine overburden dump and its bacterial remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhal, B; Das, N N; Thatoi, H N; Pandey, B D

    2013-09-15

    Cr(VI) generated due to natural oxidation of chromite mineral present in chromite mine overburden (COB) dumps of Sukinda, India, has been characterized by different physico-chemical methods. The Cr(VI) was found to be associated with goethite matrix at a contamination level of 500 mg Cr(VI)kg(-1) of COB. Bacillus sp. isolated from the overburden sample exhibiting high tolerance to the hexavalent chromium, was used for the remediation of Cr(VI) in the overburden. The process was optimized while varying the parameters such as pH (2-9), pulp density (10-60%) and temperature (25-40 °C). Optimal reduction of more than 98% of Cr(VI) in the COB sample was achieved in 16 h at pH∼7.0 and 60% pulp density with the Bacillus sp. (4.05 × 10(7)cells mL(-1)) in absence of media. The exponential rate equation yielded rate constant value of 2.14 × 10(-1)h(-1) at 60% pulp density. The mode of bio-reduction of Cr(VI) in the overburden sample was established by FT-IR, XRD, EPMA and SEM-EDS studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Arsenic species in weathering mine tailings and biogenic solids at the Lava Cap Mine Superfund Site, Nevada City, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Andrea L; Ashley, Roger P; Rytuba, James J

    2011-01-24

    A realistic estimation of the health risk of human exposure to solid-phase arsenic (As) derived from historic mining operations is a major challenge to redevelopment of California's famed "Mother Lode" region. Arsenic, a known carcinogen, occurs in multiple solid forms that vary in bioaccessibility. X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (XAFS) was used to identify and quantify the forms of As in mine wastes and biogenic solids at the Lava Cap Mine Superfund (LCMS) site, a historic "Mother Lode" gold mine. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess variance within water chemistry, solids chemistry, and XAFS spectral datasets. Linear combination, least-squares fits constrained in part by PCA results were then used to quantify arsenic speciation in XAFS spectra of tailings and biogenic solids. The highest dissolved arsenic concentrations were found in Lost Lake porewater and in a groundwater-fed pond in the tailings deposition area. Iron, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, specific conductivity, and As were the major variables in the water chemistry PCA. Arsenic was, on average, 14 times more concentrated in biologically-produced iron (hydr)oxide than in mine tailings. Phosphorous, manganese, calcium, aluminum, and As were the major variables in the solids chemistry PCA. Linear combination fits to XAFS spectra indicate that arsenopyrite (FeAsS), the dominant form of As in ore material, remains abundant (average: 65%) in minimally-weathered ore samples and water-saturated tailings at the bottom of Lost Lake. However, tailings that underwent drying and wetting cycles contain an average of only 30% arsenopyrite. The predominant products of arsenopyrite weathering were identified by XAFS to be As-bearing Fe (hydr)oxide and arseniosiderite (Ca2Fe(AsO4)3O3•3H2O). Existence of the former species is not in question, but the presence of the latter species was not confirmed by additional measurements, so its identification is less certain. The linear combination

  14. Arsenic species in weathering mine tailings and biogenic solids at the Lava Cap Mine Superfund Site, Nevada City, CA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Roger P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A realistic estimation of the health risk of human exposure to solid-phase arsenic (As derived from historic mining operations is a major challenge to redevelopment of California's famed "Mother Lode" region. Arsenic, a known carcinogen, occurs in multiple solid forms that vary in bioaccessibility. X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (XAFS was used to identify and quantify the forms of As in mine wastes and biogenic solids at the Lava Cap Mine Superfund (LCMS site, a historic "Mother Lode" gold mine. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to assess variance within water chemistry, solids chemistry, and XAFS spectral datasets. Linear combination, least-squares fits constrained in part by PCA results were then used to quantify arsenic speciation in XAFS spectra of tailings and biogenic solids. Results The highest dissolved arsenic concentrations were found in Lost Lake porewater and in a groundwater-fed pond in the tailings deposition area. Iron, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, specific conductivity, and As were the major variables in the water chemistry PCA. Arsenic was, on average, 14 times more concentrated in biologically-produced iron (hydroxide than in mine tailings. Phosphorous, manganese, calcium, aluminum, and As were the major variables in the solids chemistry PCA. Linear combination fits to XAFS spectra indicate that arsenopyrite (FeAsS, the dominant form of As in ore material, remains abundant (average: 65% in minimally-weathered ore samples and water-saturated tailings at the bottom of Lost Lake. However, tailings that underwent drying and wetting cycles contain an average of only 30% arsenopyrite. The predominant products of arsenopyrite weathering were identified by XAFS to be As-bearing Fe (hydroxide and arseniosiderite (Ca2Fe(AsO43O3•3H2O. Existence of the former species is not in question, but the presence of the latter species was not confirmed by additional measurements, so its identification is

  15. Unsaturated zone leaching models for assessing risk to groundwater of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Mads; Binning, Philip John; Nielsen, Signe

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessments of sites contaminated with organic contaminants are typically conducted using models that ignore gas phase transport in the unsaturated zone. Here a general approach to developing analytical solutions to multiphase transport is presented. The approach is based on a combined gas a...... are important mechanisms for attenuation of contaminant concentrations at the water table. Finally, model results are compared with field data to illustrate the applicability of the solutions in risk assessment....

  16. Potential contamination of groundwater in the World Heritage Site of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater is the main water source for St. Katherine city inhabitants, South Sinai. The rapid population growth, high levels of tourism and poor sewage waste disposal (at least for the foreseeable future) in St. Katherine have resulted in potential contamination of groundwater and subsequent high risk to human health.

  17. The Role of Cyanobacteria in CO2 Sequestration at Mine Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2009-05-01

    The weathering of mine tailings occurs relatively rapidly as a result of their high surface area and the release of cations, such as Ca2+ and Mg2+, are then available to form stable carbonate minerals thereby sequestering CO2 [1]. In natural environments, silicate weathering in bedrock is biogeochemically coupled to the precipitation of carbonate minerals by microorganisms. Equation 1 describes the combined processes of bedrock weathering and carbonate precipitation by oxygenic phototrophic bacteria (e.g., cyanobacteria) [2]. (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O = (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Tailings from the Diavik Diamond Mine, Northwest Territories, Canada and Mount Keith Nickel Mine, Western Australia were leached using hydrochloric, sulfuric, acetic, nitric and phosphoric acids. These solutions were amended with nutrients and were inoculated with a consortium dominated by Synechococcus sp. from a hydromagnesite-wetland near Atlin, British Columbia Canada. Cyanobacteria are able to induce precipitation of carbonate minerals by the alkalinization of their microenvironment, concentrating cations on their cell membrane, which also provides regularly spaced, chemically identical sites for mineral nucleation [3-5]. Resulting biofilms and precipitates were examined using phase-contrast light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicate that Synechococcus sp. may be able to mediate carbonate precipitation in waters produced from leaching mine tailings. Carbonate precipitation at mine sites could be facilitated using a specifically designed pond to collect drainage waters from mine tailings, which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially-aided carbonate precipitation could play an important role in mineral carbonation of mine tailings as part of a CO2 sequestration strategy at mine sites. [1] Wilson et al. (2006) Am. Mineral. 91, 1331-1341. [2] Ferris et al. (1994) Geomicrobiol. J

  18. On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reistad, O.; Dowdall, M.; Selnaes, O. G.; Standring, W. J. F.; Hustveit, S.; Steenhuisen, F.; Sorlie, A.

    The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site

  19. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SYNTHETIC SOIL MATERIALS FOR THE SUCCESSFUL RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINED LAND SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Jin

    2006-03-01

    Abandoned mine sites associated with coal and metal mining across the western United States have been left as unproductive wastelands. The availability of soil materials or other materials to support the restoration of the vegetative cover and enhance the recovery of such areas is limited. The restoration of these areas often requires the use of available amendments such as organic waste products or to help stabilize the soil. Many of the organic waste products, including sewage sludge, clarifier sludge, fly ash sludge, and other by-products from the agricultural industries such as compost can be employed for beneficial uses. This study looked at the feasibility of applying organic waste products to a mine soil in Montana to increase soil fertility and enhance plant productivity. Waste rock samples were tested for acid forming potential via acid base accounting. Samples cores were constructed and leached with simulated rainwater to determine amendment affect on metal leaching. A greenhouse study was completed to determine the most suitable amendment(s) for the field mine land site. Results from the acid base accounting indicate that acid formed from the waste rock would be neutralized with the alkalinity in the system. Results also show that metals in solution are easily held by organics from the amendments and not allowed to leach in to the surrounding water system. Data from the greenhouse study indicated that the amendment of sewage sludge was most promising. Application of 2% sewage sludge along with 1% sewage sludge plus 1% clarifier sludge, 2% compost, and no treatment were used for mine land application. Initial results were encouraging and it appears that sewage sludge may be a good reclamation option for mine lands.

  20. Vetiver Grass: a potential tool for phytoremediation of iron ore mine site spoil dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mukherjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of mining has lead to the generation of a large amount of spoil dumps that has become dangerous to human health, wildlife and biodiversity. Thus it is essential that the post mining areas and waste land generated need to be rapidly vegetated. Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L. Roberty is a tropical plant which grows naturally in various soil conditions and is well known for its ability to resist DNA damage while growing on typically polluted soil conditions. The spoil dumps from the iron mine site is unstable and inhospitable for plant growth due to presence of various toxic heavy metals like - Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd etc. Vetiver system is an efficient bio-engineering tool for reclaiming such spoil dumps. There are 12 known species of Vetiver grass, and many hundreds of different cultivars that are exploited by users depending on need. In the present study we selected the polyploid infertile variety of vetiver and carried pot experiments. Vetiver plants grown on the iron ore mine spoil dump show distinct differences in their growth with fewer numbers of tillers, reduced chlorophyll content, upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and increased proline content. To investigate the level of DNA damage incurred and change in the genetic stability Comet assay and RAPD analysis were performed. Results confirmed that Vetiver grass can serve as a model species for phytoremediating the iron ore mine spoil dumps.

  1. Evaluation of the effect of indigenous mycogenic silver nanoparticles on soil exo-enzymes in barite mine contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Durga Prameela; Devamma, Nagalakshmi; Prasad, Tollamadugu Naga Venkata Krishna Vara

    2015-04-01

    The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has received increasing attention due to the growing need to develop safe, cost-effective and environmentally friendly technologies for nanoscale materials synthesis. In this report, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by treating aqueous Ag+ ions with the culture supernatants of indigenous fungal species of Fusarium solani isolated from barite mine contaminated soils. The formation of AgNPs might be an enzyme-mediated extracellular reaction process. The localized surface plasmon resonance of the formed AgNPs was recorded using UV-VIS spectrophotometer and was characterized using the techniques transmission electron microscopy, particle size analyzer, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), particle size (dynamic light scattering) and zeta potential. The synthesized AgNPs were stable, polydispersed with the average size of 80 nm. FT-IR spectra reveals that proteins and carboxylic groups present in the fungal secrets might be responsible for the reduction and stabilization of the silver ions. Applied to the barite mine contaminated soils, concentration of AgNPs and incubation period significantly influences the soil exo-enzymatic activities, viz., urease, phosphatase, dehydrogenase and β-glucosidase. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on this kind of work in barite mine contaminated soils.

  2. Mercury Contamination of Cattle in Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Bombana, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The industrial mining sector is one of the main contributors to environmental damage and toxic metal pollution, although some contamination originates from natural geological sources. Due to their position at the top of the food chain, cattle tend to bioaccumulate mercury (Hg in their bodies. We used analyses of cattle hair samples to investigate Hg contamination in cattle farmed within and outside of an artisanal and small-scale gold-mining area in Bombana, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. We also examined the factors that might have influenced the toxicity, such as the environmental conditions, sex, and age of the cattle. A total of 63 hair samples were analyzed by particle-induced X-ray emission spectrometry. The mean Hg concentration was significantly higher in hair from cattle farmed within the artisanal and small-scale gold mining area (11.44 μg/g hair than in those farmed outside the area (2.89 μg/g hair, p < 0.05. A possible cause of this is contamination by mercury persistent in terrestrial food chain. The results indicates that the level of toxic metals such as Hg need to be controlled in food sources to protect human health, especially in Bombana, Indonesia.

  3. Lithological characterization of a contaminated site using Direct current resistivity and time domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurya, Pradip Kumar; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben

    study a large contaminated site in Denmark was investigated using direct current resistivity and time domain induced polarization (DCIP). For this purpose 14 profiles were collected alongside a stream in order to investigate the contamination and delineate the lithological units. 2D inversion using...

  4. The risk implications of approaches to setting soil remediation goals at hazardous waste contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labieniec, Paula Ann [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    An integrated exposure and carcinogenic risk assessment model for organic contamination in soil, SoilRisk, was developed and used for evaluating the risk implications of both site-specific and uniform-concentration approaches to setting soil remediation goals at hazardous-waste-contaminated sites. SoilRisk was applied to evaluate the uncertainty in the risk estimate due to uncertainty in site conditions at a representative site. It was also used to evaluate the variability in risk across a region of sites that can occur due to differences in site characteristics that affect contaminant transport and fate when a uniform concentration approach is used. In evaluating regional variability, Ross County, Ohio and the State of Ohio were used as examples. All analyses performed considered four contaminants (benzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), chlordane, and benzo[a]pyrene (BAP)) and four exposure scenarios (commercial, recreational and on- and offsite residential). Regardless of whether uncertainty in risk at a single site or variability in risk across sites was evaluated, the exposure scenario specified and the properties of the target contaminant had more influence than variance in site parameters on the resulting variance and magnitude of the risk estimate. In general, variance in risk was found to be greater for the relatively less degradable and more mobile of the chemicals studied (TCE and chlordane) than for benzene which is highly degradable and BAP which is very immobile in the subsurface.

  5. High thallium concentrations in soils from sites of historical Ag, Pb, and Zn mining in western Małopolska (S Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woch M. W.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess thallium concentration in topsoil originating from sites of historical mining of Ag, Pb and Zn in western Małopolska (S Poland. Soil samples were collected from 63 sites, sieved, ground and digested in hot HClO4. Thallium concentration was measured with an atomic absorption spectrometer. Thallium concentrations averaged 20.84 mg kg-1 and varied from 4.42 to 49.82 mg kg-1. In all studied soils they exceeded values typical for uncontaminated soils (0.02 to 2.8 mg Tl kg-1. This indicates that Tl contamination may threaten the environment and public health. Routine monitoring of Tl contamination in southern Poland is required.

  6. Optimization Review: Ogallala Ground Water Contamination Superfund Site, Operable Unit 2 (Tip Top Cleaners), Ogallala, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ogallala Ground Water Contamination Superfund site was identified in 1989 through municipal well sampling. Tetrachloroethene (PCE), a solvent commonly used in dry cleaner operations, was the primary ground water target chemical of concern (COC) that..

  7. Pre-screening of filamentous fungi isolated from a contaminated site ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-screening of filamentous fungi isolated from a contaminated site in Southern Brazil for bioaugmentation purposes. EO dos Santos, CFC da Rosa, CT dos Passos, AVL Sanzo, JFM Burkert, SJ Kalil, CAV Burkert ...

  8. Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairullah Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opinion mining is an interesting area of research because of its applications in various fields. Collecting opinions of people about products and about social and political events and problems through the Web is becoming increasingly popular every day. The opinions of users are helpful for the public and for stakeholders when making certain decisions. Opinion mining is a way to retrieve information through search engines, Web blogs and social networks. Because of the huge number of reviews in the form of unstructured text, it is impossible to summarize the information manually. Accordingly, efficient computational methods are needed for mining and summarizing the reviews from corpuses and Web documents. This study presents a systematic literature survey regarding the computational techniques, models and algorithms for mining opinion components from unstructured reviews.

  9. Methodology for setting risk-based concentrations of contaminants in soil and groundwater and application to a model contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinaga, Aiichiro; Uchiyama, Iwao; Morisawa, Shinsuke; Yoneda, Minoru; Sasamoto, Yuzuru

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, environmental standards for contaminants in groundwater and in leachate from soil are set with the assumption that they are used for drinking water over a human lifetime. Where there is neither a well nor groundwater used for drinking, the standard is thus too severe. Therefore, remediation based on these standards incurs excessive effort and cost. In contrast, the environmental-assessment procedure used in the United States and the Netherlands considers the site conditions (land use, existing wells, etc.); however, a risk assessment is required for each site. Therefore, this study proposes a new framework for judging contamination in Japan by considering the merits of the environmental standards used and a method for risk assessment. The framework involves setting risk-based concentrations that are attainable remediation goals for contaminants in soil and groundwater. The framework was then applied to a model contaminated site for risk management, and the results are discussed regarding the effectiveness and applicability of the new methodology. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Particle-size dependence on metal(loid) distributions in mine wastes: Implications for water contamination and human exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.S.; Wilson, K.M.; Rytuba, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The mining and processing of metal-bearing ores has resulted in contamination issues where waste materials from abandoned mines remain in piles of untreated and unconsolidated material, posing the potential for waterborne and airborne transport of toxic elements. This study presents a systematic method of particle size separation, mass distribution, and bulk chemical analysis for mine tailings and adjacent background soil samples from the Rand historic mining district, California, in order to assess particle size distribution and related trends in metal(loid) concentration as a function of particle size. Mine tailings produced through stamp milling and leaching processes were found to have both a narrower and finer particle size distribution than background samples, with significant fractions of particles available in a size range (???250 ??m) that could be incidentally ingested. In both tailings and background samples, the majority of trace metal(loid)s display an inverse relationship between concentration and particle size, resulting in higher proportions of As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in finer-sized fractions which are more susceptible to both water- and wind-borne transport as well as ingestion and/or inhalation. Established regulatory screening levels for such elements may, therefore, significantly underestimate potential exposure risk if relying solely on bulk sample concentrations to guide remediation decisions. Correlations in elemental concentration trends (such as between As and Fe) indicate relationships between elements that may be relevant to their chemical speciation. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Regulatory Oversight of the Legacy Gunner Uranium Mine and Mill Site in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada - 13434

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenson, Ron; Howard, Don [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, P.O. Box 1046, Station B, 280 Slater Street, Ottawa ON K1P 5S9 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    As Canada's nuclear regulator, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is responsible for licensing all aspects of uranium mining, including remediation activities at legacy sites. Since these sites already existed when the current legislation came into force in 2000, and the previous legislation did not apply, they present a special case. The Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA), was written with cradle-to- grave oversight in mind. Applying the NSCA at the end of a 'facilities' life-cycle poses some challenges to both the regulator and the proponent. When the proponent is the public sector, even more challenges can present themselves. Although the licensing process for legacy sites is no different than for any other CNSC license, assuring regulatory compliance can be more complicated. To demonstrate how the CNSC has approached the oversight of legacy sites the history of the Commission's involvement with the Gunnar uranium mine and mill site provides a good case study. The lessons learned from the CNSC's experience regulating the Gunnar site will benefit those in the future who will need to regulate legacy sites under existing or new legislation. (authors)

  12. Geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of the Fry Canyon uranium/copper project site, southeastern Utah - Indications of contaminant migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otton, James K.; Zielinski, Robert A.; Horton, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The Fry Canyon uranium/copper project site in San Juan County, southeastern Utah, was affected by the historical (1957-68) processing of uranium and copper-uranium ores. Relict uranium tailings and related ponds, and a large copper heap-leach pile at the site represent point sources of uranium and copper to local soils, surface water, and groundwater. This study was designed to establish the nature, extent, and pathways of contaminant dispersion. The methods used in this study are applicable at other sites of uranium mining, milling, or processing. The uranium tailings and associated ponds sit on a bench that is as much as 4.25 meters above the level of the adjacent modern channel of Fry Creek. The copper heap leach pile sits on bedrock just south of this bench. Contaminated groundwater from the ponds and other nearby sites moves downvalley and enters the modern alluvium of adjacent Fry Creek, its surface water, and also a broader, deeper paleochannel that underlies the modern creek channel and adjacent benches and stream terraces. The northern extent of contaminated groundwater is uncertain from geochemical data beyond an area of monitoring wells about 300 meters north of the site. Contaminated surface water extends to the State highway bridge. Some uranium-contaminated groundwater may also enter underlying bedrock of the Permian Cedar Mesa Sandstone along fracture zones. Four dc-resistivity surveys perpendicular to the valley trend were run across the channel and its adjacent stream terraces north of the heap-leach pile and ponds. Two surveys were done in a small field of monitoring wells and two in areas untested by borings to the north of the well field. Bedrock intercepts, salt distribution, and lithologic information from the wells and surface observations in the well field aided interpretation of the geophysical profiles there and allowed interpretation of the two profiles not tested by wells. The geophysical data for the two profiles to the north of the

  13. Tolerance to Cadmium of Agave lechuguilla (Agavaceae) Seeds and Seedlings from Sites Contaminated with Heavy Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Hurtado, Alejandra; Rangel-Méndez, René; Flores, Joel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated if seeds of Agave lechuguilla from contaminated sites with heavy metals were more tolerant to Cd ions than seeds from noncontaminated sites. Seeds from a highly contaminated site (Villa de la Paz) and from a noncontaminated site (Villa de Zaragoza) were evaluated. We tested the effect of Cd concentrations on several ecophysiological, morphological, genetical, and anatomical responses. Seed viability, seed germination, seedling biomass, and radicle length were higher for the non-polluted site than for the contaminated one. The leaves of seedlings from the contaminated place had more cadmium and showed peaks attributed to chemical functional groups such as amines, amides, carboxyl, and alkenes that tended to disappear due to increasing the concentration of cadmium than those from Villa de Zaragoza. Malformed cells in the parenchyma surrounding the vascular bundles were found in seedlings grown with Cd from both sites. The leaves from the contaminated place showed a higher metallothioneins expression in seedlings from the control group than that of seedlings at different Cd concentrations. Most of our results fitted into the hypothesis that plants from metal-contaminated places do not tolerate more pollution, because of the accumulative effect that cadmium might have on them. PMID:24453802

  14. Tolerance to Cadmium of Agave lechuguilla (Agavaceae Seeds and Seedlings from Sites Contaminated with Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Méndez-Hurtado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated if seeds of Agave lechuguilla from contaminated sites with heavy metals were more tolerant to Cd ions than seeds from noncontaminated sites. Seeds from a highly contaminated site (Villa de la Paz and from a noncontaminated site (Villa de Zaragoza were evaluated. We tested the effect of Cd concentrations on several ecophysiological, morphological, genetical, and anatomical responses. Seed viability, seed germination, seedling biomass, and radicle length were higher for the non-polluted site than for the contaminated one. The leaves of seedlings from the contaminated place had more cadmium and showed peaks attributed to chemical functional groups such as amines, amides, carboxyl, and alkenes that tended to disappear due to increasing the concentration of cadmium than those from Villa de Zaragoza. Malformed cells in the parenchyma surrounding the vascular bundles were found in seedlings grown with Cd from both sites. The leaves from the contaminated place showed a higher metallothioneins expression in seedlings from the control group than that of seedlings at different Cd concentrations. Most of our results fitted into the hypothesis that plants from metal-contaminated places do not tolerate more pollution, because of the accumulative effect that cadmium might have on them.

  15. Concentration trends for lead and calcium-normalized lead in fish fillets from the Big River, a mining-contaminated stream in southeastern Missouri USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; McKee, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were measured in fillet samples of longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) and redhorse suckers (Moxostoma spp.) collected in 2005–2012 from the Big River, which drains a historical mining area in southeastern Missouri and where a consumption advisory is in effect due to elevated Pb concentrations in fish. Lead tends to accumulated in Ca-rich tissues such as bone and scale. Concentrations of Pb in fish muscle are typically low, but can become elevated in fillets from Pb-contaminated sites depending in part on how much bone, scale, and skin is included in the sample. We used analysis-of-covariance to normalize Pb concentration to the geometric mean Ca concentration (415 ug/g wet weight, ww), which reduced variation between taxa, sites, and years, as was the number of samples that exceeded Missouri consumption advisory threshold (300 ng/g ww). Concentrations of Pb in 2005–2012 were lower than in the past, especially after Ca-normalization, but the consumption advisory is still warranted because concentrations were >300 ng/g ww in samples of both taxa from contaminated sites. For monitoring purposes, a simple linear regression model is proposed for estimating Ca-normalized Pb concentrations in fillets from Pb:Ca molar ratios as a way of reducing the effects of differing preparation methods on fillet Pb variation.

  16. Reducing the risk of surgical site infection: a case controlled study of contamination of theatre clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanandan, Indu; Bowker, Karen E; Bannister, Gordon C; Soar, Jasmeet

    2011-02-01

    Surgical site infections are one of the most important causes of healthcare associated infections (HCAI), accounting for 20% of all HCAIs. Surgical site infections affect 1% of joint replacement operations. This study was designed to assess whether theatre clothing is contaminated more inside or outside the theatre suite. Petri dishes filled with horse blood agar were pressed on theatre clothes at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours to sample bacterial contamination in 20 doctors whilst working in and outside the theatre suite. The results showed that there was greater bacterial contamination when outside the theatre suite at 2 hours. There were no differences in the amount of contamination at 4, 6 and 8 hours. This study suggests that the level of contamination of theatre clothes is similar both inside and outside the theatre setting.

  17. Geodetic monitoring (TLS of a steel transport trestle bridge located in an active mining exploitation site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoczylas Arkadiusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Underground mining exploitation causes, in general, irregular vertical and horizontal shifts in the superficial layer of the rock mass. In the case of construction objects seated on this layer, a deformation of the object’s foundation can be observed. This leads to additional loads and deformations. Identification of surface geometry changes in construction objects located within the premises of underground mining exploitation areas is an important task as far as safety of mining sites is concerned. Surveys targeting shifts and deformations in engineering objects preformed with the use of classic methods are of a selective nature and do not provide the full image of the phenomenon being the subject of the observation. This paper presents possibilities of terrestrial laser scanning technology application in the monitoring of engineering objects that allows for a complete spatial documentation of an object subjected to the influence of an active mining exploitation. This paper describes an observation of a 100 m section of a steel transport trestle bridge located on the premises of hard coal mine Lubelski Węgiel “Bogdanka” S.A. carried out in 2015. Measurements were carried out using a Z+F Imager 5010C scanner at an interval of 3.5 months. Changes in the structure’s geometry were determined by comparing the point clouds recorded during the two measurement periods. The results of the analyses showed shifts in the trestle bridge towards the exploited coal wall accompanied by object deformation. The obtained results indicate the possibility of of terrestrial laser scanning application in studying the aftereffects of underground mining exploitation on surface engineering objects.

  18. Contamination from gold and platinum-group metals mining in the Gulf of Darién, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez-Bedoya, L.; Palacio Baena, J.

    2013-12-01

    Gulf of Darién, triangular southernmost extension of the Caribbean Sea, bounded by Panama on the southwest and by Colombia on the southeast and east. The Gulf is made up of 17 municipalities in the department of Choco and Antioquia. The Gulf of Darién is a geostrategic region, rich in biodiversity, known for its natural resources of minerals, oil, lumber as well as its water and fertile land. The Darién also acts as the bridge between South America and Central America and has access to the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The economy in the region is based mainly on agribusinesses, tourism and mining activities, mainly the 'mining of gold and platinum-group metals'. In our study we determined the degree of trace element contamination in estuarine sediment samples originated from mining activities and municipal waste water discharges of effluents on the gulf of Darién. . Surface samples were taken from 17 locations through the entire Gulf. Grain size, Corg, Ag, Al, Ca , Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were analyzed, and enrichment factors (EF) as well as geo-accumulation indices (Igeo) were calculated. Concentrations of Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr show levels that are consistent with those typically found in urbanized marine environments. EF and Igeo values revealed that the Gulf is extremely contaminated with Ag and moderately contaminated with Cr and Zn. The sources of Cr, Ag, Hg and Zn are associated with the development of mining activities in the Atrato River basin. The observed enrichment of Ag may be explained as a residue of the extraction of gold and platinum-group metals.

  19. Uncertainty of mass discharge estimation from contaminated sites at screening level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nanna Isbak; Troldborg, M.; McKnight, Ursula S.

    that only the sites that present an actual risk are further investigated and perhaps later remediated. We propose a method for quantifying the uncertainty of dynamic mass discharge estimates from poorly characterised contaminant point sources on the local scale. Techniques for estimating dynamic uncertainty...... are not currently available for such sites. Mass discharge estimates (mass/time) have been proposed as a useful metric in risk assessment, because they provide an estimate of the impact of a contaminated site on a given water resource and allow for the comparison of impact between different sites. But mass...... (perchloroethylene) that has contaminated a clay till aquitard overlaying a limestone aquifer. The nature of the geology and the exact shape of the source are unknown. The decision factors in the Bayesian belief network for the site are presented. Model output is shown in the form of time varying mass discharge...

  20. Treatment of sites contaminated with perfluorinated compounds using biochar amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupryianchyk, Darya; Hale, Sarah E; Breedveld, Gijs D; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been attracting increasing attention due to their considerable persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity. Here, we studied the sorption behavior of three PFCs, viz. perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanecarboxylic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), on one activated carbon (AC) and two biochars from different feedstocks, viz. mixed wood (MW) and paper mill waste (PMW). In addition, we explored the potential of remediating three natively PFC contaminated soils by the addition of AC or biochar. The sorption coefficient i.e. Freundlich coefficients LogKF, (μg/kg)/(μg/L)(n), for the two biochars were 4.61±0.11 and 4.41±0.05 for PFOS, 3.02±0.04 and 3.01±0.01 for PFOA, and 3.21±0.07 and 3.18±0.03 for PFHxS, respectively. The AC sorbed the PFCs so strongly that aqueous concentrations were reduced to below detection limits, implying that the LogKF values were above 5.60. Sorption capacities decreased in the order: AC>MW>PMW, which was consistent with the material's surface area and pore size distribution. PFC sorption to MW biochar was near-linear (Freundlich exponent nF of 0.87-0.90), but non-linear for PMW biochar (0.64-0.73). Addition of the AC to contaminated soils resulted in almost complete removal of PFCs from the water phase and a significant (i.e. 1-3 Log unit) increase in soil-water distribution coefficient LogKd. However, small to no reduction in pore water concentration, and no effect on LogKd was found for the biochars. We conclude that amendment with AC but not biochar can be a useful method for in situ remediation of PFC-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing Alternative Endpoints for Groundwater Remediation at Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    cleanup level; use of Practical Quantification Limit and soil ingestion cleanup level instead Weldon Spring Quarry/Plant/Pits (U.S. Department of...soil and sediment and disposing of it in a containment cell , MNA, and ICs in addition to a TI waiver and Plume Management Zone. Plume containment will...ROD 1 8/18/94 Weldon Spring Quarry/Plant/Pits (DOE/Army) ROD 5 9/30/98 Zellwood Groundwater Contamination ROD 2 8/24/95 C-16 Summary

  2. Remediation of acid mine drainage (AMD)-contaminated soil by Phragmites australis and rhizosphere bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lin; Cutright, Teresa J

    2014-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the impact of citric acid (CA) and rhizosphere bacteria on metal uptake in Phragmites australis cultured in a spiked acid mine drainage (AMD) soil. Rhizosphere iron-oxidizing bacteria (Fe(II)OB) enhanced the formation of Fe plaque on roots, which decreased the uptake of Fe and Mn. CA inhibited the growth of Fe(II)OB, decreased the formation of metal plaque, raised the metal mobility in soil, and increased the accumulation of metals in all tissues of the reeds. The higher the CA dosage, the more metals accumulated into reeds. The total amount of metals in reeds increased from 7.8 ± 0.5 × 10(-6) mol plant(-1) (Mn), 1.4 ± 0.1 × 10(-3) mol plant(-1) (Fe), and 1.0 ± 0.1 × 10(-4) mol plant(-1) (Al) in spiked soil without CA to 22.2 ± 0.5 × 10(-6) mol plant(-1) (Mn), 3.5 ± 0.06 × 10(-3) mol plant(-1) (Fe), and 5.0 ± 0.2 × 10(-4) mol plant(-1) (Al) in soil added with 33.616 g C6H8O7·H2O for per kilogram soil. CA could be effective at enhancing the phytoremediation of metals from AMD-contaminated soil.

  3. Microbial Diversity and Metal Speciation Changes in Mine Tailings Following Compost-Assisted Direct Planting: A Four-Year Superfund Site Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, R. M.; Gil-Loaiza, J.; Honeker, L. K.; Hottenstein, J. D.; Valentin-Vargas, A.; Jennings, L. L.; Hammond, C.; Neilson, J. W.; Root, R. A.; Chorover, J.

    2015-12-01

    EPA estimates that future mine tailings remediation costs will exceed US $50 billion using present technologies based on constructing an inert or biological cap on the tailings. Both approaches require large amounts of capping materials that can be difficult and expensive to obtain especially for sites several thousand hectares in size. An alternative technology is direct planting into tailings. However, direct planting alone is not feasible for many legacy sites due to extreme acidity and high metal content which prevent plant germination and growth. Therefore the process must be "assisted" through the addition of amendments such as compost. Here we present results from the first four years of a field study at the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund site demonstrating the feasibility of compost-assisted direct planting. Parameters measured during the field study included: canopy cover, pH, nutrient content, plant metal uptake, metal(loid) speciation, mineral analysis, microbiome analysis, and plant root-metal-microbe interactions. Integrated analysis of these parameters suggests that even in this "worst-case scenario" mine tailings site (pH 2.5; As and Pb each exceeding 2 g kg-1), we have created a sustainable system. In this system, phyto-catalyzed stabilization of inorganic contaminants in the root zone is driven by plant root exudates and the associated rhizosphere microbial community. The results of this research will be put into context of a larger topic- that of ecological engineering of mine tailings sites - a technique being proposed to prevent creation of acidic conditions and metal(loid) mobilization in the first place.

  4. Assessment of contamination and origin of metals in mining affected river sediments: A case study of the Aries catchment, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levei Erika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the current status of contamination with metals (Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, As and their anthropogenic or natural origin in the sediments of the Aries river basin, Romania, affected by mining activities. The results indicated an enrichment of metals in sediments. Different contamination levels were identified on the Aries river and its tributaries. According to sediment quality guidelines and contamination indices, sediments from the Aries river were found to be highly contaminated with Cd, Cu, As, considerably with Zn and moderately with Pb and Ni. The right-bank tributaries were found to be more contaminated than the left-bank affluents, where only a contamination with As of geogenic origin was identified. The Principal Component Analysis allowed to identify five latent factors (86 % total variability reflecting the anthropogenic and natural origins of metals. Arsenic, Cd and partially Pb were found to have a common anthropogenic origin, different from that of Cu. The statistical approach indicated also the geogenic origin of Pb due to its association with Ca, K, Na, Sr. Chromium and Ni were attributed to natural source following their association with Mn, Fe, Al and Mg, respectively.

  5. Soil contamination by brominated flame retardants in open waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akifimi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Ramu, Karri; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Sudaryanto, Agus; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Rouch Seang; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-03-01

    In Asian developing countries, large amounts of municipal wastes are dumped into open dumping sites each day without adequate management. This practice may cause several adverse environmental consequences and increase health risks to local communities. These dumping sites are contaminated with many chemicals including brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). BFRs may be released into the environment through production processes and through the disposal of plastics and electronic wastes that contain them. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the status of BFR pollution in municipal waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries. Soil samples were collected from six open waste dumping sites and five reference sites in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam from 1999 to 2007. The results suggest that PBDEs are the dominant contaminants in the dumping sites in Asian developing countries, whereas HBCD contamination remains low. Concentrations of PBDEs and HBCDs ranged from ND to 180 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 1.4 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the reference sites and from 0.20 to 430 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 2.5 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the dumping sites. Contamination levels of PBDEs in Asian municipal dumping sites were comparable with those reported from electronic waste dismantling areas in Pearl River delta, China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heavy metal contamination in the environs of the Zn-pB Mine in North-West of Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Guirat, S.; Ben Aissa, N.; Mhiri, A.

    2009-07-01

    The impact of industrial heavy metals (HM) pollution on soil quality and plant growth has become a public concern. To evaluate heavy metals concentration a Zn-Pb mine site was selected, as source of pollution, localized in BouGrine (BG) region at 120 km North-west of Tunis characterized by calcareous soils. Soils of the imine site are occupied by forest pine. (Author)

  7. White Oak Creek Embayment site characterization and contaminant screening analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Analyses of sediment samples collected near the mouth of White Oak Creek during the summer of 1990 revealed [sup 137]Cs concentrations [> 10[sup 6] Bq/kg dry wt (> 10[sup 4] pCi/g dry wt)] near the sediment surface. Available evidence indicates that these relatively high concentrations of [sup 137]Cs now at the sediment surface were released from White Oak Dam in the mid-1950s and had accumulated at depositionalsites in the embayment. These accumulated sediments are being eroded and transported downstream primarily during winter low-water levels by flood events and by a combination of normal downstream flow and the water turbulence created by the release of water from Melton Hill Dam during hydropower generation cycles. This report provides a more thorough characterization of the extent of contamination in WOCE than was previously available. Environmental samples collected from WOCE were analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in fish, water, and sediment. These results were used to conduct a human health effects screening analysis. Walkover radiation surveys conducted inside the fenced area surrounding the WOCE at summer-pool (741 ft MSL) and at winter-pool (733 ft MSL) level, indicated a maximum exposure rate of 3 mR h[sup 1] 1 m above the soil surface.

  8. Effects of organic and inorganic amendments on heavy metal fractionation in soils from the "Cartagena-La Union" mining site (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Rafael; de La Fuente, Carlos; Alburquerque, José Antonio; Martínez-Alcalá, Isabel; Pardo, Tania; Bernal, María. Pilar

    2010-05-01

    The intensive mining activity carried out in the "Cartagena-La Union" district has led to the contamination with heavy metals of the surrounding area. Our aim was to evaluate the heavy metal solubility in soils from this area, in order to optimize the use of different soil amendments for the improvement of soil conditions that would favour plant establishment. Soils collected from abandoned mine sites (n = 8) showed a high heterogeneity in both soil pH (2.5-7.7) and electrical conductivity (1.2-3.1 dS m-1) and they presented low organic matter contents (0.2-2.0%). These soils showed high pseudo-total concentrations of heavy metals, especially Zn and Pb (Zn: 966-10103, Pb: 1572-11426, Cd:

  9. Increased metal concentrations in giant sungazer lizards (Smaug giganteus) from mining areas in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Trevor; Whiting, Martin J

    2012-11-01

    Environmental contaminants from anthropogenic activity such as mining can have profound health effects on the animals living in adjacent areas. We investigated whether inorganic contaminants associated with gold-mining waste discharges were accumulated by a threatened species of lizard, Smaug giganteus, in South Africa. Lizards were sampled from two mining sites and two control sites. Blood samples from the most contaminated mining site had significantly greater concentrations of lithium, sodium, aluminum, sulfur, silicon, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, tungsten, and bismuth than the remaining sites. Contaminant concentrations were not significantly related to lizard body condition, although these relationships were consistently negative. The adult sex ratio of the population inhabiting the most contaminated site also deviated from an expected 1:1 ratio in favour of female lizards. We demonstrate that lizards at these mining sites contained high concentrations of heavy metals that may be imposing as yet poorly understood costs to these lizards.

  10. The use of spent mushroom compost to enhance the ability of Atriplex halimus to phytoremediate contaminated mine soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, Iván; García-Delgado, Carlos; Cala, Victoria; Gárate, Agustin; Eymar, Enrique

    2017-05-01

    The mushroom cultivation industry produces a huge amount of spent mushroom compost (SMC), a wide world agricultural organic waste which causes serious environmental problems. However, this cheap organic waste could be useful in the remediation of contaminated soils. The aim of this work was to assess the potential of SMC in combination with the native shrub Atriplex halimus, to phytoremediate two mine soils contaminated with Cd, Pb and Cu. Firstly, to minimize metal availability in the soil, the optimal doses of SMC were determined. Secondly, a phytoremediation assay in greenhouse conditions was carried out to test the effects of A. halimus in combination with SMC at different doses. The results showed the ability of SMC to reduce soil acidity, the mobility of the metals and the enhancement of A. halimus growth. SMC promoted metal immobilization in the root of A. halimus and decreased the translocation from the roots to the shoots. The combination of SMC amendment and A. halimus produced phytostabilization of the metals in the mine soils assayed. In conclusion, SMC represents an adequate organic solid waste which in combination with A. halimus can reduce the adverse impact caused by the high mobility of metals in acid mine soils.

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  12. Characterization of Pu-contaminated soils from Nuclear Site 201 at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y.; Tamura, T.; Larsen, I.L.

    1983-01-01

    Distribution and characteristics of Pu-bearing radioactive particles throughout five soil profiles from Nuclear Site (NS) 201 were investigated. Concentrations of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu and /sup 241/Am decreased with depth and most of the contamination was contained in the top 5 cm except in profile 4 where it extended to 10 cm. The mean activity ratio of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu to /sup 241/Am and its standard error were 5.8 +- 0.3 (N=42). Most of the total radioactivity of the soils was contributed by 0.25 to 2 mm sand size fraction which comprised 20 to 50% by weight of the soils. The radioactive particles in the 0.25 to 2 mm size fraction occurred as spherical glass particles or as glass coatings on sand particles. The glass coatings had gas voids in the matrix but were not as porous as the radioactive particles from NS 219. After impact grinding the >0.25-mm size fractions for one hour, 85% of the initial activity in a NS 201 sample remained with the particles on the 0.25 mm sieve, whereas in the NS 219 sample only 10% remained. The results show that the radioactive particles from NS 201 were much more stable against the impact grinding force than those from NS 219. Therefore, the NS 201 soils would be expected to have a lower probability of producing respirable-size radioactive particles by saltation during wind erosion. 19 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Relating groundwater and sediment chemistry to microbial characterization at a BTEX-contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfiffner, S.M.; Palumbo, A.V.; McCarthy, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gibson, T. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    The National Center for Manufacturing Science is investigating bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon at a site in Belleville, Michigan. As part of this study we examined the microbial communities to help elucidate biodegradative processes currently active at the site. We observed high densities of aerobic hydrocarbon degraders and denitrifiers in the less-contaminated sediments. Low densities of iron and sulfate reducers were measured in the same sediments. In contrast, the highly-contaminated sediments showed low densities of aerobic hydrocarbon degraders and denitrifiers and high densities of iron and sulfate reducers. Methanogens were also found in these highly-contaminated sediments. These contaminated sediments also showed a higher biomass, by phospholipid fatty acids, and greater ratios of phospholipid fatty acids which indicate stress within the microbial community. Aquifer chemistry analyses indicated that the more-contaminated area was more reduced and had lower sulfate than the less-contaminated area. These conditions suggest that the subsurface environment at the highly-contaminated area had progressed into sulfate reduction and methanogensis. The less-contaminated area, although less reduced, also appeared to be progressing into primarily iron- and sulfate-reducing microbial communities. The proposed treatment to stimulate bioremediation includes addition of oxygen and nitrate. Groundwater chemistry and microbial analyses revealed significant differences resulted from the injection of dissolved oxygen and nitrate in the subsurface. These differences included increases in pH and Eh and large decreases in BTEX, dissolved iron, and sulfate concentrations at the injection well.

  14. Comparative study of surrogate models for groundwater contamination source identification at DNAPL-contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zeyu; Lu, Wenxi

    2017-11-01

    Knowledge of groundwater contamination sources is critical for effectively protecting groundwater resources, estimating risks, mitigating disaster, and designing remediation strategies. Many methods for groundwater contamination source identification (GCSI) have been developed in recent years, including the simulation-optimization technique. This study proposes utilizing a support vector regression (SVR) model and a kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) model to enrich the content of the surrogate model. The surrogate model was itself key in replacing the simulation model, reducing the huge computational burden of iterations in the simulation-optimization technique to solve GCSI problems, especially in GCSI problems of aquifers contaminated by dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). A comparative study between the Kriging, SVR, and KELM models is reported. Additionally, there is analysis of the influence of parameter optimization and the structure of the training sample dataset on the approximation accuracy of the surrogate model. It was found that the KELM model was the most accurate surrogate model, and its performance was significantly improved after parameter optimization. The approximation accuracy of the surrogate model to the simulation model did not always improve with increasing numbers of training samples. Using the appropriate number of training samples was critical for improving the performance of the surrogate model and avoiding unnecessary computational workload. It was concluded that the KELM model developed in this work could reasonably predict system responses in given operation conditions. Replacing the simulation model with a KELM model considerably reduced the computational burden of the simulation-optimization process and also maintained high computation accuracy.

  15. Uncertainty evaluation of mass discharge estimates from a contaminated site using a fully Bayesian framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Mads; Nowak, W.; Tuxen, N.

    2010-01-01

    for each of the conceptual models considered. The probability distribution of mass discharge is obtained by combining all ensembles via BMA. The method was applied to a trichloroethylene-contaminated site located in northern Copenhagen. Four essentially different conceptual models based on two source zone......The estimation of mass discharges from contaminated sites is valuable when evaluating the potential risk to down-gradient receptors, when assessing the efficiency of a site remediation, or when determining the degree of natural attenuation. Given the many applications of mass discharge estimation...

  16. Long-Term Monitoring Network Optimization Evaluation for Operable Unit 2, Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents a description and evaluation of the ground water and surface water monitoring program associated with the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site (Bunker Hill) Operable Unit (OU) 2.

  17. Growth and survival of seven native willow species on highly disturbed coal mine sites in eastern Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mosseler, Alex; Major, John E; Labrecque, Michel

    2014-01-01

    .... Unrooted dormant stem sections collected from clones of five willow species previously field-tested and selected for survival and growth, survived and grew better on the mine site to be reclaimed...

  18. Ecological Features of Spontaneous Vascular Flora of Serpentine Post-Mining Sites in Lower Silesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasowska Dorota

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the ecological characteristics of vascular plants colonizing serpentine mining waste dumps and quarries in Lower Silesia. The investigated flora was analyzed with regard to species composition, geographical-historical status, life forms, as well as selected ecological factors, such as light and trophic preferences, soil moisture and reaction, value of resistance to increased heavy metals content in the soil, seed dispersal modes and occurrence of mycorrhiza. There were 113 species of vascular plants, belonging to 28 families, found on seven sites in the study. The most numerous families were Asteraceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae and Caryophyllaceae. Only 13% of all plants recorded occurred on at least five of the study sites. The most numerous were species related to dry grassland communities, particularly of the Festuco-Brometea class, which included taxa endangered in the region of Lower Silesia: Avenula pratensis, Salvia pratensis, Festuca valesiaca. Apophytes dominated in the flora of the investigated communities. Hemicryptophytes were the most numerous group and therophytes were also abundant. The serpentine mining waste dumps and querries hosted heliophilous species which prefer mesic or dry habitats moderately poor in nutrients, featuring neutral soil reaction. On two study sites 30% of the flora composition consisted of species that tolerate an increased content of heavy metals in the soil. Anemochoric species were the most numerous with regard to types of seed dispersal. Species with an arbuscular type of mycorrhiza were definitely dominant in the flora of all the study sites, however, the number of nonmycorrhizal species was also relatively high. It was suggested that both the specific characteristics of the habitats from serpentine mining and the vegetation of adjacent areas had a major impact on the flora composition of the communities in the investigated sites.

  19. Does remediation save lives? - on the cost of cleaning up arsenic-contaminated sites in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Johanna; Samakovlis, Eva; Johansson, Maria Vredin; Barregard, Lars

    2010-07-15

    Sweden has only just begun remediation of its many contaminated sites, a process that will cost an estimated SEK 60,000 million (USD 9100 million). Although the risk assessment method, carried out by the Swedish EPA, is driven by health effects, it does not consider actual exposure. Instead, the sites are assessed based on divergence from guideline values. This paper uses an environmental medicine approach that takes exposure into account to analyse how cancer risks on and near arsenic-contaminated sites are implicitly valued in the remediation process. The results show that the level of ambition is high. At 23 contaminated sites, the cost per life saved varies from SEK 287 million to SEK 1,835,000 million, despite conservative calculations that in fact probably underestimate the costs. It is concluded that if environmental health risks are to be reduced, there are probably other areas where economic resources can be used more cost-effectively.

  20. Legacy of a Chemical Factory Site: Contaminated Groundwater Impacts Stream Macroinvertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes J.; McKnight, Ursula S.; Sonne, Anne Thobo

    2016-01-01

    Legislative and managing entities of EU member states face a comprehensive task because the chemical and ecological impacts of contaminated sites on surface waters must be assessed. The ecological assessment is further complicated by the low availability or, in some cases, absence of ecotoxicity...... data for many of the compounds occurring at contaminated sites. We studied the potential impact of a contaminated site, characterised by chlorinated solvents, sulfonamides, and barbiturates, on benthic macroinvertebrates in a receiving stream. Most of these compounds are characterised by low or unknown...... ecotoxicity, but they are continuously discharged into the stream by way of a long-lasting source generating longterm chronic exposure of the stream biota. Our results show that taxonomical density and diversity of especially sediment dwelling taxa were reduced by [50 % at the sampling sites situated...

  1. Responses of wild small mammals to arsenic pollution at a partially remediated mining site in Southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouhot, Séverine; Raoul, Francis; Crini, Nadia; Tougard, Christelle; Prudent, Anne-Sophie; Druart, Coline; Rieffel, Dominique; Lambert, Jean-Claude; Tête, Nicolas; Giraudoux, Patrick; Scheifler, Renaud

    2014-02-01

    Partial remediation actions at a former gold mine in Southern France led to a mosaic of contaminated and rehabilitated zones. In this study, the distribution of arsenic and its potential adverse effects on small mammals were investigated. The effectiveness of remediation for reducing the transfer of this element into wildlife was also discussed. Arsenic levels were measured in the soil and in the stomach contents, livers, kidneys, and lungs of four small mammal species (the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), the Algerian mouse (Mus spretus), the common vole (Microtus arvalis), and the greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula)). The animals were caught at the former extraction site, in zones with three different levels of remediation treatments, and at a control site. Arsenic concentrations in the soil were highly spatially heterogeneous (ranging from 29 to 18,900 μg g(-1)). Despite the decrease in arsenic concentrations in the remediated soils, both wood mice and Algerian mice experienced higher oral exposure to arsenic in remediated zones than in the control area. The accumulated arsenic in their organs showed higher intra-zonal variability than the arsenic distribution in the soil, suggesting that, in addition to remediation processes, other variables can help explain arsenic transfer to wildlife, such as the habitat and diet preferences of the animals or their mobility. A weak but significant correlation between arsenic concentration and body condition was observed, and weak relationships between the liver/kidney/lung mass and arsenic levels were also detected, suggesting possible histological alterations. © 2013.

  2. Sites Pre-Screened for Wind Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The RE-Powering Screening Dataset spreadsheet contains detailed site information on over 80,000 contaminated lands, landfills, and mine sites with screening results...

  3. Sites Pre-Screened for Solar Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The RE-Powering Screening Dataset spreadsheet contains detailed site information on over 80,000 contaminated lands, landfills, and mine sites with screening results...

  4. Metal and metalloid contamination in roadside soil and wild rats around a Pb-Zn mine in Kabwe, Zambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Shouta M.M.; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Hamada, Kyohei [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 18, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan); Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy [Department of Biomedical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, P.O. Box 32379, Lusaka (Zambia); Teraoka, Hiroki; Mizuno, Naoharu [Department of Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu 069-8501 (Japan); Ishizuka, Mayumi, E-mail: ishizum@vetmed.hokudai.ac.j [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 18, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Metal (Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni) and metalloid (As) accumulation was studied in roadside soil and wild rat (Rattus sp.) samples from near a Pb-Zn mine (Kabwe, Zambia) and the capital city of Zambia (Lusaka). The concentrations of the seven metals and As in the soil samples and Pb in the rat tissue samples were quantified using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and As in Kabwe soil were much higher than benchmark values. Geographic Information System analysis indicated the source of metal pollution was mining and smelting activity. Interestingly, the area south of the mine was more highly contaminated even though the prevailing wind flow was westward. Wild rats from Kabwe had much higher tissue concentrations of Pb than those from Lusaka. Their body weight and renal Pb levels were negatively correlated, which suggests that mining activity might affect terrestrial animals in Kabwe. - The area around Kabwe, Zambia is highly polluted with metals and As. Wild rats from this area had high tissue concentrations of Pb and decreased body weight.

  5. Promoting early exposure monitoring for respirable crystalline silica: Taking the laboratory to the mine site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauda, Emanuele; Miller, Arthur; Drake, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    The exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS) in the mining industry is a recognized occupational hazard. The assessment and monitoring of the exposure to RCS is limited by two main factors: (1) variability of the silica percent in the mining dust and (2) lengthy off-site laboratory analysis of collected samples. The monitoring of respirable dust via traditional or real-time techniques is not adequate. A solution for on-site quantification of RCS in dust samples is being investigated by the Office of Mine Safety and Health Research, a division of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The use of portable Fourier transform infrared analyzers in conjunction with a direct-on-filter analysis approach is proposed. The progress made so far, the necessary steps in progress, and the application of the monitoring solution to a small data set is presented. When developed, the solution will allow operators to estimate RCS immediately after sampling, resulting in timelier monitoring of RCS for self-assessment of compliance at the end of the shift, more effective engineering monitoring, and better evaluation of control technologies. PMID:26558490

  6. Promoting early exposure monitoring for respirable crystalline silica: Taking the laboratory to the mine site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauda, Emanuele; Miller, Arthur; Drake, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS) in the mining industry is a recognized occupational hazard. The assessment and monitoring of the exposure to RCS is limited by two main factors: (1) variability of the silica percent in the mining dust and (2) lengthy off-site laboratory analysis of collected samples. The monitoring of respirable dust via traditional or real-time techniques is not adequate. A solution for on-site quantification of RCS in dust samples is being investigated by the Office of Mine Safety and Health Research, a division of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The use of portable Fourier transform infrared analyzers in conjunction with a direct-on-filter analysis approach is proposed. The progress made so far, the necessary steps in progress, and the application of the monitoring solution to a small data set is presented. When developed, the solution will allow operators to estimate RCS immediately after sampling, resulting in timelier monitoring of RCS for self-assessment of compliance at the end of the shift, more effective engineering monitoring, and better evaluation of control technologies.

  7. Assessment of Hg contamination and exposure to miners and schoolchildren at a small-scale gold mining and recovery operation in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbangtalad, S; Parkpian, P; Visvanathan, C; Delaune, R D; Jugsujinda, A

    2007-12-01

    Gold extracted by Hg-amalgamation process, which can cause both health and environmental problems, is widespread in South East Asia including Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand. Small-scale gold mining operations have been carried out since the year 2000 in Phanom Pha District, Phichit Province, Thailand. Since no data is available for evaluating Hg exposure, an investigation of mercury (Hg) contamination and exposure assessment was carried out at this mine site. Environmental monitoring illustrated the total Hg in water was as high as 4 microg/l while Hg in sediment ranged between 102 to 325 microg/kg dry weight. Both Hg deposition from the air (1.28 microg/100 cm(2)/day) and concentration in surface soil (20,960 microg/kg dry weight) were elevated in the area of amalgamation. The potential of Hg exposure to miners as well as to schoolchildren was assessed. The concentrations of Hg in urine of 79 miners who were directly (group I) or indirectly (group II) involved in the gold recovery operation were 32.02 and 20.04 microg/g creatinine, respectively, which did not exceed regulatory limits (35 microg/g creatinine). Hair Hg levels in both groups (group I and group II) also were not significantly higher than the non-exposed group. In terms of risk factors, gender and nature of food preparation and consumption were the two significant variables influencing the concentration of Hg in urine of miners (P gold mine site was evaluated for Hg exposure. A slightly higher Hg urine concentration was detected in group I and group II (involved and not involved in gold recovery) at average levels of 15.82 and 9.95 microg/g creatinine, respectively. The average Hg values for both groups were below the established levels indicating no risk from Hg intake. Average Hg hair level in all schoolchildren (0.93 microg/g) was not significantly higher than reference group. There were two variables (gender and personal hygiene) which affected the concentration of Hg in urine of

  8. Environmental impact assessment of radionuclide and metal contamination at the former U site at Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, O C; Stegnar, P; Tolongutov, B; Rosseland, B O; Strømman, G; Uralbekov, B; Usubalieva, A; Solomatina, A; Gwynn, J P; Lespukh, E; Salbu, B

    2013-09-01

    During 1949-1967, a U mine, a coal-fired thermal power plant and a processing plant for the extraction of U from the produced ash were operated at the Kadji Sai U mining site in Tonsk district, Issyk-Kul County, Kyrgyzstan. The Kadji Sai U legacy site represents a source of contamination of the local environment by naturally occurring radionuclides and associated trace elements. To assess the environmental impact of radionuclides and trace metals at the site, field expeditions were performed in 2007 and 2008 by the Joint collaboration between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan (JNKKT) project and the NATO SfP RESCA project. In addition to in situ gamma and Rn dose rate measurements, sampling included at site fractionation of water and sampling of water, fish, sediment, soils and vegetation. The concentrations of radionuclides and trace metals in water from Issyk-Kul Lake were in general low, but surprisingly high for As. Uptake of U and As was also observed in fish from the lake with maximum bioconcentration factors for liver of 1.6 and 75, respectively. The concentrations of U in water within the Kadji Sai area varied from 0.01 to 0.05 mg/L, except for downstream from the mining area where U reached a factor of 10 higher, 0.2 mg/L. Uranium concentrations in the drinking water of Kadji Sai village were about the level recommended by the WHO for drinking water. The (234)U/(238)U activity ratio reflected equilibrium conditions in the mining pond, but far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching 2.3 for an artesian well). Uranium, As and Ni were mainly present as low molecular mass (LMM, less than 10 kDa) species in all samples, indicating that these elemental species are mobile and potentially bioavailable. The soils from the mining sites were enriched in U, As and trace metals. Hot spots with elevated radioactivity levels were easily detected in Kadji Sai and radioactive particles were observed. The presence of particles carrying significant amount of

  9. Remediation of cyanide-contaminated industrial sites through woody biomass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Tsvetelina; Repmann, Frank; Freese, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Due to the unfavourable chemical and physical soil quality parameters and the potential presence of contaminants, former industrial sites can hardly be utilized as arable land and can thus be classified as marginal areas. Still, as far as possible, they can effectively be used for the production of alternative energy, including the cultivation of fast growing trees. Apart from being a source of bioenergy, trees might facilitate the stabilization, remedation, contaminant extraction and degradation and, not on the last place, to enhance soil quality improvement on former industrial areas. This process is known as phytoremediation and has successfully been applied on industrial sites of various organic and inorganic contamination. The former manufactured gas plant site ( 2500 m2) "ehemalige Leuchtgasanstalt" Cottbus, contaminated, among others, with iron cyanides undergoes phytoremediation with simultaneous biomass production since 2011. The project "Biomass-Remediation" is fully financed by the German Railways JSC. A dense (23700 stems/ha), mixed cover of willow (Salix caprea), poplar (Populus maximowicii Henry x Populus trichocarpa Torr. et Gray (Hybrid 275)) and black locust (Robinia pseudoaccacia) trees has been planted on the site. Throughout the five years of remediation, a successful long-term stabilization of the site has been achieved as a result of the nearly outright established tree stock and the dense planting. Annual monitoring of the cyanide levels in the leaf tissue of the trees on the site and results from greenhouse experiments indicate the ability of all tree species to extract and transport the cyanide from the soil. Additonally, the greenhouse experiments suggest that the willows might be able, although not to a full extent, to detoxify the contaminant by splitting the CN moiety. The contaminated biomass material might easily be dealt with through regular harvests and subsequent incineration. Phytoremediation with simultaneous biomass production

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Two UMTRA (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action) Project sites are near Slick Rock, Colorado: the North Continent site and the Union Carbide site. Currently, no one uses the contaminated ground water at either site for domestic or agricultural purposes. However, there may be future land development. This risk assessment evaluates possible future health problems associated with exposure to contaminated ground water. Since some health problems could occur, it is recommended that the contaminated ground water not be used as drinking water.

  11. Site-specific climate analysis elucidates revegetation challenges for post-mining landscapes in eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Audet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In eastern Australia, the availability of water is critical for the successful rehabilitation of post-mining landscapes and climatic characteristics of this diverse geographical region are closely defined by factors such as erratic rainfall and periods of drought and flooding. Despite this, specific metrics of climate patterning are seldom incorporated into the initial design of current post-mining land rehabilitation strategies. Our study proposes that a few common rainfall parameters can be combined and rated using arbitrary rainfall thresholds to characterise bioregional climate sensitivity relevant to the rehabilitation these landscapes. This approach included assessments of annual rainfall depth, average recurrence interval of prolonged low intensity rainfall, average recurrence intervals of short or prolonged high intensity events, median period without rain (or water-deficit and standard deviation for this period in order to address climatic factors such as total water availability, seasonality and intensity – which were selected as potential proxies of both short- and long-term biological sensitivity to climate within the context of post-disturbance ecological development and recovery. Following our survey of available climate data, we derived site "climate sensitivity" indexes and compared the performance of 9 ongoing mine sites: Weipa, Mt. Isa and Cloncurry, Eromanga, Kidston, the Bowen Basin (Curragh, Tarong, North Stradbroke Island, and the Newnes Plateau. The sites were then ranked from most-to-least sensitive and compared with natural bioregional patterns of vegetation density using mean NDVI. It was determined that regular rainfall and relatively short periods of water-deficit were key characteristics of sites having less sensitivity to climate – as found among the relatively more temperate inland mining locations. Whereas, high rainfall variability, frequently occurring high intensity events, and (or prolonged seasonal

  12. Are seed and dispersal characteristics of plants capable of predicting colonization of post-mining sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horáčková, Martina; Řehounková, Klára; Prach, Karel

    2016-07-01

    Seed characteristics play an important role in the colonization and subsequent persistence of species during succession in disturbed sites and thus may contribute to being able to predict restoration success. In the present study, we investigated how various seed characteristics participated in 11 spontaneous successional series running in different mining sites (spoil heaps, extracted sand and sand-gravel pits, extracted peatlands, and stone quarries) in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. Using 1864 samples from 1- to 100-years-old successional stages, we tested whether species optimum along the succession gradient could be predicted using 10 basic species traits connected with diaspores and dispersal. Seed longevity, diaspore mass, endozoochory, and autochory appeared to be the best predictors. The results indicate that seed characteristics can predict to a certain degree spontaneous vegetation succession, i.e., passive restoration, in the mining sites. A screening of species available in the given landscape (regional and local species pools) may help to identify those species which would potentially colonize the disturbed sites. Extensive databases of species traits, nowadays available for the Central European flora, enable such screening.

  13. Mass discharge estimation from contaminated sites: Multi-model solutions for assessment of conceptual uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nanna Isbak; Troldborg, Mads; McKnight, Ursula S.

    2012-01-01

    propose a method for quantifying the uncertainty of dynamic mass discharge estimates from contaminant point sources on the local scale. The method considers both parameter and conceptual uncertainty through a multi-model approach. The multi-model approach evaluates multiple conceptual models for the same...... consisting of PCE (perchloroethylene) has contaminated a fractured clay till aquitard overlaying a limestone aquifer. The exact shape and nature of the source is unknown and so is the importance of transport in the fractures. The result of the multi-model approach is a visual representation......Mass discharge estimates are increasingly being used in the management of contaminated sites. Such estimates have proven useful for supporting decisions related to the prioritization of contaminated sites in a groundwater catchment. Potential management options can be categorised as follows: (1...

  14. Environmental assessment of contaminated site remediation in a life cycle perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte

    Many contaminated sites worldwide constitute a hazard to their surroundings and must undergo remediation. Chloroethenes such as trichloroethene (TCE) and perchloroethene (PCE) are among the most frequently encountered contaminants in the subsurface due to their widespread use as solvents in dry...... of chloroethene source zones, conventional pump-andtreat technologies are inefficient and may require operation for centuries. Excavation of the contaminated soil and subsequent treatment and disposal of the soil is another ex situ option, however most suitable for contaminant source zones located close...... to the surface. As an alternative to these ex situ remediation methods, in situ remediation methods for chloroethenes have been developed to target the contaminants in their subsurface location. These technologies cover chemical, biological and physical methods of which the latter can be enhanced by heating...

  15. Transfer of sediment-associated metals downstream of abandoned and active mining sites in the Quesnel River catchment, British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perk, M. van der; Lipzig, M.L.H.M. van; Karimlou, G.; Owens, P.N.; Petticrew, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    Metal mining may have considerable impact on downstream water and sediment composition. The rate and extent that metals move downstream determine the magnitude and time scale of downstream sediment contamination. Conversely, the downstream metal content of sediments provide important clues of

  16. Sap flow in Searsia pendulina and Searsia lancea trees established on gold mining sites in central South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dye, P

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available systems. Sustainable and long-term control measures are required to limit environmental contamination. The Mine Woodlands Project, initiated by the University of the Witwatersrand and AngloGold Ashanti Ltd, aims to investigate the use of trees...

  17. Uranium Contamination in the Subsurface Beneath the 300 Area, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Robert E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Thorne, Paul D.; Williams, Mark D.

    2008-02-29

    This report provides a description of uranium contamination in the subsurface at the Hanford Site's 300 Area. The principal focus is a persistence plume in groundwater, which has not attenuated as predicted by earlier remedial investigations. Included in the report are chapters on current conditions, hydrogeologic framework, groundwater flow modeling, and geochemical considerations. The report is intended to describe what is known or inferred about the uranium contamination for the purpose of making remedial action decisions.

  18. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-07-31

    This addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, DOE/NV--1480, dated July 2012, documents repairs of erosion and construction of engineered erosion protection features at Corrective Action Site (CAS) 02-37-02 (MULLET) and CAS 09-99-06 (PLAYER). The final as-built drawings are included in Appendix A, and photographs of field work are included in Appendix B. Field work was completed on March 11, 2013.

  19. Concentrations of cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Blood and Fillets of Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-Zinc mining: Implications for monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained indicate that blood sampling could provide reasonably accurate and precise estimates of fillet Pb, Co, and Cd concentrations that would be suitable for identifying contaminated sites and for monitoring, but some fillet sampling might be necessary at contaminated sites for establishing consumption advisories. ?? 2009 US Government.

  20. Comparison of Phytoscreening and Direct-Push- Based Site Investigation at a Rural Megasite Contaminated with Chlorinated Ethenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Arno; Holm, Olaf; Trapp, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The reliable characterization of subsurface contamination of spatially extended contaminated sites is a challenging task, especially with an unknown history of land use. Conventional technologies often fail due to temporal and financial constraints and thus hinder the redevelopment of abandoned...

  1. Evaluating Transport and Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in the Vadose Zone for Aqueous Waste Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tartakovsky, Guzel D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    An approach was developed for evaluating vadose zone transport and attenuation of aqueous wastes containing inorganic (non-volatile) contaminants that were disposed of at the land surface (i.e., directly to the ground in cribs, trenches, tile fields, etc.) and their effect on the underlying groundwater. The approach provides a structured method for estimating transport of contaminants through the vadose zone and the resulting temporal profile of groundwater contaminant concentrations. The intent of the approach is also to provide a means for presenting and explaining the results of the transport analysis in the context of the site-specific waste disposal conditions and site properties, including heterogeneities and other complexities. The document includes considerations related to identifying appropriate monitoring to verify the estimated contaminant transport and associated predictions of groundwater contaminant concentrations. While primarily intended for evaluating contaminant transport under natural attenuation conditions, the approach can also be applied to identify types of, and targets for, mitigation approaches in the vadose zone that would reduce the temporal profile of contaminant concentrations in groundwater, if needed.

  2. Regional risk assessment for contaminated sites part 1: vulnerability assessment by multicriteria decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabeo, A; Pizzol, L; Agostini, P; Critto, A; Giove, S; Marcomini, A

    2011-11-01

    As highlighted in the EU Soil Communication, local contamination is one of the main soil threats and it is often related to present and past industrial activities which left a legacy of a high number of contaminated sites in Europe. These contaminated sites can be harmful to many different receptors according to their sensitivity/susceptibility to contamination, and specific vulnerability evaluations are needed in order to manage this widely spread environmental issue. In this paper a novel comprehensive vulnerability assessment framework to assess regional receptor susceptibility to contaminated site is presented. The developed methodology, which combines multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques and spatial analysis, can be applied to different receptors recognized as relevant for regional assessment. In order to characterize each receptor, picked parameters significant for the estimation of the vulnerability to contaminated sites have been selected, normalized and aggregated by means of multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques. The developed MCDA methodology, based on the Choquet integral, allows to include expert judgments for the elicitation of synergic and conflicting effects between involved criteria and is applied to all the geographical objects representing the identified receptors. To test the potential of the vulnerability methodology, it has been applied to a specific case study area in the upper Silesia region of Poland where it proved to be reliable and consistent with the environmental experts' expected results. The vulnerability assessment results indicate that groundwater is the most vulnerable receptor characterized by a wide area with vulnerability scores belonging to the highest vulnerability class. As far as the other receptors are concerned, human health and surface water are characterized by quite homogeneous vulnerability scores falling in the medium-high vulnerability classes, while protected areas resulted to be the less

  3. Full scale amendment of a contaminated wood impregnation site with iron water treatment residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov; Kjeldsen, Peter; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Iron water treatment residues (Fe-WTR) are a free by-product of the treatment of drinking water with high concentration of iron oxides and potential for arsenic sorption. This paper aims at applying Fe-WTR to a contaminated site, measuring the reduction in contaminant leaching, and discussing...... amendment a 100 m2 test site and a control site (without amendment) were monitored for 14 months. Also soil analysis of Fe to evaluate the degree of soil and Fe-WTR mixing was done. Stabilization with Fe-WTR had a significant effect on leachable contaminants, reducing pore water As by 93%, Cu by 91% and Cr...... by 95% in the upper samplers. Dosage and mixing of Fe-WTR in the soil proved to be difficult in the deeper part of the field, and pore water concentrations of arsenic was generally higher. Despite water logged conditions no increase in dissolved iron or arsenic was observed in the amended soil. Our...

  4. UMineAR: Mobile-Tablet-Based Abandoned Mine Hazard Site Investigation Support System Using Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangwon Suh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional mine site investigation has difficulties in fostering location awareness and understanding the subsurface environment; moreover, it produces a large amount of hardcopy data. To overcome these limitations, the UMineAR mobile tablet application was developed. It enables users to rapidly identify underground mine objects (drifts, entrances, boreholes, hazards and intuitively visualize them in 3D using a mobile augmented reality (AR technique. To design UMineAR, South Korean georeferenced standard-mine geographic information system (GIS databases were employed. A web database system was designed to access via a tablet groundwater-level data measured every hour by sensors installed in boreholes. UMineAR consists of search, AR, map, and database modules. The search module provides data retrieval and visualization options/functions. The AR module provides 3D interactive visualization of mine GIS data and camera imagery on the tablet screen. The map module shows the locations of corresponding borehole data on a 2D map. The database module provides mine GIS database management functions. A case study showed that the proposed application is suitable for onsite visualization of high-volume mine GIS data based on geolocations; no specialized equipment or skills are required to understand the underground mine environment. UMineAR can be used to support abandoned-mine hazard site investigations.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of selected in situ remediation technologies for Volatile Organic Compound contamination at Arid sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenhard, R.J.; Gerber, M.A.; Amonette, J.E.

    1992-10-01

    To support the Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Site (VOC-Arid) Integrated Demonstration (ID) in its technical, logistical, institutional, and economical testing of emerging environmental management and restoration technologies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory(a) is evaluating several in situ remediation technologies for possible inclusion in the demonstration. The evaluations are made with respect to the initial focus of the VOC-Arid ID: the carbon tetrachloride contamination at the Hanford Site, where it was disposed to the vadose zone along with other volatile and nonvolatile organic wastes. heavy metals, acids. and radionuclides. The purposes of this report are (1) to identify candidate in situ technologies for inclusion in the program, (2) to evaluate the candidate technologies based on their potential applicability to VOC contamination at arid sites and geologic conditions representative of the ID host site (i.e., Hanford Site), and (3) to prioritize those technologies for future US Department of Energy (DOE) support.

  6. On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reistad, O; Dowdall, M; Selnaes, Ø G; Standring, W J F; Hustveit, S; Steenhuisen, F; Sørlie, A

    2008-07-01

    The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site is an interesting case study for decommissioning due to the extremely large amounts of radioactivity present at the site and the conditions under which it is stored; very little has been previously published in the scientific literature about this site. This paper complements the paper describing dose rates at Andreeva Bay which is published in this issue of Journal of Environmental Radioactivity by the same authors. This study presents new data related to the activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in surface soils and measurements of alpha- and beta-particle fluxes taken at different areas around the site. Limited data on 60Co is also presented. The results of the study indicate that the main areas of site contamination are associated with the former spent nuclear fuel storage facility at Building 5, due to accidental discharges which began in 1982. Substantial contamination is also observed at the solid radioactive waste storage facilities, probably due to the ingress of water into these facilities. More than 240 samples were measured: maximum contamination levels were 1 x 10(6)Bq/kg (137)Cs (mean value 4.1 x 10(5)Bq/kg) and 4 x 10(6)Bq/kg (90)Sr (mean value 1.2 x1 0(5)Bq/kg). Localised patches of alpha and beta contamination were also observed throughout the site.

  7. Estimation of the pore pressure distribution from three dimensional groundwater flow model at mine sites in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sangsoo; Jang, Myounghwan; Kim, Gyoungman; Kim, Donghui; Kim, Daehoon; Baek, Hwanjo

    2016-04-01

    Mining activities continually change the groundwater flow and associated pore pressure distributions within the rockmass around the mine openings or the open-pit bench during the operational periods. As the pore pressure distributions may substantially affect the mechanical behaviour or stability of the rockmass, it is important to monitor the variation of pore pressure incurred by mining operation. The pore pressure distributions within the rockmass can be derived using a two- or three-dimensional finite element groundwater flow model, adopted to simulate the groundwater flow. While the groundwater inflow at mines has generally been dealt with respect to the working environment, detailed case studies on the distribution of pore water pressure related to the stability analysis of mine openings have been relatively rare in Korea. Recently, however, as the health and safety problems are emerged for sustainable mining practice, these issues are of the major concerns for the mining industries. This study aims to establish a three dimensional groundwater flow model to estimate the pore pressure distributions in order to employ as an input parameter for numerical codes such as the FLAC 3D. Also, the groundwater flow simulated can be used for de-watering design at a mine site. The MINEDW code, a groundwater flow model code specifically developed to simulate the complicated hydro-geologic conditions related to mining, has mainly been used in this study. Based on the data collected from field surveys and literature reviews, a conceptual model was established and sensitivity analysis was performed.

  8. Monitorization of technosols in old mining sites treated with calcareous fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sanchez, MJose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Garcia-Lorenzo, MariLuz; Gonzalez, Eva; Perez-Espinosa, Victor; Martínez-Lopez, Salvadora; Hernandez, Carmen; Molina, Jose; Martínez, Lucia B.

    2014-05-01

    A large number of soils around the world are contaminated by heavy metals due to mining activities, generating adverse effects on human health and the environment. In response to these negative effects, a variety of technologies to remediate soils affected by heavy metals have been developed. Among them, in situ immobilization by means of soil amendment is a non-intrusive and cost effective alternative, that transforms the highly mobile toxic heavy metals to physico-chemically stable forms, reducing their mobility and environmental risks. Limestone filler is a good selection for such a purpose, because of its low permeability and low solubility, due to its high degree of physical-chemical stability and because is a non-toxic material with a high finely divided calcium carbonate content. In addition, the use of this amendment could revalorize the residues, reducing the costs of the process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of a immobilization technique in sediments contaminated by heavy metals as a results of mining activities. The study area was Portman bay, located close to the mining region of La Unión and subjected to mining from the time of the Roman Empire to 1991. Wastes from mining activities mainly consisted in ore materials (galena, pyrite and sphalerite), phyllosilicates, in addition to siderite, iron oxides and sometimes alteration products such as jarosite, alunite, kaolinite and greenalite. These materials have suffered a concentration process by floatation with sea water and, as a result of the discharge, the whole of the bay has filled up with wastes which also extend into the Mediterranean Sea. Two experimental areas, approximately 1 Ha each one, were selected and technosols were developed as follows: original sediments from the bay, sediments mixed with limestone filler in a 1:1 proportion, gravel to avoid capillary and natural soil to allow plant growth. After the remediation technique was applied, monitorization of

  9. Sedentary nestlings of Wood Stork as monitors of mercury contamination in the gold mining region of the Brazilian Pantanal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassif Del Lama, Silvia, E-mail: dsdl@ufscar.br [Laboratorio Genetica de Aves, Departamento de Genetica e Evolucao, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Dosualdo Rocha, Cristiano [Laboratorio Genetica de Aves, Departamento de Genetica e Evolucao, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Figueiredo Jardim, Wilson [Institute of Chemistry, State University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13083-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tsai, Jo-Szu; Frederick, Peter Crawford [Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, P.O. Box 110430, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Sedentary organisms that are at top trophic levels allow inference about the level of local mercury contamination. We evaluated mercury contamination in feather tissue of nestling Wood Storks (Mycteria americana), sampled in different parts of the Brazilian Pantanal that were variably polluted by mercury releases from gold mining activities. Levels of mercury in feathers sampled in seven breeding colonies were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and the mean value of mercury concentration was 0.557 {mu}g/g, dry weight (n=124), range 0.024-4.423 {mu}g/g. From this total sample, 21 feathers that represent 30% of nestlings collected in Porto da Fazenda and Tucum colonies, in the northern region, ranged from 1.0 to 4.43 {mu}g/g, dry weight (median value=1.87 {mu}g/g). We found significant differences among regions (H=57.342; p=0<0.05). Results suggest that permanently flooded areas, or along mainstream rivers are more contaminated by mercury than dry areas, regardless of the distance from the gold mining center, which is located in the northern Pantanal. Highest values found in nestlings feathers were similar to those found in feathers of adult birds and in tissues of adult mammals that are less sedentary and were captured in the same region of Pantanal. These findings indicate that mercury released has been biomagnified and it is present in high concentrations in tissues of top consumers. We suggest a program to monitor mercury availability in this ecosystem using sedentary life forms of top predators like Wood Storks or other piscivorous birds. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sedentary stork nestlings were used for the first time to show local mercury contamination of Pantanal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differences were found among regions but they are not explained only by distance from the gold mining. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Permanently flooded areas and areas along mainstream rivers are more contaminated than dry areas. Black

  10. Mercury contamination in agricultural soils from abandoned metal mines classified by geology and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Sik; Jung, Myung Chae

    2012-01-01

    This survey aimed to compare mercury concentrations in soils related to geology and mineralization types of mines. A total of 16,386 surface soils (0~15 cm in depth) were taken from agricultural lands near 343 abandoned mines (within 2 km from each mine) and analyzed for Hg by AAS with a hydride-generation device. To meaningfully compare mercury levels in soils with geology and mineralization types, three subclassification criteria were adapted: (1) five mineralization types, (2) four valuable ore mineral types, and (3) four parent rock types. The average concentration of Hg in all soils was 0.204 mg kg(-1) with a range of 0.002-24.07 mg kg(-1). Based on the mineralization types, average Hg concentrations (mg kg(-1)) in the soils decreased in the order of pegmatite (0.250) > hydrothermal vein (0.208) > hydrothermal replacement (0.166) > skarn (0.121) > sedimentary deposits (0.045). In terms of the valuable ore mineral types, the concentrations decreased in the order of Au-Ag-base metal mines ≈ base metal mines > Au-Ag mines > Sn-W-Mo-Fe-Mn mines. For parent rock types, similar concentrations were found in the soils derived from sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks followed by heterogeneous rocks with igneous and metamorphic processes. Furthermore, farmland soils contained relatively higher Hg levels than paddy soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that soils in Au, Ag, and base metal mines derived from a hydrothermal vein type of metamorphic rocks and pegmatite deposits contained relatively higher concentrations of mercury in the surface environment.

  11. Bioprospecting at former mining sites across Europe: microbial and functional diversity in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprocati, Anna Rosa; Alisi, Chiara; Tasso, Flavia; Fiore, Alessia; Marconi, Paola; Langella, Francesca; Haferburg, Götz; Nicoara, Andrei; Neagoe, Aurora; Kothe, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The planetary importance of microbial function requires urgently that our knowledge and our exploitation ability is extended, therefore every occasion of bioprospecting is welcome. In this work, bioprospecting is presented from the perspective of the UMBRELLA project, whose main goal was to develop an integral approach for remediation of soil influenced by mining activity, by using microorganisms in association with plants. Accordingly, this work relies on the cultivable fraction of microbial biodiversity, native to six mining sites across Europe, different for geographical, climatic and geochemical characteristics but similar for suffering from chronic stress. The comparative analysis of the soil functional diversity, resulting from the metabolic profiling at community level (BIOLOG ECOPlates) and confirmed by the multivariate analysis, separates the six soils in two clusters, identifying soils characterised by low functional diversity and low metabolic activity. The microbial biodiversity falls into four major bacterial phyla: Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, including a total of 47 genera and 99 species. In each soil, despite harsh conditions, metabolic capacity of nitrogen fixation and plant growth promotion were quite widespread, and most of the strains showed multiple resistances to heavy metals. At species-level, Shannon's index (alpha diversity) and Sørensen's Similarity (beta diversity) indicates the sites are indeed diverse. Multivariate analysis of soil chemical factors and biodiversity identifies for each soil well-discriminating chemical factors and species, supporting the assumption that cultured biodiversity from the six mining sites presents, at phylum level, a convergence correlated to soil factors rather than to geographical factors while, at species level, reflects a remarkable local characterisation.

  12. Automating an integrated spatial data-mining model for landfill site selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abujayyab, Sohaib K. M.; Ahamad, Mohd Sanusi S.; Yahya, Ahmad Shukri; Ahmad, Siti Zubaidah; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2017-10-01

    An integrated programming environment represents a robust approach to building a valid model for landfill site selection. One of the main challenges in the integrated model is the complicated processing and modelling due to the programming stages and several limitations. An automation process helps avoid the limitations and improve the interoperability between integrated programming environments. This work targets the automation of a spatial data-mining model for landfill site selection by integrating between spatial programming environment (Python-ArcGIS) and non-spatial environment (MATLAB). The model was constructed using neural networks and is divided into nine stages distributed between Matlab and Python-ArcGIS. A case study was taken from the north part of Peninsular Malaysia. 22 criteria were selected to utilise as input data and to build the training and testing datasets. The outcomes show a high-performance accuracy percentage of 98.2% in the testing dataset using 10-fold cross validation. The automated spatial data mining model provides a solid platform for decision makers to performing landfill site selection and planning operations on a regional scale.

  13. Heavy metal contamination from gold mining recorded in Porites lobata skeletons, Buyat-Ratototok district, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Evan N; Azmy, Karem; Diegor, Wilfredo; Siregar, P Raja

    2008-09-01

    Shallow marine sediments and fringing coral reefs of the Buyat-Ratototok district of North Sulawesi, Indonesia, are affected by submarine disposal of tailings from industrial gold mining and by small-scale gold mining using mercury amalgamation. Between-site variation in heavy metal concentrations in shallow marine sediments was partially reflected by trace element concentrations in reef coral skeletons from adjacent reefs. Corals skeletons recorded silicon, manganese, iron, copper, chromium, cobalt, antimony, thallium, and lead in different concentrations according to proximity to sources, but arsenic concentrations in corals were not significantly different among sites. Temporal analysis found that peak concentrations of arsenic and chromium generally coincided with peak concentrations of silica and/or copper, suggesting that most trace elements in the coral skeleton were incorporated into detrital siliciclastic sediments, rather than impurities within skeletal aragonite.

  14. Spread and partitioning of arsenic in soils from a mine waste site in Madrid province (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M.A. [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Serrano, S. [Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, CSIC, Catedratico Agustin Escardino 9, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Laborda, F. [Group of Analytical Spectroscopy and Sensors, Institute of Environmental Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garrido, F., E-mail: fernando.garrido@mncn.csic.es [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-01

    The formation of scorodite is an important mechanism for the natural attenuation of arsenic in a wide range of environments. It is dumped on site by metallurgical industries to minimize arsenic release. However, the long-term stability of these deposits is unclear. Sequential As extractions and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy were used to determine both As and Fe speciation in a small catchment area affected by a scorodite-rich waste pile at an abandoned smelting factory. Our results indicate that this deposit behaves as an acute point source of As and metal pollution and confirms the strong association of As(V) with Fe(III) oxide phases, highlighting the important role of ferrihydrite as an As scavenger in natural systems. In this seasonally variable system, other trapping forms such as jarosite-like minerals also play a role in the attenuation of As. Overall, our results demonstrate that scorodite should not be considered an environmental stable repository for As attenuation when dumped outside because natural rainfall and the resulting runoff drive As dispersion in the environment and indicate the need to monitor and reclamate As-rich mine deposits. - Highlights: • A scorodite-rich mining waste at an old smelting factory in Madrid is described. • Scorodite-rich mining wastes act as an acute point source of As pollution in soils. • Arsenic extraction and XANES analyses show ferrihydrite as an As scavenger in soils.

  15. Testing a small UAS for mapping artisanal diamond mining sites in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpeli, Katherine C.; Chirico, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing technology is advancing at an unprecedented rate. At the forefront of the new technological developments are unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The advent of small, lightweight, low-cost, and user-friendly UAS is greatly expanding the potential applications of remote sensing technology and improving the set of tools available to researchers seeking to map and monitor terrain from above. In this article, we explore the applications of a small UAS for mapping informal diamond mining sites in Africa. We found that this technology provides aerial imagery of unparalleled resolution in a data-sparse, difficult to access, and remote terrain.

  16. A review of groundwater contamination near municipal solid waste landfill sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiyong; Ma, Haining; Shi, Guozhong; He, Li; Wei, Luoyu; Shi, Qingqing

    2016-11-01

    Landfills are the most widely used method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal method in China. However, these facilities have caused serious groundwater contamination due to the leakage of leachate. This study, analyzed 32 scientific papers, a field survey and an environmental assessment report related to groundwater contamination caused by landfills in China. The groundwater quality in the vicinity of landfills was assessed as "very bad" by a comprehensive score (FI) of 7.85 by the Grading Method in China. Variety of pollutants consisting of 96 groundwater pollutants, 3 organic matter indicators, 2 visual pollutants and 6 aggregative pollutants had been detected in the various studies. Twenty-two kinds of pollutants were considered to be dominant. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test and the median test, groundwater contamination differed significantly between regions in China, but there were no significant differences between dry season and wet season measurements, except for some pollutants in a few landfill sites. Generally, the groundwater contamination appeared in the initial landfill stage after five years and peaked some years afterward. In this stage, the Nemerow Index (PI) of groundwater increased exponentially as landfill age increased at some sites, but afterwards decreased exponentially with increasing age at others. After 25years, the groundwater contamination was very low at selected landfills. The PI values of landfills decreased exponentially as the pollutant migration distance increased. Therefore, the groundwater contamination mainly appeared within 1000m of a landfill and most of serious groundwater contamination occurred within 200m. The results not only indicate that the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills should be a concern, but also are valuable to remediate the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills and to prevent the MSW landfill from secondary pollutions, especially for developing countries considering the similar

  17. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

  18. Feasibility study on the use of soil washing to remediate the As-Hg contamination at an ancient mining and metallurgy area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, C; Menéndez-Aguado, J M; Afif, E; Carrero, M; Gallego, J R

    2011-11-30

    Soils in abandoned mining sites generally present high concentrations of trace elements, such as As and Hg. Here we assessed the feasibility of washing procedures to physically separate these toxic elements from soils affected by a considerable amount of mining and metallurgical waste ("La Soterraña", Asturias, NW Spain). After exhaustive soil sampling and subsequent particle-size separation via wet sieving, chemical and mineralogical analysis revealed that the finer fractions held very high concentrations of As (up to 32,500 ppm) and Hg (up to 1600 ppm). These elements were both associated mainly with Fe/Mn oxides and hydroxides. Textural and geochemical data were correlated with the geological substrate by means of a multivariate statistical analysis. In addition, the Hg liberation size (below 200 μm) was determined to be main factor conditioning the selection of suitable soil washing strategies. These studies were finally complemented with a specific-gravity study performed with a C800 Mozley separator together with a grindability test, both novel approaches in soil washing feasibility studies. The results highlighted the difficulties in treating "La Soterraña" soils. These difficulties are attributed to the presence of contaminants embedded in the soil and spoil heap aggregates, caused by the meteorization of gangue and ore minerals. As a result of these two characteristics, high concentrations of the contaminants accumulate in all grain-size fractions. Therefore, the soil washing approach proposed here includes the grinding of particles above 125 μm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Improved slant drilling well for in situ remediation of groundwater and soil at contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Yasuhide; Mukai, Kazuhiro; Ohmura, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    Soil contamination has become a crucial issue in urban redevelopment. Japan has many contaminated sites on which manufacturing has been conducted over several decades. Site holders are now under pressure to manage chemical contamination; however, the use of heavy machinery is difficult in remedial operations on restricted sites, especially where there are still working factories. The slant well is a potentially useful technique in such settings, but its use is technically challenging because of the need for high drilling accuracy and the difficulty in sealing the slanted bores. In this study, we investigated an improved technique for slant drilling that can be used around existing structures to treat contaminated soil and groundwater. A key to this novel approach was the use of water-swelling materials as sealants. Research at a test site investigated the accuracy of drilling. Tracer tests were also conducted using sodium chloride and urea. The improved slant borings showed a deviation of less than 2% from the target bore. The spread of the two tracers at different depths was demonstrated. The proposed technique provides a useful approach to the treatment of brownfield sites in countries where in situ remediation has not yet been undertaken.

  20. Baseline Assessment of Petroleum Contamination and Soil Properties at Contaminated Sites in Utqiagvik, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    the austere conditions of the site, including the dry , cold climate and presence of permafrost. These environmental conditions fur- ther constrain... treatments that require personnel or heavy machinery and in turn become costly and logistically challenging. Bioremediation is a remediation technology...4.1.1 Gravimetric water content (GWC) The mass of a soil sample was measured at room temperature, the sample was heated in an oven at 105°C for 24

  1. Atténuer la contamination du sol dans les sites miniers abandonnés ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 févr. 2018 ... ... communautés environnantes. Lorsqu'aucun plan postfermeture n'est mis en place, les sites miniers abandonnés peuvent être toxiques. ... Les résidus miniers ayant des propriétés stables se sont révélés prometteurs pour diverses applications en matière de construction. Par exemple, la mine de Jerada ...

  2. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 527: Horn Silver Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 1 (Including Records of Technical Change No.1, 2, 3, and 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2002-12-06

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 527, Horn Silver Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 527 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): 26-20-01, Contaminated Waste Dump No.1. The site is located in an abandoned mine site in Area 26 (which is the most arid part of the NTS) approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Historical documents may refer to this site as CAU 168, CWD-1, the Wingfield mine (or shaft), and the Wahmonie mine (or shaft). Historical documentation indicates that between 1959 and the 1970s, nonliquid classified material and unclassified waste was placed in the Horn Silver Mine's shaft. Some of the waste is known to be radioactive. Documentation indicates that the waste is present from 150 feet to the bottom of the mine (500 ft below ground surface). This CAU is being investigated because hazardous constituents migrating from materials and/or wastes disposed of in the Horn Silver Mine may pose a threat to human health and the environment as well as to assess the potential impacts associated with any potential releases from the waste. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1989 by the US DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination in this risk assessment.

  4. Biodegradation of cyanide using Serratia sp. isolated from contaminated soil of gold mine in Takab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mohseni

    2014-07-01

    nematodiphila with 99% homology .   Discussion and conclusion : The results demonstrated that the isolated bacterium is a suitable candidate for degradation of cyanide in alkaline condition. This bacterium could introduce for treatment of industrial wastewater and sites that contaminated with cyanide.

  5. Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil and Brown Rice and Human Health Risk Assessment near Three Mining Areas in Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metal mining and waste discharge lead to regional heavy metal contamination and attract major concern because of the potential risk to local residents. Methods. This research was conducted to determine lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, arsenic (As, manganese (Mn, and antimony (Sb concentrations in soil and brown rice samples from three heavy metal mining areas in Hunan Province, central China, and to assess the potential health risks to local inhabitants. Results. Local soil contamination was observed, with mean concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb, and As of 0.472, 193.133, 36.793, and 89.029 mg/kg, respectively. Mean concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb, Mn, and As in brown rice were 0.103, 0.131, 5.175, 6.007, and 0.524 mg/kg, respectively. Daily intakes of Cd, As, Sb, Pb, and Mn through brown rice consumption were estimated to be 0.011, 0.0002, 0.004, 0.0001, and 0.0003 mg/(kg/day, respectively. The combined hazard index for the five heavy metals was 22.5917, and the total cancer risk was 0.1773. Cd contributed most significantly to cancer risk, accounting for approximately 99.77% of this risk. Conclusions. The results show that potential noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks exist for local inhabitants and that regular monitoring of pollution to protect human health is urgently required.

  6. Revegetation of the acidic, As contaminated Jales mine spoil tips using a combination of spoil amendments and tolerant grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleeker, Petra M; Assunção, Ana G L; Teiga, Pedro M; de Koe, Tjarda; Verkleij, Jos A C

    2002-12-02

    A combination of metal immobilising agents and metal tolerant plants has been utilised in order to reduce the environmental impact of the acidic metal contaminated Jales mine spoil tips. The addition of Beringite (a modified aluminosilicate), steel shots (iron bearing material) and organic matter as spoil amendments resulted in changes in arsenate (As) concentrations and pH of spoil material and improved plant growth. The application of Beringite increased both pH and plant available As concentrations. A 4-year follow up of the spoil analysis demonstrated that the effect of the spoil treatments was stable following treatments, however, the effectiveness did not increase any more after 2 years. The use of metal tolerant grasses in combination with spoil treatments resulted in a rapid and effective revegetation of the As contaminated Jales mine spoils. Colonisation and reproduction of Agrostis castellana and Holcus lanatus was most successful when the substrate contained a combination of all three additives. Plant performances could be enhanced by supplementation of a phosphate fertiliser. The rapid reproduction of the two grass species makes them very suitable for revegetation purposes. Agrostis castellana and Holcus lanatus apparently exhibited a level of metal- and As-tolerance sufficient for survival on untreated spoil, but in the first stages of revegetation the use of spoil amendments was found to be essential. Organic matter in combination with Beringite and/or steel shots resulted in decreased As in the aboveground biomass, protecting possible grazers and predators from undesirable levels of As.

  7. [Contamination Assessment and Sources Analysis of Soil Heavy Metals in Opencast Mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Yang, Jian-jun; Wang, Jun; Wang, Guo; Cao, Yue-e

    2016-05-15

    The opencast mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang is the largest self-contained coalfield in China, and the ecological environment of the opencast is very fragile because of its arid climate and poor soil. In this study, 50 soil samples (from 0 to 30 cm depth soil at intervals of 10 cm) in opencast Mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang were collected in order to explore the heavy metals contamination of the coal mining. The contents of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) were measured and the degree of pollution was assessed by Nemerow index, geo-accumulation (Igeo) index and potential ecological risk index. In addition, the layered comparison, dust fall and the distance between coal mine and samples location were used to analyze the source of heavy metals contamination. The results showed that value of As surpassed the Chinese soil quality standard class I (GB 15618-1995) mostly severely, followed by Cr, a relatively lower surpass was obtained by Hg and Cu, while Zn and Pb did not surpass the standard. According to the standard, the soil heavy metals content of research region was in light pollution status and the pollution index for each heavy metal followed the order of As (2.07) > Cr (0.95) > Cu (0.55) > Zn (0.48) > Hg (0.45) > Pb (0.38), which demonstrated a heavy pollution of As and clean status of others. Additionally, an Igeo value of 1.14 for Hg reflected a moderated pollution. The major contribution factor was Hg with a risk index of 251.40. The source analysis showed that the content of Pb in the surface soil (10-20 cm) was different from that in the deep layer (20-30 cm), which may be caused by coal combustion and other human activities. The sources of Hg and As were similar and may come from coal combustion. The distance to the mining area was not the major factor affecting the diffusion of heavy metals, other candidate factors included terrain, aspect and wind direction, etc.

  8. Effects of Long-Term Acid-Mine Drainage Contamination on Diversity and Activity of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in a Natural Salt Marsh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, J. W.; Banfield, J. F.

    2003-12-01

    Constructed wetlands have been studied as sites or analogs for in situ bioremediation of metal contaminants from acid mine drainage (AMD) or industrial sources (e.g. Webb et al. 1998). Wetlands bioremediation necessarily invokes the ubiquity and robustness of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to sequester dissolved metals into various poorly soluble metal-sulfides (e.g. PbS, CdS). However, few studies of natural wetlands under long-term ecological forcing by AMD or other contaminant sources are available for context. We are investigating the microbial diversity, mineralogy and geochemistry of a highly contaminated salt marsh along the East Central San Francisco Bay. For nearly a half-century, areas within this marsh have received acidic and/or metal-rich groundwaters from near-surface pyrite tailings (transported there from Iron Mountain Mine, near Redding, CA) and local industrial sources (e.g. paint and explosives manufacturers). Sediment cores (30-40 cm long) were taken from six contaminated sites in the marsh with pH range of ˜2 to ˜8. Previous analyses (URS Corp. 2001) reported As, Cd, Cu, Se, Zn, and Pb present in sediments at extremely high concentrations (100s of ppm), yet our ICP-AES analyses of pore waters showed only As present at concentrations of 10-50 ppb. We infer, from high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) studies of biogenic (SRB biofilm) ZnS (Moreau et al. 2003, in review) and marsh sediments, that contaminant metals have been sequestered into aggregates of nanocrystalline metal-sulfides. Continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS) analyses of pore-water sulfate and sedimentary sulfides allow resolution of contributions to dissolved sulfate and sulfide from tailings oxidation and dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Sulfate analyses from subsections of three cores (pH 2-3, 6-7, 7-8, respectively) all yield δ 34S values consistent with bacterial sulfate reduction. We note that all three cores also contain very fine

  9. The Cogemagazine reviews. The rehabilitation of mining sites in France; Les cahiers de Cogemagazine. Le reamenagement des sites miniers en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loriot, O.; Bof, M.; Villeneuve, A

    1998-02-01

    The French uranium mines are progressively closing down. After a mining division has closed down, the main objectives of the Cogema group are: ensuring the long-term safety and healthiness of the site, reducing the residual impacts, preventing any abusive intrusion, reducing the surface of land submitted to right-of-way, encouraging the reconversion of the site, and succeeding in the integration of the site in the landscape in agreement with the local authorities. This brochure presents the strategy followed by Cogema for the rehabilitation of his sites: the French mining concessions and the uranium extraction and processing techniques, the storage of tailings and processing residues, the environment protection and the respect of regulation (environmental surveillance, working groups, administrative procedures and regulatory texts, impact studies...), the backfilling and safety of underground mines, the cost studies for the rehabilitation of open cast mines, the dismantling of factories, the confinement of residues and the revegetation, the continuous monitoring of the rehabilitated sites (water, atmosphere, food..). (J.S.)

  10. Can Bayesian Belief Networks help tackling conceptual model uncertainties in contaminated site risk assessment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Mads; Thomsen, Nanna Isbak; McKnight, Ursula S.

    likely to reflect the actual site conditions. The method is demonstrated on a Danish field site contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. Four different conceptual models based on two interpretations of the source zone (presence or absence of free-phase NAPL) and two interpretations of the geology...... models that are effective for integrating quantitative and qualitative information, and thus can strengthen decisions when empirical data are lacking. The developed BBN combines data from desk studies and initial site investigations with expert opinion to assess which of the conceptual models are more...... (fractured or unfractured clay till) were set up for this site. The contaminant concentrations reaching groundwater are simulated for all four models, and the results are combined according to the beliefs in each of the models, as determined by the BBN and available evidence. We discuss how our method can...

  11. Comparison of tree coring and soil gas sampling for screening of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Stalder, Marcel; Riis, Charlotte

    when (with respect to compounds, soil properties, and locations) one method is preferred over the other. Fields sampling was performed at European sites contaminated with fuel components or chlorinated solvents from former site activities (industrial production, gas stations, air base or gas plant......Site characterization is often time consuming and a financial burden for the site owners, which raises a demand for rapid and inexpensive (pre)screening methods. Phytoscreening by tree coring has shown to be a useful tool to detect subsurface contamination, especially of chlorinated solvents....... However the application and dissemination of the method is still limited. On the other hand, soil gas sampling for mapping of volatile organic compounds in the subsurface is a common and commercially applied method. Both methods are semi-quantitative, low-invasive and inexpensive, which makes them...

  12. Monte Carlo exposure analysis: making risk management decisions about human health priorities at contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindzierski, W.B. [Alberta Health, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1996-09-01

    Remediation criteria for contaminated sites in North America were discussed. The use of a benchmark could be valuable to risk managers who must determine if a site should be managed before redevelopment. Such a benchmark was obtained at a site containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The cleanup level at the contaminated site was determined using the Monte Carlo probabilistic risk assessment, which suggested a cleanup level of 2 mg/kg (expressed as benzo(a)pyrene) for total carcinogenic PAHs in residential surface soil. The cleanup level was estimated by selecting an appropriate percentile of a probability distribution based on exposures to a child, youth and adult. 29 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site.

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uriniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition.

  15. A cross-sectional survey on knowledge and perceptions of health risks associated with arsenic and mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Elias; Thomas, Deborah SK; Dewey, Deborah; Davey, Mark; Ngallaba, Sospatro E; Konje, Eveline

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background An estimated 0.5 to 1.5 million informal miners, of whom 30-50% are women, rely on artisanal mining for their livelihood in Tanzania. Mercury, used in the processing gold ore, and arsenic, which is a constituent of some ores, are common occupational exposures that frequently result in widespread environmental contamination. Frequently, the mining activities are conducted haphazardly without regard for environmental, occupational, or community exposure. The primary objectiv...

  16. Bioprospecting for acidophilic lipid-rich green microalgae isolated from abandoned mine site water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibl, Joseph K; Corcoran, Jason D; Senhorinho, Gerusa N A; Zhang, Kejian; Hosseini, Nekoo Seyed; Marsden, James; Laamanen, Corey A; Scott, John A; Ross, Gregory M

    2014-03-26

    With fossil fuel sources in limited supply, microalgae show tremendous promise as a carbon neutral source of biofuel. Current microalgae biofuel strategies typically rely on growing high-lipid producing laboratory strains of microalgae in open raceways or closed system photobioreactors. Unfortunately, these microalgae species are found to be sensitive to environmental stresses or competition by regional strains. Contamination by invasive species can diminish productivity of commercial algal processes. A potential improvement to current strategies is to identify high-lipid producing microalgae, which thrive in selected culture conditions that reduce the risk of contamination, such as low pH. Here we report the identification of a novel high-lipid producing microalgae which can tolerate low pH growth conditions. Lig 290 is a Scenedesmus spp. isolated from a low pH waterbody (pH = 4.5) in proximity to an abandoned lignite mine in Northern Ontario, Canada. Compared to a laboratory strain of Scendesmus dimorphus, Lig 290 demonstrated robust growth rates, a strong growth profile, and high lipid production. As a consequence, Lig 290 may have potential application as a robust microalgal species for use in biofuel production.

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This corrective action decision document (CADD)/corrective action plan (CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 97, Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), Nevada. The Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU is located in the northeastern portion of the NNSS and comprises 720 corrective action sites. A total of 747 underground nuclear detonations took place within this CAU between 1957 and 1992 and resulted in the release of radionuclides (RNs) in the subsurface in the vicinity of the test cavities. The CADD portion describes the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU data-collection and modeling activities completed during the corrective action investigation (CAI) stage, presents the corrective action objectives, and describes the actions recommended to meet the objectives. The CAP portion describes the corrective action implementation plan. The CAP presents CAU regulatory boundary objectives and initial use-restriction boundaries identified and negotiated by DOE and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). The CAP also presents the model evaluation process designed to build confidence that the groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling results can be used for the regulatory decisions required for CAU closure. The UGTA strategy assumes that active remediation of subsurface RN contamination is not feasible with current technology. As a result, the corrective action is based on a combination of characterization and modeling studies, monitoring, and institutional controls. The strategy is implemented through a four-stage approach that comprises the following: (1) corrective action investigation plan (CAIP), (2) CAI, (3) CADD/CAP, and (4) closure report (CR) stages.

  18. Impact of gold mining associated with mercury contamination in soil, biota sediments and tailings in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odumo, Benjamin Okang'; Carbonell, Gregoria; Angeyo, Hudson Kalambuka; Patel, Jayanti Purshottam; Torrijos, Manuel; Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio

    2014-11-01

    This work considered the environmental impact of artisanal mining gold activity in the Migori-Transmara area (Kenya). From artisanal gold mining, mercury is released to the environment, thus contributing to degradation of soil and water bodies. High mercury contents have been quantified in soil (140 μg kg(-1)), sediment (430 μg kg(-1)) and tailings (8,900 μg kg(-1)), as expected. The results reveal that the mechanism for transporting mercury to the terrestrial ecosystem is associated with wet and dry depositions. Lichens and mosses, used as bioindicators of pollution, are related to the proximity to mining areas. The further the distance from mining areas, the lower the mercury levels. This study also provides risk maps to evaluate potential negative repercussions. We conclude that the Migori-Transmara region can be considered a strongly polluted area with high mercury contents. The technology used to extract gold throughout amalgamation processes causes a high degree of mercury pollution around this gold mining area. Thus, alternative gold extraction methods should be considered to reduce mercury levels that can be released to the environment.

  19. Remote sensing supported surveillance and characterization of tailings behavior at a gold mine site, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhala, Anssi; Tuomela, Anne; Rossi, Pekka M.; Davids, Corine

    2017-04-01

    The management of vast amounts of tailings produced is one of the key issues in mining operations. The effective and economic disposal of the waste requires knowledge concerning both basic physical properties of the tailings as well as more complex aspects such as consolidation behavior. The behavior of tailings in itself is a very complex issue that can be affected by flocculation, sedimentation, consolidation, segregation, deposition, freeze-thaw, and desiccation phenomena. The utilization of remote sensing in an impoundment-scale monitoring of tailings could benefit the management of tailings, and improve our knowledge on tailings behavior. In order to gain better knowledge of tailings behavior in cold climate, we have utilized both modern remote sensing techniques and more traditional in situ and laboratory measurements in characterizing thickened gold tailings behavior at a Finnish gold mine site, where the production has been halted due to low gold prices. The remote sensing measurements consisted of elevation datasets collected from unmanned aerial vehicles during summers 2015 and 2016, and a further campaign is planned for the summer 2017. The ongoing traditional measurements include for example particle-size distribution, frost heave, frost depth, water retention, temperature profile, and rheological measurements. Initial results from the remote sensing indicated larger than expected settlements on parts of the tailings impoundment, and also highlighted some of the complexities related to data processing. The interpretation of the results and characterization of the behavior is in this case complicated by possible freeze-thaw effects and potential settlement of the impoundment bottom structure consisting of natural peat. Experiments with remote sensing and unmanned aerial vehicles indicate that they could offer potential benefits in frequent mine site monitoring, but there is a need towards more robust and streamlined data acquisition and processing. The

  20. Health Risks to Ecological Workers on Contaminated Sites - the Department of Energy as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    At most contaminated sites the risk to workers focuses on those 'hazardous waste workers' directly exposed to chemicals or radionuclides, and to the elaborate approaches implemented to protecting their health and safety. Ecological workers generally are not considered. To explore the risks to the health and safety of ecological workers on sites with potential chemical and radiological exposures before, during or after remediation of contamination. To use the U.S. Department of Energy as a case study, and to develop concepts that apply generally to sites contaminated with hazardous or nuclear wastes. Develop categories of ecological workers, describe their usual jobs, and provide information on the kinds of risks they face. Ecological activities include continued surveillance and monitoring work on any sites with residual contamination, subject to institutional controls and engineered barriers following closure as well as the restoration. The categories of ecological workers and their tasks include 1) Ecological characterization, mapping and monitoring, 2) biodiversity studies, 2) Contaminant fate and transport, 3) On-going industrial activities 4) Remediation activities (environmental management), 5) Environmental restoration, 6) Post-cleanup surveillance and monitoring, and 7) Post-closure future site activities. There are a set of functional activities that can occur with different frequencies and intensities, including visual inspection, collecting biological samples, collecting media physical samples, collecting biological debris, restoration planting, and maintaining ecosystems. Ecological workers face different exposures and risks than other environmental cleanup workers. Many of their tasks mimic shift work with long hours leading to fatigue, and they are exposed to biological as well as chemical/radiological hazards. DOE and other entities need to examine the risks to ecological workers on site with an eye to risk reduction.

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site Salt Lake City, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah, evaluates potential public health or environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium ore processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell located at Clive, Utah, in 1987 by the US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate residual ground water contamination at the former uranium processing site, known as the Vitro processing site. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the appropriate remedial action for contaminated ground water at the site.

  2. Selection of remedial alternatives for mine sites: a multicriteria decision analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betrie, Getnet D; Sadiq, Rehan; Morin, Kevin A; Tesfamariam, Solomon

    2013-04-15

    The selection of remedial alternatives for mine sites is a complex task because it involves multiple criteria and often with conflicting objectives. However, an existing framework used to select remedial alternatives lacks multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) aids and does not consider uncertainty in the selection of alternatives. The objective of this paper is to improve the existing framework by introducing deterministic and probabilistic MCDA methods. The Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE) methods have been implemented in this study. The MCDA analysis involves processing inputs to the PROMETHEE methods that are identifying the alternatives, defining the criteria, defining the criteria weights using analytical hierarchical process (AHP), defining the probability distribution of criteria weights, and conducting Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS); running the PROMETHEE methods using these inputs; and conducting a sensitivity analysis. A case study was presented to demonstrate the improved framework at a mine site. The results showed that the improved framework provides a reliable way of selecting remedial alternatives as well as quantifying the impact of different criteria on selecting alternatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Landscape and bio- geochemical strategy for monitoring transformation and reclamation of the soil mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena

    2010-05-01

    Sites of active or abandoned mining represent areas of considerable technogenic impact and need scientifically ground organization of their monitoring and reclamation. The strategy of monitoring and reclamation depends on the scale and character of the physical, chemical and biological consequences of the disturbances. The geochemical studies for monitoring and rehabilitation of the career-dump complexes should methodically account of formation of the particular new landforms and the changes in circulation of the remobilized elements of the soil cover. However, the general strategy should account of both the initial and transformed landscape geochemical structure of the area with due regard to the natural and new content of chemical elements in the environmental components. For example the tailings and waste rocks present new geochemical fields with specifically different con